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Sample records for spline-based estimator muse

  1. MUlti-Dimensional Spline-Based Estimator (MUSE) for Motion Estimation: Algorithm Development and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Francesco; Coe, Ryan L.; Owen, Kevin; Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Image registration and motion estimation play central roles in many fields, including RADAR, SONAR, light microscopy, and medical imaging. Because of its central significance, estimator accuracy, precision, and computational cost are of critical importance. We have previously presented a highly accurate, spline-based time delay estimator that directly determines sub-sample time delay estimates from sampled data. The algorithm uses cubic splines to produce a continuous representation of a reference signal and then computes an analytical matching function between this reference and a delayed signal. The location of the minima of this function yields estimates of the time delay. In this paper we describe the MUlti-dimensional Spline-based Estimator (MUSE) that allows accurate and precise estimation of multidimensional displacements/strain components from multidimensional data sets. We describe the mathematical formulation for two- and three-dimensional motion/strain estimation and present simulation results to assess the intrinsic bias and standard deviation of this algorithm and compare it to currently available multi-dimensional estimators. In 1000 noise-free simulations of ultrasound data we found that 2D MUSE exhibits maximum bias of 2.6 × 10−4 samples in range and 2.2 × 10−3 samples in azimuth (corresponding to 4.8 and 297 nm, respectively). The maximum simulated standard deviation of estimates in both dimensions was comparable at roughly 2.8 × 10−3 samples (corresponding to 54 nm axially and 378 nm laterally). These results are between two and three orders of magnitude better than currently used 2D tracking methods. Simulation of performance in 3D yielded similar results to those observed in 2D. We also present experimental results obtained using 2D MUSE on data acquired by an Ultrasonix Sonix RP imaging system with an L14-5/38 linear array transducer operating at 6.6 MHz. While our validation of the algorithm was performed using ultrasound data, MUSE

  2. Item Response Theory with Estimation of the Latent Population Distribution Using Spline-Based Densities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Thissen, David

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method for fitting item response theory models with the latent population distribution estimated from the data using splines. A spline-based density estimation system provides a flexible alternative to existing procedures that use a normal distribution, or a different functional form, for the…

  3. A spline-based parameter estimation technique for static models of elastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, P.; Taasan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of identifying the spatially varying coefficient of elasticity using an observed solution to the forward problem is considered. Under appropriate conditions this problem can be treated as a first order hyperbolic equation in the unknown coefficient. Some continuous dependence results are developed for this problem and a spline-based technique is proposed for approximating the unknown coefficient, based on these results. The convergence of the numerical scheme is established and error estimates obtained.

  4. A spline-based parameter estimation technique for static models of elastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, P.; Ta'asan, S.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of identifying the spatially varying coefficient of elasticity using an observed solution to the forward problem is considered. Under appropriate conditions this problem can be treated as a first order hyperbolic equation in the unknown coefficient. Some continuous dependence results are developed for this problem and a spline-based technique is proposed for approximating the unknown coefficient, based on these results. The convergence of the numerical scheme is established and error estimates obtained.

  5. On the spline-based wavelet differentiation matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Leland

    1993-01-01

    The differentiation matrix for a spline-based wavelet basis is constructed. Given an n-th order spline basis it is proved that the differentiation matrix is accurate of order 2n + 2 when periodic boundary conditions are assumed. This high accuracy, or superconvergence, is lost when the boundary conditions are no longer periodic. Furthermore, it is shown that spline-based bases generate a class of compact finite difference schemes.

  6. Efficient Shape Priors for Spline-Based Snakes.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Schmitter, Daniel; Uhlmann, Virginie; Unser, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Parametric active contours are an attractive approach for image segmentation, thanks to their computational efficiency. They are driven by application-dependent energies that reflect the prior knowledge on the object to be segmented. We propose an energy involving shape priors acting in a regularization-like manner. Thereby, the shape of the snake is orthogonally projected onto the space that spans the affine transformations of a given shape prior. The formulation of the curves is continuous, which provides computational benefits when compared with landmark-based (discrete) methods. We show that this approach improves the robustness and quality of spline-based segmentation algorithms, while its computational overhead is negligible. An interactive and ready-to-use implementation of the proposed algorithm is available and was successfully tested on real data in order to segment Drosophila flies and yeast cells in microscopic images. PMID:26353353

  7. News of the MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Blaizot, J.; Boudon, D.; Brinchmann, J.; Brotons, L.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, M.; Comin, M.; Contini, T.; Cumani, C.; Daguis, E.; Deiries, S.; Delabre, B.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.-P.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Emsellem, E.; Fleischmann, A.; François, M.; Gallou, G.; Gharsa, T.; Girard, N.; Glindemann, A.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hahn, T.; Hansali, G.; Hofmann, D.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Koehler, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lilly, S.; Lizon à L'Allemand, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Niemeyer, J.; Olaya, J.-C.; Palsa, R.; Parès, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pello, R.; Petit, C.; Piqueras, L.; Popow, E.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rhode, P.; Richard, J.; Roth, J.; Rupprecht, G.; Schaye, J.; Slezak, E.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Yerle, N.; Zins, G.

    2012-03-01

    We report on progress of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), a second generation VLT panoramic integral field spectrograph. MUSE is now in its final phase of integration, testing and validation in Europe. The instrument is described and some results of its measured performance are shown.

  8. A Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm for accurate tracking of two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwakar, S. V.; Das, Sarit K.; Sundararajan, T.

    2009-12-01

    A new Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm is presented which provides an accurate and continuous representation of the interface in a multiphase domain and facilitates the direct estimation of local interfacial curvature. The fluid interface in each of the mixed cells is represented by piecewise parabolic curves and an initial discontinuous PLIC approximation of the interface is progressively converted into a smooth quadratic spline made of these parabolic curves. The conversion is achieved by a sequence of predictor-corrector operations enforcing function ( C0) and derivative ( C1) continuity at the cell boundaries using simple analytical expressions for the continuity requirements. The efficacy and accuracy of the current algorithm has been demonstrated using standard test cases involving reconstruction of known static interface shapes and dynamically evolving interfaces in prescribed flow situations. These benchmark studies illustrate that the present algorithm performs excellently as compared to the other interface reconstruction methods available in literature. Quadratic rate of error reduction with respect to grid size has been observed in all the cases with curved interface shapes; only in situations where the interface geometry is primarily flat, the rate of convergence becomes linear with the mesh size. The flow algorithm implemented in the current work is designed to accurately balance the pressure gradients with the surface tension force at any location. As a consequence, it is able to minimize spurious flow currents arising from imperfect normal stress balance at the interface. This has been demonstrated through the standard test problem of an inviscid droplet placed in a quiescent medium. Finally, the direct curvature estimation ability of the current algorithm is illustrated through the coupled multiphase flow problem of a deformable air bubble rising through a column of water.

  9. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  10. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  11. Calibration issues for MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelz, Andreas; Roth, Martin; Bauer, Svend; Gerssen, Joris; Hahn, Thomas; Weilbacher, Peter; Laux, Uwe; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; McDermid, Richard; Bacon, Roland

    2008-07-01

    The Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is an integral-field spectrograph for the VLT for the next decade. Using an innovative field-splitting and slicing design, combined with an assembly of 24 spectrographs, MUSE will provide some 90,000 spectra in one exposure, which cover a simultaneous spectral range from 465 to 930nm. The design and manufacture of the Calibration Unit, the alignment tests of the Spectrograph and Detector sub-systems, and the development of the Data Reduction Software for MUSE are work-packages under the responsibility of the AIP, who is a partner in a European-wide consortium of 6 institutes and ESO, that is led by the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon. MUSE will be operated and therefore has to be calibrated in a variety of modes, which include seeing-limited and AO-assisted operations, providing a wide and narrow-field-of-view. MUSE aims to obtain unprecedented ultra-deep 3D-spectroscopic exposures, involving integration times of the order of 80 hours at the VLT. To achieve the corresponding science goals, instrumental stability, accurate calibration and adequate data reduction tools are needed. The paper describes the status at PDR of the AIP related work-packages, in particular with respect to the spatial, spectral, image quality, and geometrical calibration and related data reduction aspects.

  12. The MUSE observation preparation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras, L.; Richard, J.; Bacon, R.; Pecontal, A.; Baksai, Pedro; Vernet, Joel

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is an integral-field spectrograph which will be mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). MUSE is being built for ESO by a European consortium under the supervision of the Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL). In this context, CRAL is responsible for the development of dedicated software to help MUSE users prepare and submit their observations. This software, called MUSE-PS, is based on the ESO SkyCat tool that combines visualization of images and access to catalogs and archive data for astronomy. MUSE-PS has been developed as a plugin to SkyCat to add new features specific to MUSE observations. In this paper, we present the MUSE observation preparation tool itself and especially its specific functionalities: definition of the center of the MUSE field of view and orientation, selection of the VLT guide star for the different modes of operations (Narrow Field Mode or Wide Field Mode, with or without AO). We will also show customized displays for MUSE (zoom on specific area, help with MUSE mosaïcing and generic offsets, finding charts …).

  13. On the functional equivalence of fuzzy inference systems and spline-based networks.

    PubMed

    Hunt, K J; Haas, R; Brown, M

    1995-06-01

    The conditions under which spline-based networks are functionally equivalent to the Takagi-Sugeno-model of fuzzy inference are formally established. We consider a generalized form of basis function network whose basis functions are splines. The result admits a wide range of fuzzy membership functions which are commonly encountered in fuzzy systems design. We use the theoretical background of functional equivalence to develop a hybrid fuzzy-spline net for inverse dynamic modeling of a hydraulically driven robot manipulator. PMID:7496588

  14. The Muses CN Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R.; Wilcox, B. H.; Newell, M. A.; Tarsala, J. A.; Sirota, A. R.; Johnson, M. R.; Thompson, A. D.; Jones, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will describe the scope and the state of the JPL MUSES CN rover design. The following topics will be included: 1) rover system description and its intended operations on the surface of the asteroid, 2) rover electrical subsystems and 3) rover mechanical subsystems.

  15. Status and future of MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfst, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.; McMillan, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present MUSE, a software framework for combining existing computational tools from different astrophysical domains into a single multi-physics, multi-scale application. MUSE facilitates the coupling of existing codes written in different languages by providing inter-language tools and by specifying an interface between each module and the framework that represents a balance between generality and computational efficiency. This approach allows scientists to use combinations of codes to solve highly-coupled problems without the need to write new codes for other domains or significantly alter their existing codes. MUSE currently incorporates the domains of stellar dynamics, stellar evolution and stellar hydrodynamics for studying generalized stellar systems. We have now reached a ``Noah's Ark'' milestone, with (at least) two available numerical solvers for each domain. MUSE can treat multi-scale and multi-physics systems in which the time- and size-scales are well separated, like simulating the evolution of planetary systems, small stellar associations, dense stellar clusters, galaxies and galactic nuclei. In this paper we describe two examples calculated using MUSE: the merger of two galaxies and an N-body simulation with live stellar evolution. In addition, we demonstrate an implementation of MUSE on a distributed computer which may also include special-purpose hardware, such as GRAPEs or GPUs, to accelerate computations. The current MUSE code base is publicly available as open source at http://muse.li.

  16. Self-feeding MUSE: a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging using interleaved EPI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Feng; Ma, Xiaodong; Xie, Sheng; Guo, Hua

    2015-01-15

    Single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) with parallel imaging techniques has been well established as the most popular method for clinical diffusion imaging, due to its fast acquisition and motion insensitivity. However, this approach is limited by the relatively low spatial resolution and image distortion. Interleaved EPI is able to break the limitations but the phase variations among different shots must be considered for artifact suppression. The introduction of multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) can address the phase issue using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for self-navigation of each interleave. However, MUSE has suboptimal results when the number of shots is high. To achieve higher spatial resolution and lower geometric distortion, we introduce two new schemes into the MUSE framework: 1) a self-feeding mechanism is adopted by using prior information regularized SENSE in order to obtain reliable phase estimation; and 2) retrospective motion detection and data rejection strategies are performed to exclude unusable data corrupted by severe pulsatile motions. The proposed method is named self-feeding MUSE (SF-MUSE). Experiments on healthy volunteers demonstrate that this new SF-MUSE approach provides more accurate motion-induced phase estimation and fewer artifacts caused by data corruption when compared with the original MUSE method. SF-MUSE is a robust method for high resolution diffusion imaging and suitable for practical applications with reasonable scan time. PMID:25451470

  17. MUSES-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, T.; Hayashi, T.

    1991-01-01

    The MUSES-A spacecraft mission objectives are to study the effect of a double lunar swingby technique, lunar orbital insertion, obtain experience using optical navigation equipment, measure mass and momentum of micrometeoroids by using a particle dust counter, and to support a packet telemetry and Reed-Solomon coding experiment by using a newly developed fault tolerant onboard computer. A flight profile is given, and information is presented in tabular form on the following topics: Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  18. A Musing on Schuller's "Musings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    For many years Gunther Schuller was at the center of the classical music world, as a player, composer, conductor, writer, record producer, polemicist and publisher for new music and jazz, educator, and president of New England Conservatory. His book, entitled, "Musings: The Musical Worlds of Gunther Schuller: A Collection of His…

  19. New Science Opportunities Offered by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Bauer, S.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, M.; Contini, T.; Daguisé, E.; Delabre, B.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J. P.; Dupieux, M.; Dupin, J.; Emsellem, E.; Ferruit, P.; Francois, M.; Franx, M.; Gallou, G.; Gerssen, J.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hansali, G.; Hofmann, D.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Lilly, S.; Lizon, J.; Loupias, M.; Monstein, C.; Moultaka, J.; Nicklas, H.; Parés, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pecontal, A.; Pello, R.; Petit, C.; Manescau, A.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Schaye, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Ströbele, S.; Stuik, R.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Wozniak, H.

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer MUSE [MUSE public web site: http://muse.univ-lyon1.fr] is one of the second generation VLT instruments. MUSE is a wide-field optical integral field spectrograph operating in the visible wavelength range with improved spatial resolution. The MUSE Consortium consists of groups at Lyon (PI institute, CRAL), Gottingen (IAG), Potsdam (AIP), Leiden (NOVA), Toulouse (LATT), Zurich (ETH) and ESO. The project is currently in its final design phase. Manufacturing, assembly and integration will start after the Final Design Review which is foreseen for late 2008. The Preliminary acceptance in Europe is scheduled for mid 2011 and the instrument shall be in operation at Paranal in 2012.

  20. MUSE instrument global performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupias, M.; Bacon, R.; Caillier, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Manescau, A.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal, A.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M. M.; Rupprecht, G.; Stuik, R.

    2010-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument developed for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and will be assembled to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in 2012. The MUSE instrument can simultaneously record 90.000 spectra in the visible wavelength range (465-930nm), across a 1*1arcmin2 field of view, thanks to 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU). A collaboration of 7 institutes has successfully passed the Final Design Review and is currently working on the first sub-assemblies. The sharing of performances has been based on 5 main functional sub-systems. The Fore Optics sub-system derotates and anamorphoses the VLT Nasmyth focal plane image, the Splitting and Relay Optics associated with the Main Structure are feeding each IFU with 1/24th of the field of view. Each IFU is composed of a 3D function insured by an image slicer system and a spectrograph, and a detection function by a 4k*4k CCD cooled down to 163°K. The 5th function is the calibration and data reduction of the instrument. This article depicts the breakdown of performances between these sub-systems (throughput, image quality...), and underlines the constraining parameters of the interfaces either internal or with the VLT. The validation of all these requirements is a critical task started a few months ago which requires a clear traceability and performances analysis.

  1. MUSE, à l'assaut des galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Johan

    2016-08-01

    MUSE (standing for Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument recently commissioned on the Very Large Telescope in Chile. It is an integral field spectrograph with a large field of view of 1 arcmin2, well-suited for the study of galaxies, together with a high sensitivity. We present in this article some of the most significant results MUSE was able to obtain since the beginning of science operations. Thanks to its strong capabilities MUSE is as efficient in studying the kinematics of the gas and stars within the nearby galaxies as discovering some of the most distant galaxies in the Universe through Lyman-alpha emission. Once combined with an adaptive optics system, MUSE will certainly revolutionize our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  2. MUSE Pipeline: the First Year in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilbacher, Peter

    2015-12-01

    I will present the MUSE pipeline, in terms of calibration data required, reduction steps performed, computing requirements needed. I will then highlight some unusual algorithms. I will describe changes that became necessary during commissioning and the first year of operations and how the pipeline is now integrated into operations on Paranal. I will conclude by showing some example results that were enabled by the MUSE instrument and the pipeline in the first year.

  3. Study of GLAO-corrected PSF evolution for the MUSE Wide Field Mode. Expected performance and requirements for PSF reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, T.; Villecroze, R.; Jarno, A.; Bacon, R.

    2011-09-01

    The second generation instrument MUSE for the VLT has been designed to profit of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). The two Adaptive Optics (AO) modes (GLAO in Wide Field Mode [WFM] and LTAO in Narrow Field Mode [NFM]) will be used. To achieve its key science goals, MUSE will require information on the full system (Atmosphere, AO, telescope and instrument) image quality and its variation with Field position and wavelength. For example, optimal summation of a large number of deep field exposures in WFM will require a good knowledge of the PSF. In this paper, we will present an exhaustive analysis of the MUSE Wide Field Mode PSF evolution both spatially and spectrally. For that purpose we have coupled a complete AO simulation tool developed at ONERA with the MUSE instrumental PSF simulation. Relative impact of atmospheric and system parameters (seeing, Cn^2, LGS and NGS positions etc ...) with respect to differential MUSE aberrations per channel (i.e. slicer and IFU) is analysed. The results allow us (in close collaboration with astronomers) to define pertinent parameters (fit parameters using a Moffat function) for a PSF reconstruction process (estimation of this parameters using GLAO telemetry) and to propose an efficient and robust algorithm to be implemented in the MUSE pipeline. The extension of the spatial and spectral PSF analysis to the NFM case is discussed and preliminary results are given. Some specific requirements for the generalisation of the GLAO PSF reconstruction process to the LTAO case are derived from these early results.

  4. MUSE instrument global performance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupias, M.; Kosmalski, J.; Adjali, L.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Brotons, L.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Jarno, A.; Hansali, G.; Kelz, A.; Laurent, F.; Migniau, J. E.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument developed for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and will be assembled to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in 2013. The MUSE instrument can simultaneously record 90.000 spectra in the visible wavelength range (465-930nm), across a 1*1arcmin² field of view, thanks to 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU). A collaboration of 7 institutes has partly validated and sent their subsystems to CRAL (Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon) in 2011, where they have been assembled together. The global test and validation process is currently going on to reach the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe in 2012. The sharing of performances has been based on 5 main functional sub-systems. The Fore Optics sub-system derotates and anamorphoses the VLT Nasmyth focal plane image, the Splitting and Relay Optics associated with the Main Structure are feeding each IFU with 1/24th of the field of view. Each IFU is composed of a 3D function insured by an image slicer system and a spectrograph, and a detection function by a 4k*4k CCD cooled down to 163°K. The 5th function is the calibration and data reduction of the instrument. This article depicts the sequence of tests that has been completely reshafled mainly due to planning constraints. It highlights the priority given to the most critical performances tests of the sub-systems and their results. It enhances then the importance given to global tests. Finally, it makes a status on the verification matrix and the validation of the instrument and gives a critical view on the risks taken.

  5. PSF reconstruction for MUSE in wide field mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villecroze, R.; Fusco, Thierry; Bacon, Roland; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2012-07-01

    The resolution of ground-based telescopes is dramatically limited by the atmospheric turbulence.. Adaptative optics (AO) is a real-time opto-mechanical approach which allows to correct for the turbulence effect and to reach the ultimate diffraction limit astronomical telescopes and their associated instrumentation. Nevertheless, the AO correction is never perfect especially when it has to deal with large Field of View (FoV). Hence, a posteriori image processing really improves the final estimation of astrophysical data. Such techniques require an accurate knowledge of the system response at any position in the FoV The purpose of this work is then the estimation of the AO response in the particular case of the MUSE [1] /GALACSI [2] instrument (a 3D mult-object spectrograph combined with a Laser-assisted wide field AO system which will be installed at the VLT in 2013). Using telemetry data coming from both AO Laser and natural guide stars, a Point Spread Function (PSF) is derived at any location of the FoV and for every wavelength of the MUSE spectrograph. This document presents the preliminary design of the MUSE WFM PSF reconstruction process. The various hypothesis and approximations are detailed and justified. A first description of the overall process is proposed. Some alternative strategies to improve the performance (in terms of computation time and storage) are described and have been implemented. Finally, after a validation of the proposed algorithm using end-to-end models, a performance analysis is conducted (with the help of a full end-to-end model). This performance analysis will help us to populate an exhaustive error budget table.

