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Sample records for splice donor site

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of donor splice site recognition in pre-mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Jeffrey A.; Aalberts, Daniel P.

    2004-04-01

    When eukaryotic genes are edited by the spliceosome, the first step in intron recognition is the binding of a U1 small nuclear RNA with the donor ( 5' ) splice site. We model this interaction thermodynamically to identify splice sites. Applied to a set of 65 annotated genes, our “finding with binding” method achieves a significant separation between real and false sites. Analyzing binding patterns allows us to discard a large number of decoy sites. Our results improve statistics-based methods for donor site recognition, demonstrating the promise of physical modeling to find functional elements in the genome.

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling of Donor Splice Site Recognition in pre-mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalberts, Daniel P.; Garland, Jeffrey A.

    2004-03-01

    When eukaryotic genes are edited by the spliceosome, the first step in intron recognition is the binding of a U1 snRNA with the donor (5') splice site. We model this interaction thermodynamically to identify splice sites. Applied to a set of 65 annotated genes, our Finding with Binding method achieves a significant separation between real and false sites. Analyzing binding patterns allows us to discard a large number of decoy sites. Our results improve statistics-based methods for donor site recognition, demonstrating the promise of physical modeling to find functional elements in the genome.

  3. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome caused by a novel splice donor site mutation and activation of a cryptic splice donor site in the androgen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Infante, Joana B; Alvelos, Maria I; Bastos, Margarida; Carrilho, Francisco; Lemos, Manuel C

    2016-01-01

    The androgen insensitivity syndrome is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder characterized by resistance to the actions of androgens in an individual with a male karyotype. We evaluated a 34-year-old female with primary amenorrhea and a 46,XY karyotype, with normal secondary sex characteristics, absence of uterus and ovaries, intra-abdominal testis, and elevated testosterone levels. Sequence analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene revealed a novel splice donor site mutation in intron 4 (c.2173+2T>C). RT-PCR analysis showed that this mutation resulted in the activation of a cryptic splice donor site located in the second half of exon 4 and in the synthesis of a shorter mRNA transcript and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. This novel mutation associated with a rare mechanism of abnormal splicing further expands the spectrum of mutations associated with the androgen insensitivity syndrome and may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in splicing defects. PMID:26435450

  4. Novel donor splice site mutation of ABCG5 gene in sitosterolemia.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching-Wan; Cheng, Anna Wai-Fun; Tong, Sui-Fan; Chan, Yan-Wo

    2002-02-01

    In a patient with sitosterolemia, we found two different mutations of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 5 (ABCG5) gene. The first is a missense mutation that changes the amino acid residue at position 419 from arginine to histidine, i.e., R419H. The second is a novel splicing mutation affecting the invariant guanine at the first base of the donor splice site of intron 12, i.e., IVS12 + 1G --> A. The father of the patient is heterozygous for the missense mutation, and the mother is heterozygous for the splicing mutation. No mutations were found in the sister of the patient. Up until now, the missense mutation has only been found in Japanese patients with sitosterolemia. We believe that R419H in our Chinese patient may have the same origin as the mutation in the Japanese patients with sitosterolemia. PMID:11855938

  5. A novel donor splice-site mutation of major intrinsic protein gene associated with congenital cataract in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lu; Liu, Wenqiang; Feng, Wenguo; Wang, Xing; Dang, Hui; Gao, Luna; Yao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify the disease-causing gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract. Methods Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were performed on all members of a Chinese family with congenital cataract. Nine genes associated with congenital cataract were screened using direct DNA sequencing. Mutations were confirmed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The mutated major intrinsic protein (MIP) minigene, which carries the disease-causing splice-site mutation, and the wild-type (WT) MIP minigene were constructed using the pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Wild-type and mutant MIP minigene constructs were transiently transfected into HeLa cells. After 48 h of incubation at 37 °C, total RNA isolation and reverse transcription (RT)–PCR analysis were performed, and PCR products were separated and confirmed with sequencing. Results Direct DNA sequence analysis identified a novel splice-site mutation in intron 3 (c.606+1 G>A) of the MIP gene. To investigate the manner in which the splice donor mutation could affect mRNA splicing, WT and mutant MIP minigenes were inserted in the pcDNA3.1 (+) vector. Constructs were transfected into HeLa cells. RT–PCR analysis showed that the donor splice site mutation led to deletion of exon 3 in the mRNA encoded by the MIP gene. Conclusions The present study identified a novel donor splice-site mutation (c.606+1G>A) in the MIP gene in a Chinese family with congenital cataract. In vitro RT–PCR analysis showed that this splice-site mutation resulted in the deletion of exon 3 from mRNA encoded by the MIP gene. This is the first report to show that donor splice-site mutation in MIP gene can cause autosomal dominant congenital cataract. PMID:24319327

  6. Prenatal diagnosis and a donor splice site mutation in fibrillin in a family with Marfan syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, M.; Vandemark, N.; Wang, M.; Han, J.; Rao, V.H. ); Velinov, M.; Tsipouras, P. ); Wargowski, D.; Becker, J.; Robertson, W.; Droste, S. )

    1993-08-01

    The Marfan syndrome, an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, is manifested by abnormalities in the cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. Recently, fibrillin, an elastic-associated microfibrillar glycoprotein, has been linked to the Marfan syndrome, and fibrillin mutations in affected individuals have been documented. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with fibrillin-specific markers was used to establish the prenatal diagnosis in an 11-wk-gestation fetus in a four-generation Marfan kindred. At birth, skeletal changes suggestive of the Marfan syndrome were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of the fibrillin gene mRNA detected a deletion of 123 bp in one allele in affected relatives. This deletion corresponds to an exon encoding an epidermal growth factor-like motif. Examination of genomic DNA showed a G[yields]C transversion at the +1 consensus donor splice site. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  7. A splice donor site mutation in HOXD13 underlies synpolydactyly with cortical bone thinning.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiuyan; Ji, Chunyan; Cao, Lihua; Wu, Yuhong; Shang, Yuyang; Wang, Wei; Luo, Yang

    2013-12-15

    Synpolydactyly 1(SPD1) is a dominantly inherited distal limb anomaly that is characterized by incomplete digit separation and increased number of digits. SPD1 is most commonly caused by polyalanine repeat expansions and mutations in the homeodomain of the HOXD13. We report a splice donor site mutation in HOXD13 associated in most cases with cortical bone thinning. In vitro study of transcripts and truncated protein analysis indicated that c.781+1G>A mutation results in truncated HOXD13 protein p.G190fsX4. Luciferase assay indicated that the truncated HOXD13 protein failed to bind to DNA. The mechanism for this phenotype was truncated protein loss of function. PMID:24055421

  8. A novel splice donor site at nt 1534 is required for long-term maintenance of HPV31 genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Poppelreuther, Sven; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2008-01-05

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate as low copy number nuclear plasmids during the persistent phase. HPV only possess nine open reading frames but extend their coding capabilities by alternative RNA splicing. We have identified in cell lines with replicating HPV31 genomes viral transcripts that connect the novel splice donor (SD) sites at nt 1426 and 1534 within the E1 replication gene to known splice acceptors at nt 3295 or 3332 within the E2/E4 region. These transcripts are polyadenylated and are present at low amounts in the non-productive and productive phase of the viral life cycle. Mutation of the novel splice sites in the context of HPV31 genomes revealed that the inactivation of SD1534 had only minor effects in short-term replication assays but displayed a low copy number phenotype in long-term cultures which might be due to the expression of alternative E1 circumflex E4 or yet unknown viral proteins. This suggests a regulatory role for minor splice sites within E1 for papillomavirus replication.

  9. Donor Splice-Site Mutation in CUL4B is Likely Cause of X-Linked Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Londin, Eric R.; Adijanto, Jeffrey; Philp, Nancy; Novelli, Antonio; Vitale, Emilia; Perria, Chiara; Serra, Gigliola; Alesi, Viola; Surrey, Saul; Fortina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability is the most common form of cognitive disability in males. Syndromic intellectual disability encompasses cognitive deficits with other medical and behavioral manifestations. Recently, a large family with a novel form of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability was characterized. Eight of 24 members of the family are male and had cognitive dysfunction, short stature, aphasia, skeletal abnormalities, and minor anomalies. To identify the causative gene(s), we performed exome sequencing in three affected boys, both parents, and an unaffected sister. We identified a haplotype consisting of eight variants located in cis within the linkage region that segregated with affected members in the family. Of these variants, two were novel. The first was at the splice-donor site of intron 7 (c.974+1G>T) in the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (E3) gene, CUL4B. This variant is predicted to result in failure to splice and remove intron 7 from the primary transcript. The second variant mapped to the 3?-UTR region of the KAISO gene (c.1127T>G). Sanger sequencing validated the variants in these relatives as well as in three affected males and five carriers. The KAISO gene variant was predicted to create a binding site for the microRNAs miR-4999 and miR-4774; however, luciferase expression assays failed to validate increased targeting of these miRNAs to the variant 3?-UTR. This SNP may affect 3?-UTR structure leading to decreased mRNA stability. Our results suggest that the intellectual disability phenotype in this family is caused by aberrant splicing and removal of intron 7 from CUL4B gene primary transcript. PMID:24898194

  10. G to A substitution in 5{prime} donor splice site of introns 18 and 48 of COL1A1 gene of type I collagen results in different splicing alternatives in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains

    SciTech Connect

    Willing, M.; Deschenes, S.

    1994-09-01

    We have identified a G to A substitution in the 5{prime} donor splice site of intron 18 of one COL1A1 allele in two unrelated families with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I. A third OI type I family has a G to A substitution at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele. Both mutations abolish normal splicing and lead to reduced steady-state levels of mRNA from the mutant COL1A1 allele. The intron 18 mutation leads to both exon 18 skipping in the mRNA and to utilization of a single alternative splice site near the 3{prime} end of exon 18. The latter results in deletion of the last 8 nucleotides of exon 18 from the mRNA, a shift in the translational reading-frame, and the creation of a premature termination codon in exon 19. Of the potential alternative 5{prime} splice sites in exon 18 and intron 18, the one utilized has a surrounding nucleotide sequence which most closely resembles that of the natural splice site. Although a G to A mutation was detected at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele in another OI type I family, nine complex alternative splicing patterns were identified by sequence analysis of cDNA clones derived from fibroblast mRNA from this cell strain. All result in partial or complete skipping of exon 48, with in-frame deletions of portions of exons 47 and/or 49. The different patterns of RNA splicing were not explained by their sequence homology with naturally occuring 5{prime} splice sites, but rather by recombination between highly homologous exon sequences, suggesting that we may not have identified the major splicing alternative(s) in this cell strain. Both G to A mutations result in decreased production of type I collagen, the common biochemical correlate of OI type I.

  11. Activation of c-myb by 5' retrovirus promoter insertion in myeloid neoplasms is dependent upon an intact alternative splice donor site (SD') in gag

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Jean Marie; Houzet, Laurent; Koller, Richard; Bies, Juraj; Wolff, Linda; Mougel, Marylene . E-mail: mmougel@univ-montp1.fr

    2004-12-20

    Alternative splicing in Mo-MuLV recruits a splice donor site, SD', within the gag that is required for optimal replication in vitro. Remarkably, this SD' site was also found to be utilized for production of oncogenic gag-myb fusion RNA in 100% of murine-induced myeloid leukemia (MML) in pristane-treated BALB/c mice. Therefore, we investigated the influence of silent mutations of SD' in this model. Although there was no decrease in the overall incidence of disease, there was a decrease in the incidence of myeloid leukemia with a concomitant increase in lymphoid leukemia. Importantly, there was a complete lack of myeloid tumors associated with 5' insertional mutagenic activation of c-myb, suggesting the specific requirement of the SD' site in this mechanism.

  12. Escape variants of the XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor are rare due to reliance on a splice donor site and a short hypervariable loop

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyu; Martin, Carrie; Bouchard, Christelle; Kozak, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Entry determinants in the XPR1 receptor for the xenotropic/polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (XP-MLVs) lie in its third and fourth putative extracellular loops (ECLs). The critical ECL3 receptor determinant overlies a splice donor and is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrate XPR1 genes; 2 of the 3 rare replacement mutations at this site destroy this receptor determinant. The 13 residue ECL4 is hypervariable, and replacement mutations carrying an intact ECL3 site alter but do not abolish receptor activity, including replacement of the entire loop with that of a jellyfish (Cnidaria) XPR1. Because ECL4 deletions are found in all X-MLV-infected Mus subspecies, we deleted each ECL4 residue to determine if deletion-associated restriction is residue-specific or is effected by loop size. All deletions influence receptor function, although different deletions affect different XP-MLVs. Thus, receptor usage of a constrained splice site and a loop that tolerates mutations severely limits the likelihood of host escape mutations. PMID:25151060

  13. Galactosemia caused by a point mutation that activates cryptic donor splice site in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wadelius, C.; Lagerkvist, A. Uppsala Univ. ); Molin, A.K.; Larsson, A. ); Von Doebeln, U. )

    1993-08-01

    Galactosemia affects 1/84,000 in Sweden and is manifested in infancy when the child is exposed to galactose in the diet. If untreated there is a risk of severe early symptoms and, even with a lactose-free diet, late symptoms such as mental retardation and ovarial dysfunction may develop. In classical galactosemia, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) (EC 2.7.7.12) is defective and the normal cDNA sequence of this enzyme has been characterized. Recently eight mutations leading to galactosemia were published. Heparinized venous blood was drawn from a patient with classical galactosemia. In the cDNA from the patient examined, an insertion of 54 bp was found at position 1087. Amplification of the relevant genomic region of the patient's DNA was performed. Exon-intron boundaries and intronic sequences thus determined revealed that the 54-bp insertion was located immediately downstream of exon 10. It was further found that the patient was heterozygous for a point mutation, changing a C to a T (in 5 of 9 clones) at the second base in the intron downstream of the insertion. This alteration creates a sequence which, as well as the ordinary splice site, differs in only two positions from the consensus sequence. It was found that the mutation occurred in only one of the 20 alleles from galactosemic patients and in none of the 200 alleles from normal controls. The mutation is inherited from the mother, who also was found to express the 54-bp-long insertion at the mRNA level. Sequences from the 5[prime] end of the coding region were determined after genomic amplification, revealing a sequence identical to that reported. The mutation on the paternal allele has not been identified. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  14. A novel point mutation (G[sup [minus]1] to T) in a 5[prime] splice donor site of intron 13 of the dystrophin gene results in exon skipping and is responsible for Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Yoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitoh, Yoshihiko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Narita, Naoko; Wada, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Matsuo, Masafumi )

    1994-01-01

    The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. The authors now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5[prime] splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5[prime] splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G[sup [minus]1]-to-T mutation at the 5[prime] splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Aberrant transcript produced by a splice donor site deletion in the TECTA gene is associated with autosomal dominant deafness in a Brazilian family.

    PubMed

    Lezirovitz, Karina; Batissoco, Ana C; Lima, Fernanda T; Auricchio, Maria T B M; Nonose, Renata W; dos Santos, Simone R; Guilherme, Luiza; Oiticica, Jeanne; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C

    2012-12-15

    We ascertained a Brazilian family with nine individuals affected by autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. The bilateral hearing loss affected mainly mid-high frequencies, was apparently stable with an early onset. Microsatellites close to the DFNA8/DFNA12 locus, which harbors the TECTA gene, showed significant multipoint lod scores (3.2) close to marker D11S4107. Sequencing of the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the TECTA gene in one affected subject revealed the deletion c.5383+5delGTGA in the 5' end of intron 16, that includes the last two bases of the donor splice site consensus sequence. This mutation segregates with deafness within the family. To date, 33 different TECTA mutations associated with autossomal dominant hearing loss have been described. Among them is the mutation reported herein, first described by Hildebrand et al. (2011) in a UK family. The audioprofiles from the UK and Brazilian families were similar. In order to investigate the transcripts produced by the mutated allele, we performed cDNA analysis of a lymphoblastoid cell line from an affected heterozygote with the c.5383+5delGTGA and a noncarrier from the same family. The analysis allowed us to identify an aberrant transcript with skipping of exon 16, without affecting the reading frame. One of the dominant TECTA mutations already described, a synonymous substitution in exon 16 (c.5331Gsplicing, resulting in an aberrant transcript lacking exon 16. Despite the difference in the DNA level, both the synonymous substitution in exon 16 (c.5331Gsplicing of exon 16, leading to its skipping. At the protein level they would have the same effect, an in-frame deletion of 37 amino-acids (p.S1758Y/G1759_N1795del) probably leading to an impaired function of the ZP domain. Thus, like the TECTA missense mutations associated with dominant hearing loss, the c.5383+5delGTGA mutation does not have an inactivating effect on the protein. PMID:22995349

  16. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    SciTech Connect

    Solera, J. ); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. ); Coloma, A. )

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  17. SeeSite: Efficiently Finding Co-occurring Splice Sites and Exon Splicing Enhancers

    E-print Network

    Boucher, Christina

    out of mRNA. This RNA splicing is a fundamental biological process that is dictated by sequenceSeeSite: Efficiently Finding Co-occurring Splice Sites and Exon Splicing Enhancers Christine Lo splice sites consists of two sub-problems: finding their boundaries, and characterizing their sequence

  18. Identification of alternative 5?/3? splice sites based on the mechanism of splice site competition

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Huiyu; Bi, Jianning; Li, Yanda

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays an important role in regulating gene expression. Currently, most efficient methods use expressed sequence tags or microarray analysis for large-scale detection of alternative splicing. However, it is difficult to detect all alternative splice events with them because of their inherent limitations. Previous computational methods for alternative splicing prediction could only predict particular kinds of alternative splice events. Thus, it would be highly desirable to predict alternative 5?/3? splice sites with various splicing levels using genomic sequences alone. Here, we introduce the competition mechanism of splice sites selection into alternative splice site prediction. This approach allows us to predict not only rarely used but also frequently used alternative splice sites. On a dataset extracted from the AltSplice database, our method correctly classified ?70% of the splice sites into alternative and constitutive, as well as ?80% of the locations of real competitors for alternative splice sites. It outperforms a method which only considers features extracted from the splice sites themselves. Furthermore, this approach can also predict the changes in activation level arising from mutations in flanking cryptic splice sites of a given splice site. Our approach might be useful for studying alternative splicing in both computational and molecular biology. PMID:17098928

  19. Improved splice site detection in Genie

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, M.G.; Eeckman, F.H.; Kulp, D.

    1997-12-01

    We present an improved splice site predictor for the genefinding program Genie. Genie is based on a generalized Hidden Markov Model (GHMM) that describes the grammar of a legal parse of a multi-exon gene in a DNA sequence. In Genie, probabilities are estimated for gene features by using dynamic programming to combine information from multiple content and signal sensors, including sensors that integrate matches to homologous sequences from a database. One of the hardest problems in genefinding is to determine the complete gene structure correctly. The splice site sensors are the key signal sensors that address this problem. We replaced the existing splice site sensors in Genie with two novel neural networks based on dinucleotide frequencies. Using these novel sensors, Genie shows significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of gene structure identification. Experimental results in tests using a standard set of annotated genes showed that Genie identified 82% of coding nucleotides correctly with a specificity of 81%, versus 74% and 81% in the older system. In further splice site experiments, we also looked at correlations between splice site scores and intron and exon lengths, as well as the effect of distance to the nearest splice site on false positive rates. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Unusual splice site mutations disrupt FANCA exon 8 definition.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Chiara; Pianigiani, Giulia; De Rocco, Daniela; Bianco, Anna Monica Rosaria; Cappelli, Enrico; Savoia, Anna; Pagani, Franco

    2014-07-01

    The pathological role of mutations that affect not conserved splicing regulatory sequences can be difficult to determine. In a patient with Fanconi anemia, we identified two unpredictable splicing mutations that act on either sides of FANCA exon 8. In patients-derived cells and in minigene splicing assay, we showed that both an apparently benign intronic c.710-5T>C transition and the nonsense c.790C>T substitution induce almost complete exon 8 skipping. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the c.710-5T>C transition affects a polypyrimidine tract where most of the thymidines cannot be compensated by cytidines. The c.790C>T mutation located in position -3 relative to the donor site induce exon 8 skipping in an NMD-independent manner and complementation experiments with modified U1 snRNAs showed that U1 snRNP is only partially involved in the splicing defect. Our results highlight the importance of performing splicing functional assay for correct identification of disease-causing mechanism of genomic variants and provide mechanistic insights on how these two FANCA mutations affect exon 8 definition. PMID:24704046

  1. Analysis of cryptic splice sites with deep convolutional networks

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Neural Network Percent spliced-in 5' 3' #12;Alternative 3' Splice Site Dataset Bodymap 2 Mixed Tissue (WDS) #12;Splice Site Detection Model Model Architecture Convolution Fully connected Fully connected regularization · Dropout on fully connected layer #12;Alternative 3' Splice Site Code Sequence Convolutional

  2. Enhancer-dependent 5 -Splice Site Control of fruitless Pre-mRNA Splicing*

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    - and 3 -splice sites. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is commonly used to regulate the expression of genes% of human genes are alternatively spliced (5), some- times leading to thousands of different mRNA isoforms from a single gene. Numerous examples describe how alternative splicing regulates gene expression

  3. A novel donor splice site in intron 11 of the CFTR gene, created by mutation 1811 + 1.6kbA {yields} G, produces a new exon: High frequency in spanish cystic fibrosis chromosomes and association with severe phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Chillon, M.; Casals, T.; Gimenez, J.; Ramos, D.; Nunes, V.; Estivill, X.; Doerk, T.; Will, K.; Fonknechten, N.

    1995-03-01

    mRNA analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in tissues of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has allowed us to detect a cryptic exon. The new exon involves 49 base pairs between exons 11 and 12 and is due to a point mutation (1811+1.6bA{yields}G) that creates a new donor splice site in intron 11. Semiquantitative mRNA analysis showed that 1811+1.6kbA{r_arrow}G-mRNA was 5-10-fold less abundant than {triangle}F508 mRNA. Mutations 1811+1.6kbA{yields}G was found in 21 Spanish and 1 German CF chromosome(s), making it the fourth-most-frequent mutation (2%) in the Spanish population. Individuals with genotype {triangle}F508/1811+1.6kbA{yields}G have only 1%-3% of normal CFTR mRNA. This loss of 97% of normal CFTR mRNA must be responsible for the pancreatic insufficiency and for the severe CF phenotype in these patients. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Splice junctions in adenovirus 2 early region 4 mRNAs: multiple splice sites produce 18 to 24 RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, M A; Raskas, H J

    1984-01-01

    We localized the splice junctions in adenovirus 2 early region 4 (E4) mRNAs. Processing of the E4 precursor RNA positioned the donor splice site of the 5' leader sequence adjacent to acceptor sites near the 5' ends of five of the six open reading regions in the E4 transcription unit. Of particular interest among the E4 mRNAs is an extensively spliced class which includes multiple species with sizes ranging from 1.1 to 0.75 kilobases (kb). Purified 1.1- to 0.75-kb mRNAs specified at least 10 polypeptides in vitro. We detected eight acceptor and two donor splice sites utilized in the deletion of the intron from the 3' portion of these mRNAs. E4 RNAs were isolated from the cytoplasm of infected cells at 5, 9, 12, and 18 h after infection. The E4 mRNAs were present throughout infection, but different members of the 1.1- to 0.7-kb class were predominant at each time assayed. Alternate splicing of the 3.0-kb E4 precursor RNA can generate as many as 25 mRNAs that encode at least 16 polypeptides. Images PMID:6336328

  5. Gaucher disease: A G[sup +1][yields]A[sup +1] IVS2 splice donor site mutation causing exon 2 skipping in the acid [beta]-glucosidase mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    He, Guo-Shun ); Grabowski, G.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disease and the most prevalent Jewish genetic disease. About 30 identified missense mutations are causal to the defective activity of acid [beta]-glucosidase in this disease. cDNAs were characterized from a moderately affected 9-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish Gaucher disease type 1 patient whose 80-years-old, enzyme-deficient, 1226G (Asn[sup 370][yields]Ser [N370S]) homozygous grandfather was nearly asymptomatic. Sequence analyses revealed four populations of cDNAs with either the 1226G mutation, an exact exon 2 ([Delta] EX2) deletion, a deletion of exon 2 and the first 115 bp of exon 3 ([Delta] EX2-3), or a completely normal sequence. About 50% of the cDNAs were the [Delta] EX2, the [Delta] EX2-3, and the normal cDNAs, in a ratio of 6:3:1. Specific amplification and characterization of exon 2 and 5[prime] and 3[prime] intronic flanking sequences from the structural gene demonstrated clones with either the normal sequence or with a G[sup +1][yields]A[sup +1] transition at the exon 2/intron 2 boundary. This mutation destroyed the splice donor consensus site (U1 binding site) for mRNA processing. This transition also was present at the corresponding exon/intron boundary of the highly homologous pseudogene. This new mutation, termed [open quotes]IVS2 G[sup +1],[close quotes] is the first in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. The occurrence of this [open quotes]pseudogene[close quotes]-type mutation in the structural gene indicates the role of acid [beta]-glucosidase pseudogene and structural gene rearrangements in the pathogenesis of this disease. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Two novel splicing mutations in the SLC45A2 gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism Type IV by unmasking cryptic splice sites.

    PubMed

    Straniero, Letizia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Andreucci, Elena; Bargiacchi, Sara; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Asselta, Rosanna; Primignani, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type IV (OCA4) is one of the four commonly recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the SLC45A2 gene. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of OCA4 in an Italian child. The mutational screening of the SLC45A2 gene identified two novel potentially pathogenic splicing mutations: a synonymous transition (c.888G>A) involving the last nucleotide of exon 3 and a single-nucleotide insertion (c.1156+2dupT) within the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of intron 5. As computer-assisted analysis for mutant splice-site prediction was not conclusive, we investigated the effects on pre-mRNA splicing of these two variants by using an in vitro minigene approach. Production of mutant transcripts in HeLa cells demonstrated that both mutations cause the almost complete abolishment of the physiologic donor splice site, with the concomitant unmasking of cryptic donor splice sites. To our knowledge, this work represents the first in-depth molecular characterization of splicing defects in a OCA4 patient. PMID:26016411

  7. An Intronic Splicing Enhancer Binds U1 snRNPs To Enhance Splicing and Select 5? Splice Sites

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew J.; Berget, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Intronic G triplets are frequently located adjacent to 5? splice sites in vertebrate pre-mRNAs and have been correlated with splicing efficiency and specificity via a mechanism that activates upstream 5? splice sites in exons containing duplicated sites (26). Using an intron dependent upon G triplets for maximal activity and 5? splice site specificity, we determined that these elements bind U1 snRNPs via base pairing with U1 RNA. This interaction is novel in that it uses nucleotides 8 to 10 of U1 RNA and is independent of nucleotides 1 to 7. In vivo functionality of base pairing was documented by restoring activity and specificity to mutated G triplets through compensating U1 RNA mutations. We suggest that the G-rich region near vertebrate 5? splice sites promotes accurate splice site recognition by recruiting the U1 snRNP. PMID:11094074

  8. Alternative splicing regulation at tandem 30 splice sites

    E-print Network

    Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    splicing of the distal NAG are highly regulated. INTRODUCTION In eukaryotic cells, gene expression splicing (AS). The intron/exon boundaries in euka- ryotic genes are defined by short and degenerate in recognition and interaction with the basal splicing machinery. AS allows an individual gene to express

  9. Enhancer-dependent 5?-Splice Site Control of fruitless Pre-mRNA Splicing*

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Bianca J.; Bakshi, Arati; Ekinci, Fatma Y.; Webb, Jenny; Graveley, Brenton R.; Hertel, Klemens J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene encodes a transcription factor that essentially regulates all aspects of male courtship behavior. The use of alternative 5?-splice sites generates fru isoforms that determine gender-appropriate sexual behaviors. Alternative splicing of fru is regulated by TRA and TRA2 and depends on an exonic splicing enhancer (fruRE) consisting of three 13-nucleotide repeat elements, nearly identical to those that regulate alternative sex-specific 3?-splice site choice in the doublesex (dsx) gene. dsx has provided a useful model system to investigate the mechanisms of enhancer-dependent 3?-splice site choice. However, little is known about enhancer-dependent regulation of alternative 5?-splice sites. The mechanisms of this process were investigated using an in vitro system in which recombinant TRA/TRA2 could activate the female-specific 5?-splice site of fru. Mutational analysis demonstrated that one 13-nucleotide repeat element within the fruRE is required and sufficient to activate the regulated female-specific splice site. As was established for dsx, the fruRE can be replaced by a short element encompassing tandem 13-nucleotide repeat elements, by heterologous splicing enhancers, and by artificially tethering a splicing activator to the pre-mRNA. Complementation experiments showed that Ser/Arg-rich proteins facilitate enhancer-dependent 5?-splice site activation. We conclude that splicing enhancers function similarly in activating regulated 5?- and 3?-splice sites. These results suggest that exonic splicing enhancers recruit multiple spliceosomal components required for the initial recognition of 5?- and 3?-splice sites. PMID:12646561

  10. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)-short nucleotide sequences flanking introns-are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints. PMID:26642327

  11. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)—short nucleotide sequences flanking introns—are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints. PMID:26642327

  12. Theory on the Coupled Stochastic Dynamics of Transcription and Splice-Site Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kreiman, Gabriel

    Murugan1,2 , Gabriel Kreiman2,3,4 * 1 Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras the dynamics of RNAPII and the stochastic nature of snRNP search for 59 donor splicing sites. Citation: Murugan Copyright: ß 2012 Murugan, Kreiman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms

  13. Genomic splice site prediction algorithm based on nucleotide sequence pattern for RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Nan; Lin, Shu-Hung; Shih, Shin-Ru; Lai, Jhih-Siang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2009-04-01

    Splice site prediction on an RNA virus has two potential difficulties seriously degrading the performance of most conventional splice site predictors. One is a limited number of strains available for a virus species and the other is the diversified sequence patterns around the splice sites caused by the high mutation frequency. To overcome these two difficulties, a new algorithm called Genomic Splice Site Prediction (GSSP) algorithm, was proposed for splice site prediction of RNA viruses. The key idea of the GSSP algorithm was to characterize the interdependency among the nucleotides and base positions based on the eigen-patterns. Identified by a sequence pattern mining technique, each eigen-pattern specified a unique composition of the base positions and the nucleotides occurring at the positions. To remedy the problem of insufficient training data due to the limited number of strains for an RNA virus, a cross-species strategy was employed in this study. The GSSP algorithm was shown to be effective and superior to two conventional methods in predicting the splice sites of five RNA species in the Orthomyxoviruses family. The sensitivity and specificity achieved by the GSSP algorithm was higher than 99 and 94%, respectively, for the donor sites, and was higher than 96 and 92%, respectively, for the acceptor sites. Supplementary data associated with this work are freely available for academic use at http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/ approximately d91548013/. PMID:18815073

  14. Diverse regulation of 3' splice site usage.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad; Xie, Jiuyong

    2015-12-01

    The regulation of splice site (SS) usage is important for alternative pre-mRNA splicing and thus proper expression of protein isoforms in cells; its disruption causes diseases. In recent years, an increasing number of novel regulatory elements have been found within or nearby the 3'SS in mammalian genes. The diverse elements recruit a repertoire of trans-acting factors or form secondary structures to regulate 3'SS usage, mostly at the early steps of spliceosome assembly. Their mechanisms of action mainly include: (1) competition between the factors for RNA elements, (2) steric hindrance between the factors, (3) direct interaction between the factors, (4) competition between two splice sites, or (5) local RNA secondary structures or longer range loops, according to the mode of protein/RNA interactions. Beyond the 3'SS, chromatin remodeling/transcription, posttranslational modifications of trans-acting factors and upstream signaling provide further layers of regulation. Evolutionarily, some of the 3'SS elements seem to have emerged in mammalian ancestors. Moreover, other possibilities of regulation such as that by non-coding RNA remain to be explored. It is thus likely that there are more diverse elements/factors and mechanisms that influence the choice of an intron end. The diverse regulation likely contributes to a more complex but refined transcriptome and proteome in mammals. PMID:26370726

  15. Splice site strength–dependent activity and genetic buffering by poly-G runs

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Xinshu

    Pre-mRNA splicing is regulated through the combinatorial activity of RNA motifs, including splice sites and splicing regulatory elements. Here we show that the activity of the G-run (polyguanine sequence) class of splicing ...

  16. Evidence for a direct role of the disease modifier SCNM1 in splicing

    E-print Network

    Meisler, Miriam

    gene that is required for efficient in vivo splicing of a mutant splice donor site in the sodium of weak splice donor sites. In summary, Scnm1 is the first example of a modifier gene which influences disease severity through a trans-effect on splicing of the disease gene transcript. INTRODUCTION Scnm1

  17. Prp4 Kinase Grants the License to Splice: Control of Weak Splice Sites during Spliceosome Activation.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Daniela; Andrée, Nicole; Razanau, Aleh; Zock-Emmenthal, Susanne; Lützelberger, Martin; Plath, Susann; Schmidt, Henning; Guerra-Moreno, Angel; Cozzuto, Luca; Ayté, José; Käufer, Norbert F

    2016-01-01

    The genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes 17 kinases that are essential for cell growth. These include the cell-cycle regulator Cdc2, as well as several kinases that coordinate cell growth, polarity, and morphogenesis during the cell cycle. In this study, we further characterized another of these essential kinases, Prp4, and showed that the splicing of many introns is dependent on Prp4 kinase activity. For detailed characterization, we chose the genes res1 and ppk8, each of which contains one intron of typical size and position. Splicing of the res1 intron was dependent on Prp4 kinase activity, whereas splicing of the ppk8 intron was not. Extensive mutational analyses of the 5' splice site of both genes revealed that proper transient interaction with the 5' end of snRNA U1 governs the dependence of splicing on Prp4 kinase activity. Proper transient interaction between the branch sequence and snRNA U2 was also important. Therefore, the Prp4 kinase is required for recognition and efficient splicing of introns displaying weak exon1/5' splice sites and weak branch sequences. PMID:26730850

  18. Inhibition of Splicing but not Cleavage at the 5' Splice Site by Truncating Human ? -globin Pre-mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furdon, Paul J.; Kole, Ryszard

    1986-02-01

    Human ? -globin mRNAs truncated in the second exon or in the first intron have been processed in vitro in a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Transcripts containing a fragment of the second exon as short as 53 nucleotides are efficiently spliced, whereas transcripts truncated 24 or 14 nucleotides downstream from the 3' splice site are spliced inefficiently, if at all. All of these transcripts, however, are efficiently and accurately cleaved at the 5' splice site. In contrast, RNA truncated in the first intron, 54 nucleotides upstream from the 3' splice site, is not processed at all. These findings suggest that cleavage at the 5' splice site and subsequent splicing steps--i.e., cleavage at the 3' splice site and exon ligation--need not be coupled. Anti-Sm serum inhibits the complete splicing reaction and cleavage at the 5' splice site, suggesting involvement of certain ribonucleoprotein particles in the cleavage reaction. ATP and Mg2+ are required for cleavage at the 5' splice site at concentrations similar to those for the complete splicing reaction.

  19. The Human Splicing Factor ASF/SF2 can Specifically Recognize Pre-mRNA 5' Splice Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Ping; Manley, James L.

    1994-04-01

    ASF/SF2 is a human protein previously shown to function in in vitro pre-mRNA splicing as an essential factor necessary for all splices and also as an alternative splicing factor, capable of switching selection of 5' splice sites. To begin to study the protein's mechanism of action, we have investigated the RNA binding properties of purified recombinant ASF/SF2. Using UV crosslinking and gel shift assays, we demonstrate that the RNA binding region of ASF/SF2 can interact with RNA in a sequence-specific manner, recognizing the 5' splice site in each of two different pre-mRNAs. Point mutations in the 5' splice site consensus can reduce binding by as much as a factor of 100, with the largest effects observed in competition assays. These findings support a model in which ASF/SF2 aids in the recognition of pre-mRNA 5' splice sites.

  20. Method of predicting Splice Sites based on signal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Churbanov, Alexander; Rogozin, Igor B; Deogun, Jitender S; Ali, Hesham

    2006-01-01

    Background Predicting and proper ranking of canonical splice sites (SSs) is a challenging problem in bioinformatics and machine learning communities. Any progress in SSs recognition will lead to better understanding of splicing mechanism. We introduce several new approaches of combining a priori knowledge for improved SS detection. First, we design our new Bayesian SS sensor based on oligonucleotide counting. To further enhance prediction quality, we applied our new de novo motif detection tool MHMMotif to intronic ends and exons. We combine elements found with sensor information using Naive Bayesian Network, as implemented in our new tool SpliceScan. Results According to our tests, the Bayesian sensor outperforms the contemporary Maximum Entropy sensor for 5' SS detection. We report a number of putative Exonic (ESE) and Intronic (ISE) Splicing Enhancers found by MHMMotif tool. T-test statistics on mouse/rat intronic alignments indicates, that detected elements are on average more conserved as compared to other oligos, which supports our assumption of their functional importance. The tool has been shown to outperform the SpliceView, GeneSplicer, NNSplice, Genio and NetUTR tools for the test set of human genes. SpliceScan outperforms all contemporary ab initio gene structural prediction tools on the set of 5' UTR gene fragments. Conclusion Designed methods have many attractive properties, compared to existing approaches. Bayesian sensor, MHMMotif program and SpliceScan tools are freely available on our web site. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Manyuan Long, Arcady Mushegian and Mikhail Gelfand. PMID:16584568

  1. Dual-specificity splice sites function alternatively as 5 and 3 splice sites

    E-print Network

    -scale sequencing projects and recent splicing- microarray studies, estimates of mammalian genes expressing multiple the implications of this unusual splicing pattern for the diverse mech- anisms of exon recognition and for gene evolution. alternative splicing competition mRNA/EST Eukaryotic genes are split into exons and introns

  2. Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals Novel PHEX Splice Site Mutations in Patients with Hypophosphatemic Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Christopher; Sampson, Matthew G.; Kher, Vijay; Sethi, Sidharth K.; Otto, Edgar A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a heterogeneous genetic phosphate wasting disorder. The disease is most commonly caused by mutations in the PHEX gene located on the X-chromosome or by mutations in CLCN5, DMP1, ENPP1, FGF23, and SLC34A3. The aims of this study were to perform molecular diagnostics for four patients with HR of Indian origin (two independent families) and to describe their clinical features. Methods We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) for the affected mother of two boys who also displayed the typical features of HR, including bone malformations and phosphate wasting. B-lymphoblast cell lines were established by EBV transformation and subsequent RT-PCR to investigate an uncommon splice site variant found by WES. An in silico analysis was done to obtain accurate nucleotide frequency occurrences of consensus splice positions other than the canonical sites of all human exons. Additionally, we applied direct Sanger sequencing for all exons and exon/intron boundaries of the PHEX gene for an affected girl from an independent second Indian family. Results WES revealed a novel PHEX splice acceptor mutation in intron 9 (c.1080-3C>A) in a family with 3 affected individuals with HR. The effect on splicing of this mutation was further investigated by RT-PCR using RNA obtained from a patient’s EBV-transformed lymphoblast cell line. RT-PCR revealed an aberrant splice transcript skipping exons 10-14 which was not observed in control samples, confirming the diagnosis of X-linked dominant hypophosphatemia (XLH). The in silico analysis of all human splice sites adjacent to all 327,293 exons across 81,814 transcripts among 20,345 human genes revealed that cytosine is, with 64.3%, the most frequent nucleobase at the minus 3 splice acceptor position, followed by thymidine with 28.7%, adenine with 6.3%, and guanine with 0.8%. We generated frequency tables and pictograms for the extended donor and acceptor splice consensus regions by analyzing all human exons. Direct Sanger sequencing of all PHEX exons in a sporadic case with HR from the Indian subcontinent revealed an additional novel PHEX mutation (c.1211_1215delACAAAinsTTTACAT, p.Asp404Valfs*5, de novo) located in exon 11. Conclusions Mutation analyses revealed two novel mutations and helped to confirm the clinical diagnoses of XLH in two families from India. WES helped to analyze all genes implicated in the underlying disease complex. Mutations at splice positions other than the canonical key sites need further functional investigation to support the assertion of pathogenicity. PMID:26107949

  3. Modulation of SMN pre-mRNA splicing by inhibition of alternative 3' splice site pairing Sharlene R. Lim and Klemens J. Hertel*

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    of a non-functional gene product. It has been suggested that differential SMN2 splicing is causedModulation of SMN pre-mRNA splicing by inhibition of alternative 3' splice site pairing Sharlene R-4025, USA Running Title: SMN Differential Splicing Key words: alternative splicing, Spinal Muscular Atrophy

  4. Structural Features of a 3? Splice Site in Influenza A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A is an RNA virus with a genome of eight negative sense segments. Segment 7 mRNA contains a 3? splice site for alternative splicing to encode the essential M2 protein. On the basis of sequence alignment and chemical mapping experiments, the secondary structure surrounding the 3? splice site has an internal loop, adenine bulge, and hairpin loop when it is in the hairpin conformation that exposes the 3? splice site. We report structural features of a three-dimensional model of the hairpin derived from nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and simulated annealing with restrained molecular dynamics. Additional insight was provided by modeling based on 1H chemical shifts. The internal loop containing the 3? splice site has a dynamic guanosine and a stable imino (cis Watson–Crick/Watson–Crick) GA pair. The adenine bulge also appears to be dynamic with the A either stacked in the stem or forming a base triple with a Watson–Crick GC pair. The hairpin loop is a GAAA tetraloop closed by an AC pair. PMID:25909229

  5. A comprehensive survey of non-canonical splice sites in the human transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Guillermo E.; Munita, Roberto; Cerda, Cledi A.; Gysling, Katia

    2014-01-01

    We uncovered the diversity of non-canonical splice sites at the human transcriptome using deep transcriptome profiling. We mapped a total of 3.7 billion human RNA-seq reads and developed a set of stringent filters to avoid false non-canonical splice site detections. We identified 184 splice sites with non-canonical dinucleotides and U2/U12-like consensus sequences. We selected 10 of the herein identified U2/U12-like non-canonical splice site events and successfully validated 9 of them via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Analyses of the 184 U2/U12-like non-canonical splice sites indicate that 51% of them are not annotated in GENCODE. In addition, 28% of them are conserved in mouse and 76% are involved in alternative splicing events, some of them with tissue-specific alternative splicing patterns. Interestingly, our analysis identified some U2/U12-like non-canonical splice sites that are converted into canonical splice sites by RNA A-to-I editing. Moreover, the U2/U12-like non-canonical splice sites have a differential distribution of splicing regulatory sequences, which may contribute to their recognition and regulation. Our analysis provides a high-confidence group of U2/U12-like non-canonical splice sites, which exhibit distinctive features among the total human splice sites. PMID:25123659

  6. Successful Treatment of Chronic Donor Site Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yanow, Jennifer H; Lorenzo, Luigi Di; Worosilo, Sharon C; Pappagallo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a case presentation of a 45-year-old male with chronic donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest successfully treated with superior cluneal nerve blockade. Donor site pain following autologous bone harvest is a common postoperative complication of lumbar fusion procedures that can cause significant morbidity and diminish quality of life, even in the context of an otherwise successful surgery. Dysfunction of the superior cluneal nerves is an etiology of this chronic pain. The patient’s medical history, attempted treatments, and literature were reviewed. Case Presentation: A 45-year-old male with a six year history of severe pain over the right iliac crest following an otherwise successful lumbar laminectomy and fusion underwent two sets of superior cluneal nerve blocks, with sustained relief of more than 80% at seven months follow up. Conclusions: Donor site pain following autologous iliac crest bone harvest is a common surgical complication that is often resistant to conservative treatments such as physical therapy and oral medications. Blockade of the superior cluneal nerves is a safe and technically simple procedure that may result in long-term pain relief, obviating the need to consider more invasive options. PMID:26587399

  7. Well-camouflaged Skin Graft Donor Sites in the Hand.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ruth E; Ying, Camelia Tang Qian; Sean, Lai Wei Hong; Lee, Ellen Y; Foo, Tun-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Three full-thickness skin graft sites within the hand where the donor sites are well blended with surrounding skin contour and crease are described. Two of these donor sites are located within the digit and these provide nonglaborous skin for small defects of the hand, whereas the third donor site along the palmar crease provides glaborous skin. These donor sites provide ease of access, minimal morbidity, and well-matched skin for resurfacing of small defects around the hand. The indications, contraindications, and technical points of each donor site are discussed. PMID:26296214

  8. Detection of Splice Sites Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadwaj, Pritish; Purohit, Neetesh; Arora, Bhumika

    Automatic identification and annotation of exon and intron region of gene, from DNA sequences has been an important research area in field of computational biology. Several approaches viz. Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Artificial Intelligence (AI) based machine learning and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques have extensively and independently been used by various researchers to cater this challenging task. In this work, we propose a Support Vector Machine based kernel learning approach for detection of splice sites (the exon-intron boundary) in a gene. Electron-Ion Interaction Potential (EIIP) values of nucleotides have been used for mapping character sequences to corresponding numeric sequences. Radial Basis Function (RBF) SVM kernel is trained using EIIP numeric sequences. Furthermore this was tested on test gene dataset for detection of splice site by window (of 12 residues) shifting. Optimum values of window size, various important parameters of SVM kernel have been optimized for a better accuracy. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves have been utilized for displaying the sensitivity rate of the classifier and results showed 94.82% accuracy for splice site detection on test dataset.

  9. Analyzing alternative splicing data of splice junction arrays from Parkinson patients' leukocytes before and after deep brain stimulation as compared with control donors

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Salomonis, Nathan; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

    2015-01-01

    Few studies so far examined alternative splicing alterations in blood cells of neurodegenerative disease patients, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD). Prototype junction microarrays interrogate known human genome junctions and enable characterization of alternative splicing events; however, the analysis is not straightforward and different methods can be used to estimate junction-specific alternative splicing events (some of which can also be applied for analyzing RNA sequencing junction-level data). In this study, we characterized alternative splicing changes in blood leukocyte samples from Parkinson's patients prior to, and following deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment; both on stimulation and following 1 h off electrical stimulation. Here, we describe in detail analysis approaches for junction microarrays and provide suggestions for further analyses to delineate transcript level effects of the observed alterations as well as detection of microRNA binding sites and protein domains in the alternatively spliced target regions spanning across both untranslated and the coding regions of the targets. The raw expression data files are publically available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (accession number: GSE37591) and in Synapse, and can be re-analyzed. The results may be useful for designing of future experiments and cross correlations with other datasets from PD or patients having other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26484282

  10. Regulation of BCL-X splicing reveals a role for the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1/hnRNP I) in alternative 5? splice site selection

    PubMed Central

    Bielli, Pamela; Bordi, Matteo; Biasio, Valentina Di; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) modulates many physiological and pathological processes. For instance, AS of the BCL-X gene balances cell survival and apoptosis in development and cancer. Herein, we identified the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) as a direct regulator of BCL-X AS. Overexpression of PTBP1 promotes selection of the distal 5? splice site in BCL-X exon 2, generating the pro-apoptotic BCL-Xs splice variant. Conversely, depletion of PTBP1 enhanced splicing of the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant. In vivo cross-linking experiments and site-directed mutagenesis restricted the PTBP1 binding site to a polypyrimidine tract located between the two alternative 5? splice sites. Binding of PTBP1 to this site was required for its effect on splicing. Notably, a similar function of PTBP1 in the selection of alternative 5? splice sites was confirmed using the USP5 gene as additional model. Mechanistically, PTBP1 displaces SRSF1 binding from the proximal 5? splice site, thus repressing its selection. Our study provides a novel mechanism of alternative 5? splice site selection by PTBP1 and indicates that the presence of a PTBP1 binding site between two alternative 5? splice sites promotes selection of the distal one, while repressing the proximal site by competing for binding of a positive regulator. PMID:25294838

  11. Regulation of BCL-X splicing reveals a role for the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1/hnRNP I) in alternative 5' splice site selection.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Pamela; Bordi, Matteo; Di Biasio, Valentina; Sette, Claudio

    2014-10-29

    Alternative splicing (AS) modulates many physiological and pathological processes. For instance, AS of the BCL-X gene balances cell survival and apoptosis in development and cancer. Herein, we identified the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) as a direct regulator of BCL-X AS. Overexpression of PTBP1 promotes selection of the distal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, generating the pro-apoptotic BCL-Xs splice variant. Conversely, depletion of PTBP1 enhanced splicing of the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant. In vivo cross-linking experiments and site-directed mutagenesis restricted the PTBP1 binding site to a polypyrimidine tract located between the two alternative 5' splice sites. Binding of PTBP1 to this site was required for its effect on splicing. Notably, a similar function of PTBP1 in the selection of alternative 5' splice sites was confirmed using the USP5 gene as additional model. Mechanistically, PTBP1 displaces SRSF1 binding from the proximal 5' splice site, thus repressing its selection. Our study provides a novel mechanism of alternative 5' splice site selection by PTBP1 and indicates that the presence of a PTBP1 binding site between two alternative 5' splice sites promotes selection of the distal one, while repressing the proximal site by competing for binding of a positive regulator. PMID:25294838

  12. Comparative analysis detects dependencies among the 5? splice-site positions

    PubMed Central

    CARMEL, IDO; TAL, SAAR; VIG, IDA; AST, GIL

    2004-01-01

    Human–mouse comparative genomics is an informative tool to assess sequence functionality as inferred from its conservation level. We used this approach to examine dependency among different positions of the 5? splice site. We compiled a data set of 50,493 homologous human–mouse internal exons and analyzed the frequency of changes among different positions of homologous human–mouse 5? splice-site pairs. We found mutual relationships between positions +4 and +5, +5 and +6, ?2 and +5, and ?1 and +5. We also demonstrated the association between the exonic and the intronic positions of the 5? splice site, in which a stronger interaction of U1 snRNA and the intronic portion of the 5? splice site compensates for weak interaction of U1 snRNA and the exonic portion of the 5? splice site, and vice versa. By using an ex vivo system that mimics the effect of mutation in the 5? splice site leading to familial dysautonomia, we demonstrated that U1 snRNA base-pairing with positions +6 and ?1 is the only functional requirement for mRNA splicing of this 5? splice site. Our findings indicate the importance of U1 snRNA base-pairing to the exonic portion of the 5? splice site. PMID:15100438

  13. The localization of sites containing nascent RNA and splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Pombo, A; Cook, P R

    1996-12-15

    Sites of transcription in the HeLa nucleus are not diffusely spread throughout euchromatin but are concentrated in approximately 2000 discrete sites or "transcription factories." These sites can be immunolabeled after allowing permeabilized cells to elongate nascent RNA chains in the presence of BrUTP. Splicing factors are also concentrated in a few tens of nuclear domains known as "speckles"; they are also more diffusely spread throughout euchromatin. As there has been some controversy whether the speckles are sites of transcription, we investigated the relative distributions of transcription factories and the speckles (detected using Sm autoimmune antibodies). We used conditions that minimize the redistribution of both the nascent RNA and the antigens during permeabilization and fixation and imaged the sites with high resolution using cryosections and a "confocal" microscope. The speckles contained little-if any-nascent RNA and so were usually not transcriptionally active, but they were often surrounded by a few transcription sites. Whether they are active sites of processing of RNA or merely sites where the machinery is stored remains to be established. PMID:8986598

  14. U2AF1 mutations alter splice site recognition in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ilagan, Janine O.; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Hayes, Brian; Murphy, Michele E.; Zebari, Ahmad S.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing studies have identified common mutations affecting genes encoding components of the RNA splicing machinery in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to determine how mutations affecting the 3? splice site recognition factor U2AF1 alter its normal role in RNA splicing. We find that U2AF1 mutations influence the similarity of splicing programs in leukemias, but do not give rise to widespread splicing failure. U2AF1 mutations cause differential splicing of hundreds of genes, affecting biological pathways such as DNA methylation (DNMT3B), X chromosome inactivation (H2AFY), the DNA damage response (ATR, FANCA), and apoptosis (CASP8). We show that U2AF1 mutations alter the preferred 3? splice site motif in patients, in cell culture, and in vitro. Mutations affecting the first and second zinc fingers give rise to different alterations in splice site preference and largely distinct downstream splicing programs. These allele-specific effects are consistent with a computationally predicted model of U2AF1 in complex with RNA. Our findings suggest that U2AF1 mutations contribute to pathogenesis by causing quantitative changes in splicing that affect diverse cellular pathways, and give insight into the normal function of U2AF1’s zinc finger domains. PMID:25267526

  15. U2AF1 mutations alter splice site recognition in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ilagan, Janine O; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Hayes, Brian; Murphy, Michele E; Zebari, Ahmad S; Bradley, Philip; Bradley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing studies have identified common mutations affecting genes encoding components of the RNA splicing machinery in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to determine how mutations affecting the 3' splice site recognition factor U2AF1 alter its normal role in RNA splicing. We find that U2AF1 mutations influence the similarity of splicing programs in leukemias, but do not give rise to widespread splicing failure. U2AF1 mutations cause differential splicing of hundreds of genes, affecting biological pathways such as DNA methylation (DNMT3B), X chromosome inactivation (H2AFY), the DNA damage response (ATR, FANCA), and apoptosis (CASP8). We show that U2AF1 mutations alter the preferred 3' splice site motif in patients, in cell culture, and in vitro. Mutations affecting the first and second zinc fingers give rise to different alterations in splice site preference and largely distinct downstream splicing programs. These allele-specific effects are consistent with a computationally predicted model of U2AF1 in complex with RNA. Our findings suggest that U2AF1 mutations contribute to pathogenesis by causing quantitative changes in splicing that affect diverse cellular pathways, and give insight into the normal function of U2AF1's zinc finger domains. PMID:25267526

  16. Effects of secondary structure on pre-mRNA splicing: hairpins sequestering the 5' but not the 3' splice site inhibit intron processing in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H X; Goodall, G J; Kole, R; Filipowicz, W

    1995-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study of the effect of artificial hairpins on pre-mRNA splicing in protoplasts of a dicot plant, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Hairpins with a potential to form 18 or 24 bp stems strongly inhibit splicing when they sequester the 5' splice site or are placed in the middle of short introns. However, similar 24 bp hairpins sequestering the 3' splice site do not prevent this site from being used as an acceptor. Utilization of the stem-located 3' site requires that the base of the stem is separated from the upstream 5' splice site by a minimum of approximately 45 nucleotides and that another 'helper' 3' splice site is present downstream of the stem. The results indicate that the spliceosome or factors associated with it may have a potential to unfold secondary structure present in the downstream portion of the intron, prior to or at the step of the 3' splice site selection. The finding that the helper 3' site is required for utilization of the stem-located acceptor confirms and extends previous observations, obtained with HeLa cell in vitro splicing systems, indicating that the 3' splice site may be recognized at least twice during spliceosome assembly. Images PMID:7835348

  17. On splice site prediction using weight array models: a comparison of smoothing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Leila; Meinicke, Peter; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2007-11-01

    In most eukaryotic genes, protein-coding exons are separated by non-coding introns which are removed from the primary transcript by a process called "splicing". The positions where introns are cut and exons are spliced together are called "splice sites". Thus, computational prediction of splice sites is crucial for gene finding in eukaryotes. Weight array models are a powerful probabilistic approach to splice site detection. Parameters for these models are usually derived from m-tuple frequencies in trusted training data and subsequently smoothed to avoid zero probabilities. In this study we compare three different ways of parameter estimation for m-tuple frequencies, namely (a) non-smoothed probability estimation, (b) standard pseudo counts and (c) a Gaussian smoothing procedure that we recently developed.