  6. Musings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Criticizes a newly published "updated and simplified" version of the Peter Rabbit story. Argues the new edition--with photographs and everyday language replacing the original paintings and verse--is a corruption of a timeless classic.(ARH)

  7. A spline-based tool to assess and visualize the calibration of multiclass risk predictions.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorde, K; Van Huffel, S; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T; Van Calster, B

    2015-04-01

    When validating risk models (or probabilistic classifiers), calibration is often overlooked. Calibration refers to the reliability of the predicted risks, i.e. whether the predicted risks correspond to observed probabilities. In medical applications this is important because treatment decisions often rely on the estimated risk of disease. The aim of this paper is to present generic tools to assess the calibration of multiclass risk models. We describe a calibration framework based on a vector spline multinomial logistic regression model. This framework can be used to generate calibration plots and calculate the estimated calibration index (ECI) to quantify lack of calibration. We illustrate these tools in relation to risk models used to characterize ovarian tumors. The outcome of the study is the surgical stage of the tumor when relevant and the final histological outcome, which is divided into five classes: benign, borderline malignant, stage I, stage II-IV, and secondary metastatic cancer. The 5909 patients included in the study are randomly split into equally large training and test sets. We developed and tested models using the following algorithms: logistic regression, support vector machines, k nearest neighbors, random forest, naive Bayes and nearest shrunken centroids. Multiclass calibration plots are interesting as an approach to visualizing the reliability of predicted risks. The ECI is a convenient tool for comparing models, but is less informative and interpretable than calibration plots. In our case study, logistic regression and random forest showed the highest degree of calibration, and the naive Bayes the lowest. PMID:25579635

  8. Stochastic speckle noise compensation in optical coherence tomography using non-stationary spline-based speckle noise modelling

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Lui, Dorothy; Boroomand, Ameneh; Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Bizheva, Kostadinka

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for non-invasive 3D visualization of biological tissue at cellular level resolution. Often hindered by speckle noise, the visualization of important biological tissue details in OCT that can aid disease diagnosis can be improved by speckle noise compensation. A challenge with handling speckle noise is its inherent non-stationary nature, where the underlying noise characteristics vary with the spatial location. In this study, an innovative speckle noise compensation method is presented for handling the non-stationary traits of speckle noise in OCT imagery. The proposed approach centers on a non-stationary spline-based speckle noise modeling strategy to characterize the speckle noise. The novel method was applied to ultra high-resolution OCT (UHROCT) images of the human retina and corneo-scleral limbus acquired in-vivo that vary in tissue structure and optical properties. Test results showed improved performance of the proposed novel algorithm compared to a number of previously published speckle noise compensation approaches in terms of higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and better overall visual assessment. PMID:24049697

  9. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yorozu, Ayanori; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG) is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS) for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull–Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON). PMID:26404302

  10. A MUSE map of the central Orion Nebula (M 42)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilbacher, Peter M.; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Ginsburg, Adam; McLeod, Anna F.; Kamann, Sebastian; Sandin, Christer; Palsa, Ralf; Wisotzki, Lutz; Bacon, Roland; Selman, Fernando; Brinchmann, Jarle; Caruana, Joseph; Kelz, Andreas; Martinsson, Thomas; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Richard, Johan; Wendt, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We present a new integral field spectroscopic dataset of the central part of the Orion Nebula (M 42), observed with the MUSE instrument at the ESO VLT. We reduced the data with the public MUSE pipeline. The output products are two FITS cubes with a spatial size of ~5.´9×4.´9 (corresponding to ~0.76 × 0.63 pc2) and a contiguous wavelength coverage of 4595...9366 Å, spatially sampled at 0.´2. We provide two versions with a sampling of 1.25 Å and 0.85 Å in dispersion direction. Together with variance cubes these files have a size of 75 and 110 GiB on disk. They are the largest integral field mosaics to date in terms of information content. We make them available for use in the community. To validate this dataset, we compare world coordinates, reconstructed magnitudes, velocities, and absolute and relative emission line fluxes to the literature values and find excellent agreement. We derive a 2D map of extinction and present de-reddened flux maps of several individual emission lines and of diagnostic line ratios. We estimate physical properties of the Orion Nebula, using the emission line ratios [N ii] and [S iii] (for the electron temperature Te) and [S ii] and [Cl iii] (for the electron density Ne), and show 2D images of the velocity measured from several bright emission lines. Data products are available at http://muse-vlt.eu/scienceBased on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 60.A-9100(A).

  11. MUSE: 3D Spectroscopy with Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelz, A.; Roth, M. M.; Steinmetz, M.; MUSE Consortium

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second generation instrument [1] in development for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is a panoramic integral-field spectrograph operating in the visible wavelength range. It combines a wide field of view with the improved spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics and covers a large simultaneous spectral range. MUSE couples the discovery potential of an imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. This makes it a unique and powerful tool for discovering objects that cannot be found in imaging surveys. MUSE is optimized for the study of the progenitors of normal nearby galaxies out to very high redshift. It will also allow detailed studies of nearby normal, starburst and interacting galaxies, and of galactic star formation regions.

  12. Calibration concepts for the MUSE integral field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelz, Andreas; Bauer, Svend M.; Roth, Martin M.

    2006-06-01

    The phase-A design study of the Calibration Unit (CU) for the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is presented. MUSE is an integral-field spectrograph for the 2nd generation of VLT instruments and offers a relative wide integral-field, adaptive-optics assisted spatial resolution, and a wavelength coverage between 465 and 930 nm. MUSE is a project of seven European institutes and is led by the Centre de Recherche Atronomique de Lyon (CRAL). Amongst other work-packages, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is responsible for the Calibration Unit. The paper describes the calibration requirements, including issues related to spectral, image quality, and geometrical calibration. The opto-mechanical layout of the calibration unit is presented and the use of focal plane masks to evaluate image distortions and PSF degradations is explained.

  13. Update on the MUSE Proton Radius Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Ethan; MUSE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The results of the test beam run in December 2015 for the MUSE experiment are presented and the current status of MUSE will be discussed. During this test run a study of 2 mm thick scintillators coupled to SiPMs was performed and the results are the focus of this talk. SiPMs from two different companies, AvanSiD and Hamamatsu, were tested and it was found the timing resolution is between 89 ps - 110 ps, depending on SiPM model, bar length, and momentum. The bars have an operational efficiency of at least 99%.

  14. Fore-optics of the MUSE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parès, L.; Couderc, P.; Dupieux, M.; Gharsa, T.; Larrieu, M.; Valentin, H.; Gallou, G.; Bacon, R.; Laurent, F.; Loupias, M.; Kosmalski, J.

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT panoramic integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). The MUSE instrument is currently under integration and the commissioning is expected to start at the beginning of year 2013. The scientific and technical capabilities of MUSE are described in a series of 19 companion papers. The Fore-Optics (FO), situated at the entrance of MUSE, is used to de-rotate and provide an anamorphic magnification (x 5 / x 2.5) of the 1 arc minute square field of view from the F/15.2 VLT Nasmyth focal plane (Wide Field Mode, WFM). Additional optical elements can be inserted in the optical beam to further increase the magnification by a factor 8 (Narrow Field Mode, NFM). An atmospheric dispersion corrector is also added in the NFM. Two image stabilization units have been developed to ensure a stabilization of the field of view (1/20 of a resolved element) for each observation mode. Environmental values such as temperature and hygrometry are monitored to inform about the observation conditions. All motorized functions and sensors are remote-controlled from the VLT Software via the CAN bus with CANOpen protocol. In this paper, we describe the FO optical, mechanical and control/command electronic concept, development and performance.

  15. The Practice of Sharing a Historical Muse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Sharing an imaginative energy for the storied landscape is one kind of pedagogical passion. The author had taken on the challenge of offering this particular passion to his fellow travellers. With students, the practice of peppering a trip with a historical muse involves focussed readings, in the moment stories, planned ceremonies and rituals and,…

  16. MUSE dream conclusion: the sky verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Francois, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J.-E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-08-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it collects its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. This critical moment when the instrument finally meets its destiny is the opportunity to look at the overall outcome of the project and the final performance of the instrument on the sky. The instrument which we dreamt of has become reality. Are the dreamt performances there as well? These final instrumental performances are the result of a step by step process of design, manufacturing, assembly, test and integration. Now is also time to review the path opened by the MUSE project. What challenges were faced during those last steps, what strategy, what choices did pay off? What did not?

  17. Development and performance of the MUSE calibration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelz, Andreas; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Hahn, Thomas; Jahn, Thomas; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, Florence; Laux, Uwe; Larrieu, Marie; Loupias, Magali; Olaya, Jean-Christophe; Popow, Emil; Roth, Martin M.; Srivastava, Mudit; Streicher, Ole; Weilbacher, Peter; Bacon, Roland M.

    2012-09-01

    The Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), an integral-field spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope, has been built and integrated by a consortium of 7 European institutes. MUSE can simultaneously record spectra across a field of view of 1 square arcminute in the wavelength range from 465nm to 930nm. The calibration unit (CU) for MUSE was developed to provide accurate flat fielding, spectral, geometrical, image quality and efficiency calibration for both the wide-field and AO-assisted narrow-field modes. This paper describes the performance of the CU and electronics, from the subsystem validation to the integration, alignment and use in the MUSE instrument.

  18. SELFI: an object-based, Bayesian method for faint emission line source detection in MUSE deep field data cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meillier, Céline; Chatelain, Florent; Michel, Olivier; Bacon, Roland; Piqueras, Laure; Bacher, Raphael; Ayasso, Hacheme

    2016-04-01

    We present SELFI, the Source Emission Line FInder, a new Bayesian method optimized for detection of faint galaxies in Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) deep fields. MUSE is the new panoramic integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) that has unique capabilities for spectroscopic investigation of the deep sky. It has provided data cubes with 324 million voxels over a single 1 arcmin2 field of view. To address the challenge of faint-galaxy detection in these large data cubes, we developed a new method that processes 3D data either for modeling or for estimation and extraction of source configurations. This object-based approach yields a natural sparse representation of the sources in massive data fields, such as MUSE data cubes. In the Bayesian framework, the parameters that describe the observed sources are considered random variables. The Bayesian model leads to a general and robust algorithm where the parameters are estimated in a fully data-driven way. This detection algorithm was applied to the MUSE observation of Hubble Deep Field-South. With 27 h total integration time, these observations provide a catalog of 189 sources of various categories and with secured redshift. The algorithm retrieved 91% of the galaxies with only 9% false detection. This method also allowed the discovery of three new Lyα emitters and one [OII] emitter, all without any Hubble Space Telescope counterpart. We analyzed the reasons for failure for some targets, and found that the most important limitation of the method is when faint sources are located in the vicinity of bright spatially resolved galaxies that cannot be approximated by the Sérsic elliptical profile. The software and its documentation are available on the MUSE science web service (muse-vlt.eu/science).

  19. Spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes of vibration for flexible beams with tip bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1986-01-01

    Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes for a class of vibration problems involving flexible beams with tip bodies using subspaces of piecewise polynomial spline functions are developed. An abstract operator-theoretic formulation of the eigenvalue problem is derived and spectral properties investigated. The existing theory for spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods applied to elliptic differential operators and the approximation properties of interpolatory splines are used to argue convergence and establish rates of convergence. An example and numerical results are discussed.

  20. Spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes of vibration for flexible beams with tip bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1985-01-01

    Rayleigh-Ritz methods for the approximation of the natural modes for a class of vibration problems involving flexible beams with tip bodies using subspaces of piecewise polynomial spline functions are developed. An abstract operator theoretic formulation of the eigenvalue problem is derived and spectral properties investigated. The existing theory for spline-based Rayleigh-Ritz methods applied to elliptic differential operators and the approximation properties of interpolatory splines are useed to argue convergence and establish rates of convergence. An example and numerical results are discussed.

  1. The MUSE second-generation VLT instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bauer, S.; Biswas, I.; Blaizot, J.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogue, S.; Brinchmann, J.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Couderc, P.; Daguisé, E.; Deiries, S.; Delabre, B.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Emsellem, E.; Fechner, T.; Fleischmann, A.; François, M.; Gallou, G.; Gharsa, T.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Olaya, J.-C.; Pares, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pelló, R.; Petit, C.; Popow, E.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Serre, D.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.,; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Yerle, N.

    2010-07-01

    Summary: The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph currently in manufacturing, assembly and integration phase. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The instrument is a large assembly of 24 identical high performance integral field units, each one composed of an advanced image slicer, a spectrograph and a 4kx4k detector. In this paper we review the progress of the manufacturing and report the performance achieved with the first integral field unit.

  2. MUSE from Europe to the Chilean Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, Mateo; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, Kristof; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument, built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and dedicated to the VLT (Very Large Telescope). This instrument is an innovative integral field spectrograph (1x1 arcmin2 Field of View), operating in the visible wavelength range, from 465 nm to 930 nm. The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration and test in Europe validated by its Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it will collect its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. To come to this achievement, many tasks had to be completed and challenges overcome. These last steps in the project life have certainly been ones of the most critical. Critical in terms of risk, of working conditions, of operational constrains, of schedule and finally critical in terms of outcome: The first light and the final performances of the instrument on the sky.

  3. The calibration unit and detector system tests for MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelz, A.; Bauer, S. M.; Biswas, I.; Fechner, T.; Hahn, T.; Olaya, J.-C.; Popow, E.; Roth, M. M.; Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P.; Bacon, R.; Laurent, F.; Laux, U.; Lizon, J. L.; Loupias, M.; Reiss, R.; Rupprecht, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is an integral-field spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope. After completion of the Final Design Review in 2009, MUSE is now in its manufacture and assembly phase. To achieve a relative large field-of-view with fine spatial sampling, MUSE features 24 identical spectrograph-detector units. The acceptance tests of the detector sub-systems, the design and manufacture of the calibration unit and the development of the Data Reduction Software for MUSE are under the responsibility of the AIP. The optical design of the spectrograph implies strict tolerances on the alignment of the detector systems to minimize aberrations. As part of the acceptance testing, all 24 detector systems, developed by ESO, are mounted to a MUSE reference spectrograph, which is illuminated by a set of precision pinholes. Thus the best focus is determined and the image quality of the spectrograph-detector subsystem across wavelength and field angle is measured.

  4. Characterizing the environments of supernovae with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Krühler, T.; Sánchez, S. F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Pérez, E.; Maureira, J. C.; Hamuy, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Förster, F.; Moral, V.

    2016-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the environments of 11 supernovae (SNe) which occurred in six nearby galaxies (z ≲ 0.016). All galaxies were observed with MUSE, the high spatial resolution integral-field spectrograph mounted to the 8 m VLT UT4. These data enable us to map the full spatial extent of host galaxies up to ˜3 effective radii. In this way, not only can one characterize the specific host environment of each SN, one can compare their properties with stellar populations within the full range of other environments within the host. We present a method that consists of selecting all H II regions found within host galaxies from 2D extinction-corrected Hα emission maps. These regions are then characterized in terms of their Hα equivalent widths, star formation rates and oxygen abundances. Identifying H II regions spatially coincident with SN explosion sites, we are thus able to determine where within the distributions of host galaxy e.g. metallicities and ages each SN is found, thus providing new constraints on SN progenitor properties. This initial pilot study using MUSE opens the way for a revolution in SN environment studies where we are now able to study multiple environment SN progenitor dependencies using a single instrument and single pointing.

  5. A series of detector systems for MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, J. L.; Kelz, A.; Dupuy, C.; Accardo, M.; Reiss, R.; Deiries, S.; Fechner, T.; Srivastava, M.; Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P.; Hinterschuster, Renate

    2012-09-01

    The 24 IFU from MUSE are equipped with 4K x 4K CCD detectors which are operated at cryogenic temperature around 160 K. The large size of the chip combined with a rather fast camera (F/2) impose strong positioning constrains. The sensitive surface should remain in an angular envelope of less than 30 arc sec in both directions. The ambitious goal of having the same spectrum format on every detector imposes also a very accurate positioning in the image plane. The central pixel has to be located in a square smaller 50 microns relative to the external references. The first part of the paper describes the mechanical design of the detector head. We concentrate on the various aspects of the design with its very complex interfaces. The opto-mechanical concept is presented with an emphasis on the robustness and reliability. We present also the necessary steps for the extreme optimization of the cryogenic performance of this compact design driven with a permanent view of the production in series. The techniques and procedures developed in order to meet and verify the very tight positioning requirements are described in a second part. Then the 24 fully assembled systems undergo a system verification using one of the MUSE spectrographs. These tests include a focus series, the determination of the PSF across the chip and a subsequent calculation of the tip/tilt and shift rotation of the detector versus the optical axis.

  6. Porting Big Data technology across domains. WISE for MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Willem-Jan

    2015-12-01

    Due to the nature of MUSE data, each data-cube obtained as part of the GTO program is used by most of the consortium institutes which are spread across Europe. Since the effort required in reducing the data is significant, and to ensure uniformity in analysis, it is desirable to have a data management system that integrates data reduction, provenance tracking, quality control and data analysis. Such a system should support the distribution of storage and processing over the consortium institutes. The MUSE-WISE system incorporates these aspects. It is built on the Astro-WISE system, originally designed to handle OmegaCAM imaging data, which has been extended to support 3D spectroscopic data. MUSE-WISE is now being used to process MUSE GTO data. It currently stores 95 TB consisting of 48k raw exposures and processed data used by 79 users spread over 7 nodes in Europe.

  7. Muse Cells Provide the Pluripotency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Direct Contribution of Muse Cells to Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dezawa, Mari

    2016-01-01

    While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow and adipose tissue, they are heterogeneous, and their entire composition is not fully identified. MSCs are not only able to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, which belong to the same mesodermal lineage, but they are also able to cross boundaries between mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages, and differentiate into neuronal- and hepatocyte-like cells. However, the ratio of such differentiation is not very high, suggesting that only a subpopulation of the MSCs participates in this cross-lineage differentiation phenomenon. We have identified unique cells that we named multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells that may explain the pluripotent-like properties of MSCs. Muse cells comprise a small percentage of MSCs, are able to generate cells representative of all three germ layers from a single cell, and are nontumorigenic and self-renewable. Importantly, cells other than Muse cells in MSCs do not have these pluripotent-like properties. Muse cells are particularly unique compared with other stem cells in that they efficiently migrate and integrate into damaged tissue when supplied into the bloodstream, and spontaneously differentiate into cells compatible with the homing tissue. Such a repairing action of Muse cells via intravenous injection is recognized in various tissues including the brain, liver, and skin. Therefore, unlike ESCs/iPSCs, Muse cells render induction into the target cell type prior to transplantation unnecessary. They can repair tissues in two simple steps: collection from mesenchymal tissues, such as the bone marrow, and intravenous injection. The impressive regenerative performance of these cells provides a simple, feasible strategy for treating a variety of diseases. This review details the unique characteristics of Muse cells and describes their future application for regenerative medicine

  8. Hardware Implementation of a Spline-Based Genetic Algorithm for Embedded Stereo Vision Sensor Providing Real-Time Visual Guidance to the Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Anderson, Jonathan D.; Archibald, James K.

    2008-12-01

    Many image and signal processing techniques have been applied to medical and health care applications in recent years. In this paper, we present a robust signal processing approach that can be used to solve the correspondence problem for an embedded stereo vision sensor to provide real-time visual guidance to the visually impaired. This approach is based on our new one-dimensional (1D) spline-based genetic algorithm to match signals. The algorithm processes image data lines as 1D signals to generate a dense disparity map, from which 3D information can be extracted. With recent advances in electronics technology, this 1D signal matching technique can be implemented and executed in parallel in hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to provide real-time feedback about the environment to the user. In order to complement (not replace) traditional aids for the visually impaired such as canes and Seeing Eyes dogs, vision systems that provide guidance to the visually impaired must be affordable, easy to use, compact, and free from attributes that are awkward or embarrassing to the user. "Seeing Eye Glasses," an embedded stereo vision system utilizing our new algorithm, meets all these requirements.

  9. The MUSE project face to face with reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, D.; Brotons, L.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) to be installed in Chile on the VLT (Very Large Telescope). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the critical turning point of shifting from the design to the manufacturing phase, the MUSE project has now completed the realization of its different sub-systems and should finalize its global integration and test in Europe. To arrive to this point many challenges had to be overcome, many technical difficulties, non compliances or procurements delays which seemed at the time overwhelming. Now is the time to face the results of our organization, of our strategy, of our choices. Now is the time to face the reality of the MUSE instrument. During the design phase a plan was provided by the project management in order to achieve the realization of the MUSE instrument in specification, time and cost. This critical moment in the project life when the instrument takes shape and reality is the opportunity to look not only at the outcome but also to see how well we followed the original plan, what had to be changed or adapted and what should have been.

  10. MUSE observations of the lensing cluster Abell 1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, D.; Pelló, R.; Richard, J.; Lewis, J.; Patrício, V.; Cantalupo, S.; Herenz, E. C.; Soto, K.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Bacon, R.; Vernet, J. D. R.; Wisotzki, L.; Clément, B.; Cuby, J. G.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Soucail, G.; Verhamme, A.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper presents the results obtained with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) for the core of the lensing cluster Abell 1689, as part of MUSE's commissioning at the ESO Very Large Telescope. Aims: Integral-field observations with MUSE provide a unique view of the central 1 × 1 arcmin2 region at intermediate spectral resolution in the visible domain, allowing us to conduct a complete census of both cluster galaxies and lensed background sources. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of all sources found in the MUSE data cube. Two hundred and eighty-two objects were systematically extracted from the cube based on a guided-and-manual approach. We also tested three different tools for the automated detection and extraction of line emitters. Cluster galaxies and lensed sources were identified based on their spectral features. We investigated the multiple-image configuration for all known sources in the field. Results: Previous to our survey, 28 different lensed galaxies displaying 46 multiple images were known in the MUSE field of view, most of them were detected through photometric redshifts and lensing considerations. Of these, we spectroscopically confirm 12 images based on their emission lines, corresponding to 7 different lensed galaxies between z = 0.95 and 5.0. In addition, 14 new galaxies have been spectroscopically identified in this area thanks to MUSE data, with redshifts ranging between 0.8 and 6.2. All background sources detected within the MUSE field of view correspond to multiple-imaged systems lensed by A1689. Seventeen sources in total are found at z ≥ 3 based on their Lyman-α emission, with Lyman-α luminosities ranging between 40.5 ≲ log (Lyα) ≲ 42.5 after correction for magnification. This sample is particularly sensitive to the slope of the luminosity function toward the faintest end. The density of sources obtained in this survey is consistent with a steep value of α ≤ -1.5, although this result still

  11. MUSE: feeding and mounting 24 spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, Harald; Seifert, Walter; Xu, Wenli; Hofmann, Denni; Köhler, Christof; Loupias, Magali

    2008-07-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer MUSE is an integral field device containing 24 spectrographs at the Nasmyth focus of the VLT unit telescope. The total field size of 1'x1' needs to be split and separated into 24 sub-fields which are relayed along a central structure into the entrance aperture of the individual spectrographs. The realization of the optics for field splitting and separation as well as the relay optics to direct the light of the individual fields to the spectrographs is described here. A very tight link exists between the relay optics system layout and the mechanical arrangement of the spectrographs in the common central structure. A compact mounting is essential due to the restricted space for such a large instrument even on the VLT Nasmyth platform. A suitable arrangement of vertical and horizontal stacking of the spectrographs was found enabling their feeding from the unobstructed front side of the instrumental structure. The central instrument mount was designed as a stiff structure absorbing print-through effects due to thermal mismatch with the telescope platform but rigid enough to withstand earthquakes.