  18. Two novel mutations affecting the same splice site of PKD1 correlate with different phenotypes in ADPKD.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaowen; Li, Jing; Yuan, Zhaojian; Liu, Shan; Zou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Genetic heterogeneity is the main factor for significant variation in the course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). PKD1 patients have more severe renal outcomes compared with PKD2 patients. Co-inheritance of a mutation in both genes is associated with more severe phenotypes than that found with either mutation alone. However, the genotype-phenotype relationship is far from clear in ADPKD. Here, we observed two novel mutations, PKD1:c.12444G?>?A and PKD1:c.12444?+?1G?>?A, which alter the same splice donor site of intron 45, correlate with different renal outcomes. To explain the phenomenon, we analyzed the genic and allelic background of the patients, as well as the genetic modifiers, DKK3 and HNF-1? as suggested. Only PKD1 variants were found, which highlights the allelic influence of PKD1 gene to be the last candidate factor. Segregation analysis, online mutation prediction, and recurrence mutation searching were applied to sort the variants. However, none of variants was found to be damaging or associated with the disease except PKD1:c.12444G?>?A and PKD1:c.12444?+?1G?>?A. Cloning and sequencing of the mutated cDNA sequences had shown unexpected different splicing effects caused by the mutations. PKD1:c.12444?+?1G?>?A definitely destroyed the native splice site and created a novel donor site with truncating effect on PC1. In contrast, PKD1:c.12444G?>?A mainly weakened the site and decreased the expression of normal PC1. Since PC1 negatively regulates cell proliferation in the process of cyst formation and enlargement, our observation may explain this new genotype-phenotype correlation and help to improve genetic counseling and diagnosis of the disease. PMID:24575920

  19. Molecular diagnosis of hereditary inclusion body myopathy by linkage analysis and identification of a novel splice site mutation in GNE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many myopathies share clinical features in common, and diagnosis often requires genetic testing. We ascertained a family in which five siblings presented with distal muscle weakness of unknown etiology. Methods We performed high-density genomewide linkage analysis and mutation screening of candidate genes to identify the genetic defect in the family. Preserved clinical biopsy material was reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine the molecular effect of a splice site mutation. Results The linkage scan excluded the majority of known myopathy genes, but one linkage peak included the gene GNE, in which mutations cause autosomal recessive hereditary inclusion body myopathy type 2 (HIBM2). Muscle biopsy tissue from a patient showed myopathic features, including small basophilic fibers with vacuoles. Sequence analysis of GNE revealed affected individuals were compound heterozygous for a novel mutation in the 5' splice donor site of intron 10 (c.1816+5G>A) and a previously reported missense mutation (c.2086G>A, p.V696M), confirming the diagnosis as HIBM2. The splice site mutation correlated with exclusion of exon 10 from the transcript, which is predicted to produce an in-frame deletion (p.G545_D605del) of 61 amino acids in the kinase domain of the GNE protein. The father of the proband was heterozygous for the splice site mutation and exhibited mild distal weakness late in life. Conclusions Our study expands on the extensive allelic heterogeneity of HIBM2 and demonstrates the value of linkage analysis in resolving ambiguous clinical findings to achieve a molecular diagnosis. PMID:21708040

  20. Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. PMID:23600791

  1. Cauliflower mosaic virus Transcriptome Reveals a Complex Alternative Splicing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Clément; Geldreich, Angèle; Ramel, Laëtitia; Ryabova, Lyubov A.; Dimitrova, Maria; Keller, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) uses alternative splic-ing to generate several isoforms from its polycistronic pregenomic 35S RNA. This pro-cess has been shown to be essential for infectivity. Previous works have identified four splice donor sites and a single splice acceptor site in the 35S RNA 5’ region and sug-gested that the main role of CaMV splicing is to downregulate expression of open read-ing frames (ORFs) I and II. In this study, we show that alternative splicing is a conserved process among CaMV isolates. In Cabb B-JI and Cabb-S isolates, splicing frequently leads to different fusion between ORFs, particularly between ORF I and II. The corresponding P1P2 fusion proteins expressed in E. coli interact with viral proteins P2 and P3 in vitro. However, they are detected neither during infection nor upon transient expression in planta, which suggests rapid degradation after synthesis and no important biological role in the CaMV infectious cycle. To gain a better understanding of the functional relevance of 35S RNA alternative splicing in CaMV infectivity, we inactivated the previously described splice sites. All the splicing mutants were as pathogenic as the corresponding wild-type isolate. Through RT-PCR-based analysis we demonstrate that CaMV 35S RNA exhibits a complex splicing pattern, as we identify new splice donor and acceptor sites whose selection leads to more than thirteen 35S RNA isoforms in infected turnip plants. Inactivating splice donor or acceptor sites is not lethal for the virus, since disrupted sites are systematically rescued by the activation of cryptic and/or seldom used splice sites. Taken together, our data depict a conserved, complex and flexible process, involving multiple sites, that ensures splicing of 35S RNA. PMID:26162084

  2. Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Blocks the 5? Splice Site Dependent Assembly of U2AF and the Prespliceosomal E Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shalini; Falick, Arnold M.; Black, Douglas L.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) represses the splicing of many alternatively spliced exons. This repression can sometimes involve the direct occlusion of splice sites by PTB. We show here that PTB prevents splicing of the c-src N1 exon to downstream exon 4 by a different mechanism. PTB does not interfere with U1 snRNP binding to the N1 5? splice site, but instead prevents formation of the pre-spliceosomal Early (E) complex across the intervening intron. If only the repressed 5? splice site of the N1 exon is present, the splicing factor U2AF does not assemble on the downstream 3? splice site of exon 4. When the unregulated 5? splice site of the upstream exon 3 is included in the RNA, U2AF binding is restored and splicing between exons 3 and 4 proceeds, in spite of the presence of the PTB bound across the N1 exon. Rather than directly blocking the N1 splice sites, PTB is blocking the 5? splice site dependent assembly of U2AF into the E complex, presumably through an interaction with the U1 snRNP. This mechanism of repression is likely to also occur in many other alternative exons. PMID:16109373

  3. Compensatory signals associated with the activation of human GC 5' splice sites.

    PubMed

    Kralovicova, Jana; Hwang, Gyulin; Asplund, A Charlotta; Churbanov, Alexander; Smith, C I Edvard; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2011-09-01

    GC 5' splice sites (5'ss) are present in ?1% of human introns, but factors promoting their efficient selection are poorly understood. Here, we describe a case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia resulting from a GC 5'ss activated by a mutation in BTK intron 3. This GC 5'ss was intrinsically weak, yet it was selected in >90% primary transcripts in the presence of a strong and intact natural GT counterpart. We show that efficient selection of this GC 5'ss required a high density of GAA/CAA-containing splicing enhancers in the exonized segment and was promoted by SR proteins 9G8, Tra2? and SC35. The GC 5'ss was efficiently inhibited by splice-switching oligonucleotides targeting either the GC 5'ss itself or the enhancer. Comprehensive analysis of natural GC-AG introns and previously reported pathogenic GC 5'ss showed that their efficient activation was facilitated by higher densities of splicing enhancers and lower densities of silencers than their GT 5'ss equivalents. Removal of the GC-AG introns was promoted to a minor extent by the splice-site strength of adjacent exons and inhibited by flanking Alu repeats, with the first downstream Alus located on average at a longer distance from the GC 5'ss than other transposable elements. These results provide new insights into the splicing code that governs selection of noncanonical splice sites. PMID:21609956

  4. Graft harvesting and management of the donor site.

    PubMed

    Buchwach, Kenneth A

    2013-08-01

    The strip technique remains the most popular method of harvesting grafts. The challenge in every patient is to maximize the number of grafts while minimizing the scar. Fortunately, there are many ways to ensure that the donor site will be inconspicuous. This article reviews the details of planning for follicle graft harvesting, including formulae for assessing scalp laxity and calculating strip dimensions. The procedure is discussed in detail, from preparation of the donor site and estimation of graft total through closure of the incision. The author presents his preferences for the technique with rationale and surgical tips. PMID:24017978

  5. SplicingTypesAnno: annotating and quantifying alternative splicing events for RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Zuo, Fenghua; Ru, Yuanbin; Guo, Jiqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Sablok, Gaurav

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing plays a key role in the regulation of the central dogma. Four major types of alternative splicing have been classified as intron retention, exon skipping, alternative 5 splice sites or alternative donor sites, and alternative 3 splice sites or alternative acceptor sites. A few algorithms have been developed to detect splice junctions from RNA-Seq reads. However, there are few tools targeting at the major alternative splicing types at the exon/intron level. This type of analysis may reveal subtle, yet important events of alternative splicing, and thus help gain deeper understanding of the mechanism of alternative splicing. This paper describes a user-friendly R package, extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. SplicingTypesAnno can: (1) provide annotation for major alternative splicing at exon/intron level. By comparing the annotation from GTF/GFF file, it identifies the novel alternative splicing sites; (2) offer a convenient two-level analysis: genome-scale annotation for users with high performance computing environment, and gene-scale annotation for users with personal computers; (3) generate a user-friendly web report and additional BED files for IGV visualization. SplicingTypesAnno is a user-friendly R package for extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types at exon/intron level for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. It is publically available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/splicingtypes/files/ or http://genome.sdau.edu.cn/research/software/SplicingTypesAnno.html. PMID:25720307

  6. Nonsense mutations and altered splice-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, H.C.

    1997-03-01

    The invited editorial by Maquat, regarding defects in RNA splicing and the consequence of shortened translational reading frames, provided a balanced and comprehensive review of the topic. We believe, however, that our work describing the nonsense codon-mediated skipping of fibrillin-1 exon 51 was interpreted in a manner that is not fully supported by our data. 6 refs.

  7. A novel splice site mutation in SMARCAL1 results in aberrant exon definition in a child with schimke immunoosseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Clinton; Hunley, Tracy E; Guo, Yan; Cortez, David

    2015-10-01

    Schimke Immunoosseous Dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of childhood characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and renal failure, T-cell immunodeficiency, and cancer in certain instances. Approximately half of patients with SIOD are reported to have biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1), which encodes a DNA translocase that localizes to sites of DNA replication and repairs damaged replication forks. We present a novel mutation (NM_014140.3:c.2070+2insT) that results in defective SMARCAL1 mRNA splicing in a child with SIOD. This mutation, within the donor site of intron 12, results in the skipping of exon 12, which encodes part of a critical hinge region connecting the two lobes of the ATPase domain. This mutation was not recognized as deleterious by diagnostic SMARCAL1 sequencing, but discovered through next generation sequencing and found to result in absent SMARCAL1 expression in patient-derived lymphoblasts. The splicing defect caused by this mutation supports the concept of exon definition. Furthermore, it illustrates the need to broaden the search for SMARCAL1 mutations in patients with SIOD lacking coding sequence variants. PMID:25943327

  8. SFmap: a web server for motif analysis and prediction of splicing factor binding sites

    E-print Network

    Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    SFmap: a web server for motif analysis and prediction of splicing factor binding sites Inbal Paz1) that bind to sequence elements on the RNA. SFmap is a web server for predicting putative SF binding sites by the user. SFmap results are provided both as a text file and as a graphical web interface. INTRODUCTION

  9. DNA splice site detection: a comparison of specific and general methods.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won; Wilbur, W. John

    2002-01-01

    In an era when whole organism genomes are being routinely sequenced, the problem of gene finding has become a key issue on the road to understanding. For eukaryotic organisms a large part of locating the genes is accomplished by predicting the likely location of splice sites on a DNA strand. This problem of splice site location has been ap- proached using a number of machine learning or statistical methods tailored more or less specifically to the nature of the problem. Recently large margin classifiers and boosting methods have been found to give improvements over more traditional methods in a number of areas. Here we compare large margin classifiers (SVM and CMLS) and boosted decision trees with the three most common models used for splice site detection (WMM, WAM, and MDT). We find that the newer methods compare favorably in all cases and can yield significant improvement in some cases. PMID:12463853

  10. Gene 230 (1999) 101109 Intron splice sites of Papilio glaucus PglRh3 corroborate

    E-print Network

    1999-01-01

    Gene 230 (1999) 101­109 Intron splice sites of Papilio glaucus PglRh3 corroborate insect opsin. The PglRh3 gene has nine exons and eight introns, four of which are in unique locations relative or Rh2. The placement of introns within opsin genes therefore independently supports the clustering

  11. Somatic mosaicism for a newly identified splice-site mutation in a patient with adenosine deaminase-deficient immunodeficiency and spontaneous clinical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, R.; Yang, D.R.; Israni, A.; Huie, M.L. ); Ownby, D.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Absent or severely reduced adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity produces inherited immunodeficiency of varying severity, with defects of both cellular and humoral immunity. The authors report somatic mosaicism as the basis for a delayed presentation and unusual course of a currently healthy young adult receiving no therapy. He was diagnosed at age 2[1/2] years because of life-threatening pneumonia, recurrent infections, failure of normal growth, and lymphopenia, but he retained significant cellular immune function. A fibroblast cell line and a B cell line, established at diagnosis, lacked ADA activity and were heteroallelic for a splice-donor-site mutation in IVS 1 (+1GT[yields]CT) and a missense mutation (Arg101Gln). All clones (17/17) isolated from the B cell mRNA carried the missense mutation, indicating that the allele with the splice-site mutation produced unstable mRNA. In striking contrast, a B cell line established at age 16 years expressed 50% of normal ADA; 50% had the missense mutation. Genomic DNA contained the missense mutation but not the splice-site mutation. All three cell lines were identical for multiple polymorphic markers and the presence of a Y chromosome. In vivo somatic mosaicism was demonstrated in genomic DNA from peripheral blood cells obtained at 16 years of age, in that less than half the DNA carried the splice-site mutation (P<.0.02, vs. original B cell line). Consistent with mosaicism, erythrocyte content of the toxic metabolite deoxyATP was only minimally elevated. Somatic mosaicism could have arisen either by somatic mutation or by reversion at the site of mutation. Selection in vivo for ADA normal hematopoietic cells may have played a role in the return to normal health, in the absence of therapy. 57 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Achieving ideal donor site aesthetics with autologous breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of the donor site following breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps has become an important topic for study. Given the variety of flaps that are derived from the abdomen, decisions are often based on how much muscle and fascia will be harvested. Comparisons between muscle sparing and non-muscle sparing techniques have been performed with outcomes related to function and contour. Closure techniques will vary and include primary fascial closure, mesh reinforcement and additional fascial plication all of which can produce natural and sometimes improved abdominal contours. Proper patient selection however is important. This manuscript will describe various techniques in order to achieve ideal abdominal contour following autologous reconstruction. PMID:26005646

  13. Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition

    E-print Network

    McGuire, Abigail Manson

    Background: Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently ...

  14. Isolated growth hormone deficiency type II caused by a point mutation that alters both splice site strength and splicing enhancer function

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, N; Holladay, CD; Cleary, RK; Phillips, JA; Patton, JG

    2015-01-01

    A heterozygous single base mutation in the human growth hormone (GH) gene (GH-1) was identified in a family presenting with isolated GH deficiency type II (IGHD II). Affected individuals have a guanine to adenine transition at the first nucleotide of exon 3 (E3+1 G?A) that results in exon skipping and production of a dominant-negative 17.5-kDa isoform. We show that the mechanistic basis for exon skipping is due to the unique position of this mutation because it weakens the 3? splice site and simultaneously disrupts a splicing enhancer located within the first seven bases of exon 3. A G?T mutation at this same position not only affects splicing but also results in a premature stop codon for those transcripts that include exon 3. Thus, mutations that alter the first nucleotide of exon 3 illustrate the various mechanisms by which changes in sequence can cause disease: splice site selection, splicing enhancer function, messenger RNA decay, missense mutations, and nonsense mutations. For IGHD II, only exon skipping leads to production of the dominant-negative isoform, with increasing skipping correlating with increasing disease severity. PMID:18554279

  15. Splicing of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA is essential for viral infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss-László, Z; Blanc, S; Hohn, T

    1995-01-01

    A splicing event essential for the infectivity of a plant pararetrovirus has been characterized. Transient expression experiments using reporter constructs revealed a splice donor site in the leader sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S RNA and three additional splice donor sites within open reading frame (ORF) I. All four donors use the same splice acceptor within ORF II. Splicing between the leader and ORF II produces an mRNA from which ORF III and, in the presence of the CaMV translational transactivator, ORF IV can be translated efficiently. The other three splicing events produce RNAs encoding ORF I-II in-frame fusions. All four spliced CaMV RNAs were detected in CaMV-infected plants. Virus mutants in which the splice acceptor site in ORF II is inactivated are not infectious, indicating that splicing plays an essential role in the CaMV life cycle. The results presented here suggest a model for viral gene expression in which RNA splicing is required to provide appropriate substrate mRNAs for the specialized translation mechanisms of CaMV. Images PMID:7628455

  16. Principles of 3 splice site selection and alternative splicing for an unusual group II intron from Bacillus anthracis

    E-print Network

    Zimmerly, Steven

    , California 94550, USA ABSTRACT We investigated the self-splicing properties of two introns from the bacterium of a highly structured RNA and an internally encoded reverse tran- scriptase (RT) open reading frame (ORF). The intron RNA is a ribozyme that provides the catalytic activity for splicing, while the RT, in combination

  17. The Consensus 5' Splice Site Motif Inhibits mRNA Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliza S.; Akef, Abdalla; Mahadevan, Kohila; Palazzo, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNAs are synthesized in the nucleus and then exported to the cytoplasm where they are translated into proteins. We have mapped an element, which when present in the 3’terminal exon or in an unspliced mRNA, inhibits mRNA nuclear export. This element has the same sequence as the consensus 5’splice site motif that is used to define the start of introns. Previously it was shown that when this motif is retained in the mRNA, it causes defects in 3’cleavage and polyadenylation and promotes mRNA decay. Our new data indicates that this motif also inhibits nuclear export and promotes the targeting of transcripts to nuclear speckles, foci within the nucleus which have been linked to splicing. The motif, however, does not disrupt splicing or the recruitment of UAP56 or TAP/Nxf1 to the RNA, which are normally required for nuclear export. Genome wide analysis of human mRNAs, lncRNA and eRNAs indicates that this motif is depleted from naturally intronless mRNAs and eRNAs, but less so in lncRNAs. This motif is also depleted from the beginning and ends of the 3’terminal exons of spliced mRNAs, but less so for lncRNAs. Our data suggests that the presence of the 5’splice site motif in mature RNAs promotes their nuclear retention and may help to distinguish mRNAs from misprocessed transcripts and transcriptional noise. PMID:25826302

  18. Restoration of mRNA splicing by a second-site intragenic suppressor in the T4 ribonucleotide reductase (small subunit) self-splicing intron.

    PubMed

    Khan, A U; Ahmad, M; Lal, S K

    2000-02-16

    The nrdB gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and contains a 598-base self-splicing intron which is closely related to other group I introns of T4 and eukaryotes. Thirty-one mutants causing splicing defects in the nrdB intron were isolated. Twenty-three EMS-induced revertants for these 31 primary mutants were isolated by the strategic usage of the white halo plaque phenotype. We mapped these revertants by marker rescue using subclones of the nrdB gene. Some of these second-site mutations mapped to regions currently predicted by the secondary structure model of the nrdB intron. One of these suppressor mutants (nrdB753R) was found to be intragenic by marker rescue with the whole nrdB gene. However, this mutation failed to map within the nrdB intron. Splicing assays showed that this pseudorevertant restored splicing proficiency of the nrdB primary mutation to almost wild-type conditions. This is the first example of a mutation within the exons of a gene containing a self-splicing intron that is capable of restoring a self-splicing defect caused by a primary mutation within the intron. In addition, two other suppressor mutations are of interest (nrdB429R and nrdB399R). These suppressors were able to restore their primary 5' defect but in turn create a 3' splicing defect. Both of these revertants mapped in different regions of the intron with respect to their primary mutations. PMID:10679208

  19. Transcription-coupled RNA surveillance in human genetic diseases caused by splice site mutations.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Drago, Rita; Pinheiro, Marco T; Martins, Sandra; Enguita, Francisco J; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Custódio, Noélia

    2015-05-15

    Current estimates indicate that approximately one-third of all disease-causing mutations are expected to disrupt splicing. Abnormal splicing often leads to disruption of the reading frame with introduction of a premature termination codon (PTC) that targets the mRNA for degradation in the cytoplasm by nonsense mediated decay (NMD). In addition to NMD there are RNA surveillance mechanisms that act in the nucleus while transcripts are still associated with the chromatin template. However, the significance of nuclear RNA quality control in the context of human genetic diseases is unknown. Here we used patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines as disease models to address how biogenesis of mRNAs is affected by splice site mutations. We observed that most of the mutations analyzed introduce PTCs and trigger mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm. However, for some mutant transcripts, RNA levels associated with chromatin were found down-regulated. Quantification of nascent transcripts further revealed that a subset of genes containing splicing mutations (SM) have reduced transcriptional activity. Following treatment with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide the cytoplasmic levels of mutant RNAs increased, while the levels of chromatin-associated transcripts remained unaltered. These results suggest that transcription-coupled surveillance mechanisms operate independently from NMD to reduce cellular levels of abnormal RNAs caused by SM. PMID:25652404

  20. Bioinformatics in the Thermodynamic Limit: Applications to pre-mRNA Splice Site Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, Eric G.; Aalberts, Daniel P.

    2004-03-01

    In the thermodynamic limit, physical systems exhibit predictable behavior. Traditional bioinformatics methods of matching patterns from a few cases can be superseded by alternate techniques when the number of instances approaches the thermodynamic limit. By enhancing an already large dataset, we find that we can differentiate real signals from decoys with superior accuracy. We apply our framework to the problem of precursor mRNA splice site detection in human sequences.

  1. De novo SCN2A splice site mutation in a boy with Autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SCN2A is a gene that codes for the alpha subunit of voltage-gated, type II sodium channels, and is highly expressed in the brain. Sodium channel disruptions, such as mutations in SCN2A, may play an important role in psychiatric disorders. Recently, de novo SCN2A mutations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. The current study characterizes a de novo splice site mutation in SCN2A that alters mRNA and protein products. Case presentation We describe results from clinical and genetic characterizations of a seven-year-old boy with ASD. Psychiatric interview and gold standard autism diagnostic instruments (ADOS and ADI-R) were used to confirm ASD diagnosis, in addition to performing standardized cognitive and adaptive functioning assessments (Leiter-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale), and sensory reactivity assessments (Sensory Profile and Sensory Processing Scales). Genetic testing by whole exome sequencing revealed four de novo events, including a splice site mutation c.476?+?1G?>?A in SCN2A, a missense mutation (c.2263G?>?A) causing a p.V755I change in the TLE1 gene, and two synonymous mutations (c.2943A?>?G in the BUB1 gene, and c.1254 T?>?A in C10orf68 gene). The de novo SCN2A splice site mutation produced a stop codon 10 amino acids downstream, possibly resulting in a truncated protein and/or a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The participant met new DSM-5 criteria for ASD, presenting with social and communication impairment, repetitive behaviors, and sensory reactivity issues. The participant’s adaptive and cognitive skills fell in the low range of functioning. Conclusion This report indicates that a splice site mutation in SCN2A might be contributing to the risk of ASD. Describing the specific phenotype associated with SCN2A mutations might help to reduce heterogeneity seen in ASD. PMID:24650168

  2. A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in the GJB2 Gene Causing Mild Postlingual Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, Marta; del Castillo, Francisco J.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Francisco J.; Garrido, Gema; Villamar, Manuela; Calderón, Manuela; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel A.; Moreno, Felipe; del Castillo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The DFNB1 subtype of autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic hearing impairment, caused by mutations affecting the GJB2 (connection-26) gene, is highly prevalent in most populations worldwide. DFNB1 hearing impairment is mostly severe or profound and usually appears before the acquisition of speech (prelingual onset), though a small number of hypomorphic missense mutations result in mild or moderate deafness of postlingual onset. We identified a novel GJB2 splice-site mutation, c. -22-2A>C, in three siblings with mild postlingual hearing impairment that were compound heterozygous for c. -22-2A>C and c.35delG. Reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments performed on total RNA extracted from saliva samples from one of these siblings confirmed that c. -22-2A>C abolished the acceptor splice site of the single GJB2 intron, resulting in the absence of normally processed transcripts from this allele. However, we did isolate transcripts from the c. -22-2A>C allele that keep an intact GJB2 coding region and that were generated by use of an alternative acceptor splice site previously unknown. The residual expression of wild-type connection-26 encoded by these transcripts probably underlies the mild severity and late onset of the hearing impairment of these subjects. PMID:24039984

  3. A novel splice-site mutation in the GJB2 gene causing mild postlingual hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Gandía, Marta; Del Castillo, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Francisco J; Garrido, Gema; Villamar, Manuela; Calderón, Manuela; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel A; Moreno, Felipe; del Castillo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The DFNB1 subtype of autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic hearing impairment, caused by mutations affecting the GJB2 (connexin-26) [corrected] gene, is highly prevalent in most populations worldwide. DFNB1 hearing impairment is mostly severe or profound and usually appears before the acquisition of speech (prelingual onset), though a small number of hypomorphic missense mutations result in mild or moderate deafness of postlingual onset. We identified a novel GJB2 splice-site mutation, c. -22-2A>C, in three siblings with mild postlingual hearing impairment that were compound heterozygous for c. -22-2A>C and c.35delG. Reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments performed on total RNA extracted from saliva samples from one of these siblings confirmed that c. -22-2A>C abolished the acceptor splice site of the single GJB2 intron, resulting in the absence of normally processed transcripts from this allele. However, we did isolate transcripts from the c. -22-2A>C allele that keep an intact GJB2 coding region and that were generated by use of an alternative acceptor splice site previously unknown. The residual expression of wild-type connexin-26 [corrected] encoded by these transcripts probably underlies the mild severity and late onset of the hearing impairment of these subjects. PMID:24039984

  4. Mutagenesis of the yeast gene PRP8 reveals domains governing the specificity and fidelity of 3{prime} splice site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Umen, J.G.; Guthrie, C.

    1996-06-01

    PRP8 encodes a highly conserved U5 snRNP protein required for spliceosome assembly and later steps of pre-mRNA splicing. We recently identified a novel allele, prp8-101, that specifically impairs recognition of the uridine tract that precedes most yeast 3{prime} slice sites. We carried out extensive mutagenesis of the gene and selected for new alleles that confer a phenotype similar to that of prp8-101. The strongest alleles cause changes in one of two amino acids in the C-terminal portion of the protein. We also identified a second class of PRP8 mutant that affects the fidelity of 3{prime} splice site utilization. These alleles suppress point mutations in the PyAG motif at the 3{prime} splice site and do not alter uridine tract recognition. The strongest of these alleles map to a region directly upstream of the prp8-101-like mutations. These new PRP8 alleles define two separable functions of Prp8p, required for specificity of 3{prime} splice site selection and fidelity of 3{prime} splice site utilization, respectively. Taken together with other recent biochemical and genetic data, our results suggest that Prp8p plays a functional role at the active site of the spliceosome during the second catalytic step of splicing. 43 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Functional VEGFA knockdown with artificial 3'-tailed mirtrons defined by 5' splice site and branch point.

    PubMed

    Kock, Kian Hong; Kong, Kiat Whye; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi

    2015-07-27

    Mirtrons are introns that form pre-miRNA hairpins after splicing to produce RNA interference (RNAi) effectors distinct from Drosha-dependent intronic miRNAs, and will be especially useful for co-delivery of coding genes and RNAi. A specific family of mirtrons - 3'-tailed mirtrons - has hairpins precisely defined on the 5' end by the 5' splice site and 3' end by the branch point. Here, we present design principles for artificial 3'-tailed mirtrons and demonstrate, for the first time, efficient gene knockdown with tailed mirtrons within eGFP coding region. These artificial tailed mirtrons, unlike canonical mirtrons, have very few sequence design restrictions. Tailed mirtrons targeted against VEGFA mRNA, the misregulation of which is causative of several disorders including cancer, achieved significant levels of gene knockdown. Tailed mirtron-mediated knockdown was further shown to be splicing-dependent, and at least as effective as equivalent artificial intronic miRNAs, with the added advantage of very defined cleavage sites for generation of mature miRNA guide strands. Further development and exploitation of this unique mirtron biogenesis pathway for therapeutic RNAi coupled into protein-expressing genes can potentially enable the development of precisely controlled combinatorial gene therapy. PMID:26089392

  6. Revealing the function of a novel splice-site mutation of CHD7 in CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeonghyeon; Duz, Mehmet Bugrahan; Sagong, Borum; Koparir, Asuman; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Choi, Jae Young; Seven, Mehmet; Yuksel, Adnan; Kim, Un-Kyung; Ozen, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Most cases of CHARGE syndrome are sporadic and autosomal dominant. CHD7 is a major causative gene of CHARGE syndrome. In this study, we screened CHD7 in two Turkish patients demonstrating symptoms of CHARGE syndrome such as coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth, genital abnomalities and ear anomalies. Two mutations of CHD7 were identified including a novel splice-site mutation (c.2443-2A>G) and a previously known frameshift mutation (c.2504_2508delATCTT). We performed exon trapping analysis to determine the effect of the c.2443-2A>G mutation at the transcriptional level, and found that it caused a complete skip of exon 7 and splicing at a cryptic splice acceptor site. Our current study is the second study demonstrating an exon 7 deficit in CHD7. Results of previous studies suggest that the c.2443-2A>G mutation affects the formation of nasal tissues and the neural retina during early development, resulting in choanal atresia and coloboma, respectively. The findings of the present study will improve our understanding of the genetic causes of CHARGE syndrome. PMID:26551301

  7. G Run-mediated Recognition of Proteolipid Protein and DM20 5 Splice Sites by U1 Small Nuclear RNA Is Regulated by

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    G Run-mediated Recognition of Proteolipid Protein and DM20 5 Splice Sites by U1 Small Nuclear RNARNP complexes (8). The recognition of the 5 splice site by the RNA moiety of the U1snRNP, through direct base pairing between the 5 end of the U1snRNA and the 5 splice site of the pre-RNA, commits the pre-RNA

  8. Experimental Tests of Two Proofreading Mechanisms for 5=-Splice Site Selection

    E-print Network

    Silverman, Scott K.

    Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ABSTRACT Self-splicing group II intron RNAs catalyze a two self-splicing pathway catalyzed by group II intron RNAs (1­5) has two reaction steps (Figure 1, panel a that this second proofreading mechanism can occur with a group II intron RNA that is mis- spliced at the 5=-splice

  9. Widespread and subtle: alternative splicing at short-distance tandem sites

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    gene structures is that the typical eukaryotic gene contains introns [1]. In the splicing process together (Box 1). Alterna- tive splicing enables one gene to produce multiple mature transcripts [2], with 75% of the human genes estimated to undergo alternative splicing [3]. Alternative splicing

  10. Using multiple donor sites for enhanced flood estimation in ungauged catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, T. R.; Jones, D. A.; Morris, D. G.

    2014-08-01

    A new generalized method is presented enabling the use of multiple donor sites when predicting an index flood variable in an ungauged catchment using a hydrological regression model. The method is developed from the premise of having an index flood prediction with minimum variance, which results in a set of optimal weights assigned to each donor site. In the model framework presented here, the weights are determined by the geographical distance between the centroids of the catchments draining to the subject site and the donor sites. The new method was applied to a case study in the United Kingdom using annual maximum series of peak flow from 602 catchments. Results show that the prediction error of the index flood is reduced by using donor sites until a minimum of six donors have been included, after which no or marginal improvements in prediction accuracy are observed. A comparison of these results is made with a variant of the method where donor sites are selected based on connectivity with the subject site through the river network. The results show that only a marginal improvement is obtained by explicitly considering the network structure over spatial proximity. The evaluation is carried out based on a new performance measure that accounts for the sampling variability of the index flood estimates at each site. Other results compare the benefits obtained by adding relevant catchment descriptors to a simple regression model with those obtained by transferring information from local donor sites.

  11. Alternative splicing and disease.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Jamal; Bakkour, Nadia; Stamm, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Almost all protein-coding genes are spliced and their majority is alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing is a key element in eukaryotic gene expression that increases the coding capacity of the human genome and an increasing number of examples illustrates that the selection of wrong splice sites causes human disease. A fine-tuned balance of factors regulates splice site selection. Here, we discuss well-studied examples that show how a disturbance of this balance can cause human disease. The rapidly emerging knowledge of splicing regulation now allows the development of treatment options. PMID:18992329

  12. Altered PLP1 splicing causes hypomyelination of early myelinating structures

    PubMed Central

    Kevelam, Sietske H; Taube, Jennifer R; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Bertini, Enrico; Sperle, Karen; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tonduti, Davide; Valente, Enza Maria; Travaglini, Lorena; Sistermans, Erik A; Bernard, Geneviève; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Østergaard, John R; Friederich, Richard L; Fawzi Elsaid, Mahmoud; Schieving, Jolanda H; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Orcesi, Simona; Steenweg, Marjan E; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Abbink, Truus E M; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Hobson, Grace M; Wolf, Nicole I

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic etiology of the X-linked disorder “Hypomyelination of Early Myelinating Structures” (HEMS). Methods We included 16 patients from 10 families diagnosed with HEMS by brain MRI criteria. Exome sequencing was used to search for causal mutations. In silico analysis of effects of the mutations on splicing and RNA folding was performed. In vitro gene splicing was examined in RNA from patients’ fibroblasts and an immortalized immature oligodendrocyte cell line after transfection with mutant minigene splicing constructs. Results All patients had unusual hemizygous mutations of PLP1 located in exon 3B (one deletion, one missense and two silent), which is spliced out in isoform DM20, or in intron 3 (five mutations). The deletion led to truncation of PLP1, but not DM20. Four mutations were predicted to affect PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing by creating exonic splicing silencer motifs or new splice donor sites or by affecting the local RNA structure of the PLP1 splice donor site. Four deep intronic mutations were predicted to destabilize a long-distance interaction structure in the secondary PLP1 RNA fragment involved in regulating PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing. Splicing studies in fibroblasts and transfected cells confirmed a decreased PLP1/DM20 ratio. Interpretation Brain structures that normally myelinate early are poorly myelinated in HEMS, while they are the best myelinated structures in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, also caused by PLP1 alterations. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum of PLP1-related disorders indicating that normal PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing is essential for early myelination and support the need to include intron 3 in diagnostic sequencing. PMID:26125040

  13. Achieving Direct Closure of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap Donor Site—An Algorithmic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pachón Suárez, Jaime Eduardo; Sadigh, Parviz Lionel; Shih, Hsiang-Shun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Minimizing donor-site morbidity after free flap harvest is of paramount importance. In this article, we share our experience with achieving primary closure of 58 anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap donor sites using a simple algorithm in cases where primary closure would otherwise have not been possible. Methods: Between 2004 and 2010, 58 patients who underwent free ALT flap reconstruction were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were those who had flap width requirements that were wider than 16% of the thigh circumference and had achieved direct primary closure of the donor site by the use of our technique. Results: Primary closure of the donor sites was facilitated in all cases by the use of 3 distinct techniques. This included the use of the V-Y advancement technique in 13 patients, split skin paddle technique in 7 patients, and the tubed skin paddle design in 38 patients. No episodes of postoperative wound dehiscence at the donor site were encountered; however, 2 cases were complicated by superficial wound infections that settled with a course of antibiotics. Conclusions: Direct primary closure of the ALT donor site can be facilitated by the use of our simple algorithm. Certain strategies need to be adopted at the design stage; however, the techniques used are simple and reliable, produce superior cosmetic results at the donor site, save time, and spare the patient the morbidity associated with the harvest of a skin graft. PMID:25426349

  14. First report of glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome in Korea with a novel splice site mutation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sat Byul; Lee, Kon-Hee; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Yang, Hong; De Vivo, Darryl C; Kim, Sung Koo

    2012-09-15

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut-1DS) is caused by autosomal dominant haplodeficiency or autosomal recessive with homozygous mutation of the glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene and is characterized by severe seizures, developmental delay, ataxia and acquired microcephaly. We describe the first known Korean patient with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome, who had a novel mutation in the splice site. The patient began having intractable seizures at 4 days of age that initially presented as eye blinking and apnea, evolving into generalized tonic seizures. A lumbar puncture revealed low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the setting of normoglycemia (blood glucose, 106 mg/dl; CSF glucose 21 mg/dl, and CSF to blood glucose ratio 0.20). The results of a 3-O-methylglucose uptake study in erythrocytes (RBC) revealed that glucose uptake reduced to 48% of his parents in the patient. The patient responded to a ketogenic diet that was initiated at 4 months of age and currently is on the modified Atkins diet (MAD) without seizures. He does not require antiepileptic medication. We diagnosed the first Glut-1 patient in Korea with a novel splice site mutation on the basis of clinical features, deficient glucose uptake and a mutation in the SLC2A1 gene. PMID:22814174

  15. Weak Negative and Positive Selection and the Drift Load at Splice Sites

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Stepan V.; Bazykin, Georgii A.; Sutormin, Roman; Favorov, Alexander V.; Mironov, Andrey A.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.

    2014-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs) are short sequences that are crucial for proper mRNA splicing in eukaryotic cells, and therefore can be expected to be shaped by strong selection. Nevertheless, in mammals and in other intron-rich organisms, many of the SSs often involve nonconsensus (Nc), rather than consensus (Cn), nucleotides, and beyond the two critical nucleotides, the SSs are not perfectly conserved between species. Here, we compare the SS sequences between primates, and between Drosophila fruit flies, to reveal the pattern of selection acting at SSs. Cn-to-Nc substitutions are less frequent, and Nc-to-Cn substitutions are more frequent, than neutrally expected, indicating, respectively, negative and positive selection. This selection is relatively weak (1 < |4Nes| < 4), and has a similar efficiency in primates and in Drosophila. Within some nucleotide positions, the positive selection in favor of Nc-to-Cn substitutions is weaker than the negative selection maintaining already established Cn nucleotides; this difference is due to site-specific negative selection favoring current Nc nucleotides. In general, however, the strength of negative selection protecting the Cn alleles is similar in magnitude to the strength of positive selection favoring replacement of Nc alleles, as expected under the simple nearly neutral turnover. In summary, although a fraction of the Nc nucleotides within SSs is maintained by selection, the abundance of deleterious nucleotides in this class suggests a substantial genome-wide drift load. PMID:24966225

  16. Germinal HPRT splice donor site mutation results in multiple RNA splicing products in T-lymphocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, T.C.; Albertini, R.J.; O`Neill, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by birth defects, progressive bone marrow failure and increased risk for leukemia. FA cells display chromosome breakage and increased cell killing in response to DNA crosslinking agents. At least 5 genes have been defined by cell complementation studies, but only one of these, FAC has been cloned to date. Efforts to map and isolate new FA genes by functional complementation have been hampered by the lack of immortalized FA fibroblast cell lines. Here we report the use of a novel immortalization strategy to create 4 new immortalized FA fibroblast lines, including one from the rare complementation group D. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2 and E6 are RNA-binding proteins and inhibit in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs with suboptimal splice sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghi, Sohrab; Jia Rong; Zheng Zhiming

    2009-03-30

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome expresses six regulatory proteins (E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7) which regulate viral DNA replication, gene expression, and cell function. We expressed HPV16 E2, E4, E6, and E7 from bacteria as GST fusion proteins and examined their possible functions in RNA splicing. Both HPV16 E2, a viral transactivator protein, and E6, a viral oncoprotein, inhibited splicing of pre-mRNAs containing an intron with suboptimal splice sites, whereas HPV5 E2 did not. The N-terminal half and the hinge region of HPV16 E2 as well as the N-terminal and central portions of HPV16 E6 are responsible for the suppression. HPV16 E2 interacts with pre-mRNAs through its C-terminal DNA-binding domain. HPV16 E6 binds pre-mRNAs via nuclear localization signal (NLS3) in its C-terminal half. Low-risk HPV6 E6, a cytoplasmic protein, does not bind RNA. Notably, both HPV16 E2 and E6 selectively bind to the intron region of pre-mRNAs and interact with a subset of cellular SR proteins. Together, these findings suggest that HPV16 E2 and E6 are RNA binding proteins and might play roles in posttranscriptional regulation during virus infection.

  18. Stabilizing Morbidity and Predicting the Aesthetic Results of Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Sites

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tae Kyoung; Ahn, Duck Sun; Park, Seung Ha; Lee, Byung Il; Kim, Hyon Surk; You, Hi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background The radial forearm flap is a versatile, widely used flap. However, the possibility of donor site complications has led to concern over its use. Some surgeons prefer using other flaps whose donor sites can be closed primarily with less morbidity, including avoiding unpleasant scarring. However, in our experience, donor site stability of the radial forearm flap can be reliably achieved by using well-implemented specific procedures. Here, we present a collection of donor site cases of the radial forearm flap and investigate factors that affect the aesthetic results as the basis for a reference for selecting a radial forearm flap. Methods In this retrospective study, we reviewed 171 cases in which a radial forearm flap was used for free tissue transfer after resecting head and neck cancer. We focused on donor site morbidity rates. Each operation involved a detailed procedure designed to minimize donor site morbidity. Moreover, statistical investigations were conducted for 22 cases to determine factors affecting the scar appearance. Results Only one case developed total skin graft necrosis as a major complication. Scar-related aesthetic results were acceptable, and the body-mass index, body weight, diabetes, and cardiac problems were significant factors related to the appearance of scars. Conclusions Performing the radial forearm flap using a well-implemented detailed technique helps achieve acceptable donor site morbidity results. The aesthetic results were more promising for patients without excess body weight, diabetes, or cardiac problems. Therefore, anxiety about donor site morbidity should not be a reason to avoid selecting the radial forearm flap in suitable patients. PMID:26618126

  19. Changes in Surgical Site Infections after Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Takakura, Shunji; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu; Hotta, Go; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Matsushima, Aki; Nagao, Miki; Ogawa, Kohei; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Mori, Akira; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a major threat for liver transplant recipients. We prospectively studied SSIs after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2001 to March 2002 (1st period) and from January 2011 to June 2012 (2nd period). We investigated the epidemiology of SSIs after LDLT and determined the differences between the two periods. A total of 129 adult recipients (66 during the 1st period and 63 during the 2nd period) and 72 pediatric recipients (39 and 33) were included in this study. The SSI rates for each period were 30.3% (1st period) and 41.3% (2nd period) among the adult recipients and 25.6% and 30.3% among the pediatric recipients. The overall rates of 30-day mortality among adult transplant recipients with SSIs were 10.0% (1st period) and 3.9% (2nd period). No pediatric recipient died from SSIs after LDLT in either period. The incidence of Enterococcus faecium increased from 5.0% to 26.9% in the adults and from 10.0% to 40.0% in the pediatric patients. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were emerging important isolates during the 2nd period. For this period, a univariate analysis showed that ABO incompatibility (P = 0.02), total operation duration (P = 0.01), graft-to-recipient body weight ratio (GRWR [P = 0.04]), and Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction (P<0.01) in the adults and age (P = 0.01) and NHSN risk index (P = 0.02) in the children were associated with SSI development. In a multivariate analysis, lower GRWR (P = 0.02) and Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction (P<0.01) in the adults and older age (P = 0.01) in the children were independent risk factors for SSIs during the 2nd period. In conclusion, SSIs caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria may become a major concern. Lower GRWR and Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction among adult LDLT recipients and older age among pediatric LDLT recipients increased the risk of developing SSIs after LDLT. PMID:26322891

  20. A novel 3' splice site recognition by the two zinc fingers in the U2AF small subunit.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hisashi; Park, Sam-Yong; Oda, Takashi; Akiyoshi, Taeko; Sato, Mamoru; Shirouzu, Mikako; Tsuda, Kengo; Kuwasako, Kanako; Unzai, Satoru; Muto, Yutaka; Urano, Takeshi; Obayashi, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    The pre-mRNA splicing reaction of eukaryotic cells has to be carried out extremely accurately, as failure to recognize the splice sites correctly causes serious disease. The small subunit of the U2AF heterodimer is essential for the determination of 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing, and several single-residue mutations of the U2AF small subunit cause severe disorders such as myelodysplastic syndromes. However, the mechanism of RNA recognition is poorly understood. Here we solved the crystal structure of the U2AF small subunit (U2AF23) from fission yeast, consisting of an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain flanked by two conserved CCCH-type zinc fingers (ZFs). The two ZFs are positioned side by side on the ? sheet of the RRM domain. Further mutational analysis revealed that the ZFs bind cooperatively to the target RNA sequence, but the RRM domain acts simply as a scaffold to organize the ZFs and does not itself contact the RNA directly. This completely novel and unexpected mode of RNA-binding mechanism by the U2AF small subunit sheds light on splicing errors caused by mutations of this highly conserved protein. PMID:26215567

  1. A Crouzon syndrome synonymous mutation activates a 5{prime} splice site within the IIIC exon of the FGFR2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gatto, F.D.; Breathnach, R.

    1995-06-10

    Crouzon syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition causing premature fusion of cranial structures, appears to be caused by mutations in the FGFR2 gene. Several mutations have been identified in the IIIc or bek exon that alter the amino acid sequence of the receptor in a zone known to be involved in ligand binding. In addition, a synonymous G to A transition has been described in three familial Crouzon syndrome cases (mutation at the third position of the alanine 344 codon). It has been suggested that this mutation may activate a cryptic 5{prime} or 3{prime} splice site. The significance of this latter mutation in Crouzon syndrome will be established only when it is known whether it does in fact affect splicing. If it does, prediction of the structure of the mutated receptor requires us to know whether a cryptic 5{prime} or a cryptic 3{prime} splice site has been activated. Ideally, splicing of the pre-mRNA would be studied in the cell type in which the mutated receptor is supposed to exert its effect. However, in our case this information is not available. An alternative strategy is to study splicing in cultured cells using cloned genes. The validity of this approach has been established in other disease systems, for example, thalassemias. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  2. An exon splice enhancer primes IGF2:IGF2R binding site structure and function evolution

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Rezgui, Dellel; Strickland, Madeleine; Forbes, Briony E.; Grutzner, Frank; Frago, Susana; Ellis, Rosamund Z.; Wattana-Amorn, Pakorn; Prince, Stuart N.; Zaccheo, Oliver J.; Nolan, Catherine M.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Crump, Matthew P.; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2015-01-01

    Placental development and imprinting co-evolved with parental conflict over resource distribution to mammalian offspring. The imprinted genes, IGF2 and IGF2R, code for the growth promoter insulin-like growth factor 2 and its binding inhibitor, mannose 6-phosphate/IGF2 receptor, respectively. M6P/IGF2R of birds and fish do not recognize IGF2. In monotremes that lack imprinting, IGF2 specifically bound M6P/IGF2R via a hydrophobic CD loop. We show that the DNA coding the CD loop in monotremes functions as an exon splice enhancer (ESE) and that structural evolution of binding site loops (AB, HI, FG) improved therian IGF2 affinity. We propose that evolution of this ESE led to the fortuitous acquisition of M6P/IGF2R IGF2 binding that drew IGF2R into parental conflict prior to imprinting, that may have accelerated subsequent affinity maturation. PMID:23197533

  3. A Novel SLC27A4 Splice Acceptor Site Mutation in Great Danes with Ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Wöhlke, Anne; Mischke, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Annalena; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Küch, Eva-Maria; Naim, Hassan Y; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a group of various different types of hereditary disorders affecting skin cornification. They are characterized by hyperkeratoses of different severity levels and are associated with a dry and scaling skin. Genome-wide association analysis of nine affected and 13 unaffected Great Danes revealed a genome-wide significant peak on chromosome 9 at 57-58 Mb in the region of SLC27A4. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA of SLC27A4 revealed the non-synonymous SNV SLC27A4:g.8684G>A in perfect association with ichthyosis-affection in Great Danes. The mutant transcript of SLC27A4 showed an in-frame loss of 54 base pairs in exon 8 probably induced by a new splice acceptor site motif created by the mutated A- allele of the SNV. Genotyping 413 controls from 35 different breeds of dogs and seven wolves revealed that this mutation could not be found in other populations except in Great Danes. Affected dogs revealed high amounts of mutant transcript but only low levels of the wild type transcript. Targeted analyses of SLC27A4 protein from skin tissues of three affected and two unaffected Great Danes indicated a markedly reduced or not detectable wild type and truncated protein levels in affected dogs but a high expression of wild type SLC27A4 protein in unaffected controls. Our data provide evidence of a new splice acceptor site creating SNV that results in a reduction or loss of intact SLC27A4 protein and probably explains the severe skin phenotype in Great Danes. Genetic testing will allow selective breeding to prevent ichthyosis-affected puppies in the future. PMID:26506231

  4. A Novel SLC27A4 Splice Acceptor Site Mutation in Great Danes with Ichthyosis

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Wöhlke, Anne; Mischke, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Annalena; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Küch, Eva-Maria; Naim, Hassan Y.; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a group of various different types of hereditary disorders affecting skin cornification. They are characterized by hyperkeratoses of different severity levels and are associated with a dry and scaling skin. Genome-wide association analysis of nine affected and 13 unaffected Great Danes revealed a genome-wide significant peak on chromosome 9 at 57–58 Mb in the region of SLC27A4. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA of SLC27A4 revealed the non-synonymous SNV SLC27A4:g.8684G>A in perfect association with ichthyosis-affection in Great Danes. The mutant transcript of SLC27A4 showed an in-frame loss of 54 base pairs in exon 8 probably induced by a new splice acceptor site motif created by the mutated A- allele of the SNV. Genotyping 413 controls from 35 different breeds of dogs and seven wolves revealed that this mutation could not be found in other populations except in Great Danes. Affected dogs revealed high amounts of mutant transcript but only low levels of the wild type transcript. Targeted analyses of SLC27A4 protein from skin tissues of three affected and two unaffected Great Danes indicated a markedly reduced or not detectable wild type and truncated protein levels in affected dogs but a high expression of wild type SLC27A4 protein in unaffected controls. Our data provide evidence of a new splice acceptor site creating SNV that results in a reduction or loss of intact SLC27A4 protein and probably explains the severe skin phenotype in Great Danes. Genetic testing will allow selective breeding to prevent ichthyosis-affected puppies in the future. PMID:26506231

  5. The U1 snRNP-associated factor Luc7p affects 5' splice site selection in yeast and human.

    PubMed

    Puig, Oscar; Bragado-Nilsson, Elisabeth; Koski, Terhi; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    yLuc7p is an essential subunit of the yeast U1 snRNP and contains two putative zinc fingers. Using RNA-protein cross-linking and directed site-specific proteolysis (DSSP), we have established that the N-terminal zinc finger of yLuc7p contacts the pre-mRNA in the 5' exon in a region close to the cap. Modifying the pre-mRNA sequence in the region contacted by yLuc7p affects splicing in a yLuc7p-dependent manner indicating that yLuc7p stabilizes U1 snRNP-pre-mRNA interaction, thus reminding of the mode of action of another U1 snRNP component, Nam8p. Database searches identified three putative human yLuc7p homologs (hLuc7A, hLuc7B1 and hLuc7B2). These proteins have an extended C-terminal tail rich in RS and RE residues, a feature characteristic of splicing factors. Consistent with a role in pre-mRNA splicing, hLuc7A localizes in the nucleus and antibodies raised against hLuc7A specifically co-precipitate U1 snRNA from human cell extracts. Interestingly, hLuc7A overexpression affects splicing of a reporter in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that the formation of a wide network of protein-RNA interactions around the 5' splice site by U1 snRNP-associated factors contributes to alternative splicing regulation. PMID:17726058

  6. Alteration of splice site selection in the LMNA gene and inhibition of progerin production via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2014-11-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype and an average life span of 13years. Patients typically exhibit extensive pathophysiological vascular alterations, eventually resulting in death from stroke or myocardial infarction. A silent point mutation at position 1824 (C1824T) of the LMNA gene, generating a truncated form of lamin A (progerin), has been shown to be the cause of most cases of HGPS. Interestingly, this mutation induces the use of an internal 5' cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the LMNA pre-mRNA, leading to the generation of progerin via aberrant alternative splicing. The serine-arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1 or ASF/SF2) has been shown to function as an oncoprotein and is upregulated in many cancers and other age-related disorders. Indeed, SRSF1 inhibition results in a splicing ratio in the LMNA pre-mRNA favoring lamin A production over that of progerin. It is our hypothesis that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular metabolism, may lead to a reduction in SRSF1 and thus a decrease in the use of the LMNA 5' cryptic splice site in exon 11 through upregulation of p32, a splicing factor-associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone that has been shown to inhibit SRSF1 and enhance mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and oxidative phosphorylation. AMPK activation by currently available compounds such as metformin, resveratrol, and berberine may thus have wide-ranging implications for disorders associated with increased production and accumulation of progerin. PMID:25216752

  7. Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery. PMID:23474544

  8. Splice-site mutations identified in PDE6A responsible for retinitis pigmentosa in consanguineous Pakistani families

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahid Y.; Ali, Shahbaz; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Shaheen N.; Husnain, Tayyab; Butt, Nadeem H.; Qazi, Zaheeruddin A.; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ayyagari, Radha; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to localize and identify causal mutations associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in consanguineous familial cases of Pakistani origin. Methods Ophthalmic examinations that included funduscopy and electroretinography (ERG) were performed to confirm the affectation status. Blood samples were collected from all participating individuals, and genomic DNA was extracted. A genome-wide scan was performed, and two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify the causative variants. Subsequently, we performed whole exome sequencing to rule out the possibility of a second causal variant within the linkage interval. Sequence conservation was performed with alignment analyses of PDE6A orthologs, and in silico splicing analysis was completed with Human Splicing Finder version 2.4.1. Results A large multigenerational consanguineous family diagnosed with early-onset RP was ascertained. An ophthalmic clinical examination consisting of fundus photography and electroretinography confirmed the diagnosis of RP. A genome-wide scan was performed, and suggestive two-point LOD scores were observed with markers on chromosome 5q. Haplotype analyses identified the region; however, the region did not segregate with the disease phenotype in the family. Subsequently, we performed a second genome-wide scan that excluded the entire genome except the chromosome 5q region harboring PDE6A. Next-generation whole exome sequencing identified a splice acceptor site mutation in intron 16: c.2028–1G>A, which was completely conserved in PDE6A orthologs and was absent in ethnically matched 350 control chromosomes, the 1000 Genomes database, and the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project. Subsequently, we investigated our entire cohort of RP familial cases and identified a second family who harbored a splice acceptor site mutation in intron 10: c.1408–2A>G. In silico analysis suggested that these mutations will result in the elimination of wild-type splice acceptor sites that would result in either skipping of the respective exon or the creation of a new cryptic splice acceptor site; both possibilities would result in retinal photoreceptor cells that lack PDE6A wild-type protein. Conclusions we report two splice acceptor site variations in PDE6A in consanguineous Pakistani families who manifested cardinal symptoms of RP. Taken together with our previously published work, our data suggest that mutations in PDE6A account for about 2% of the total genetic load of RP in our cohort and possibly in the Pakistani population as well. PMID:26321862

  9. A Splice Site Mutation in Laminin-?2 Results in a Severe Muscular Dystrophy and Growth Abnormalities in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vandana A.; Kawahara, Genri; Myers, Jennifer A.; Chen, Aye T.; Hall, Thomas E.; Manzini, M. Chiara; Currie, Peter D.; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. In patients, muscle weakness is usually present at or shortly after birth and is progressive in nature. Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) is a form of CMD caused by a defect in the laminin-?2 gene (LAMA2). Laminin-?2 is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with the dystrophin-dystroglycan (DGC) complex in membranes providing stability to muscle fibers. In an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen to develop zebrafish models of neuromuscular diseases, we identified a mutant fish that exhibits severe muscular dystrophy early in development. Genetic mapping identified a splice site mutation in the lama2 gene. This splice site is highly conserved in humans and this mutation results in mis-splicing of RNA and a loss of protein function. Homozygous lama2 mutant zebrafish, designated lama2cl501/cl501, exhibited reduced motor function and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and died at 8–15 days post fertilization. The skeletal muscles exhibited damaged myosepta and detachment of myofibers in the affected fish. Laminin-?2 deficiency also resulted in growth defects in the brain and eye of the mutant fish. This laminin-?2 deficient mutant fish represents a novel disease model to develop therapies for modulating splicing defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and to restore the muscle function in human patients with CMD. PMID:22952766

  10. The Choice of Alternative 5' Splice Sites in Influenza Virus M1 mRNA is Regulated by the Viral Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Shin-Ru; Nemeroff, Martin E.; Krug, Robert M.

    1995-07-01

    The influenza virus M1 mRNA has two alternative 5' splice sites: a distal 5' splice site producing mRNA_3 that has the coding potential for 9 amino acids and a proximal 5' splice site producing M2 mRNA encoding the essential M2 ion-channel protein. Only mRNA_3 was made in uninfected cells transfected with DNA expressing M1 mRNA. Similarly, using nuclear extracts from uninfected cells, in vitro splicing of M1 mRNA yielded only mRNA_3. Only when the mRNA_3 5' splice site was inactivated by mutation was M2 mRNA made in uninfected cells and in uninfected cell extracts. In influenza virus-infected cells, M2 mRNA was made, but only after a delay, suggesting that newly synthesized viral gene product(s) were needed to activate the M2 5' splice site. We present strong evidence that these gene products are the complex of the three polymerase proteins, the same complex that functions in the transcription and replication of the viral genome. Gel shift experiments showed that the viral polymerase complex bound to the 5' end of the viral M1 mRNA in a sequence-specific and cap-dependent manner. During in vitro splicing catalyzed by uninfected cell extracts, the binding of the viral polymerase complex blocked the mRNA_3 5' splice site, resulting in the switch to the M2 mRNA 5' splice site and the production of M2 mRNA.