  12. A nebular analysis of the central Orion nebula with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, A. F.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Ginsburg, A.; Dale, J. E.; Ramsay, S.; Testi, L.

    2016-02-01

    A nebular analysis of the central Orion nebula and its main structures is presented. We exploit observations from the integral field spectrograph Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) in the wavelength range 4595-9366 Å to produce the first O, S and N ionic and total abundance maps of a region spanning 6 arcmin × 5 arcmin with a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec. We use the S23(=([S II] λλ6717, 6731+[S III] λ9068)/Hβ) parameter, together with [O II]/[O III] as an indicator of the degree of ionization, to distinguish between the various small-scale structures. The only Orion bullet covered by MUSE is HH 201, which shows a double component in the [Fe II] λ8617 line throughout indicating an expansion, and we discuss a scenario in which this object is undergoing a disruptive event. We separate the proplyds located south of the Bright Bar into four categories depending on their S23 values, propose the utility of the S23 parameter as an indicator of the shock contribution to the excitation of line-emitting atoms, and show that the MUSE data are able to identify the proplyds associated with discs and microjets. We compute the second-order structure function for the Hα, [O III] λ5007, [S II] λ6731 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines to analyse the turbulent velocity field of the region covered with MUSE. We find that the spectral and spatial resolution of MUSE are not able to faithfully reproduce the structure functions of previous works.

  13. Estimation of discontinuous coefficients in parabolic systems: Applications to reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamm, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Spline based techniques for estimating spatially varying parameters that appear in parabolic distributed systems (typical of those found in reservoir simulation problems) are presented. The problem of determining discontinuous coefficients, estimating both the functional shape and points of discontinuity for such parameters is discussed. Convergence results and a summary of numerical performance of the resulting algorithms are given.

  14. Approximation techniques for parameter estimation and feedback control for distributed models of large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Rosen, I. G.

    1984-01-01

    Approximation ideas are discussed that can be used in parameter estimation and feedback control for Euler-Bernoulli models of elastic systems. Focusing on parameter estimation problems, ways by which one can obtain convergence results for cubic spline based schemes for hybrid models involving an elastic cantilevered beam with tip mass and base acceleration are outlined. Sample numerical findings are also presented.

  15. Deep MUSE observations in the HDFS. Morpho-kinematics of distant star-forming galaxies down to 108M⊙

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, T.; Epinat, B.; Bouché, N.; Brinchmann, J.; Boogaard, L. A.; Ventou, E.; Bacon, R.; Richard, J.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Krajnović, D.; Vielfaure, J.-B.; Emsellem, E.; Finley, H.; Inami, H.; Schaye, J.; Swinbank, M.; Guérou, A.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Schroetter, I.; Shirazi, M.; Soucail, G.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: Whereas the evolution of gas kinematics of massive galaxies is now relatively well established up to redshift z ~ 3, little is known about the kinematics of lower mass (M⋆≤ 1010M⊙) galaxies. We use MUSE, a powerful wide-field, optical integral-field spectrograph (IFS) recently mounted on the VLT, to characterize this galaxy population at intermediate redshift. Methods: We made use of the deepest MUSE observations performed so far on the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS). This data cube, resulting from 27 h of integration time, covers a one arcmin2 field of view at an unprecedented depth (with a 1σ emission-line surface brightness limit of 1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2) and a final spatial resolution of ≈0.7''. We identified a sample of 28 resolved emission-line galaxies, extending over an area that is at least twice the seeing disk, spread over a redshift interval of 0.2 estimates of the disk inclination, disk scale length, and position angle of the major axis. We derived the resolved ionized gas properties of these galaxies from the MUSE data and model the disk (both in 2D and in 3D with GalPaK3D) to retrieve their intrinsic gas kinematics, including the maximum rotation velocity and velocity dispersion. Results: We build a sample of resolved emission-line galaxies of much lower stellar mass and SFR (by ~1 - 2 orders of magnitude) than previous IFS surveys. The gas kinematics of most of the spatially resolved MUSE-HDFS galaxies is consistent with disk-like rotation, but about 20% have velocity dispersions that are larger than the rotation velocities and 30% are part of a close pair and/or show clear signs of recent

  16. IFU simulator: a powerful alignment and performance tool for MUSE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Boudon, Didier; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Jarno, Aurélien; Kosmalski, Johan; Piqueras, Laure; Remillieux, Alban; Renault, Edgard

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transferred in monolithic way without dismounting onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame. This talk describes the IFU Simulator which is the main alignment and performance tool for MUSE instrument. The IFU Simulator mimics the optomechanical interface between the MUSE pre-optic and the 24 IFUs. The optomechanical design is presented. After, the alignment method of this innovative tool for identifying the pupil and image planes is depicted. At the end, the internal test report is described. The success of the MUSE alignment using the IFU Simulator is demonstrated by the excellent results obtained onto MUSE positioning, image quality and throughput. MUSE commissioning at the VLT is planned for September, 2014.

  17. The MUSE view of the Frontier Field clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Johan; Mahler, Guillaume; Clément, Benjamin; Pello, Roser; Bina, David; Lagattuta, David; Patricio, Vera

    2015-08-01

    Strong gravitational magnification in the core of lensing clusters allows to probe the faint-end of the galaxy luminosity function up to very high redshift. In particular, the Frontier Fields have allowed us to identify a large number of faint dropouts and constrain the Lyman-break luminosity function at z~5-7. I will present the results of an ongoing program with MUSE, a new integral field spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope having a large field of view (1 arcmin2), to confirm these candidate high redshift dropouts through Lyman-alpha emission and identify additional emitters with high equivalent width, fainter than the depth of the Frontier Fields Hubble images. Combined with similar deep exposures taken with MUSE in blank fields, this gives us the best opportunity to probe the Lyman-alpha luminosity function over a wide range in luminosity.

  18. Strongest Pulsed Muon Source at J-PARC MUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kawamura, N.; Strasser, P.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakahara, K.; Kato, M.; Takeshita, S.; Nishiyama, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kojima, K.; Kadono, R.; Higemoto, W.; Ito, T.; Ninomiya, K.; Hiraishi, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Kubo, K.

    2011-10-06

    The muon science facility (MUSE, abbreviation of MUon Science Establishment), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. On the November, 2009 beam cycle, we achieved extraction of the world's strongest pulsed muon beam at J-PARC MUSE by beam tuning at the Decay-Surface muon beam line (D-line). Surface muons ({mu}{sup +}) as much as 1.8x10{sup 6}/s were extracted with the use of 120 kW of protons from the Rapid Cycle Synchrotron (RCS), which corresponds to 1.5x10{sup 7}/s surface muons when a future proton beam reached at the intensity of 1MW. These intensities, at the future 1 MW operation, will correspond to more than ten times those at the RIKEN-RAL Muon facility.

  19. EMI Measurements of the MUSES-C Ion Engine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Yukio; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Toki, Kyoichiro; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Iida, Tadahiko

    Radiated electric field emissions from the prototype model of the Ion Engine System (IES) of the MUSES-C mission were measured in accordance to MIL-STD-461 E. The average noise level exceeded the narrowband specification at frequencies less than 5 MHz. The microwave discharge neutralizer generates a broadband noise and narrowband oscillations which have a fundamental frequency of about 160 kHz and are accompanied by its harmonics up to the 5th. The leakage of the 4.25 GHz microwave for plasma production and its second harmonic were 65 dB and 35 dB above specification, respectively. The X-band receiver onboard the MUSES-C measured the noise from the IES at the up-link frequency of 7.2 GHz through a horn antenna. This susceptibility test proved that the microwave discharge ion thruster will never interfere the deep space microwave communication.

  20. Not Your Daddy's Data Link: Musings on Datalink Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, James

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs about musings on Datalink Communications are presented. Some of the topics include: 1) Keen Eye for a Straight Proposal (Next Gen Data Link); 2) So many datalinks so little funding!!!; 3) Brave New World; 4) Time marches on!; 5) Through the Looking Glass; 6) Dollars & Sense Cooking; 7) Economics 101; 8) The Missing Link(s); 9) Straight Shooting; and 10) All is not lost.

  1. Current status of the J-PARC muon facility, MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kawamura, N.; Strasser, P.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Ikedo, Y.; Makimura, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakamura, J.; Kojima, K.; Adachi, T.; Kadono, R.; Takeshita, S.; Nishiyama, K.; Higemoto, W.; Ito, T.; Nagamine, K.; Ohata, H.; Makida, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Okamura, T.; Okada, R.; Ogitsu, T.

    2014-12-01

    The muon science facility (MUSE), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is one of the experimental areas of the J-PARC project. The MUSE facility is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. Since the autumn of 2008, users operation is effective and making use of the pulsed muon beam particularly at the D-Line. Unfortunately, MUSE suffered severe damages from the earthquake on March 11, 2011, the so-called "Higashi-Nippon Dai-Shinsai". We managed to have a stable operation of the superconducting solenoid magnet with use of the on-line refrigerator on December, 2012, although we had to overcome a lot of difficulties against components not working properly. But we had to stop again the whole operations on May 2013, because of the radioactive materials leakage accident at the Hadron Hall Experimental Facility. Finally we restarted the users' runs on February 2014.

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Human Multilineage-Differentiating Stress Enduring (MUSE) Cell Transplantation into Infarct Brain of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Morita, Takahiro; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Dezawa, Mari; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are heterogeneous and their therapeutic effect is pleiotropic. Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are recently identified to comprise several percentages of BMSCs, being able to differentiate into triploblastic lineages including neuronal cells and act as tissue repair cells. This study was aimed to clarify how Muse and non-Muse cells in BMSCs contribute to functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods Human BMSCs were separated into stage specific embryonic antigen-3-positive Muse cells and -negative non-Muse cells. Immunodeficient mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and received transplantation of vehicle, Muse, non-Muse or BMSCs (2.5×104 cells) into the ipsilateral striatum 7 days later. Results Motor function recovery in BMSC and non-Muse groups became apparent at 21 days after transplantation, but reached the plateau thereafter. In Muse group, functional recovery was not observed for up to 28 days post-transplantation, but became apparent at 35 days post-transplantation. On immunohistochemistry, only Muse cells were integrated into peri-infarct cortex and differentiate into Tuj-1- and NeuN-expressing cells, while negligible number of BMSCs and non-Muse cells remained in the peri-infarct area at 42 days post-transplantation. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that Muse cells and non-Muse cells may contribute differently to tissue regeneration and functional recovery. Muse cells may be more responsible for replacement of the lost neurons through their integration into the peri-infarct cortex and spontaneous differentiation into neuronal marker-positive cells. Non-Muse cells do not remain in the host brain and may exhibit trophic effects rather than cell replacement. PMID:25747577

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-Derived SSEA-3-Positive Muse Cells for Treating Diabetic Skin Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kahori; Kuno, Shinichiro; Ishimine, Hisako; Aoi, Noriyuki; Mineda, Kazuhide; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Mashiko, Takanobu; Kurisaki, Akira; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-02-01

    Stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3)-positive multipotent mesenchymal cells (multilineage differentiating stress-enduring [Muse] cells) were isolated from cultured human adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) and characterized, and their therapeutic potential for treating diabetic skin ulcers was evaluated. Cultured hASCs were separated using magnetic-activated cell sorting into positive and negative fractions, a SSEA-3+ cell-enriched fraction (Muse-rich) and the remaining fraction (Muse-poor). Muse-rich hASCs showed upregulated and downregulated pluripotency and cell proliferation genes, respectively, compared with Muse-poor hASCs. These cells also released higher amounts of certain growth factors, particularly under hypoxic conditions, compared with Muse-poor cells. Skin ulcers were generated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with type 1 diabetes, which showed delayed wound healing compared with nondiabetic SCID mice. Treatment with Muse-rich cells significantly accelerated wound healing compared with treatment with Muse-poor cells. Transplanted cells were integrated into the regenerated dermis as vascular endothelial cells and other cells. However, they were not detected in the surrounding intact regions. Thus, the selected population of ASCs has greater therapeutic effects to accelerate impaired wound healing associated with type 1 diabetes. These cells can be achieved in large amounts with minimal morbidity and could be a practical tool for a variety of stem cell-depleted or ischemic conditions of various organs and tissues. PMID:25561682

  4. Virtual Space Learning MariMUSE: Connecting Learners from Kindergarten to 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Billie; And Others

    The Multi-User Simulation Environment (MUSE) software is designed to motivate students across many age levels to engage in reading, writing, problem-solving, and collaborative and creative projects. MUSE software provides a text-based, virtual world on computers connected to a network, allowing synchronous and asynchronous communication among…

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-Derived SSEA-3-Positive Muse Cells for Treating Diabetic Skin Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Kahori; Kuno, Shinichiro; Ishimine, Hisako; Aoi, Noriyuki; Mineda, Kazuhide; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Mashiko, Takanobu; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3)-positive multipotent mesenchymal cells (multilineage differentiating stress-enduring [Muse] cells) were isolated from cultured human adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) and characterized, and their therapeutic potential for treating diabetic skin ulcers was evaluated. Cultured hASCs were separated using magnetic-activated cell sorting into positive and negative fractions, a SSEA-3+ cell-enriched fraction (Muse-rich) and the remaining fraction (Muse-poor). Muse-rich hASCs showed upregulated and downregulated pluripotency and cell proliferation genes, respectively, compared with Muse-poor hASCs. These cells also released higher amounts of certain growth factors, particularly under hypoxic conditions, compared with Muse-poor cells. Skin ulcers were generated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with type 1 diabetes, which showed delayed wound healing compared with nondiabetic SCID mice. Treatment with Muse-rich cells significantly accelerated wound healing compared with treatment with Muse-poor cells. Transplanted cells were integrated into the regenerated dermis as vascular endothelial cells and other cells. However, they were not detected in the surrounding intact regions. Thus, the selected population of ASCs has greater therapeutic effects to accelerate impaired wound healing associated with type 1 diabetes. These cells can be achieved in large amounts with minimal morbidity and could be a practical tool for a variety of stem cell-depleted or ischemic conditions of various organs and tissues. PMID:25561682

  6. Probing unexplored territories with MUSE: a second generation instrument for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Bauer, S.; Boehm, P.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Champavert, N.; Contini, T.; Daguisé, E.; Dallé, D.; Delabre, B.; Devriendt, J.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupin, J. P.; Emsellem, E.; Ferruit, P.; Franx, M.; Gallou, G.; Gerssen, J.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hahn, T.; Hofmann, D.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J.; Loupias, M.; Lynn, S.; Manescau, A.; McDermid, R. M.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pécontal, E.; Pello, R.; Petit, C.; Picat, J.-P.; Popow, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiss, R.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Stroebele, S.; Stuik, R.; Weilbacher, P.; Wozniak, H.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2006-06-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 0.465-0.93 μm, at a resolution of R~3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. This makes MUSE a unique and tremendously powerful instrument for discovering and characterizing objects that lie beyond the reach of even the deepest imaging surveys. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5x7.5 arcsec2 field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction limited data-cubes in the 0.6-0.93 μm wavelength range. Although the MUSE design has been optimized for the study of galaxy formation and evolution, it has a wide range of possible applications; e.g. monitoring of outer planets atmosphere, environment of young stellar objects, super massive black holes and active nuclei in nearby galaxies or massive spectroscopic surveys of stellar fields in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies.

  7. MUSE: A Second-Generation Integral-Field Spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, R. M.; Bacon, R.; Bauer, S.; Boehm, P.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Champavert, N.; Contini, T.; Daguisé, E.; Delabre, B.; Devriendt, J.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupin, J. P.; Emsellem, E.; Ferruit, P.; Franx, M.; Gallou, G.; Gerssen, J.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hahn, T.; Hofmann, D.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J. L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pécontal, E.; Pello, R.; Petit, C.; Picat, J.-P.; Popow, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiss, R.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Stroebele, S.; Stuik, R.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Wozniak, H.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation instrument in development for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), due to begin operation in 2011/12. MUSE will be an extremely powerful integral-field spectrograph fed by a new multiple-laser adaptive optics system on the VLT. In its usual operating mode, MUSE will, in a single observation, produce a 3-dimensional data cube consisting of 90,000 R 3000 spectra, each covering a full spectral octave (480-930 nm), and fully sampling a contiguous 1×1 arcmin2 field with 0.2×0.2 arcsec2 apertures. A high-resolution mode will increase the spatial sampling to 0.025 arcsec per pixel. MUSE is built around a novel arrangement of 24 identical spectrographs (each comparable to a 1st generation VLT instrument), which are fed by a set of 24 precision image slicers. MUSE is designed for stability, with only 2 modes, and virtually no moving parts, allowing very long exposures to be accumulated. Together with high throughput, this ensures that MUSE will have extreme sensitivity for observing faint objects. We overview the technical and scientific aspects of MUSE, highlighting the key challenges for dealing with the unprecedented quantity and complexity of the data, and the integration with the VLT adaptive optics facility (AOF) - a key development on the path to extremely large telescopes (ELTs).

  8. Dissecting the complex environment of a distant quasar with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husband, K.; Bremer, M. N.; Stanway, E. R.; Lehnert, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    High-redshift quasars can be used to trace the early growth of massive galaxies and may be triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions. We present Multi-Object Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) science verification data on one such interacting system consisting of the well-studied z = 3.2 PKS1614+051 quasar, its AGN companion galaxy and bridge of material radiating in Ly α between the quasar and its companion. We find a total of four companion galaxies (at least two galaxies are new discoveries), three of which reside within the likely virial radius of the quasar host, suggesting that the system will evolve into a massive elliptical galaxy by the present day. The MUSE data are of sufficient quality to split the extended Ly α emission line into narrow velocity channels. In these the gas can be seen extending towards each of the three neighbouring galaxies suggesting that the emission-line gas originates in a gravitational interaction between the galaxies and the quasar host. The photoionization source of this gas is less clear but is probably dominated by the two AGN. The quasar's Ly α emission spectrum is double peaked, likely due to absorbing neutral material at the quasar's systemic redshift with a low column density as no damping wings are present. The spectral profiles of the AGN and bridge's Ly α emission are also consistent with absorption at the same redshift indicating that this neutral material may extend over >50 kpc. The fact that the neutral material is seen in the line of sight to the quasar and transverse to it, and the fact that we see the quasar and it also illuminates the emission-line bridge, suggests that the quasar radiates isotropically and any obscuring torus is small. These results demonstrate the power of MUSE for investigating the dynamics of interacting systems at high redshift.

  9. The Central Orion Nebula (M42) as seen by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilbacher, P. M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Mc Leod, A. F.; Ginsburg, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Sandin, C.; Wendt, M.; Wisotzki, L.; Bacon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument, an optical wide-field integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope, has been operating successfully for about a year. Among the impressive sets of data collected during commissioning was a mosaic of the central Orion Nebula (M42), known as the Huygens region. During the past year, we have made the data ready for scientific use, and they are now publicly available to the community. An overview of the observations and their reduction, as well as two possible scientific applications, are presented.

  10. MUSE field splitter unit: fan-shaped separator for 24 integral field units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Anwand, Heiko; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Kosmalski, Johan; Loupias, Magali; Nicklas, Harald; Seifert, Walter; Salaun, Yves; Xu, Wenli

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where it was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transferred in monolithic way onto VLT telescope where the first light was achieved. This paper describes the MUSE main optical component: the Field Splitter Unit. It splits the VLT image into 24 subfields and provides the first separation of the beam for the 24 Integral Field Units. This talk depicts its manufacturing at Winlight Optics and its alignment into MUSE instrument. The success of the MUSE

  11. The MUSE project from the dream toward reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Bauer, S. M.; Biswas, I.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Brotons, L.; Capoani, L.; Contini, T.; Daguisé, E.; Deiries, S.; Delabre, B.; Dubois, J.-P.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuis, C.; Fechner, T.; Fleischmann, A.; François, M.; Gallou, G.; Gharsa, T.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Olaya, J.-C.; Parès, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Petit, C.; Popow, E.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Serre, D.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Yerle, N.

    2010-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument developed for ESO (European Southern Observatory) to be installed on the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in year 2012. The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After a successful Final Design Review the project is now facing a turning point which consist in shifting from design to manufacturing, from calculation to test, ... from dream to reality. At the start, many technical and management challenges were there as well as unknowns. They could all be derived of the same simple question: How to deal with complexity? The complexity of the instrument, of the work to de done, of the organization, of the interfaces, of financial and procurement rules, etc. This particular moment in the project life cycle is the opportunity to look back and evaluate the management methods implemented during the design phase regarding this original question. What are the lessons learn? What has been successful? What could have been done differently? Finally, we will look forward and review the main challenges of the MAIT (Manufacturing Assembly Integration and Test) phase which has just started as well as the associated new processes and evolutions needed.

  12. Ultra Slow Muon Project at J-PARC, MUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Y.; Nakahara, K.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Nishiyama, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Adachi, T.; Ogitsu, T.

    2009-03-17

    The muon science facility (MUSE), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is one of the experimental areas of the J-PARC project, which was approved for construction at the Tokai JAEA site. The MUSE facility is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. Construction of the MLF building was started in the beginning of 2004, and first muon beam is expected in the autumn of 2008.As a next step, we are planning to install, a Super Omega muon channel with a large acceptance of 400 msr, to extract the world strongest pulsed surface muon beam. Its goal is to extract 4x10{sup 8} surface muons/s for the generation of the intense ultra slow muons, utilizing laser resonant ionization of Mu by applying an intense pulsed VUV laser system. As maximum 1x10{sup 6} ultra slow muons/s will be expected, which will allow for the extension of {mu}SR into the field of thin film and surface science.