  11. Comparative Clinical Study of Bactigras and Telfa AMD for Skin Graft Donor-Site Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Muangman, Pornprom; Nitimonton, Sooksan; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2011-01-01

    The Bactigras® paraffin tulle coated with chlorhexidine is normally used for the treatment of donor-site wounds in burn patients who received split-thickness skin grafts in several centers. It has some disadvantages, such as adhesion to wound surfaces and pain from the irritation caused by this dressing. The Telfa AMD®, a non-adherent wound dressing which consists of absorbent cotton fibers impregnated with polyhexamethylene biguanide enclosed in a sleeve of thermoplastic polymers, is a new option for donor-site wound care which causes less adherence to the wound. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical efficacy of these two dressings for the management of donor-site wounds. Thirty-two patients who received split-thickness skin grafts by donor site harvesting from the thigh were enrolled in this study and randomized into two groups receiving either the Bactigras® or the Telfa AMD® wound treatment. Re-epithelialization, pain, infection and cost-effectiveness analyses were compared between both groups. The results showed that there was no significant difference in age, area of donor sites or length of hospital stays between the groups (p > 0.05). However, the day of re-epithelialization (?90%) was significantly shorter in patients treated with the Telfa AMD® compared to the Bactigras® group (14.00 ± 3.05 vs. 9.25 ± 1.88 days for Bactigras® and Telfa AMD® groups, respectively, p < 0.001). The average pain score was also significantly lower in the Telfa AMD® group (1.57 ± 0.55 vs. 4.70 ± 1.16, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the cost of treatment between the groups (4.64 ± 1.97 vs. 5.72 ± 2.54 USD, p = 0.19). This study indicated that the Telfa AMD® was an effective dressing for the treatment of donor-site wounds. PMID:21954342

  12. An Additional Option for Split-Thickness Skin Graft Donors: The Previous Free Flap Sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Choi, Seung Hyup; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Free flap reconstruction is the best choice for soft-tissue defect. However, there are often accompanying problems such as partial flap loss, donor-site skin problems, and loss of previous skin grafts surrounding the flap site. This is especially true when dealing with multiple trauma, complex defects, and large skin flaps. Because of the simplicity of the procedure involved, split-thickness skin grafts are usually used for reconstructing skin and soft-tissue defects. These are also a good choice when there is a need for further procedures because of defects from several potential causes. Pain and the loss of healthy donor tissue are major concerns in such operations. Hence, we thought that the previous skin flap area might be a good alternative area for split-thickness skin grafts accompanying procedures subsequent to free flap reconstruction. Because this donor area is no longer sensitive, local anesthesia can be used during harvesting, and there is no loss of healthy donor tissue. Therefore, this procedure is an economical means of obtaining tissue for soft-tissue reconstruction. We describe 9 examples of flap reconstruction done in this way and suggest that this is a useful option for donor site. PMID:24691323

  13. An empirical study of ensemble-based semi-supervised learning approaches for imbalanced splice site datasets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent biochemical advances have led to inexpensive, time-efficient production of massive volumes of raw genomic data. Traditional machine learning approaches to genome annotation typically rely on large amounts of labeled data. The process of labeling data can be expensive, as it requires domain knowledge and expert involvement. Semi-supervised learning approaches that can make use of unlabeled data, in addition to small amounts of labeled data, can help reduce the costs associated with labeling. In this context, we focus on the problem of predicting splice sites in a genome using semi-supervised learning approaches. This is a challenging problem, due to the highly imbalanced distribution of the data, i.e., small number of splice sites as compared to the number of non-splice sites. To address this challenge, we propose to use ensembles of semi-supervised classifiers, specifically self-training and co-training classifiers. Results Our experiments on five highly imbalanced splice site datasets, with positive to negative ratios of 1-to-99, showed that the ensemble-based semi-supervised approaches represent a good choice, even when the amount of labeled data consists of less than 1% of all training data. In particular, we found that ensembles of co-training and self-training classifiers that dynamically balance the set of labeled instances during the semi-supervised iterations show improvements over the corresponding supervised ensemble baselines. Conclusions In the presence of limited amounts of labeled data, ensemble-based semi-supervised approaches can successfully leverage the unlabeled data to enhance supervised ensembles learned from highly imbalanced data distributions. Given that such distributions are common for many biological sequence classification problems, our work can be seen as a stepping stone towards more sophisticated ensemble-based approaches to biological sequence annotation in a semi-supervised framework. PMID:26356316

  14. Necrosis of the donor site after hair restoration with follicular unit extraction (FUE): a case report.

    PubMed

    Karaçal, Naci; Uralo?lu, Muhammet; Dindar, Tuba; Livao?lu, Murat

    2012-04-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) has been developed as one type of follicular unit transplantation surgery, a widely accepted hair-restoration technique. FUE has many advantages, including a small donor area scar, less pain and a slender graft without extra surrounding tissue. Complications are uncommon in the literature. We describe a case of donor-site necrosis after hair restoration with FUE, leading to cicatricial alopecia in the left half of the occipital region. The surgical management of this complication is also discussed. Cicatricial alopecia was treated by two-stage surgery with tissue expanders. There were no complications in the postoperative period and healing was uneventful. We conclude that although FUE has many advantages, necrosis of the donor site may be a serious problem. PMID:21768010

  15. An exon splice enhancer primes IGF2:IGF2R binding site structure and function evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Rezgui, Dellel; Strickland, Madeleine; Forbes, Briony E; Grutzner, Frank; Frago, Susana; Ellis, Rosamund Z; Wattana-Amorn, Pakorn; Prince, Stuart N; Zaccheo, Oliver J; Nolan, Catherine M; Mungall, Andrew J; Jones, E Yvonne; Crump, Matthew P; Hassan, A Bassim

    2012-11-30

    Placental development and genomic imprinting coevolved with parental conflict over resource distribution to mammalian offspring. The imprinted genes IGF2 and IGF2R code for the growth promoter insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and its inhibitor, mannose 6-phosphate (M6P)/IGF2 receptor (IGF2R), respectively. M6P/IGF2R of birds and fish do not recognize IGF2. In monotremes, which lack imprinting, IGF2 specifically bound M6P/IGF2R via a hydrophobic CD loop. We show that the DNA coding the CD loop in monotremes functions as an exon splice enhancer (ESE) and that structural evolution of binding site loops (AB, HI, FG) improved therian IGF2 affinity. We propose that ESE evolution led to the fortuitous acquisition of IGF2 binding by M6P/IGF2R that drew IGF2R into parental conflict; subsequent imprinting may then have accelerated affinity maturation. PMID:23197533

  16. A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in ALS2 Establishes the Diagnosis of Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a Family with Early Onset Anarthria and Generalized Dystonias

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Anthony; Azim, Saad; Silver, David L.; Mansoor, Atika; Tay, Stacey Kiat Hong; Abbasi, Sumiya; Hashmi, Asraf Hussain; Janjua, Jamal; Khalid, Sumbal; Tai, E. Shyong; Yeo, Gene W.; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of childhood neurological disorders remains challenging given the overlapping clinical presentation across subgroups and heterogeneous presentation within subgroups. To determine the underlying genetic cause of a severe neurological disorder in a large consanguineous Pakistani family presenting with severe scoliosis, anarthria and progressive neuromuscular degeneration, we performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping accompanied by whole-exome sequencing in two affected first cousins and their unaffected parents to find the causative mutation. We identified a novel homozygous splice-site mutation (c.3512+1G>A) in the ALS2 gene (NM_020919.3) encoding alsin that segregated with the disease in this family. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in ALS2 are known to cause juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), one of the many neurological conditions having overlapping symptoms with many neurological phenotypes. RT-PCR validation revealed that the mutation resulted in exon-skipping as well as the use of an alternative donor splice, both of which are predicted to cause loss-of-function of the resulting proteins. By examining 216 known neurological disease genes in our exome sequencing data, we also identified 9 other rare nonsynonymous mutations in these genes, some of which lie in highly conserved regions. Sequencing of a single proband might have led to mis-identification of some of these as the causative variant. Our findings established a firm diagnosis of juvenile ALS in this family, thus demonstrating the use of whole exome sequencing combined with linkage analysis in families as a powerful tool for establishing a quick and precise genetic diagnosis of complex neurological phenotypes. PMID:25474699

  17. A Novel ERCC6 Splicing Variant Associated with a Mild Cockayne Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Jonathan M; Akinci, Aysehan; Andrew, Shayne F.; Si?irci, Ahmet; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Dauber, Andrew; Hwa, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive, heterogeneous syndrome with classic features, including short stature, microcephaly, developmental delay, neuropathy, and photosensitivity. New genomic approaches offer improved molecular diagnostic potential. Methods Whole-exome sequencing was employed to study a consanguineous extended family with severe short stature and variable presentations of peripheral neuropathy, lipoatrophy, photosensitivity, webbed neck, and hirsutism. Results We identified a novel homozygous ERCC6 variant at the donor splice site of intron 9 (c.1992+3A>G), which was predicted to only slightly perturb splicing efficiencies. Assessment of primary fibroblast-derived mRNAs, however, revealed a dominant splicing species that utilized an unsuspected putative donor splice site within exon 9, resulting in predicted early protein termination (p.Arg637Serfs*34). Conclusions We describe a new splicing ERCC6 defect causal of Cockayne syndrome. The application of exome sequence analysis was integral to diagnosis, given the complexity of phenotypic presentation in affected family members. The novel splicing defect, furthermore, illustrates how a seemingly minor change in the relative strength of a splice site can have significant biological consequences. PMID:25376329

  18. Comparison of Three Different Methods of Dressing for Partial Thickness Skin Graft Donor Site

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Moosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi; Yavari, Masoud; Hallaj Mofrad, Hamid Reza; Fadaei, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Split- thickness skin graft is one of the most common operations in plastic surgery. It is always painful and patient discomfort from donor site often is more significant than recipient site. There is not still a standard method for treatment of the donor site. The purpose of this study was to determine the best method of dressing the donor site among three different methods with respect to the rate of healing, pain, secretion, infection and cost. METHODS The study includes 60 patients that were randomly divided into three groups. Donor site and thickness of the graft was the same and were dressed with one of the methods including Method A: Paraffin fine mesh gauze, Method B: Nitrofurazone soaked fine mesh gauze and Method C: Dry fine mesh gauze. Each method included an intermediate layer of sterile plastic sheet witch was covered with 10 layers of dry gauze. Comparison with respect to the rate of healing, pain, secretion, infection and cost was done. RESULTS Thirty seven patients were men and 23 were women. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years. There was a significant difference between three methods in average time of repair and superiority of dressing with Method B was noted. Pain severity was the least in Method B and difference between the methods was significant. Dressing with Method B had the least secretion and there was a statistically significant difference between three methods. There was no statistically significant difference in cost of the management. CONCLUSION This study showed that dressing the donor site with nitrofurazone ointment soaked gauze used as the first layer of dressing and intermediate layer of sterile plastic sheet which was covered with 10 layers of dry gauze was the best method of dressing and had the least complications. PMID:25489501

  19. Reduction of Donor Site Morbidity of Free Radial Forearm Flaps: What Level of Evidence Is Available?

    PubMed Central

    Loeffelbein, Denys J.; Al-Benna, Sammy; Steinsträßer, Lars; Satanovskij, Robin M.; Rohleder, Nils H.; Mücke, Thomas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is the most commonly used free flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. However, despite excellent results with respect to the site of reconstruction, donor site morbidity cannot be neglected. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and analyzes the level of evidence with regard to perioperative management of the reduction of RFFF donor site morbidity. Methods: The medical Internet source PubMed was screened for relevant articles. All relevant articles were tabulated according to the levels of scientific evidence, and the available methods for reduction of donor site morbidity are discussed. Results: Classification into levels of evidence reveals 3 publications (1.5%) with level I (randomized controlled trials), 29 (14.0%) with level II (experimental studies with no randomization, cohort studies, or outcome research), 3 (1.5%) with level III (systematic review of case-control studies or individual case-control studies), 121 (58.7%) with level IV (nonexperimental studies, such as cross-sectional trials, case series, case reports), and 15 (7.3%) with level V (narrative review or expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal). Thirty-five (17.0%) articles could not be classified, because they focused on a topic other than donor site morbidity of the RFFF. Conclusions: Although great interest has been expressed with regard to reducing the donor site morbidity of the workhorse flap in microvascular reconstruction procedures, most publications fail to provide the hard facts and solid evidence characteristic of high-quality research. PMID:22331991

  20. Donor-Site Morbidity Following Minimally Invasive Costal Cartilage Harvest Technique

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyung Chae; Jo, Si Young; Jang, Chul Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Autologous costal cartilage is a promising alternative for mastoid obliteration. However, donor-site morbidities of the chest wall limit the use of this graft. To address this issue, we have developed a minimally-invasive technique of harvesting costal cartilage and report donor site morbidity associated with the procedure. Methods Donor site morbidities were evaluated for 151 patients who underwent costal cartilage harvest, canal wall down mastoidectomy, and mastoid obliteration. Pain and cosmetic concern were evaluated via visual analogue scale (VAS). Scars were evaluated via the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). Postoperative complications were assessed during the follow-up period. Results The mean duration of noticeable pain was 5.3 days post operation. The mean VAS score for pain was 3.0 of 10 on the first day after the operation and gradually declined. At the 6 months post operation, the mean VAS cosmetic score at the costal cartilage harvest site was 0.6 of 10. The mean VSS score was 9.5 out of 10 total, and the mean POSAS score was 23.27 out of 110 total. Conclusion The minimally-invasive chopped costal cartilage harvest technique resulted in acceptable pain, cosmetic concern, and postoperative complications for most patients. There were no major postoperative complications. Costal cartilage is an acceptable donor for mastoid obliteration in canal wall down mastoidectomy, especially in the context of the extremely low donor site morbidity of the minimally-invasive technique presented in the study. PMID:25729490

  1. Compound heterozygous DUOX2 gene mutations (c.2335-1G>C/c.3264_3267delCAGC) associated with congenital hypothyroidism. Characterization of complex cryptic splice sites by minigene analysis.

    PubMed

    Belforte, Fiorella S; Citterio, Cintia E; Testa, Graciela; Olcese, María Cecilia; Sobrero, Gabriela; Miras, Mirta B; Targovnik, Héctor M; Rivolta, Carina M

    2016-01-01

    Iodide Organification defects (IOD) represent 10% of cases of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) being the main genes affected that of TPO (thyroid peroxidase) and DUOX2 (dual oxidasa 2). From a patient with clinical and biochemical criteria suggestive with CH associated with IOD, TPO and DUOX2 genes were analyzed by means of PCR-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis and sequencing. A novel heterozygous compound to the mutations c.2335-1G>C (paternal mutation, intron 17) and c.3264_3267delCAGC (maternal mutation, exon 24) was identified in the DUOX2 gene. Ex-vivo splicing assays and subsequent RT-PCR and sequencing analyses were performed on mRNA isolated from the HeLa cells transfected with wild-type and mutant pSPL3 expression vectors. The wild-type and c.2335-1G>C mutant alleles result in the complete inclusion or exclusion of exon 18, or in the activation of an exonic cryptic 5' ss with the consequent deletion of 169 bp at the end of this exon. However, we observed only a band of the expected size in normal thyroid tissue by RT-PCR. Additionally, the c.2335-1G>C mutation activates an unusual cryptic donor splice site in intron 17, located at position -14 of the authentic intron 17/exon 18 junction site, with an insertion of the last 14 nucleotides of the intron 17 in mutant transcripts with complete and partial inclusion of exon 18. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutation, predicted with the bioinformatics NNSplice, Fsplice, SPL, SPLM and MaxEntScan programs were investigated and evaluated in relation with the experimental evidence. These analyses confirm that c.2335-1G>C mutant allele would result in the abolition of the authentic splice acceptor site. The results suggest the coexistence in our patient of four putative truncated proteins of 786, 805, 806 and 1105 amino acids, with conservation of peroxidase-like domain and loss of gp91(phox)/NOX2-like domain. In conclusion a novel heterozygous compound was identified being responsible of IOD. Cryptic splicing sites have been characterized in DUOX2 gene for the first time. The use of molecular biology techniques is a valuable tool for understanding the molecular pathophysiology of this type of thyroid defects. PMID:26506010

  2. Tra2-mediated recognition of HIV-1 5' splice site D3 as a key factor in the processing of vpr mRNA.

    PubMed

    Erkelenz, Steffen; Poschmann, Gereon; Theiss, Stephan; Stefanski, Anja; Hillebrand, Frank; Otte, Marianne; Stühler, Kai; Schaal, Heiner

    2013-03-01

    Small noncoding HIV-1 leader exon 3 is defined by its splice sites A2 and D3. While 3' splice site (3'ss) A2 needs to be activated for vpr mRNA formation, the location of the vpr start codon within downstream intron 3 requires silencing of splicing at 5'ss D3. Here we show that the inclusion of both HIV-1 exon 3 and vpr mRNA processing is promoted by an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE(vpr)) localized between exonic splicing silencer ESSV and 5'ss D3. The ESE(vpr) sequence was found to be bound by members of the Transformer 2 (Tra2) protein family. Coexpression of these proteins in provirus-transfected cells led to an increase in the levels of exon 3 inclusion, confirming that they act through ESE(vpr). Further analyses revealed that ESE(vpr) supports the binding of U1 snRNA at 5'ss D3, allowing bridging interactions across the upstream exon with 3'ss A2. In line with this, an increase or decrease in the complementarity of 5'ss D3 to the 5' end of U1 snRNA was accompanied by a higher or lower vpr expression level. Activation of 3'ss A2 through the proposed bridging interactions, however, was not dependent on the splicing competence of 5'ss D3 because rendering it splicing defective but still competent for efficient U1 snRNA binding maintained the enhancing function of D3. Therefore, we propose that splicing at 3'ss A2 occurs temporally between the binding of U1 snRNA and splicing at D3. PMID:23255807

  3. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S; Morris, Huw R; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T; Bushell, Trevor J; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J; Fox, Nick C; Rossor, Martin N; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-09-15

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC-neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  4. RNA mis-splicing in disease.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Marina M; Swanson, Maurice S

    2016-01-01

    The human transcriptome is composed of a vast RNA population that undergoes further diversification by splicing. Detecting specific splice sites in this large sequence pool is the responsibility of the major and minor spliceosomes in collaboration with numerous splicing factors. This complexity makes splicing susceptible to sequence polymorphisms and deleterious mutations. Indeed, RNA mis-splicing underlies a growing number of human diseases with substantial societal consequences. Here, we provide an overview of RNA splicing mechanisms followed by a discussion of disease-associated errors, with an emphasis on recently described mutations that have provided new insights into splicing regulation. We also discuss emerging strategies for splicing-modulating therapy. PMID:26593421

  5. Characterization of novel SLC6A8 variants with the use of splice-site analysis tools and implementation of a newly developed LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Betsalel, Ofir T; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Almeida, Ligia S; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Schwartz, Charles E; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Poplawski, Nicola; Vilarinho, Laura; Wolf, Philipp; den Dunnen, Johan T; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2011-01-01

    The X-linked creatine transporter defect is caused by mutations in the SLC6A8 gene. Until now, 66 synonymous and intronic variants in SLC6A8 were detected in our laboratory. To gain more insight in the effect of the detected variants, we applied five free web-based splice-site analysis tools to 25 published variants that were stratified as (non-)disease causing. All were correctly predicted to have no effect (n=18) or to cause erroneous splicing (n=7), with the exception of a pathogenic de novo 24?bp intronic deletion. Second, 41 unclassified variants, including 28 novel, were subjected to analysis by these tools. At least four splice-site analysis tools predicted that three of the variants would affect splicing as the mutations disrupted the canonical splice site. Urinary creatine/creatinine and brain MRS confirmed creatine transporter deficiency in five patients (four families), including one female. Another variant was predicted to moderately affect splicing by all five tools. However, transient transfection of a minigene containing the variant in a partial SLC6A8 segment showed no splicing errors, and thus was finally classified as non-disease causing. This study shows that splice tools are useful for the characterization of the majority of variants, but also illustrates that the actual effect can be misclassified in rare occasions. Therefore, further laboratory studies should be considered before final conclusions on the disease-causing nature are drawn. To provide an accessible database, the 109 currently known SLC6A8 variants, including 35 novel ones, are included in a newly developed LOVD DNA variation database. PMID:20717164

  6. Distinct sites of phosphorothioate substitution interfere with folding and splicing of the Anabaena

    E-print Network

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    to stabilize the structure of the catalytic core. INTRODUCTION Group I self-splicing introns comprise a diverse into the active structure. Whether similar RNA±RNA and RNA±magnesium ion contacts play related functional roles involved in catalysis from those important for RNA folding. Using phosphorothioate interference with RNA

  7. In vitro analysis of splice site mutations in the CLCN1 gene using the minigene assay.

    PubMed

    Ulzi, Gianna; Sansone, Valeria A; Magri, Francesca; Corti, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Lucchiari, Sabrina

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in the chloride channel gene CLCN1 cause the allelic disorders Thomsen (dominant) and Becker (recessive) myotonia congenita (MC). The encoded protein, ClC-1, is the primary channel that mediates chloride (Cl-) conductance in skeletal muscle. Mutations in CLCN1 lower the channel's threshold voltage, leading to spontaneous action potentials that are not coupled to neuromuscular transmission and resulting in myotonia. Over 120 mutations in CLCN1 have been described, 10% of which are splicing defects. Biological specimens suitable for RNA extraction are not always available, but obtaining genomic DNA for analysis is easy and non-invasive. This is the first study to evaluate the pathogenic potential of novel splicing mutations using the minigene approach, which is based on genomic DNA analysis. Splicing mutations accounted for 23% of all pathogenic variants in our cohort of MC patients. Four were heterozygous mutations in four unrelated individuals, belonging to this cohort: c.563G>T in exon 5; c.1169-5T>G in intron 10; c.1251+1G>A in intron 11, and c.1931-2A>G in intron 16. These variants were expressed in HEK 293 cells, and aberrant splicing was verified by in vitro transcription and sequencing of the cDNA. Our findings confirm the need to further investigate the nature of rearrangements associated with this class of mutations and their effects on mature transcripts. In particular, splicing mutations predicted to generate in-frame transcripts may generate out-of-frame mRNA transcripts that do not produce functional ClC-1. Clinically, incomplete molecular evaluation could lead to delayed or faulty diagnosis. PMID:24452722

  8. Free Flap Donor Site Reconstruction: A Prospective Case Series Using an Optimized Polyurethane Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Marcus J. D.; Schmitt, Bradley J.; Caplash, Yugesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We recently published a 10-patient case series where free flap donor site reconstruction was performed as a 2-stage procedure using an integrating biodegradable polyurethane matrix (to form a neodermis), followed by definitive closure with an autologous split-skin graft. Two issues were revealed by this pilot study that led to further modification of the biodegradable temporizing matrix. This involved alterations to the seal thickness and bonding to the foam matrix and the introduction of fenestrations to the seal. Objective: This article documents a second cohort of patients requiring free flap (fibular and radial forearm) donor site reconstruction with this optimized material. Methods: The biodegradable temporizing matrix was implanted when the free flap was detached from its donor site. Subsequent integration was monitored closely. Five weeks was the usual time of integration before delamination (seal removal), dermabrasion, and definitive closure with autograft. Results: Integration was complete and uncomplicated in every case, delamination occurred in 1 piece in 1 action, and subsequent graft take was 100% for every patient. Long-term scar outcomes improved compared with the pilot group. Degradation is complete by 12 months, other than occasional microscopic remnants undergoing phagocytosis. Conclusion: This study has reiterated that the biodegradable temporizing matrix can be implanted into humans, followed by neovascularization and integration. No infection was observed, and split-skin overgrafting was successful and uncomplicated. PMID:26171099

  9. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  10. Regulation of mRNA Abundance by Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Controlled Alternate 5? Splice Site Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Fursham M.; Makeyev, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5? and 3? splice site (5?ss and 3?ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5?ss (u5?ss and d5?ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5?ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5?ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5?ss and d5?ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5?ss is intrinsically weaker than d5?ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5?ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5?ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

  11. Regulation of mRNA abundance by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-controlled alternate 5' splice site choice.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Fursham M; Makeyev, Eugene V

    2014-11-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5' and 3' splice site (5'ss and 3'ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5'ss (u5'ss and d5'ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5'ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5'ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5'ss and d5'ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5'ss is intrinsically weaker than d5'ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5'ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5'ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

  12. Cancer-Associated SF3B1 Hotspot Mutations Induce Cryptic 3? Splice Site Selection through Use of a Different Branch Point.

    PubMed

    Darman, Rachel B; Seiler, Michael; Agrawal, Anant A; Lim, Kian H; Peng, Shouyong; Aird, Daniel; Bailey, Suzanna L; Bhavsar, Erica B; Chan, Betty; Colla, Simona; Corson, Laura; Feala, Jacob; Fekkes, Peter; Ichikawa, Kana; Keaney, Gregg F; Lee, Linda; Kumar, Pavan; Kunii, Kaiko; MacKenzie, Crystal; Matijevic, Mark; Mizui, Yoshiharu; Myint, Khin; Park, Eun Sun; Puyang, Xiaoling; Selvaraj, Anand; Thomas, Michael P; Tsai, Jennifer; Wang, John Y; Warmuth, Markus; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Ping; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Furman, Richard R; Yu, Lihua; Smith, Peter G; Buonamici, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Recurrent mutations in the spliceosome are observed in several human cancers, but their functional and therapeutic significance remains elusive. SF3B1, the most frequently mutated component of the spliceosome in cancer, is involved in the recognition of the branch point sequence (BPS) during selection of the 3? splice site (ss) in RNA splicing. Here, we report that common and tumor-specific splicing aberrations are induced by SF3B1 mutations and establish aberrant 3? ss selection as the most frequent splicing defect. Strikingly, mutant SF3B1 utilizes a BPS that differs from that used by wild-type SF3B1 and requires the canonical 3? ss to enable aberrant splicing during the second step. Approximately 50% of the aberrantly spliced mRNAs are subjected to nonsense-mediated decay resulting in downregulation of gene and protein expression. These findings ascribe functional significance to the consequences of SF3B1 mutations in cancer. PMID:26565915

  13. Hydrogen Bonds between Nitrogen Donors and the Semiquinone in the Qi-site of the bc1 Complex*

    E-print Network

    Crofts, Antony R.

    Hydrogen Bonds between Nitrogen Donors and the Semiquinone in the Qi-site of the bc1 Complex The ubisemiquinone stabilized at the Qi-site of the bc1 com- plex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides forms a hydrogen bond, consisting of heme bL and heme bH in cytochrome b, which delivers electrons to the quinone reduction site (Qi

  14. Identification of two RNA cis-elements that function to regulate the 5' splice site selection of Bcl-x pre-mRNA in response to ceramide.

    PubMed

    Massiello, Autumn; Salas, Arelis; Pinkerman, Ryan L; Roddy, Patrick; Roesser, James R; Chalfant, Charles E

    2004-04-16

    Two splice variants derived from the BCL-x gene, proapoptotic Bcl-x(s) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L), are produced via alternative 5' splice site selection within exon 2 of Bcl-x pre-mRNA. In previous studies, our laboratory demonstrated that ceramide regulated this 5' splice site selection, inducing the production of Bcl-x(s) mRNA with a concomitant decrease in Bcl-x(L) correlating with sensitization to chemotherapy (Chalfant, C. E., Rathman, K., Pinkerman, R. L., Wood, R. E., Obeid, L. M., Ogretmen, B., and Hannun, Y. A. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 12587-12595). We have now identified several possible RNA cis-elements within exon 2 of Bcl-x pre-mRNA by sequence analysis. To study the possible roles of these RNA cis-elements in regulating the alternative 5' splice site selection of Bcl-x pre-mRNA, we developed a BCL-x minigene construct which conferred the same ratio of Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(s) mRNA as the endogenous Bcl-x and was responsive to ceramide treatment. Mutagenesis of either a purine-rich splicing enhancer or a pyrimidine tract element within exon 2 induced a change in the ratio of Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(s) mRNA from 7 to 1 and 0.23, thereby diminishing the selection of the Bcl-x(L) 5' splice site with a concomitant increase in Bcl-x(s) 5' splice site selection. Furthermore, mutagenesis of these cis-elements abolished the ability of ceramide to affect the 5' splice site selection. In vitro binding assays coupled with competitor studies demonstrated specific binding of RNA trans-activating proteins to these regions. SDS-PAGE analysis of cross-linked RNA trans-activating factors with these RNA cis-elements revealed the binding of 215-, 120-, and 30-kDa proteins to the purine-rich element and 120- and 76-kDa proteins to the pyrimidine tract element. In addition, exogenous treatment of A549 cells with ceramide increased the formation of protein complexes with these RNA cis-elements. Therefore, we have identified two ceramide-responsive RNA cis-elements within exon 2 of Bcl-x pre-mRNA, and this is the first report of an RNA cis-element responsive to a bioactive lipid. PMID:14734550

  15. Umbilical hernia--a potential donor-site complication of fat injection laryngoplasty.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Feng-Shiang; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chang, Ying-Nan; Lee, Jih-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Injection laryngoplasty with autologous fat appears to be an effective and simple technique for the treatment of patients with glottic insufficiency in comparison with other surgical techniques. Despite of its advantages, associated complications have also been reported, including immediate donor-site morbidity (eg, hematoma and abscess), fat extrusion of the injection site, and delayed manifestation of vocal granuloma or overinjected vocal folds. In this article, a patient suffering from accidental injury to the deep abdominal fascia without peritoneal penetration in the fat harvest procedure is presented. Three months after the fat injection laryngoplasty, an umbilical hernia was proved to occur via the clinical imaging. Several etiologies are supposed to induce the herniation of intraabdominal structures, including surgeon's incaution, abdominal obesity, intense wound inflammation and fibrosis, and the native weak point of the abdominal wall around the umbilicus. This case provides information that overdepth and negligence in fat harvest may injure the deep abdominal fascia, then possibly causing the umbilical hernia as a delayed donor-site complication. PMID:23177750

  16. The evolution of mRNA splicing in mammals

    E-print Network

    Merkin, Jason Jay

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I describe investigations into the evolution of splicing in mammals. I first investigate a small class of alternative splicing events, tandem splice sites, and show how they are used to introduce and remove ...

  17. Two stages splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    The study of the biological process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) splicing system in a translucent approach was investigated in 2012 by Yusof under the framework of formal language theory. In this work, the concepts of splicing system in two stages as well as splicing languages are mathematically and biologically discussed. Additionally, some theorems based on recognition site factor of initial strings at the existence of two initial strings and two rules are provided via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach. Besides, an example is also given in showing the biological meaning of the introduced concept.

  18. NOTCH2 and FLT3 gene mis-splicings are common events in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): new potential targets in AML

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Natan, Michal; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M.; Bach, Christian; Pevzner, Samuel; Calimeri, Teresa; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A.; Galinsky, Ilene; Mathews, Steven; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P.; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J.; Quackenbush, John; Tenen, Daniel G.; Stone, Richard M.; Griffin, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed an increase in alternative splicing of multiple RNAs in cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with CD34+ bone marrow cells from normal donors. Aberrantly spliced genes included a number of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Among the most commonly mis-spliced genes (>70% of AML patients) were 2, NOTCH2 and FLT3, that encode myeloid cell surface proteins. The splice variants of NOTCH2 and FLT3 resulted from complete or partial exon skipping and utilization of cryptic splice sites. Longitudinal analyses suggested that NOTCH2 and FLT3 aberrant splicing correlated with disease status. Correlation analyses between splice variants of these genes and clinical features of patients showed an association between NOTCH2-Va splice variant and overall survival of patients. Our results suggest that NOTCH2 and FLT3 mis-splicing is a common characteristic of AML and has the potential to generate transcripts encoding proteins with altered function. Thus, splice variants of these genes might provide disease markers and targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:24574459

  19. Exploitation of a thermosensitive splicing event to study pre-mRNA splicing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cizdziel, P.E.; De Mars, M.; Murphy, E.C. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    The spliced form of MuSVts110 viral RNA is approximately 20-fold more abundant at growth temperatures of 33/sup 0/C or lower than at 37 to 41/sup 0/C. This difference is due to changes in the efficiency of MuSVts110 RNA splicing rather than selective thermolability of the spliced species at 37 to 41/sup 0/C or general thermosensitivity of RNA splicing in MuSVts110-infected cells. Moreover, RNA transcribed from MuSVts110 DNA introduced into a variety of cell lines is spliced in a temperature-sensitive fashion, suggesting that the structure of the viral RNA controls the efficiency of the event. The authors exploited this novel splicing event to study the cleavage and ligation events during splicing in vivo. No spliced viral mRNA or splicing intermediates were observed in MuSVts110-infected cells (6m2 cells) at 39/sup 0/C. However, after a short (about 30-min) lag following a shift to 33/sup 0/C, viral pre-mRNA cleaved at the 5' splice site began to accumulate. Ligated exons were not detected until about 60 min following the initial detection of cleavage at the 5' splice site, suggesting that these two splicing reactions did not occur concurrently. Splicing of viral RNA in the MuSVts110 revertant 54-5A4, which lacks the sequence -AG/TGT- at the usual 3' splice site, was studied. Cleavage at the 5' splice site in the revertant viral RNA proceeded in a temperature-sensitive fashion. No novel cryptic 3' splice sites were activated; however, splicing at an alternate upstream 3' splice site used at low efficiency in normal MuSVts110 RNA was increased to a level close to that of 5'-splice-site cleavage in the revertant viral RNA.

  20. The zinc fingers of the SR-like protein ZRANB2 are single-stranded RNA-binding domains that recognize 5? splice site-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Loughlin, Fionna E.; Mansfield, Robyn E.; Vaz, Paula M.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Setiyaputra, Surya; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Chen, Eva S.; Morris, Brian J.; Guss, J. Mitchell; Mackay, Joel P.

    2009-09-02

    The alternative splicing of mRNA is a critical process in higher eukaryotes that generates substantial proteomic diversity. Many of the proteins that are essential to this process contain arginine/serine-rich (RS) domains. ZRANB2 is a widely-expressed and highly-conserved RS-domain protein that can regulate alternative splicing but lacks canonical RNA-binding domains. Instead, it contains 2 RanBP2-type zinc finger (ZnF) domains. We demonstrate that these ZnFs recognize ssRNA with high affinity and specificity. Each ZnF binds to a single AGGUAA motif and the 2 domains combine to recognize AGGUAA(N{sub x})AGGUAA double sites, suggesting that ZRANB2 regulates alternative splicing via a direct interaction with pre-mRNA at sites that resemble the consensus 5{prime} splice site. We show using X-ray crystallography that recognition of an AGGUAA motif by a single ZnF is dominated by side-chain hydrogen bonds to the bases and formation of a guanine-tryptophan-guanine 'ladder.' A number of other human proteins that function in RNA processing also contain RanBP2 ZnFs in which the RNA-binding residues of ZRANB2 are conserved. The ZnFs of ZRANB2 therefore define another class of RNA-binding domain, advancing our understanding of RNA recognition and emphasizing the versatility of ZnF domains in molecular recognition.

  1. A Spontaneous Fatp4/Scl27a4 Splice Site Mutation in a New Murine Model for Congenital Ichthyosis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianning; Koster, Maranke I.; Harrison, Wilbur; Moran, Jennifer L.; Beier, David R.; Roop, Dennis R.; Overbeek, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital ichthyoses are life-threatening conditions in humans. We describe here the identification and molecular characterization of a novel recessive mutation in mice that results in newborn lethality with severe congenital lamellar ichthyosis. Mutant newborns have a taut, shiny, non-expandable epidermis that resembles cornified manifestations of autosomal-recessive congenital ichthyosis in humans. The skin is stretched so tightly that the newborn mice are immobilized. The genetic defect was mapped to a region near the proximal end of chromosome 2 by SNP analysis, suggesting Fatp4/Slc27a4 as a candidate gene. FATP4 mutations in humans cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS), and mutations of Fatp4 in mice have previously been found to cause a phenotype that resembles human congenital ichthyoses. Characterization of the Fatp4 cDNA revealed a fusion of exon 8 to exon 10, with deletion of exon 9. Genomic sequencing identified an A to T mutation in the splice donor sequence at the 3?-end of exon 9. Loss of exon 9 results in a frame shift mutation upstream from the conserved very long-chain acyl-CoA synthase (VLACS) domain. Histological studies revealed that the mutant mice have defects in keratinocyte differentiation, along with hyperproliferation of the stratum basale of the epidermis, a hyperkeratotic stratum corneum, and reduced numbers of secondary hair follicles. Since Fatp4 protein is present primarily at the stratum granulosum and the stratum spinosum, the hyperproliferation and the alterations in hair follicle induction suggest that very long chain fatty acids, in addition to being required for normal cornification, may influence signals from the stratum corneum to the basal cells that help to orchestrate normal skin differentiation. PMID:23226340

  2. Analysis of a splice-site mutation in the sap-precursor gene of a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Henseler, M.; Klein, A.; Reber, M.

    1996-01-01

    Sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) are small, nonenzymatic glycoproteins required for the lysosomal degradation of various sphingolipids with a short oligosaccharide chain by their exohydrolases. Four of the five known activator proteins (sap-A-sap-D), also called {open_quotes}saposins,{close_quotes} are derived from a common precursor by proteolytic processing. sap-B stimulates hydrolysis of sulfatides by arylsulfatase A in vivo. Its recessively inherited deficiency results in a metabolic disorder similar to classical metachromatic leukodystrophy, which is caused by a defect of arylsulfatase A. Here we report on a patient with sap-B deficiency. Reverse-transcription-PCR studies on the patient`s mRNA revealed the occurrence of two distinct mutant species: one with an in-frame deletion of the first 21 bases of exon 6, the other with a complete in-frame deletion of this exon. The patient was homozygous for the underlying mutation, which was found to be a G-{yields}T transversion within the acceptor splice site between intron e and exon 6, abolishing normal RNA splicing. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization revealed that the parents and both grandfathers of the patient were carriers of this mutation. In order to analyze the fate of the mutant precursor proteins, both abnormal cDNAs were stably expressed in baby hamster kidney cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the deletion of 21 bp had no effect on the transport and the maturation of the encoded precursor. All sap forms except sap-B were detectable by immunochemical methods. The cDNA bearing a complete deletion of exon 6 encoded a shortened precursor of only 60 kD, and no mature SAPs were detectable. The carbohydrate chains of this polypeptide were of the high-mannose and hybrid type, indicating no transport of the mutant precursor beyond early Golgi apparatus. An endoplasmic-reticulum localization of this polypeptide was supported by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. 31 refs., 8 figs.

  3. HS3D, A Dataset of Homo Sapiens Splice Regions, and its Extraction Procedure from a Major Public Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollastro, Pasquale; Rampone, Salvatore

    The aim of this work is to describe a cleaning procedure of GenBank data, producing material to train and to assess the prediction accuracy of computational approaches for gene characterization. A procedure (GenBank2HS3D) has been defined, producing a dataset (HS3D - Homo Sapiens Splice Sites Dataset) of Homo Sapiens Splice regions extracted from GenBank (Rel.123 at this time). It selects, from the complete GenBank Primate Division, entries of Human Nuclear DNA according with several assessed criteria; then it extracts exons and introns from these entries (actually 4523 + 3802). Donor and acceptor sites are then extracted as windows of 140 nucleotides around each splice site (3799 + 3799). After discarding windows not including canonical GT-AG junctions (65 + 74), including insufficient data (not enough material for a 140 nucleotide window) (686 + 589), including not AGCT bases (29 + 30), and redundant (218 + 226), the remaining windows (2796 + 2880) are reported in the dataset. Finally, windows of false splice sites are selected by searching canonical GT-AG pairs in not splicing positions (271 937 + 332 296). The false sites in a range +/- 60 from a true splice site are marked as proximal. HS3D, release 1.2 at this time, is available at the Web server of the University of Sannio: http://www.sci.unisannio.it/docenti/rampone/.

  4. A biodegradable polyurethane dermal matrix in reconstruction of free flap donor sites: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Marcus J D; Schmitt, Bradley J; Coghlan, Patrick; Finkemeyer, James P; Caplash, Yugesh; Greenwood, John E

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable temporizing matrix (BTM) capable of supporting secondary split-skin graft-take in animal studies. We report its first long-term implantation and use as a dermal scaffold in humans. This preliminary study assesses its ability to integrate, its ease of delamination, its ability to sustain split-skin graft in complex wounds, the degree of wound contraction, and ultimately the quality of the scar at 1 year postimplantation. Ten patients were recruited, each requiring elective free flap reconstruction. Free flap donor sites created were anterolateral thigh flaps, fibular osseocutaneous flaps, or radial/ulnar forearm (RF/UF) flaps. The BTM was implanted when the flap was detached from its donor site. Dressing changes were performed twice weekly. The time elapsed between implantation and delamination depended on the type of flap and thus the wound bed left. Once integrated, the BTMs were delaminated in theatre, and the surface of the "neodermis" was refreshed by dermabrasion, prior to application of a split-skin graft. The BTM integration occurred in all patients (100% in 6 patients, with 90%, 84%, 76%, and 60% integration in the remainder). Integrated BTM sustained successful graft-take in all patients. Complete take was marred in 2 patients, over areas of BTM that had not integrated and graft application was performed too early. The BTM can be applied into wounds in humans and can integrate, persist in the presence of infection, and sustain split-skin overgrafting, despite the trial group presenting with significant comorbidities. PMID:25987938

  5. A Biodegradable Polyurethane Dermal Matrix in Reconstruction of Free Flap Donor Sites: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Marcus J.D.; Schmitt, Bradley J.; Coghlan, Patrick; Finkemeyer, James P.; Caplash, Yugesh

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable temporizing matrix (BTM) capable of supporting secondary split-skin graft-take in animal studies. We report its first long-term implantation and use as a dermal scaffold in humans. This preliminary study assesses its ability to integrate, its ease of delamination, its ability to sustain split-skin graft in complex wounds, the degree of wound contraction, and ultimately the quality of the scar at 1 year postimplantation. Ten patients were recruited, each requiring elective free flap reconstruction. Free flap donor sites created were anterolateral thigh flaps, fibular osseocutaneous flaps, or radial/ulnar forearm (RF/UF) flaps. The BTM was implanted when the flap was detached from its donor site. Dressing changes were performed twice weekly. The time elapsed between implantation and delamination depended on the type of flap and thus the wound bed left. Once integrated, the BTMs were delaminated in theatre, and the surface of the “neodermis” was refreshed by dermabrasion, prior to application of a split-skin graft. The BTM integration occurred in all patients (100% in 6 patients, with 90%, 84%, 76%, and 60% integration in the remainder). Integrated BTM sustained successful graft-take in all patients. Complete take was marred in 2 patients, over areas of BTM that had not integrated and graft application was performed too early. The BTM can be applied into wounds in humans and can integrate, persist in the presence of infection, and sustain split-skin overgrafting, despite the trial group presenting with significant comorbidities. PMID:25987938

  6. Molecular analysis of mutations affecting hprt mRNA splicing in human T-lymphocytes in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.M. Pisa Univ. ); Tates, A.D.; van Zeeland, A.A.; Vrieling, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Molecular analysis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) cDNA from 6-thioguanine-resistant T-lymphocytes cloned from smoking and non-smoking adult donors showed that 35% of these mutants were defective in splicing of hprt mRNA. Among a set of 42 hprt splice mutants, the authors observed (1) complete loss of one or more exons, (2) partial loss of one exon, or (3) inclusion of part of an intron sequence between adjacent exons. Loss of exon 4 was significantly more frequent than of the other exons, suggesting that the sequences that regulate splicing of this exon are either larger than those of the other exons or especially prone to mutation. In order to identify the molecular nature of DNA alterations causing aberrant splicing of hprt mRNA, 17 splice mutants were analyzed in more detail by sequencing the genomic regions flanking the mis-spliced exon. Base pair substitutions or small deletions causing defective splicing were either detected in exon sequences or in splice site consensus sequences of introns.

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of donor splice site recognition in pre-mRNA Jeffrey A. Garland and Daniel P. Aalberts*

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    2003; published 26 April 2004; publisher error corrected 30 April 2004) When eukaryotic genes to a set of 65 annotated genes, our "finding with binding" method achieves a significant separation between. There are additional signals from features like the "branch point" and the compo- sition and length of introns

  8. Genome-wide meta-analysis reveals common splice site acceptor variant in CHRNA4 associated with nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Hancock, D B; Reginsson, G W; Gaddis, N C; Chen, X; Saccone, N L; Lutz, S M; Qaiser, B; Sherva, R; Steinberg, S; Zink, F; Stacey, S N; Glasheen, C; Chen, J; Gu, F; Frederiksen, B N; Loukola, A; Gudbjartsson, D F; Brüske, I; Landi, M T; Bickeböller, H; Madden, P; Farrer, L; Kaprio, J; Kranzler, H R; Gelernter, J; Baker, T B; Kraft, P; Amos, C I; Caporaso, N E; Hokanson, J E; Bierut, L J; Thorgeirsson, T E; Johnson, E O; Stefansson, K

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 1000 Genomes-imputed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis for nicotine dependence, defined by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in 17?074 ever smokers from five European-ancestry samples. We followed up novel variants in 7469 ever smokers from five independent European-ancestry samples. We identified genome-wide significant association in the alpha-4 nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRNA4) gene on chromosome 20q13: lowest P=8.0 × 10(-9) across all the samples for rs2273500-C (frequency=0.15; odds ratio=1.12 and 95% confidence interval=1.08-1.17 for severe vs mild dependence). rs2273500-C, a splice site acceptor variant resulting in an alternate CHRNA4 transcript predicted to be targeted for nonsense-mediated decay, was associated with decreased CHRNA4 expression in physiologically normal human brains (lowest P=7.3 × 10(-4)). Importantly, rs2273500-C was associated with increased lung cancer risk (N=28?998, odds ratio=1.06 and 95% confidence interval=1.00-1.12), likely through its effect on smoking, as rs2273500-C was no longer associated with lung cancer after adjustment for smoking. Using criteria for smoking behavior that encompass more than the single 'cigarettes per day' item, we identified a common CHRNA4 variant with important regulatory properties that contributes to nicotine dependence and smoking-related consequences. PMID:26440539

  9. Analysis of a splice-site mutation in the sap-precursor gene of a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Henseler, M.; Klein, A.; Reber, M.; Vanier, M. T.; Landrieu, P.; Sandhoff, K.

    1996-01-01

    Sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) are small, nonenzymatic glycoproteins required for the lysosomal degradation of various sphingolipids with a short oligosaccharide chain by their exohydrolases. Four of the five known activator proteins (sap-A-sap-D), also called "saposins," are derived from a common precursor by proteolytic processing. sap-B stimulates hydrolysis of sulfatides by arylsulfatase A in vivo. Its recessively inherited deficiency results in a metabolic disorder similar to classical metachromatic leukodystrophy, which is caused by a defect of arylsulfatase A. Here we report on a patient with sap-B deficiency. Reverse-transcription-PCR studies on the patient's mRNA revealed the occurrence of two distinct mutant species: one with an in-frame deletion of the first 21 bases of exon 6, the other with a complete in-frame deletion of this exon. The patient was homozygous for the underlying mutation, which was found to be a G-->T transversion within the acceptor splice site between intron e and exon 6, abolishing normal RNA splicing. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization revealed that the parents and both grandfathers of the patient were carriers of this mutation. In order to analyze the fate of the mutant precursor proteins, both abnormal cDNAs were stably expressed in baby hamster kidney cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the deletion of 21 bp had no effect on the transport and the maturation of the encoded precursor. All sap forms except sap-B were detectable by immunochemical methods. The cDNA bearing a complete deletion of exon 6 encoded a shortened precursor of only 60 kD, and no mature SAPs were detectable. The carbohydrate chains of this polypeptide were of the high-mannose and hybrid type, indicating no transport of the mutant precursor beyond early Golgi apparatus. An endoplasmic-reticulum localization of this polypeptide was supported by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 5b Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 7b PMID:8554069

  10. Dissection of splicing regulation at an endogenous locus by zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene editing.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Sandra; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Cost, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Sequences governing RNA splicing are difficult to study in situ due to the great difficulty of traditional targeted mutagenesis. Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology allows for the rapid and efficient introduction of site-specific mutations into mammalian chromosomes. Using a ZFN pair along with a donor plasmid to manipulate the outcomes of DNA repair, we introduced several discrete, targeted mutations into the fourth intron of the endogenous BAX gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Putative lariat branch points, the polypyrimidine tract, and the splice acceptor site were targeted. We recovered numerous otherwise isogenic clones carrying the intended mutations and analyzed the effect of each on BAX pre-mRNA splicing. Mutation of one of three possible branch points, the polypyrimidine tract, and the splice acceptor site all caused exclusion of exon five from BAX mRNA. Interestingly, these exon-skipping mutations allowed usage of cryptic splice acceptor sites within intron four. These data demonstrate that ZFN-mediated gene editing is a highly effective tool for dissection of pre-mRNA splicing regulatory sequences in their endogenous context. PMID:21347446

  11. Dissection of Splicing Regulation at an Endogenous Locus by Zinc-Finger Nuclease-Mediated Gene Editing

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Sandra; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Cost, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Sequences governing RNA splicing are difficult to study in situ due to the great difficulty of traditional targeted mutagenesis. Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology allows for the rapid and efficient introduction of site-specific mutations into mammalian chromosomes. Using a ZFN pair along with a donor plasmid to manipulate the outcomes of DNA repair, we introduced several discrete, targeted mutations into the fourth intron of the endogenous BAX gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Putative lariat branch points, the polypyrimidine tract, and the splice acceptor site were targeted. We recovered numerous otherwise isogenic clones carrying the intended mutations and analyzed the effect of each on BAX pre-mRNA splicing. Mutation of one of three possible branch points, the polypyrimidine tract, and the splice acceptor site all caused exclusion of exon five from BAX mRNA. Interestingly, these exon-skipping mutations allowed usage of cryptic splice acceptor sites within intron four. These data demonstrate that ZFN-mediated gene editing is a highly effective tool for dissection of pre-mRNA splicing regulatory sequences in their endogenous context. PMID:21347446

  12. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans U2AF Large Subunit UAF-1 Al= of a 3' Splice Site In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Ma, Long

    The removal of introns from eukaryotic RNA transcripts requires the activities of five multi-component ribonucleoprotein complexes and numerous associated proteins. The lack of mutations affecting splicing factors essential ...

  13. Species-Dependent Splice Recognition of a Cryptic Exon Resulting from a Recurrent Intronic CEP290 Mutation that Causes Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Garanto, Alejandro; Duijkers, Lonneke; Collin, Rob W. J.

    2015-01-01

    A mutation in intron 26 of CEP290 (c.2991+1655A>G) is the most common genetic cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe type of inherited retinal degeneration. This mutation creates a cryptic splice donor site, resulting in the insertion of an aberrant exon (exon X) into ~50% of all CEP290 transcripts. A humanized mouse model with this mutation did not recapitulate the aberrant CEP290 splicing observed in LCA patients, suggesting differential recognition of cryptic splice sites between species. To further assess this phenomenon, we generated two CEP290 minigene constructs, with and without the intronic mutation, and transfected these in cell lines of various species. RT-PCR analysis revealed that exon X is well recognized by the splicing machinery in human and non-human primate cell lines. Intriguingly, this recognition decreases in cell lines derived from species such as dog and rodents, and it is completely absent in Drosophila. In addition, other cryptic splicing events corresponding to sequences in intron 26 of CEP290 were observed to varying degrees in the different cell lines. Together, these results highlight the complexity of splice site recognition among different species, and show that care is warranted when generating animal models to mimic splice site mutations in vivo. PMID:25761237

  14. A mammalian germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein interacts with ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in splice site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David J.; Bourgeois, Cyril F.; Klink, Albrecht; Stévenin, James; Cooke, Howard J.

    2000-05-01

    RNA-binding motif (RBM) genes are found on all mammalian Y chromosomes and are implicated in spermatogenesis. Within human germ cells, RBM protein shows a similar nuclear distribution to components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. To address the function of RBM, we have used protein-protein interaction assays to test for possible physical interactions between these proteins. We find that RBM protein directly interacts with members of the SR family of splicing factors and, in addition, strongly interacts with itself. We have mapped the protein domains responsible for mediating these interactions and expressed the mouse RBM interaction region as a bacterial fusion protein. This fusion protein can pull-down several functionally active SR protein species from cell extracts. Depletion and add-back experiments indicate that these SR proteins are the only splicing factors bound by RBM which are required for the splicing of a panel of pre-mRNAs. Our results suggest that RBM protein is an evolutionarily conserved mammalian splicing regulator which operates as a germ cell-specific cofactor for more ubiquitously expressed pre-mRNA splicing activators.

  15. Probing the Role of a Secondary Structure Element at the 5-and 3-Splice Sites in Group I Intron Self-Splicing: The Tetrahymena L-16 ScaI Ribozyme Reveals a

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Self-Splicing: The Tetrahymena L-16 ScaI Ribozyme Reveals a New Role of the G,U Pair in Self of the group I self-splicing reaction. The Tetrahymena L-21 ScaI ribozyme, the best studied of these intron-splicing and release of the ligated exons after the second step of self-splicing. The group I intron from Tetrahymena

  16. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from pre-mRNA transcripts. However, some long D. melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, called a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing1,2. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis remain unclear. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of a “RS-exon” that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform due to competition with a reconstituted 5? splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic exons or promoters that are prevalent in long introns, but which fail to reconstitute an efficient 5? splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion may decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling inclusion of cryptic elements with RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  17. SLaP mapper: a webserver for identifying and quantifying spliced-leader addition and polyadenylation site usage in kinetoplastid genomes.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Gluenz, Eva; Carrington, Mark; Kelly, Steven

    2014-09-01

    The Kinetoplastida are a diverse and globally distributed class of free-living and parasitic single-celled eukaryotes that collectively cause a significant burden on human health and welfare. In kinetoplastids individual genes do not have promoters, but rather all genes are arranged downstream of a small number of RNA polymerase II transcription initiation sites and are thus transcribed in polycistronic gene clusters. Production of individual mRNAs from this continuous transcript occurs co-transcriptionally by trans-splicing of a ?39 nucleotide capped RNA and subsequent polyadenylation of the upstream mRNA. SLaP mapper (Spliced-Leader and Polyadenylation mapper) is a fully automated web-service for identification, quantitation and gene-assignment of both spliced-leader and polyadenylation addition sites in Kinetoplastid genomes. SLaP mapper only requires raw read data from paired-end Illumina RNAseq and performs all read processing, mapping, quality control, quantification, and analysis in a fully automated pipeline. To provide usage examples and estimates of the quantity of sequence data required we use RNAseq obtained from two different library preparations from both Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana to show the number of expected reads that are obtained from each preparation type. SLaP mapper is an easy to use, platform independent webserver that is freely available for use at http://www.stevekellylab.com/software/slap. Example files are provided on the website. PMID:25111964

  18. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Cornelius; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Schmitzová, Jana; Hartmuth, Klaus; Fabrizio, Patrizia; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast Bact spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the Bact crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25’s step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing. PMID:26393790

  19. RNA splicing and genes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.A.

    1988-11-25

    The splicing of long transcripts RNA (copied from DNA in the cell nucleus) into smaller specific mRNA is an important event in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The splicing reaction occurs as a late step in the nuclear pathway for synthesis of mRNAs. This pathway commences with initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and probably involves an integrated series of steps each dependent on previous events. Splicing of precursors to mRNAs involves the formation of a spliceosome complex containing 5' and 3' splice sites. This complex contains the evolutionary highly conserved small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) Us, U4, U5, and U6. The most abundant snRNA, U1, is required to form the spliceosome and may be a part of the spliceosome. Analogues of these snRNAs have been identified in yeast. Assembly of the spliceosome probably involves the binding of a multi-snRNA complex containing U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs. Several observations suggest that the association of snRNAs in such complexes is quite dynamic. It is argued that the snRANs in the spliceosome form a catalytic RNA structure that is responsible for the cleavage and ligation steps during splicing.

  20. Characterization of an Additional Splice Acceptor Site Introduced into CYP4B1 in Hominoidae during Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Oliver T.; Roellecke, Katharina; Freund, Marcel; Gombert, Michael; Lottmann, Nadine; Steward, Charles A.; Kramm, Christof M.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Rettie, Allan E.; Hanenberg, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    CYP4B1 belongs to the cytochrome P450 family 4, one of the oldest P450 families whose members have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The CYP4 monooxygenases typically oxidize fatty acids to both inactive and active lipid mediators, although the endogenous ligand(s) is largely unknown. During evolution, at the transition of great apes to humanoids, the CYP4B1 protein acquired a serine instead of a proline at the canonical position 427 in the meander region. Although this alteration impairs P450 function related to the processing of naturally occurring lung toxins, a study in transgenic mice suggested that an additional serine insertion at position 207 in human CYP4B1 can rescue the enzyme stability and activity. Here, we report that the genomic insertion of a CAG triplet at the intron 5–exon 6 boundary in human CYP4B1 introduced an additional splice acceptor site in frame. During evolution, this change occurred presumably at the stage of Hominoidae and leads to two major isoforms of the CYP4B1 enzymes of humans and great apes, either with or without a serine 207 insertion (insSer207). We further demonstrated that the CYP4B1 enzyme with insSer207 is the dominant isoform (76%) in humans. Importantly, this amino acid insertion did not affect the 4-ipomeanol metabolizing activities or stabilities of the native rabbit or human CYP4B1 enzymes, when introduced as transgenes in human primary cells and cell lines. In our 3D modeling, this functional neutrality of insSer207 is compatible with its predicted location on the exterior surface of CYP4B1 in a flexible side chain. Therefore, the Ser207 insertion does not rescue the P450 functional activity of human CYP4B1 that has been lost during evolution. PMID:26355749

  1. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging. PMID:26529031

  2. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging. PMID:26529031

  3. Pinpointing retrovirus entry sites in cells expressing alternatively spliced receptor isoforms by single virus imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of viruses enter host cells via endocytosis. Current knowledge of viral entry pathways is largely based upon infectivity measurements following genetic and/or pharmacological interventions that disrupt vesicular trafficking and maturation. Imaging of single virus entry in living cells provides a powerful means to delineate viral trafficking pathways and entry sites under physiological conditions. Results Here, we visualized single avian retrovirus co-trafficking with markers for early (Rab5) and late (Rab7) endosomes, acidification of endosomal lumen and the resulting viral fusion measured by the viral content release into the cytoplasm. Virus-carrying vesicles either merged with the existing Rab5-positive early endosomes or slowly accumulated Rab5. The Rab5 recruitment to virus-carrying endosomes correlated with acidification of their lumen. Viral fusion occurred either in early (Rab5-positive) or intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Interestingly, different isoforms of the cognate receptor directed virus entry from distinct endosomes. In cells expressing the transmembrane receptor, viruses preferentially entered and fused with slowly maturing early endosomes prior to accumulation of Rab7. By comparison, in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor, viruses entered both slowly and quickly maturing endosomes and fused with early (Rab5-positive) and intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Conclusions Since the rate of low pH-triggered fusion was independent of the receptor isoform, we concluded that the sites of virus entry are determined by the kinetic competition between endosome maturation and viral fusion. Our findings demonstrate the ability of this retrovirus to enter cells via alternative endocytic pathways and establish infection by releasing its content from distinct endosomal compartments. PMID:24935247

  4. Linking Splicing to Pol II Transcription Stabilizes Pre-mRNAs and Influences Splicing

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    Linking Splicing to Pol II Transcription Stabilizes Pre-mRNAs and Influences Splicing Patterns, United States of America RNA processing is carried out in close proximity to the site of transcription, suggesting a regulatory link between transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. Using an in vitro transcription

  5. NMR structure of the 5' splice site in the group IIB intron Sc.ai5?--conformational requirements for exon-intron recognition.