  13. ET-67SUICIDE GENE THERAPY FOR GLIOMA USING MULTILINEAGE-DEFFERENTIATING STRESS ENDURING (MUSE) CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Wakao, Shohei; Kawaji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomo; Kamio, Yoshinobu; Amano, Shinji; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Sakai, Naoto; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Dezawa, Mari; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have been investigating cell-based glioma gene therapy using various kinds of stem cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSVtk). In our previous study, we used SSEA3/CD105 double-positive multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells transduced with HSVtk (Muse-tk cells) as the vehicle for HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV) gene therapy. We demonstrated a potent in vitro tumoricidal bystander effect for various glioma cells. In the present study, we examined the in vivo bystander effect between U87 human glioma cells and human Muse-tk cells. METHODS: Muse-tk cells were obtained by lentiviral transduction of HSVtk in human Muse cells. U87 cells transduced with the luciferase gene were used for the brain tumor model, in which tumor volume could be measured using a bioluminescence imaging system (IVIS 200). Nude mice were intracranially co-implanted at Muse-tk:U87 cell ratios of 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16 (U87 cell number: 1 × 105); GCV was intraperitoneally administered (100 mg/kg/day) for 10 days. RESULTS: Luminescence intensity progressively increased in the control mice implanted with U87 alone with or without GCV treatment, and in those implanted with Muse-tk and U87 but not treated with GCV. All control mice died because of the tumor by Day 51 post tumor implantation (no difference among the control groups). In contrast, no luminescence was observed in the mice implanted with Muse-tk and U87 (Muse-tk:U87 cell ratios of 1:4 and 1:8) from Day 14 onward. Almost all mice survived longer than 100 days and no mouse died as a result of the tumor. CONCLUSIONS: There was a potent in vivo bystander effect between human glioma and Muse-tk cells. The results of the present study suggest that HSVtk/GCV gene therapy using Muse-tk is a promising treatment strategy for malignant glioma.

  14. ModelMuse - A Graphical User Interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winston, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    ModelMuse is a graphical user interface (GUI) for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST. This software package provides a GUI for creating the flow and transport input file for PHAST and the input files for MODFLOW-2005. In ModelMuse, the spatial data for the model is independent of the grid, and the temporal data is independent of the stress periods. Being able to input these data independently allows the user to redefine the spatial and temporal discretization at will. This report describes the basic concepts required to work with ModelMuse. These basic concepts include the model grid, data sets, formulas, objects, the method used to assign values to data sets, and model features. The ModelMuse main window has a top, front, and side view of the model that can be used for editing the model, and a 3-D view of the model that can be used to display properties of the model. ModelMuse has tools to generate and edit the model grid. It also has a variety of interpolation methods and geographic functions that can be used to help define the spatial variability of the model. ModelMuse can be used to execute both MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST and can also display the results of MODFLOW-2005 models. An example of using ModelMuse with MODFLOW-2005 is included in this report. Several additional examples are described in the help system for ModelMuse, which can be accessed from the Help menu.

  15. The Story of Supernova “Refsdal” Told by Muse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, C.; Karman, W.; Suyu, S. H.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Mercurio, A.; Lombardi, M.; Treu, T.; Caminha, G. B.; Halkola, A.; Rodney, S. A.; Gavazzi, R.; Caputi, K. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the core of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, where the first magnified and spatially resolved multiple images of supernova (SN) “Refsdal” at redshift 1.489 were detected. Thanks to a Director's Discretionary Time program with the Very Large Telescope and the extraordinary efficiency of MUSE, we measure 117 secure redshifts with just 4.8 hr of total integration time on a single 1 arcmin2 target pointing. We spectroscopically confirm 68 galaxy cluster members, with redshift values ranging from 0.5272 to 0.5660, and 18 multiple images belonging to seven background, lensed sources distributed in redshifts between 1.240 and 3.703. Starting from the combination of our catalog with those obtained from extensive spectroscopic and photometric campaigns using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we select a sample of 300 (164 spectroscopic and 136 photometric) cluster members, within approximately 500 kpc from the brightest cluster galaxy, and a set of 88 reliable multiple images associated with 10 different background source galaxies and 18 distinct knots in the spiral galaxy hosting SN “Refsdal.” We exploit this valuable information to build six detailed strong-lensing models, the best of which reproduces the observed positions of the multiple images with an rms offset of only 0.″26. We use these models to quantify the statistical and systematic errors on the predicted values of magnification and time delay of the next emerging image of SN “Refsdal.” We find that its peak luminosity should occur between 2016 March and June and should be approximately 20% fainter than the dimmest (S4) of the previously detected images but above the detection limit of the planned HST/WFC3 follow-up. We present our two-dimensional reconstruction of the cluster mass density distribution and of the SN “Refsdal” host galaxy surface brightness distribution. We outline the road map

  16. Random musings on stochastics (Lorenz Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2014-12-01

    moments, autocorrelation, power spectrum), in model identification and parameter estimation from data; and (c) to provide interpretations to scaling laws based on maximization of entropy or entropy production, or else natural amplification of uncertainty, which are alternative to more common ones, like self-organization.

  17. Tightening the constraints on the mass distribution of the Frontier Fields with VLT/MUSE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Benjamin; Richard, Johan; Mahler, Guillaume; Patricio, Vera; Lagattuta, David

    2015-08-01

    While the main ground-based optical multi-object spectrographs obtain spectra of a few tens of objects at a time, the panoramic integral-field ability of the new VLT/MUSE spectrograph increases that number by an order of magnitude. MUSE observations of HST deep fields yield a wealth of new spectroscopic identifications, revealing faint emission-line galaxies not detected in deep broad-band images. Here, we have combined the performances of the MUSE spectrograph together with the power of gravitational lensing by Frontier Fields galaxy clusters to offer a unique magnified view of the distant universe. With a field of view of 1x1 square arc minutes over the full 4750-9350Å wavelength domain, MUSE enables redshift measurements of numerous lensed galaxies in the cluster core, and in particular of tens of multiple-imaged systems. Those spectroscopically-confirmed multiple-imaged systems are further used as strong constraints to improve the cluster mass model and reach a level of precision in the mass distribution only achievable with the joint use of extremely deep HST images and deep MUSE spectroscopy. Magnification maps of the Frontier Fields clusters Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, and MACSJ0416.1-2403, will be presented together with results obtained on a selection of highly-magnified background galaxies up to a redshift z~6.4.

  18. Probing Unexplored Territories with MUSE: a Second-Generation Instrument for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Svend; Böhm, Petra; Boudon, Didier; Brau-Nogue, Sylvie; Caillier, Patrick; Capoani, Lionel; Carollo, C. Marcella; Champavert, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Daguise, Eric; Dalle, Didier; Delabre, Bernard; Devriendt, Julien; Dreizler, Stefan; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupieux, Michel; Dupin, Jean-Pierre; Emsellem, Eric; Ferruit, Pierre; Franx, Marijn; Gallou, Gérard; Gerssen, Joris; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Hahn, Thomas; Hofmann, Denni; Jarno, Aurélien; Kelz, Andreas; Koehler, Christof; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, Florence; Lilly, Simon J.; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Loupias, Magali; Lynn, Stéphanie; Manescau, Antonio; McDermid, Richard M.; Monstein, Christian; Nicklas, Harals; Perès, Laurent; Pasquini, Luca; Pécontal, Emmanuel; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Pello, Roser; Petit, Chantal; Picat, Jean-Pierre; Popow, Emil; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiss, Roland; Renault, Edgar; Roth, Martin; Schaye, Joop; Soucail, Geneviève; Steinmetz, Matthias; Ströbele, Stefan; Stuik, Remko; Weilbacher, Peter; Wozniak, Herve; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    2006-06-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph presently under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1 × 1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2 × 0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 0.465-0.93 μm, at a resolution of R ~ 3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5 × 7.5 arcsec2 field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction-limited data cubes in the 0.6-0.93 μm wavelength range.

  19. The New Hyperspectral Sensor Desis on the Multi-Payload Platform Muses Installed on the Iss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R.; Avbelj, J.; Carmona, E.; Eckardt, A.; Gerasch, B.; Graham, L.; Günther, B.; Heiden, U.; Ickes, J.; Kerr, G.; Knodt, U.; Krutz, D.; Krawczyk, H.; Makarau, A.; Miller, R.; Perkins, R.; Walter, I.

    2016-06-01

    The new hyperspectral instrument DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS) will be developed and integrated in the Multi-User-System for Earth Sensing (MUSES) platform installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The DESIS instrument will be launched to the ISS mid of 2017 and robotically installed in one of the four slots of the MUSES platform. After a four month commissioning phase the operational phase will last at least until 2020. The MUSES / DESIS system will be commanded and operated by the publically traded company TBE (Teledyne Brown Engineering), which initiated the whole program. TBE provides the MUSES platform and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops the instrument DESIS and establishes a Ground Segment for processing, archiving, delivering and calibration of the image data mainly used for scientific and humanitarian applications. Well calibrated and harmonized products will be generated together with the Ground Segment established at Teledyne. The article describes the Space Segment consisting of the MUSES platform and the instrument DESIS as well as the activities at the two (synchronized) Ground Segments consisting of the processing methods, product generation, data calibration and product validation. Finally comments to the data policy are given.

  20. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  1. The MUSES Satellite Team and Multidisciplinary System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, John C.; Paiz, Alfred R.; Young, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    In a unique partnership between three minority-serving institutions and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a new course sequence, including a multidisciplinary capstone design experience, is to be developed and implemented at each of the schools with the ambitious goal of designing, constructing and launching a low-orbit Earth-resources satellite. The three universities involved are North Carolina A&T State University (NCA&T), University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), and California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA). The schools form a consortium collectively known as MUSES - Minority Universities System Engineering and Satellite. Four aspects of this project make it unique: (1) Including all engineering disciplines in the capstone design course, (2) designing, building and launching an Earth-resources satellite, (3) sustaining the partnership between the three schools to achieve this goal, and (4) implementing systems engineering pedagogy at each of the three schools. This paper will describe the partnership and its goals, the first design of the satellite, the courses developed at NCA&T, and the implementation plan for the course sequence.

  2. Highly ionized region surrounding SN Refsdal revealed by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, W.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Caputi, K. I.; Di Teodoro, E.; Fraternali, F.; Gavazzi, R.; Mercurio, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rodney, S.; Treu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) Refsdal is the first multiply imaged, highly magnified, and spatially resolved SN ever observed. The SN exploded in a highly magnified spiral galaxy at z = 1.49 behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS1149, and provides a unique opportunity to study the environment of SNe at high z. We exploit the time delay between multiple images to determine the properties of the SN and its environment before, during, and after the SN exploded. We use the integral-field spectrograph MUSE on the VLT to simultaneously target all observed and model-predicted positions of SN Refsdal. We find Mg II emission at all positions of SN Refsdal, accompanied by weak Fe II* emission at two positions. The measured ratios of [O II] to Mg II emission of 10-20 indicate a high degree of ionization with low metallicity. Because the same high degree of ionization is found in all images, and our spatial resolution is too coarse to resolve the region of influence of SN Refsdal, we conclude that this high degree of ionization has been produced by previous SNe or a young and hot stellar population. We find no variability of the [O II] line over a period of 57 days. This suggests that there is no variation in the [O II] luminosity of the SN over this period, or that the SN has a small contribution to the integrated [O II] emission over the scale resolved by our observations.

  3. Urania, the Muse of Astronomy: She Who Draws Our Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, S.

    2016-01-01

    In exploring the inspiration of astronomical phenomena upon human culture we are invited, perhaps beckoned, to reflect on Urania, the Greek Muse of Astronomy. Heavenly One or Heavenly Bright, Urania teaches mortals the shape and wonder of the cosmos, “men who have been instructed by her she raises aloft to heaven for it is a fact that imagination and power of thought lift men's souls to heavenly heights” (Siculus 1935). Yet in cities, the heavenly lights are dimmed, flooded by another source of light which is that of culture, and that is the domain of Aphrodite. So it is to her we must turn to understand what draws our eyes up to the heavens above the dazzling city lights. And, as Aphrodite Urania, her cultural and aesthetic domain is connected to the order of the cosmos itself, “the triple Moirai are ruled by thy decree, and all productions yield alike to thee: whatever the heavens, encircling all, contain, earth fruit-producing, and the stormy main, thy sway confesses, and obeys thy word...” (Athanassakis 1988). My presentation is a mythopoetic cultural excavation of the gods and ideas in our passion for astronomy; how, in our fascination with the cosmos, we see Urania and Aphrodite, these goddesses who inspire us city dwellers, planetarium devotees, and silent-field stargazers to look upwards.

  4. Possible Signatures of a Cold-flow Disk from MUSE Using a z ˜ 1 Galaxy-Quasar Pair toward SDSS J1422-0001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Finley, H.; Schroetter, I.; Murphy, M. T.; Richter, P.; Bacon, R.; Contini, T.; Richard, J.; Wendt, M.; Kamann, S.; Epinat, B.; Cantalupo, S.; Straka, L. A.; Schaye, J.; Martin, C. L.; Péroux, C.; Wisotzki, L.; Soto, K.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Brinchmann, J.; Kollatschny, W.

    2016-04-01

    We use a background quasar to detect the presence of circumgalactic gas around a z=0.91 low-mass star-forming galaxy. Data from the new Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope show that the galaxy has a dust-corrected star formation rate (SFR) of 4.7 ± 2.0 M⊙ yr-1, with no companion down to 0.22 M⊙ yr-1 (5σ) within 240 {h}-1 kpc (“30”). Using a high-resolution spectrum of the background quasar, which is fortuitously aligned with the galaxy major axis (with an azimuth angle α of only 15°), we find, in the gas kinematics traced by low-ionization lines, distinct signatures consistent with those expected for a “cold-flow disk” extending at least 12 kpc (3× {R}1/2). We estimate the mass accretion rate {\\dot{M}}{{in}} to be at least two to three times larger than the SFR, using the geometric constraints from the IFU data and the H i column density of log {N}{{H}{{I}}}/{{cm}}-2 ≃ 20.4 obtained from a Hubble Space Telescope/COS near-UV spectrum. From a detailed analysis of the low-ionization lines (e.g., Zn ii, Cr ii, Ti ii, Mn ii, Si ii), the accreting material appears to be enriched to about 0.4 {Z}⊙ (albeit with large uncertainties: {log} Z/{Z}⊙ =-0.4\\quad +/- \\quad 0.4), which is comparable to the galaxy metallicity (12 + log O/H = 8.7 ± 0.2), implying a large recycling fraction from past outflows. Blueshifted Mg ii and Fe ii absorptions in the galaxy spectrum from the MUSE data reveal the presence of an outflow. The Mg ii and Fe ii absorption line ratios indicate emission infilling due to scattering processes, but the MUSE data do not show any signs of fluorescent Fe ii* emission. Based on observations made at the ESO telescopes under program 080.A-0364 (SINFONI), 079.A-0600 (UVES), and as part of MUSE commissioning (ESO program 060.A-9100). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities

  5. Pluripotent muse cells derived from human adipose tissue: a new perspective on regenerative medicine and cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Simerman, Ariel A; Dumesic, Daniel A; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells were introduced to the scientific community, offering potential resolution to the issue of teratoma formation that plagues both embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells. Isolated from human bone marrow, dermal fibroblasts, adipose tissue and commercially available adipose stem cells (ASCs) under severe cellular stress conditions, Muse cells self-renew in a controlled manner and do not form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. Furthermore, Muse cells express classic pluripotency markers and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. When transplanted in vivo, Muse cells contribute to tissue generation and repair. This review delves into the aspects of Muse cells that set them apart from ES, iPS, and various reported adult pluripotent stem cell lines, with specific emphasis on Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT), and their potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy. PMID:24940477

  6. Pluripotent muse cells derived from human adipose tissue: a new perspective on regenerative medicine and cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells were introduced to the scientific community, offering potential resolution to the issue of teratoma formation that plagues both embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells. Isolated from human bone marrow, dermal fibroblasts, adipose tissue and commercially available adipose stem cells (ASCs) under severe cellular stress conditions, Muse cells self-renew in a controlled manner and do not form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. Furthermore, Muse cells express classic pluripotency markers and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. When transplanted in vivo, Muse cells contribute to tissue generation and repair. This review delves into the aspects of Muse cells that set them apart from ES, iPS, and various reported adult pluripotent stem cell lines, with specific emphasis on Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT), and their potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy. PMID:24940477

  7. Spline-Based Smoothing of Airfoil Curvatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Krist, S.

    2008-01-01

    Constrained fitting for airfoil curvature smoothing (CFACS) is a splinebased method of interpolating airfoil surface coordinates (and, concomitantly, airfoil thicknesses) between specified discrete design points so as to obtain smoothing of surface-curvature profiles in addition to basic smoothing of surfaces. CFACS was developed in recognition of the fact that the performance of a transonic airfoil is directly related to both the curvature profile and the smoothness of the airfoil surface. Older methods of interpolation of airfoil surfaces involve various compromises between smoothing of surfaces and exact fitting of surfaces to specified discrete design points. While some of the older methods take curvature profiles into account, they nevertheless sometimes yield unfavorable results, including curvature oscillations near end points and substantial deviations from desired leading-edge shapes. In CFACS as in most of the older methods, one seeks a compromise between smoothing and exact fitting. Unlike in the older methods, the airfoil surface is modified as little as possible from its original specified form and, instead, is smoothed in such a way that the curvature profile becomes a smooth fit of the curvature profile of the original airfoil specification. CFACS involves a combination of rigorous mathematical modeling and knowledge-based heuristics. Rigorous mathematical formulation provides assurance of removal of undesirable curvature oscillations with minimum modification of the airfoil geometry. Knowledge-based heuristics bridge the gap between theory and designers best practices. In CFACS, one of the measures of the deviation of an airfoil surface from smoothness is the sum of squares of the jumps in the third derivatives of a cubicspline interpolation of the airfoil data. This measure is incorporated into a formulation for minimizing an overall deviation- from-smoothness measure of the airfoil data within a specified fitting error tolerance. CFACS has been extensively tested on a number of supercritical airfoil data sets generated by inverse design and optimization computer programs. All of the smoothing results show that CFACS is able to generate unbiased smooth fits of curvature profiles, trading small modifications of geometry for increasing curvature smoothness by eliminating curvature oscillations and bumps (see figure).

  8. MUSE-ings on AM1354-250: Collisions, Shocks, and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Blair C.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Smith, Rory; Candlish, Graeme N.

    2016-03-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of AM1354-250, confirming its status as a collisional ring galaxy that has recently undergone an interaction, creating its distinctive shape. We analyze the stellar and gaseous emission throughout the galaxy finding direct evidence that the gaseous ring is expanding with a velocity of ˜70 km s-1 and that star formation is occurring primarily in H ii regions associated with the ring. This star formation activity is likely triggered by this interaction. We find evidence for several excitation mechanisms in the gas, including emission consistent with shocked gas in the expanding ring and a region of LINER-like emission in the central core of the galaxy. Evidence of kinematic disturbance in both the stars and gas, possibly also triggered by the interaction, can be seen in all of the velocity maps. The ring galaxy retains a weak spiral structure, strongly suggesting the progenitor galaxy was a massive spiral prior to the collision with its companion an estimated 140 ± 12 Myr ago.

  9. Muse cells, newly found non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, reside in human mesenchymal tissues.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Shohei; Akashi, Hideo; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Dezawa, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been presumed to include a subpopulation of pluripotent-like cells as they differentiate not only into the same mesodermal-lineage cells but also into ectodermal- and endodermal-lineage cells and exert tissue regenerative effects in a wide variety of tissues. A novel type of pluripotent stem cell, Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, was recently discovered in mesenchymal tissues such as the bone marrow, adipose tissue, dermis and connective tissue of organs, as well as in cultured fibroblasts and bone marrow-MSCs. Muse cells are able to differentiate into all three germ layers from a single cell and to self-renew, and yet exhibit non-tumorigenic and low telomerase activities. They can migrate to and target damaged sites in vivo, spontaneously differentiate into cells compatible with the targeted tissue, and contribute to tissue repair. Thus, Muse cells may account for the wide variety of differentiation abilities and tissue repair effects that have been observed in MSCs. Muse cells are unique in that they are pluripotent stem cells that belong in the living body, and are thus assumed to play an important role in 'regenerative homeostasis' in vivo. PMID:24471964

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MUSE 3D view of HDF-S (Bacon+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouche, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clement, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-04-01

    The HDFS was observed during six nights in July 25-29, 31 and August 2, 3 2014 of the last commissioning run of MUSE. We used the nominal wavelength range (4750-9300Å) and performed a series of exposures of 30min each. (3 data files).

  11. SoTL and National Difference: Musings from Three Historians from Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Sean; Kelly, T. Mills; Timmins, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    What role does/should national difference play in our understanding of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) as a concept and a practice? Three historians from Australia, the UK and the USA muse on this important issue. Informed by their engagement with the literature and the field, they argue that national difference is an observable…

  12. MUSE--Model for University Strategic Evaluation. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; Zullig, Craig M.; Starkman, Glenn D.; Tanski, Laura E.

    A model for simulating college and university operations, finances, program investments, and market response in terms of applicants, acceptances, and retention has been developed and implemented using the system dynamics approach. The Model for University Strategic Evaluation (MUSE) is a simulation of the total operations of the university,…

  13. Muse Cells, a New Type of Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived from Human Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Ru-zhi; Li, Di; Cheng, Sai; Yang, Yu-hua; Tian, Ting; Pan, Xiao-ru

    2016-04-01

    A new type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that expresses stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3) and the mesenchymal cell marker CD105 are known as multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells. Studies have shown that stem cells in suspension cultures are more likely to generate embryoid body-like stem cell spheres and maintain an undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency. We separated Muse cells derived from human dermal fibroblasts by long-term trypsin incubation (LTT) through suspension cultures in methylcellulose. The Muse cells obtained expressed several pluripotency markers, including Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, and SSEA-3, and could differentiate in vitro into cells of the three germ layers, such as hepatocytes (endodermal), neural cells (ectodermal) and adipocytes, and osteocytes (mesodermal cells). These cells showed a low level of DNA methylation and a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. Our study provides an innovative and exciting platform for exploring the potential cell-based therapy of various human diseases using Muse cells as well as their great possibility for regenerative medicine. PMID:27055628

  14. Musings of Someone in the Disability Support Services Field for Almost 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin, Sam

    2014-01-01

    As the title states, this article is a collection of musings with only modest attempts at establishing an order for them or connections between them. It is not quite "free association," but it is close. This structure or perhaps lack of it reflects the variety of things we do in our work. Many of the things we do have little in common…

  15. From Sun King to Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France from the Musee Picardie, Amiens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the traveling exhibition from the Musee de Picardie in Amiens, France, called "From the Sun King to the Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France," that provides an overview of French paintings from the reign of Louis IV to the fall of the monarchy. (CMK)

  16. The outer filament of Centaurus A as seen by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, F.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Tremblay, G.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known to inject kinetic energy into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) of their host galaxy via plasma jets. Understanding the impact that these flows can have on the host galaxy helps to characterize a crucial phase in their evolution. Because of its proximity, Centaurus A is an excellent laboratory in which the physics of the coupling of jet mechanical energy to the surrounding medium may be investigated. About 15 kpc northeast of this galaxy, a particularly complex region is found: the so-called outer filament, where jet-cloud interactions have been proposed to occur. Aims: We investigate signatures of a jet-ISM interaction using optical integral-field observations of this region, expanding on previous results that were obtained on a more limited area. Methods: Using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the VLT during the science verification period, we observed two regions that together cover a significant fraction of the brighter emitting gas across the outer filament. Emission from a number of lines, among which Hβλ4861 Å, [ O iii ] λλ4959,5007 Å, Hαλ6563 Å, and [ N ii ] λλ6548,6584 Å, is detected in both regions. Results: The ionized gas shows a complex morphology with compact blobs, arc-like structures, and diffuse emission. Based on the kinematics, we identified three main components of ionized gas. Interestingly, their morphology is very different. The more collimated component is oriented along the direction of the radio jet. The other two components exhibit a diffuse morphology together with arc-like structures, which are also oriented along the radio jet direction. Furthermore, the ionization level of the gas, as traced by the [O iii]λ5007/Hβ ratio, is found to decrease from the more collimated component to the more diffuse components. Conclusions: The morphology and velocities of the more collimated component confirm the results of our previous study, which was

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Galileo's Muse: Renaissance Mathematics and the Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Mark; Sterken, Christiaan

    2013-12-01

    Galileo's Muse is a book that focuses on the life and thought of Galileo Galilei. The Prologue consists of a first chapter on Galileo the humanist and deals with Galileo's influence on his student Vincenzo Viviani (who wrote a biography of Galileo). This introductory chapter is followed by a very nice chapter that describes the classical legacy: Pythagoreanism and Platonism, Euclid and Archimedes, and Plutarch and Ptolemy. The author explicates the distinction between Greek and Roman contributions to the classical legacy, an explanation that is crucial for understanding Galileo and Renaissance mathematics. The following eleven chapters of this book arranged in a kind of quadrivium, viz., Poetry, Painting, Music, Architecture present arguments to support the author's thesis that the driver for Galileo's genius was not Renaissance science as is generally accepted but Renaissance arts brought forth by poets, painters, musicians, and architects. These four sets of chapters describe the underlying mathematics in poetry, visual arts, music and architecture. Likewise, Peterson stresses the impact of the philosophical overtones present in geometry, but absent in algebra and its equations. Basically, the author writes about Galileo, while trying to ignore the Copernican controversy, which he sees as distracting attention from Galileo's scientific legacy. As such, his story deviates from the standard myth on Galileo. But the book also looks at other eminent characters, such as Galileo's father Vincenzo (who cultivated music and music theory), the painter Piero della Francesca (who featured elaborate perspectives in his work), Dante Alighieri (author of the Divina Commedia), Filippo Brunelleschi (who engineered the dome of the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, Johannes Kepler (a strong supporter of Galileo's Copernicanism), etc. This book is very well documented: it offers, for each chapter, a wide selection of excellent biographical notes, and includes a fine

  18. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouché, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-03-01

    We observed Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral-field spectrograph MUSE that we built and have just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 h of integration covers one arcmin2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1σ emission-line surface brightness limit of 1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, and contains ~90 000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we performed a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the Hubble Deep Field South imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude I814 = 29.5, increasing the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field by more than an order of magnitude. We also discovered 26 Lyα emitting galaxies that are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad-band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3 Å allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lyα emitters, [O ii]3727 emitters, and C iii]1908 emitters, and the broad instantaneous wavelength range of 4500 Å helps to identify single emission lines, such as [O iii]5007, Hβ, and Hα, over a very wide redshift range. We also show how the three-dimensional information of MUSE helps to resolve sources that are confused at ground-based image quality. Overall, secure identifications are provided for 83% of the 227 emission line sources detected in the MUSE data cube and for 32% of the 586 sources identified in the HST catalogue. The overall redshift distribution is fairly flat to z = 6.3, with a reduction between z = 1.5 to 2.9, in the well-known redshift desert. The field of view of MUSE also allowed us to detect 17 groups within the field. We checked that the number counts of [O ii]3727 and Lyα emitters are roughly consistent with predictions from the literature. Using two examples, we demonstrate that MUSE is able to provide exquisite spatially resolved spectroscopic information on the intermediate-redshift galaxies present in the field. Thisunique data set can be used for a

  19. VLT/MUSE discovers a jet from the evolved B[e] star MWC 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Groh, J. H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Martayan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Not all stars exhibiting the optical spectral characteristics of B[e] stars are in the same evolutionary stage. The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with uncertain classification, where previous work has suggested either a pre- or a post-main sequence classification. Our goal is to settle this debate and provide a reliable evolutionary classification. Methods: Integral field spectrograph observations with the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT MUSE) of the cluster SH 2-266 are used to analyze the nature of MWC 137. Results: A collimated outflow is discovered that is geometrically centered on MWC 137. The central position of MWC 137 in the cluster SH 2-266 within the larger nebula suggests strongly that it is a member of this cluster and that it is the origin of both the nebula and the newly discovered jet. Comparison of the color-magnitude diagram of the brightest cluster stars with stellar evolutionary models results in a distance of about 5.2 ± 1.4 kpc. We estimate that the cluster is at least 3 Myr old. The jet emanates from MWC 137 at a position angle of 18-20°. The jet extends over 66'' (1.7 pc) projected on the plane of the sky, shows several knots, and has electron densities of about 103 cm-1 and projected velocities of up to ± 450 km s-1. From the Balmer emission line decrement of the diffuse intracluster nebulosity, we determine E(B-V) = 1.4 mag for the inner 1' cluster region. The spectral energy distribution of the brightest cluster stars yields a slightly lower extinction of E(B-V) ~ 1.2 mag for the inner region and E(B-V) ~ 0.4-0.8 mag for the outer region. The extinction toward MWC 137 is estimated to be E(B-V) ~ 1.8 mag (AV ~ 5.6 mag). Conclusions: Our analysis of the optical and near-infrared color-magnitude and color-color diagrams suggests a post-main sequence stage for MWC 137. The existence of a jet in this object implies the presence of an accretion disk. Several possibilities for MWC

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 3115 MUSE images (Guerou+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerou, A.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnovic, D.; McDermid, R. M.; Contini, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    NGC 3115 was observed during the night of 8 February 2014 using MUSE nominal mode (WFM-N) that allows a continuous wavelength coverage from 4750-9300Å with a varying resolution of R=2000-4000. These data were designed as a first test of the mosaicing abilities of MUSE using an extended (bright) target that showed substructures and had ample published imaging and spectroscopic data for comparison. Five exposures of only 10 minutes each were obtained, each exposure overlapping its neighbours over a quarter of the field of view (i.e. 30"x30"), with the central exposure centred on the galaxy nucleus. The data obtained cover ~4Re (Re~35", Arnold et al. 2014ApJ...791...80A) along the NGC 3115 major axis. File images.fits contains multiple extensions to allow users to reproduce the figures 3 and 5 of the paper, and so most of the other figures. (2 data files).

  1. ADS reactivity measurements from MUSE to TRADE (and where do we go from here?)

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.; Mellier, F.; Jammes, C.; Philibert, H.; Granget, G.; Gonzalez, E.; Villamarin, D.; Rosa, R.; Carta, M.; Monti, S.; Baeten, P.; Billebaud, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a link between the MUSE (Multiplication avec Source Externe) program performed at CEA-Cadarache in France, and the TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) program performed at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. In both programs, extensive measurements were made to determine the best methods for sub-criticality measurements in an accelerator-driven system. A very serious attempt was made to quantify the uncertainties associated with such measurements. While both MUSE and TRADE studied the methods of sub-criticality determination, in fact the two systems are very different. MUSE was a fast system with MOX fuel (generation time around 0.5 {mu}s), and TRADE was performed in a TRIGA reactor (generation time around 50 {mu}s). This paper will summarize the important results of these two experiments, with the main purpose being to tie them together to attempt to draw generic conclusions that can be applied in the future to a real ADS. In addition, this paper will briefly discuss the next series of experiments that will continue this work in the U.S. (RACE, Reactor Accelerator Coupled Experiments), Belarus (YALINA), Belgium (GUINEVERE), and Russia (SAD, Sub-critical Assembly Dubna). MUSE and TRADE have contributed greatly to our understanding of the uncertainties associated with sub-critical measurements, but there are still some gaps that must be covered. This paper will describe the gaps that exist, and demonstrate how the above future programs will fill in the missing information needed for the design of an actual ADS system in the future. (authors)

  2. Isolation, culture and evaluation of multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Murakami, Toru; Nojima, Makoto; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are distinct stem cells in mesenchymal cell populations with the capacity to self-renew, to differentiate into cells representative of all three germ layers from a single cell, and to repair damaged tissues by spontaneous differentiation into tissue-specific cells without forming teratomas. We describe step-by-step procedures for isolating and evaluating these cells. Muse cells are also a practical cell source for human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with markedly high generation efficiency. They can be collected as cells that are double positive for stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3) and CD105 from commercially available mesenchymal cells, such as adult human bone marrow stromal cells and dermal fibroblasts, or from fresh adult human bone marrow samples. Under both spontaneous and induced differentiation conditions, they show triploblastic differentiation. It takes 4-6 h to collect and 2 weeks to confirm the differentiation and self-renewal capacity of Muse cells. PMID:23787896

  3. A kinematically distinct core and minor-axis rotation: the MUSE perspective on M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Sarzi, Marc

    2014-11-01

    We present evidence for the presence of a low-amplitude kinematically distinct component in the giant early-type galaxy M87, via data sets obtained with the SAURON and MUSE integral-field spectroscopic units. The MUSE velocity field reveals a strong twist of ˜140° within the central 30 arcsec connecting outwards such a kinematically distinct core to a prolate-like rotation around the large-scale photometric major axis of the galaxy. The existence of these kinematic features within the apparently round central regions of M87 implies a non-axisymmetric and complex shape for this galaxy, which could be further constrained using the presented kinematics. The associated orbital structure should be interpreted together with other tracers of the gravitational potential probed at larger scales (e.g. globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs, planetary nebulae): it would offer an insight in the assembly history of one of the brightest galaxies in the Virgo cluster. These data also demonstrate the potential of the MUSE spectrograph to uncover low-amplitude spectral signatures.

  4. Mapping the inner regions of the polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iodice, E.; Coccato, L.; Combes, F.; de Zeeuw, T.; Arnaboldi, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Bacon, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Spavone, M.

    2015-11-01

    The polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A was observed during the commissioning of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the ESO Very Large Telescope to obtain the first 2D map of the velocity and velocity dispersion for both stars and gas. The new MUSE data allow the analysis of the structure and kinematics towards the central regions of NGC 4650A, where the two components co-exist. These regions were unexplored by the previous long-slit literature data available for this galaxy. The stellar velocity field shows that there are two main directions of rotation, one along the host galaxy major axis (PA = 67 deg) and the other along the polar disk (PA = 160 deg). The host galaxy has, on average, the typical pattern of a rotating disk, with receding velocities on the SW side and approaching velocities on the NE side, and a velocity dispersion that remains constant at all radii (σstar ~ 50-60 km s-1). The polar disk shows a large amount of differential rotation from the centre up to the outer regions, reaching V ~ 100-120 km s-1 at R ~ 75 arcsec ~ 16 kpc. Inside the host galaxy, a velocity gradient is measured along the photometric minor axis. Close to the centre, for R ≤ 2 arcsec the velocity profile of the gas suggests a decoupled component and the velocity dispersion increases up to ~110 km s-1, while at larger distances it remains almost constant (σgas ~ 30-40 km s-1). The extended view of NGC 4650A given by the MUSE data is a galaxy made of two perpendicular disks that remain distinct and drive the kinematics right into the very centre of this object. In order to match this observed structure for NGC 4650A, we constructed a multicomponent mass model made by the combined projection of two disks. By comparing the observations with the 2D kinematics derived from the model, we found that the modelled mass distribution in these two disks can, on average, account for the complex kinematics revealed by the MUSE data, also in the central regions of the galaxy where the

  5. Functional melanocytes are readily reprogrammable from multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (muse) cells, distinct stem cells in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Nojima, Makoto; Sawaya, Natsue; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-10-01

    The induction of melanocytes from easily accessible stem cells has attracted attention for the treatment of melanocyte dysfunctions. We found that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, a distinct stem cell type among human dermal fibroblasts, can be readily reprogrammed into functional melanocytes, whereas the remainder of the fibroblasts do not contribute to melanocyte differentiation. Muse cells can be isolated as cells positive for stage-specific embryonic antigen-3, a marker for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, and differentiate into cells representative of all three germ layers from a single cell, while also being nontumorigenic. The use of certain combinations of factors induces Muse cells to express melanocyte markers such as tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and to show positivity for the 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine reaction. When Muse cell-derived melanocytes were incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) cultured skin models, they localized themselves in the basal layer of the epidermis and produced melanin in the same manner as authentic melanocytes. They also maintained their melanin production even after the 3D cultured skin was transplanted to immunodeficient mice. This technique may be applicable to the efficient production of melanocytes from accessible human fibroblasts by using Muse cells, thereby contributing to autologous transplantation for melanocyte dysfunctions, such as vitiligo. PMID:23563197

  6. A MUSE View of the HUDF: The Lyα Luminosity Function out to z ˜ 6.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryony Drake, Alyssa

    2015-08-01

    I will present first results on the Lyα luminosity function in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), using a large, homogeneous, sample of LAEs selected through blind spectroscopy from MUSE. The unprecedented detection power of MUSE gives us the sensitivity to study the progenitors of L∗ galaxies when the Universe was just ˜ 2 Gyr old. These data therefore probe further down the Lyα LF than ever before, allowing us to reliably constrain the faint end slope, α, at high redshift, as well as assessing the evolution of the Lyα LF between z ˜ 3.0 and z ˜ 6.5. Finally I will show the first assessment from MUSE of the contribution of LAEs to the cosmic SFRD across this redshift range, and discuss the implications of our results on models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  7. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are a primary source of induced pluripotent stem cells in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Shigemoto, Taeko; Matsuse, Dai; Akashi, Hideo; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Tomohiko; Goda, Makoto; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic and elite models have been proposed for the mechanism of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell generation. In this study we report a system that supports the elite model. We previously identified multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in human dermal fibroblasts that are characterized by stress tolerance, expression of pluripotency markers, self-renewal, and the ability to differentiate into endodermal-, mesodermal-, and ectodermal-lineage cells from a single cell. They can be isolated as stage-specific embryonic antigen-3/CD105 double-positive cells. When human fibroblasts were separated into Muse and non-Muse cells and transduced with Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, iPS cells were generated exclusively from Muse cells but not from non-Muse cells. Although some colonies were formed from non-Muse cells, they were unlike iPS cells. Furthermore, epigenetic alterations were not seen, and some of the major pluripotency markers were not expressed for the entire period during iPS cell generation. These findings were confirmed further using cells transduced with a single polycistronic virus vector encoding all four factors. The results demonstrate that in adult human fibroblasts a subset of preexisting adult stem cells whose properties are similar in some respects to those of iPS cells selectively become iPS cells, but the remaining cells make no contribution to the generation of iPS cells. Therefore this system seems to fit the elite model rather than the stochastic model. PMID:21628574

  8. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are a primary source of induced pluripotent stem cells in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Shigemoto, Taeko; Matsuse, Dai; Akashi, Hideo; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Tomohiko; Goda, Makoto; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2011-06-14

    The stochastic and elite models have been proposed for the mechanism of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell generation. In this study we report a system that supports the elite model. We previously identified multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in human dermal fibroblasts that are characterized by stress tolerance, expression of pluripotency markers, self-renewal, and the ability to differentiate into endodermal-, mesodermal-, and ectodermal-lineage cells from a single cell. They can be isolated as stage-specific embryonic antigen-3/CD105 double-positive cells. When human fibroblasts were separated into Muse and non-Muse cells and transduced with Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, iPS cells were generated exclusively from Muse cells but not from non-Muse cells. Although some colonies were formed from non-Muse cells, they were unlike iPS cells. Furthermore, epigenetic alterations were not seen, and some of the major pluripotency markers were not expressed for the entire period during iPS cell generation. These findings were confirmed further using cells transduced with a single polycistronic virus vector encoding all four factors. The results demonstrate that in adult human fibroblasts a subset of preexisting adult stem cells whose properties are similar in some respects to those of iPS cells selectively become iPS cells, but the remaining cells make no contribution to the generation of iPS cells. Therefore this system seems to fit the elite model rather than the stochastic model. PMID:21628574

  9. Unveiling the counter-rotating nature of the kinematically distinct core in NGC 5813 with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajnović, Davor; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Urrutia, Tanya; Emsellem, Eric; Carollo, C. Marcella; Shirazi, Maryam; Bacon, Roland; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoît; Kamann, Sebastian; Martinsson, Thomas; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of NGC 5813 reveal a complex structure in the velocity dispersion map, previously hinted at by SAURON observations. The structure is reminiscent of velocity dispersion maps of galaxies comprising two counter-rotating discs, and might explain the existence of the kinematically distinct core (KDC). Further evidence for two counter-rotating components comes from the analysis of the higher moments of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions and fitting MUSE spectra with two separate Gaussian line-of-sight velocity distributions. The emission-line kinematics show evidence of being linked to the present cooling flows and the buoyant cavities seen in X-rays. We detect ionized gas in a nuclear disc-like structure, oriented like the KDC, which is, however, not directly related to the KDC. We build an axisymmetric Schwarzschild dynamical model, which shows that the MUSE kinematics can be reproduced well with two counter-rotating orbit families, characterized by relatively low angular momentum components, but clearly separated in integral phase space and with radially varying contributions. The model indicates that the counter-rotating components in NGC 5813 are not thin discs, but dynamically hot structures. Our findings give further evidence that KDCs in massive galaxies should not necessarily be considered as structurally or dynamically decoupled regions, but as the outcomes of the mixing of different orbital families, where the balance in the distribution of mass of the orbital families is crucial. We discuss the formation of the KDC in NGC 5813 within the framework of gas accretion, binary mergers and formation of turbulent thick discs from cold streams at high redshift.

  10. Scaling Relations in the High-z Universe with Lensing and MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagattuta, David James; Richard, Johan; Clément, Benjamin; Patricio, Vera; Mahler, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    We present new gravitational lensing models for giant arcs in the Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, incorporating cluster- and galaxy-scale substructure to improve the model fit. From these models we are able to reconstruct the un-lensed properties of the arcs, including morphology and total luminosity. Combining this information with 2D kinematic data from MUSE spectroscopy, we are further able to construct a high redshift (z > 1) Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, which -- when compared to its lower redshift counterparts -- can be used to probe the evolution of the TF relation over cosmological time.

  11. Mineralogy and Major Element Abundance of the Dust Particles Recovered from Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Yada, T.; Shirai, K.; Okazaki, R.; Fujimura, A.; Ishibashi, Y.; Abe, M.; Okada, T.; Ueno, M.; Mukai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing by the spacecraft Hayabusa suggested that outermost surface particles of Muses-C regio of the asteroid Itokawa consist of centimeter and sub-centimeter size small pebbles. However, particles we found in the sample catcher A stored in the Hayabusa capsule, where Muses-C particles were captured during first touchdown, are much smaller. i.e., most are smaller than 100 microns in size. This suggests that only small fractions of Muses-C particles were stirred up due to the impact of the sampling horn onto the surface, or due to jets from chemical thrusters during the lift off of the spacecraft from the surface. X-ray fluorescence and near-infrared measurements by the Hayabusa spacecraft suggested that Itokawa surface materials have mineral and major element composition roughly similar to LL chondrites. The particles of the Muses-C region are expected to have experienced some effects of space weathering. Both of these prospects can be tested by the direct mineralogical analyses of the returned Itokawa particles in our study and another one. This comparison is most important aspect of the Hayabusa mission, because it finally links chemical analyses of meteorites fallen on the Earth to spectroscopic measurements of the asteroids.

  12. Resolved properties of high-redshift lensed galaxies seen with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricio, Vera; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne; Christensen, Lise; Lagattuta, David; Clément, Benjamin; Mahler, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Spatially resolved properties of high redshift galaxies provide important insights into galaxy formation processes. However, with the current instrumentation we have been limited to the analysis of the Lyman alpha line and UV continuum through long-slit observations of individual galaxies or stacking. Combining the power of the newly commissioned integral field spectrograph MUSE on VLT with strong gravitational lensing, it is now possible to spatially probe the rest-frame UV properties of individual high-z galaxies.I will present the study of a 109 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3.5 strongly lensed by the SMACS2031 cluster for which we were able to obtain 2D resolved spatial information of Lyman alpha, and, for the fist time, CIII] emission. The exceptional signal to noise of the data also allows the study of the UV continuum as well as emission and absorption lines rarely measured at these redshifts. We compare the spatial Lyman alpha information and continuum properties with radiative transfer models, resulting in a unique view of an individual high-z galaxy.Additionally, I will present the first results from a sample of 8 high redshift (z = 0.7 - 1.5) extended lensed arcs in the Frontier Fields, also observed with MUSE.With this sample, wederive gas kinematics from both emission and absorption lines, as well as properties of resolved stellar populations.

  13. The MAGNUM survey: positive feedback in the nuclear region of NGC 5643 suggested by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresci, G.; Marconi, A.; Zibetti, S.; Risaliti, G.; Carniani, S.; Mannucci, F.; Gallazzi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Capetti, A.; Cicone, C.; Feruglio, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Nagao, T.; Oliva, E.; Salvato, M.; Sani, E.; Tozzi, P.; Urrutia, T.; Venturi, G.