    PubMed

    Kruschel, Daniela; Skilandat, Miriam; Sigel, Roland K O

    2014-03-01

    A crucial step of the self-splicing reaction of group II intron ribozymes is the recognition of the 5' exon by the intron. This recognition is achieved by two regions in domain 1 of the intron, the exon-binding sites EBS1 and EBS2 forming base pairs with the intron-binding sites IBS1 and IBS2 located at the end of the 5' exon. The complementarity of the EBS1•IBS1 contact is most important for ensuring site-specific cleavage of the phosphodiester bond between the 5' exon and the intron. Here, we present the NMR solution structures of the d3' hairpin including EBS1 free in solution and bound to the IBS1 7-mer. In the unbound state, EBS1 is part of a flexible 11-nucleotide (nt) loop. Binding of IBS1 restructures and freezes the entire loop region. Mg(2+) ions are bound near the termini of the EBS1•IBS1 helix, stabilizing the interaction. Formation of the 7-bp EBS1•IBS1 helix within a loop of only 11 nt forces the loop backbone to form a sharp turn opposite of the splice site, thereby presenting the scissile phosphate in a position that is structurally unique. PMID:24448450

  6. The genetics of splicing in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Justin; Hackett, Christopher S.; Zhang, Shile; Song, Young K.; Bell, Robert J.A.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Quigley, David A.; Balmain, Allan; Song, Jun S.; Costello, Joseph F.; Gustafson, W. Clay; Dyke, Terry Van; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Khan, Javed; Weiss, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA splicing, a critical and tightly regulated cellular function, underlies the majority of proteomic diversity, and is frequently disrupted in disease. Using an integrative genomics approach, we combined both genome and exon level transcriptome data in two somatic tissues (cerebella and peripheral ganglia) from a transgenic mouse model of neuroblastoma, a tumor that arises from peripheral neural crest. Here we describe splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) associated with differential splicing across the genome that we use to identify genes with previously unknown functions within the splicing pathway and to define de novo intronic splicing motifs that influence splicing from hundreds of bases away. Our results show that these splicing motifs represent sites for functional recurrent mutations and highlight novel candidate genes in human cancers, including childhood neuroblastoma. PMID:25637275

  7. Structure of tau exon 10 splicing regulatory element RNA and destabilization by mutations of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Luca; Hasegawa, Masato; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Smith, Michael J.; Murrell, Jill R.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Klug, Aaron; Goedert, Michel; Varani, Gabriele

    1999-01-01

    Coding region and intronic mutations in the tau gene cause frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. Intronic mutations and some missense mutations increase splicing in of exon 10, leading to an increased ratio of four-repeat to three-repeat tau isoforms. Secondary structure predictions have led to the proposal that intronic mutations and one missense mutation destabilize a putative RNA stem-loop structure located close to the splice-donor site of the intron after exon 10. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of this tau exon 10 splicing regulatory element RNA by NMR spectroscopy. We show that it forms a stable, folded stem-loop structure whose thermodynamic stability is reduced by frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 mutations and increased by compensatory mutations. By exon trapping, the reduction in thermodynamic stability is correlated with increased splicing in of exon 10. PMID:10393977

  8. Management of pediatric skin-graft donor sites: a randomized controlled trial of three wound care products.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Maria; Hilliard, Carol; Peel, Glynis; Crispino, Gloria; Geraghty, Ruth; O?Callaghan, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Skin grafts are used to treat many types of skin defects in children, including burns, traumatic wounds, and revision of scars. The objective of this prospective randomized controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of three dressing types for pediatric donor sites: foam, hydrofiber, and calcium alginate. Children attending a pediatric Burns & Plastics Service from October 2010 to March 2013, who required a split-skin graft, were recruited to the trial. Patients were randomly assigned to the two experimental groups, foam or hydrofiber, and to the control group, calcium alginate. Data were gathered on the management of exudate, assessment of pain, time to healing, and infection. Fifty-seven children aged 1 to 16 years (mean = 4.9 years) were recruited to the trial. Fifty-six patients had evaluable data and one participant from the control group was lost to follow-up. Most children required skin grafting for a burn injury (78%). The median size of the donor site was 63.50 cm (8-600 cm). There was a statistically significant difference in time to healing across the three dressing groups (x [2, n = 56] = 6.59, P = .037). The calcium alginate group recorded a lower median value of days to healing (median = 7.5 days) compared to the other two groups, which recorded median values of 8 days (hydrofiber) and 9.5 days (foam). The greatest leakage of exudate, regardless of dressing type, occurred on day 2 after grafting. No statistically significant difference was found in leakage of exudate, pain scores, or infection rates across the three groups. Calcium alginate emerged as the optimum dressing for pediatric donor site healing in this trial. PMID:25185932

  9. Identification of beta1C-2, a novel variant of the integrin beta1 subunit generated by utilization of an alternative splice acceptor site in exon C.

    PubMed Central

    Svineng, G; Fässler, R; Johansson, S

    1998-01-01

    A new splice variant of the human integrin subunit beta1 has been identified and designated beta1C-2. It differs from the previously reported beta1C (in this report designated beta1C-1) by 18 nucleotides, and is generated by splicing from exon 6 to an alternative splice acceptor site within exon C, causing an in-frame deletion of six amino acids of the cytoplasmic region of beta1C-1. The beta1C-2 mRNA is present in several human cell lines and tissues at low levels, similarly to beta1C-1. In peripheral T-lymphocytes, beta1C-2 is the selectively expressed isoform. Neither beta1C-1 nor beta1C-2 mRNA could be detected in mouse tissues, and Southern hybridization of a mouse genomic beta1 clone with a human exon-C-specific probe failed to identify a corresponding mouse exon. The antisense orientation of exon C is highly homologous to an Alu element. Since Alu elements are restricted to primates, the beta1C-1 and beta1C-2 variants of the integrin subunit beta1 are specific for these species. The protein coded for by the beta1C-2 cDNA can be expressed and localized to the surface of beta1 deficient mouse cells. However, while stable transformed clones expressing high levels of the beta1A were commonly found, the beta1C-1 and beta1C-2 expressing clones expressed barely detectable amounts of the beta1 protein. Hence, high levels of beta1C-2 may be incompatible with cell proliferation, as previously suggested for beta1C-1. PMID:9494094

  10. Splicing factor SRSF1 negatively regulates alternative splicing of MDM2 under damage

    PubMed Central

    Comiskey, Daniel F.; Jacob, Aishwarya G.; Singh, Ravi K.; Tapia-Santos, Aixa S.; Chandler, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic stress induces alternative splicing of the oncogene MDM2 generating MDM2-ALT1, an isoform attributed with tumorigenic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying this event remain unclear. Here we explore MDM2 splicing regulation by utilizing a novel minigene that mimics endogenous MDM2 splicing in response to UV and cisplatinum-induced DNA damage. We report that exon 11 is necessary and sufficient for the damage-specific alternative splicing of the MDM2 minigene and that the splicing factor SRSF1 binds exon 11 at evolutionarily conserved sites. Interestingly, mutations disrupting this interaction proved sufficient to abolish the stress-induced alternative splicing of the MDM2 minigene. Furthermore, SRSF1 overexpression promoted exclusion of exon 11, while its siRNA-mediated knockdown prevented the stress-induced alternative splicing of endogenous MDM2. Additionally, we observed elevated SRSF1 levels under stress and in tumors correlating with the expression of MDM2-ALT1. Notably, we demonstrate that MDM2-ALT1 splicing can be blocked by targeting SRSF1 sites on exon 11 using antisense oligonucleotides. These results present conclusive evidence supporting a negative role for SRSF1 in MDM2 alternative splicing. Importantly, we define for the first time, a clear-cut mechanism for the regulation of damage-induced MDM2 splicing and present potential strategies for manipulating MDM2 expression via splicing modulation. PMID:25845590

  11. Diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor for the hydrogenase complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus. Evidence for two distinct electron donor sites.

    PubMed

    Magnani, P; Doussiere, J; Lissolo, T

    2000-07-20

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesises a membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase encoded by the H2 uptake hydrogenase (hup)SLC structural operon. The hupS and hupL genes encode the small and large subunits of hydrogenase, respectively; hupC encodes a membrane electron carrier protein which may be considered as the third subunit of the uptake hydrogenase. In Wolinella succinogenes, the hydC gene, homologous to hupC, has been shown to encode a low potential cytochrome b which mediates electron transfer from H2 to the quinone pool of the bacterial membrane. In whole cells of R. capsulatus or intact membrane preparation of the wild type strain B10, methylene blue but not benzyl viologen can be used as acceptor of the electrons donated by H2 to hydrogenase; on the other hand, membranes of B10 treated with Triton X-100 or whole cells of a HupC- mutant exhibit both benzyl viologen and methylene blue reductase activities. We report the effect of diphenylene iodonium (Ph2I), a known inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and of various monooxygenases on R. capsulatus hydrogenase activity. With H2 as electron donor, Ph2I inhibited partially the methylene blue reductase activity in an uncompetitive manner, and totally benzyl viologen reductase activity in a competitive manner. Furthermore, with benzyl viologen as electron acceptor, Ph2I increased dramatically the observed lagtime for dye reduction. These results suggest that two different sites exist on the electron donor side of the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of R. capsulatus, both located on the small subunit. A low redox potential site which reduces benzyl viologen, binds Ph2I and could be located on the distal [Fe4S4] cluster. A higher redox potential site which can reduce methylene blue in vitro could be connected to the high potential [Fe3S4] cluster and freely accessible from the periplasm. PMID:10924909

  12. Identification of two splicing mutations in the collagen type VII gene (COL7A1) of a patient affected by the localisata variant of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed Central

    Gardella, R.; Belletti, L.; Zoppi, N.; Marini, D.; Barlati, S.; Colombi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Collagen type VII gene (COL7A1) has been demonstrated to be altered in several variants of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB), with either recessive or dominant mode of inheritance. We have identified two mutations in a patient affected by a localisata variant of recessive DEB (L-RDEB), which is characterized by the less severe phenotype of the syndrome. These mutations are the first splicing mutations so far described for COL7A1 in DEB. One mutation is a paternally inherited A-->G transition at position -2 of the donor splicing site of intron 3, which results in three aberrant mRNAs, depending on the skipping of exon 3, the usage of a cryptic donor site inside exon 3, or the maintenance of intron 3. The second mutation is a maternally inherited G-->A transition at position -1 of the donor splicing site of intron 95, which induces the activation of a cryptic donor site 7 nt upstream the normal site and gives rise to a deleted mRNA, in addition to the normal one. All aberrant mRNAs show a shift of the reading frame, thus generating premature termination codons of translation. Allele-specific analysis of the transcripts has shown that the maternal mutation does not completely abolish the correct splicing of COLVII pre-mRNA, thus allowing, in the patient, the synthesis of a certain level of a functional protein. This result is compatible with the mild clinical L-RDEB phenotype observed in our patient. Images Figure 1 Figure 2A & B Figure 2C Figure 3A & B Figure 3C Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8755915

  13. Regulation of Alternative Splicing in Vivo by Overexpression of Antagonistic Splicing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Javier F.; Stamm, Stefan; Helfman, David M.; Krainer, Adrian R.

    1994-09-01

    The opposing effects of SF2/ASF and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 influence alternative splicing in vitro. SF2/ASF or hnRNP A1 complementary DNAs were transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells, and the effect on alternative splicing of several cotransfected reporter genes was measured. Increased expression of SF2/ASF activated proximal 5' splice sites, promoted inclusion of a neuron-specific exon, and prevented abnormal exon skipping. Increased expression of hnRNP A1 activated distal 5' splice sites. Therefore, variations in the intracellular levels of antagonistic splicing factors influence different modes of alternative splicing in vivo and may be a natural mechanism for tissue-specific or developmental regulation of gene expression.

  14. In vitro Splicing of Influenza Viral NS1 mRNA and NS1-? -globin Chimeras: Possible Mechanisms for the Control of Viral mRNA Splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotch, Stephen J.; Krug, Robert M.

    1986-08-01

    In influenza virus-infected cells, the splicing of the viral NS1 mRNA catalyzed by host nuclear enzymes is controlled so that the steady-state amount of the spliced NS2 mRNA is only 5-10% of that of the unspliced NS1 mRNA. Here we examine the splicing of NS1 mRNA in vitro, using nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We show that in addition to its consensus 5' and 3' splice sites, NS1 mRNA has an intron branch-point adenosine residue that was functional in lariat formation. Nonetheless, this RNA was not detectably spliced in vitro under conditions in which a human ? -globin precursor was efficiently spliced. Using chimeric RNA precursors containing both NS1 and ? -globin sequences, we show that the NS1 5' splice site was effectively utilized by the ? -globin branch-point sequence and 3' splice site to form a spliced RNA, whereas the NS1 3' splice site did not function in detectable splicing in vitro, even in the presence of the ? -globin branch-point sequence or in the presence of both the branch-point sequence and 5' exon and splice site from ? -globin With the chimeric precursors that were not detectably spliced, as with NS1 mRNA itself, a low level of a lariat structure containing only intron and not 3' exon sequences was formed. The inability of the consensus 3' splice site of NS1 mRNA to function effectively in in vitro splicing suggests that this site is structurally inaccessible to components of the splicing machinery. Based on these results, we propose two mechanisms whereby NS1 mRNA splicing in infected cells is controlled via the accessibility of its 3' splice site.

  15. Cell Reports Live-Cell Visualization of Pre-mRNA Splicing

    E-print Network

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    Cell Reports Article Live-Cell Visualization of Pre-mRNA Splicing with Single-Molecule Sensitivity events do not fully commit a pre-messenger RNA (pre- mRNA) to splicing (Hoskins et al., 2011 or repress the recognition of the core splicing sequences, splice sites in pre-mRNA can be differentially

  16. Assessment of thickness of palatal mucosal donor site and its association with age and gender

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Anu; Raju, Saranyan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to determine the thickness of the palatal mucosa by a direct clinical method, and the association of age and gender with the thickness of the palatal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically and periodontally healthy Indian subjects participated in the study. The subjects were categorized according to age and gender. The thickness of the palatal mucosa was assessed by bone sounding. Acrylic stents provided 15 consistent locations for the measurement, defined according to the gingival margin and mid-palatal line. Results: The mean thickness of palatal mucosa was 2.48?0.03 mm, ranging between 2.07 and 3.00 mm, among the participants. The younger age group had significantly thinner mucosa than the older age group. Females had thinner palatal mucosa than males, but not statistically significant. Conclusion: The palatal area from the distal line angle of the canine to the mesial line angle of the palatal root of the first molar provides sufficient donor tissue for grafting procedures. Factors such as body weight and genetic factors need to be further investigated. As the dimension of the soft tissue graft is an important factor influencing the success of the treatment procedure the assessment of the dimension is relevant to clinical periodontics. PMID:23162331

  17. An Aberrant Splice Acceptor Site Due to a Novel Intronic Nucleotide Substitution in MSX1 Gene Is the Cause of Congenital Tooth Agenesis in a Japanese Family

    PubMed Central

    Tatematsu, Tadashi; Kimura, Masashi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Machida, Junichiro; Yamaguchi, Seishi; Shibata, Akio; Goto, Hiroki; Nakayama, Atsuo; Higashi, Yujiro; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Shimozato, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Tokita, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Congenital tooth agenesis is caused by mutations in the MSX1, PAX9, WNT10A, or AXIN2 genes. Here, we report a Japanese family with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis caused by a novel nucleotide substitution in the intronic region between exons 1 and 2 of the MSX1 gene. Because the mutation is located 9?bp before exon 2 (c.452-9G>A), we speculated that the nucleotide substitution would generate an abnormal splice site. Using cDNA analysis of an immortalized patient blood cell, we confirmed that an additional 7-nucleotide sequence was inserted at the splice junction between exons 1 and 2 (c.451_452insCCCTCAG). The consequent frameshift generated a homeodomain-truncated MSX1 (p.R151fsX20). We then studied the subcellular localization of truncated MSX1 protein in COS cells, and observed that it had a whole cell distribution more than a nuclear localization, compared to that of wild-type protein. This result suggests a deletion of the nuclear localization signal, which is mapped to the MSX1 homeodomain. These results indicate that this novel intronic nucleotide substitution is the cause of tooth agenesis in this family. To date, most MSX1 variants isolated from patients with tooth agenesis involve single amino acid substitutions in the highly conserved homeodomain or deletion mutants caused by frameshift or nonsense mutations. We here report a rare case of an intronic mutation of the MSX1 gene responsible for human tooth agenesis. In addition, the missing tooth patterns were slightly but significantly different between an affected monozygotic twin pair of this family, showing that epigenetic or environmental factors also affect the phenotypic variations of missing teeth among patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis caused by an MSX1 haploinsufficiency. PMID:26030286

  18. Direct Repression of Splicing by transformer-2

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Dawn S.; Qi, Junlin; Mattox, William

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster sex determination factor Tra2 positively regulates the splicing of both doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) pre-mRNAs but negatively affects the splicing of the M1 intron in tra2 pre-mRNA. Retention of the M1 intron is known to be part of a negative-feedback mechanism wherein the Tra2 protein limits its own synthesis, but the mechanism responsible for accumulation of M1-containing RNA is unknown. Here we show that the recombinant Tra2 protein specifically represses M1 splicing in Drosophila nuclear extracts. We find that the Tra2 protein binds directly to several sites in and near the M1 intron and that, when Tra2 binding is competed with other RNAs, the splicing of M1 is restored. Mapping the RNA sequences functionally required for M1 repression identified both a 34-nucleotide (nt) A/C-rich sequence immediately upstream of the M1 5? splice site and a region within the intron itself. The AC-rich sequence is largely composed of a repeated 4-nt sequence that also forms a subrepeat within the repeated 13-nt splicing enhancer elements of fru and dsx RNAs. Although required for repression, the element also enhances M1 splicing in the absence of Tra2. We propose that Tra2 represses M1 splicing by interacting with multiple sequences in the pre-mRNA and interfering with enhancer function. PMID:12861004

  19. SpliceJumper: a classification-based approach for calling splicing junctions from RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Next-generation RNA sequencing technologies have been widely applied in transcriptome profiling. This facilitates further studies of gene structure and expression on the genome wide scale. It is an important step to align reads to the reference genome and call out splicing junctions for the following analysis, such as the analysis of alternative splicing and isoform construction. However, because of the existence of introns, when RNA-seq reads are aligned to the reference genome, reads can not be fully mapped at splicing sites. Thus, it is challenging to align reads and call out splicing junctions accurately. Results In this paper, we present a classification based approach for calling splicing junctions from RNA-seq data, which is implemented in the program SpliceJumper. SpliceJumper uses a machine learning approach which combines multiple features extracted from RNA-seq data. We compare SpliceJumper with two existing RNA-seq analysis approaches, TopHat2 and MapSplice2, on both simulated and real data. Our results show that SpliceJumper outperforms TopHat2 and MapSplice2 in accuracy. The program SpliceJumper can be downloaded at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/SpliceJumper. PMID:26678515

  20. HPV-18 E2circumflexE4 chimera: 2 new spliced transcripts and proteins induced by keratinocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Chye Ling; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Lai, Deborah; Carthagena, Laetitia; Wang, Qian; Xue, Yue Zhen; Quek, Ling Shih; Doorbar, John; Bachelerie, Francoise; Thierry, Francoise; Bellanger, Sophie

    2012-07-20

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E4 is known to be synthesized as an E1circumflexE4 fusion resulting from splice donor and acceptor sites conserved across HPV types. Here we demonstrate the existence of 2 HPV-18 E2circumflexE4 transcripts resulting from 2 splice donor sites in the 5 Prime part of E2, while the splice acceptor site is the one used for E1circumflexE4. Both E2circumflexE4 transcripts are up-regulated by keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and can be detected in clinical samples containing low-grade HPV-18-positive cells from Pap smears. They give rise to two fusion proteins in vitro, E2circumflexE4-S and E2circumflexE4-L. Whereas we could not differentiate E2circumflexE4-S from E1circumflexE4 in vivo, E2circumflexE4-L could be formally identified as a 23 kDa protein in raft cultures in which the corresponding transcript was also found, and in a biopsy from a patient with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage I-II (CINI-II) associated with HPV-18, demonstrating the physiological relevance of E2circumflexE4 products.

  1. MYC regulates the core pre-mRNA splicing machinery as an essential step in lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cheryl M; Bezzi, Marco; Low, Diana H P; Ang, Wei Xia; Teo, Shun Xie; Gay, Florence P H; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Tan, Soo Yong; Osato, Motomi; Sabò, Arianna; Amati, Bruno; Wee, Keng Boon; Guccione, Ernesto

    2015-07-01

    Deregulated expression of the MYC transcription factor occurs in most human cancers and correlates with high proliferation, reprogrammed cellular metabolism and poor prognosis. Overexpressed MYC binds to virtually all active promoters within a cell, although with different binding affinities, and modulates the expression of distinct subsets of genes. However, the critical effectors of MYC in tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. Here we show that during lymphomagenesis in Eµ-myc transgenic mice, MYC directly upregulates the transcription of the core small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle assembly genes, including Prmt5, an arginine methyltransferase that methylates Sm proteins. This coordinated regulatory effect is critical for the core biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, effective pre-messenger-RNA splicing, cell survival and proliferation. Our results demonstrate that MYC maintains the splicing fidelity of exons with a weak 5' donor site. Additionally, we identify pre-messenger-RNAs that are particularly sensitive to the perturbation of the MYC-PRMT5 axis, resulting in either intron retention (for example, Dvl1) or exon skipping (for example, Atr, Ep400). Using antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrate the contribution of these splicing defects to the anti-proliferative/apoptotic phenotype observed in PRMT5-depleted Eµ-myc B cells. We conclude that, in addition to its well-documented oncogenic functions in transcription and translation, MYC also safeguards proper pre-messenger-RNA splicing as an essential step in lymphomagenesis. PMID:25970242

  2. The length of the downstream exon and the substitution of specific sequences affect pre-mRNA splicing in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Furdon, P.J.; Kole, R.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have shown previously that truncation of the human ..beta..-globin pre-mRNA in the second exon, 14 nucleotides downstream from the 3' splice site, leads to inhibition of splicing but not cleavage at the 5' splice site. They now show that several nonglobin sequences substituted at this site can restore splicing and that the efficiency of splicing depends on the length of the second (downstream) exon and not a specific sequence. Deletions in the first exon have no effect on the efficiency of in vitro splicing. Surprisingly, an intron fragment from the 5' region of the human or rabbit ..beta..-globin intron 2, when placed 14 nucleotides downstream from the 3' splice site, inhibited all the steps in splicing beginning with cleavage at the 5' splice site. This result suggests that the intron 2 fragment carries a ''poison'' sequence that can inhibit the splicing of an upstream intron.

  3. Adenosine Is Inherently Favored as the Branch-Site RNA Nucleotide in a Structural Context That Resembles Natural RNA Splicing

    E-print Network

    Silverman, Scott K.

    found that deoxyribozymes newly selected to use uridine as the branch-site RNA nucleotide uridine nor cytidine is accepted above trace levels (3). Curiously, the preference of 7S11 for branch a new selection that allows branch-site uridine to react in the same structural context. The results

  4. Crystal Structures of Pasteurella multocida Sialyltransferase Complexes with Acceptor and Donor Analogues Reveal Substrate Binding Sites and Catalytic

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    Crystal Structures of Pasteurella multocida Sialyltransferase Complexes with Acceptor and Donor and pathologically important sialic acid-containing molecules in nature. Binary X-ray crystal structures simultaneously. The four structures presented here reveal that binding of the nucleotide-activated donor sugar

  5. Discovery of Candidate Disease Genes in ENU–Induced Mouse Mutants by Large-Scale Sequencing, Including a Splice-Site Mutation in Nucleoredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Liu, Bin; Probst, Frank J.; Harrow, Jennifer; Grafham, Darren; Hentges, Kathryn E.; Woodward, Lanette P.; Maxwell, Andrea; Mitchell, Karen; Risley, Michael D.; Johnson, Randy; Hirschi, Karen; Lupski, James R.; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Matthews, Lucy; Coffey, Alison J.; Parker, Anne; Hubbard, Tim J.; Rogers, Jane; Bradley, Allan; Adams, David J.; Justice, Monica J.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn), inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing. PMID:20011118

  6. A Mouse Splice-Site Mutant and Individuals with Atypical Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletions Demonstrate the Crucial Role for Crkl in Craniofacial and Pharyngeal Development

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kerry A.; Tan, Tiong Y.; Welfare, Megan F.; White, Susan M.; Stark, Zornitza; Savarirayan, Ravi; Burgess, Trent; Heggie, Andrew A.; Caruana, Georgina; Bertram, John F.; Bateman, John F.; Farlie, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is thought to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency for a variable number of genes with overlapping function during the development of the craniofacial, pharyngeal and cardiac structures. The complexity of genetic and developmental anomalies resulting in 22q11DS has made attributing causation to specific genes difficult. The CRKL gene resides within the common 3-Mb region, most frequently affected in 22q11DS, and has been shown to play an essential role in the development of tissues affected in 22q11DS. Here, we report the characterisation of a mouse strain we named ‘snoopy’, harbouring a novel Crkl splice-site mutation that results in a loss of Crkl expression. The snoopy strain exhibits a variable phenotype that includes micrognathia, pharyngeal occlusion, aglossia and holoprosencephaly, and altered retinoic acid and endothelin signalling. Together, these features are reminiscent of malformations occurring in auriculocondylar syndrome and agnathia-otocephaly complex, 2 conditions not previously associated with the CRKL function. Comparison of the features of a cohort of patients harbouring small 22q11.2 deletions centred over the CRKL gene, but sparing TBX1, highlights the role of CRKL in contributing to the craniofacial features of 22q11DS. These analyses demonstrate the central role of Crkl in regulating signalling events in the developing oropharyngeal complex and its potential to contribute to dysmorphology. PMID:25565927

  7. SR protein kinases promote splicing of nonconsensus introns.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Jesse J; Marvin, Michael C; Shokat, Kevan M; Guthrie, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Phosphorylation of the spliceosome is essential for RNA splicing, yet how and to what extent kinase signaling affects splicing have not been defined on a genome-wide basis. Using a chemical genetic approach, we show in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that the SR protein kinase Dsk1 is required for efficient splicing of introns with suboptimal splice sites. Systematic substrate mapping in fission yeast and human cells revealed that SRPKs target evolutionarily conserved spliceosomal proteins, including the branchpoint-binding protein Bpb1 (SF1 in humans), by using an RXXSP consensus motif for substrate recognition. Phosphorylation of SF1 increases SF1 binding to introns with nonconsensus splice sites in vitro, and mutation of such sites to consensus relieves the requirement for Dsk1 and phosphorylated Bpb1 in vivo. Modulation of splicing efficiency through kinase signaling pathways may allow tuning of gene expression in response to environmental and developmental cues. PMID:26167880

  8. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans U2AF Large Subunit UAF-1 Alter the Choice of a 3' Splice Site In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Ma, Long

    The removal of introns from eukaryotic RNA transcripts requires the activities of five multi-component ribonucleoprotein complexes and numerous associated proteins. The lack of mutations affecting splicing factors essential ...

  9. The 5'-terminal sequence of U1 RNA complementary to the consensus 5' splice site of hnRNA is single-stranded in intact U1 snRNP particles.

    PubMed Central

    Rinke, J; Appel, B; Blöcker, H; Frank, R; Lührmann, R

    1984-01-01

    The 5'-terminal region of U1 snRNA is highly complementary to the consensus exon-intron regions of hnRNA and it has been suggested that U1 snRNP might play a role in the splicing of the pre-mRNA by intermolecular base-pairing between these regions. Here the secondary structure of the 5' terminus of U1 RNA in the isolated native U1 snRNP particle has been investigated by site-directed enzymatic cleavage of the RNA. Individual oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to various sequences within the first 15 nucleotides of the 5' terminus of U1 RNA have been tested for their ability to form stable DNA X RNA hybrids, with subsequent cleavage of the U1 RNA by RNase H. Our results show unequivocally that the 9 nucleotides at the 5' terminus which are complementary to a consensus 5' splice site are indeed single-stranded in the intact U1 snRNP particle, and are not protected by snRNP proteins. However, they also indicate that the U1 sequence complementary to an intron's consensus 3' end is not readily available for intermolecular base-pairing, either in the intact U1 snRNP particle or in the deproteinized U1 RNA molecule. Therefore our data favour the possibility that U1 snRNP plays a role only in the recognition of a 5' splice site of hnRNA, rather than being involved in the alignment of both ends of an intron for splicing. Images PMID:6203096

  10. Seroma and quilting suture at the donor site of the TRAM flap in breast reconstruction: a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Luis Antonio; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-04-01

    Seroma formation at the donor site of the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was evaluated in 48 patients who underwent breast reconstruction with either quilting sutures and suction drains (QS+DN group) or quilting sutures alone (QS group) or suction drains alone (DN group). Clinical and ultrasound examinations were performed to assess seroma formation in 5 regions of the abdominal wall on postoperative days 7 and 14. The incidence of seroma detected by ultrasound examination was significantly higher in the DN group (P = 0.008) than that in the other 2 groups. No difference in seroma volume (puncture) was found between the QS+DN and QS groups (P = 1.00). Seroma formation was observed in the iliac region in the DN group but not in the QS+DN and QS groups (P = 0.028). Quilting sutures at the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap donor site were efficient in reducing seroma formation. PMID:23407260

  11. Discover hidden splicing variations by mapping personal transcriptomes to personal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Shayna; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Bahrami-Samani, Emad; Park, Juw Won; Xing, Yi

    2015-01-01

    RNA-seq has become a popular technology for studying genetic variation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Commonly used RNA-seq aligners rely on the consensus splice site dinucleotide motifs to map reads across splice junctions. Consequently, genomic variants that create novel splice site dinucleotides may produce splice junction RNA-seq reads that cannot be mapped to the reference genome. We developed and evaluated an approach to identify ‘hidden’ splicing variations in personal transcriptomes, by mapping personal RNA-seq data to personal genomes. Computational analysis and experimental validation indicate that this approach identifies personal specific splice junctions at a low false positive rate. Applying this approach to an RNA-seq data set of 75 individuals, we identified 506 personal specific splice junctions, among which 437 were novel splice junctions not documented in current human transcript annotations. 94 splice junctions had splice site SNPs associated with GWAS signals of human traits and diseases. These involve genes whose splicing variations have been implicated in diseases (such as OAS1), as well as novel associations between alternative splicing and diseases (such as ICA1). Collectively, our work demonstrates that the personal genome approach to RNA-seq read alignment enables the discovery of a large but previously unknown catalog of splicing variations in human populations. PMID:26578562

  12. BRCA1 Exon 11, a CERES (Composite Regulatory Element of Splicing) Element Involved in Splice Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tammaro, Claudia; Raponi, Michela; Wilson, David I.; Baralle, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Unclassified variants (UV) of BRCA1 can affect normal pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we investigate the UV c.693G>A, a “silent” change in BRCA1 exon 11, which we have found induces aberrant splicing in patient carriers and in vitro. Using a minigene assay, we show that the UV c.693G>A has a strong effect on the splicing isoform ratio of BRCA1. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the area surrounding the nucleotide position c.693G>A induced variable changes in the level of exon 11 inclusion/exclusion in the mRNA, pointing to the presence of a complex regulatory element with overlapping enhancer and silencer functions. Accordingly, protein binding analysis in the region detected several splicing regulatory factors involved, including SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9, suggesting that this sequence represents a composite regulatory element of splicing (CERES). PMID:25056543

  13. BRCA1 EXON 11, a CERES (composite regulatory element of splicing) element involved in splice regulation.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Claudia; Raponi, Michela; Wilson, David I; Baralle, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Unclassified variants (UV) of BRCA1 can affect normal pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we investigate the UV c.693G>A, a "silent" change in BRCA1 exon 11, which we have found induces aberrant splicing in patient carriers and in vitro. Using a minigene assay, we show that the UV c.693G>A has a strong effect on the splicing isoform ratio of BRCA1. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the area surrounding the nucleotide position c.693G>A induced variable changes in the level of exon 11 inclusion/exclusion in the mRNA, pointing to the presence of a complex regulatory element with overlapping enhancer and silencer functions. Accordingly, protein binding analysis in the region detected several splicing regulatory factors involved, including SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9, suggesting that this sequence represents a composite regulatory element of splicing (CERES). PMID:25056543

  14. Electron donor concentrations in sediments and sediment properties at the agricultural chemicals team research site near New Providence, Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maharjan, Bijesh; Korom, Scott F.; Smith, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of electron donors in aquifer sediments are important to the understanding of the fate and transport of redox-sensitive constituents in groundwater, such as nitrate. For a study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 50 sediment samples were collected from below the water table from 11 boreholes at the U.S. Geological Survey Agricultural Chemicals Team research site near New Providence, Iowa, during 2006-07. All samples were analyzed for gravel, sand (coarse, medium, and fine), silt, clay, Munsell soil color, inorganic carbon content, and for the following electron donors: organic carbon, ferrous iron, and inorganic sulfide. A subset of 14 sediment samples also was analyzed for organic sulfur, but all of these samples had concentrations less than the method detection limit; therefore, the presence of this potential electron donor was not considered further. X-ray diffraction analyses provided important semi-quantitative information of well-crystallized dominant minerals within the sediments that might be contributing electron donors.

  15. Stable tri-snRNP integration is accompanied by a major structural rearrangement of the spliceosome that is dependent on Prp8 interaction with the 5' splice site.

    PubMed

    Boesler, Carsten; Rigo, Norbert; Agafonov, Dmitry E; Kastner, Berthold; Urlaub, Henning; Will, Cindy L; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Exon definition is the predominant initial spliceosome assembly pathway in higher eukaryotes, but it remains much less well-characterized compared to the intron-defined assembly pathway. Addition in trans of an excess of 5'ss containing RNA to a splicing reaction converts a 37S exon-defined complex, formed on a single exon RNA substrate, into a 45S B-like spliceosomal complex with stably integrated U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP. This 45S complex is compositonally and structurally highly similar to an intron-defined spliceosomal B complex. Stable tri-snRNP integration during B-like complex formation is accompanied by a major structural change as visualized by electron microscopy. The changes in structure and stability during transition from a 37S to 45S complex can be induced in affinity-purified cross-exon complexes by adding solely the 5'ss RNA oligonucleotide. This conformational change does not require the B-specific proteins, which are recruited during this stabilization process, or site-specific phosphorylation of hPrp31. Instead it is triggered by the interaction of U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP components with the 5'ss sequence, most importantly between Prp8 and nucleotides at the exon-intron junction. These studies provide novel insights into the conversion of a cross-exon to cross-intron organized spliceosome and also shed light on the requirements for stable tri-snRNP integration during B complex formation. PMID:26385511

  16. Novel and atypical splicing mutation in a compound heterozygous UNC13D defect presenting in Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis triggered by EBV infection.

    PubMed

    Alsina, L; Colobran, R; de Sevilla, M F; Català, A; Viñas, L; Ricart, S; Plaza, A M; Lois, S; Juan, M; Pujol-Borrell, R; Martinez-Gallo, M

    2014-08-01

    Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in UNC13D gene, coding the granule priming factor Munc13-4 that intervenes in NK and T cell cytotoxic function. Here we report the case of a 17-month-old girl with prolonged symptomatic EBV infectious mononucleosis and clinical symptoms of hemophagocytic syndrome. In vitro functional analysis pointed to a degranulation defect. The genetic analysis of UNC13D gene identified initially a heterozygous mutation (c.753+1G>T) in the donor splice-site that resulted in exon 9 skipping (maternal allele). Mutations in other genes were considered, but additional analysis of UNC13D cDNA revealed in the paternal allele a heterozygous transition from G to A (c.2448-13G>A) at the 3' acceptor splice-site in intron 25, generating a new acceptor splice-site that leads to a frameshift and a premature STOP codon. Allele specific amplification of the cDNA confirmed the absence of a functional mRNA from the paternal allele. This case illustrates an atypical compound heterozygous UNC13D mutation affecting the RNA splicing that generates a typical FHL3 phenotype. PMID:24825797

  17. Analysis of aberrantly spliced transcripts of a novel de novo GNAS mutant in a male with albright hereditary osteodystrophy and PHP1A.

    PubMed

    Ham, H-J; Baek, K-H; Lee, J-Y; Kim, S Y; Mo, E Y; Kim, E S; Han, J H; Moon, S-D

    2015-07-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a genetic disorder due to target-organ unresponsiveness to parathyroid hormone (PTH). PHP type 1A (PHP1A) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and PTH resistance caused by defects at the GNAS locus. We analyzed the GNAS gene in a male with typical AHO and elevated PTH levels. We identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation at the splice donor site in intron-7 (IVS7+1G>A, c.585+1G>A) of the GNAS gene. No GNAS mutations were detected in his parents. Our patient was diagnosed with PHP1A due to a heterozygous de novo mutation in the GNAS gene. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR analysis and sequencing revealed that this de novo splice mutation generated alternative splicing errors leading to the formation of 2 mutant transcripts: one with exon-7 deleted, the other with whole intron-7 included. To investigate whether these aberrantly spliced transcripts were stable, we assessed the differential expression of GNAS mRNAs in the proband's blood by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. In the proband, the relative expression levels of wild-type, exon-7-deleted, and intron-7-included GNAS mRNAs were 0.21, 6.12E-07, and 1.08E-04, respectively, relative to wild-type GNAS mRNA from a healthy control (set at 1.0). This suggests that this novel de novo splicing mutation generates rapidly decaying mutant transcripts, which might affect stimulatory G-protein activity and give rise to this sporadic case. In conclusion, this is an interesting report of aberrantly spliced mRNAs from a de novo splice mutation of the GNAS gene causing PHP1A in a male. PMID:25502941

  18. Excision of Tn10 from the donor site during transposition occurs by flush double-strand cleavages at the transposon termini.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, H W; Kleckner, N

    1992-01-01

    Tn10 transposition is accomplished without extensive replication of the transposon sequences. Replicative cointegrate formation is precluded by efficient separation of transposon sequences from flanking donor DNA at an early stage in the transposition reaction. We report here that excision of Tn10 from its donor site occurs by a pair of flush double-strand breaks. Breaks occur at each end of the element precisely between the terminal base pair of the element and the first base pair of flanking DNA. This observation provides definitive evidence that cleavage of both strands of the element occurs under the direct control of Tn10 transposase protein. It is highly likely that transposase itself is directly responsible for these cleavages. The implications of this possibility are discussed. Images PMID:1316613

  19. Changing Transcriptional Initiation Sites and Alternative 5'- and 3'-Splice Site Selection of the First Intron Deploys the Arabidopsis Protein Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase2 Variants to Different Subcellular Compartments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses two PROTEIN-L-ISOASPARTATE METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT), genes encoding an enzyme (EC 2.1.1.77) capable of converting uncoded, L-isoaspartyl residues, arising spontaneously at L-asparaginyl and L-aspartyl sites in proteins, to L-aspartate. PIMT2 produces at lea...

  20. The protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates the splicing factor SF3b1/SAP155 at Thr434, a novel in vivophosphorylation site

    E-print Network

    de Graaf, Katrin; Czajkowska, Hanna; Rottmann, Sabine; Packman, Len C; Lilischkis, Richard; Luscher, Bernhard; Becker, Walter

    2006-03-02

    Abstract Background The U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) component SF3b1/SAP155 is the only spliceosomal protein known to be phosphorylated concomitant with splicing catalysis. DYRK1A is a nuclear protein kinase that has been...

  1. Growth Hormone Deficiency and Splicing Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Amanda S.; Peng, Rui; Crawford, J. Barrett; Phillips, John A.; Patton, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of mutations that cause isolated growth hormone deficiency type II are the result of aberrant splicing of transcripts encoding human growth hormone. Such mutations increase skipping of exon 3 and encode a 17.5-kDa protein that acts as a dominant negative to block secretion of full-length protein produced from unaffected alleles. Previously, we identified a splicing regulatory element in exon 3 (exonic splicing enhancer 2 (ESE2)), but we had not determined the molecular mechanism by which this element prevents exon skipping. Here, we show that two members of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein superfamily (ASF/SF2 and SC35) act antagonistically to regulate exon 3 splicing. ASF/SF2 activates exon 3 inclusion, but SC35, acting through a region just downstream of ESE2, can block such activation. These findings explain the disease-causing mechanism of a patient mutation in ESE2 that creates a functional SC35-binding site that then acts synergistically with the downstream SC35 site to produce pathological levels of exon 3 skipping. Although the precedent for SR proteins acting as repressors is established, this is the first example of a patient mutation that creates a site through which an SR protein represses splicing. PMID:18586677

  2. Evidence for Widespread Association of Mammalian Splicing and Conserved Long-Range RNA Structures

    E-print Network

    Pervouchine, Dmitri D.

    cellular processes, including splicing in genes associated with disease. The contemporary paradigm of RNA within each gene, we now report RNA structures that could be involved in the regulation of splicing splice sites. As an example, we validated the RNA structure in the human SF1 gene using mini-genes in HEK

  3. snRNAs as the catalysts of pre-mRNA splicing Saba Valadkhan

    E-print Network

    Valadkhan, Saba

    snRNAs as the catalysts of pre-mRNA splicing Saba Valadkhan The spliceosome, the gigantic molecular machine that performs pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes, contains over 200 different proteins and five RNA U1 at the 50 splice site, and forms a base-pairing interaction with U2 snRNA that juxtaposes the 50

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of dominantly inherited isolated GH deficiency due to GH1 gene splice site mutations.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Yamada, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2013-09-01

    Dominantly inherited isolated GH deficiency is mainly caused by a heterozygous donor site mutation of intron 3 in the GH1 gene. An exon 3 deletion in GH (del32-71 GH) is produced from a mutant allele, whereas wild-type GH is produced from the other allele. Several studies have demonstrated a dominant negative effect of del32-71 GH on wild-type GH secretion, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that unfolded del32-71 GH accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and causes ER stress and apoptosis in somatotrophs, promoting GH deficiency. To evaluate del32-71 GH-mediated ER stress, we established GH4C1 cell lines with doxycycline (dox)-controlled del32-71 GH expression. In 20 of 23 dox-controlled cell lines, the concentration of wild-type GH in the culture medium significantly decreased with del32-71 GH induction, demonstrating the dominant negative effect of this mutant. Cell viability, mRNA abundance of ER stress-response genes, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated in 5 dox-controlled cell lines selected as cellular models. In 4 of the 5 cell lines, del32-71 GH induction decreased cell viability, increased expression of 3 major ER stress response pathways (PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], activating transcription factor-6 [ATF6], and inositol requirement 1 [IRE1]), and induced caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation. In 1 of the 4 cell lines, DNA fragmentation was demonstrated. Finally, overexpression of XBP1(S), a nuclear transcription factor downstream of IRE1, completely reversed the observed caspase activation. These data suggested that del32-71 GH-mediated ER stress and apoptosis contributed to the decrease in wild-type GH secretion observed in GH deficiency due to the GH1 gene slice-site mutations. PMID:23736291

  5. Use of Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Cement for Cosmetic Correction of Donor-Site Defect following Transposition of Temporalis Myofascial Flap and Evaluation of Results after Adjuvant Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mandlik, Dushyant; Gupta, Karan; Patel, Daxesh; Patel, Purvi; Toprani, Rajendra; Patel, Kaustubh

    2015-11-01

    Background?Temporalis myofascial flap is a versatile flap for reconstruction of the oral cavity defects, but results in an esthetically compromised deformity at the donor site. We used polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement to correct the volume loss defect caused by temporalis myofascial flap and evaluated its results before and after adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods?We discuss our experience of using PMMA cement to augment donor-site deformity in 25 patients (17 males, 8 females) between years 2005 and 2009. The primary defect was a result of the ablative surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alveolar and the buccoalveolar sulcus. A modified curved hemicoronal incision was used as an access for better cosmetic outcome. The volume of cement required was decided during the surgery. Results?All patients are in regular follow-up, alive and free of complications at implant site, except one patient who developed wound dehiscence. The condition of the implant was evaluated by postoperative computed tomographic scan, repeated after adjuvant radiotherapy in cases required. There were no radiation-induced changes in the contour and volume of the implants. Cosmetic result of the implant was reported satisfactory by the patients postoperatively. Conclusion?Restoration of the temporal area defect after the temporalis myofascial flap harvest with the use of PMMA cement is an easy and safe method, with excellent esthetic results. The implant is stable and resistant to any changes in contour and loss of volume even after adjuvant radiotherapy, with no added morbidity to the patients. PMID:26280521

  6. The splicing landscape is globally reprogrammed during male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Ralf; Grellscheid, Sushma Nagaraja; Ehrmann, Ingrid; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Danilenko, Marina; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Pedrotti, Simona; Grellscheid, David; Dixon, Richard J; Sette, Claudio; Eperon, Ian C; Elliott, David J

    2013-12-01

    Meiosis requires conserved transcriptional changes, but it is not known whether there is a corresponding set of RNA splicing switches. Here, we used RNAseq of mouse testis to identify changes associated with the progression from mitotic spermatogonia to meiotic spermatocytes. We identified ?150 splicing switches, most of which affect conserved protein-coding exons. The expression of many key splicing regulators changed in the course of meiosis, including downregulation of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) and heterogeneous nuclear RNP A1, and upregulation of nPTB, Tra2?, muscleblind, CELF proteins, Sam68 and T-STAR. The sequences near the regulated exons were significantly enriched in target sites for PTB, Tra2? and STAR proteins. Reporter minigene experiments investigating representative exons in transfected cells showed that PTB binding sites were critical for splicing of a cassette exon in the Ralgps2 mRNA and a shift in alternative 5' splice site usage in the Bptf mRNA. We speculate that nPTB might functionally replace PTBP1 during meiosis for some target exons, with changes in the expression of other splicing factors helping to establish meiotic splicing patterns. Our data suggest that there are substantial changes in the determinants and patterns of alternative splicing in the mitotic-to-meiotic transition of the germ cell cycle. PMID:24038356

  7. Messenger RNA Processing I. Splicing

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    , 2012 #12;3/27/15 5 Genes can undergo alternative splicing Splicing 1 variant: Splicing3/27/15 1 Messenger RNA Processing I. Splicing II. Capping III.Polyadenlya>on Overview · In prokaryotes - RNA pol transcribes the gene (or set of genes

  8. Molecular Cell, Vol. 6, 329338, August, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press A Yeast Intronic Splicing Enhancer and Nam8p

    E-print Network

    Ares Jr., Manny

    ., 2000). Positive regulation of splicing occurs during meiosis.Introduction The MER1 gene is expressed Splicing Enhancer and Nam8p Are Required for Mer1p-Activated Splicing which bind pre-mRNA and activate nearby splice sites (Valcarcel and Green, 1996; Tacke and Manley, 1999). Similarly, the hnRNPs A and B

  9. Identification of U2AF(35)-dependent exons by RNA-Seq reveals a link between 3? splice-site organization and activity of U2AF-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Knut, Marcin; Cross, Nicholas C. P.; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear RNA (U2AF) is a heterodimer consisting of 65- and 35-kD proteins that bind the polypyrimidine tract (PPT) and AG dinucleotides at the 3? splice site (3?ss). The gene encoding U2AF35 (U2AF1) is alternatively spliced, giving rise to two isoforms U2AF35a and U2AF35b. Here, we knocked down U2AF35 and each isoform and characterized transcriptomes of HEK293 cells with varying U2AF35/U2AF65 and U2AF35a/b ratios. Depletion of both isoforms preferentially modified alternative RNA processing events without widespread failure to recognize 3?ss or constitutive exons. Over a third of differentially used exons were terminal, resulting largely from the use of known alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites. Intronic APA sites activated in depleted cultures were mostly proximal whereas tandem 3?UTR APA was biased toward distal sites. Exons upregulated in depleted cells were preceded by longer AG exclusion zones and PPTs than downregulated or control exons and were largely activated by PUF60 and repressed by CAPER?. The U2AF(35) repression and activation was associated with a significant interchange in the average probabilities to form single-stranded RNA in the optimal PPT and branch site locations and sequences further upstream. Although most differentially used exons were responsive to both U2AF subunits and their inclusion correlated with U2AF levels, a small number of transcripts exhibited distinct responses to U2AF35a and U2AF35b, supporting the existence of isoform-specific interactions. These results provide new insights into function of U2AF and U2AF35 in alternative RNA processing. PMID:25779042

  10. Hepatitis B virus spliced variants are associated with an impaired response to interferon therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieliang; Wu, Min; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jiming; Liu, Yinghui; Liu, Yi; Feng, Yanling; Zheng, Ye; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    During hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, spliced HBV genomes and splice-generated proteins have been widely described, however, their biological and clinical significance remains to be defined. Here, an elevation of the proportion of HBV spliced variants in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is shown to correlate with an impaired respond to interferon-? (IFN-?) therapy. Transfection of the constructs encoding the three most dominant species of spliced variants into cells or ectopic expression of the two major spliced protein including HBSP and N-terminal-truncated viral polymerase protein result in strong suppression of IFN-? signaling transduction, while mutation of the major splicing-related sites of HBV attenuates the viral anti-IFN activities in both cell and mouse models. These results have associated the productions of HBV spliced variants with the failure response to IFN therapy and illuminate a novel mechanism where spliced viral products are employed to resist IFN-mediated host defense. PMID:26585041

  11. Hepatitis B virus spliced variants are associated with an impaired response to interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieliang; Wu, Min; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jiming; Liu, Yinghui; Liu, Yi; Feng, Yanling; Zheng, Ye; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    During hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, spliced HBV genomes and splice-generated proteins have been widely described, however, their biological and clinical significance remains to be defined. Here, an elevation of the proportion of HBV spliced variants in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is shown to correlate with an impaired respond to interferon-? (IFN-?) therapy. Transfection of the constructs encoding the three most dominant species of spliced variants into cells or ectopic expression of the two major spliced protein including HBSP and N-terminal-truncated viral polymerase protein result in strong suppression of IFN-? signaling transduction, while mutation of the major splicing-related sites of HBV attenuates the viral anti-IFN activities in both cell and mouse models. These results have associated the productions of HBV spliced variants with the failure response to IFN therapy and illuminate a novel mechanism where spliced viral products are employed to resist IFN-mediated host defense. PMID:26585041

  12. Assembly of splicing complexes on exon 11 of the human insulin receptor gene does not correlate with splicing efficiency in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Nicholas JG; Evans, Lui-Guojing; Caples, Matt; Erker, Laura; Chew, Shern L

    2004-01-01

    Background Incorporation of exon 11 of the insulin receptor gene is both developmentally and hormonally-regulated. Previously, we have shown the presence of enhancer and silencer elements that modulate the incorporation of the small 36-nucleotide exon. In this study, we investigated the role of inherent splice site strength in the alternative splicing decision and whether recognition of the splice sites is the major determinant of exon incorporation. Results We found that mutation of the flanking sub-optimal splice sites to consensus sequences caused the exon to be constitutively spliced in-vivo. These findings are consistent with the exon-definition model for splicing. In-vitro splicing of RNA templates containing exon 11 and portions of the upstream intron recapitulated the regulation seen in-vivo. Unexpectedly, we found that the splice sites are occupied and spliceosomal complex A was assembled on all templates in-vitro irrespective of splicing efficiency. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the exon-definition model explains alternative splicing of exon 11 in the IR gene in-vivo but not in-vitro. The in-vitro results suggest that the regulation occurs at a later step in spliceosome assembly on this exon. PMID:15233842

  13. Alternatively spliced, spliceosomal twin introns in Helminthosporium solani.

    PubMed

    Ág, Norbert; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Fekete, Erzsébet

    2015-12-01

    Spliceosomal twin introns, "stwintrons", have been defined as complex intervening sequences that carry a second intron ("internal intron") interrupting one of the conserved sequence domains necessary for their correct splicing via consecutive excision events. Previously, we have described and experimentally verified stwintrons in species of Sordariomycetes, where an "internal intron" interrupted the donor sequence of an "external intron". Here we describe and experimentally verify two novel stwintrons of the potato pathogen Helminthosporium solani. One instance involves alternative splicing of an internal intron interrupting the donor domain of an external intron and a second one interrupting the acceptor domain of an overlapping external intron, both events leading to identical mature mRNAs. In the second case, an internal intron interrupts the donor domain of the external intron, while an alternatively spliced intron leads to an mRNA carrying a premature chain termination codon. We thus extend the stwintron concept to the acceptor domain and establish a link of the occurrence of stwintrons with that of alternative splicing. PMID:26514742

  14. Insertion of non-intron sequence into maize introns interferes with splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Luehrsen, K R; Walbot, V

    1992-01-01

    Transposable element (TE) insertion into or near plant introns can cause intron skipping and alternative splicing events, resulting in reduced expression. To explore the impact of inserted sequences on splicing, we added non-intron sequence to two maize introns and tested these chimeric introns in a maize transient expression assay. Non-intron sequence inserted into Adh1-S intron 1 and actin intron 3 decreased expression from the luciferase reporter gene; the insertion sites tested were not in intron regions thought to be essential for splicing. Alternatively spliced mRNAs were not observed in transcripts derived from the insertion variants. In contrast, addition of an internal segment of an intron to Adh1-S intron 1 resulted in normal splice site selection and efficient processing. Because the normal intron sequence (including the conserved splice junctions) was retained in all constructs, we hypothesize that added non-intron sequence can interfere with intron recognition and/or splicing. Images PMID:1383942

  15. Pre-mRNA splicing in the absence of an SR protein RS domain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Krainer, Adrian R.

    2000-01-01

    SR proteins are essential pre-mRNA splicing factors that act at the earliest stages of splice-site recognition and spliceosome assembly, as well as later in the splicing pathway. SR proteins consist of one or two RNA-recognition motifs and a characteristic arginine/serine-rich C-terminal RS domain. The RS domain, which is extensively phosphorylated, mediates the subcellular localization of individual SR proteins and also functions as a splicing activation module, apparently by engaging in protein–protein interactions. The RS domain of SF2/ASF is dispensable for the concentration-dependent effects of this SR protein on alternative splice-site selection. However, this RS domain is highly conserved phylogenetically, and was shown to be required for constitutive splicing in vitro and for cell viability. Here, we demonstrate that the RS domain of SF2/ASF is, in fact, dispensable for splicing of several substrates, including constitutive and enhancer-dependent pre-mRNAs. The requirement for this RS domain is substrate specific, and correlates with the strength of the splicing signals. When the 3? splice site is weak, both the SF2/ASF RS domain and U2AF35 are required for splicing. These results show the existence of an RS domain-independent function of SR proteins in constitutive and enhancer-dependent splicing, and suggest mechanisms for their role in enhancer function besides U2AF recruitment. PMID:11124808

  16. Some relations between two stages DNA splicing languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani; Mohamad, Mohd Sham

    2014-06-01

    A new symbolization of Yusof-Goode (Y-G) rule, which is associated with Y-G splicing system, was introduced by Yusof in 2012 under the framework of formal language theory. The purpose of this investigation is to present the biological process of DNA splicing in a translucent way. In this study, two stages splicing languages are introduced based on Y-G approach and some relations between stage one and stage two splicing languages are presented, given as theorems. Additionally, the existing relations between two stages splicing languages based on crossings and contexts of restriction enzymes factors with respect to two initial strings (having two cutting sites) and two rules are presented as subset.

  17. Alternative Splicing in Next Generation Sequencing Data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Konrad; Csaba, Gergely; Haslbeck, Martin; Zimmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    mRNA splicing is required in about 4% of protein coding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene structure of those genes is simple, generally comprising two exons and one intron. In order to characterize the impact of alternative splicing on the S. cerevisiae transcriptome, we perform a systematic analysis of mRNA sequencing data. We find evidence of a pervasive use of alternative splice sites and detect several novel introns both within and outside protein coding regions. We also find a predominance of alternative splicing on the 3’ side of introns, a finding which is consistent with existing knowledge on conservation of exon-intron boundaries in S. cerevisiae. Some of the alternatively spliced transcripts allow for a translation into different protein products. PMID:26469855

  18. Mechanisms and Regulation of Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a critical step in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, providing significant expansion of the functional proteome of eukaryotic organisms with limited gene numbers. Split eukaryotic genes contain intervening sequences or introns disrupting protein-coding exons, and intron removal occurs by repeated assembly of a large and highly dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex termed the spliceosome, which is composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5. Biochemical studies over the past 10 years have allowed the isolation as well as compositional, functional, and structural analysis of splicing complexes at distinct stages along the spliceosome cycle. The average human gene contains eight exons and seven introns, producing an average of three or more alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies indicate that 100% of human genes produce at least two alternative mRNA isoforms. Mechanisms of alternative splicing include RNA–protein interactions of splicing factors with regulatory sites termed silencers or enhancers, RNA–RNA base-pairing interactions, or chromatin-based effects that can change or determine splicing patterns. Disease-causing mutations can often occur in splice sites near intron borders or in exonic or intronic RNA regulatory silencer or enhancer elements, as well as in genes that encode splicing factors. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insights into how spliceosome assembly, dynamics, and catalysis occur; how alternative splicing is regulated and evolves; and how splicing can be disrupted by cis- and trans-acting mutations leading to disease states. These findings make the spliceosome an attractive new target for small-molecule, antisense, and genome-editing therapeutic interventions. PMID:25784052

  19. WT1 interacts with the splicing protein RBM4 and regulates its ability to modulate alternative splicing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Markus, M. Andrea; Heinrich, Bettina; Raitskin, Oleg; Adams, David J.; Mangs, Helena; Goy, Christine; Ladomery, Michael; Sperling, Ruth; Stamm, Stefan; Morris, Brian J. . E-mail: brianm@medsci.usyd.edu.au

    2006-10-15

    Wilm's tumor protein 1 (WT1), a protein implicated in various cancers and developmental disorders, consists of two major isoforms: WT1(-KTS), a transcription factor, and WT1(+KTS), a post-transcriptional regulator that binds to RNA and can interact with splicing components. Here we show that WT1 interacts with the novel splicing regulator RBM4. Each protein was found to colocalize in nuclear speckles and to cosediment with supraspliceosomes in glycerol gradients. RBM4 conferred dose-dependent and cell-specific regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs transcribed from several reporter genes. We found that overexpressed WT1(+KTS) abrogated this effect of RBM4 on splice-site selection, whereas WT1(-KTS) did not. We conclude that the (+KTS) form of WT1 is able to inhibit the effect of RBM4 on alternative splicing.

  20. A prospective, randomised study of a novel transforming methacrylate dressing compared with a silver-containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing on partial-thickness skin graft donor sites in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Arnoldo, Brett; Purdue, Gary; Burris, Agnes; Skrinjar, Edda; Duschek, Nikolaus; Leaper, David J

    2015-06-01

    This prospective, randomised study compares a new transforming methacrylate dressing (TMD) with a silver-containing carboxymethylcellulose dressing (CMC-Ag) after application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites. This was an unblinded, non-inferiority, between-patient, comparison study that involved patients admitted to a single-centre burn unit who required two skin graft donor sites. Each patient's donor sites were covered immediately after surgery: one donor site with TMD and the other with CMC-Ag. The donor sites were evaluated until healing or until 24 days post-application, whichever came first. Study endpoints were time to healing, daily pain scores, number of dressing changes, patient comfort and physicians' and patients' willingness to use the dressings in the future. Nineteen patients had both the dressings applied. No statistically significant difference was noted in time to healing between the two dressings (14·2 days using TMD compared with 13·2 days using CMC-Ag). When pain scores were compared, TMD resulted in statistically significantly less pain at three different time periods (2-5 days, 6-10 days and 11-15 days; P < 0·001 at all time periods). Patients also reported greater comfort with TMD (P < 0·001). Users rated TMD as being less easy to use because of the time and technique required for application. Reductions in pain and increased patient comfort with the use of the TMD dressing, compared with CMC-Ag, were seen as clinical benefits as these are the major issues in donor site management. PMID:23919667

  1. Alternative splicing generates secretory isoforms of human CD1.

    PubMed Central

    Woolfson, A; Milstein, C

    1994-01-01

    Human CD1 genes are a family of five non-polymorphic genes that, although homologous to both class I and II major histocompatibility complex genes, map to chromosome 1. Only three of the antigens, CD1a, -b, and -c, have been clustered with monoclonal antibodies. They are noncovalently associated with beta 2-microglobulin and may function as nonclassical antigen-presenting molecules. Here we analyze their expression in mouse myeloma transfectants and human thymocytes and find mRNA splicing complexity. This manifests itself as incomplete splicing, alternative splicing, utilization of cryptic splice sites, and the generation of alternative reading frames. In the case of CD1A transfectants, we demonstrate that the major protein product is secreted and show by amino acid sequence analysis that this is derived from an unspliced transcript. A second major CD1a component appears to be retained intracellularly. The production of alternatively spliced transcripts in the thymus is not a feature of all CD1 genes. Although in the case of CD1A only the transcript encoding the cell surface CD1a isoform is found, CD1C and -E produce complex intrathymic splicing patterns. The CD1C transcripts predict the expression of a secreted CD1c isoform in the human thymus, which we detect in CD1C transfectant culture supernatants. CD1 gene expression is thus characterized by considerable splicing complexity, and the difference between the splicing patterns found in different environments suggests that this is tissue specific. Images PMID:7517559

  2. Distinctive Features of Drosophila Alternative Splicing Factor RS Domain: Implication for Specific Phosphorylation, Shuttling, and Splicing Activation

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Gattoni, Renata; Bourbon, Henri-Marc; Stevenin, James; Cáceres, Javier F.; Soret, Johann; Tazi, Jamal

    2001-01-01

    The human splicing factor 2, also called human alternative splicing factor (hASF), is the prototype of the highly conserved SR protein family involved in constitutive and regulated splicing of metazoan mRNA precursors. Here we report that the Drosophila homologue of hASF (dASF) lacks eight repeating arginine-serine dipeptides at its carboxyl-terminal region (RS domain), previously shown to be important for both localization and splicing activity of hASF. While this difference has no effect on dASF localization, it impedes its capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and abolishes its phosphorylation by SR protein kinase 1 (SRPK1). dASF also has an altered splicing activity. While being competent for the regulation of 5? alternative splice site choice and activation of specific splicing enhancers, dASF fails to complement S100-cytoplasmic splicing-deficient extracts. Moreover, targeted overexpression of dASF in transgenic flies leads to higher deleterious developmental defects than hASF overexpression, supporting the notion that the distinctive structural features at the RS domain between the two proteins are likely to be functionally relevant in vivo. PMID:11158320

  3. The transcription factor c-Myb affects pre-mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Orvain, Christophe; Matre, Vilborg; Gabrielsen, Odd S.

    2008-07-25

    c-Myb is a transcription factor which plays a key role in haematopoietic proliferation and lineage commitment. We raised the question of whether c-Myb may have abilities beyond the extensively studied transcriptional activation function. In this report we show that c-Myb influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This was seen by its marked effect on the 5'-splice site selection during E1A alternative splicing, while no effect of c-Myb was observed when reporters for the 3'-splice site selection or for the constitutive splicing process were tested. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments provided evidence for interactions between c-Myb and distinct components of the splicing apparatus, such as the general splicing factor U2AF{sup 65} and hnRNPA1 involved in the 5'-splice site selection. The effect on 5'-splice site selection was abolished in the oncogenic variant v-Myb. Altogether, these data provide evidence that c-Myb may serve a previously unappreciated role in the coupling between transcription and splicing.

  4. Analysis of pollen-specific alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana via semi-quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, April D.; Freese, Nowlan H.; Blakley, Ivory C.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing enables a single gene to produce multiple mRNA isoforms by varying splice site selection. In animals, alternative splicing of mRNA isoforms between cell types is widespread and supports cellular differentiation. In plants, at least 20% of multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced, but the extent and significance of tissue-specific splicing is less well understood, partly because it is difficult to isolate cells of a single type. Pollen is a useful model system to study tissue-specific splicing in higher plants because pollen grains contain only two cell types and can be collected in large amounts without damaging cells. Previously, we identified pollen-specific splicing patterns by comparing RNA-Seq data from Arabidopsis pollen and leaves. Here, we used semi-quantitative PCR to validate pollen-specific splicing patterns among genes where RNA-Seq data analysis indicated splicing was most different between pollen and leaves. PCR testing confirmed eight of nine alternative splicing patterns, and results from the ninth were inconclusive. In four genes, alternative transcriptional start sites coincided with alternative splicing. This study highlights the value of the low-cost PCR assay as a method of validating RNA-Seq results. PMID:25945312

  5. Modeling the active sites of non-heme diiron metalloproteins with sterically hindered carboxylates and syn N-Donor ligands

    E-print Network

    Friedle, Simone, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1. Different Synthetic Approaches to Modeling the Active Sites of Carboxylate-Bridged Non-Heme Diiron Enzymes Carboxylate-bridged non-heme diiron enzymes activate dioxygen to perform a variety of biological functions. ...

  6. Oxidation of substrates tethered to N-donor ligands for modeling non-heme diiron enzyme active sites

    E-print Network

    Carson, Emily Carrig, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1. Modeling Carboxylate-Rich Diiron Sites of Dioxygen-Dependent Non-Heme Enzymes Carboxylate-bridged diiron centers are employed in a variety of biological systems to activate dioxygen for substrate oxidation, and ...

  7. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins Angela N. Brooks1,5,6

    E-print Network

    Brenner, Steven E.

    uses different splice sites, thus creating different mRNAs, and frequently proteins, from a single gene. Alternative splicing is an important aspect of gene regulation that is used to produce different transcriptRegulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins Angela N. Brooks1

  8. Redirecting splicing with bifunctional oligonucleotides

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    and for correcting mis-splicing events that cause human diseases. Such modulators can be bifunctional that as many as 60% of human diseases might be caused by point mutations that alter splicing (e.g. b-thalassemia, cystic fibrosis and progeria) (7), However, the function of the majority of splicing isoforms

  9. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  10. Biochemical identification of new proteins involved in splicing repression at the Drosophila P-element exonic splicing silencer.

    PubMed

    Horan, Lucas; Yasuhara, Jiro C; Kohlstaedt, Lori A; Rio, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    Splicing of the Drosophila P-element third intron (IVS3) is repressed in somatic tissues due to the function of an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) complex present on the 5' exon RNA. To comprehensively characterize the mechanisms of this alternative splicing regulation, we used biochemical fractionation and affinity purification to isolate the silencer complex assembled in vitro and identify the constituent proteins by mass spectrometry. Functional assays using splicing reporter minigenes identified the proteins hrp36 and hrp38 and the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein PABPC1 as novel functional components of the splicing silencer. hrp48, PSI, and PABPC1 have high-affinity RNA-binding sites on the P-element IVS3 5' exon, whereas hrp36 and hrp38 proteins bind with low affinity to the P-element silencer RNA. RNA pull-down and immobilized protein assays showed that hrp48 protein binding to the silencer RNA can recruit hrp36 and hrp38. These studies identified additional components that function at the P-element ESS and indicated that proteins with low-affinity RNA-binding sites can be recruited in a functional manner through interactions with a protein bound to RNA at a high-affinity binding site. These studies have implications for the role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in the control of alternative splicing at cis-acting regulatory sites. PMID:26545814

  11. Splice assembly tool and method of splicing

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A splice assembly tool for assembling component parts of an electrical conductor while producing a splice connection between electrical cables therewith, comprises a first structural member adaptable for supporting force applying means thereon, said force applying means enabling a rotary force applied manually thereto to be converted to a longitudinal force for subsequent application against a first component part of said electrical connection, a second structural member adaptable for engaging a second component part in a manner to assist said first structural member in assembling the component parts relative to one another and transmission means for conveying said longitudinal force between said first and said second structural members, said first and said second structural members being coupled to one another by said transmission means, wherein at least one of said component parts comprises a tubular elastomeric sleeve and said force applying means provides a relatively high mechanical advantage when said rotary force is applied thereto so as to facilitate assembly of said at least one tubular elastomeric sleeve about said other component part in an interference fit manner.

  12. Altered Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor Subunit 1 Splicing In Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhoon; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol exposure can change splice variant expression. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor undergoes splicing and is an alcoholism treatment target, but there is little information about splicing changes in this receptor in alcoholics. We studied GABAB receptor subunit 1 (GABAB1) splicing in alcoholic postmortem brains. Methods To maximize GABAB1 splice junction identification, we combined gene specific libraries with RNA-seq. Splice junctions and mapped reads were also found from intronic and intergenic regions. We compared GABAB1 splice junctions in prefrontal cortices from 14 alcoholic and 15 control subjects and introduced new strategies, reads per kilobase of splice junction model per million uniquely mapped reads (RPJM) and reads per kilobase of gene model per million mapped reads (RPGM), for quantitating splice junction and gene expression. Results Novel splice junction detection indicated that the GABAB1 gene is at least two times longer than the previously reported gene length. GABAB1 exon and intron RPGM data showed low expression at the 5’ end exons and exon grouping. This indicated that there are short splicing variants in addition to GABAB1a, the longest known major transcript. We found that chronic alcohol altered exon/intron expression and splice junction levels. Decreased expression of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding site, a transmembrane region (TM), and a microRNA (miRNA) binding site may decrease normal GABAB1 transcript population and thereby decrease normal signal transduction in alcoholics. Conclusions We discovered novel, complex splicing of GABAB1 in human brain and showed that chronic alcohol produces additional splicing complexity. PMID:24209778

  13. Endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblast cells exhibit specific splicing programs independently of their tissue of origin.

    PubMed

    Mallinjoud, Pierre; Villemin, Jean-Philippe; Mortada, Hussein; Polay Espinoza, Micaela; Desmet, François-Olivier; Samaan, Samaan; Chautard, Emilie; Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Auboeuf, Didier

    2014-03-01

    Alternative splicing is the main mechanism of increasing the proteome diversity coded by a limited number of genes. It is well established that different tissues or organs express different splicing variants. However, organs are composed of common major cell types, including fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. By analyzing large-scale data sets generated by The ENCODE Project Consortium and after extensive RT-PCR validation, we demonstrate that each of the three major cell types expresses a specific splicing program independently of its organ origin. Furthermore, by analyzing splicing factor expression across samples, publicly available splicing factor binding site data sets (CLIP-seq), and exon array data sets after splicing factor depletion, we identified several splicing factors, including ESRP1 and 2, MBNL1, NOVA1, PTBP1, and RBFOX2, that contribute to establishing these cell type-specific splicing programs. All of the analyzed data sets are freely available in a user-friendly web interface named FasterDB, which describes all known splicing variants of human and mouse genes and their splicing patterns across several dozens of normal and cancer cells as well as across tissues. Information regarding splicing factors that potentially contribute to individual exon regulation is also provided via a dedicated CLIP-seq and exon array data visualization interface. To the best of our knowledge, FasterDB is the first database integrating such a variety of large-scale data sets to enable functional genomics analyses at exon-level resolution. PMID:24307554

  14. Using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells to interrogate the pathogenicity of a novel retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa cryptic splice site mutation and confirm eligibility for enrollment into a clinical gene augmentation trial.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Budd A; Cranston, Cathryn M; Anfinson, Kristin A; Shrestha, Suruchi; Streb, Luan M; Leon, Alejandro; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M

    2015-12-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa (RPE65)-associated Leber congenital amaurosis is an autosomal recessive disease that results in reduced visual acuity and night blindness beginning at birth. It is one of the few retinal degenerative disorders for which promising clinical gene transfer trials are currently underway. However, the ability to enroll patients in a gene augmentation trial is dependent on the identification of 2 bona fide disease-causing mutations, and there are some patients with the phenotype of RPE65-associated disease who might benefit from gene transfer but are ineligible because 2 disease-causing genetic variations have not yet been identified. Some such patients have novel mutations in RPE65 for which pathogenicity is difficult to confirm. The goal of this study was to determine if an intronic mutation identified in a 2-year-old patient with presumed RPE65-associated disease was truly pathogenic and grounds for inclusion in a clinical gene augmentation trial. Sequencing of the RPE65 gene revealed 2 mutations: (1) a previously identified disease-causing exonic leucine-to-proline mutation (L408P) and (2) a novel single point mutation in intron 3 (IVS3-11) resulting in an A>G change. RT-PCR analysis using RNA extracted from control human donor eye-derived primary RPE, control iPSC-RPE cells, and proband iPSC-RPE cells revealed that the identified IVS3-11 variation caused a splicing defect that resulted in a frameshift and insertion of a premature stop codon. In this study, we demonstrate how patient-specific iPSCs can be used to confirm pathogenicity of unknown mutations, which can enable positive clinical outcomes. PMID:26364624

  15. Management of Young Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal reaction rates and increase donor retention. The donation process can be significantly improved. Future interventions may include more dietary salt, a shorter muscle tension program to make it more feasible, recommendations for post-donation muscle tension / squatting / laying down for lightheadedness, more donor education by the staff at the collection site, more staff attention to donors with fear or higher risk for a vasovagal reaction (e.g. estimated blood volume near 3.5 l, first-time donor), and a more focused donation process to ensure a pleasant and safer procedure. PMID:25254024

  16. Regulation of Telomerase Alternative Splicing: A New Target for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mandy S.; Chen, Ling; Foster, Christopher; Kainthla, Radhika; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Telomerase is present in human cancer cells but absent in most somatic tissues. The mRNA of human telomerase (hTERT) is alternatively spliced into mostly non-functional products. We sought to understand splicing so we could decrease functional splice isoforms to reduce telomerase activity to complement direct enzyme inhibition. Unexpectedly, minigenes containing hTERT exons 5–10 flanked by 150–300bp intronic sequences did not produce alternative splicing. A 1.1kb region of 38bp repeats ~2kb from the exon 6/intron junction restored exclusion of exons 7/8. An element within intron 8, also >1kb from intron/exon junctions, modulated this effect. Transducing an oligonucleotide complementary to this second element increased non-functional hTERT mRNA from endogenous telomerase. These results demonstrate the potential of manipulating hTERT splicing for both chemotherapy and regenerative medicine, and provide the first specific sequences deep within introns that regulate alternative splicing in mammalian cells by mechanisms other than introducing cryptic splice sites. PMID:23562158

  17. Regulation of Splicing Factors by Alternative Splicing and NMD Is Conserved between Kingdoms Yet Evolutionarily Flexible

    E-print Network

    Brenner, Steven E.

    Article Regulation of Splicing Factors by Alternative Splicing and NMD Is Conserved between of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine *Corresponding author: E-mail: brenner) splicing factors. Expression of these genes is regulated via alternative splicing of the ultraconserved

  18. During in vivo maturation of eukaryotic nuclear mRNA, splicing yields excised exon circles.

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, B

    1996-01-01

    Circular splicing has already been described on nuclear pre-mRNA for certain splice sites far apart in the multi exonic ETS-1 gene and in the single 1.2 kb exon of the Sry locus. To date, it is unclear how splice site juxtaposition occurs in normal and circular splicing. The splice site selection of an internal exon is likely to involve pairing between splice sites across that exon. Based on this, we predict that, albeit at low frequency, internal exons yield circular RNA by splicing as an error-prone mechanism of exon juxtaposition or, perhaps more interestingly, as a regulated mechanism on alternative exons. To address this question, the circular exon formation was analyzed at three ETS-1 internal exons (one alternative spliced exon and two constitutive), in human cell line and blood cell samples. Here, we show by RT-PCR and sequencing that exon circular splicing occurs at the three individual exons that we examined. RNase protection experiments suggest that there is no correlation between exon circle expression and exon skipping. PMID:8604331

  19. Palatal bone dimensions on cone beam computed tomography. Implications for the palate as autogenous donor site: an observational study.

    PubMed

    El Nahass, H; Naiem, S N

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) records. Radiographic image analysis included: (1) the width and height of the palatal vault, and diameter and location of the incisive foramen; (2) the potential block graft dimensions and their correlation to arch dimensions; (3) the potential graft size and its variation by sex. CBCT scans of 76 patients were included, 42 from female patients and 34 from male patients (mean age 42.3 years). The mean palatal width was 35.2±3.4mm, while the mean palatal height was 15.2±2.9mm. The mean diameter of the incisive foramen was 3.1±1.3.mm. The mean potential osteotomy diameter was 7.8±1.5mm. The mean osteotomy length varied according to site: central incisor region, 5.9±2.0mm; lateral incisor region, 5.2±2.1mm; canine region, 4.7±1.9mm; premolar region, 4.1±1.7mm. A positive correlation was observed between the osteotomy diameter and the palatal width: a greater osteotomy length was obtained from the more anterior teeth position. Males presented significantly greater osteotomy diameter and length compared to females. The palate represents a potential site for the harvest of autogenous bone block grafts for the reconstruction of ridge defects. PMID:26443273

  20. BUILDING ROBUST TRANSCRIPTOMES WITH MASTER SPLICING FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Jangi, Mohini; Sharp, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent splicing networks arise from many discrete splicing decisions regulated in unison. Here, we examine the properties of robust, context-specific splicing networks. We propose that a subset of key splicing regulators, or “master splicing factors,” respond to environmental cues to establish and maintain tissue transcriptomes during development. PMID:25417102

  1. Acute intermittent porphyria: characterization of two novel mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene, one amino acid deletion (453-455delAGC) and one splicing aceptor site mutation (IVS8-1G>T).

    PubMed

    De Siervi, A; Mendez, M; Parera, V E; Varela, L; Batlle, A M; Rossetti, M V

    1999-10-01

    A partial deficiency of Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) is responsible for acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). AIP is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and the prevalence in the Argentinean population is about 1:125,000. Here, two new mutations and three previously reported were found in the PBG-D gene in 12 Argentinean AIP patients corresponding to 5 different families. To screen for AIP mutations in symptomatic patients, genomic DNA isolated was amplified in 2 Multiplex PCR reactions, then all coding exons and flanking intronic regions were sequenced. The new mutations are 453-455delAGC in exon 9 which results in the loss of an alanine residue at position 152, and one new point mutation in the splicing aceptor site in the last position of intron 8 (IVS8-1G>T) which leds to a 15 bp deletion because a cryptic site (first AG upstream) is used. Both mutations produce amino acid deletion without frameshift effect. To further characterize the 453-455delAGC mutation, the pKK-PBGD construct for the mutant allele was expressed in E. coli, the enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein was 1.3% of the mean level expressed by the normal allele. Finally, three missense mutations, previously reported, were identified in three unrelated families. PMID:10502788

  2. LEDGF/p75 interacts with mRNA splicing factors and targets HIV-1 integration to highly spliced genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parmit Kumar; Plumb, Matthew R; Ferris, Andrea L; Iben, James R; Wu, Xiaolin; Fadel, Hind J; Luke, Brian T; Esnault, Caroline; Poeschla, Eric M; Hughes, Stephen H; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Levin, Henry L

    2015-11-01

    The host chromatin-binding factor LEDGF/p75 interacts with HIV-1 integrase and directs integration to active transcription units. To understand how LEDGF/p75 recognizes transcription units, we sequenced 1 million HIV-1 integration sites isolated from cultured HEK293T cells. Analysis of integration sites showed that cancer genes were preferentially targeted, raising concerns about using lentivirus vectors for gene therapy. Additional analysis led to the discovery that introns and alternative splicing contributed significantly to integration site selection. These correlations were independent of transcription levels, size of transcription units, and length of the introns. Multivariate analysis with five parameters previously found to predict integration sites showed that intron density is the strongest predictor of integration density in transcription units. Analysis of previously published HIV-1 integration site data showed that integration density in transcription units in mouse embryonic fibroblasts also correlated strongly with intron number, and this correlation was absent in cells lacking LEDGF. Affinity purification showed that LEDGF/p75 is associated with a number of splicing factors, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of HEK293T cells lacking LEDGF/p75 or the LEDGF/p75 integrase-binding domain (IBD) showed that LEDGF/p75 contributes to splicing patterns in half of the transcription units that have alternative isoforms. Thus, LEDGF/p75 interacts with splicing factors, contributes to exon choice, and directs HIV-1 integration to transcription units that are highly spliced. PMID:26545813

  3. Achieving targeted and quantifiable alteration of mRNA splicing with Morpholino oligos

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, Paul A. . E-mail: pmorcos@gene-tools.com

    2007-06-29

    This work represents the first guide for using steric-block antisense oligos as tools for effective and targeted modification of RNA splicing. Comparison of several steric-block oligo types shows the properties of Morpholinos provide significant advantages over other potential splice-blocking oligos. The procedures and complications of designing effective splice-blocking Morpholino oligos are described. The design process requires complete pre-mRNA sequence for defining suitable targets, which usually generate specific predictable messengers. To validate the targeting procedure, the level and nature of transcript alteration is characterized by RT-PCR analysis of splice modification in a {beta}-globin splice model system. An oligo-walking study reveals that while U1 and U2 small nuclear RiboNucleoProtein (snRNP) binding sites are the most effective targets for blocking splicing, inclusion of these sites is not required to achieve effective splice modifications. The most effective targeting strategy employs simultaneously blocking snRNP binding sites and splice-junctions. The work presented here continues to be the basis for most of the successful Morpholino oligos designed for the worldwide research community to block RNA splicing.

  4. Technique for Minimizing Donor-site Morbidity after Pedicled TRAM-Flap Breast Reconstruction: Outcomes by a Single Surgeon’s Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rietjens, Mario; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Andrea, Manconi; Petit, Jean-Yves; Hamza, Alaa; Martella, Stefano; Barbieri, Benedetta; Gottardi, Alessandra; Giuseppe, Lomeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast reconstruction with pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. We present our technique of transversely dividing the anterior fascia and rectus abdominis combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line for closure of the anterior abdominal wall defect to prevent contour deformities performed by a single senior surgeon and compare these results with those of our prior series. Methods: We described our new technique of closure of the abdominal wall defect and retrospectively performed the comparison between the results of pedicled TRAM flaps using the new closure technique and those of 420 pedicled TRAM flaps from our 2003 publication in terms of abdominal bulging and hernia. Results: Sixty-seven pedicled TRAM flaps in 65 patients were compared with 420 pedicled TRAM flaps of the 2003 series. The new technique was associated with 5 partial TRAM flap necroses (8%). There was no total flap loss with the new technique. The median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 4–36 months). There were no instances of abdominal hernia and bulge during follow-up in the new series. Compared with the previous 2003 series, the new technique was superior in terms of occurrence of abdominal wall hernia or bulging. Conclusions: We are still performing pedicled TRAM flap for autologous breast reconstruction. Using the technique of transversely dividing the anterior fascia and rectus abdominis combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line can reduce the occurrence of abdominal bulging and hernia. PMID:26495189

  5. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  6. Structural insights into RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navtej; Keating, Kevin S; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2009-06-01

    Intron splicing is a fundamental biological process whereby noncoding sequences are removed from precursor RNAs. Recent work has provided new insights into the structural features and reaction mechanisms of two introns that catalyze their own splicing from precursor RNA: the group I and II introns. In addition, there is an increasing amount of structural information on the spliceosome, which is a ribonucleoprotein machine that catalyzes nuclear pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes. Here, we compare structures and catalytic mechanisms of self-splicing RNAs and we discuss the possible implications for spliceosomal reaction mechanisms. PMID:19443210

  7. Accurate Splicing of HDAC6 Pre-mRNA Requires SON

    PubMed Central

    Battini, Vishnu Priya; Bubulya, Athanasios; Bubulya, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing requires proper splice site selection mediated by many factors including snRNPs and serine-arginine rich (SR) splicing factors. Our lab previously reported that the SR-like protein SON maintains organization of pre-mRNA splicing factors in nuclear speckles as well as splicing of many human transcripts including mRNAs coding for the chromatin-modifying enzymes HDAC6, ADA and SETD8. However, the mechanism by which SON maintains accurate splicing is unknown. To build tools for understanding SON-dependent pre-mRNA splicing, we constructed a minigene reporter plasmid driving expression of the genomic sequence spanning exons 26 through 29 of HDAC6. Following SON depletion, we observed altered splicing of HDAC6 reporter transcripts that showed exclusion of exons 27 and 28, reflecting the splicing patterns of endogenous HDAC6 mRNA. Importantly, loss of HDAC6 biological function was also observed, as indicated by truncated HDAC6 protein and corresponding absence of aggresome assembly activities of HDAC6 binding-of-ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain. We therefore propose that SON-mediated splicing regulation of HDAC6 is essential for supporting protein degradation pathways that prevent human disease. PMID:25782155

  8. Entropic contributions to the splicing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osella, Matteo; Caselle, Michele

    2009-12-01

    It has been recently argued that depletion attraction may play an important role in different aspects of cellular organization, ranging from the organization of transcriptional activity in transcription factories to the formation of nuclear bodies. In this paper, we suggest a new application of these ideas in the context of the splicing process, a crucial step of messenger RNA maturation in eukaryotes. We shall show that entropy effects and the resulting depletion attraction may explain the relevance of the aspecific intron length variable in the choice of splice-site recognition modality. On top of that, some qualitative features of the genome architecture of higher eukaryotes can find evolutionary realistic motivation in the light of our model.

  9. LDLR gene synonymous mutation c.1813C>T results in mRNA splicing variation in a kindred with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Clement Km; Musa, Fathel Rahman; Bell, Christine; Walker, Simon W

    2015-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia, one of the most common inherited diseases in the general population, is associated with mutations in at least three different genes including the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB) and protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. In this report, we describe an unclassified DNA variant (c.1813C>T; p.Leu605Leu) within exon 12 of the LDLR gene in a kindred in which familial hypercholesterolaemia is associated with c.1813C>T heterozygosity. In silico analysis suggested that c.1813C>T might affect splicing of the LDLR gene by creating a cryptic donor splice site, which was confirmed by RT-PCR coupled with cDNA sequencing, to result in the loss of 34 base pairs in the coding sequence. The latter truncated mRNA is predicted to generate a frameshift leading to a premature stop at codon 652 and early termination of the low density lipoprotein receptor polypeptide chain, and thus provides a molecular basis for the hypercholesterolaemic phenotype. This case report highlights the emerging utility of RNA studies for the molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia in patients with potential mRNA splicing variants. PMID:25624525

  10. Discovery and characterization of secretory IgD in rainbow trout: secretory IgD is produced through a novel splicing mechanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramirez-Gomez, F.; Greene, W.; Rego, K.; Hansen, J.D.; Costa, G.; Kataria, P.; Bromage, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The gene encoding IgH ? has been found in all species of teleosts studied to date. However, catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the only species of fish in which a secretory form of IgD has been characterized, and it occurs through the use of a dedicated ?-secretory exon, which is absent from all other species examined. Our studies have revealed that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) use a novel strategy for the generation of secreted IgD. The trout secretory ? transcript is produced via a run-on event in which the splice donor site at the end of the last constant domain exon (D7) is ignored and transcription continues until a stop codon is reached 33 nt downstream of the splice site, resulting in the production of an in-frame, 11-aa secretory tail at the end of the D7 domain. In silico analysis of several published IgD genes suggested that this unique splicing mechanism may also be used in other species of fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Alternative splicing of the secretory ? transcript resulted in two ?-H chains, which incorporated C?1 and variable domains. Secreted IgD was found in two heavily glycosylated isoforms, which are assembled as monomeric polypeptides associated with L chains. Secretory ? mRNA and IgD+ plasma cells were detected in all immune tissues at a lower frequency than secretory IgM. Our data demonstrate that secretory IgD is more prevalent and widespread across taxa than previously thought, and thus illustrate the potential that IgD may have a conserved role in immunity.

  11. Wilson's disease caused by alternative splicing and Alu exonization due to a homozygous 3039-bp deletion spanning from intron 1 to exon 2 of the ATP7B gene.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Eva; Lepori, Maria Barbara; Chiappe, Francesca; Ranucci, Giusy; Di Dato, Fabiola; Iorio, Raffaele; Loudianos, Georgios

    2015-09-15

    We describe a case of Wilson's disease (WD) diagnosed at 5 years after routine biochemical test showed increased aminotransferases. Mutation analysis of the ATP7B gene revealed a 3039-bp deletion in the homozygous state spanning from the terminal part of intron 1 to nt position 368 of exon 2. This deletion results in the activation of 3 cryptic splice sites: an AG acceptor splice site in nt positions 578-579 producing a different breakpoint and removing the first 577 nts of exon 2, an acceptor and a donor splice site in nt positions 20363-4 and 20456-7, respectively, in intron 1, resulting in the activation of a 94-bp cryptic Alu exon being incorporated into the mature transcript. The resulting alternative transcript contains a TAG stop codon in the first amino acid position of the cryptic exon, likely producing a truncated, non-functional protein. This study shows that intron exonization can also occur in humans through naturally occurring gross deletions. The results suggest that the combination of DNA and RNA analyses can be used for molecular characterization of gross ATP7B deletions, thus improving genetic counseling and diagnosis of WD. Moreover these studies help to better establish new molecular mechanisms producing Wilson's disease. PMID:26031236

  12. Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Selvanathan, Saravana P.; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G.; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T.; Ljungman, Mats E.; Wu, Cathy H.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron–exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of ?-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4–279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4–279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code. PMID:25737553

  13. FRET analysis of splicing factors involved in exon and intron definition in living cells 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    I have analyzed the interactions between SR proteins and splicing components that are bound at the 5’ or 3’ splice site using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The SR proteins interact with the U1 snRNP-associated 70 k...

  14. Cell-to-cell variability of alternative RNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Waks, Zeev; Klein, Allon M; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression levels of mammalian genes is large even in clonal populations and has phenotypic consequences. Alternative splicing is a fundamental aspect of gene expression, yet its contribution to heterogeneity is unknown. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to characterize the cell-to-cell variability in mRNA isoform ratios for two endogenous genes, CAPRIN1 and MKNK2. We show that isoform variability in non-transformed, diploid cells is remarkably close to the minimum possible given the stochastic nature of individual splicing events, while variability in HeLa cells is considerably higher. Analysis of the potential sources of isoform ratio heterogeneity indicates that a difference in the control over splicing factor activity is one origin of this increase. Our imaging approach also visualizes non-alternatively spliced mRNA and active transcription sites, and yields spatial information regarding the relationship between splicing and transcription. Together, our work demonstrates that mammalian cells minimize fluctuations in mRNA isoform ratios by tightly regulating the splicing machinery. PMID:21734645

  15. A Genome-Wide Aberrant RNA Splicing in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Identifies Novel Potential Disease Markers and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Adamia, Sophia; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M.; Bar-Natan, Michal; Pevzner, Samuel; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A.; Burke, John; Galinsky, Ilene; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P.; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J.; Quackenbush, John; Stone, Richard; Griffin, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite new treatments, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains an incurable disease. More effective drug design requires an expanded view of the molecular complexity that underlies AML. Alternative splicing of RNA is used by normal cells to generate protein diversity. Growing evidence indicates that aberrant splicing of genes plays a key role in cancer. We investigated genome-wide splicing abnormalities in AML and based on these abnormalities, we aimed to identify novel potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Experimental Design We used genome-wide alternative splicing screening to investigate alternative splicing abnormalities in two independent AML patient cohorts [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) (Boston, MA) and University Hospital de Nantes (UHN) (Nantes, France)] and normal donors. Selected splicing events were confirmed through cloning and sequencing analysis, and than validated in 193 patients with AML. Results Our results show that approximately 29% of expressed genes genome-wide were differentially and recurrently spliced in patients with AML compared with normal donors bone marrow CD34+ cells. Results were reproducible in two independent AML cohorts. In both cohorts, annotation analyses indicated similar proportions of differentially spliced genes encoding several oncogenes, tumor suppressor proteins, splicing factors, and heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoproteins, proteins involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and spliceosome assembly. Our findings are consistent with reports for other malignances and indicate that AML-specific aberrations in splicing mechanisms are a hallmark of AML pathogenesis. Conclusions Overall, our results suggest that aberrant splicing is a common characteristic for AML. Our findings also suggest that splice variant transcripts that are the result of splicing aberrations create novel disease markers and provide potential targets for small molecules or antibody therapeutics for this disease. PMID:24284058

  16. Identification of a splicing enhancer in MLH1 using COMPARE a new assay for determination of relative RNA splicing efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Qing; Mattox, William

    2006-01-01

    Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are sequences that facilitate recognition of splice sites and prevent exon-skipping. Because ESEs are often embedded within proteincoding sequences, alterations in them can also often be interpreted as nonsense, missense or silent mutations. To correctly interpret exonic mutations and their roles in disease, it is important to develop strategies that identify ESE mutations. Potential ESEs can be found computationally in many exons but it has proven difficult to predict if a given mutation will have effects on splicing based on sequence alone. Here we describe a flexible in vitro method that can be used to functionally compare the effects of multiple sequence variants on ESE activity in a single in vitro splicing reaction. We have applied this method in parallel with conventional splicing assays to test for a splicing enhancer in exon 17 of the human MLH1 gene. Point mutations associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have previously been found to correlate with exon-skipping in both lymphocytes and tumors from patients. We show that sequences from this exon can replace an ESE from the mouse IgM gene to support RNA splicing in HeLa nuclear extracts. ESE activity was reduced by HNPCC point mutations in codon 659 indicating that their primary effect is on splicing. Surprisingly the strongest enhancer function mapped to a different region of the exon upstream of this codon. Together our results indicate that HNPCC point mutations in codon 659 affect an auxillary element that augments the enhancer function to ensure exon inclusion. PMID:16357104

  17. AUG sequences are required to sustain nonsense-codon-mediated suppression of splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kamhi, Eyal; Yahalom, Galit; Kass, Gideon; Hacham, Yael; Sperling, Ruth; Sperling, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    More than 90% of human genes are rich in intronic latent 5? splice sites whose utilization in pre-mRNA splicing would introduce in-frame stop codons into the resultant mRNAs. We have therefore hypothesized that suppression of splicing (SOS) at latent 5? splice sites regulates alternative 5? splice site selection in a way that prevents the production of toxic nonsense mRNAs and verified this idea by showing that the removal of such in-frame stop codons is sufficient to activate latent splicing. Splicing control by SOS requires recognition of the mRNA reading frame, presumably recognizing the start codon sequence. Here we show that AUG sequences are indeed essential for SOS. Although protein translation does not seem to be required for SOS, the first AUG is shown here to be necessary but not sufficient. We further show that latent splicing can be elicited upon treatment with pactamycin—a drug known to block translation by its ability to recognize an RNA fold—but not by treatment with other drugs that inhibit translation through other mechanisms. The effect of pactamycin on SOS is dependent neither on steady-state translation nor on the pioneer round of translation. This effect is found for both transfected and endogenous genes, indicating that SOS is a natural mechanism. PMID:16855285

  18. Distribution of SR protein exonic splicing enhancer motifs in human protein-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhua; Smith, Philip J.; Krainer, Adrian R.; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2005-01-01

    Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) are pre-mRNA cis-acting elements required for splice-site recognition. We previously developed a web-based program called ESEfinder that scores any sequence for the presence of ESE motifs recognized by the human SR proteins SF2/ASF, SRp40, SRp55 and SC35 (). Using ESEfinder, we have undertaken a large-scale analysis of ESE motif distribution in human protein-coding genes. Significantly higher frequencies of ESE motifs were observed in constitutive internal protein-coding exons, compared with both their flanking intronic regions and with pseudo exons. Statistical analysis of ESE motif frequency distributions revealed a complex relationship between splice-site strength and increased or decreased frequencies of particular SR protein motifs. Comparison of constitutively and alternatively spliced exons demonstrated slightly weaker splice-site scores, as well as significantly fewer ESE motifs, in the alternatively spliced group. Our results underline the importance of ESE-mediated SR protein function in the process of exon definition, in the context of both constitutive splicing and regulated alternative splicing. PMID:16147989

  19. Detection of splice junctions from paired-end RNA-seq data by SpliceMap

    E-print Network

    Wong, Wing Hung

    Detection of splice junctions from paired-end RNA-seq data by SpliceMap Kin Fai Au1 , Hui Jiang1 technique provides high- throughput data (RNA-seq data) to study alternative splicing events in different types of cells. Here, we present a computational method, SpliceMap, to detect splice junctions from RNA

  20. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and protein-coding exons, we name them exitrons (exonic introns). Though exitrons were detected as a subset of retained introns, they are clearly distinguishable, and their splicing results in transcripts with different fates. About half of the 1002 Arabidopsis and 923 human exitrons have sizes of multiples of 3 nucleotides (nt). Splicing of these exitrons results in internally deleted proteins and affects protein domains, disordered regions, and various post-translational modification sites, thus broadly impacting protein function. Exitron splicing is regulated across tissues, in response to stress and in carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, annotated intronless genes can be also alternatively spliced via exitron usage. We demonstrate that at least some exitrons originate from ancestral coding exons. Based on our findings, we propose a “splicing memory” hypothesis whereby upon intron loss imprints of former exon borders defined by vestigial splicing regulatory elements could drive the evolution of exitron splicing. Altogether, our studies show that exitron splicing is a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in plants and animals, complementing the repertoire of AS events. PMID:25934563

  1. Polypurine sequences within a downstream exon function as a splicing enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kenji; Watakabe, Akiya; Shimura, Yoshiro

    1994-02-01

    We have previously shown that a purine-rich sequence located within exon M2 of the mouse immunoglobulin {mu} gene functions as a splicing enhancer, as judged by its ability to stimulate splicing of a distant upstream intron. This sequence element has been designated ERS (exon recognition sequence). In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effects of various ERS-like sequences, using the in vitro splicing system with HeLa cell nuclear extracts. Here, we show that purine-rich sequences of several natural exons that have previously been shown to be required for splicing function as a splicing enhancer like the ERS of the immunoglobulin {mu} gene. Moreover, even synthetic polypurine sequences had stimulatory effects on the upstream splicing. Evaluation of the data obtained from the analyses of both natural and synthetic purine-rich sequences shows that (i) alternating purine sequences can stimulate splicing, while poly(A) or poly(G) sequences cannot, and (ii) the presence of U residues within the polypurine sequence greatly reduces the level of stimulation. Competition experiments strongly suggest that the stimulatory effects of various purine-rich sequences are mediated by the same trans-acting factor(s). We conclude from these results that the purine-rich sequences that we examined in this study also represent examples of ERS. Thus, ERS is considered a general splicing element that is present in various exons and plays an important role in splice site selection. 50 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. PMID:24777346

  3. Hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole tensors of nitrogen donors in the Q(A) site of bacterial reaction centers: correlation of the histidine N(?) tensors with hydrogen bond strength.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Alexander T; O'Malley, Patrick J; Wraight, Colin A; Dikanov, Sergei A

    2014-08-01

    X- and Q-band pulsed EPR spectroscopy was applied to study the interaction of the QA site semiquinone (SQA) with nitrogens from the local protein environment in natural abundance (14)N and in (15)N uniformly labeled photosynthetic reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole tensors for His-M219 N? and Ala-M260 peptide nitrogen (Np) were estimated through simultaneous simulation of the Q-band (15)N Davies ENDOR, X- and Q-band (14,15)N HYSCORE, and X-band (14)N three-pulse ESEEM spectra, with support from DFT calculations. The hyperfine coupling constants were found to be a((14)N) = 2.3 MHz, T = 0.3 MHz for His-M219 N? and a((14)N) = 2.6 MHz, T = 0.3 MHz for Ala-M260 Np. Despite that His-M219 N? is established as the stronger of the two H-bond donors, Ala-M260 Np is found to have the larger value of a((14)N). The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were estimated as e(2)Qq/4h = 0.38 MHz, ? = 0.97 and e(2)Qq/4h = 0.74 MHz, ? = 0.59 for His-M219 N? and Ala-M260 Np, respectively. An analysis of the available data on nuclear quadrupole tensors for imidazole nitrogens found in semiquinone-binding proteins and copper complexes reveals these systems share similar electron occupancies of the protonated nitrogen orbitals. By applying the Townes-Dailey model, developed previously for copper complexes, to the semiquinones, we find the asymmetry parameter ? to be a sensitive probe of the histidine N?-semiquinone hydrogen bond strength. This is supported by a strong correlation observed between ? and the isotropic coupling constant a((14)N) and is consistent with previous computational works and our own semiquinone-histidine model calculations. The empirical relationship presented here for a((14)N) and ? will provide an important structural characterization tool in future studies of semiquinone-binding proteins. PMID:25026433

  4. Visualizing RNA splicing in vivo Gayatri Gowrishankar and Jianghong Rao*

    E-print Network

    Rao, Jianghong

    with the luciferase reporter system in living animals. Introduction As per the `central dogma' of molecular biology blueprints in the DNA molecules to the molecular motors--the proteins. In 1982, however, Tom Cech made of the ribozyme are ligated to the splice site of the substrate Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Department

  5. Alternative Splicing of RNA Triplets Is Often Regulated and Accelerates Proteome Evolution

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Robert K.

    Thousands of human genes contain introns ending in NAGNAG (N any nucleotide), where both NAGs can function as 3? splice sites, yielding isoforms that differ by inclusion/exclusion of three bases. However, few models exist ...

  6. Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa.

    PubMed

    Derelle, Romain; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Manuel, Michael; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Houliston, Evelyn

    2010-04-01

    Replacement of mRNA 5' UTR sequences by short sequences trans-spliced from specialized, noncoding, spliced leader (SL) RNAs is an enigmatic phenomenon, occurring in a set of distantly related animal groups including urochordates, nematodes, flatworms, and hydra, as well as in Euglenozoa and dinoflagellates. Whether SL trans-splicing has a common evolutionary origin and biological function among different organisms remains unclear. We have undertaken a systematic identification of SL exons in cDNA sequence data sets from non-bilaterian metazoan species and their closest unicellular relatives. SL exons were identified in ctenophores and in hydrozoan cnidarians, but not in other cnidarians, placozoans, or sponges, or in animal unicellular relatives. Mapping of SL absence/presence obtained from this and previous studies onto current phylogenetic trees favors an evolutionary scenario involving multiple origins for SLs during eumetazoan evolution rather than loss from a common ancestor. In both ctenophore and hydrozoan species, multiple SL sequences were identified, showing high sequence diversity. Detailed analysis of a large data set generated for the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica revealed trans-splicing of given mRNAs by multiple alternative SLs. No evidence was found for a common identity of trans-spliced mRNAs between different hydrozoans. One feature found specifically to characterize SL-spliced mRNAs in hydrozoans, however, was a marked adenosine enrichment immediately 3' of the SL acceptor splice site. Our findings of high sequence divergence and apparently indiscriminate use of SLs in hydrozoans, along with recent findings in other taxa, indicate that SL genes have evolved rapidly in parallel in diverse animal groups, with constraint on SL exon sequence evolution being apparently rare. PMID:20142326

  7. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Kapustin, Yuri; Souvorov, Alexander; Tatusova, Tatiana; Lipman, David

    2008-01-01

    Background The computation of accurate alignments of cDNA sequences against a genome is at the foundation of modern genome annotation pipelines. Several factors such as presence of paralogs, small exons, non-consensus splice signals, sequencing errors and polymorphic sites pose recognized difficulties to existing spliced alignment algorithms. Results We describe a set of algorithms behind a tool called Splign for computing cDNA-to-Genome alignments. The algorithms include a high-performance preliminary alignment, a compartment identification based on a formally defined model of adjacent duplicated regions, and a refined sequence alignment. In a series of tests, Splign has produced more accurate results than other tools commonly used to compute spliced alignments, in a reasonable amount of time. Conclusion Splign's ability to deal with various issues complicating the spliced alignment problem makes it a helpful tool in eukaryotic genome annotation processes and alternative splicing studies. Its performance is enough to align the largest currently available pools of cDNA data such as the human EST set on a moderate-sized computing cluster in a matter of hours. The duplications identification (compartmentization) algorithm can be used independently in other areas such as the study of pseudogenes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Steven Salzberg, Arcady Mushegian and Andrey Mironov (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand). PMID:18495041

  8. Structure of the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene and multiple alternative spliced isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pham-Dinh, D.; Gaspera, D.B.; Dautigny, A.

    1995-09-20

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a special component of the central nervous system localization on the outermost lamellae of mature myelin, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We report here the organization of the human MOG gene, which spans approximately 17 kb, and the characterization of six MOG mRNA splicing variants. The intron/exon structure of the human MOG gene confirmed the splicing pattern, supporting the hypothesis that mRNA isoforms could arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. In addition to the eight exons coding for the major MOG isoform, the human MOG gene also contains 3` region, a previously unknown alternatively spliced coding exon, VIA. Alternative utilization of two acceptor splicing sites for exon VIII could produce two different C-termini. The nucleotide sequences presented here may be a useful tool to study further possible involvement if the MOG gene in hereditary neurological disorders. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Interpretation of mRNA splicing mutations in genetic disease: review of the literature and guidelines for information-theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caminsky, Natasha; Mucaki, Eliseos J.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of genomic variants has become one of the paramount challenges in the post-genome sequencing era. In this review we summarize nearly 20 years of research on the applications of information theory (IT) to interpret coding and non-coding mutations that alter mRNA splicing in rare and common diseases. We compile and summarize the spectrum of published variants analyzed by IT, to provide a broad perspective of the distribution of deleterious natural and cryptic splice site variants detected, as well as those affecting splicing regulatory sequences. Results for natural splice site mutations can be interrogated dynamically with Splicing Mutation Calculator, a companion software program that computes changes in information content for any splice site substitution, linked to corresponding publications containing these mutations. The accuracy of IT-based analysis was assessed in the context of experimentally validated mutations. Because splice site information quantifies binding affinity, IT-based analyses can discern the differences between variants that account for the observed reduced (leaky) versus abolished mRNA splicing. We extend this principle by comparing predicted mutations in natural, cryptic, and regulatory splice sites with observed deleterious phenotypic and benign effects. Our analysis of 1727 variants revealed a number of general principles useful for ensuring portability of these analyses and accurate input and interpretation of mutations. We offer guidelines for optimal use of IT software for interpretation of mRNA splicing mutations. PMID:25717368

  10. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest. PMID:26721495

  11. Functional Characterization of the spf/ash Splicing Variation in OTC Deficiency of Mice and Man

    PubMed Central

    Viecelli, Hiu Man; Rüfenacht, Veronique; Pérez, Belén; Ugarte, Magdalena; Häberle, Johannes; Thöny, Beat; Desviat, Lourdes Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    The spf/ash mouse model of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, a severe urea cycle disorder, is caused by a mutation (c.386G>A; p.R129H) in the last nucleotide of exon 4 of the Otc gene, affecting the 5’ splice site and resulting in partial use of a cryptic splice site 48 bp into the adjacent intron. The equivalent nucleotide change and predicted amino acid change is found in OTC deficient patients. Here we have used liver tissue and minigene assays to dissect the transcriptional profile resulting from the “spf/ash” mutation in mice and man. For the mutant mouse, we confirmed liver transcripts corresponding to partial intron 4 retention by the use of the c.386+48 cryptic site and to normally spliced transcripts, with exon 4 always containing the c.386G>A (p.R129H) variant. In contrast, the OTC patient exhibited exon 4 skipping or c.386G>A (p.R129H)-variant exon 4 retention by using the natural or a cryptic splice site at nucleotide position c.386+4. The corresponding OTC tissue enzyme activities were between 3-6% of normal control in mouse and human liver. The use of the cryptic splice sites was reproduced in minigenes carrying murine or human mutant sequences. Some normally spliced transcripts could be detected in minigenes in both cases. Antisense oligonucleotides designed to block the murine cryptic +48 site were used in minigenes in an attempt to redirect splicing to the natural site. The results highlight the relevance of in depth investigations of the molecular mechanisms of splicing mutations and potential therapeutic approaches. Notably, they emphasize the fact that findings in animal models may not be applicable for human patients due to the different genomic context of the mutations. PMID:25853564

  12. Finding a Donor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hope for somebody else A mother's plea - a child's fight Your self-sacrifice saved our daughters life A single mother's transplant story Knowledge is power Donor stories Paul, marrow donor, explains donation process ...

  13. An evolutionary analysis of cAMP-specific Phosphodiesterase 4 alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the intracellular second messengers: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). The cAMP-specific PDE family 4 (PDE4) is widely expressed in vertebrates. Each of the four PDE4 gene isoforms (PDE4 A-D) undergo extensive alternative splicing via alternative transcription initiation sites, producing unique amino termini and yielding multiple splice variant forms from each gene isoform termed long, short, super-short and truncated super-short. Many species across the vertebrate lineage contain multiple splice variants of each gene type, which are characterized by length and amino termini. Results A phylogenetic approach was used to visualize splice variant form genesis and identify conserved splice variants (genome conservation with EST support) across the vertebrate taxa. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference indicated PDE4 gene duplication occurred at the base of the vertebrate lineage and reveals additional gene duplications specific to the teleost lineage. Phylogenetic inference and PDE4 splice variant presence, or absence as determined by EST screens, were further supported by the genomic analysis of select vertebrate taxa. Two conserved PDE4 long form splice variants were found in each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4C genes, and eight conserved long forms from the PDE4 D gene. Conserved short and super-short splice variants were found from each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4 D genes, while truncated super-short variants were found from the PDE4C and PDE4 D genes. PDE4 long form splice variants were found in all taxa sampled (invertebrate through mammals); short, super-short, and truncated super-short are detected primarily in tetrapods and mammals, indicating an increasing complexity in both alternative splicing and cAMP metabolism through vertebrate evolution. Conclusions There was a progressive independent incorporation of multiple PDE4 splice variant forms and amino termini, increasing PDE4 proteome complexity from primitive vertebrates to humans. While PDE4 gene isoform duplicates with limited alternative splicing were found in teleosts, an expansion of both PDE4 splice variant forms, and alternatively spliced amino termini predominantly occurs in mammals. Since amino termini have been linked to intracellular targeting of the PDE4 enzymes, the conservation of amino termini in PDE4 splice variants in evolution highlights the importance of compartmentalization of PDE4-mediated cAMP hydrolysis. PMID:20701803

  14. Serum albumin binding sites properties in donors and in schizophrenia patients: the study of fluorescence decay of the probe K-35 using S-60 synchrotron pulse excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryzunov, Yu. A.; Syrejshchikova, T. I.; Komarova, M. N.; Misionzhnik, E. Yu; Uzbekov, M. G.; Molodetskich, A. V.; Dobretsov, G. E.; Yakimenko, M. N.

    2000-06-01

    The properties of serum albumin obtained from donors and from paranoid schizophrenia patients were studied with the fluorescent probe K-35 (N-carboxyphenylimide of dimethylaminonaphthalic acid) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on the SR beam station of the S-60 synchrotron of the Lebedev Physical Institute. The mean fluorescence quantum yield of K-35 in patients serum was decreased significantly by 25-60% comparing with donors. The analysis of pre-exponential factors of fluorescence decay using "amplitude standard" method has shown that in patient sera the fraction of K-35 molecules bound with albumin and inaccessible to fluorescence quenchers ("bright" K-35 molecules with ?1=8.0±0.4 ns) is 1.2-3 times less than in the donor sera. The fraction of K-35 molecules with partly quenched fluorescence ( ?2=1.44±0.22 ns) was significantly increased in schizophrenia patients. The results obtained suggest that the properties of binding region in serum albumin molecules of acute paranoid schizophrenia patients change significantly.