    2015-10-01

    We study the ionization and kinematics of the ionized gas in the nuclear region of the barred Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5643 using MUSE integral field observations in the framework of the Measuring Active Galactic Nuclei Under MUSE Microscope (MAGNUM) survey. The data were used to identify regions with different ionization conditions and to map the gas density and the dust extinction. We find evidence for a double-sided ionization cone, possibly collimated by a dusty structure surrounding the nucleus. At the center of the ionization cone, outflowing ionized gas is revealed as a blueshifted, asymmetric wing of the [OIII] emission line, up to projected velocity v10 ~ -450 km s-1. The outflow is also seen as a diffuse, low-luminosity radio and X-ray jet, with similar extension. The outflowing material points in the direction of two clumps characterized by prominent line emission with spectra typical of HII regions, located at the edge of the dust lane of the bar. We propose that the star formation in the clumps is due to positive feedback induced by gas compression by the nuclear outflow, providing the first candidate for outflow-induced star formation in a Seyfert-like, radio-quiet AGN. This suggests that positive feedback may be a relevant mechanism in shaping the black hole-host galaxy coevolution. This work is based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program 60.A-9339).

  14. Astronomical optical frequency comb generation and test in a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Fremberg, T.; Moralejo, B.; Rutowska, M.; Hernandez, E.; Zajnulina, M.; Kelz, A.; Bodenmüller, D.; Sandin, C.; Wysmolek, M.; Sayinc, H.; Neumann, J.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    We here report on recent progress on astronomical optical frequency comb generation at innoFSPEC-Potsdam and present preliminary test results using the fiber-fed Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectrograph. The frequency comb is generated by propagating two free-running lasers at 1554.3 and 1558.9 nm through two dispersionoptimized nonlinear fibers. The generated comb is centered at 1590 nm and comprises more than one hundred lines with an optical-signal-to-noise ratio larger than 30 dB. A nonlinear crystal is used to frequency double the whole comb spectrum, which is efficiently converted into the 800 nm spectral band. We evaluate first the wavelength stability using an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.02 nm resolution and wavelength grid of 0.01 nm. After confirming the stability within 0.01 nm, we compare the spectra of the astro-comb and the Ne and Hg calibration lamps: the astro-comb exhibits a much larger number of lines than lamp calibration sources. A series of preliminary tests using a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph are subsequently carried out with the main goal of assessing the equidistancy of the comb lines. Using a P3d data reduction software we determine the centroid and the width of each comb line (for each of the 400 fibers feeding the spectrograph): equidistancy is confirmed with an absolute accuracy of 0.4 pm.

  15. Minority Universities Systems Engineering (MUSE) Program at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Mary Clare; Usevitch, Bryan; Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) responded to the suggestion of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) to form a consortium comprised of California State University at Los Angeles (CSULA), North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University (NCAT), and UTEP from which developed the Minority Universities Systems Engineering (MUSE) Program. The mission of this consortium is to develop a unique position for minority universities in providing the nation's future system architects and engineers as well as enhance JPL's system design capability. The goals of this collaboration include the development of a system engineering curriculum which includes hands-on project engineering and design experiences. UTEP is in a unique position to take full advantage of this program since UTEP has been named a Model Institution for Excellence (MIE) by the National Science Foundation. The purpose of MIE is to produce leaders in Science, Math, and Engineering. Furthermore, UTEP has also been selected as the site for two new centers including the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Sciences (PACES) directed by Dr. Scott Starks and the FAST Center for Structural Integrity of Aerospace Systems directed by Dr. Roberto Osegueda. The UTEP MUSE Program operates under the auspices of the PACES Center.

  16. Slide-free histology via MUSE: UV surface excitation microscopy for imaging unsectioned tissue (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, Richard M.; Harmany, Zachary; Demos, Stavros G.; Fereidouni, Farzad

    2016-03-01

    Widely used methods for preparing and viewing tissue specimens at microscopic resolution have not changed for over a century. They provide high-quality images but can involve time-frames of hours or even weeks, depending on logistics. There is increasing interest in slide-free methods for rapid tissue analysis that can both decrease turn-around times and reduce costs. One new approach is MUSE (microscopy with UV surface excitation), which exploits the shallow penetration of UV light to excite fluorescent signals from only the most superficial tissue elements. The method is non-destructive, and eliminates requirement for conventional histology processing, formalin fixation, paraffin embedding, or thin sectioning. It requires no lasers, confocal, multiphoton or optical coherence tomography optics. MUSE generates diagnostic-quality histological images that can be rendered to resemble conventional hematoxylin- and eosin-stained samples, with enhanced topographical information, from fresh or fixed, but unsectioned tissue, rapidly, with high resolution, simply and inexpensively. We anticipate that there could be widespread adoption in research facilities, hospital-based and stand-alone clinical settings, in local or regional pathology labs, as well as in low-resource environments.

  17. NASA Participation in the ISAS MUSES C Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) have agreed to cooperate on the first mission to collect samples from the surface of an asteroid and return them to Earth for in-depth study. The MUSES-C mission will be launched on a Japanese MV launch vehicle in January 2002 from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan, toward a touchdown on the asteroid Nereus in September 2003. A NASA-provided miniature rover will conduct in-situ measurements on the surface. The asteroid samples will be returned to Earth by MUSES-C via a parachute-borne recovery capsule in January 2006. NASA and ISAS will cooperate on several aspects of the mission, including mission support and scientific analysis. In addition to providing the rover, NASA will arrange for the testing of the MUSES-C re-entry heat shield at NASA/Ames Research Center, provide supplemental Deep Space Network tracking of the spacecraft, assist in navigating the spacecraft and provide arrangements for the recovery of the sample capsule at a landing site in the U. S. Scientific coinvestigators from the U.S. and Japan will share data from the instruments on the rover and the spacecraft. They will also collaborate on the investigations of the returned samples. With a mass of about I kg, the rover experiment will be a direct descendant of the technology used to build the Sojourner rover. The rover will carry three science instruments: a visible imaging camera, a near-infrared point spectrometer and an alpha X ray spectrometer. The solarpowered rover will move around the surface of Nereus collecting imagery data which are complimentary to the spacecraft investigation. The imaging system will be capable of making surface texture, composition, and morphology measurements at resolutions better than 1 cm. The rover will transmit this data to the spacecraft for relay back to Earth. Due to the microgravity environment on Nereus, the rover has been designed to right itself in case it flips over. Solar panels on all

  18. Exploring the mass assembly of the early-type disc galaxy NGC 3115 with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérou, A.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; McDermid, R. M.; Contini, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    We present MUSE integral field spectroscopic data of the S0 galaxy NGC 3115 obtained during the instrument commissioning at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). We analyse the galaxy stellar kinematics and stellar populations and present two-dimensional maps of their associated quantities. We thus illustrate the capacity of MUSE to map extra-galactic sources to large radii in an efficient manner, i.e. ~4 Re, and provide relevant constraints on its mass assembly. We probe the well-known set of substructures of NGC 3115 (nuclear disc, stellar rings, outer kpc-scale stellar disc, and spheroid) and show their individual associated signatures in the MUSE stellar kinematics and stellar populations maps. In particular, we confirm that NGC 3115 has a thin fast-rotating stellar disc embedded in a fast-rotating spheroid, and that these two structures show clear differences in their stellar age and metallicity properties. We emphasise an observed correlation between the radial stellar velocity, V, and the Gauss-Hermite moment, h3, which creates a butterfly shape in the central 15'' of the h3 map. We further detect the previously reported weak spiral- and ring-like structures, and find evidence that these features can be associated with regions of younger mean stellar ages. We provide tentative evidence for the presence of a bar, although the V-h3 correlation can be reproduced by a simple axisymmetric dynamical model. Finally, we present a reconstruction of the two-dimensional star formation history of NGC 3115 and find that most of its current stellar mass was formed at early epochs (>12 Gyr ago), while star formation continued in the outer (kpc-scale) stellar disc until recently. Since z ~2 and within ~4 Re, we suggest that NGC 3115 has been mainly shaped by secular processes. The images of the derived parameters in FITS format and the reduced datacube are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  19. Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of MUSES C Target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Vilas, F.; Kelley, M. S.; Abell, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese MUSES C mission launched the Hayabusa spacecraft last May 15, 2003, to encounter and study the near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. The spacecraft will obtain visible images through broadband filters similar to the ECAS filters, and near-infrared spectra from 0.85 - 2.1 microns. In preparation for this encounter, opportunities to study the asteroid with Earth-based telescopes have been fully leveraged. Visible and near-infrared spectral observations were made of asteroid 25143 Itokawa during several nights of March, 2001, around the last apparition. We report here on the results of extensive spectral observations made to address the questions of compositional variations across the surface of the asteroid (as determined by the rotational period and shape model); variations in phase angle (Sun-Itokawa-Earth angle) on spectral characteristics; and predictions of Itokawa observations by Hayabusa based on the spectral resolution and responsivity of the NIRS and AMICA instruments.

  20. Development of a scintillating-fiber beam detector for the MUSE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Erez O.; Piasetzky, Eli; Shamai, Yair; Pilip, Nikolay

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design, simulation, and prototyping of a scintillating-fiber (SciFi) beam hodoscope that enables real-time particle identification, momentum and position determination, and flux counting in a low-momentum mixed beam of pions, electrons and muons for the MUon-proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland. The experimental demands and conceptual design are discussed, including the mixing scheme used to suppress cross-talk between adjacent fibers. A comparison between different types of fibers is given. The timing resolution for 1 plane of SciFis is 0.40 ± 0.05 ns, and for 2 fiber planes in coincidence, it is 0.27 ± 0.03 ns. The detection efficiency when at least two planes are required to fire is 98%.

  1. Ultra slow muon microscopy by laser resonant ionization at J-PARC, MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kadono, R.; Torikai, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Wada, S.; Saito, N.; Okamura, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Ito, T.; Higemoto, W.

    2013-04-01

    As one of the principal muon beam line at the J-PARC muon facility (MUSE), we are now constructing a Muon beam line (U-Line), which consists of a large acceptance solenoid made of mineral insulation cables (MIC), a superconducting curved transport solenoid and superconducting axial focusing magnets. There, we can extract 2 × 108/s surface muons towards a hot tungsten target. At the U-Line, we are now establishing a new type of muon microscopy; a new technique with use of the intense ultra-slow muon source generated by resonant ionization of thermal Muonium (designated as Mu; consisting of a μ + and an e - ) atoms generated from the surface of the tungsten target. In this contribution, the latest status of the Ultra Slow Muon Microscopy project, fully funded, is reported.

  2. MUSE tells the story of NGC 4371: The dawning of secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Seidel, Marja K.; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Falcón-Barroso, Jesus; Husemann, Bernd; Coelho, Paula; Pérez, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    We use data from the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), recently commissioned at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the kinematics and stellar population content of NGC 4371, an early-type massive barred galaxy in the core of the Virgo cluster. We integrate this study with a detailed structural analysis using imaging data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, which allows us to perform a thorough investigation of the physical properties of the galaxy. We show that the rotationally supported inner components in NGC 4371, i.e. an inner disc and a nuclear ring - which, according to the predominant scenario, are built with stars formed from gas brought to the inner region by the bar - are vastly dominated by stars older than 10 Gyr. Our results thus indicate that the formation of the bar occurred at a redshift of about z=1.8+0.5-0.4 (error bars are derived from 100 Monte Carlo realisations). NGC 4371 thus testifies to the robustness of bars. In addition, the mean stellar age of the portion of the major disc of the galaxy that is covered by our MUSE data is above 7 Gyr with a small contribution from younger stars. This suggests that the quenching of star formation in NGC 4371, which is very likely an environmental effect, was already occurring at a redshift of about z=0.8+0.2-0.1. Our results suggest that bar-driven secular evolution processes may have an extended impact on the evolution of galaxies, and thus on the properties of galaxies as observed today, and not necessarily be restricted to more recent cosmic epochs.

  3. Gradient in the IMF slope and Sodium abundance of M87 with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiniello, C.; Sarzi, M.; Krajnovic, D.

    2016-06-01

    We present evidence for a radial variation of the stellar initial mass function IMF) in the giant elliptical NGC~4486 based on integral-field MUSE data acquired during the first Science Verification run for this instrument. A steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF towards the centre of this galaxy is necessary to explain the increasing strength of several of the optical IMF sensitive features introduced by Spiniello et al., which we observe in high-quality spectra extracted in annular apertures. The need for a varying slope of the IMF emerges when the strength of these IMF-sensitive features, together with that other classical Lick indices mostly sensitive to stellar metallicity and the bundance of α-elements, are fitted with the state-of-the-art stellar population models from Conroy & van Dokkum and Vazdekis et al., which we modified in order to allow variations in IMF slope, metallicity and α-elements abundance. More specifically, adopting 13-Gyr-old, single-age stellar population models and an unimodal IMF we find that the slope of the latter increases from x=1.8 to x=2.6 in the central 25 arcsec of NGC~4486. Varying IMF accompanied by a metallicity gradient, whereas the abundance of α-element appears constant throughout the MUSE field of view. We found metallicity and α-element abundance gradients perfectly consistent with the literature. A sodium over-abundance is necessary (according to CvD12 models) at all the distances (for all the apertures) and a slight gradient of increasing [Na/Fe] ratio towards the center can be inferred. However, in order to completely break the degeneracies between Na-abundance, total metallicity and IMF variation a more detailed investigation that includes the redder NaI line is required.

  4. MUSE, a Lab-On-Chip System for In-Situ Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhard, F.; Prak, A.; van den Assem, D.

    Stork Product Engineering and 3T are working for several years on the development of an assembly technology for microsystem parts. This work has led to MATAS: Modular Assembly Technology for μTAS, a generic methodology which enables the development of very compact and highly integrated microsystems technology (MST) systems. MATAS has as great advantage that it enables the application of commercially available microsystem parts derived from different suppliers. The high degree of integration of both the MST parts with electronics enables the development of highly autonomous and intelligent systems which are suited for incorporation in planetary rovers or to support the research in ISS. For further improvement of the technology, and to show its advantages, the development of a system for on-chip capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been selected. CE, which is of old applied in the biosciences and biotechnology, is one of the key technologies for the detection and measurement of enantiomers. The study on enantiomers is an important aspect in the search to pre-biotic life. Due to the limited dimensions of Muse, the system is perfectly suited for use in a planetary rover but could also easily become part of the Astrobiology Facility of Space Station. For the measurement and detection of these enantiomers and other biomolecules, the system is equipped with a fluorescence detector. In 2002 a new project has been started to equip the system with an electrochemical detector enabling conductivity and amperometric analysis. Direct conductivity detection is especially applied in capillary ion electrophoresis, which can be used complementary, or separate to the zone electrophoresis, in which the fluorescence detector is applied. The combination of these detection technologies leads to a multi analysis system (Muse) with a very broad application area.

  5. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  6. A Distinct Subpopulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Muse Cells, Directly Commit to the Replacement of Liver Components.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, H; Kushida, Y; Nojima, M; Kuroda, Y; Wakao, S; Ishida, K; Endo, F; Kume, K; Takahara, T; Nitta, H; Tsuda, H; Dezawa, M; Nishizuka, S S

    2016-02-01

    Genotyping graft livers by short tandem repeats after human living-donor liver transplantation (n = 20) revealed the presence of recipient or chimeric genotype cases in hepatocytes (6 of 17, 35.3%), sinusoidal cells (18 of 18, 100%), cholangiocytes (15 of 17, 88.2%) and cells in the periportal areas (7 of 8, 87.5%), suggesting extrahepatic cell involvement in liver regeneration. Regarding extrahepatic origin, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been suggested to contribute to liver regeneration but compose a heterogeneous population. We focused on a more specific subpopulation (1-2% of BM-MSCs), called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, for their ability to differentiate into liver-lineage cells and repair tissue. We generated a physical partial hepatectomy model in immunodeficient mice and injected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human BM-MSC Muse cells intravenously (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and species-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that they integrated into regenerating areas and expressed liver progenitor markers during the early phase and then differentiated spontaneously into major liver components, including hepatocytes (≈74.3% of GFP-positive integrated Muse cells), cholangiocytes (≈17.7%), sinusoidal endothelial cells (≈2.0%), and Kupffer cells (≈6.0%). In contrast, the remaining cells in the BM-MSCs were not detected in the liver for up to 4 weeks. These results suggest that Muse cells are the predominant population of BM-MSCs that are capable of replacing major liver components during liver regeneration. PMID:26663569

  7. Lyman-α emitters in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation: predictions for VLT/MUSE surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, T.; Guiderdoni, B.; Blaizot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The VLT/Multi Unit Spectrograph Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectrograph can detect Lyα emitters (LAE) in the redshift range 2.8 ≲ z ≲ 6.7 in a homogeneous way. Ongoing MUSE surveys will notably probe faint Lyα sources that are usually missed by current narrow-band surveys. We provide quantitative predictions for a typical wedding-cake observing strategy with MUSE based on mock catalogues generated with a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation coupled to numerical Lyα radiation transfer models in gas outflows. We expect ≈1500 bright LAEs (FLyα ≳ 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) in a typical shallow field (SF) survey carried over ≈100 arcmin2 , and ≈2000 sources as faint as 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in a medium-deep field (MDF) survey over 10 arcmin2 . In a typical deep field (DF) survey of 1 arcmin2 , we predict that ≈500 extremely faint LAEs (FLyα ≳ 4 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2) will be found. Our results suggest that faint Lyα sources contribute significantly to the cosmic Lyα luminosity and SFR budget. While the host haloes of bright LAEs at z ≈ 3 and 6 have descendants with median masses of 2 × 1012 and 5 × 1013 M⊙, respectively, the faintest sources detectable by MUSE at these redshifts are predicted to reside in haloes which evolve into typical sub-L* and L* galaxy haloes at z = 0. We expect typical DF and MDF surveys to uncover the building blocks of Milky Way-like objects, even probing the bulk of the stellar mass content of LAEs located in their progenitor haloes at z ≈ 3.

  8. THE MID-INFRARED LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z < 0.3 FROM 5MUSES: UNDERSTANDING THE STAR FORMATION/ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS BALANCE FROM A SPECTROSCOPIC VIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yanling; Shi Yong; Helou, George; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Dale, Daniel A.; Papovich, Casey; Rahman, Nurur; Dasyra, Kalliopi E-mail: yong@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu E-mail: nurur@astro.umd.edu

    2011-06-10

    We present rest-frame 15 and 24 {mu}m luminosity functions (LFs) and the corresponding star-forming LFs at z < 0.3 derived from the 5MUSES sample. Spectroscopic redshifts have been obtained for {approx}98% of the objects and the median redshift is {approx}0.12. The 5-35 {mu}m Infrared Spectrograph spectra allow us to estimate accurately the luminosities and build the LFs. Using a combination of starburst and quasar templates, we quantify the star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributions in the mid-IR spectral energy distribution. We then compute the SF LFs at 15 and 24 {mu}m, and compare with the total 15 and 24 {mu}m LFs. When we remove the contribution of AGNs, the bright end of the LF exhibits a strong decline, consistent with the exponential cutoff of a Schechter function. Integrating the differential LF, we find that the fractional contribution by SF to the energy density is 58% at 15 {mu}m and 78% at 24 {mu}m, while it goes up to {approx}86% when we extrapolate our mid-IR results to the total IR luminosity density. We confirm that the AGNs play more important roles energetically at high luminosities. Finally, we compare our results with work at z {approx} 0.7 and confirm that evolution on both luminosity and density is required to explain the difference in the LFs at different redshifts.

  9. Characterization of the Surface Properties of MUSES-C/Hayabusa Spacecraft Target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Domingue, D. L.; Vilas, F.; Abe, M.; Farnham, T. L.; Jarvis, K. S.; Lowry, S. C.; Ohba, Y.; Weissman, P. R.; French, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    Several spacecraft missions have recently targeted asteroids to study their morphologies and physical properties (e.g. Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker), and more are planned. MUSES-C is a Japanese mission designed to rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The MUSES-C spacecraft, Hayabusa, was launched successfully in May 2003. It will rendezvous with its target asteroid in 2005, and return samples to the Earth in 2007. Its target, 25143 Itokawa (1998 SF36), made a close approach to the Earth in 2001. We collected an extensive ground-based database of broadband photometry obtained during this time, which maximized the phase angle coverage, to characterize this target in preparation for the mission. Our project was designed to capitalize on the broadband UBVRI photometric observations taken with a series of telescopes, instrumentation, and observers. Photometry and spectrophotometry of Itokawa were acquired at Lowell, McDonald, Steward, Palomar, Table Mountain and Kiso Observatories. The photometric data sets were combined to calculate Hapke model parameters of the surface material of Itokawa, and examine the solar-corrected broadband color characteristics of the asteroid. Broadband photometry of an object can be used to: (1) determine its colors and thereby contribute to the understanding of its surface composition and taxonomic class, and (2) infer global physical surface properties of the target body. We present both colors from UBVRI observations of the MUSES-C target Itokawa, and physical properties derived by applying a Hapke model to the broadband BVRI photometry.

  10. V: Musing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Kelin, Daniel; Plows, Kate; Conarro, Ryan; Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    When one says "writing about teaching artist practice," what exactly does that mean? In the first two sections (EJ1039315 and EJ1039319), the authors considered different ways to frame a story by either zooming in closely to a specific moment or zooming out to provide more context in an effort to address complex issues. The stories in…

  11. Initial analysis and curation plans for MUSES-C asteroidal samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, H.; Kushiro, I.; Fujiwara, A.