  15. Two splicing factors carrying serine-arginine motifs, TSR1 and TSR1IP, regulate splicing, mRNA stability, and rRNA processing in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin Kumar; Chikne, Vaibhav; Eliaz, Dror; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Naboishchikov, Ilana; Carmi, Shai; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    In trypanosomes, mRNAs are processed by trans-splicing; in this process, a common exon, the spliced leader, is added to all mRNAs from a small RNA donor, the spliced leader RNA (SL RNA). However, little is known regarding how this process is regulated. In this study, we investigated the function of two serine-arginine-rich proteins, TSR1 and TSR1IP, implicated in trans-splicing in Trypanosoma brucei. Depletion of these factors by RNAi suggested their role in both cis- and trans-splicing. Microarray was used to examine the transcriptome of the silenced cells. The level of hundreds of mRNAs was changed, suggesting that these proteins have a role in regulating only a subset of T. brucei mRNAs. Mass-spectrometry analyses of complexes associated with these proteins suggest that these factors function in mRNA stability, translation, and rRNA processing. We further demonstrate changes in the stability of mRNA as a result of depletion of the two TSR proteins. In addition, rRNA defects were observed under the depletion of U2AF35, TSR1, and TSR1IP, but not SF1, suggesting involvement of SR proteins in rRNA processing. PMID:24922194

  16. GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN NAME OF DONOR(S)

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    1 GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN NAME OF DONOR(S) ("the Donor(s)") AND McMASTER UNIVERSITY ("the University") I. THE GIFT (NAME OF DONOR(S)) has generously made a Gift of (GIFT/PLEDGE $) to McMaster University (hereinafter the "Gift"). This Gift/Pledge will be provided in the form of (METHOD OF PAYMENT) according

  17. GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S))

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    1 GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S)) ("the Donor(s)") AND MCMASTER UNIVERSITY ("the University") I. THE GIFT (NAME OF DONOR(S)) have generously made a Gift of (X) to McMaster University. This generous Gift will be provided in the form (METHOD OF PAYMENT) according to the following schedule: II

  18. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  19. Molecular Cell, Vol. 1, 449455, February, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press The Function of Multisite Splicing Enhancers

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    of Multisite Splicing Enhancers enhancers arethought tofunction by recruitingthe splic-Klemens J. Hertel., 1994; Zuo and Maniatis, 1996). Splicing enhancers range in complexity from a single Summary SR protein binding site to multiple identical or nonidenti- cal enhancer elements (Tian and Maniatis, 1992; Wata

  20. PTBP1-dependent regulation of USP5 alternative RNA splicing plays a role in glioblastoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, Daisy I; Zhu, Wen; Hai, Tao; Cheung, Hannah C; Krahe, Ralf; Cote, Gilbert J

    2012-11-01

    Aberrant RNA splicing is thought to play a key role in tumorigenesis. The assessment of its specific contributions is limited by the complexity of information derived from genome-wide array-based approaches. We describe how performing splicing factor-specific comparisons using both tumor and cell line data sets may more readily identify physiologically relevant tumor-specific splicing events. Affymetrix exon array data derived from glioblastoma (GBM) tumor samples with defined polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) levels were compared with data from U251 GBM cells with and without PTBP1 knockdown. This comparison yielded overlapping gene sets that comprised only a minor fraction of each data set. The identification of a novel GBM-specific splicing event involving the USP5 gene led us to further examine its role in tumorigenesis. In GBM, USP5 generates a shorter isoform 2 through recognition of a 5' splice site within exon 15. Production of the USP5 isoform 2 was strongly correlated with PTBP1 expression in GBM tumor samples and cell lines. Splicing regulation was consistent with the presence of an intronic PTBP1 binding site and could be modulated through antisense targeting of the isoform 2 splice site to force expression of isoform 1 in GBM cells. The forced expression of USP5 isoform 1 in two GBM cell lines inhibited cell growth and migration, implying an important role for USP5 splicing in gliomagenesis. These results support a role for aberrant RNA splicing in tumorigenesis and suggest that changes in relatively few genes may be sufficient to drive the process. PMID:21976412

  1. SRSF1-Regulated Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Anczuków, Olga; Akerman, Martin; Cléry, Antoine; Wu, Jie; Shen, Chen; Shirole, Nitin H; Raimer, Amanda; Sun, Shuying; Jensen, Mads A; Hua, Yimin; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Krainer, Adrian R

    2015-10-01

    Splicing factor SRSF1 is upregulated in human breast tumors, and its overexpression promotes transformation of mammary cells. Using RNA-seq, we identified SRSF1-regulated alternative splicing (AS) targets in organotypic three-dimensional MCF-10A cell cultures that mimic a context relevant to breast cancer. We identified and validated hundreds of endogenous SRSF1-regulated AS events. De novo discovery of the SRSF1 binding motif reconciled discrepancies in previous motif analyses. Using a Bayesian model, we determined positional effects of SRSF1 binding on cassette exons: binding close to the 5' splice site generally promoted exon inclusion, whereas binding near the 3' splice site promoted either exon skipping or inclusion. Finally, we identified SRSF1-regulated AS events deregulated in human tumors; overexpressing one such isoform, exon-9-included CASC4, increased acinar size and proliferation, and decreased apoptosis, partially recapitulating SRSF1's oncogenic effects. Thus, we uncovered SRSF1 positive and negative regulatory mechanisms, and oncogenic AS events that represent potential targets for therapeutics development. PMID:26431027

  2. Alternative Splicing Events I. Elizabeth Cha1

    E-print Network

    Rouchka, Eric

    splicing variation in which the coding regions for a eukaryotic gene, called exons, are ex- tractedAlternative Splicing Events I. Elizabeth Cha1 , Katherine L. Hoblitzell1 , and Eric C. Rouchka1 TR Technical Report Series 1 Bioinformatics Review Alternative Splicing Events I. Elizabeth Cha1 , Katherine L

  3. Molecular Cell Alternative Splicing Regulates Biogenesis

    E-print Network

    Sharan, Roded

    miRNA and a spliced RNA can be generated from the same transcription unit. We have identified a mechanism in which RNA splicing negatively regu- lates the processing of pre-miRNAs that overlap exon-specific alternative splicing regulates maturation of one such miRNA, miR-412, resulting in effects on its targets

  4. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Column Lap Splices 

    E-print Network

    Alberson, Ryan M.

    2010-01-14

    specimens not influenced by ASR/DEF. The lap splice region behaved as expected and an over-strength in the splice region is evident. To account for ASR/DEF damage, the analytical model proposes a reduction factor to decrease the bond strength of the splice...

  5. Higher level organization of individual gene transcription and RNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Yigong Xing; Johnson, C.V.; Dobner, P.R.; Lawrence, J.B. )

    1993-02-26

    Visualization of fibronectin and neurotensin messenger RNAs within mammalian interphase nuclei was achieved by fluorescence hybridization with genomic, complementary DNA, and intron-specific probes. Unspliced transcripts accumulated in one or two sites per nucleus. Fibronectin RNA frequently accumulated in elongated tracks that overlapped and extended well beyond the site of transcription. Splicing appears to occur directly within this RNA track, as evidenced by an unambiguous spatial separation of intron-containing and spliced transcripts. Excised introns for neurotensin RNA appear free to diffuse. The transcription and processing site of the fibronectin gene localized to the nuclear interior and was associated with larger transcript domains in over 88 percent of the cells. These results support a view of nuclear function closely integrated with structure. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  6. A deep survey of alternative splicing in grape reveals changes in the splicing machinery related to tissue, stress condition and genotype

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity. It is differentially regulated in a wide variety of cell types and plays a role in several cellular processes. Here we describe a detailed survey of alternative splicing in grape based on 124 SOLiD RNAseq analyses from different tissues, stress conditions and genotypes. Results We used the RNAseq data to update the existing grape gene prediction with 2,258 new coding genes and 3,336 putative long non-coding RNAs. Several gene structures have been improved and alternative splicing was described for about 30% of the genes. A link between AS and miRNAs was shown in 139 genes where we found that AS affects the miRNA target site. A quantitative analysis of the isoforms indicated that most of the spliced genes have one major isoform and tend to simultaneously co-express a low number of isoforms, typically two, with intron retention being the most frequent alternative splicing event. Conclusions As described in Arabidopsis, also grape displays a marked AS tissue-specificity, while stress conditions produce splicing changes to a minor extent. Surprisingly, some distinctive splicing features were also observed between genotypes. This was further supported by the observation that the panel of Serine/Arginine-rich splicing factors show a few, but very marked differences between genotypes. The finding that a part the splicing machinery can change in closely related organisms can lead to some interesting hypotheses for evolutionary adaptation, that could be particularly relevant in the response to sudden and strong selective pressures. PMID:24739459

  7. Some Characterizations in Splicing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Yusof, Yuhani; Wan Heng, Fong

    2010-11-01

    The splitting and recombinant of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA by specified enzymes using concepts in Formal Language Theory was first mathematically modeled by Head in 1987. This splicing system, S can be presented as a set of initial string I over an alphabet A that acts upon 5' or 3' overhangs of restriction enzymes and can be simply viewed as S = (A, I, B, C). In this paper, a great interest in presenting some relations on certain types of splicing system namely null-context, uniform, simple, semi-simple, semi-null and Sk based on differentiating their rules are given as proposition, corollaries and counterexamples.

  8. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  9. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  10. ASGS: an alternative splicing graph web service.

    PubMed

    Bollina, Durgaprasad; Lee, Bernett T K; Tan, Tin Wee; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2006-07-01

    Alternative transcript diversity manifests itself a prime cause of complexity in higher eukaryotes. The Alternative Splicing Graph Server (ASGS) is a web service facilitating the systematic study of alternatively spliced genes of higher eukaryotes by generating splicing graphs for the compact visual representation of transcript diversity from a single gene. Taking a set of transcripts in General Feature Format as input, ASGS identifies distinct reference and variable exons, generates a transcript splicing graph, an exon summary, splicing events classification and a single line graph to facilitate experimental analysis. This freely available web service can be accessed at http://asgs.biolinfo.org. PMID:16845045

  11. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  12. Chromatin, DNA structure and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Giono, Luciana E; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-11-14

    Coupling of transcription and alternative splicing via regulation of the transcriptional elongation rate is a well-studied phenomenon. Template features that act as roadblocks for the progression of RNA polymerase II comprise histone modifications and variants, DNA-interacting proteins and chromatin compaction. These may affect alternative splicing decisions by inducing pauses or decreasing elongation rate that change the time-window for splicing regulatory sequences to be recognized. Herein we discuss the evidence supporting the influence of template structural modifications on transcription and splicing, and provide insights about possible roles of non-B DNA conformations on the regulation of alternative splicing. PMID:26296319

  13. ASGS: an alternative splicing graph web service

    PubMed Central

    Bollina, Durgaprasad; Lee, Bernett T. K.; Tan, Tin Wee; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2006-01-01

    Alternative transcript diversity manifests itself a prime cause of complexity in higher eukaryotes. The Alternative Splicing Graph Server (ASGS) is a web service facilitating the systematic study of alternatively spliced genes of higher eukaryotes by generating splicing graphs for the compact visual representation of transcript diversity from a single gene. Taking a set of transcripts in General Feature Format as input, ASGS identifies distinct reference and variable exons, generates a transcript splicing graph, an exon summary, splicing events classification and a single line graph to facilitate experimental analysis. This freely available web service can be accessed at . PMID:16845045

  14. A novel homozygous splicing mutation in PSAP gene causes metachromatic leukodystrophy in two Moroccan brothers.

    PubMed

    Siri, Laura; Rossi, Andrea; Lanza, Federica; Mazzotti, Raffaella; Costa, Anna; Stroppiano, Marina; Gaiero, Alberto; Cohen, Amnon; Biancheri, Roberta; Filocamo, Mirella

    2014-05-01

    Prosaposin (PSAP) gene mutations, affecting saposin B (Sap-B) domain, cause a rare metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) variant in which arylsulfatase A (ARSA) activity is normal. To date, only 10 different PSAP mutations have been associated with a total of 18 unrelated MLD patients worldwide. In this study, we report for the first time a family with Moroccan origins in which the proband, presenting with a late-infantile onset of neurological involvement and a brain MRI with the typical tigroid MLD pattern, showed normal values of ARSA activity in the presence of an abnormal pattern of urinary sulfatides. In view of these findings, PSAP gene was analyzed, identifying the newly genomic homozygous c.909 + 1G > A mutation occurring within the invariant GT dinucleotide of the intron 8 donor splice site. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing the direct junction of exon 7 to exon 9, confirmed the skipping of the entire exon 8 (p.Gln260_Lys303) which normally contains two cysteine residues (Cys271 and Cys265) involved in disulfide bridges. Our report provides further evidence that phenotypes of patients with Sap-B deficiency vary widely depending on age of onset, type, and severity of symptoms. Awareness of this rare MLD variant is crucial to prevent delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and to promptly provide an accurate genetic counseling, including prenatal diagnosis, to families. PMID:24478108

  15. Delivering Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Target Telomerase Splice Variants in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Radan, Lida; Hughes, Chris S; Teichroeb, Jonathan H; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Betts, Dean H

    2016-01-01

    Morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) are an innovative tool that provides a means for examining and modifying gene expression outcomes by antisense interaction with targeted RNA transcripts. The site-specific nature of their binding facilitates focused modulation to alter splice variant expression patterns. Here we describe the steric-blocking of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) ?? and ?? splice variants using MO to examine cellular outcomes related to pluripotency and differentiation in human embryonic stem cells. PMID:25822725

  16. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-02-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of alternative splicing in duplicate genes may occur shortly after the gene duplication. These results support the subfunctionization model of alternative splicing in the early stage after gene duplication. Further analysis of the alternative splicing distribution in human duplicate pairs showed the asymmetric evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplications; i.e., the AS forms between duplicates may differ dramatically. We therefore conclude that alternative splicing and gene duplication may not evolve independently. In the early stage after gene duplication, young duplicates may take over a certain amount of protein function diversity that previously was carried out by the alternative splicing mechanism. In the late stage, the gain and loss of alternative splicing seem to be independent between duplicates. PMID:16365379

  17. Determination of Catalytic Key Amino Acids and UDP Sugar Donor Specificity of the Cyanohydrin Glycosyltransferase UGT85B1 from Sorghum bicolor. Molecular Modeling Substantiated by Site-Specific Mutagenesis and Biochemical Analyses1

    PubMed Central

    Thorsøe, Karina Sinding; Bak, Søren; Olsen, Carl Erik; Imberty, Anne; Breton, Christelle; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2005-01-01

    Plants produce a plethora of structurally diverse natural products. The final step in their biosynthesis is often a glycosylation step catalyzed by a family 1 glycosyltransferase (GT). In biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor, the UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT85B1 catalyzes the conversion of p-hydroxymandelonitrile into dhurrin. A structural model of UGT85B1 was built based on hydrophobic cluster analysis and the crystal structures of two bacterial GTs, GtfA and GtfB, which each showed approximately 15% overall amino acid sequence identity to UGT85B1. The model enabled predictions about amino acid residues important for catalysis and sugar donor specificity. p-Hydroxymandelonitrile and UDP-glucose (Glc) were predicted to be positioned within hydrogen-bonding distance to a glutamic acid residue in position 410 facilitating sugar transfer. The acceptor was packed within van der Waals distance to histidine H23. Serine S391 and arginine R201 form hydrogen bonds to the pyrophosphate part of UDP-Glc and hence stabilize binding of the sugar donor. Docking of UDP sugars predicted that UDP-Glc would serve as the sole donor sugar in UGT85B1. This was substantiated by biochemical analyses. The predictive power of the model was validated by site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues and using enzyme assays. The modeling approach has provided a tool to design GTs with new desired substrate specificities for use in biotechnological applications. The modeling identified a hypervariable loop (amino acid residues 156–188) that contained a hydrophobic patch. The involvement of this loop in mediating binding of UGT85B1 to cytochromes P450, CYP79A1, and CYP71E1 within a dhurrin metabolon is discussed. PMID:16169969

  18. Analysis of SRrp86-regulated alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Amanda S

    2010-01-01

    Previous work led to the hypothesis that SRrp86, a related member of the SR protein superfamily, can interact with and modulate the activity of other SR proteins. Here, we sought to test this hypothesis by examining the effect of changing SRrp86 concentrations on overall alternative splicing patterns. SpliceArrays were used to examine 9,854 splicing events in wild-type cells, cells overexpressing SRrp86, and cells treated with siRNAs to knockdown SRrp86. From among the 500 splicing events exhibiting altered splicing under these conditions, the splicing of c-Jun and I?B? were validated as being regulated by SRrp86 resulting in altered regulation of their downstream targets. In both cases, functionally distinct isoforms were generated that demonstrate the role SRrp86 plays in controlling alternative splicing. PMID:20400856

  19. Intron-independent Association of Splicing Factors with Active Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Caroline; Vourc'h, Claire; Robert-Nicoud, Michel; Morimoto, Richard I.

    1999-01-01

    The cell nucleus is organized as discrete domains, often associated with specific events involved in chromosome organization, replication, and gene expression. We have examined the spatial and functional relationship between the sites of heat shock gene transcription and the speckles enriched in splicing factors in primary human fibroblasts by combining immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The hsp90? and hsp70 genes are inducibly regulated by exposure to stress from a low basal level to a high rate of transcription; additionally the hsp90? gene contains 10 introns whereas the hsp70 gene is intronless. At 37°C, only 30% of hsp90? transcription sites are associated with speckles whereas little association is detected with the hsp70 gene, whose constitutive expression is undetectable relative to the hsp90? gene. Upon exposure of cells to heat shock, the heavy metal cadmium, or the amino acid analogue azetidine, transcription at the hsp90? and hsp70 gene loci is strongly induced, and both hsp transcription sites become associated with speckles in >90% of the cells. These results reveal a clear disconnection between the presence of intervening sequences at specific gene loci and the association with splicing factor–rich regions and suggest that subnuclear structures containing splicing factors are associated with sites of transcription. PMID:10366587

  20. Technologies for the global discovery and analysis of alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Calarco, John A; Saltzman, Arneet L; Ip, Joanna Y; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    During the past approximately 20 years, studies on alternative splicing (AS) have largely been directed at the identification and characterization of factors and mecha nisms responsible for the control of splice site selection, using model substrates and on a case by case basis. These studies have provided a wealth of information on the factors and interactions that control formation of the spliceosome. However, relatively little is known about the global regulatory properties of AS. Important questions that need to be addressed are: which exons are alternatively spliced and under which cellular contexts, what are the functional roles of AS events in different cellular contexts, and how are AS events controlled and coordinated with each other and with other levels of gene regulation to achieve cell- and development-specific functions. During the past several years, new technologies and experimental strategies have provided insight into these questions. For example, custom microarrays and data analysis tools are playing a prominent role in the discovery and analysis of splicing regulation. Moreover, several non-microarray-based technologies are emerging that will likely further fuel progress in this area. This review focuses on recent advances made in the development and application of high-throughput methods to study AS. PMID:18380341

  1. O-Glycosyl Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  2. GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S))

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    1 GIFT AGREEMENT BETWEEN (NAME OF DONOR(S)) ("the Donor(s)") AND MCMASTER UNIVERSITY ("the University") I. THE GIFT (DONORS NAME(S) have generously made a gift of (GIFT/PLEDGE AMOUNT) to McMaster University (hereinafter the "Gift"). This Gift/Pledge will be provided in the form of (METHOD OF PAYMENT

  3. An alternative splice variant in Abcc6, the gene causing dystrophic calcification, leads to protein deficiency in C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Doehring, Lars C; Ehlers, Eva-Maria; Liptau, Henrike; Depping, Reinhard; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Kaczmarek, Piotr M; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert

    2008-03-21

    Dystrophic cardiac calcification (DCC) is an autosomal recessive trait characterized by calcium phosphate deposits in myocardial tissue. The Abcc6 gene locus was recently found to mediate DCC; however, at the molecular level the causative variants remain to be determined. Examining the sequences of Abcc6 cDNA in DCC-resistant C57BL/6 and DCC-susceptible C3H/He mice, we identified a missense mutation (Cys to Thr at codon 619, rs32756904) at the 3'-border of exon 14 that creates an additional donor splice site (GT). Accordingly, an alternative transcript variant was detected, lacking the last 5 bp of exon 14 (-AGG(C/T)GCTgtga-) in DCC-susceptible C3H/He mice that carry the Thr allele. The 5-bp deletion was found to result in premature termination at codon 684, in turn leading to protein deficiency in DCC-susceptible mouse tissue as well as in cells transfected with Abcc6 cDNA lacking the last 5 bp of exon 14. All mouse strains that were found to carry the Thr allele, including C3H/He, DBA/2J, and 129S1/SvJ, were also found to be positive for DCC. In summary, we identified a splice variant leading to a 5-bp deletion in the Abcc6 transcript that gives rise to protein deficiency both in vivo and in vitro. The fact that all mouse strains that carry the deletion also develop dystrophic calcifications further suggests that the underlying splice variant affects the biological function of MRP6 protein and is a cause of DCC in mice. PMID:18201967

  4. RNA-Seq analysis in mutant zebrafish reveals role of U1C protein in alternative splicing regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rösel, Tanja Dorothe; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Medenbach, Jan; Donde, Katrin; Starke, Stefan; Benes, Vladimir; Rätsch, Gunnar; Bindereif, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Precise 5? splice-site recognition is essential for both constitutive and regulated pre-mRNA splicing. The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP)-specific protein U1C is involved in this first step of spliceosome assembly and important for stabilizing early splicing complexes. We used an embryonically lethal U1C mutant zebrafish, hi1371, to investigate the potential genomewide role of U1C for splicing regulation. U1C mutant embryos contain overall stable, but U1C-deficient U1 snRNPs. Surprisingly, genomewide RNA-Seq analysis of mutant versus wild-type embryos revealed a large set of specific target genes that changed their alternative splicing patterns in the absence of U1C. Injection of ZfU1C cRNA into mutant embryos and in vivo splicing experiments in HeLa cells after siRNA-mediated U1C knockdown confirmed the U1C dependency and specificity, as well as the functional conservation of the effects observed. In addition, sequence motif analysis of the U1C-dependent 5? splice sites uncovered an association with downstream intronic U-rich elements. In sum, our findings provide evidence for a new role of a general snRNP protein, U1C, as a mediator of alternative splicing regulation. PMID:21468032

  5. Papers of the Week Trans-splicing Promotes Translation

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    Papers of the Week Trans-splicing Promotes Translation Many organisms use trans-splicing to join two separately transcribed RNAs. In spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing, a 22-bp leader sequence trans-splicing is to resolve polycistronic transcripts into functional monocistronic mRNAs. However, up

  6. The evolving roles of alternative splicing Liana F Lareau1

    E-print Network

    or localization domains by alternative splicing. Alternative splicing can also regulate gene expression forms. Comparisons of alternative splicing between human and mouse genes show that predominant splice, human genes are alternatively spliced. Although estimates vary between studies, and increase as more

  7. Alternative splicing by participation of the group II intron ORF in extremely halotolerant and alkaliphilic Oceanobacillus iheyensis.

    PubMed

    Chee, Gab-Joo; Takami, Hideto

    2011-01-01

    Group II introns inserted into genes often undergo splicing at unexpected sites, and participate in the transcription of host genes. We identified five copies of a group II intron, designated Oi.Int, in the genome of an extremely halotolerant and alkaliphilic bacillus, Oceanobacillus iheyensis. The Oi.Int4 differs from the Oi.Int3 at four bases. The ligated exons of the Oi.Int4 could not be detected by RT-PCR assays in vivo or in vitro although group II introns can generally self-splice in vitro without the involvement of an intron-encoded open reading frame (ORF). In the Oi.Int4 mutants with base substitutions within the ORF, ligated exons were detected by in vitro self-splicing. It was clear that the ligation of exons during splicing is affected by the sequence of the intron-encoded ORF since the splice sites corresponded to the joining sites of the intron. In addition, the mutant introns showed unexpected multiple products with alternative 5' splice sites. These findings imply that alternative 5' splicing which causes a functional change of ligated exons presumably has influenced past adaptations of O. iheyensis to various environmental changes. PMID:21487203

  8. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  9. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  10. Spliced leader RNA trans-splicing discovered in copepods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feifei; Xu, Donghui; Zhuang, Yunyun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yousong; Chen, Hongju; Lin, Senjie; Campbell, David A.; Sturm, Nancy R.; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are one of the most abundant metazoans in the marine ecosystem, constituting a critical link in aquatic food webs and contributing significantly to the global carbon budget, yet molecular mechanisms of their gene expression are not well understood. Here we report the detection of spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing in calanoid copepods. We have examined nine species of wild-caught copepods from Jiaozhou Bay, China that represent the major families of the calanoids. All these species contained a common 46-nt SL (CopepodSL). We further determined the size of CopepodSL precursor RNA (slRNA; 108-158 nt) through genomic analysis and 3?-RACE technique, which was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Structure modeling showed that the copepod slRNA folded into typical slRNA secondary structures. Using a CopepodSL-based primer set, we selectively enriched and sequenced copepod full-length cDNAs, which led to the characterization of copepod transcripts and the cataloging of the complete set of 79 eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (cRPs) for a single copepod species. We uncovered the SL trans-splicing in copepod natural populations, and demonstrated that CopepodSL was a sensitive and specific tool for copepod transcriptomic studies at both the individual and population levels and that it would be useful for metatranscriptomic analysis of copepods. PMID:26621068

  11. Spliced leader RNA trans-splicing discovered in copepods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feifei; Xu, Donghui; Zhuang, Yunyun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yousong; Chen, Hongju; Lin, Senjie; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are one of the most abundant metazoans in the marine ecosystem, constituting a critical link in aquatic food webs and contributing significantly to the global carbon budget, yet molecular mechanisms of their gene expression are not well understood. Here we report the detection of spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing in calanoid copepods. We have examined nine species of wild-caught copepods from Jiaozhou Bay, China that represent the major families of the calanoids. All these species contained a common 46-nt SL (CopepodSL). We further determined the size of CopepodSL precursor RNA (slRNA; 108-158 nt) through genomic analysis and 3'-RACE technique, which was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Structure modeling showed that the copepod slRNA folded into typical slRNA secondary structures. Using a CopepodSL-based primer set, we selectively enriched and sequenced copepod full-length cDNAs, which led to the characterization of copepod transcripts and the cataloging of the complete set of 79 eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (cRPs) for a single copepod species. We uncovered the SL trans-splicing in copepod natural populations, and demonstrated that CopepodSL was a sensitive and specific tool for copepod transcriptomic studies at both the individual and population levels and that it would be useful for metatranscriptomic analysis of copepods. PMID:26621068

  12. X-Linked Alport Syndrome Caused by Splicing Mutations in COL4A5

    PubMed Central

    Vorechovsky, Igor; Kaito, Hiroshi; Fu, Xue Jun; Nakanishi, Koichi; Hashimura, Yuya; Hashimoto, Fusako; Kamei, Koichi; Ito, Shuichi; Kaku, Yoshitsugu; Imasawa, Toshiyuki; Ushijima, Katsumi; Shimizu, Junya; Makita, Yoshio; Konomoto, Takao; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives X-linked Alport syndrome is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. Although many COL4A5 mutations have been detected, the mutation detection rate has been unsatisfactory. Some men with X-linked Alport syndrome show a relatively mild phenotype, but molecular basis investigations have rarely been conducted to clarify the underlying mechanism. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 152 patients with X-linked Alport syndrome who were suspected of having Alport syndrome through clinical and pathologic investigations and referred to the hospital for mutational analysis between January of 2006 and January of 2013 were genetically diagnosed. Among those patients, 22 patients had suspected splice site mutations. Transcripts are routinely examined when suspected splice site mutations for abnormal transcripts are detected; 11 of them showed expected exon skipping, but others showed aberrant splicing patterns. The mutation detection strategy had two steps: (1) genomic DNA analysis using PCR and direct sequencing and (2) mRNA analysis using RT-PCR to detect RNA processing abnormalities. Results Six splicing consensus site mutations resulting in aberrant splicing patterns, one exonic mutation leading to exon skipping, and four deep intronic mutations producing cryptic splice site activation were identified. Interestingly, one case produced a cryptic splice site with a single nucleotide substitution in the deep intron that led to intronic exonization containing a stop codon; however, the patient showed a clearly milder phenotype for X-linked Alport syndrome in men with a truncating mutation. mRNA extracted from the kidney showed both normal and abnormal transcripts, with the normal transcript resulting in the milder phenotype. This novel mechanism leads to mild clinical characteristics. Conclusions This report highlights the importance of analyzing transcripts to enhance the mutation detection rate and provides insight into genotype-phenotype correlations. This approach can clarify the cause of atypically mild phenotypes in X-linked Alport syndrome. PMID:25183659

  13. A General Definition and Nomenclature for Alternative Splicing Events

    PubMed Central

    Guigó, Roderic

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of the transcriptome present in eukaryotic cells is one of the most challenging tasks in the postgenomic era. In this regard, alternative splicing (AS) is a key phenomenon contributing to the production of different mature transcripts from the same primary RNA sequence. As a plethora of different transcript forms is available in databases, a first step to uncover the biology that drives AS is to identify the different types of reflected splicing variation. In this work, we present a general definition of the AS event along with a notation system that involves the relative positions of the splice sites. This nomenclature univocally and dynamically assigns a specific “AS code” to every possible pattern of splicing variation. On the basis of this definition and the corresponding codes, we have developed a computational tool (AStalavista) that automatically characterizes the complete landscape of AS events in a given transcript annotation of a genome, thus providing a platform to investigate the transcriptome diversity across genes, chromosomes, and species. Our analysis reveals that a substantial part—in human more than a quarter—of the observed splicing variations are ignored in common classification pipelines. We have used AStalavista to investigate and to compare the AS landscape of different reference annotation sets in human and in other metazoan species and found that proportions of AS events change substantially depending on the annotation protocol, species-specific attributes, and coding constraints acting on the transcripts. The AStalavista system therefore provides a general framework to conduct specific studies investigating the occurrence, impact, and regulation of AS. PMID:18688268

  14. Canis familiaris telomerase reverse transcriptase undergoes alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, Katerina; Zavlaris, Michael; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Vlemmas, Ioannis

    2008-09-01

    The enzyme telomerase is essential for cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) represents the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. In humans, TERT expression is regulated by several different mechanisms, including alternative splicing. Canis familiaris TERT (dogTERT) has been shown to have a high level of sequence similarity with human TERT, indicating that the dog may represent a suitable animal model for telomerase studies. In the present report we sought to investigate whether dogTERT undergoes alternative splicing. During the analysis of canine mammary tissues (both tumor and paired adjacent to the tumor normal tissues) for dogTERT expression by RT-PCR, we identified eight samples-one tumor and seven adjacent normal-which gave PCR products of unexpected sizes. DNA sequencing revealed two insertions (175 and 28 bp long) and two deletions (17 and 32 bp long), which were encountered in different combinations and gave rise to five different transcripts. The generation of all variants could be explained by the employment of alternative splicing sites within dogTERT genomic sequences. The 175-bp and 28-bp insertions, identified between exons 7 and 8 and between 8 and 9, respectively, constituted unspliced sequences of introns 7 and 8, respectively. Both deletions originated from exon 8 sequence removals due to alternative splicing. All five variants encoded truncated proteins, which lacked essential motifs for reverse transcription and might have thus lost their ability to compose active telomerase enzymes. This is the first identification of alternative splicing events within dogTERT. The results presented here may provide the basis for more thorough studies on the regulation of telomerase activity in canine normal and cancer cells. PMID:18836773

  15. NMR studies of two spliced leader RNAs using isotope labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapham, J.; Crothers, D.M.

    1994-12-01

    Spliced leader RNAs are a class of RNA molecules (<200 nts) involved in the trans splicing of messenger RNA found in trypanosomes, nematodes, and other lower eukaryotes. The spliced leader RNA from the trypanosome Leptomonas Collosoma exists in two alternate structural forms with similar thermal stabilities. The 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the SL molecule is structurally independent from the 3{prime} half of the RNA, and displays the two structural forms. Furthermore, the favored of the two structures was shown to contain anomalous nuclease sensitivity and thermal stability features, which suggests that there may be tertiary interactions between the splice site and other nucleotides in the 5{prime} end. Multidimensional NMR studies are underway to elucidate the structural elements present in the SL RNAs that give rise to their physical properties. Two spliced leader sequences have been studied. The first, the 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the L. Collosoma sequence, was selected because of earlier studies in our laboratory. The second sequence is the 5{prime} end of the trypanosome Crithidia Fasciculata, which was chosen because of its greater sequence homology to other SL sequences. Given the complexity of the NMR spectra for RNA molecules of this size, we have incorporated {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled nucleotides into the RNA. One of the techniques we have developed to simplify the spectra of these RNA molecules is isotope labeling of specific regions of the RNA. This has been especially helpful in assigning the secondary structure of molecules that may be able to adopt multiple conformations. Using this technique one can examine a part of the molecule without spectral interference from the unlabeled portion. We hope this approach will promote an avenue for studying the structure of larger RNAs in their native surroundings.

  16. An allosteric self-splicing ribozyme triggered by a bacterial second messenger.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elaine R; Baker, Jenny L; Weinberg, Zasha; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2010-08-13

    Group I self-splicing ribozymes commonly function as components of selfish mobile genetic elements. We identified an allosteric group I ribozyme, wherein self-splicing is regulated by a distinct riboswitch class that senses the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. The tandem RNA sensory system resides in the 5' untranslated region of the messenger RNA for a putative virulence gene in the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium difficile. c-di-GMP binding by the riboswitch induces folding changes at atypical splice site junctions to modulate alternative RNA processing. Our findings indicate that some self-splicing ribozymes are not selfish elements but are harnessed by cells as metabolite sensors and genetic regulators. PMID:20705859

  17. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Splicing Factor SRSF1 and Its Role in Cancer Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vânia; Jordan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, alternative splicing has been progressively recognized as a major mechanism regulating gene expression patterns in different tissues and disease states through the generation of multiple mRNAs from the same gene transcript. This process requires the joining of selected exons or usage of different pairs of splice sites and is regulated by gene-specific combinations of RNA-binding proteins. One archetypical splicing regulator is SRSF1, for which we review the molecular mechanisms and posttranscriptional modifications involved in its life cycle. These include alternative splicing of SRSF1 itself, regulatory protein phosphorylation events, and the role of nuclear versus cytoplasmic SRSF1 localization. In addition, we resume current knowledge on deregulated SRSF1 expression in tumors and describe SRSF1-regulated alternative transcripts with functional consequences for cancer cell biology at different stages of tumor development. PMID:26273603

  18. An Allosteric Self-splicing Ribozyme Triggered by a Bacterial Second Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Zasha; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Group I self-splicing ribozymes commonly function as components of selfish mobile genetic elements. We identified an allosteric group I ribozyme, wherein self-splicing is regulated by a distinct riboswitch class that senses the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. The tandem RNA sensory system resides in the 5? untranslated region of the messenger RNA for a putative virulence gene in the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium difficile. c-di-GMP binding by the riboswitch induces folding changes at atypical splice site junctions to modulate alternative RNA processing. Our findings indicate that some self-splicing ribozymes are not selfish elements, but are harnessed by cells as metabolite sensors and genetic regulators. PMID:20705859

  19. Pre-mRNA splicing is facilitated by an optimal RNA polymerase II elongation rate

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Nova; Kim, Hyunmin; Zhou, Yu; Ji, Xiong; Qiu, Jinsong; Saldi, Tassa; Diener, Katrina; Jones, Ken; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing modulates expression of most human genes. The kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing suggests that slow elongation expands and that fast elongation compresses the “window of opportunity” for recognition of upstream splice sites, thereby increasing or decreasing inclusion of alternative exons. We tested the model using RNA polymerase II mutants that change average elongation rates genome-wide. Slow and fast elongation affected constitutive and alternative splicing, frequently altering exon inclusion and intron retention in ways not predicted by the model. Cassette exons included by slow and excluded by fast elongation (type I) have weaker splice sites, shorter flanking introns, and distinct sequence motifs relative to “slow-excluded” and “fast-included” exons (type II). Many rate-sensitive exons are misspliced in tumors. Unexpectedly, slow and fast elongation often both increased or both decreased inclusion of a particular exon or retained intron. These results suggest that an optimal rate of transcriptional elongation is required for normal cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25452276

  20. Novel Kidins220/ARMS Splice Isoforms: Potential Specific Regulators of Neuronal and Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Schmieg, Nathalie; Thomas, Claire; Yabe, Arisa; Lynch, David S.; Iglesias, Teresa; Chakravarty, Probir; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Kidins220/ARMS is a transmembrane protein playing a crucial role in neuronal and cardiovascular development. Kidins220/ARMS is a downstream target of neurotrophin receptors and interacts with several signalling and trafficking factors. Through computational modelling, we found two potential sites for alternative splicing of Kidins220/ARMS. The first is located between exon 24 and exon 29, while the second site replaces exon 32 by a short alternative terminal exon 33. Here we describe the conserved occurrence of several Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms at RNA and protein levels. Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms display spatio-temporal regulation during development with distinct patterns in different neuronal populations. Neurotrophin receptor stimulation in cortical and hippocampal neurons and neuroendocrine cells induces specific Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms and alters the appearance kinetics of the full-length transcript. Remarkably, alternative terminal exon splicing generates Kidins220/ARMS variants with distinct cellular localisation: Kidins220/ARMS containing exon 32 is targeted to the plasma membrane and neurite tips, whereas Kidins220/ARMS without exon 33 mainly clusters the full-length protein in a perinuclear intracellular compartment in PC12 cells and primary neurons, leading to a change in neurotrophin receptor expression. Overall, this study demonstrates the existence of novel Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms with unique properties, revealing additional complexity in the functional regulation of neurotrophin receptors, and potentially other signalling pathways involved in neuronal and cardiovascular development. PMID:26083449

  1. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  2. Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel. PMID:24918296

  3. Regulated functional alternative splicing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Julian P.; Tazi, Jamal; Juge, François

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing expands the coding capacity of metazoan genes, and it was largely genetic studies in the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster that established the principle that regulated alternative splicing results in tissue- and stage-specific protein isoforms with different functions in development. Alternative splicing is particularly prominent in germ cells, muscle and the central nervous system where it modulates the expression of various proteins including cell-surface molecules and transcription factors. Studies in flies have given us numerous insights into alternative splicing in terms of upstream regulation, the exquisite diversity of their forms and the key differential cellular functions of alternatively spliced gene products. The current inundation of transcriptome sequencing data from Drosophila provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain a comprehensive view of alternative splicing. PMID:21908400

  4. Underwater splice for submarine coaxial cable

    SciTech Connect

    Inouye, A.T.; Roe, T. Jr.; Tausing, W.R.; Wilson, J.V.

    1984-10-30

    The invention is a device for splicing submarine coaxial cable underwater on the seafloor with a simple push-on operation to restore and maintain electrical and mechanical strength integrity; the splice device is mateable directly with the severed ends of a coaxial cable to be repaired. Splicing assemblies comprise a dielectric pressure compensating fluid filled guide cavity, a gelled castor oil cap and wiping seals for exclusion of seawater, electrical contacts, a cable strength restoration mechanism, and a pressure compensation system for controlled extrusion of and depletion loss prevention of dielectric seal fluid during cable splicing. A splice is made underwater by directly inserting prepared ends of coaxial cable, having no connector attachments, into splicing assemblies.

  5. Safely splicing glass optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korbelak, K.

    1980-01-01

    Field-repair technique fuses glass fibers in flammable environment. Apparatus consists of v-groove vacuum chucks on manipulators, high-voltage dc power supply and tungsten electrodes, microscope to observe joint alignment and fusion, means of test transmission through joint. Apparatus is enclosed in gas tight bos filled with inert gas during fusion. About 2 feet of fiber end are necessary for splicing.

  6. The exon A (C77G) mutation is a common cause of abnormal CD45 splicing in humans.

    PubMed

    Tchilian, E Z; Wallace, D L; Imami, N; Liao, H X; Burton, C; Gotch, F; Martinson, J; Haynes, B F; Beverley, P C

    2001-05-15

    The leukocyte common (CD45) Ag is essential for normal T lymphocyte function and alternative splicing at the N terminus of the gene is associated with changes in T cell maturation and differentiation. Recently, a statistically significant association was reported in a large series of human thymus samples between phenotypically abnormal CD45 splicing and the presence of the CC chemokine receptor 5 deletion 32 (CCR5del32) allele, which confers resistance to HIV infection in homozygotes. We show here that abnormal splicing in these thymus samples is associated with the presence of the only established cause of CD45 abnormal splicing, a C77G transversion in exon A. In addition we have examined 227 DNA samples from peripheral blood of healthy donors and find no association between the exon A (C77G) and CCR5del32 mutations. Among 135 PBMC samples, tested by flow cytometric analysis, all those exhibiting abnormal splicing of CD45 also showed the exon A C77G transversion. We conclude that the exon A (C77G) mutation is a common cause of abnormal CD45 splicing and that further disease association studies of this mutation are warranted. PMID:11342634

  7. Nuclear matrix-associated protein SMAR1 regulates alternative splicing via HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of Sam68.

    PubMed

    Nakka, Kiran Kumar; Chaudhary, Nidhi; Joshi, Shruti; Bhat, Jyotsna; Singh, Kulwant; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Malhotra, Renu; De, Abhijit; Santra, Manas Kumar; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-06-30

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a complex regulatory nexus modulated by various trans-factors and their posttranslational modifications to create a dynamic transcriptome through alternative splicing. Signal-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of trans-factors are known to regulate alternative splicing. However, the role of other posttranslational modifications, such as deacetylation/acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, that could modulate alternative splicing in either a signal-dependent or -independent manner remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that Scaffold/matrix-associated region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1) negatively regulates alternative splicing through histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated deacetylation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 (Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa). SMAR1 is enriched in nuclear splicing speckles and associates with the snRNAs that are involved in splice site recognition. ERK-MAPK pathway that regulates alternative splicing facilitates ERK-1/2-mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 at threonines 345 and 360 and localizes SMAR1 to the cytoplasm, preventing its interaction with Sam68. We showed that endogenously, SMAR1 through HDAC6 maintains Sam68 in a deacetylated state. However, knockdown or ERK-mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 releases the inhibitory SMAR1-HDAC6-Sam68 complex, facilitating Sam68 acetylation and alternative splicing. Furthermore, loss of heterozygosity at the Chr.16q24.3 locus in breast cancer cells, wherein the human homolog of SMAR1 (BANP) has been mapped, enhances Sam68 acetylation and CD44 variant exon inclusion. In addition, tail-vein injections in mice with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells depleted for SMAR1 showed increased CD44 variant exon inclusion and concomitant metastatic propensity, confirming the functional role of SMAR1 in regulation of alternative splicing. Thus, our results reveal the complex molecular mechanism underlying SMAR1-mediated signal-dependent and -independent regulation of alternative splicing via Sam68 deacetylation. PMID:26080397

  8. Trans-splicing and operons in metazoans: translational control in maternally regulated development and recovery from growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Danks, Gemma B; Raasholm, Martina; Campsteijn, Coen; Long, Abby M; Manak, J Robert; Lenhard, Boris; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-03-01

    Polycistronic mRNAs transcribed from operons are resolved via the trans-splicing of a spliced-leader (SL) RNA. Trans-splicing also occurs at monocistronic transcripts. The phlyogenetically sporadic appearance of trans-splicing and operons has made the driving force(s) for their evolution in metazoans unclear. Previous work has proposed that germline expression drives operon organization in Caenorhabditis elegans, and a recent hypothesis proposes that operons provide an evolutionary advantage via the conservation of transcriptional machinery during recovery from growth arrested states. Using a modified cap analysis of gene expression protocol we mapped sites of SL trans-splicing genome-wide in the marine chordate Oikopleura dioica. Tiled microarrays revealed the expression dynamics of trans-spliced genes across development and during recovery from growth arrest. Operons did not facilitate recovery from growth arrest in O. dioica. Instead, we found that trans-spliced transcripts were predominantly maternal. We then analyzed data from C. elegans and Ciona intestinalis and found that an enrichment of trans-splicing and operon gene expression in maternal mRNA is shared between all three species, suggesting that this may be a driving force for operon evolution in metazoans. Furthermore, we found that the majority of known terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) mRNAs are trans-spliced in O. dioica and that the SL contains a TOP-like motif. This suggests that the SL in O. dioica confers nutrient-dependent translational control to trans-spliced mRNAs via the TOR-signaling pathway. We hypothesize that SL-trans-splicing provides an evolutionary advantage in species that depend on translational control for regulating early embryogenesis, growth and oocyte production in response to nutrient levels. PMID:25525214

  9. Nuclear matrix-associated protein SMAR1 regulates alternative splicing via HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of Sam68

    PubMed Central

    Nakka, Kiran Kumar; Chaudhary, Nidhi; Joshi, Shruti; Bhat, Jyotsna; Singh, Kulwant; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Malhotra, Renu; De, Abhijit; Santra, Manas Kumar; Dilworth, F. Jeffrey; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a complex regulatory nexus modulated by various trans-factors and their posttranslational modifications to create a dynamic transcriptome through alternative splicing. Signal-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of trans-factors are known to regulate alternative splicing. However, the role of other posttranslational modifications, such as deacetylation/acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, that could modulate alternative splicing in either a signal-dependent or -independent manner remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that Scaffold/matrix-associated region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1) negatively regulates alternative splicing through histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated deacetylation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 (Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa). SMAR1 is enriched in nuclear splicing speckles and associates with the snRNAs that are involved in splice site recognition. ERK–MAPK pathway that regulates alternative splicing facilitates ERK-1/2–mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 at threonines 345 and 360 and localizes SMAR1 to the cytoplasm, preventing its interaction with Sam68. We showed that endogenously, SMAR1 through HDAC6 maintains Sam68 in a deacetylated state. However, knockdown or ERK-mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 releases the inhibitory SMAR1–HDAC6–Sam68 complex, facilitating Sam68 acetylation and alternative splicing. Furthermore, loss of heterozygosity at the Chr.16q24.3 locus in breast cancer cells, wherein the human homolog of SMAR1 (BANP) has been mapped, enhances Sam68 acetylation and CD44 variant exon inclusion. In addition, tail-vein injections in mice with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells depleted for SMAR1 showed increased CD44 variant exon inclusion and concomitant metastatic propensity, confirming the functional role of SMAR1 in regulation of alternative splicing. Thus, our results reveal the complex molecular mechanism underlying SMAR1-mediated signal-dependent and -independent regulation of alternative splicing via Sam68 deacetylation. PMID:26080397

  10. Global regulation of alternative splicing during myogenic differentiation

    E-print Network

    Bland, Christopher S.

    Recent genome-wide analyses have elucidated the extent of alternative splicing (AS) in mammals, often focusing on comparisons of splice isoforms between differentiated tissues. However, regulated splicing changes are likely ...

  11. Studies of exon scrambling and mutually exclusive alternative splicing

    E-print Network

    Kong, Rong, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this thesis work were to study two special alternative splicing events: exon scrambling at the RNA splicing level and mutually exclusive alternative splicing (MEAS) by computational and experimental methods. ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  15. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its...

  16. Splicing and regularity Tom Head and Dennis Pixton

    E-print Network

    Pixton, Dennis

    simplified indication of a technology used in gene splicing, a fundamental feature of genetic engineering ____________________________________________________________________ Splicing and regularity; ____________________________________________________________________1 Splicing Languages and Regularity 1 Introduction In 1987 a new formalism for the generation

  17. Regulation of Splicing Factors by Alternative Splicing and NMD Is Conserved between Kingdoms Yet Evolutionarily Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Lareau, Liana F.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraconserved elements, unusually long regions of perfect sequence identity, are found in genes encoding numerous RNA-binding proteins including arginine-serine rich (SR) splicing factors. Expression of these genes is regulated via alternative splicing of the ultraconserved regions to yield mRNAs that are degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a process termed unproductive splicing (Lareau et al. 2007; Ni et al. 2007). As all human SR genes are affected by alternative splicing and NMD, one might expect this regulation to have originated in an early SR gene and persisted as duplications expanded the SR family. But in fact, unproductive splicing of most human SR genes arose independently (Lareau et al. 2007). This paradox led us to investigate the origin and proliferation of unproductive splicing in SR genes. We demonstrate that unproductive splicing of the splicing factor SRSF5 (SRp40) is conserved among all animals and even observed in fungi; this is a rare example of alternative splicing conserved between kingdoms, yet its effect is to trigger mRNA degradation. As the gene duplicated, the ancient unproductive splicing was lost in paralogs, and distinct unproductive splicing evolved rapidly and repeatedly to take its place. SR genes have consistently employed unproductive splicing, and while it is exceptionally conserved in some of these genes, turnover in specific events among paralogs shows flexible means to the same regulatory end. PMID:25576366

  18. HnRNP L represses exon splicing via a regulated exonic splicing silencer

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    , Dallas, TX, USA Skipping of mammalian exons during pre-mRNA splicing is commonly mediated by the activity online 7 July 2005 Subject Categories: RNA Keywords: alternative splicing; CD45; ESS; hnRNP Introduction complexity is alternative pre-mRNA splicing, which is estimated to occur in 60­75% of human genes (Modrek et

  19. Cooperative binding of TIA-1 and U1 snRNP in K-SAM exon splicing activation

    SciTech Connect

    Gesnel, Marie-Claude; Theoleyre, Sandrine; Del Gatto-Konczak, Fabienne; Breathnach, Richard . E-mail: breathna@nantes.inserm.fr

    2007-07-13

    In 293 cells, splicing of the human fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 K-SAM alternative exon is inefficient, but can be made efficient by provoking TIA-1 binding to the U-rich IAS1 sequence downstream from the exon's 5' splice site. We show here that TIA-1 domains known to interact with U1 snRNP and to recruit it to 5' splice sites in vitro are required for TIA-1 activation of K-SAM exon splicing in vivo. We further show that tethering downstream from the K-SAM exon a fusion between the U1 snRNP component U1C and the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein provokes IAS1-dependent exon splicing, and present evidence that the fusion functions after its incorporation into U1 snRNP. Our in vivo data, taken together with previous in vitro results, show that K-SAM splicing activation involves cooperative binding of TIA-1 and U1 snRNP to the exon's 5' splice site region.

  20. Molecular aspects of DNA splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Yuhani; Lim, Wen Li; Goode, T. Elizabeth; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Heng, Fong Wan; Wahab, Mohd Firdaus Abd

    2015-05-01

    The pioneer model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) splicing system in a framework of Formal Language Theory was introduced by Head that led to the existence of other models of splicing system, namely Paun, Pixton and Yusof-Goode. These entire models are inspired by the molecular biological process of DNA splicing. Hence, this paper focuses on the translucent DNA splicing process, particularly on the generated language. Starting with some preliminaries in a limit graph, this paper also provides the experimental design with the predicted and actual result.

  1. ASDB: database of alternatively spliced genes.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, M S; Dubchak, I; Dralyuk, I; Zorn, M

    1999-01-01

    A database of alternatively spliced genes (ASDB) has been constructed based on (i) the results of the analysis of Swiss-Prot entries containing products of these genes and (ii) clustering procedure joining proteins that could arise by alternative splicing of the same gene. ASDB incorporates information about alternatively spliced genes, their products and expression patterns. It can be searched in order to find all products of alternative splicing produced in a particular tissue or a given organism, or all variants generated by a particular transcript. ASDB currently contains about 1700 protein sequences and can be accessed via the Internet at URL http://cbcg.nersc.gov/asdb PMID:9847209

  2. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5' GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1-EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5' splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1-EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3' exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression. PMID:24751650

  3. Four novel cystic fibrosis mutations in splice junction sequences affecting the CFTR nucleotide binding folds

    SciTech Connect

    Doerk, T.; Wulbrand, U.; Tuemmler, B. )

    1993-03-01

    Single cases of the four novel splice site mutations 1525[minus]1 G [r arrow] A (intron 9), 3601[minus]2 A [r arrow] G (intron 18), 3850[minus]3 T [r arrow] G (intron 19), and 4374+1 G [r arrow] T (intron 23) were detected in the CFTR gene of cystic fibrosis patients of Indo-Iranian, Turkish, Polish, and Germany descent. The nucleotide substitutions at the +1, [minus]1, and [minus]2 positions all destroy splice sites and lead to severe disease alleles associated with features typical of gastrointestinal and pulmonary cystic fibrosis disease. The 3850[minus]3 T-to-G change was discovered in a very mildly affected 33-year-old [Delta]F508 compound heterozygote, suggesting that the T-to-G transversion at the less conserved [minus]3 position of the acceptor splice site may retain some wildtype function. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the scar. The bulges can usually be fixed with surgery. During your medical exam, ask the ... to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant team ...

  5. HLA-A*68020103 shows an eight nucleotides deletion within intron 2 but has normal mRNA splicing and serological recognition.

    PubMed

    Balas, A; Sánchez-García, F; Bustamante, L; García-Sánchez, F; Vicario, J L

    2007-09-01

    A novel A*68020103 allele was completely characterized by sequencing in a Spanish bone marrow donor. A*68020103 has an eight nucleotides deletion at the 5'-end of intron 2, when compared with other A*6802 alleles. This alteration does not affect either its mRNA splicing process or serological detection. PMID:17661918

  6. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ?66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ? 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation. PMID:18387407

  7. Functional analysis of splicing mutations in the IDS gene and the use of antisense oligonucleotides to exploit an alternative therapy for MPS II.

    PubMed

    Matos, Liliana; Gonçalves, Vânia; Pinto, Eugénia; Laranjeira, Francisco; Prata, Maria João; Jordan, Peter; Desviat, Lourdes R; Pérez, Belén; Alves, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis II is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the IDS gene, including exonic alterations associated with aberrant splicing. In the present work, cell-based splicing assays were performed to study the effects of two splicing mutations in exon 3 of IDS, i.e., c.241C>T and c.257C>T, whose presence activates a cryptic splice site in exon 3 and one in exon 8, i.e., c.1122C>T that despite being a synonymous mutation is responsible for the creation of a new splice site in exon 8 leading to a transcript shorter than usual. Mutant minigene analysis and overexpression assays revealed that SRSF2 and hnRNP E1 might be involved in the use and repression of the constitutive 3' splice site of exon 3 respectively. For the c.1122C>T the use of antisense therapy to correct the splicing defect was explored, but transfection of patient fibroblasts with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (n=3) and a locked nucleic acid failed to abolish the abnormal transcript; indeed, it resulted in the appearance of yet another aberrant splicing product. Interestingly, the oligonucleotides transfection in control fibroblasts led to the appearance of the aberrant transcript observed in patients' cells after treatment, which shows that the oligonucleotides are masking an important cis-acting element for 5' splice site regulation of exon 8. These results highlight the importance of functional studies for understanding the pathogenic consequences of mis-splicing and highlight the difficulty in developing antisense therapies involving gene regions under complex splicing regulation. PMID:26407519

  8. Regulation of splicing: The importance of being translatable APPENDIX to E. Miriami, R. Sperling, J. Sperling and U. Motro. 2004. RNA 10:1-4.

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    Regulation of splicing: The importance of being translatable APPENDIX to E. Miriami, R. Sperling, J. Sperling and U. Motro. 2004. RNA 10:1-4. In this appendix we explain our claim that Zhang et al. (2003 that the frequency of in-frame stop codons upstream of latent 5' splice sites is not greater than that expected

  9. HnRNP A1 controls a splicing regulatory circuit promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Serena; di Matteo, Anna; Buratti, Emanuele; Cabianca, Daphne S.; Baralle, Francisco E.; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic program used by cancer cells to acquire invasive capabilities becoming metastatic. ?Ron, a constitutively active isoform of the Ron tyrosine kinase receptor, arises from skipping of Ron exon 11 and provided the first example of an alternative splicing variant causatively linked to the activation of tumor EMT. Splicing of exon 11 is controlled by two adjacent regulatory elements, a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in exon 12. The alternative splicing factor and oncoprotein SRSF1 directly binds to the enhancer, induces the production of ?Ron and activates EMT leading to cell locomotion. Interestingly, we now find an important role for hnRNP A1 in controlling the activity of the Ron silencer. HnRNP A1 is able to antagonize the binding of SRSF1 and prevent exon skipping. Notably, hnRNP A1, by inhibiting the production of ?Ron, activates the reversal program, namely the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, which instead occurs at the final metastasis sites. Also, hnRNP A1 affects Ron splicing by regulating the expression level of hnRNP A2/B1, which similarly to SRSF1 can promote ?Ron production. These results shed light on how splicing regulation contributes to the tumor progression and provide potential targets to develop anticancer therapies. PMID:23863836

  10. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  11. U2AF1 Mutations Alter Sequence Specificity of pre-mRNA Binding and Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; White, Brian S.; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Mohan, Dipika R.; Kim, Sanghyun; Griffith, Malachi; Ding, Li; Ketkar-Kulkarni, Shamika; Hundal, Jasreet; Laird, Kholiswa M.; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Ley, Timothy J.; Walter, Matthew J.; Graubert, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified missense mutations in the U2AF1 splicing factor affecting codons S34 (S34F and S34Y) or Q157 (Q157R and Q157P) in 11% of patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Although the role of U2AF1 as an accessory factor in the U2 snRNP is well established, it is not yet clear how mutations affect splicing or contribute to MDS pathophysiology. We analyzed splice junctions in RNA-seq data generated from transfected CD34+ hematopoietic cells and found significant differences in the abundance of known and novel junctions in samples expressing mutant U2AF1 (S34F). For selected transcripts, splicing alterations detected by RNA-seq were confirmed by analysis of primary de novo MDS patient samples. These effects were not due to impaired U2AF1 (S34F) localization as it co-localized normally with U2AF2 within nuclear speckles. We further found evidence in the RNA-seq data for decreased affinity of U2AF1 (S34F) for uridine (relative to cytidine) at the e-3 position immediately upstream of the splice acceptor site and corroborated this finding using affinity binding assays. These data suggest that the S34F mutation alters U2AF1 function in the context of specific RNA sequences, leading to aberrant alternative splicing of target genes, some of which may be relevant for MDS pathogenesis. PMID:25311244

  12. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5? splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  13. Elevated Oestrogen Receptor Splice Variant ER??5 Expression in Tumour-adjacent Hormone-responsive Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Siân E.; Patel, Imran I.; Singh, Paras B.; Nicholson, Caroline M.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Gopala Krishna, R. K.; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to prostate or endometrial cancer is linked with obesity, a state of oestrogen excess. Oestrogen receptor (ER) splice variants may be responsible for the tissue-level of ER activity. Such micro-environmental regulation may modulate cancer initiation and/or progression mechanisms. Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantitatively assess the levels of four ER splice variants (ER??3, ER??5, ER?2 and ER?5), plus the full-length parent isoforms ER? and ER?1, in high-risk [tumour-adjacent prostate (n = 10) or endometrial cancer (n = 9)] vs. low-risk [benign prostate (n = 12) or endometrium (n = 9)], as well as a comparison of UK (n = 12) vs. Indian (n = 15) benign prostate. All three tissue groups expressed the ER splice variants at similar levels, apart from ER??5. This splice variant was markedly raised in all of the tumour-adjacent prostate samples compared to benign tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis for ER?2 in prostate tissue demonstrated that such splice variants are present in comparable, if not greater, amounts as the parent full-length isoform. This small pilot study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of ER splice variants in these tissue sites and suggests that ER??5 may be involved in progression of prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:21139866

  14. Functional roles of DExD/H-box RNA helicases in Pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Chi; Cheng, Soo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Splicing of precursor mRNA takes place via two consecutive steps of transesterification catalyzed by a large ribonucleoprotein complex called the spliceosome. The spliceosome is assembled through ordered binding to the pre-mRNA of five small nuclear RNAs and numerous protein factors, and is disassembled after completion of the reaction to recycle all components. Throughout the splicing cycle, the spliceosome changes its structure, rearranging RNA-RNA, RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions, for positioning and repositioning of splice sites. DExD/H-box RNA helicases play important roles in mediating structural changes of the spliceosome by unwinding of RNA duplexes or disrupting RNA-protein interactions. DExD/H-box proteins are also implicated in the fidelity control of the splicing process at various steps. This review summarizes the functional roles of DExD/H-box proteins in pre-mRNA splicing according to studies conducted mostly in yeast and will discuss the concept of the complicated splicing reaction based on recent findings. PMID:26173448

  15. Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-04-01

    Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1?, Nrxn1?, Nrxn2?, Nrxn3?, and Nrxn3? mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1? and Nrxn3? (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-?, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that ?-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing. PMID:24639501

  16. Functional characterization of putative novel splicing mutations in the cardiomyopathy-causing genes.

    PubMed

    Millat, Gilles; Lafont, Estèle; Nony, Séverine; Rouvet, Isabelle; Bozon, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    Molecular diagnosis of cardiomyopathies remains difficult not only because of the large number of causative genes and the high rate of private mutations but also due to the large number of unclassified variants (UVs) found in patients' DNA. This study reports the functional splicing impact of nine novel genomic variations previously identified in unrelated patients with cardiomyopathies. To identify splice variants among these UVs, a combination of in silico and in vitro hybrid minigene tools was used as transcript is not available. Using this two-step approach, these UVs were reclassified as splicing mutations (MYBPC3-c.655-25A>G, MYBPC3-c.1790G>A (p.Arg597Gln), MYBPC3-c.2414-36G>T) or as mutations with a majority of abnormally spliced transcripts (MYBPC3-c.1182C>A, TNNT2-c.460G>A (p.Glu154Lys), and TNNT2-c.822-3C>A) or as variations with a weak splicing effect (TNNT2-c.1000-38C>A). For the two remaining variations in intron 11 of the TNNT2 gene in the vicinity of the acceptor splice site (c.571-7G>A, c.571-29G>A), a minigene assay was inconclusive as exon 12 is neither recognized as an exon by HeLa nor by H9c2 cells. Our study highlights the importance of the combined use of in silico and in vitro splicing assays to improve the prediction of the functional splicing impact of identified genetic variants if the RNA sample from the patient is not easily available. PMID:25849606

  17. Inferring Alternative Splicing Patterns in Mouse from a Full-Length cDNA Library and Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Kochiwa, Hiromi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Washio, Takanori; Saito, Rintaro; Phase, The RIKEN Genome Exploration Research Group; Bono, Hidemasa; Carninci, Piero; Okazaki, Yasushi; Miki, Rika; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Tomita, Masaru

    2002-01-01

    Although many studies on alternative splicing of specific genes have been reported in the literature, the general mechanism that regulates alternative splicing has not been clearly understood. In this study, we systematically aligned each pair of the 21,076 cDNA sequences of Mus musculus, searched for putative alternative splicing patterns, and constructed a list of potential alternative splicing sites. Two cDNAs are suspected to be alternatively spliced and originating from a common gene if they share most of their region with a high degree of sequence homology, but parts of the sequences are very distinctive or deleted in either cDNA. The list contains the following information: (1) tissue, (2) developmental stage, (3) sequences around splice sites, (4) the length of each gapped region, and (5) other comments. The list is available at http://www.bioinfo.sfc.keio.ac.jp/intron. Our results have predicted a number of unreported alternatively spliced genes, some of which are expressed only in a specific tissue or at a specific developmental stage. PMID:12176936

  18. Selecting for Functional Alternative Splices in ESTs

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Zhengyan; States, David; Gish, Warren

    2002-01-01

    The expressed sequence tag (EST) collection in dbEST provides an extensive resource for detecting alternative splicing on a genomic scale. Using genomically aligned ESTs, a computational tool (TAP) was used to identify alternative splice patterns for 6400 known human genes from the RefSeq database. With sufficient EST coverage, one or more alternatively spliced forms could be detected for nearly all genes examined. To identify high (>95%) confidence observations of alternative splicing, splice variants were clustered on the basis of having mutually exclusive structures, and sample statistics were then applied. Through this selection, alternative splices expected at a frequency of >5% within their respective clusters were seen for only 17%–28% of genes. Although intron retention events (potentially unspliced messages) had been seen for 36% of the genes overall, the same statistical selection yielded reliable cases of intron retention for <5% of genes. For high-confidence alternative splices in the human ESTs, we also noted significantly higher rates both of cross-species conservation in mouse ESTs and of validation in the GenBank mRNA collection. We suggest quantitative analytical approaches such as these can aid in selecting useful targets for further experimental characterization and in so doing may help elucidate the mechanisms and biological implications of alternative splicing. PMID:12466287

  19. Unravelling the Comma Splice (Coming to Terms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinck, Anne L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the prohibition against the comma splice has no logical basis whatsoever, and offers numerous examples. Maintains that English teachers should relax prohibitions against comma splices, accept that usage is flexible, and allow students a freedom which more confident writers take for granted. (SR)

  20. RNA sequencing for the study of splicing

    E-print Network

    Gonza?lez-Porta, Mar

    2014-10-07

    reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1 Key players in mRNA splicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.2 Splicing by the major spliceosome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2.3 Diversifying the message: alternative... platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.6 Overview of the mapping algorithm implemented in TopHat . . . . 20 1.7 Overview of htseq-count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.8 Overview...

  1. Engineering a family of synthetic splicing ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Che, Austin J; Knight, Thomas F

    2010-05-01

    Controlling RNA splicing opens up possibilities for the synthetic biologist. The Tetrahymena ribozyme is a model group I self-splicing ribozyme that has been shown to be useful in synthetic circuits. To create additional splicing ribozymes that can function in synthetic circuits, we generated synthetic ribozyme variants by rationally mutating the Tetrahymena ribozyme. We present an alignment visualization for the ribozyme termed as structure information diagram that is similar to a sequence logo but with alignment data mapped on to secondary structure information. Using the alignment data and known biochemical information about the Tetrahymena ribozyme, we designed synthetic ribozymes with different primary sequences without altering the secondary structure. One synthetic ribozyme with 110 nt mutated retained 12% splicing efficiency in vivo. The results indicate that our biochemical understanding of the ribozyme is accurate enough to engineer a family of active splicing ribozymes with similar secondary structure but different primary sequences. PMID:20299341

  2. The Characterizations of Different Splicing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Fariba; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Heng, Fong Wan

    The concept of splicing system was first introduced by Head in 1987 to model the biological process of DNA recombination mathematically. This model was made on the basis of formal language theory which is a branch of applied discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science. In fact, splicing system treats DNA molecule and the recombinant behavior by restriction enzymes and ligases in the form of words and splicing rules respectively. The notion of splicing systems was taken into account from different points of view by many mathematicians. Several modified definitions have been introduced by many researchers. In this paper, some properties of different kinds of splicing systems are presented and their relationships are investigated. Furthermore, these results are illustrated by some examples.

  3. A cryptic BAP1 splice mutation in a family with uveal and cutaneous melanoma, and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Wadt, Karin; Choi, Jiyeon; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kiilgaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Trent, Jeffrey M; Hewitt, Stephen M; Hayward, Nicholas K; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Brown, Kevin M

    2012-11-01

    Inactivating germ line BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) mutations have recently been reported in families with uveal or cutaneous malignant melanoma (UMM, CMM), mesothelioma, and meningioma. Although apparently predisposing to a wide range of tumors, the exact tumor spectrum associated with germ line BAP1 mutations has yet to be established. Here, we report a novel germ line BAP1 splice mutation, c.1708C>G (p.Leu570fs*40), in a multiple-case Danish UMM family with a spectrum of other tumors. Whole-exome sequencing identified an apparent missense mutation of BAP1 in UMM, CMM, as well as paraganglioma, breast cancer, and suspected mesothelioma cases in the family. Bioinformatic analysis and splicing assays demonstrated that this mutation creates a strong cryptic splice donor, resulting in aberrant splicing and a truncating frameshift of the BAP1 transcript. Somatic loss of the wild-type allele was also confirmed in the UMM and paraganglioma tumors. Our findings further support BAP1 as a melanoma susceptibility gene and extend the potential predisposition spectrum to paraganglioma. PMID:22889334

  4. Residual Strength Analyses of Riveted Lap-Splice Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyze the crack-linkup behavior in riveted-stiffened lap-splice joint panels with small multiple-site damage (MSD) cracks at several adjacent rivet holes. Analyses are based on the STAGS (STructural Analysis of General Shells) code with the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. To account for high constraint around a crack front, the "plane strain core" option in STAGS was used. The importance of modeling rivet flexibility with fastener elements that accurately model load transfer across the joint is discussed. Fastener holes are not modeled but rivet connectivity is accounted for by attaching rivets to the sheet on one side of the cracks that simulated both the rivet diameter and MSD cracks. Residual strength analyses made on 2024-T3 alloy (1.6-mm thick) riveted-lap-splice joints with a lead crack and various size MSD cracks were compared with test data from Boeing Airplane Company. Analyses were conducted for both restrained and unrestrained buckling conditions. Comparison of results from these analyses and results from lap-splice-joint test panels, which were partially restrained against buckling indicate that the test results were bounded by the failure loads predicted by the analyses with restrained and unrestrained conditions.

  5. Temperature-sensitive splicing in the floral homeotic mutant apetala3-1.

    PubMed Central

    Sablowski, R W; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-01-01

    The floral homeotic gene APETALA3 (AP3) is required for stamen and petal development in Arabidopsis. The previously described ap3-1 allele is temperature sensitive and carries a missense mutation near a 5' splice site. The missense mutation lies within a domain of the AP3 protein that is thought to be important for protein-protein interactions, which suggests that temperature sensitivity of ap3-1 could reflect an unstable interaction with cofactors. Here, we show instead that the ap3-1 mutation causes a temperature-dependent splicing defect and that temperature sensitivity is not a property of the protein products of ap3-1 but of RNA processing, possibly because of unstable base pairing between the transcript and small nuclear RNAs. The unexpected defect of the ap3-1 mutant offers unique opportunities for genetic and molecular studies of splice site recognition in plants. PMID:9724692

  6. ADVIRC is caused by distinct mutations in BEST1 that alter pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, R; MacLaren, R E; Davidson, A E; Urquhart, J E; Holder, G E; Robson, A G; Moore, A T; Keefe, R O'; Black, G C M; Manson, F D C

    2009-09-01

    Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC), a retinal dystrophy often associated with glaucoma and cataract, forms part of a phenotypic spectrum of 'bestrophinopathies'. It has been shown previously that ADVIRC results from BEST1 mutations that cause exon skipping and lead to the production of shortened and internally deleted isoforms. This study describes a novel ADVIRC mutation and show that it disrupts an exonic splice enhancer (ESE) site, altering the binding of a splicing-associated SR protein. As with previous ADVIRC mutations, the novel c.704T-->C mutation in exon 6 altered normal splicing in an ex vivo splicing assay. Both this and another exon 6 ADVIRC-causing mutation (c.707G-->A) either weakened or abolished splicing in an ESE-dependent splice assay compared with a nearby exon 6 mutation associated with Best disease (c.703G-->C). Gel shift assays were undertaken with RNA oligonucleotides encompassing the ADVIRC and Best disease mutations with four of the most commonly investigated SR proteins. Although SC35, SRp40 and SRp55 proteins all bound to the wild-type and mutated sequences with similar intensities, there was increased binding of ASF/SF2 to the two ADVIRC-mutated sequences compared with the wild-type or Best disease-mutated sequences. The exon skipping seen for these two exon 6 ADVIRC mutations and their affinity for ASF/SF2 suggests that the region encompassing these mutations may form part of a CERES (composite exonic regulatory elements of splicing) site. PMID:18611979

  7. MAASE: An alternative splicing database designed for supporting splicing microarray applications

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, CHRISTINA L.; KWON, YOUNG-SOO; LI, HAI-RI; ZHANG, KUI; COUTINHO-MANSFIELD, GABRIELA; YANG, CANZHU; NAIR, T. MURLIDHARAN; GRIBSKOV, MICHAEL; FU, XIANG-DONG

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a prominent feature of higher eukaryotes. Understanding of the function of mRNA isoforms and the regulation of alternative splicing is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. The development of mRNA isoform sensitive microarrays, which requires precise splice-junction sequence information, is a promising approach. Despite the availability of a large number of mRNAs and ESTs in various databases and the efforts made to align transcript sequences to genomic sequences, existing alternative splicing databases do not offer adequate information in an appropriate format to aid in splicing array design. Here we describe our effort in constructing the Manually Annotated Alternatively Spliced Events (MAASE) database system, which is specifically designed to support splicing microarray applications. MAASE comprises two components: (1) a manual/computational annotation tool for the efficient extraction of critical sequence and functional information for alternative splicing events and (2) a user-friendly database of annotated events that allows convenient export of information to aid in microarray design and data analysis. We provide a detailed introduction and a step-by-step user guide to the MAASE database system to facilitate future large-scale annotation efforts, integration with other alternative splicing databases, and splicing array fabrication. PMID:16251387

  8. Novel variants of human SCaMC-3, an isoform of the ATP-Mg/Pi mitochondrial carrier, generated by alternative splicing from 3?-flanking transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CaMCs (calcium-dependent mitochondrial carriers) represent a novel subfamily of metabolite carriers of mitochondria. The ATP-Mg/Pi co-transporter, functionally characterized more than 20 years ago, has been identified to be a CaMC member. There are three isoforms of the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier in mammals, SCaMC-1 (short CaMC-1), -2 and -3 (or APC-1, -3 and -2 respectively), corresponding to the genes SLC25A24, SLC25A25 and SLC25A23 respectively, as well as six N-terminal variants generated by alternative splicing for SCaMC-1 and -2 isoforms. In the present study, we describe four new variants of human SCaMC-3 generated by alternative splicing. The new mRNAs use the exon 9 3?-donor site and distinct 5?-acceptor sites from repetitive elements, in regions downstream of exon 10, the last exon in all SCaMCs. Transcripts lacking exon 10 (SCaMC-3b, -3b?, -3c and -3d) code for shortened proteins lacking the last transmembrane domain of 422, 456 and 435 amino acids, and were found in human tissues and HEK-293T cells. Mitochondrial targeting of overexpressed SCaMC-3 variants is incomplete. Surprisingly, the import impairment is overcome by removing the N-terminal extension of these proteins, suggesting that the hydrophilic N-terminal domain also participates in the mitochondrial import process, as shown for the CaMC members aralar and citrin [Roesch, Hynds, Varga, Tranebjaerg and Koehler (2004) Hum. Mol. Genet. 13, 2101–2111]. PMID:15801905

  9. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may only be used for the next 24-hour period. No temporary splice shall be made in a trailing cable...

  10. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may only be used for the next 24-hour period. No temporary splice shall be made in a trailing cable...

  11. RESEARCH Open Access Integrating many co-splicing networks to

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    Background: Alternative splicing is a ubiquitous gene regulatory mechanism that dramatically increases splicing of a set of genes that shape the synapse [6]. However, the study of such coordinated splicing can belong to different genes, but they exhibit correlated splicing patterns (in terms of being

  12. Splicing and regularity Tom Head and Dennis Pixton

    E-print Network

    Pixton, Dennis

    simplified indication of a technology used in gene splicing, a fundamental feature of genetic engineeringSplicing and regularity Tom Head and Dennis Pixton Binghamton University #12;#12;1 Splicing was introduced and has since received extensive theoretical development. This new formalism, splicing

  13. Splicing and regularity Tom Head and Dennis Pixton

    E-print Network

    Pixton, Dennis

    simplified indication of a technology used in gene splicing, a fundamental feature of genetic engineeringSplicing and regularity Tom Head and Dennis Pixton Binghamton University #12; #12; 1 Splicing was introduced and has since received extensive theoretical development. This new formalism, splicing

  14. [The myeloid cell leukemia-1 mRNA splicing mediated by epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) in glioma U251 cell lines].

    PubMed

    Song, Dayong; Li, Zhiqiang; Quan, Zhe; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Dayuan; Zhang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the regulatory mechanism of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1) mRNA splicing mediated by epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) in glioma U251 cell lines. Methods Data mining was performed in glioma patient database to find out the key sites from MCL1 sequencing results. Exogenous ESRP1 was over-expressed in U251 cells via pcDNA-ESRP1 vector. The levels of different MCL1 isoforms were detected by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Results The mRNA and protein level of endogenous ESRP1 was lower in U251 cells than in normal gliocytes. The level of MCL1 isoform 1 was higher, while isoform 2 and 3 were lower in U251 cells than in normal gliocytes. Furthermore, MCL1 isoform 1 was reduced and isoform 3 was up-regulated in U251 cells after ESRP1 over-expression. Isoform 2 was unchanged obviously. Finally, MCL1 with the deletion of 801G and 802A sites could not be correctly spliced by ESRP1 and no significant difference was seen in the expressions of isoform 1 and 3 in mutant MCL1. Conclusion Repression of ESRP1 expression or mutation in its RNA recognized sites in tumor results in the abnormality of transcript splicing of oncogenes. PMID:26522352

  15. Interplay between Exonic Splicing Enhancers, mRNA Processing, and mRNA Surveillance in the Dystrophic Mdx Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Pre-mRNA splicing, the removal of introns from RNA, takes place within the spliceosome, a macromolecular complex composed of five small nuclear RNAs and a large number of associated proteins. Spliceosome assembly is modulated by the 5? and 3? splice site consensus sequences situated at the ends of each intron, as well as by exonic and intronic splicing enhancers/silencers recognized by SR and hnRNP proteins. Nonsense mutations introducing a premature termination codon (PTC) often result in the activation of cellular quality control systems that reduce mRNA levels or alter the mRNA splicing pattern. The mdx mouse, a commonly used genetic model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), lacks dystrophin by virtue of a premature termination codon (PTC) in exon 23 that also severely reduces the level of dystrophin mRNA. However, the effect of the mutation on dystrophin RNA processing has not yet been described. Methodology/Principal Finding Using combinations of different biochemical and cellular assays, we found that the mdx mutation partially disrupts a multisite exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) that is recognized by a 40 kDa SR protein. In spite of the presence of an inefficient intron 22 3? splice site containing the rare GAG triplet, the mdx mutation does not activate nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS), but induces exclusively nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Functional binding sites for SR proteins were also identified in exon 22 and 24, and in vitro experiments show that SR proteins can mediate direct association between exon 22, 23, and 24. Conclusions/Significance Our findings highlight the complex crosstalk between trans-acting factors, cis-elements and the RNA surveillance machinery occurring during dystrophin mRNA processing. Moreover, they suggest that dystrophin exon–exon interactions could play an important role in preventing mdx exon 23 skipping, as well as in facilitating the pairing of committed splice sites. PMID:17487273

  16. Hydroxybenzothiophene Ketones Are Efficient Pre-mRNA Splicing Modulators Due to Dual Inhibition of Dyrk1A and Clk1/4

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated usage of pre-mRNA splicing sites contributes to the progression of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins play major roles in the splice site recognition and are largely regulated by phosphorylation. This provides an option for the pharmacological correction of aberrant splicing by inhibiting the relevant kinases. Cdc2-like kinases (Clks) and dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (Dyrks) were both reported to phosphorylate numerous SR proteins in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we describe the discovery of new selective dual Clk/Dyrk1A/1B inhibitors, which are able to modulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing of model gene transcripts in cells with submicromolar potencies. The optimization process yielded a dual Clk and Dyrk inhibitor with exceptionally high ligand efficiency. Our results suggested that dual inhibition of both Clk1 and Dyrk1A increased the efficacy of pre-mRNA splicing modulation. PMID:25221649

  17. U1 snRNA directly interacts with polypyrimidine tract-binding protein during splicing repression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shalini; Maris, Christophe; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Black, Douglas L

    2011-03-01

    Splicing of the c-src N1 exon is repressed by the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB or PTBP1). During exon repression, the U1 snRNP binds properly to the N1 exon 5' splice site but is made inactive by the presence of PTB. Examining the patterns of nuclease protection at this 5' splice site, we find that the interaction of U1 is altered by the adjacent PTB. Interestingly, UV crosslinking identifies a direct contact between the pre-mRNA-bound PTB and the U1 snRNA. EMSA, ITC, and NMR studies show that PTB RRMs 1 and 2 bind the pyrimidine-rich internal loop of U1 snRNA stem loop 4. The PTB/U1 interaction prevents further assembly of the U1 snRNP with spliceosomal components downstream. This precise interaction between a splicing regulator and an snRNA component of the spliceosome points to a range of different mechanisms for splicing regulation. PMID:21362553

  18. Identification of Regulatory-RNAs for Alternative Splicing of Ron Proto-Oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Heegyum; Zheng, Xuexiu; Loh, Tiing Jen; Jang, Ha Na; Liu, Yongchao; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Shen, Haihong

    2015-01-01

    RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a proto-oncogene that induces cell migration and matrix invasion. RON?160 protein, which is produced by exclusion of exon 5 and 6, promotes cell migration, matrix invasion and protection from apoptosis. Alternative splicing regulation of exon 5 and 6 is not well understood. In this manuscript, we identified several new RNA regulatory elements for alternative splicing of Ron proto-oncogene. Firstly, we demonstrated that RNA sequences from EcoRI cleavage sites regulate alternative splicing of Ron exon 5 and 6. Secondly, we showed that the ~30 nt RNA at upstream end of exon 4 and the ~33 nt RNA at downstream end of exon 7 also modulate splicing of exon 5 and 6. Thirdly, our results indicate that the RNA sequences of the ends in exon 4 and 7 are required for the regulatory functions of the RNA from restriction enzyme cleavage sites. Our results provide a new insight for regulation of alternative splicing of Ron proto-oncogene. PMID:26640595

  19. Why Selection Might Be Stronger When Populations Are Small: Intron Size and Density Predict within and between-Species Usage of Exonic Splice Associated cis-Motifs.

    PubMed

    Wu, XianMing; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    The nearly neutral theory predicts that small effective population size provides the conditions for weakened selection. This is postulated to explain why our genome is more "bloated" than that of, for example, yeast, ours having large introns and large intergene spacer. If a bloated genome is also an error prone genome might it, however, be the case that selection for error-mitigating properties is stronger in our genome? We examine this notion using splicing as an exemplar, not least because large introns can predispose to noisy splicing. We thus ask whether, owing to genomic decay, selection for splice error-control mechanisms is stronger, not weaker, in species with large introns and small populations. In humans much information defining splice sites is in cis-exonic motifs, most notably exonic splice enhancers (ESEs). These act as splice-error control elements. Here then we ask whether within and between-species intron size is a predictor of the commonality of exonic cis-splicing motifs. We show that, as predicted, the proportion of synonymous sites that are ESE-associated and under selection in humans is weakly positively correlated with the size of the flanking intron. In a phylogenetically controlled framework, we observe, also as expected, that mean intron size is both predicted by Ne.? and is a good predictor of cis-motif usage across species, this usage coevolving with splice site definition. Unexpectedly, however, across taxa intron density is a better predictor of cis-motif usage than intron size. We propose that selection for splice-related motifs is driven by a need to avoid decoy splice sites that will be more common in genes with many and large introns. That intron number and density predict ESE usage within human genes is consistent with this, as is the finding of intragenic heterogeneity in ESE density. As intronic content and splice site usage across species is also well predicted by Ne.?, the result also suggests an unusual circumstance in which selection (for cis-modifiers of splicing) might be stronger when population sizes are smaller, as here splicing is noisier, resulting in a greater need to control error-prone splicing. PMID:25771198

  20. Repair of pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Nlend, Rachel Nlend; Meyer, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of complete genomes have revealed that alternative splicing became more prevalent and important during eukaryotic evolution. Alternative splicing augments the protein repertoire—particularly that of the human genome—and plays an important role in the development and function of differentiated cell types. However, splicing is also extremely vulnerable, and defects in the proper recognition of splicing signals can give rise to a variety of diseases. In this review, we discuss splicing correction therapies, by using the inherited disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) as an example. This lethal early childhood disorder is caused by deletions or other severe mutations of SMN1, a gene coding for the essential survival of motoneurons protein. A second gene copy present in humans and few non-human primates, SMN2, can only partly compensate for the defect because of a single nucleotide change in exon 7 that causes this exon to be skipped in the majority of mRNAs. Thus SMN2 is a prime therapeutic target for SMA. In recent years, several strategies based on small molecule drugs, antisense oligonucleotides or in vivo expressed RNAs have been developed that allow a correction of SMN2 splicing. For some of these, a therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated in mouse models for SMA. This means that clinical trials of such splicing therapies for SMA may become possible in the near future. PMID:20523126

  1. Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

  2. RNA-Binding Proteins: Splicing Factors and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Alger M.; Cygan, Kamil J.; Brown, Brian A.; Fairbrother, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is mediated by interactions of the Core Spliceosome and an array of accessory RNA binding proteins with cis-sequence elements. Splicing is a major regulatory component in higher eukaryotes. Disruptions in splicing are a major contributor to human disease. One in three hereditary disease alleles are believed to cause aberrant splicing. Hereditary disease alleles can alter splicing by disrupting a splicing element, creating a toxic RNA, or affecting splicing factors. One of the challenges of medical genetics is identifying causal variants from the thousands of possibilities discovered in a clinical sequencing experiment. Here we review the basic biochemistry of splicing, the mechanisms of splicing mutations, the methods for identifying splicing mutants, and the potential of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25985083

  3. Munding et al. (Ares) Competition for splicing Competition between pre-mRNAs for the splicing machinery drives

    E-print Network

    Ares Jr., Manny

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a fundamental step of eukaryotic gene expression. It can vary in complexity fromMunding et al. (Ares) Competition for splicing 1 Competition between pre-mRNAs for the splicing machinery drives global regulation of splicing Elizabeth M. Munding, Lily Shiue, Sol Katzman, John Paul

  4. Splice-shifting oligonucleotide (SSO) mediated blocking of an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) created by the prevalent c.903+469T>C MTRR mutation corrects splicing and restores enzyme activity in patient cells

    PubMed Central

    Palhais, Bruno; Præstegaard, Veronica S.; Sabaratnam, Rugivan; Doktor, Thomas Koed; Lutz, Seraina; Burda, Patricie; Suormala, Terttu; Baumgartner, Matthias; Fowler, Brian; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Kožich, Viktor; Andresen, Brage Storstein

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent c.903+469T>C mutation in MTRR causes the cblE type of homocystinuria by strengthening an SRSF1 binding site in an ESE leading to activation of a pseudoexon. We hypothesized that other splicing regulatory elements (SREs) are also critical for MTRR pseudoexon inclusion. We demonstrate that the MTRR pseudoexon is on the verge of being recognized and is therefore vulnerable to several point mutations that disrupt a fine-tuned balance between the different SREs. Normally, pseudoexon inclusion is suppressed by a hnRNP A1 binding exonic splicing silencer (ESS). When the c.903+469T>C mutation is present two ESEs abrogate the activity of the ESS and promote pseudoexon inclusion. Blocking the 3?splice site or the ESEs by SSOs is effective in restoring normal splicing of minigenes and endogenous MTRR transcripts in patient cells. By employing an SSO complementary to both ESEs, we were able to rescue MTRR enzymatic activity in patient cells to approximately 50% of that in controls. We show that several point mutations, individually, can activate a pseudoexon, illustrating that this mechanism can occur more frequently than previously expected. Moreover, we demonstrate that SSO blocking of critical ESEs is a promising strategy to treat the increasing number of activated pseudoexons. PMID:25878036

  5. The secondary structure of a messenger RNA precursor probed with psoralen is melted in an in vitro splicing reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenzien, P L; Goswami, P; Teare, J; Szeberenyi, J; Goldenberg, C J

    1987-01-01

    The secondary structure of the SP6/mouse insulin precursor RNA was determined by psoralen cross-linking experiments. A series of long-range contacts occur within the left half of the pre-mRNA that contains the intervening sequence. Multiple secondary structures for the pre-mRNA exist since some of the interactions share common sites. In splicing buffer but without the splicing extract added, many of these interactions are stable up to at least 50 degrees C. These interactions, however, are dissociated during the in vitro splicing reaction. This dissociation requires ATP and it occurs during the first 30 min. of the splicing reaction. Pre-mRNAs containing psoralen cross-links in different locations within the RNA molecule were purified and used as substrates for in vitro splicing. Psoralen cross-links at any of the double-stranded regions resulted in complete inhibition of the splicing reaction. This indicates that destabilization of the secondary structure of the SP6/mouse insulin pre-mRNA is necessary for in vitro splicing. Images PMID:3317279

  6. Evidence for Deep Phylogenetic Conservation of Exonic Splice-Related Constraints: Splice-Related Skews at Exonic Ends in the Brown Alga Ectocarpus Are Common and Resemble Those Seen in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, XianMing; Tronholm, Ana; Cáceres, Eva Fernández; Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Chen, Lu; Urrutia, Araxi O.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    The control of RNA splicing is often modulated by exonic motifs near splice sites. Chief among these are exonic splice enhancers (ESEs). Well-described ESEs in mammals are purine rich and cause predictable skews in codon and amino acid usage toward exonic ends. Looking across species, those with relatively abundant intronic sequence are those with the more profound end of exon skews, indicative of exonization of splice site recognition. To date, the only intron-rich species that have been analyzed are mammals, precluding any conclusions about the likely ancestral condition. Here, we examine the patterns of codon and amino acid usage in the vicinity of exon–intron junctions in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus, a species with abundant large introns, known SR proteins, and classical splice sites. We find that amino acids and codons preferred/avoided at both 3? and 5? ends in Ectocarpus, of which there are many, tend, on average, to also be preferred/avoided at the same exon ends in humans. Moreover, the preferences observed at the 5? ends of exons are largely the same as those at the 3? ends, a symmetry trend only previously observed in animals. We predict putative hexameric ESEs in Ectocarpus and show that these are purine rich and that there are many more of these identified as functional ESEs in humans than expected by chance. These results are consistent with deep phylogenetic conservation of SR protein binding motifs. Assuming codons preferred near boundaries are “splice optimal” codons, in Ectocarpus, unlike Drosophila, splice optimal and translationally optimal codons are not mutually exclusive. The exclusivity of translationally optimal and splice optimal codon sets is thus not universal. PMID:23902749

  7. Dialing for Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    When times get tough, grown children often turn to their parents for help--for some extra cash, even somewhere to stay. For colleges and universities, that role is filled by alumni donors. In 2011, with education budgets slashed across the country, giving accounted for 6.5 percent of college expenditures, according to the Council for Aid to…

  8. Donation Form DONOR INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Montréal, Université de

    Donation Form DONOR INFORMATION First and Last Names: Organization Name: Address: Contact Name: Email: ONE DONATION, 5 WAYS TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE 1. Support students in their educational needs for student scholarships. This will be ensured through the placement of 80% of all donations

  9. Competition between pre-mRNAs for the splicing machinery drives global regulation of splicing.

    PubMed

    Munding, Elizabeth M; Shiue, Lily; Katzman, Sol; Donohue, John Paul; Ares, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    During meiosis in yeast, global splicing efficiency increases and then decreases. Here we provide evidence that splicing improves due to reduced competition for the splicing machinery. The timing of this regulation corresponds to repression and reactivation of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) during meiosis. In vegetative cells, RPG repression by rapamycin treatment also increases splicing efficiency. Downregulation of the RPG-dedicated transcription factor gene IFH1 genetically suppresses two spliceosome mutations, prp11-1 and prp4-1, and globally restores splicing efficiency in prp4-1 cells. We conclude that the splicing apparatus is limiting and that pre-messenger RNAs compete. Splicing efficiency of a pre-mRNA therefore depends not just on its own concentration and affinity for limiting splicing factor(s), but also on those of competing pre-mRNAs. Competition between RNAs for limiting processing factors appears to be a general condition in eukaryotes for a variety of posttranscriptional control mechanisms including microRNA (miRNA) repression, polyadenylation, and splicing. PMID:23891561

  10. Cardiac glycosides correct aberrant splicing of IKBKAP-encoded mRNA in familial dysautonomia derived cells by suppressing expression of SRSF3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Anderson, Sylvia L; Qiu, Jinsong; Rubin, Berish Y

    2013-08-01

    The ability to modulate the production of the wild-type transcript in cells bearing the splice-altering familial dysautonomia (FD) causing mutation in the IKBKAP gene prompted a study of the impact of a panel of pharmaceuticals on the splicing of this transcript, which revealed the ability of the cardiac glycoside digoxin to increase the production of the wild-type, exon-20-containing, IKBKAP-encoded transcript and the full-length I?B-kinase-complex-associated protein in FD-derived cells. Characterization of the cis elements and trans factors involved in the digoxin-mediated effect on splicing reveals that this response is dependent on an SRSF3 binding site(s) located in the intron 5' of the alternatively spliced exon and that digoxin mediates its effect by suppressing the level of the SRSF3 protein. Characterization of the digoxin-mediated effect on the RNA splicing process was facilitated by the identification of several RNA splicing events in which digoxin treatment mediates the enhanced inclusion of exonic sequence. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of digoxin to impact the splicing process in neuronal cells, a cell type profoundly impacted by FD. This study represents the first demonstration that digoxin possesses splice-altering capabilities that are capable of reversing the impact of the FD-causing mutation. These findings support the clinical evaluation of the impact of digoxin on the FD patient population. PMID:23711097

  11. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Maita, Hiroshi; Kitaura, Hirotake; Ariga, Hiroyoshi . E-mail: hiro@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.

    2005-02-15

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF{sup 35}. CIR was found to interact with U2AF{sup 35} through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation.

  12. Health risk of leukapheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S G; Nusbacher, J

    1982-01-01

    The increasing use of normal donors for leukapheresis to provide granulocyte concentrates requires careful monitoring of recruitment and operational procedures to minimize donor health risks. Of 18,288 leuka- and leukaplateletphereses performed in American Red Cross regional blood services during a 12-month period, only 0.27% were discontinued because of acute donor reactions. None of these reactions had serious or long-term consequences for the donors. The potential toxicities of corticosteroids and hydroxyethyl starch, and the theoretical hazards of lymphocyte depletion, raise unanswerable questions concerning long-term safety, although no serious adverse reactions related to these factors have been observed. Critical factors for leukapheresis donor safety are: selective donor recruitment, adherence to operational protocols, and continuous and informed interest of physicians responsible for pheresis programs. Additional data are needed to assess the effects of repeated leukapheresis on donors and to establish rational guidelines for donor recruitment. PMID:6180961

  13. Interactome analysis brings splicing into focus

    E-print Network

    Dominguez, Daniel

    The spliceosome is a huge molecular machine that assembles dynamically onto its pre-mRNA substrates. A new study based on interactome analysis provides clues about how splicing-regulatory proteins modulate assembly of the ...

  14. Early base-pair fluctuations and the activation of mRNA splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-05-01

    By means of multiprocessed Monte Carlo simulations we study the amplification in time structural fluctuations in sequential RNA folding concomitant with transcription. The simulations allow for an exploration of configuration space subject to the realistic time-constraints of RNA synthesis. The treatment focuses on the splicing YC4 intron as a study case. We show how an early disruption in the folding may result in a terminal structure which is active for splicing, bringing together the two cleavage sites at both ends of the intron.

  15. Mechanism of alternative splicing and its regulation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAN; LIU, JING; HUANG, BO; XU, YAN-MEI; LI, JING; HUANG, LIN-FENG; LIN, JIN; ZHANG, JING; MIN, QING-HUA; YANG, WEI-MING; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an essential mechanism to increase the complexity of gene expression, and it plays an important role in cellular differentiation and organism development. Regulation of alternative splicing is a complicated process in which numerous interacting components are at work, including cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, and is further guided by the functional coupling between transcription and splicing. Additional molecular features, such as chromatin structure, RNA structure and alternative transcription initiation or alternative transcription termination, collaborate with these basic components to generate the protein diversity due to alternative splicing. All these factors contributing to this one fundamental biological process add up to a mechanism that is critical to the proper functioning of cells. Any corruption of the process may lead to disruption of normal cellular function and the eventuality of disease. Cancer is one of those diseases, where alternative splicing may be the basis for the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as new strategies for therapy. Thus, an in-depth understanding of alternative splicing regulation has the potential not only to elucidate fundamental biological principles, but to provide solutions for various diseases. PMID:25798239

  16. FTO-dependent demethylation of N6-methyladenosine regulates mRNA splicing and is required for adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu; Yang, Ying; Sun, Bao-Fa; Shi, Yue; Yang, Xin; Xiao, Wen; Hao, Ya-Juan; Ping, Xiao-Li; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Wen-Jia; Jin, Kang-Xuan; Wang, Xing; Huang, Chun-Min; Fu, Yu; Ge, Xiao-Meng; Song, Shu-Hui; Jeong, Hyun Seok; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Niu, Yamei; Jia, Gui-Fang; Wu, Wei; Tong, Wei-Min; Okamoto, Akimitsu; He, Chuan; Danielsen, Jannie M Rendtlew; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2014-01-01

    The role of Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein (FTO) and its substrate N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mRNA processing and adipogenesis remains largely unknown. We show that FTO expression and m6A levels are inversely correlated during adipogenesis. FTO depletion blocks differentiation and only catalytically active FTO restores adipogenesis. Transcriptome analyses in combination with m6A-seq revealed that gene expression and mRNA splicing of grouped genes are regulated by FTO. M6A is enriched in exonic regions flanking 5?- and 3?-splice sites, spatially overlapping with mRNA splicing regulatory serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein exonic splicing enhancer binding regions. Enhanced levels of m6A in response to FTO depletion promotes the RNA binding ability of SRSF2 protein, leading to increased inclusion of target exons. FTO controls exonic splicing of adipogenic regulatory factor RUNX1T1 by regulating m6A levels around splice sites and thereby modulates differentiation. These findings provide compelling evidence that FTO-dependent m6A demethylation functions as a novel regulatory mechanism of RNA processing and plays a critical role in the regulation of adipogenesis. PMID:25412662

  17. Functional Classification of BRCA2 DNA Variants by Splicing Assays in a Large Minigene with 9 Exons

    PubMed Central

    Acedo, Alberto; Hernández-Moro, Cristina; Curiel-García, Álvaro; Díez-Gómez, Beatriz; Velasco, Eladio A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic DNA variants impair the splicing mechanism in human genetic diseases. Minigenes are optimal approaches to test variants under the splicing viewpoint without the need of patient samples. We aimed to design a robust minigene construct of the breast cancer gene BRCA2 in order to investigate the impact of variants on splicing. BRCA2 exons 19–27 (MGBR2_ex19–27) were cloned in the new vector pSAD. It produced a large transcript of the expected size (2,174 nucleotides) and exon structure (V1-ex19-27-V2). Splicing assays showed that 18 (17 splice-site and 1 silencer variants) out of 40 candidate DNA variants induced aberrant patterns. Twenty-four anomalous transcripts were accurately detected by fluorescent-RT-PCR that were generated by exon-skipping, alternative site usage, and intron-retention events. Fourteen variants induced major anomalies and were predicted to disrupt protein function so they could be classified as pathogenic. Furthermore, minigene mimicked previously reported patient RNA outcomes of seven variants supporting the reproducibility of minigene assays. Therefore, a relevant fraction of variants are involved in breast cancer through splicing alterations. MGBR2_ex19–27 is the largest reported BRCA2 minigene and constitutes a valuable tool for the functional and clinical classification of sequence variations. PMID:25382762

  18. Identification of new alternative splice events in the TCIRG1 gene in different human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, Anna S.; Morgun, Andrey . E-mail: anemorgun@hotmail.com; Shulzhenko, Natalia; Silva, Ismael D.C.G.; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2005-05-13

    Two transcript variants (TV) of the T cell immune regulator gene 1 (TCIRG1) have already been characterized. TV1 encodes a subunit of the osteoclast vacuolar proton pump and TV2 encodes a T cell inhibitory receptor. Based on the search in dbEST, we validated by RT-PCR six new alternative splice events in TCIRG1 in most of the 28 human tissues studied. In addition, we observed that transcripts using the TV1 transcription start site and two splice forms previously described in a patient with infantile malignant osteopetrosis are also expressed in various tissues of healthy individuals. Studies of these nine splice forms in cytoplasmic RNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that at least six of them could be efficiently exported from the nucleus. Since various products with nearly ubiquitous tissue distribution are generated from TCIRG1, this gene may be involved in other processes besides immune response and bone resorption.

  19. Recognizing the 35th anniversary of the proposal that snRNPs are involved in splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Stephen M.; Wolin, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-five years ago, as young graduate students, we had the pleasure and privilege of being in Joan Steitz’s laboratory at a pivotal point in the history of RNA molecular biology. Introns had recently been discovered in the laboratories of Philip Sharp and Richard Roberts, but the machinery for removing them from mRNA precursors was entirely unknown. This Retrospective describes our hypothesis that recently discovered snRNPs functioned in pre-mRNA splicing. The proposal was proven correct, as has Joan’s intuition that small RNAs provide specificity to RNA processing reactions through base pairing in diverse settings. However, research over the intervening years has revealed that both splice site selection and splicing itself are much more complex and dynamic than we imagined. PMID:26463979

  20. Splicing inhibition of U2AF65 leads to alternative exon skipping

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sunghee; Moon, Heegyum; Loh, Tiing Jen; Jang, Ha Na; Liu, Yongchao; Zhou, Jianhua; Ohn, Takbum; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2015-01-01

    U2 snRNP auxiliary factor 65 kDa (U2AF65) is a general splicing factor that contacts polypyrimidine (Py) tract and promotes prespliceosome assembly. In this report, we show that U2AF65 stimulates alternative exon skipping in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-related survival motor neuron (SMN) pre-mRNA. A stronger 5? splice-site mutation of alternative exon abolishes the stimulatory effects of U2AF65. U2AF65 overexpression promotes its own binding only on the weaker, not the stronger, Py tract. We further demonstrate that U2AF65 inhibits splicing of flanking introns of alternative exon in both three-exon and two-exon contexts. Similar U2AF65 effects were observed in Fas (Apo-1/CD95) pre-mRNA. Strikingly, we demonstrate that U2AF65 even inhibits general splicing of adenovirus major late (Ad ML) or ?-globin pre-mRNA. Thus, we conclude that U2AF65 possesses a splicing Inhibitory function that leads to alternative exon skipping. PMID:26216990

  1. Trans-acting factors regulate the expression of CD44 splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Konig, H; Moll, J; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P

    1996-01-01

    Variant isoforms of the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 (CD44v) are expressed during development, in selected adult tissues and in certain metastatic tumor cells. CD44v differ from the standard isoform (CD44s) by up to ten additional exon sequences included by alternative splicing. By cell fusion experiments, we have obtained evidence for the existence of cell-type specific trans-acting factors recruiting CD44 variant exon sequences. Stable cell hybrids of CD44s and CD44v expressing cells indicated a dominant mechanism for variant-exon inclusion. In transient interspecies heterokaryons of human keratinocytes and rat fibroblasts, the ability of the keratinocytes to include all variant exon sequences in CD44 was conferred completely on the rat fibroblast nucleus. Fusions of cells with complex CD44 splice patterns do not permit interpretation of splice control by the relative abundance of a single trans-acting factor, but rather by (a) positively acting factor(s) recruiting variant exon sequences in the 3' to 5' direction and additional factors selecting individual exons. Since the pancreatic carcinoma cell line BSp73ASML (in contrast to the cervix carcinoma cell lines SiHa and ME180) could not transfer its specific splice pattern in cell fusions, we conclude that in some tumors, splicing is also controlled by mutation of cis-acting recognition sites. Images PMID:8670907

  2. Alternative Splicing Shapes the Phenotype of a Mutation in BBS8 To Cause Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Daniel; Singh, Ratnesh; Kolandaivelu, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetic disorder affecting multiple systems and organs in the body. Several mutations in genes associated with BBS affect only photoreceptor cells and cause nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP), raising the issue of why certain mutations manifest as a systemic disorder whereas other changes in the same gene affect only a specific cell type. Here, we show that cell-type-specific alternative splicing is responsible for confining the phenotype of the A-to-G substitution in the 3? splice site of BBS8 exon 2A (IVS1-2A>G mutation) in the BBS8 gene to photoreceptor cells. The IVS1-2A>G mutation leads to missplicing of BBS8 exon 2A, producing a frameshift in the BBS8 reading frame and thus eliminating the protein specifically in photoreceptor cells. Cell types other than photoreceptors skip exon 2A from the mature BBS8 transcript, which renders them immune to the mutation. We also show that the splicing of Bbs8 exon 2A in photoreceptors is directed exclusively by redundant splicing enhancers located in the adjacent introns. These intronic sequences are sufficient for photoreceptor-cell-specific splicing of heterologous exons, including an exon with a randomized sequence. PMID:25776555

  3. Splicing analysis for exonic and intronic mismatch repair gene variants associated with Lynch syndrome confirms high concordance between minigene assays and patient RNA analyses

    PubMed Central

    van der Klift, Heleen M; Jansen, Anne M L; van der Steenstraten, Niki; Bik, Elsa C; Tops, Carli M J; Devilee, Peter; Wijnen, Juul T

    2015-01-01

    A subset of DNA variants causes genetic disease through aberrant splicing. Experimental splicing assays, either RT-PCR analyses of patient RNA or functional splicing reporter minigene assays, are required to evaluate the molecular nature of the splice defect. Here, we present minigene assays performed for 17 variants in the consensus splice site regions, 14 exonic variants outside these regions, and two deep intronic variants, all in the DNA mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, associated with Lynch syndrome. We also included two deep intronic variants in APC and PKD2. For one variant (MLH1 c.122A>G), our minigene assay and patient RNA analysis could not confirm the previously reported aberrant splicing. The aim of our study was to further investigate the concordance between minigene splicing assays and patient RNA analyses. For 30 variants results from patient RNA analyses were available, either performed by our laboratory or presented in literature. Some variants were deliberately included in this study because they resulted in multiple aberrant transcripts in patient RNA analysis, or caused a splice effect other than the prevalent exon skip. While both methods were completely concordant in the assessment of splice effects, four variants exhibited major differences in aberrant splice patterns. Based on the present and earlier studies, together showing an almost 100% concordance of minigene assays with patient RNA analyses, we discuss the weight given to minigene splicing assays in the current criteria proposed by InSiGHT for clinical classification of MMR variants. PMID:26247049

  4. The behavior of bonded doubler splices for composite sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, T. A.; Weisahaar, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the behavior of adhesively bonded doubler splices of two composite material sandwich panels are presented. The splices are studied from three approaches: analytical; numerical (finite elements); and experimental. Several parameters that characterize the splice are developed to determine their influence upon joint strength. These parameters are: doubler overlap length; core stiffness; laminate bending stiffness; the size of the gap between the spliced sandwich panels; and room and elevated temperatures. Similarities and contrasts between these splices and the physically similar single and double lap joints are discussed. The results of this investigation suggest several possible approaches to improving the strength of the sandwich splices.

  5. Loss of Pnn expression attenuates expression levels of SR family splicing factors and modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu Yali; Ouyang Pin . E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2006-03-10

    SR and SR-related proteins have been implicated as trans-acting factors that play an important role in splice selection and are involved at specific stages of spliceosome formation. A well-established property of SR protein splicing factors is their ability to influence selection of alternative splice sites in a concentration-dependent manner. Identification of molecules that regulate SR family protein expression is therefore of vital importance in RNA biology. Here we report that depletion of Pnn expression, a SR-related protein with functions involved in pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export, induces reduced expression of a subset of cellular proteins, especially that of SR family proteins, including SC35, SRm300, SRp55, and SRp40, but not that of other nuclear proteins, such as p53, Mdm2, and ki67. Knocking down Pnn expression was achieved in vitro by siRNA transfection. Expression levels of SR and SR-related proteins in Pnn-depleted cells as compared to those in control cells were evaluated by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot with specific antibodies. In addition, we also demonstrate that loss of Pnn expression could modulate splice site selection of model reporter gene in vivo. Our finding is significant in terms of regulation of SR protein cellular concentration because it reveals that Pnn may play a general role in the control of the cellular amount of family SR proteins through down-regulation of its own expression, thereby providing us with a better understanding of the cellular mechanism by which Pnn fulfills its biological function.

  6. Vitamin D and alternative splicing of RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) exerts its genomic effects via binding to a nuclear high-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent deep sequencing analysis of VDR binding locations across the complete genome has significantly expanded our understanding of the actions of vitamin D and VDR on gene transcription. However, these studies have also promoted appreciation of the extra-transcriptional impact of vitamin D on gene expression. It is now clear that vitamin D interacts with the epigenome via effects on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA generation to maintain normal biological functions. There is also increasing evidence that vitamin D can influence pre-mRNA constitutive splicing and alternative splicing, although the mechanism for this remains unclear. Pre-mRNA splicing has long been thought to be a post-transcription RNA processing event, but current data indicate that this occurs co-transcriptionally. Several steroid hormones have been recognized to coordinately control gene transcription and pre-mRNA splicing through the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators that can both control gene transcription and splicing. The current review will discuss this concept with specific reference to vitamin D, and the potential role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC), a nuclear factor with an established function in RNA splicing. hnRNPC, has been shown to be involved in the VDR transcriptional complex as a vitamin D-response element-binding protein (VDRE-BP), and may act as a coupling factor linking VDR-directed gene transcription with RNA splicing. In this way hnRNPC may provide an additional mechanism for the fine-tuning of vitamin D-regulated target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25447737

  7. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  8. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  9. Splicing noncoding RNAs from the inside out.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    Eukaryotic precursor-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) undergo splicing to remove intragenic regions (introns) and ligate expressed regions (exons) together. Unlike exons in the mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are used for translation, introns that are spliced out of pre-mRNAs were generally believed to lack function and to be degraded. However, recent studies have revealed that a large group of spliced introns can escape complete degradation and are processed to generate noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including different types of small RNAs, long-noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs. Strikingly, exonic sequences can be also back-spliced from pre-mRNAs to form stable circular RNAs. Together, the findings that ncRNAs can be spliced out of mRNA precursors not only expand the ever-growing repertoire of ncRNAs that originate from different genomic regions, but also reveal the unexpected transcriptomic complexity and functional capacity of eukaryotic genomes. WIREs RNA 2015, 6:651-660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1307 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26424453

  10. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J.

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  11. Design of Continuous Prestressed Concrete Spliced Girder Bridges 

    E-print Network

    Parchure, Akshay

    2013-08-12

    2.10.1 Overview ...................................................................................................... 20 2.10.2 Conventionally Reinforced Splice ............................................................... 21 2.10.3 Post-Tensioned...) ...... 20 Figure 2.6. Fully Reinforced Splice (Abdel-Karim and Tadros 1995) .......................... 22 Figure 2.7. Cast-in-Place Post-Tensioned Splice (Abdel-Karim and Tadros 1995) ...... 23 Figure 2.8. Stitched Splice Used in Shelby Creek...

  12. Structural insights into RNA recognition by the alternative-splicing regulator muscleblind-like MBNL1

    PubMed Central

    Teplova, Marianna; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, regulators of developmentally programmed alternative splicing, harbor tandem CCCH zinc-finger (ZnF) domains that target pre-mRNAs containing YGCU(U/G)Y sequence elements (where Y is a pyrimidine). In myotonic dystrophy, reduced levels of MBNL proteins lead to aberrant alternative splicing of a subset of pre-mRNAs. The crystal structure of MBNL1 ZnF3/4 bound to r(CGCUGU) establishes that both ZnF3 and ZnF4 target GC steps, with site-specific recognition mediated by a network of hydrogen bonds formed primarily with main chain groups of the protein. The relative alignment of ZnF3 and ZnF4 domains is dictated by the topology of the interdomain linker, with a resulting antiparallel orientation of bound GC elements, supportive of a chain-reversal loop trajectory for MBNL1-bound pre-mRNA targets. We anticipate that MBNL1-mediated targeting of looped RNA segments proximal to splice-site junctions could contribute to pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation. PMID:19043415

  13. Structural insights into RNA recognition by the alternative-splicing regulator muscleblind-like MBNL1

    SciTech Connect

    Teplova, Marianna; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2009-01-15

    Muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, regulators of developmentally programmed alternative splicing, harbor tandem CCCH zinc-finger (ZnF) domains that target pre-mRNAs containing YGCU(U/G)Y sequence elements (where Y is a pyrimidine). In myotonic dystrophy, reduced levels of MBNL proteins lead to aberrant alternative splicing of a subset of pre-mRNAs. The crystal structure of MBNL1 ZnF3/4 bound to r(CGCUGU) establishes that both ZnF3 and ZnF4 target GC steps, with site-specific recognition mediated by a network of hydrogen bonds formed primarily with main chain groups of the protein. The relative alignment of ZnF3 and ZnF4 domains is dictated by the topology of the interdomain linker, with a resulting antiparallel orientation of bound GC elements, supportive of a chain-reversal loop trajectory for MBNL1-bound pre-mRNA targets. We anticipate that MBNL1-mediated targeting of looped RNA segments proximal to splice-site junctions could contribute to pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation.

  14. An RNA architectural locus control region involved in Dscam mutually exclusive splicing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuebin; Li, Guoli; Yang, Yun; Wang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Huawei; Zhang, Peng; Yue, Yuan; Lin, Hao; Liu, Baoping; Bi, Jingpei; Shi, Feng; Mao, Jinping; Meng, Yijun; Zhan, Leilei; Jin, Yongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The most striking example of alternative splicing in a Drosophila melanogaster gene is observed in the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, which can generate 38,016 different isoforms. RNA secondary structures are thought to direct the mutually exclusive splicing of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we describe a locus control region that can activate the exon 6 cluster and specifically allow for the selection of only one exon variant in combination with docking site selector sequence interactions. Combining comparative genomic studies of 63 species with mutational analysis reveals that intricate, tandem multi-‘subunit’ RNA structures within the locus control region activate species-appropriate alternative variants. Importantly, strengthening the weak splice sites of the target exon can remove the locus control region dependence. Our findings not only provide a locus control region-dependent mechanism for mutually exclusive splicing, but also suggest a model for the evolution of increased complexity in a long-range RNA molecular machine. PMID:23212384

  15. Identification and characterization of three members of the human SR family of pre-mRNA splicing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Screaton, G R; Cáceres, J F; Mayeda, A; Bell, M V; Plebanski, M; Jackson, D G; Bell, J I; Krainer, A R

    1995-01-01

    SR proteins have a characteristic C-terminal Ser/Arg-rich repeat (RS domain) of variable length and constitute a family of highly conserved nuclear phosphoproteins that can function as both essential and alternative pre-mRNA splicing factors. We have cloned a cDNA encoding a novel human SR protein designated SRp30c, which has an unusually short RS domain. We also cloned cDNAs encoding the human homologues of Drosophila SRp55/B52 and rat SRp40/HRS. Recombinant proteins expressed from these cDNAs are active in constitutive splicing, as shown by their ability to complement a HeLa cell S100 extract deficient in SR proteins. Additional cDNA clones reflect extensive alternative splicing of SRp40 and SRp55 pre-mRNAs. The predicted protein isoforms lack the C-terminal RS domain and might be involved in feedback regulatory loops. The ability of human SRp30c, SRp40 and SRp55 to modulate alternative splicing in vivo was compared with that of other SR proteins using a transient contransfection assay. The overexpression of individual SR proteins in HeLa cells affected the choice of alternative 5' splice sites of adenovirus E1A and/or human beta-thalassemia reporters. The resulting splicing patterns were characteristic for each SR protein. Consistent with the postulated importance of SR proteins in alternative splicing in vivo, we demonstrate complex changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the above SR proteins upon T cell activation, concomitant with changes in the expression of alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CD45. Images PMID:7556075

  16. RNA-Seq analysis reveals new gene models and alternative splicing in the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of RNA-Seq to improve gene annotations and to identify alternative splicing and RNA editing in F. graminearum. Results We identified and revised 655 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of intron predictions, intron splice sites and prediction of novel introns. 231 genes were identified with two or more alternative splice variants, mostly due to intron retention. Interestingly, the expression ratios between different transcript isoforms appeared to be developmentally regulated. Surprisingly, no RNA editing was identified in F. graminearum. Moreover, 2459 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) were identified and our analysis indicates that many of these could be missed genes. Finally, we identified the 5? UTR and/or 3? UTR sequences of 7666 genes. A number of representative novel gene models and alternatively spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the generated amplicons. Conclusions We have developed novel and efficient strategies to identify alternatively spliced genes and incorrect gene models based on RNA-Seq data. Our study identified hundreds of alternatively spliced genes in F. graminearum and for the first time indicated that alternative splicing is developmentally regulated in filamentous fungi. In addition, hundreds of incorrect predicted gene models were identified and revised and thousands of nTARs were discovered in our study, which will be helpful for the future genomic and transcriptomic studies in F. graminearum. PMID:23324402

  17. Tau Splicing and the Intricacies of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, Athena

    2011-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule associated protein that fulfills several functions critical for neuronal formation and health. Tau discharges its functions by producing multiple isoforms via regulated alternative splicing. These isoforms modulate tau function in normal brain by altering the domains of the protein, thereby influencing its localization, conformation and post-translational modifications and hence its availability and affinity for microtubules and other ligands. Disturbances in tau expression result in disruption of the neuronal cytoskeleton and formation of tau structures (neurofibrillary tangles) found in brains of dementia sufferers. More specifically, aberrations in tau splicing regulation directly cause several neurodegenerative diseases which lead to dementia. In this review, I present our cumulative knowledge of tau splicing regulation in connection with neurodegeneration and also briefly go over the still-extensive list of questions that are connected to tau (dys)function. PMID:21604267

  18. Identification and experimental validation of splicing regulatory elements in Drosophila melanogaster reveals functionally conserved splicing enhancers in metazoans

    E-print Network

    Brooks, A. N.