    In the MUSES-C mission, sample return of several hundred mg to several g in to- tal is expected from the surface of the S-type near Earth asteroid 1998SF36 in 2007. The MUSES-C samples are expected to be more similar to micrometeorites than large pieces of rocks. Also the initial analysis to characterize general aspects of returned samples can consume only 15 % of its total mass and must complete the whole anal- yses including the database building before international AO for detailed analyses opens in less than a year. Confident exercise of non-destructive, micro-analyses when- ever possible are thus vital for the SMUSES-C Asteroidal Sample Preliminary Exam- ination Team (MASPET)T, which will be formed by the ISAS MUSES-C team, the international partners from NASA and Australia and Sall-JapanT meteoritic scientists to be selected as outsourcing parts of the initial analyses. In 2000-2001, in the pur- pose to survey what kinds and levels of micro-analysis techniques in respective fields, from major elements and mineralogy to trace and isotopic elements and organics, are available in Japan at present, ISAS welcomed a total of 11 applications to the first round open competition for the MASPET candidates. The initial evaluation was made by multiple domestic peer reviews. Nine out of 11 were then provided two kinds of Sasteroid sample analogsT that no applicant knew what they were in advance by the Selection Committee (chair: I. Kushiro) in order to conduct proposed analysis with self-claimed amount of samples (100 mg max) in self-claimed duration (6 months max). The proponents must demonstrate how much their technical capabilities, ana- lytical precision, and usefulness of the derived results for subsequent detailed analyses are worth being included in the MASPET studies. After the completion of multiple, international peer reviews, the Selection Committee compiled evaluations and recom- mended the finalists of this round competition. However, it is also recognized

  12. MUSE discovers perpendicular arcs in the inner filament of Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, S.; Salomé, P.; Combes, F.; Salomé, Q.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Evidence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) interaction with the intergalactic medium is observed in some galaxies and many cool core clusters. Radio jets are suspected to dig large cavities into the surrounding gas. In most cases, very large optical filaments (several kpc) are also seen all around the central galaxy. The origin of these filaments is still not understood. Star-forming regions are sometimes observed inside the filaments and are interpreted as evidence of positive feedback (AGN-triggered star formation). Aims: Centaurus A is a very nearby galaxy with huge optical filaments aligned with the AGN radio-jet direction. Here, we searched for line ratio variations along the filaments, kinematic evidence of shock-broadend line widths, and large-scale dynamical structures. Methods: We observed a 1' × 1' region around the so-called inner filament of Cen A with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) during the Science Verification period. Results: (i) The brightest lines detected are the Hαλ6562.8, [NII]λ6583, [OIII]λ4959+5007 and [SII]λ6716+6731. MUSE shows that the filaments are made of clumpy structures inside a more diffuse medium aligned with the radio-jet axis. We find evidence of shocked shells surrounding the star-forming clumps from the line profiles, suggesting that the star formation is induced by shocks. The clump line ratios are best explained by a composite of shocks and star formation illuminated by a radiation cone from the AGN. (ii) We also report a previously undetected large arc-like structure: three streams running perpendicular to the main filament; they are kinematically, morphologically, and excitationally distinct. The clear difference in the excitation of the arcs and clumps suggests that the arcs are very likely located outside of the radiation cone and match the position of the filament only in projection. The three arcs are thus most consistent with neutral material swept along by a

  13. MUSE - a systolic array for adaptive nulling with 64 degrees of freedom, using Givens transformations and wafer-scale integration. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, C.M.; Allen, D.L.; gLASCO , D.B.; Woodward, C.E.

    1990-05-18

    This report describes an architecture for a highly parallel system of computational processors specialized for real-time adaptive antenna nulling computations with many degrees of freedom, which we call MUSE (Matrix Update Systolic Experiment), and a specific realization of MUSE for 64 degrees of freedom. Each processor uses the CORDIC algorithm and has been designed as a single integrated circuit. Ninety-six such processors working together can update the 64-element nulling weights based on 300 new observations in only 6.7 milliseconds. This is equivalent to 2.88 Giga-ops for a conventional processor. The computations are accurate enough to support 50 decibel of signal-to-noise improvement in a sidelobe canceller. The connectivity between processors is quite simple and permits MUSE to be realized on a single large wafer, using restructurable VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The complete design of such a wafer is described.

  14. MuSE: accounting for tumor heterogeneity using a sample-specific error model improves sensitivity and specificity in mutation calling from sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Xi, Liu; Hughes, Daniel S T; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianhua; Futreal, P Andrew; Wheeler, David A; Wang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Subclonal mutations reveal important features of the genetic architecture of tumors. However, accurate detection of mutations in genetically heterogeneous tumor cell populations using next-generation sequencing remains challenging. We develop MuSE ( http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/main/MuSE ), Mutation calling using a Markov Substitution model for Evolution, a novel approach for modeling the evolution of the allelic composition of the tumor and normal tissue at each reference base. MuSE adopts a sample-specific error model that reflects the underlying tumor heterogeneity to greatly improve the overall accuracy. We demonstrate the accuracy of MuSE in calling subclonal mutations in the context of large-scale tumor sequencing projects using whole exome and whole genome sequencing. PMID:27557938

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells and their subpopulation, pluripotent muse cells, in basic research and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Dezawa, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained a great deal of attention for regenerative medicine because they can be obtained from easy accessible mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, and the umbilical cord, and have trophic and immunosuppressive effects to protect tissues. The most outstanding property of MSCs is their potential for differentiation into cells of all three germ layers. MSCs belong to the mesodermal lineage, but they are known to cross boundaries from mesodermal to ectodermal and endodermal lineages, and differentiate into a variety of cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Such behavior is exceptional for tissue stem cells. As observed with hematopoietic and neural stem cells, tissue stem cells usually generate cells that belong to the tissue in which they reside, and do not show triploblastic differentiation. However, the scientific basis for the broad multipotent differentiation of MSCs still remains an enigma. This review summarizes the properties of MSCs from representative mesenchymal tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and the umbilical cord, to demonstrate their similarities and differences. Finally, we introduce a novel type of pluripotent stem cell, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, a small subpopulation of MSCs, which can explain the broad spectrum of differentiation ability in MSCs. PMID:24293378

  16. Highest Resolution Topography of 433 Eros and Implications for MUSES-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Barnouin-Jha, O.

    2003-01-01

    The highest resolution observations of surface morphology and topography at asteroid 433 Eros were obtained by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker spacecraft on 12 February 2001, as it landed within a ponded deposit on Eros. Coordinated observations were obtained by the imager and the laser rangefinder, at best image resolution of 1 cm/pixel and best topographic resolution of 0.4 m. The NEAR landing datasets provide unique information on rock size and height distributions and regolith processes. Rocks and soil can be distinguished photometrically, suggesting that bare rock is indeed exposed. The NEAR landing data are the only data at sufficient resolution to be relevant to hazard assessment on future landed missions to asteroids, such as the MUSES-C mission which will land on asteroid 25143 (1998 SF36) in order to obtain samples. In a typical region just outside the pond where NEAR landed, the areal coverage by resolved positive topographic features is 18%. At least one topographic feature in the vicinity of the NEAR landing site would have been hazardous for a spacecraft.

  17. Microscopy with UV Surface Excitation (MUSE) for slide-free histology and pathology imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Datta-Mitra, Ananya; Demos, Stavros; Levenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    A novel microscopy method that takes advantage of shallow photon penetration using ultraviolet-range excitation and exogenous fluorescent stains is described. This approach exploits the intrinsic optical sectioning function when exciting tissue fluorescence from superficial layers to generate images similar to those obtainable from a physically thinsectioned tissue specimen. UV light in the spectral range from roughly 240-275 nm penetrates only a few microns into the surface of biological specimens, thus eliminating out-of-focus signals that would otherwise arise from deeper tissue layers. Furthermore, UV excitation can be used to simultaneously excite fluorophores emitting across a wide spectral range. The sectioning property of the UV light (as opposed to more conventional illumination in the visible range) removes the need for physical or more elaborate optical sectioning approaches, such as confocal, nonlinear or coherent tomographic methods, to generate acceptable axial resolution. Using a tunable laser, we investigated the effect of excitation wavelength in the 230-350 nm spectral range on excitation depth. The results reveal an optimal wavelength range and suggest that this method can be a fast and reliable approach for rapid imaging of tissue specimens. Some of this range is addressable by currently available and relatively inexpensive LED light sources. MUSE may prove to be a good alternative to conventional, time-consuming, histopathology procedures.

  18. Multiple Scattering in Beam-line Detectors of the MUSE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Heather; Robinette, Clay; Strauch, Steffen; MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The charge radius of the proton has been obtained precisely from elastic electron-scattering data and spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. However, a recent experiment using muonic hydrogen, designed for high-precision, presented a charge radius significantly smaller than the accepted value. This discrepancy certainly prompts a discussion of topics ranging from experimental methods to physics beyond the Standard Model. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) collaboration at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, is planning an experiment to measure the charge radius of the proton in elastic scattering of electrons and muons of positive and negative charge off protons. In the layout for the proposed experiment, detectors will be placed in the beam line upstream of a hydrogen target. Using Geant4 simulations, we studied the effect of multiple scattering due to these detectors and determined the fraction of primary particles that hit the target for a muon beam at each beam momentum. Of the studied detectors, a quartz Cherenkov detector caused the largest multiple scattering. Our results will guide further optimization of the detector setup. Supported in parts by the U.S. National Science Foundation: NSF PHY-1205782.

  19. Simulation-based sensor modeling and at-range target detection characterization with MuSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Corey D.; Curran, Allen R.; Saur, Nicholas E.; Rynes, Peter L.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate infrared signature prediction of targets, such as humans or ground vehicles, depends primarily on the realistic prediction of physical temperatures. Thermal model development typically requires a geometric description of the target (i.e., a 3D surface mesh) along with material properties for characterizing the thermal response to simulated weather conditions. Once an accurate thermal solution has been obtained, signature predictions for an EO/IR spectral waveband can be generated. The image rendering algorithm should consider the radiative emissions, diffuse/specular reflections, and atmospheric effects to depict how an object in a natural scene would be perceived by an EO/IR sensor. The EO/IR rendering process within MuSES, developed by ThermoAnalytics, can be used to create a synthetic radiance image that predicts the energy detected by a specific sensor just prior to passing through its optics. For additional realism, blurring due to lens diffraction and noise due to variations in photon detection can also be included, via specification of sensor characteristics. Additionally, probability of detection can be obtained via the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric, making it possible to predict a target's at-range detectability to a particular threat sensor. In this paper, we will investigate the at-range contrast and detectability of some example targets and examine the effect of various techniques such as sub-pixel sampling and target pixel thresholding.

  20. MUSE three-dimensional spectroscopy and kinematics of the gigahertz peaked spectrum radio galaxy PKS 1934-63: interaction, recently triggered active galactic nucleus and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Nathan; Humphrey, Andrew; Lagos, Patricio; Papaderos, Polychronis; Silva, Marckelson; Cardoso, Leandro S. M.; Gomes, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    We observe the radio galaxy PKS 1934-63 (at z = 0.1825) using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio source is a gigahertz peaked spectrum source and is compact (0.13 kpc), implying an early stage of evolution (≤104 yr). Our data show an interacting pair of galaxies, with projected separation 9.1 kpc and velocity difference Δ(v) = 216 km s-1. The larger galaxy is a M* ≃ 1011 M⊙ spheroidal with the emission-line spectrum of a high-excitation young radio active galactic nucleus (AGN; e.g. strong [O I]6300 and [O III]5007). Emission-line ratios indicate a large contribution to the line luminosity from high-velocity shocks (≃ 550 km s-1). The companion is a non-AGN disc galaxy, with extended Hα emission from which its star formation rate is estimated as 0.61 M⊙ yr-1. Both galaxies show rotational velocity gradients in Hα and other lines, with the interaction being prograde-prograde. The SE-NW velocity gradient of the AGN host is misaligned from the E-W radio axis, but aligned with a previously discovered central ultraviolet source, and a factor of 2 greater in amplitude in Hα than in other (forbidden) lines (e.g. [O III]5007). This could be produced by a fast rotating (100-150 km s-1) disc with circumnuclear star formation. We also identify a broad component of [O III]5007 emission, blueshifted with a velocity gradient aligned with the radio jets, and associated with outflow. However, the broad component of [O I]6300 is redshifted. In spectral fits, both galaxies have old stellar populations plus ˜0.1 per cent of very young stars, consistent with the galaxies undergoing first perigalacticon, triggering infall and star formation from ˜40 Myr ago followed by the radio outburst.

  1. Assessment of HIV testing among young methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use has a strong correlation with risky sexual behaviors, and thus may be triggering the growing HIV epidemic in Myanmar. Although methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern, only a few studies have examined HIV testing among young drug users. This study aimed to examine how predisposing, enabling and need factors affect HIV testing among young MA users. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2013 in Muse city in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 776 MA users aged 18-24 years were recruited. The main outcome of interest was whether participants had ever been tested for HIV. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied in this study. Results Approximately 14.7% of young MA users had ever been tested for HIV. Significant positive predictors of HIV testing included predisposing factors such as being a female MA user, having had higher education, and currently living with one’s spouse/sexual partner. Significant enabling factors included being employed and having ever visited NGO clinics or met NGO workers. Significant need factors were having ever been diagnosed with an STI and having ever wanted to receive help to stop drug use. Conclusions Predisposing, enabling and need factors were significant contributors affecting uptake of HIV testing among young MA users. Integrating HIV testing into STI treatment programs, alongside general expansion of HIV testing services may be effective in increasing HIV testing uptake among young MA users. PMID:25042697

  2. Hubble Frontier Fields: predictions for the return of SN Refsdal with the MUSE and GMOS spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauzac, M.; Richard, J.; Limousin, M.; Knowles, K.; Mahler, G.; Smith, G. P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Jullo, E.; Natarajan, P.; Ebeling, H.; Atek, H.; Clément, B.; Eckert, D.; Egami, E.; Massey, R.; Rexroth, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a high-precision mass model of the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+ 2223, based on a strong gravitational lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data and spectroscopic follow-up with Gemini/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS) and Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). Our model includes 12 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 22, composed of 65 individual lensed images. Unlike the first two HFF clusters, Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J1149 does not reveal as many multiple images in the HFF data. Using the LENSTOOL software package and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster with several cluster-scale dark matter haloes and additional galaxy-scale haloes for the cluster members. Consistent with previous analyses, we find the system to be complex, composed of five cluster-scale haloes. Their spatial distribution and lower mass, however, makes MACS J1149 a less powerful lens. Our best-fitting model predicts image positions with an rms of 0.91 arcsec. We measure the total projected mass inside a 200-kpc aperture as (1.840 ± 0.006) × 1014 M⊙, thus reaching again 1 per cent precision, following our previous HFF analyses of MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744. In light of the discovery of the first resolved quadruply lensed supernova, SN Refsdal, in one of the multiply imaged galaxies identified in MACS J1149, we use our revised mass model to investigate the time delays and predict the rise of the next image between 2015 November and 2016 January.

  3. Abundance ratios and IMF slopes in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 1396 with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentz, J. J.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lisker, T.; van de Ven, G.; Loubser, S. I.; Hilker, M.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Napolitano, N.; Cantiello, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Norris, M.; Paolillo, M.; Smith, R.; Beasley, M. A.; Lyubenova, M.; Munoz, R.; Puzia, T.

    2016-08-01

    Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (MV = -16.60, Mass ˜4 × 108 M⊙), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the VLT/ MUSE spectrograph in the wavelength region from 4750 - 9350 Å. In this paper we present a stellar population analysis studying chemical abundances, the star formation history (SFH) and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as a function of galacto-centric distance. Different, independent ways to analyse the stellar populations result in a luminosity-weighted age of ˜ 6 Gyr and a metallicity [Fe/H]˜ -0.4, similar to other dEs of similar mass. We find unusually overabundant values of [Ca/Fe] ˜+0.1, and under-abundant Sodium, with [Na/Fe] values around -0.1, while [Mg/Fe] is overabundant at all radii, increasing from ˜+0.1 in the centre to ˜+0.2 dex. We notice a significant metallicity and age gradient within this dwarf galaxy. To constrain the stellar IMF of NGC 1396, we find that the IMF of NGC 1396 is consistent with either a Kroupa-like or a top-heavy distribution, while a bottom-heavy IMF is firmly ruled out. An analysis of the abundance ratios, and a comparison with galaxies in the Local Group, shows that the chemical enrichment history of NGC 1396 is similar to the Galactic disc, with an extended star formation history. This would be the case if the galaxy originated from a LMC-sized dwarf galaxy progenitor, which would lose its gas while falling into the Fornax cluster.

  4. The mysterious morphology of MRC0943-242 as revealed by ALMA and MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullberg, Bitten; De Breuck, Carlos; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Vernet, Joël; Bacon, Roland; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Galametz, Audrey; Ivison, Rob; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Richard, Johan; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2016-02-01

    We present a pilot study of the z = 2.923 radio galaxy MRC0943-242, where we combine information from ALMA and MUSE data cubes for the first time. Even with modest integration times, we disentangle the AGN and starburst dominated components. These data reveal a highly complex morphology as the AGN, starburst, and molecular gas components show up as widely separated sources in dust continuum, optical continuum, and CO line emission observations. CO(1-0) and CO(8-7) line emission suggest that there is a molecular gas reservoir offset from both the dust and the optical continuum that is located ~90 kpc from the AGN. The UV line emission has a complex structure in emission and absorption. The line emission is mostly due to a large scale ionisation cone energised by the AGN, and a Lyα emitting bridge of gas between the radio galaxy and a heavily star-forming set of components. Strangely, the ionisation cone has no Lyα emission. We find this is due to an optically thick layer of neutral gas with unity covering fraction spread out over a region of at least ~100 kpc from the AGN. Other less thick absorption components are associated with Lyα emitting gas within a few tens of kpc from the radio galaxy and are connected by a bridge of emission. We speculate that this linear structure of dust, Lyα and CO emission, and the redshifted absorption seen in the circum nuclear region may represent an accretion flow feeding gas into this massive AGN host galaxy.

  5. MUSE: MUlti-atlas region Segmentation utilizing Ensembles of registration algorithms and parameters, and locally optimal atlas selection.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Jimit; Erus, Guray; Ou, Yangming; Resnick, Susan M; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Furth, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-02-15

    Atlas-based automated anatomical labeling is a fundamental tool in medical image segmentation, as it defines regions of interest for subsequent analysis of structural and functional image data. The extensive investigation of multi-atlas warping and fusion techniques over the past 5 or more years has clearly demonstrated the advantages of consensus-based segmentation. However, the common approach is to use multiple atlases with a single registration method and parameter set, which is not necessarily optimal for every individual scan, anatomical region, and problem/data-type. Different registration criteria and parameter sets yield different solutions, each providing complementary information. Herein, we present a consensus labeling framework that generates a broad ensemble of labeled atlases in target image space via the use of several warping algorithms, regularization parameters, and atlases. The label fusion integrates two complementary sources of information: a local similarity ranking to select locally optimal atlases and a boundary modulation term to refine the segmentation consistently with the target image's intensity profile. The ensemble approach consistently outperforms segmentations using individual warping methods alone, achieving high accuracy on several benchmark datasets. The MUSE methodology has been used for processing thousands of scans from various datasets, producing robust and consistent results. MUSE is publicly available both as a downloadable software package, and as an application that can be run on the CBICA Image Processing Portal (https://ipp.cbica.upenn.edu), a web based platform for remote processing of medical images. PMID:26679328

  6. Probing the boundary between star clusters and dwarf galaxies: A MUSE view on the dynamics of Crater/Laevens I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voggel, Karina; Hilker, Michael; Baumgardt, Holger; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Grebel, Eva K.; Husemann, Bernd; Richtler, Tom; Frank, Matthias J.

    2016-08-01

    We present MUSE observations of the debated ultrafaint stellar system Crater. We spectroscopically confirm 26 member stars of this system via radial velocity measurements. We derive the systematic instrumental velocity uncertainty of MUSE spectra to be 2.27 km s- 1. This new data set increases the confirmed member stars of Crater by a factor of 3. One out of three bright blue stars and a fainter blue star just above the main-sequence turn-off are also found to be likely members of the system. The observations reveal that Crater has a systemic radial velocity of v_sys=148.18^+1.08_-1.15 km s^{-1}, whereas the most likely velocity dispersion of this system is σ _v=2.04^+2.19_-1.06 km s^{-1}. The total dynamical mass of the system, assuming dynamical equilibrium is then M_tot=1.50^{+4.9}_{-1.2}× 10^5 M_{⊙} implying a mass-to-light ratio of M/LV = 8.52^{+28.0}_{-6.5} M_{⊙}/L_{⊙}, which is consistent with a purely baryonic stellar population within its errors and no significant evidence for the presence of dark matter was found. We also find evidence for a velocity gradient in the radial velocity distribution. We conclude that our findings strongly support that Crater is a faint intermediate-age outer halo globular cluster and not a dwarf galaxy.

  7. The Estimation of Branching Curves in the Presence of Subject-Specific Random Effects

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Angelo; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Guo, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Branching curves are a technique for modeling curves that change trajectory at a change (branching) point. Currently, the estimation framework is limited to independent data, and smoothing splines are used for estimation. This article aims to extend the branching curve framework to the longitudinal data setting where the branching point varies by subject. If the branching point is modeled as a random effect, then the longitudinal branching curve framework is a Semiparametric Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model. Given existing issues with using random effects within a smoothing spline, we express the model as a B-spline Based Semiparametric Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model. Simple, clever smoothness constraints are enforced on the B-splines at the change point. The method is applied to Women’s Health data where we model the shape of the labor curve (cervical dilation measured longitudinally) before and after treatment with oxytocin (a labor stimulant). PMID:25196299

  8. Extended Lyman α haloes around individual high-redshift galaxies revealed by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisotzki, L.; Bacon, R.; Blaizot, J.; Brinchmann, J.; Herenz, E. C.; Schaye, J.; Bouché, N.; Cantalupo, S.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Caruana, J.; Courbot, J.-B.; Emsellem, E.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Leclercq, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Patrício, V.; Sandin, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Straka, L. A.; Urrutia, T.; Verhamme, A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wendt, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission around individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts z = 3-6 in an ultradeep exposure of the Hubble Deep Field South obtained with MUSE on the ESO-VLT. The data reach a limiting surface brightness (1σ) of ~1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in azimuthally averaged radial profiles, an order of magnitude improvement over previous narrowband imaging. Our sample consists of 26 spectroscopically confirmed Lyα-emitting, but mostly continuum-faint (mAB ≳ 27) galaxies. In most objects the Lyα emission is considerably more extended than the UV continuum light. While five of the faintest galaxies in the sample show no significantly detected Lyα haloes, the derived upper limits suggest that this is due to insufficient S/N. Lyα haloes therefore appear to be ubiquitous even for low-mass (~ 108-109 M⊙) star-forming galaxies at z > 3. We decompose the Lyα emission of each object into a compact component tracing the UV continuum and an extended halo component, and infer sizes and luminosities of the haloes. The extended Lyα emission approximately follows an exponential surface brightness distribution with a scale length of a few kpc. While these haloes are thus quite modest in terms of their absolute sizes, they are larger by a factor of 5-15 than the corresponding rest-frame UV continuum sources as seen by HST. They are also much more extended, by a factor ~5, than Lyα haloes around low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Between ~40% and ≳90% of the observed Lyα flux comes from the extended halo component, with no obvious correlation of this fraction with either the absolute or the relative size of the Lyα halo. Our observations provide direct insights into the spatial distribution of at least partly neutral gas residing in the circumgalactic medium of low to intermediate mass galaxies at z > 3.