    RNA sequence elements involved in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing have previously been identified in vertebrate genomes by computational methods. Here, we apply such approaches to predict splicing regulatory elements ...

  19. SPLICING TO THE LIMIT ELIZABETH GOODE AND DENNIS PIXTON

    E-print Network

    Goode, Elizabeth

    not know the answer in gene* *ral, but in the special case of a reflexive splicing system we can give SPLICING TO THE LIMIT ELIZABETH GOODE AND DENNIS PIXTON Abstract. We consider the result of a wet splicing procedure after the re

  20. Molecular Cell Tissue-Specific Splicing of Disordered

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    . INTRODUCTION Together with gene duplication and recombination, alternative splicing plays a major role genes are alterna- tively spliced (Wang et al., 2008). While some of the transcript isoforms are likelyMolecular Cell Article Tissue-Specific Splicing of Disordered Segments that Embed Binding Motifs

  1. Integration of a splicing regulatory network within the meiotic gene

    E-print Network

    Ares Jr., Manny

    Integration of a splicing regulatory network within the meiotic gene expression program, USA Splicing regulatory networks are essential components of eukaryotic gene expression programs, yet expression programs. Here we define the MER1 splicing regulatory network and examine its role in the gene

  2. Identification of functional exonic splicing enhancer motifs recognized

    E-print Network

    of the mouse IgM gene. This 73-nucleotide ESE is essential for splicing of the preceding intron between exons MIdentification of functional exonic splicing enhancer motifs recognized by individual SR proteins identified three novel classes of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) recognized by human SF2/ASF, SRp40

  3. A general role for splicing enhancers in exon definition

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    are alternatively spliced, sometimes leading to hundreds of different mRNA isoforms from a single gene+ HoweverREPORT A general role for splicing enhancers in exon definition BIANCA J. LAM and KLEMENS J. HERTEL, California 92697-4025, USA ABSTRACT Exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) facilitate exon definition by assisting

  4. A Combinatorial Code for Splicing Silencing: UAGG and GGGG Motifs

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    A Combinatorial Code for Splicing Silencing: UAGG and GGGG Motifs Kyoungha Han1¤a[ , Gene Yeo2¤b-mRNA splicing is widely used to regulate gene expression by tuning the levels of tissue-specific mRNA isoforms to allow for intricate adjustments and the coordination of splicing patterns from different genes. Citation

  5. Deciphering the splicing code Yoseph Barash1,2

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    of hundreds of RNA features to predict tissue-dependent changes in alternative splicing for thousands of exons of RNA features that can account for abundances of spliced isoforms4­8 . Through detailed investigationARTICLES Deciphering the splicing code Yoseph Barash1,2 *, John A. Calarco2 *, Weijun Gao1 , Qun

  6. Differential regulation of alternative 3{prime} splicing of {epsilon} messenger RNA variants

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, D.; Zhang, K.; Saxon, A.

    1995-08-15

    Alternative 3{prime} splicing of the one active human {epsilon} heavy chain gene results in variants of {epsilon} mRNA encoding distinct IgE proteins. The same relative amounts of these {epsilon} mRNA variants were produced by non-atopic donor B cells when driven in a variety of T-dependent or T-independent systems. The most abundant variants were those for classic secreted {epsilon} and a novel secreted form (CH4-M2{double_prime}). In contrast, cells from subjects with high levels of serum IgE secondary to parasitic infection or atopy spontaneously produced higher relative levels of the CH4-M2{prime} {epsilon} mRNA variant, lower relative amounts of both the membrane and CH4-M2{double_prime} secreted variants, and very low levels of the CH4{prime}-CH5 variant. The existence of and corresponding changes in levels of the CH4-M2{prime}-enclosed secreted protein were demonstrated. IL-10 induced this same differential expression of {epsilon} splice variants in vitro when used to costimulate IL-4 plus CD40-driven B cells and could differentially enhance the production of CH4-M2{prime} protein by established IgE-secreting cell lines. Inhibition of IgE by cross-linking the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23) decreased the levels of {epsilon} mRNA and resulted in a distinct pattern of {epsilon} mRNA characterized by a dramatic decrease in CH4-M2{prime} splice variant. IL-6, IL-2, or IFN-{gamma} did not change the {epsilon} mRNA pattern. Overall, the absolute and relative amounts of the different {epsilon} mRNA splice variants produced appear to be controlled in a differentiation-related fashion.

  7. Organ Donor FAQ's: Who Can Be a Donor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... citizens have been organ donors. Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can both donate and receive organs in the ... the 12,375 organ donors were non-resident aliens. In this same year, 259 (1%) of the ...

  8. In silico to in vivo splicing analysis using splicing code models Matthew R. Gazzara a,b

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Kristen W.

    splicing's role in gene regulation, development, and disease, researchers from diverse fields find in mature mRNAs can greatly vary, with $95% of human multi-exon genes undergoing alternative splicing (AS splicing's key role in post-transcriptional control of gene expression and its pervasiveness motivated much

  9. Structural basis of pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Hang, Jing; Wan, Ruixue; Yan, Chuangye; Shi, Yigong

    2015-09-11

    Splicing of precursor messenger RNA is performed by the spliceosome. In the cryogenic electron microscopy structure of the yeast spliceosome, U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein acts as a central scaffold onto which U6 and U2 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are intertwined to form a catalytic center next to Loop I of U5 snRNA. Magnesium ions are coordinated by conserved nucleotides in U6 snRNA. The intron lariat is held in place through base-pairing interactions with both U2 and U6 snRNAs, leaving the variable-length middle portion on the solvent-accessible surface of the catalytic center. The protein components of the spliceosome anchor both 5' and 3' ends of the U2 and U6 snRNAs away from the active site, direct the RNA sequences, and allow sufficient flexibility between the ends and the catalytic center. Thus, the spliceosome is in essence a protein-directed ribozyme, with the protein components essential for the delivery of critical RNA molecules into close proximity of one another at the right time for the splicing reaction. PMID:26292705

  10. Stem–loop 4 of U1 snRNA is essential for splicing and interacts with the U2 snRNP-specific SF3A1 protein during spliceosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shalini; Wongpalee, Somsakul Pop; Vashisht, Ajay; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Black, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    The pairing of 5? and 3? splice sites across an intron is a critical step in spliceosome formation and its regulation. Interactions that bring the two splice sites together during spliceosome assembly must occur with a high degree of specificity and fidelity to allow expression of functional mRNAs and make particular alternative splicing choices. Here, we report a new interaction between stem–loop 4 (SL4) of the U1 snRNA, which recognizes the 5? splice site, and a component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) complex, which assembles across the intron at the 3? splice site. Using a U1 snRNP complementation assay, we found that SL4 is essential for splicing in vivo. The addition of free U1-SL4 to a splicing reaction in vitro inhibits splicing and blocks complex assembly prior to formation of the prespliceosomal A complex, indicating a requirement for a SL4 contact in spliceosome assembly. To characterize the interactions of this RNA structure, we used a combination of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), biotin/Neutravidin affinity pull-down, and mass spectrometry. We show that U1-SL4 interacts with the SF3A1 protein of the U2 snRNP. We found that this interaction between the U1 snRNA and SF3A1 occurs within prespliceosomal complexes assembled on the pre-mRNA. Thus, SL4 of the U1 snRNA is important for splicing, and its interaction with SF3A1 mediates contact between the 5? and 3? splice site complexes within the assembling spliceosome. PMID:25403181

  11. A five prime splice-region G yields C mutation in exon 1 of the human. beta. -globin gene inhibits pre-mRNA splicing: A mechanism for. beta. sup + -thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Vidaud, M.; Vidaud, D.; Amselem, S.; Rosa, J.; Goossens, M. ); Gattoni, R.; Stevenin, J. ); Chibani, J. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors have characterized a Mediterranean {beta}-thalassemia allele containing a sequence change at codon 30 that alters both {beta}-globin pre-mRNA splicing and the structure of the homoglobin product. Presumably, this G {yields} C transversion at position {minus}1 of intron 1 reduces severely the utilization of the normal 5{prime} splice site since the level of the Arg {yields} Thr mutant hemoglobin (designated hemoglobin Kairouan) found in the erythrocytes of the patient is very low (2% of total hemoglobin). Since no natural mutations of the guanine located at position {minus}1 of the CAG/GTAAGT consensus sequence had been isolated previously. They investigated the role of this nucleotide in the constitution of an active 5{prime} splice site by studying the splicing of the pre-mRNA in cell-free extracts. They demonstrate that correct splicing of the mutant pre-mRNA is 98% inhibited. Their results provide further insights into the mechanisms of pre-mRNA maturation by revealing that the last residue of the exon plays a role at least equivalent to that of the intron residue at position +5.

  12. Donor Preferences and Charitable Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephanie Roderick

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to learn more of the differences that may exist between the two most powerful groups of donors today, baby boomers (40-58 years old) and mature donors (59 and older), in an effort to help organizations improve fundraising efforts. Questions about the importance of organizational efficiency, program outcomes, and the desire for…

  13. Marrow transplantation from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, J; Anasetti, C

    1995-11-01

    The use of an HLA-compatible unrelated donor is an option for patients who require an allogeneic transplant but lack a family member match. Grafts from unrelated volunteer donors have provided long-term disease-free survival for a variable proportion of patients, depending on degree of HLA matching with the donor, patient's disease, disease stage, and age. The number of volunteers in marrow donor registries worldwide has increased to more than 2.5 million. The number of unrelated donor transplants facilitated by the US National Marrow Donor Program alone will exceed 900 this year. Progress in HLA-typing technology results in a more precise definition of donor and recipient matching and new assays have been developed with initial success to measure alloreactive T-cell precursors for selection of donors with less antihost reactivity. Prevention and treatment of graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, opportunistic infections, and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease remain a challenge. PMID:9372034

  14. The genetic basis for individual differences in mRNA splicing and APOBEC1 editing activity in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Musa A.; Butty, Vincent; Jensen, Kirk D.C.; Saeij, Jeroen P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing and mRNA editing are known to contribute to transcriptome diversity. Although alternative splicing is pervasive and contributes to a variety of pathologies, including cancer, the genetic context for individual differences in isoform usage is still evolving. Similarly, although mRNA editing is ubiquitous and associated with important biological processes such as intracellular viral replication and cancer development, individual variations in mRNA editing and the genetic transmissibility of mRNA editing are equivocal. Here, we have used linkage analysis to show that both mRNA editing and alternative splicing are regulated by the macrophage genetic background and environmental cues. We show that distinct loci, potentially harboring variable splice factors, regulate the splicing of multiple transcripts. Additionally, we show that individual genetic variability at the Apobec1 locus results in differential rates of C-to-U(T) editing in murine macrophages; with mouse strains expressing mostly a truncated alternative transcript isoform of Apobec1 exhibiting lower rates of editing. As a proof of concept, we have used linkage analysis to identify 36 high-confidence novel edited sites. These results provide a novel and complementary method that can be used to identify C-to-U editing sites in individuals segregating at specific loci and show that, beyond DNA sequence and structural changes, differential isoform usage and mRNA editing can contribute to intra-species genomic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24249727

  15. UnSplicer: mapping spliced RNA-seq reads in compact genomes and filtering noisy splicing

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Paul D.; Li, Yang; Ma, Jian; Borodovsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Accurate mapping of spliced RNA-Seq reads to genomic DNA has been known as a challenging problem. Despite significant efforts invested in developing efficient algorithms, with the human genome as a primary focus, the best solution is still not known. A recently introduced tool, TrueSight, has demonstrated better performance compared with earlier developed algorithms such as TopHat and MapSplice. To improve detection of splice junctions, TrueSight uses information on statistical patterns of nucleotide ordering in intronic and exonic DNA. This line of research led to yet another new algorithm, UnSplicer, designed for eukaryotic species with compact genomes where functional alternative splicing is likely to be dominated by splicing noise. Genome-specific parameters of the new algorithm are generated by GeneMark-ES, an ab initio gene prediction algorithm based on unsupervised training. UnSplicer shares several components with TrueSight; the difference lies in the training strategy and the classification algorithm. We tested UnSplicer on RNA-Seq data sets of Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Drosophila melanogaster. We have shown that splice junctions inferred by UnSplicer are in better agreement with knowledge accumulated on these well-studied genomes than predictions made by earlier developed tools. PMID:24259430

  16. Development of Therapeutic Splice-Switching Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kryczka, Adrianna; Liu, Yuqi; Badi, Yusef E.; Wong, Jessie J.; Owen, James S.; Khoo, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Synthetic splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) target nuclear pre-mRNA molecules to change exon splicing and generate an alternative protein isoform. Clinical trials with two competitive SSO drugs are underway to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Beyond DMD, many additional therapeutic applications are possible, with some in phase 1 clinical trials or advanced preclinical evaluation. Here, we present an overview of the central factors involved in developing therapeutic SSOs for the treatment of diseases. The selection of susceptible pre-mRNA target sequences, as well as the design and chemical modification of SSOs to increase SSO stability and effectiveness, are key initial considerations. Identification of effective SSO target sequences is still largely empirical and published guidelines are not a universal guarantee for success. Specifically, exon-targeted SSOs, which are successful in modifying dystrophin splicing, can be ineffective for splice-switching in other contexts. Chemical modifications, importantly, are associated with certain characteristic toxicities, which need to be addressed as target diseases require chronic treatment with SSOs. Moreover, SSO delivery in adequate quantities to the nucleus of target cells without toxicity can prove difficult. Last, the means by which these SSOs are administered needs to be acceptable to the patient. Engineering an efficient therapeutic SSO, therefore, necessarily entails a compromise between desirable qualities and effectiveness. Here, we describe how the application of optimal solutions may differ from case to case. PMID:24826963

  17. The genetics of splicing in neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    Regulation of mRNA splicing, a critical and tightly regulated cellular function, underlies the majority of proteomic diversity, and is frequently disrupted in disease. Using an integrative genomics approach, we combined both genome and exon level transcriptome data in two somatic tissues (cerebella and peripheral ganglia) from a transgenic mouse model of neuroblastoma, a tumor that arises from peripheral neural crest.

  18. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  19. De novo prediction of PTBP1 binding and splicing targets reveals unexpected features of its RNA recognition and function.

    PubMed

    Han, Areum; Stoilov, Peter; Linares, Anthony J; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Black, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    The splicing regulator Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTBP1) has four RNA binding domains that each binds a short pyrimidine element, allowing recognition of diverse pyrimidine-rich sequences. This variation makes it difficult to evaluate PTBP1 binding to particular sites based on sequence alone and thus to identify target RNAs. Conversely, transcriptome-wide binding assays such as CLIP identify many in vivo targets, but do not provide a quantitative assessment of binding and are informative only for the cells where the analysis is performed. A general method of predicting PTBP1 binding and possible targets in any cell type is needed. We developed computational models that predict the binding and splicing targets of PTBP1. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM), trained on CLIP-seq data, was used to score probable PTBP1 binding sites. Scores from this model are highly correlated (??=?-0.9) with experimentally determined dissociation constants. Notably, we find that the protein is not strictly pyrimidine specific, as interspersed Guanosine residues are well tolerated within PTBP1 binding sites. This model identifies many previously unrecognized PTBP1 binding sites, and can score PTBP1 binding across the transcriptome in the absence of CLIP data. Using this model to examine the placement of PTBP1 binding sites in controlling splicing, we trained a multinomial logistic model on sets of PTBP1 regulated and unregulated exons. Applying this model to rank exons across the mouse transcriptome identifies known PTBP1 targets and many new exons that were confirmed as PTBP1-repressed by RT-PCR and RNA-seq after PTBP1 depletion. We find that PTBP1 dependent exons are diverse in structure and do not all fit previous descriptions of the placement of PTBP1 binding sites. Our study uncovers new features of RNA recognition and splicing regulation by PTBP1. This approach can be applied to other multi-RRM domain proteins to assess binding site degeneracy and multifactorial splicing regulation. PMID:24499931

  20. Factors associated with a purine-rich exonic splicing enhancer sequence in Xenopus oocyte nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Masuyama, Kaoru; Taniguchi, Ichiro; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohno, Mutsuhito . E-mail: hitoohno@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Purine-rich exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) stimulate splicing of the adjacent introns with suboptimal splice sites. To elucidate the mechanism regarding ESEs, factors specifically associated with ESEs in HeLa cell nuclear extracts were previously investigated, and shown to include SR (serine/arginine-rich) proteins. However, factors associated with ESEs in vivo have not yet been explored. Here we show that a GAA repeat RNA sequence, a typical ESE, is associated in Xenopus oocyte nuclei with at least one SR protein, SF2/ASF, as was expected. Moreover, components of SF3a/b complexes, U2 snRNA, and U2AF{sup 65} were also found to be associated with the ESE in the nucleus. Since SF3a/b complexes are the constituents of the 17S U2 snRNP, these results suggest that the 17S U2 snRNP is associated with the ESE in the nucleus, probably through bridging interactions of U2AF and SR proteins. The identified factors may represent a functional splicing enhancer complex in vivo.

  1. Crystal structure and assembly of the functional Nanoarchaeum equitans tRNA splicing endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Michelle; Xue, Song; Erdman, Rachel; Randau, Lennart; Söll, Dieter; Li, Hong

    2009-10-27

    The RNA splicing and processing endonuclease from Nanoarchaeum equitans (NEQ) belongs to the recently identified ({alpha}{beta}){sub 2} family of splicing endonucleases that require two different subunits for splicing activity. N. equitans splicing endonuclease comprises the catalytic subunit (NEQ205) and the structural subunit (NEQ261). Here, we report the crystal structure of the functional NEQ enzyme at 2.1 {angstrom} containing both subunits, as well as that of the NEQ261 subunit alone at 2.2 {angstrom}. The functional enzyme resembles previously known {alpha}{sub 2} and {alpha}{sub 4} endonucleases but forms a heterotetramer: a dimer of two heterodimers of the catalytic subunit (NEQ205) and the structural subunit (NEQ261). Surprisingly, NEQ261 alone forms a homodimer, similar to the previously known homodimer of the catalytic subunit. The homodimers of isolated subunits are inhibitory to heterodimerization as illustrated by a covalently linked catalytic homodimer that had no RNA cleavage activity upon mixing with the structural subunit. Detailed structural comparison reveals a more favorable hetero- than homodimerization interface, thereby suggesting a possible regulation mechanism of enzyme assembly through available subunits. Finally, the uniquely flexible active site of the NEQ endonuclease provides a possible explanation for its broader substrate specificity.

  2. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content

    PubMed Central

    Guantes, Raul; Rastrojo, Alberto; Neves, Ricardo; Lima, Ana; Aguado, Begoña; Iborra, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Noise in gene expression is a main determinant of phenotypic variability. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that genome-wide cellular constraints largely contribute to the heterogeneity observed in gene products. It is still unclear, however, which global factors affect gene expression noise and to what extent. Since eukaryotic gene expression is an energy demanding process, differences in the energy budget of each cell could determine gene expression differences. Here, we quantify the contribution of mitochondrial variability (a natural source of ATP variation) to global variability in gene expression. We find that changes in mitochondrial content can account for ?50% of the variability observed in protein levels. This is the combined result of the effect of mitochondria dosage on transcription and translation apparatus content and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus modulating both the abundance and type of mRNAs. A simple mathematical model in which mitochondrial content simultaneously affects transcription rate and splicing site choice can explain the alternative splicing data. The results of this study show that mitochondrial content (and/or probably function) influences mRNA abundance, translation, and alternative splicing, which ultimately affects cellular phenotype. PMID:25800673

  3. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: Stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Georgi K.; Williams, Brian A.; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P.; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M.; Wold, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30–100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states. PMID:24299736

  4. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J

    2014-03-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states. PMID:24299736

  5. A Sensitive Assay System To Test Antisense Oligonucleotides for Splice Suppression Therapy in the Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Viecelli, Hiu Man; Pérez, Belén; Harding, Cary O; Ugarte, Magdalena; Thöny, Beat; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of antisense therapy for splicing defects in cellular models of metabolic diseases, suppressing the use of cryptic splice sites or pseudoexon insertions. To date, no animal models with these defects are available. Here, we propose exon skipping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) gene expressed in liver and kidney to generate systemic hyperphenylalaninemia in mice as a sensitive in vivo assay to test splice suppression. Systemic elevation of blood L-Phe can be quantified using tandem MS/MS. Exon 11 and/or 12 skipping for the normal PAH gene was validated in hepatoma cells for comparing two oligonucleotide chemistries, morpholinos and locked nucleic acids. Subsequently, Vivo-morpholinos (VMO) were tested in wild-type and in phenotypically normal Pahenu2/+ heterozygous mice to target exon 11 and/or 12 of the murine Pah gene using different VMO dosing, mode of injection and treatment regimes. Consecutive intravenous injections of VMO resulted in transient hyperphenylalaninemia correlating with complete exon skipping and absence of PAH protein and enzyme activity. Sustained effect required repeated injection of VMOs. Our results provide not only a sensitive in vivo assay to test for splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotides, but also a simple method to generate murine models for genetic liver diseases. PMID:25226162

  6. A serine–arginine-rich (SR) splicing factor modulates alternative splicing of over a thousand genes in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Lee M.; Goodman, Christopher D.; Hall, Nathan E.; van Dooren, Giel G.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Ralph, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Single genes are often subject to alternative splicing, which generates alternative mature mRNAs. This phenomenon is widespread in animals, and observed in over 90% of human genes. Recent data suggest it may also be common in Apicomplexa. These parasites have small genomes, and economy of DNA is evolutionarily favoured in this phylum. We investigated the mechanism of alternative splicing in Toxoplasma gondii, and have identified and localized TgSR3, a homologue of ASF/SF2 (alternative-splicing factor/splicing factor 2, a serine-arginine–rich, or SR protein) to a subnuclear compartment. In addition, we conditionally overexpressed this protein, which was deleterious to growth. qRT-PCR was used to confirm perturbation of splicing in a known alternatively-spliced gene. We performed high-throughput RNA-seq to determine the extent of splicing modulated by this protein. Current RNA-seq algorithms are poorly suited to compact parasite genomes, and hence we complemented existing tools by writing a new program, GeneGuillotine, that addresses this deficiency by segregating overlapping reads into distinct genes. In order to identify the extent of alternative splicing, we released another program, JunctionJuror, that detects changes in intron junctions. Using this program, we identified about 2000 genes that were constitutively alternatively spliced in T. gondii. Overexpressing the splice regulator TgSR3 perturbed alternative splicing in over 1000 genes. PMID:25870410

  7. Structure of Slitrk2–PTP? complex reveals mechanisms for splicing-dependent trans-synaptic adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Atsushi; Sato, Yusuke; Goto-Ito, Sakurako; Uemura, Takeshi; Maeda, Asami; Shiroshima, Tomoko; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Fukai, Shuya

    2015-01-01

    Selective binding between pre- and postsynaptic adhesion molecules can induce synaptic differentiation. Here we report the crystal structure of a synaptogenic trans-synaptic adhesion complex between Slit and Trk-like family member 2 (Slitrk2) and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) ?. The structure and site-directed mutational analysis revealed the structural basis of splicing-dependent adhesion between Slitrks and type IIa RPTPs for inducing synaptic differentiation. PMID:25989451

  8. Novel Bioinformatics Method for Identification of Genome-Wide Non-Canonical Spliced Regions Using RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Ziyar, Ahdad; Li, Philip; Wright, Zachary; Menon, Rajasree; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Cavalcoli, James D.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Sartor, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Setting During endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the endoribonuclease (RNase) Ire1? initiates removal of a 26 nt region from the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Xbp1 via an unconventional mechanism (atypically within the cytosol). This causes an open reading frame-shift that leads to altered transcriptional regulation of numerous downstream genes in response to ER stress as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Strikingly, other examples of targeted, unconventional splicing of short mRNA regions have yet to be reported. Objective Our goal was to develop an approach to identify non-canonical, possibly very short, splicing regions using RNA-Seq data and apply it to ER stress-induced Ire1? heterozygous and knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines to identify additional Ire1? targets. Results We developed a bioinformatics approach called the Read-Split-Walk (RSW) pipeline, and evaluated it using two Ire1? heterozygous and two Ire1?-null samples. The 26 nt non-canonical splice site in Xbp1 was detected as the top hit by our RSW pipeline in heterozygous samples but not in the negative control Ire1? knockout samples. We compared the Xbp1 results from our approach with results using the alignment program BWA, Bowtie2, STAR, Exonerate and the Unix “grep” command. We then applied our RSW pipeline to RNA-Seq data from the SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. RSW reported a large number of non-canonical spliced regions for 108 genes in chromosome 17, which were identified by an independent study. Conclusions We conclude that our RSW pipeline is a practical approach for identifying non-canonical splice junction sites on a genome-wide level. We demonstrate that our pipeline can detect novel splice sites in RNA-Seq data generated under similar conditions for multiple species, in our case mouse and human. PMID:24991935

  9. A group I self-splicing intron in the flagellin gene of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Jumpei; Ishizuka, Morio

    2009-12-01

    A group I intron that can be spliced in vivo and in vitro was identified in the flagellin gene of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus. We also found one or two intervening sequences (IVS) of flagellin genes in five additional bacterial species. Furthermore, we report the presence of these sequences in two sites of a highly conserved region in the flagellin gene. PMID:19966479

  10. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors.

    PubMed

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P

    2015-11-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1·00 ± 0·18 vs. 0·92 ± 0·12, P = 0·09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups. PMID:26031345

  11. A Multi-Exon-Skipping Detection Assay Reveals Surprising Diversity of Splice Isoforms of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Sarah J.; Singh, Ravindra N.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have two near identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Loss of SMN1 coupled with the predominant skipping of SMN2 exon 7 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative disease. SMA patient cells devoid of SMN1 provide a powerful system to examine splicing pattern of various SMN2 exons. Until now, similar system to examine splicing of SMN1 exons was unavailable. We have recently screened several patient cell lines derived from various diseases, including SMA, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Batten disease. Here we report a Batten disease cell line that lacks functional SMN2, as an ideal system to examine pre-mRNA splicing of SMN1. We employ a multiple-exon-skipping detection assay (MESDA) to capture simultaneously skipping of multiple exons. Our results show surprising diversity of splice isoforms and reveal novel splicing events that include skipping of exon 4 and co-skipping of three adjacent exons of SMN. Contrary to the general belief, MESDA captured oxidative-stress induced skipping of SMN1 exon 5 in several cell types, including non-neuronal cells. We further demonstrate that the predominant SMN2 exon 7 skipping induced by oxidative stress is modulated by a combinatorial control that includes promoter sequence, endogenous context, and the weak splice sites. We also show that an 8-mer antisense oligonucleotide blocking a recently described GC-rich sequence prevents SMN2 exon 7 skipping under the conditions of oxidative stress. Our findings bring new insight into splicing regulation of an essential housekeeping gene linked to neurodegeneration and infant mortality. PMID:23185376

  12. [Altruism and the donor].

    PubMed

    Langlois, A

    1991-08-01

    On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty. PMID:1878857

  13. ASPicDB: a database of annotated transcript and protein variants generated by alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Pier L.; D’Antonio, Mattia; Bonizzoni, Paola; Castrignanò, Tiziana; D’Erchia, Anna M.; D’Onorio De Meo, Paolo; Fariselli, Piero; Finelli, Michele; Licciulli, Flavio; Mangiulli, Marina; Mignone, Flavio; Pavesi, Giulio; Picardi, Ernesto; Rizzi, Raffaella; Rossi, Ivan; Valletti, Alessio; Zauli, Andrea; Zambelli, Federico; Casadio, Rita; Pesole, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing is emerging as a major mechanism for the expansion of the transcriptome and proteome diversity, particularly in human and other vertebrates. However, the proportion of alternative transcripts and proteins actually endowed with functional activity is currently highly debated. We present here a new release of ASPicDB which now provides a unique annotation resource of human protein variants generated by alternative splicing. A total of 256?939 protein variants from 17?191 multi-exon genes have been extensively annotated through state of the art machine learning tools providing information of the protein type (globular and transmembrane), localization, presence of PFAM domains, signal peptides, GPI-anchor propeptides, transmembrane and coiled-coil segments. Furthermore, full-length variants can be now specifically selected based on the annotation of CAGE-tags and polyA signal and/or polyA sites, marking transcription initiation and termination sites, respectively. The retrieval can be carried out at gene, transcript, exon, protein or splice site level allowing the selection of data sets fulfilling one or more features settled by the user. The retrieval interface also enables the selection of protein variants showing specific differences in the annotated features. ASPicDB is available at http://www.caspur.it/ASPicDB/. PMID:21051348

  14. Alternative splicing in the human interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3) gene.

    PubMed

    Duchange, N; Pidoux, J; Camus, E; Sauvaget, D

    2000-12-31

    The Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 3 (ILF3) gene has been mapped to chromosome 19 in humans and to chromosome 9 in mice. Several reported double-stranded RNA binding proteins including NF90, ILF3, MPP4 and DRBP76 have been suggested to be isoforms of the ILF3 gene but this has not been clearly established. We isolated several ilf3 transcripts from a melanoma cDNA library and two corresponding genomic fragments, and report alternative splicing and polyadenylation site selection in the human ILF3 gene. We show the existence of an alternative splice site responsible for the sequence divergence in the 3' part of the transcripts. Another alternative splicing event at a site between the two double-stranded RNA binding motifs leads to the additional presence in some cases of a four amino acids NVKQ peptide. We also describe the utilization of three distinct polyadenylation signals and the generation of an ilf3 transcript with a long extended 3' UTR. The expression of the different transcripts was evaluated. We used a GenBank sequence for the part of chromosome 19 corresponding to the ILF3 gene to determine the exon-intron organization of the entire gene which spans 38 kb and is divided into 21 exons. PMID:11167023

  15. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:??d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  16. Electron Donor Potential of Eastern North Dakota Shale Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Klapperich, R. J.; Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    We have a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 9 sites in North Dakota and Minnesota. The site in the Elk Valley aquifer in northeastern North Dakota has the highest denitrification rates and the greatest concentration of electron donors (organic carbon ~0.4%, pyrite as S ~0.4%, and ferrous iron ~0.3%) in the sediments. In contrast, denitrification rates at our other ISM sites are lower (or even below detection), as are the electron donor concentrations in the sediments. Knowing that the sediments at all of our ISM sites were placed as outwash during the last Wisconsinan glaciation (~12ka), we wonder what caused the variation in electron donor supplies in our aquifers. It has been suggested that variations is the electron donor concentrations in the various Late Cretaceous shale strata exposed during glaciation may help explain the variation in electron donor concentrations in overlying aquifers formed nearby. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amount of electron donors available in these bedrock units. Bedrock samples (n = 39) from 20 sites in eastern North Dakota were obtained by drilling during the summer of 2006 in conjunction with the North Dakota State Water Commission. Samples were frozen before analysis for bulk mineralogical content by X-ray diffraction, organic carbon, pyrite as inorganic S, and ferrous iron contents. It was hypothesized that the Pierre Shale would have the highest donor concentration, but it appears that other formations, such as the Carlile and Greenhorn contain higher concentrations of electron donors. Organic carbon concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 1.0%) are relatively low while concentrations in the Carlile (3.5% - 6.5%) and Greenhorn (~8.5%) are significantly higher. Pyrite as inorganic S concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 0.2%), Carlile (0.3% - 0.5%), and Greenhorn (~0.5%) are similarly distributed. In the future, it may be possible to create a qualitative index (low, med, high) of aquifer denitrification capacity based on the probable source of the parent material. This index could then be used to focus, in a cost-effective fashion, more extensive and expensive geochemical analysis on specific aquifers or sites.

  17. Clathrin light chain B: gene structure and neuron-specific splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Dinsmore, J; Kaufmann, C A; Brosius, J; Helfman, D M

    1992-01-01

    The clathrin light chains are components of clathrin coated vesicles, structural constituents involved in endocytosis and membrane recycling. The clathrin light chain B (LCB) gene encodes two isoforms, termed LCB2 and LCB3, via an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. We have determined the structure of the rat clathrin light chain B gene. The gene consists of six exons that extend over 11.9 kb. The first four exons and the last exon are common to the LCB2 and LCB3 isoforms. The fifth exon, termed EN, is included in the mRNA in brain, giving rise to the brain specific form LCB2 but is excluded in other tissues, generating the LCB3 isoform. Primary rat neuronal cell cultures express predominantly the brain specific LCB2 isoform, whereas primary rat cultures of glia express only the LCB3 isoform, suggesting that expression of the brain-specific LCB2 form is limited to neurons. Further evidence for neuronal localization of the LCB2 form is provided using a teratocarcinoma cell line, P19, which can be induced by retinoic acid to express a neuronal phenotype, concomitant with the induction of the LCB2 form. In order to determine the sequences involved in alternative splice site selection, we constructed a minigene containing the alternative spliced exon EN and its flanking intron and exon sequences. This minigene reflects the splicing pattern of the endogenous gene upon transfection in HeLa cell and primary neuronal cell cultures, indicating that this region of the LCB gene contains all the necessary information for neuron-specific splicing. Images PMID:1408826

  18. Several mRNAs with variable 3[prime] untranslated regions and different stability encode the human PR264/SC35 splicing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Sureau, A.; Perbal, B. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors have recently established that several mRNAs encode the PR264/SC35 splicing factor and that their expression is related to that of c-Myb in human hematopoietic cells. They now report that the various PR264 mRNAs whose expression is transactivated by c-Myb proteins encode an identical PR264/SC35 polypeptide. These mRNAs differ only in their 3[prime] untranslated sequences and exhibit significantly different half-lives. They also show that there is a direct correlation between the length of the 3[prime] untranslated region and the stability of the mRNA species. Given that 5[prime] and 3[prime] splice site selection mediated by the PR264/SC35 splicing factor is concentration-dependent, the authors postulate that alternative splicing of the 3[prime] untranslated sequences might represent another key element in regulating the levels of PR264/SC35 expression during hematopoietic differentiation.

  19. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  20. The Splicing Factor FUBP1 Is Required for the Efficient Splicing of Oncogene MDM2 Pre-mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Aishwarya G.; Singh, Ravi K.; Mohammad, Fuad; Bebee, Thomas W.; Chandler, Dawn S.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the oncogene MDM2 is a phenomenon that occurs in cells in response to genotoxic stress and is also a hallmark of several cancer types with important implications in carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating this splicing event remain unclear. Previously, we uncovered the importance of intron 11 in MDM2 that affects the splicing of a damage-responsive MDM2 minigene. Here, we have identified discrete cis regulatory elements within intron 11 and report the binding of FUBP1 (Far Upstream element-Binding Protein 1) to these elements and the role it plays in MDM2 splicing. Best known for its oncogenic role as a transcription factor in the context of c-MYC, FUBP1 was recently described as a splicing regulator with splicing repressive functions. In the case of MDM2, we describe FUBP1 as a positive splicing regulatory factor. We observed that blocking the function of FUBP1 in in vitro splicing reactions caused a decrease in splicing efficiency of the introns of the MDM2 minigene. Moreover, knockdown of FUBP1 in cells induced the formation of MDM2-ALT1, a stress-induced splice variant of MDM2, even under normal conditions. These results indicate that FUBP1 is also a strong positive splicing regulator that facilitates efficient splicing of the MDM2 pre-mRNA by binding its introns. These findings are the first report describing the regulation of alternative splicing of MDM2 mediated by the oncogenic factor FUBP1. PMID:24798327

  1. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for blood transfusions side effects associated with allergic reactions to the anesthesia death The best source of information about risks and expected donor outcomes is your transplant team. In addition, it’s important to take an active role in ...

  2. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save ... transplantation for everyone. > More about African Americans and organ donation > More about Asians, and Native Hawaiians and other ...

  3. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  4. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  5. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  6. Alternative Splicing Regulation of Telomerase: A New Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mandy S.; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing affects ~95% of eukaryotic genes, greatly expanding the coding capacity of complex genomes. Although our understanding of alternative splicing has increased rapidly, current knowledge of splicing regulation has largely been derived from studies of highly expressed mRNAs. Telomerase is a key example of a protein that is alternatively spliced, but it is expressed at very low levels, and although it is known that misregulation of telomerase splicing is a hallmark of nearly all cancers, the details of this process are unclear. Here we review work showing that hTERT expression is in part regulated by atypical alternative splicing, perhaps due to its exceptionally low expression level. We propose these differential regulatory mechanisms may be widely applicable to other genes and may provide new opportunities for development of cancer therapeutics. PMID:25172021

  7. BIPASS: BioInformatics Pipeline Alternative Splicing Services

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Zoé; Legendre, Christophe; Raschid, Louiqa; Snyder, Ben

    2007-01-01

    BioInformatics Pipeline Alternative Splicing Services (BIPASS) offer support to scientists interested in gathering information related to alternative splicing (AS) events. The service BIPAS–SpliceDB provides access to AS information that has been extracted a priori from various public databases and stored in a data warehouse. In contrast, the BIPAS–Align&Splice service allows scientists to submit their own sequences and genome to compute AS analysis results. BIPAS services offer various user-friendly ways to navigate through the results. AS results are organized at different conceptual levels (clusters and sequences), and are displayed in graphs or summarized in tables that can be downloaded in XML or text format. The two BIPAS services SpliceDB and Align&Splice are available online at http://bip.umiacs.umd.edu:8080/. PMID:17584795

  8. DNA computing based on splicing: universality results.

    PubMed

    Csuhaj-Varjú, E; Freund, R; Kari, L; P?un, G

    1996-01-01

    The paper extends some of the most recently obtained results on the computational universality of specific variants of H systems (e.g. with regular sets of rules) and proves that we can construct universal computers based on various types of H systems with a finite set of splicing rules as well as a finite set of axioms, i.e. we show the theoretical possibility to design programmable universal DNA computers based on the splicing operation. For H systems working in the multiset style (where the numbers of copies of all available strings are counted) we elaborate how a Turing machine computing a partial recursive function can be simulated by an equivalent H system computing the same function; in that way, from a universal Turning machine we obtain a universal H system. Considering H systems as language generating devices we have to add various simple control mechanisms (checking the presence/absence of certain symbols in the spliced strings) to systems with a finite set of splicing rules as well as with a finite set of axioms in order to obtain the full computational power, i.e. to get a characterization of the family of recursively enumerable languages. We also introduce test tube systems, where several H systems work in parallel in their tubes and from time to time the contents of each tube are redistributed to all tubes according to certain separation conditions. By the construction of universal test tube systems we show that also such systems could serve as the theoretical basis for the development of biological (DNA) computers. PMID:9390231

  9. Mass transfer from giant donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.

    2015-06-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass-loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass-transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in the donor's response to mass-loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass-transfer rate via L1 allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass-transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolve stably through the conservative mass transfer varies from 1.5 to 2.2, which is about twice as large as previously believed. In underdeveloped giants with shallow convective envelopes, this critical ratio may be even larger. When the convective envelope is still growing, and in particular for most cases of massive donors, the critical mass ratio gradually decreases to this value, from that of radiative donors.

  10. Splicing factor SF4 is dispensable for the assembly of a functional splicing complex and participates in the subsequent steps of the splicing reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Utans, U; Krämer, A

    1990-01-01

    The splicing of nuclear messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA) can be reconstituted in vitro with factors partially purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts. Splicing complexes are assembled in the presence of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 and the protein factors SF1, SF2, SF3 and U2AF. However, the complexes thus formed are inactive, i.e. they only contain unprocessed pre-mRNA. The intermediates and products of the splicing reaction are generated after addition of SF4. This splicing factor is a heat-labile protein which requires sulfhydryl groups for its activity. SF4 appears to participate, directly or indirectly, in the conversion of a functional but inactive splicing complex to the active spliceosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2147414

  11. Integrating alternative splicing detection into gene prediction

    PubMed Central

    Foissac, Sylvain; Schiex, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is now considered as a major actor in transcriptome/proteome diversity and it cannot be neglected in the annotation process of a new genome. Despite considerable progresses in term of accuracy in computational gene prediction, the ability to reliably predict AS variants when there is local experimental evidence of it remains an open challenge for gene finders. Results We have used a new integrative approach that allows to incorporate AS detection into ab initio gene prediction. This method relies on the analysis of genomically aligned transcript sequences (ESTs and/or cDNAs), and has been implemented in the dynamic programming algorithm of the graph-based gene finder EuGÈNE. Given a genomic sequence and a set of aligned transcripts, this new version identifies the set of transcripts carrying evidence of alternative splicing events, and provides, in addition to the classical optimal gene prediction, alternative optimal predictions (among those which are consistent with the AS events detected). This allows for multiple annotations of a single gene in a way such that each predicted variant is supported by a transcript evidence (but not necessarily with a full-length coverage). Conclusions This automatic combination of experimental data analysis and ab initio gene finding offers an ideal integration of alternatively spliced gene prediction inside a single annotation pipeline. PMID:15705189

  12. ECgene: an alternative splicing database update

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeunsook; Lee, Younghee; Kim, Bumjin; Shin, Youngah; Nam, Seungyoon; Kim, Pora; Kim, Namshin; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kim, Jaesang; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2007-01-01

    ECgene () was developed to provide functional annotation for alternatively spliced genes. The applications encompass the genome-based transcript modeling for alternative splicing (AS), domain analysis with Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and expression analysis based on the EST and SAGE data. We have expanded the ECgene's AS modeling and EST clustering to nine organisms for which sufficient EST data are available in the GenBank. As for the human genome, we have also introduced several new applications to analyze differential expression. ECprofiler is an ontology-based candidate gene search system that allows users to select an arbitrary combination of gene expression pattern and GO functional categories. DEGEST is a database of differentially expressed genes and isoforms based on the EST information. Importantly, gene expression is analyzed at three distinctive levels—gene, isoform and exon levels. The user interfaces for functional and expression analyses have been substantially improved. ASviewer is a dedicated java application that visualizes the transcript structure and functional features of alternatively spliced variants. The SAGE part of the expression module provides many additional features including SNP, differential expression and alternative tag positions. PMID:17132829

  13. Stripping and splicing polyimide-coated fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Douglas; Kanda, Yoshiharu; Tobita, Kenyo; Yamauchi, Ryozo

    2011-05-01

    Polyimide is often used as a coating material for optical fibers used in high temperature environments such as aerospace or oil and gas sensor applications. Unfortunately, polyimide coating is very difficult to strip by conventional mechanical stripping methods. The glass fiber is easily damaged if the stripping process is not extremely well controlled. Stripping the polyimide coating by heating with a flame or arc typically results in a significant reduction in fiber strength. Strength may be maintained by using hot acid stripping, however the use of the strong hot acid presents safety hazards and also requires controlled and safe waste disposal. Another issue with polyimide coating is variability of the coating diameter from various manufacturers or due to different polyimide coating processes. This not only complicates the polyimide stripping issue, but also presents problems with precise clamping and alignment during splicing, especially when it is necessary to splice with a short cleave length. In this paper, we present new polyimide coating stripping technology. The significant feature of this stripping technology is achievement of good strength while avoiding the use of hot acid or heating. We also developed a new specialty fiber fusion splicer that enables precise alignment and splicing regardless of the variability of polyimide coating diameter, even when clamping on the coating.

  14. Vials: Visualizing Alternative Splicing of Genes.

    PubMed

    Strobelt, Hendrik; Alsallakh, Bilal; Botros, Joseph; Peterson, Brant; Borowsky, Mark; Pfister, Hanspeter; Lex, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a process by which the same DNA sequence is used to assemble different proteins, called protein isoforms. Alternative splicing works by selectively omitting some of the coding regions (exons) typically associated with a gene. Detection of alternative splicing is difficult and uses a combination of advanced data acquisition methods and statistical inference. Knowledge about the abundance of isoforms is important for understanding both normal processes and diseases and to eventually improve treatment through targeted therapies. The data, however, is complex and current visualizations for isoforms are neither perceptually efficient nor scalable. To remedy this, we developed Vials, a novel visual analysis tool that enables analysts to explore the various datasets that scientists use to make judgments about isoforms: the abundance of reads associated with the coding regions of the gene, evidence for junctions, i.e., edges connecting the coding regions, and predictions of isoform frequencies. Vials is scalable as it allows for the simultaneous analysis of many samples in multiple groups. Our tool thus enables experts to (a) identify patterns of isoform abundance in groups of samples and (b) evaluate the quality of the data. We demonstrate the value of our tool in case studies using publicly available datasets. PMID:26529712

  15. Superconducting cable-in-conduit low resistance splice

    DOEpatents

    Artman, Thomas A. (Forest, VA)

    2003-06-24

    A low resistance splice connects two cable-in-conduit superconductors to each other. Dividing collars for arranging sub-cable units from each conduit are provided, along with clamping collars for mating each sub-cable wire assembly to form mated assemblies. The mated assemblies ideally can be accomplished by way of splicing collar. The mated assemblies are cooled by way of a flow of coolant, preferably helium. A method for implementing such a splicing is also described.

  16. Alternative 5' exons and differential splicing regulate expression of protein 4.1R isoforms with distinct n-termini

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn K.; Gee, Sherry L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2003-03-25

    Among the alternative pre-mRNA splicing events that characterize protein 4.1R gene expression, one involving exon 2' plays a critical role in regulating translation initiation and N-terminal protein structure. Exon 2' encompasses translation initiation site AUG1 and is located between alternative splice acceptor sites at the 5' end of exon 2; its inclusion or exclusion from mature 4.1R mRNA regulates expression of longer or shorter isoforms of 4.1R protein, respectively. The current study reports unexpected complexity in the 5' region of the 4.1R gene that directly affects alternative splicing of exon 2'. Three mutually exclusive alternative 5' exons, designated 1A, 1B, and 1C, were identified far upstream of exon 2 in both mouse and human genomes; all three are associated with strong transcriptional promoters in the flanking genomic sequence. Importantly, exons 1A and 1B splice differentially with respect to exon 2', generating transcripts with different 5' ends and distinct N-terminal protein coding capacity. Exon 1A-type transcripts splice so as to exclude exon 2' and therefore utilize the downstream AUG2 for translation of 80kD 4.1R protein, whereas exon 1B transcripts include exon 2' and initiate at AUG1 to synthesize 135kD isoforms. RNA blot analyses revealed that 1A transcripts increase in abundance in late erythroblasts, consistent with the previously demonstrated upregulation of 80kD 4.1R during terminal erythroid differentiation. Together these results suggest that synthesis of structurally distinct 4.1R protein isoforms in various cell types is regulated by a novel mechanism requiring coordination between upstream transcription initiation events and downstream alternative splicing events.

  17. Regulated expression and RNA processing of transcripts from the Srp20 splicing factor gene during the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Jumaa, H; Guénet, J L; Nielsen, P J

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic splicing factors belonging to the SR family are essential splicing factors consisting of an N-terminal RNA-binding region and a C-terminal RS domain. They are believed to be involved in alternative splicing of numerous transcripts because their expression levels can influence splice site selection. We have characterized the structure and transcriptional regulation of the gene for the smallest member of the SR family, SRp20 (previously called X16). The mouse gene encoding SRp20, termed Srp20, consists of one alternative exon and six constitutive exons and was mapped to a 2-centimorgan interval on chromosome 17. When cells are transfected with SRp20 genomic DNA, both standard and alternatively spliced transcripts and corresponding proteins are produced. Interestingly, in starved (G0) cells, the amount of SRp20 mRNA containing the alternative exon is large, whereas the amount of the standard SRp20 mRNA without the alternative exon is small. When starved cells are stimulated with serum, the alternative form is lost and the standard form is induced. These results suggest that splicing could be regulated during the cell cycle and that this could be, at least in part, due to regulated expression of SR proteins. Consistent with this, experiments with synchronized cells showed an induction of SRp20 transcripts in late G1 or early S. We have also characterized the promoter of SRp20. It lies within a GC-rich CpG island and contains two consensus binding sites for E2F, a transcription factor thought to be involved in regulating the cell cycle. These motifs may be functional since reporter constructs with the SRp20 promoter can be stimulated by cotransfection with E2F expression plasmids. PMID:9154810

  18. The structure of reflexive regular splicing languages via Schutzenberger constants \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Bonizzoni, Paola

    The structure of reflexive regular splicing languages via Sch¨utzenberger constants \\Lambda Paola for a special class of a finite splicing systems, termed reflexive splicing systems, according to each

  19. Gene Selection, Alternative Splicing, and Post-translational Processing Regulate Neuroligin Selectivity for -Neurexins

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    Gene Selection, Alternative Splicing, and Post-translational Processing Regulate Neuroligin1/NX1 binding. Our data indicate that gene selection, mRNA splicing, and post spliced inserts in their extracellular domains. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined

  20. Short Communication Revisit on the evolutionary relationship between alternative splicing and

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Short Communication Revisit on the evolutionary relationship between alternative splicing and gene duplication Alternative splicing Copy number variation Exon­intron structure Gene duplications and alternative sophisticated hypothesis, invoking that less alternative splicing genes tend to be duplicated more frequently

  1. The Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    RNA splicing is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling eukaryotic gene expression. By generating various splice isoforms from a single pre–mRNA, alternative splicing plays a key role in promoting the evolving complexity ...

  2. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  3. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  4. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  5. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  6. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  7. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  8. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  9. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  10. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  11. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire...test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  12. Unproductive splicing of SR genes associated with highly conserved and ultraconserved DNA elements

    E-print Network

    Lareau, Liana F; Inada, Maki; Green, Richard E; Wengrod, Jordan C; Brenner, Steven E

    2007-01-01

    serine-rich splicing factors in RNA processing. Biochem.splicing events target the resulting messenger RNAs forRNA processing including control of export, translation, stability, and constitutive and alternative splicing

  13. Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

  14. RNA Trans-splicing in Flatworms ANALYSIS OF TRANS-SPLICED mRNAs AND GENES IN THE HUMAN PARASITE, SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI*

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    RNA Trans-splicing in Flatworms ANALYSIS OF TRANS-SPLICED mRNAs AND GENES IN THE HUMAN PARASITE examined to explore the significance and de- terminants of spliced leader (SL) addition in flatworms. Only-splicing is not prevalent throughout this metabolic pathway. Although the 3 end of flatworm SLs contribute an AUG to m

  15. Splicing Express: a software suite for alternative splicing analysis using next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Jose E.; Kim, Jihoon; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    Motivation. Alternative splicing events (ASEs) are prevalent in the transcriptome of eukaryotic species and are known to influence many biological phenomena. The identification and quantification of these events are crucial for a better understanding of biological processes. Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed deep characterization of transcriptomes and made it possible to address these issues. ASEs analysis, however, represents a challenging task especially when many different samples need to be compared. Some popular tools for the analysis of ASEs are known to report thousands of events without annotations and/or graphical representations. A new tool for the identification and visualization of ASEs is here described, which can be used by biologists without a solid bioinformatics background. Results. A software suite named Splicing Express was created to perform ASEs analysis from transcriptome sequencing data derived from next-generation DNA sequencing platforms. Its major goal is to serve the needs of biomedical researchers who do not have bioinformatics skills. Splicing Express performs automatic annotation of transcriptome data (GTF files) using gene coordinates available from the UCSC genome browser and allows the analysis of data from all available species. The identification of ASEs is done by a known algorithm previously implemented in another tool named Splooce. As a final result, Splicing Express creates a set of HTML files composed of graphics and tables designed to describe the expression profile of ASEs among all analyzed samples. By using RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map and the Rat Body Map, we show that Splicing Express is able to perform all tasks in a straightforward way, identifying well-known specific events. Availability and Implementation.Splicing Express is written in Perl and is suitable to run only in UNIX-like systems. More details can be found at: http://www.bioinformatics-brazil.org/splicingexpress. PMID:26618088

  16. Connections between Alternative Transcription and Alternative Splicing in Mammals

    E-print Network

    Spiridonov, Alexey Nikolaevich

    The majority of mammalian genes produce multiple transcripts resulting from alternative splicing (AS) and/or alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT). Comparative analysis ...

  17. Impacts of Alternative Splicing Events on the Differentiation of Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing was found to be a common phenomenon after the advent of whole transcriptome analyses or next generation sequencing. Over 90% of human genes were demonstrated to undergo at least one alternative splicing event. Alternative splicing is an effective mechanism to spatiotemporally expand protein diversity, which influences the cell fate and tissue development. The first focus of this review is to highlight recent studies, which demonstrated effects of alternative splicing on the differentiation of adipocytes. Moreover, use of evolving high-throughput approaches, such as transcriptome analyses (RNA sequencing), to profile adipogenic transcriptomes, is also addressed. PMID:26389882

  18. Who is the best alternative allotransplant donor?

    PubMed Central

    Gale, RP; Eapen, M

    2015-01-01

    Assuming that most physicians will chose an HLA-identical sibling as the best allotransplant donor, the question arises who is the best alternative donor when an HLA-identical sibling is unavailable? The most commonly used alternative donors are HLA-identical or -mismatched unrelated donors, HLA-matched or -mismatched umbilical cord blood donor or a related, HLA-haplotype-matched related donors. Each alternative donor option has advantages and disadvantages. We discuss selected aspects of these issues based on data from randomized clinical trials and observational databases. However, because there are limited data to address specific clinical settings, quantification of expert opinion is sometimes needed. PMID:26039206

  19. The neuron-specific RNA-binding protein ELAV regulates neuroglian alternative splicing in neurons and binds directly to its pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Lisbin, Michael J.; Qiu, Jan; White, Kalpana

    2001-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster neural-specific protein, ELAV, has been shown to regulate the neural-specific splicing of three genes: neuroglian (nrg), erect wing, and armadillo. Alternative splicing of the nrg transcript involves alternative inclusion of a 3?-terminal exon. Here, using a minigene reporter, we show that the nrg alternatively spliced intron (nASI) has all the determinants required to recreate proper neural-specific RNA processing seen with the endogenous nrg transcript, including regulation by ELAV. An in vitro UV cross-linking assay revealed that ELAV from nuclear extracts cross-links to four distinct sites along the 3200 nucleotide long nASI; one EXS is positioned at the polypyrimidine tract of the default 3? splice site. ELAV cross-linking sites (EXSs) have in common long tracts of (U)-rich sequence rather than a precise consensus; moreover, each tract has at least two 8/10U elements; their importance is validated by mutant transgene reporter analysis. Further, we propose criteria for ELAV target sequence recognition based on the four EXSs, sites within the nASI that are (U) rich but do not cross-link with ELAV, and predicted EXSs from a phylogenetic comparison with Drosophila virilis nASI. These results suggest that ELAV regulates nrg alternative splicing by direct interaction with the nASI. PMID:11581160

  20. Comprehensive annotation of splice junctions supports pervasive alternative splicing at the BRCA1 locus: a report from the ENIGMA consortium.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Mara; Blok, Marinus J; Whiley, Phillip; Santamariña, Marta; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Romero, Atocha; Garre, Pilar; Becker, Alexandra; Smith, Lindsay Denise; De Vecchi, Giovanna; Brandão, Rita D; Tserpelis, Demis; Brown, Melissa; Blanco, Ana; Bonache, Sandra; Menéndez, Mireia; Houdayer, Claude; Foglia, Claudia; Fackenthal, James D; Baralle, Diana; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Caldés, Trinidad; Walker, Logan; Díez, Orland; Vega, Ana; Spurdle, Amanda B; Radice, Paolo; De La Hoya, Miguel

    2014-07-15

    Loss-of-function germline mutations in BRCA1 (MIM #113705) confer markedly increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The full-length transcript codifies for a protein involved in DNA repair pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Several BRCA1 splicing isoforms have been described in public domain databases, but the physiological role (if any) of BRCA1 alternative splicing remains to be established. An accurate description of 'naturally occurring' alternative splicing at this locus is a prerequisite to understand its biological significance. However, a systematic analysis of alternative splicing at the BRCA1 locus is yet to be conducted. Here, the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germ-Line Mutant Alleles consortium combines RT-PCR, exon scanning, cloning, sequencing and relative semi-quantification to describe naturally occurring BRCA1 alternative splicing with unprecedented resolution. The study has been conducted in blood-related RNA sources, commonly used for clinical splicing assays, as well as in one healthy breast tissue. We have characterized a total of 63 BRCA1 alternative splicing events, including 35 novel findings. A minimum of 10 splicing events (?1Aq, ?5, ?5q, ?8p, ?9, ?(9,10), ?9_11, ?11q, ?13p and ?14p) represent a substantial fraction of the full-length expression level (ranging from 5 to 100%). Remarkably, our data indicate that BRCA1 alternative splicing is similar in blood and breast, a finding supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based in vitro splicing assays. Overall, our data suggest an alternative splicing model in which most non-mutually exclusive alternative splicing events are randomly combined into individual mRNA molecules to produce hundreds of different BRCA1 isoforms. PMID:24569164