  9. Comparing the properties of the X-shaped bulges of NGC 4710 and the Milky Way with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Gadotti, D. A.; Debattista, V. P.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Coccato, L.; Minniti, D.; Ness, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Our view of the structure of the Milky Way and, in particular, its bulge is obscured by the intervening stars, dust, and gas in the disc. While great progress in understanding the bulge has been achieved with past and ongoing observations, the comparison of its global chemodynamical properties with respect to those of bulges seen in external galaxies has yet to be accomplished. Aims: We used the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument installed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain spectral and imaging coverage of NGC 4710. The wide area and excellent sampling of the MUSE integral field spectrograph allows us to investigate the dynamical properties of the X-shaped bulge of NGC 4710 and compare it with the properties of the X-shaped bulge of the Milky Way. Methods: We measured the radial velocities, velocity dispersion, and stellar populations using a penalised pixel full spectral fitting technique adopting simple stellar populations models, on a 1' × 1' area centred on the bulge of NGC 4710. We constructed the velocity maps of the bulge of NGC 4710 and investigated the presence of vertical metallicity gradients. These properties were compared to those of the Milky Way bulge and to a simulated galaxy with a boxy-peanut bulge. Results: We find the line-of-sight velocity maps and 1D rotation curves of the bulge of NGC 4710 to be remarkably similar to those of the Milky Way bulge. Some specific differences that were identified are in good agreement with the expectations from variations in the bar orientation angle. The bulge of NGC 4710 has a boxy-peanut morphology with a pronounced X-shape, showing no indication of any additional spheroidally distributed bulge population, in which we measure a vertical metallicity gradient of 0.35 dex/kpc. Conclusions: The general properties of NGC 4710 are very similar to those observed in the Milky Way bulge. However, it has been suggested that the Milky Way bulge has an additional component that is

  10. The physics of sub-critical lattices in accelerator driven hybrid systems: The MUSE experiments in the MASURCA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, J. P.; Lebrat, J. F.; Soule, R.; Martini, M.; Jacqmin, R.; Imel, G. R.; Salvatores, M.

    1999-06-10

    Since 1991, the CEA has studied the physics of hybrid systems, involving a sub-critical reactor coupled with an accelerator. These studies have provided information on the potential of hybrid systems to transmute actinides and, long lived fission products. The potential of such a system remains to be proven, specifically in terms of the physical understanding of the different phenomena involved and their modelling, as well as in terms of experimental validation of coupled systems, sub-critical environment/accelerator. This validation must be achieved through mock-up studies of the sub-critical environments coupled to a source of external neutrons. The MUSE-4 mock-up experiment is planed at the MASURCA facility and will use an accelerator coupled to a tritium target. The great step between the generator used in the past and the accelerator will allow to increase the knowledge in hybrid physic and to decrease the experimental biases and the measurement uncertainties.

  11. Time of flight and the MUSE experiment in the PIM1 Channel at the Paul Sherrer Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wan; MUSE Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The MUSE experiment in the PIM1 Channel at the Paul Sherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland, measures scattering of electrons and muons from a liquid hydrogen target. The intent of the experiment is to deduce from the scattering probabilities whether the radius of the proton is the same when determined from the scattering of the two different particle types. An important technique for the experiment is precise timing measurements, using high precision scintillators and a beam Cerenkov counter. We will describe the motivations for the precise timing measurement. We will present results for the timing measurements from prototype experimental detectors. We will also present results from a simulation program, Geant4, that was used to calculate energy loss corrections to the time of flight determined between the beam Cherenkov counter and the scintillator. This work is supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant PHY 1306126 and the Douglass Project for Women in Math, Science, and Engineering.

  12. Probing the boundary between star clusters and dwarf galaxies: A MUSE view on the dynamics of Crater/Laevens I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voggel, Karina; Hilker, Michael; Baumgardt, Holger; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Grebel, Eva K.; Husemann, Bernd; Richtler, Tom; Frank, Matthias J.

    2016-08-01

    We present MUSE observations of the debated ultra faint stellar system Crater. We spectroscopically confirm 26 member stars of this system via radial velocity measurements. We derive the systematic instrumental velocity uncertainty of MUSE spectra to be 2.27$\\rm \\,km\\,s^{-1}$. This new dataset increases the confirmed member stars of Crater by a factor of 3. One out of three bright blue stars and a fainter blue star just above the main-sequence-turn-off are also found to be likely members of the system. The observations reveal that Crater has a systemic radial velocity of $v_{\\rm sys}=148.18^{\\rm +1.08}_{\\rm -1.15}\\rm \\,km\\,s^{-1}$, whereas the most likely velocity dispersion of this system is $\\sigma_{\\rm v}=2.04^{\\rm +2.19}_{\\rm -1.06} \\rm \\,km\\,s^{-1}$. The total dynamical mass of the system, assuming dynamical equilibrium is then $M_{\\rm tot}=1.50^{+4.9}_{-1.2}\\cdot 10^{\\rm 5}M_{\\odot}$ implying a mass-to-light ratio of M/L$_{\\rm V}$=8.52$^{+28.0}_{-6.5}\\, M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$, which is consistent with a purely baryonic stellar population within its errors and no significant evidence for the presence dark matter was found. We also find evidence for a velocity gradient in the radial velocity distribution. We conclude that our findings strongly support that Crater is a faint intermediate-age outer halo globular cluster and not a dwarf galaxy.

  13. ModelMuse: A U.S. Geological Survey Open-Source, Graphical User Interface for Groundwater Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    ModelMuse is a free publicly-available graphical preprocessor used to generate the input and display the output for several groundwater models. It is written in Object Pascal and the source code is available on the USGS software web site. Supported models include the MODFLOW family of models, PHAST (version 1), and SUTRA version 2.2. With MODFLOW and PHAST, the user generates a grid and uses 'objects' (points, lines, and polygons) to define boundary conditions and the spatial variation in aquifer properties. Because the objects define the spatial variation, the grid can be changed without the user needing to re-enter spatial data. The same paradigm is used with SUTRA except that the user generates a quadrilateral finite-element mesh instead of a rectangular grid. The user interacts with the model in a top view and in a vertical cross section. The cross section can be at any angle or location. There is also a three-dimensional view of the model. For SUTRA, a new method of visualizing the permeability and related properties has been introduced. In three dimensional SUTRA models, the user specifies the permeability tensor by specifying permeability in three mutually orthogonal directions that can be oriented in space in any direction. Because it is important for the user to be able to check both the magnitudes and directions of the permeabilities, ModelMuse displays the permeabilities as either a two-dimensional or a three-dimensional vector plot. Color is used to differentiate the maximum, middle, and minimum permeability vectors. The magnitude of the permeability is shown by the vector length. The vector angle shows the direction of the maximum, middle, or minimum permeability. Contour and color plots can also be used to display model input and output data.

  14. The XXL Survey. VIII. MUSE characterisation of intracluster light in a z ~ 0.53 cluster of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Pompei, E.; Sadibekova, T.; Clerc, N.; Iovino, A.; McGee, S. L.; Guennou, L.; Birkinshaw, M.; Horellou, C.; Maurogordato, S.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Poggianti, B.; Willis, J.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: Within a cluster, gravitational effects can lead to the removal of stars from their parent galaxies and their subsequent dispersal into the intracluster medium. Gas hydrodynamical effects can additionally strip gas and dust from galaxies; both gas and stars contribute to intracluster light (ICL). The properties of the ICL can therefore help constrain the physical processes at work in clusters by serving as a fossil record of the interaction history. Methods: The present study is designed to characterise this ICL for the first time in a ~1014 M⊙ and z ~ 0.53 cluster of galaxies from imaging and spectroscopic points of view. By applying a wavelet-based method to CFHT Megacam and WIRCAM images, we detect significant quantities of diffuse light and are able to constrain their spectral energy distributions. These sources were then spectroscopically characterised with ESO Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectroscopic data. MUSE data were also used to compute redshifts of 24 cluster galaxies and search for cluster substructures. Results: An atypically large amount of ICL, equivalent in i' to the emission from two brightest cluster galaxies, has been detected in this cluster. Part of the detected diffuse light has a very weak optical stellar component and apparently consists mainly of gas emission, while other diffuse light sources are clearly dominated by old stars. Furthermore, emission lines were detected in several places of diffuse light. Our spectral analysis shows that this emission likely originates from low-excitation parameter gas. Globally, the stellar contribution to the ICL is about 2.3 × 109 yr old even though the ICL is not currently forming a large number of stars. On the other hand, the contribution of the gas emission to the ICL in the optical is much greater than the stellar contribution in some regions, but the gas density is likely too low to form stars. These observations favour ram pressure stripping, turbulent viscous stripping, or

  15. Interleaved EPI based fMRI improved by multiplexed sensitivity encoding (MUSE) and simultaneous multi-band imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Gaur, Pooja; Chou, Ying-hui; Chu, Mei-Lan; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive and powerful imaging tool for detecting brain activities. The majority of fMRI studies are performed with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) due to its high temporal resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that, by increasing the spatial-resolution of fMRI, previously unidentified neuronal networks can be measured. However, it is challenging to improve the spatial resolution of conventional single-shot EPI based fMRI. Although multi-shot interleaved EPI is superior to single-shot EPI in terms of the improved spatial-resolution, reduced geometric distortions, and sharper point spread function (PSF), interleaved EPI based fMRI has two main limitations: 1) the imaging throughput is lower in interleaved EPI; 2) the magnitude and phase signal variations among EPI segments (due to physiological noise, subject motion, and B0 drift) are translated to significant in-plane aliasing artifact across the field of view (FOV). Here we report a method that integrates multiple approaches to address the technical limitations of interleaved EPI-based fMRI. Firstly, the multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) post-processing algorithm is used to suppress in-plane aliasing artifacts resulting from time-domain signal instabilities during dynamic scans. Secondly, a simultaneous multi-band interleaved EPI pulse sequence, with a controlled aliasing scheme incorporated, is implemented to increase the imaging throughput. Thirdly, the MUSE algorithm is then generalized to accommodate fMRI data obtained with our multi-band interleaved EPI pulse sequence, suppressing both in-plane and through-plane aliasing artifacts. The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal detectability and the scan throughput can be significantly improved for interleaved EPI-based fMRI. Our human fMRI data obtained from 3 Tesla systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed methods. It is expected that future fMRI studies requiring high

  16. Interleaved EPI Based fMRI Improved by Multiplexed Sensitivity Encoding (MUSE) and Simultaneous Multi-Band Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Gaur, Pooja; Chou, Ying-hui; Chu, Mei-Lan; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive and powerful imaging tool for detecting brain activities. The majority of fMRI studies are performed with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) due to its high temporal resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that, by increasing the spatial-resolution of fMRI, previously unidentified neuronal networks can be measured. However, it is challenging to improve the spatial resolution of conventional single-shot EPI based fMRI. Although multi-shot interleaved EPI is superior to single-shot EPI in terms of the improved spatial-resolution, reduced geometric distortions, and sharper point spread function (PSF), interleaved EPI based fMRI has two main limitations: 1) the imaging throughput is lower in interleaved EPI; 2) the magnitude and phase signal variations among EPI segments (due to physiological noise, subject motion, and B0 drift) are translated to significant in-plane aliasing artifact across the field of view (FOV). Here we report a method that integrates multiple approaches to address the technical limitations of interleaved EPI-based fMRI. Firstly, the multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE) post-processing algorithm is used to suppress in-plane aliasing artifacts resulting from time-domain signal instabilities during dynamic scans. Secondly, a simultaneous multi-band interleaved EPI pulse sequence, with a controlled aliasing scheme incorporated, is implemented to increase the imaging throughput. Thirdly, the MUSE algorithm is then generalized to accommodate fMRI data obtained with our multi-band interleaved EPI pulse sequence, suppressing both in-plane and through-plane aliasing artifacts. The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal detectability and the scan throughput can be significantly improved for interleaved EPI-based fMRI. Our human fMRI data obtained from 3 Tesla systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed methods. It is expected that future fMRI studies requiring high

  17. The extinction and dust-to-gas structure of the planetary nebula NGC 7009 observed with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Barlow, M. J.; Ueta, T.; Wesson, R.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Dust plays a significant role in planetary nebulae. Dust ejected with the gas in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is subject to the harsh environment of the planetary nebula (PN) while the star is evolving towards a white dwarf. Dust surviving the PN phase contributes to the dust content of the interstellar medium. Aims: The morphology of the internal dust extinction has been mapped for the first time in a PN, the bright nearby Galactic nebula NGC 7009. The morphologies of the gas, dust extinction and dust-to-gas ratio are compared to the structural features of the nebula. Methods: Emission line maps in H Balmer and Paschen lines were formed from analysis of MUSE cubes of NGC 7009 observed during science verification of the instrument. The measured electron temperature and density from the same cube were employed to predict the theoretical H line ratios and derive the extinction distribution across the nebula. After correction for the interstellar extinction to NGC 7009, the internal AV/NH has been mapped for the first time in a PN. Results: The extinction map of NGC 7009 has considerable structure, broadly corresponding to the morphological features of the nebula. The dust-to-gas ratio, AV/NH, increases from 0.7 times the interstellar value to >5 times from the centre towards the periphery of the ionized nebula. The integrated AV/NH is about 2× the mean ISM value. A large-scale feature in the extinction map is a wave, consisting of a crest and trough, at the rim of the inner shell. The nature of this feature is investigated and instrumental and physical causes considered; no convincing mechanisms were identified to produce this feature, other than AGB mass loss variations. Conclusions: Extinction mapping from H emission line imaging of PNe with MUSE provides a powerful tool for revealing the properties of internal dust and the dust-to-gas ratio. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern

  18. J-PARC MUSE H-line optimization for the g-2 and MuHFS experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Fukao, Y.; Kamigaito, O.; Kawamura, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Mibe, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Saito, N.; Sasaki, K.; Shimomura, K.; Sugano, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomono, D.; Torii, H. A.

    2013-02-01

    Significant deviation of the anomalous magnetic moment value (g-2) observed by the muon g-2 experiment [1] should be confirmed by the other experiment. This value is experimentally determined by frequency difference observed by the g-2/EDM experiment and muon magnetic moment observed by the muonium hyperfine splitting experiment (MuHFS). Both two experiments are planned to be performed at H-line of the J-PARC/MUSE under construction. We optimized the beamline layout for each experiment with G4beamline [5]. For both experiments, statistics is the most important, thus beamline transmission efficiency should be maximized. Especially for the g-2, the purpose of the present effort is to compromise between small beam size and small leakage field. For the MuHFS, it is crucial to minimize leakage field at around final focus position, and to get all stopped muons within good field region of MuHFS magnet. Conceptual design of the several final focusing systems will be presented.

  19. A Galerkin method for the estimation of parameters in hybrid systems governing the vibration of flexible beams with tip bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Rosen, I. G.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation scheme is developed for the identification of hybrid systems describing the transverse vibrations of flexible beams with attached tip bodies. In particular, problems involving the estimation of functional parameters are considered. The identification problem is formulated as a least squares fit to data subject to the coupled system of partial and ordinary differential equations describing the transverse displacement of the beam and the motion of the tip bodies respectively. A cubic spline-based Galerkin method applied to the state equations in weak form and the discretization of the admissible parameter space yield a sequence of approximating finite dimensional identification problems. It is shown that each of the approximating problems admits a solution and that from the resulting sequence of optimal solutions a convergent subsequence can be extracted, the limit of which is a solution to the original identification problem. The approximating identification problems can be solved using standard techniques and readily available software.

  20. Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided

  1. MUSE sneaks a peek at extreme ram-pressure stripping events - I. A kinematic study of the archetypal galaxy ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Fossati, Matteo; Hau, George K. T.; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Bower, Richard; Sun, Ming; Boselli, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of ESO137-001, a spiral galaxy infalling towards the centre of the massive Norma cluster at z ˜ 0.0162. During the high-velocity encounter of ESO137-001 with the intracluster medium, a dramatic ram-pressure stripping event gives rise to an extended gaseous tail, traced by our MUSE observations to >30 kpc from the galaxy centre. By studying the Hα surface brightness and kinematics in tandem with the stellar velocity field, we conclude that ram pressure has completely removed the interstellar medium from the outer disc, while the primary tail is still fed by gas from the inner regions. Gravitational interactions do not appear to be a primary mechanism for gas removal. The stripped gas retains the imprint of the disc rotational velocity to ˜20 kpc downstream, without a significant gradient along the tail, which suggests that ESO137-001 is fast moving along a radial orbit in the plane of the sky. Conversely, beyond ˜20 kpc, a greater degree of turbulence is seen, with velocity dispersion up to ≳100 km s-1. For a model-dependent infall velocity of vinf ˜ 3000 km s-1, we conclude that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the tail occurs on time-scales ≥6.5 Myr. Our work demonstrates the terrific potential of MUSE for detailed studies of how ram-pressure stripping operates on small scales, providing a deep understanding of how galaxies interact with the dense plasma of the cluster environment.

  2. The MUSE view of QSO PG 1307+085: an elliptical galaxy on the MBH-σ* relation interacting with its group environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Bennert, V. N.; Scharwächter, J.; Woo, J.-H.; Choudhury, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    We report deep optical integral-field spectroscopy with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope of the luminous radio-quiet quasi-stellar object (QSO) PG 1307+085 obtained during commissioning. Given the high sensitivity and spatial resolution delivered by MUSE, we are able to resolve the compact (re ˜ 1.3 arcsec) elliptical host galaxy. After spectroscopic deblending of the QSO and host galaxy emission, we infer a stellar velocity dispersion of σ* = 155 ± 19 km s-1. This places PG 1307+085 on the local MBH-σ* relation within its intrinsic scatter but offset towards a higher black hole mass with respect to the mean relation. The MUSE observations reveal a large extended narrow-line region (ENLR) around PG 1307+085 reaching out to ˜30 kpc. In addition, we detect a faint ionized gas bridge towards the most massive galaxy of the galaxy group at 50 kpc distance. The ionized gas kinematics does not show any evidence for gas outflows on kpc scales despite the high QSO luminosity of Lbol > 1046 erg s-1. Based on the ionized gas distribution, kinematics and metallicity we discuss the origin of the ENLR with respect to its group environments including minor mergers, ram-pressure stripping or gas accretion as the likely scenarios. We conclude that PG 1307+085 is a normal elliptical host in terms of the scaling relations, but that the gas is likely affected by the environment through gravity or ambient pressure. It is possible that the interaction with the environment, seen in the ionized gas, might be responsible for driving sufficient gas to the black hole.

  3. Ionization processes in a local analogue of distant clumpy galaxies: VLT MUSE IFU spectroscopy and FORS deep images of the TDG NGC 5291N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensch, J.; Duc, P.-A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Boquien, M.; Zackrisson, E.

    2016-01-01

    Context. We present Integral Field Unit (IFU) observations with MUSE and deep imaging with FORS of a dwarf galaxy recently formed within the giant collisional HI ring surrounding NGC 5291. This Tidal Dwarf Galaxy (TDG) -like object has the characteristics of typical z = 1-2 gas-rich spiral galaxies: a high gas fraction, a rather turbulent clumpy interstellar medium, the absence of an old stellar population, and a moderate metallicity and star formation efficiency. Aims: The MUSE spectra allow us to determine the physical conditions within the various complex substructures revealed by the deep optical images and to scrutinize the ionization processes at play in this specific medium at unprecedented spatial resolution. Methods: Starburst age, extinction, and metallicity maps of the TDG and the surrounding regions were determined using the strong emission lines Hβ, [OIII], [OI], [NII], Hα, and [SII] combined with empirical diagnostics. Different ionization mechanisms were distinguished using BPT-like diagrams and shock plus photoionization models. Results: In general, the physical conditions within the star-forming regions are homogeneous, in particular with a uniform half-solar oxygen abundance. On small scales, the derived extinction map shows narrow dust lanes. Regions with atypically strong [OI] emission line immediately surround the TDG. The [OI]/ Hα ratio cannot be easily accounted for by the photoionization by young stars or shock models. At greater distances from the main star-foming clumps, a faint diffuse blue continuum emission is observed, both with the deep FORS images and the MUSE data. It does not have a clear counterpart in the UV regime probed by GALEX. A stacked spectrum towards this region does not exhibit any emission line, excluding faint levels of star formation, or stellar absorption lines that might have revealed the presence of old stars. Several hypotheses are discussed for the origin of these intriguing features. Based on observations

  4. Mapping the dynamics of a giant Ly α halo at z = 4.1 with MUSE: the energetics of a large-scale AGN-driven outflow around a massive, high-redshift galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Vernet, J. D. R.; Smail, Ian; De Breuck, C.; Bacon, R.; Contini, T.; Richard, J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Urrutia, T.; Venemans, B.

    2015-05-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field unit spectroscopic observations of the ˜150 kpc Lyα halo around the z = 4.1 radio galaxy TN J1338-1942. This 9-h observation maps the full two-dimensional kinematics of the Lyα emission across the halo, which shows a velocity gradient of Δv ˜ 700 km s-1 across 150 kpc in projection, and also identified two absorption systems associated with the Lyα emission from the radio galaxy. Both absorbers have high covering fractions (˜1) spanning the full ˜150 × 80 kpc2 extent of the halo. The stronger and more blueshifted absorber (Δv ˜ -1200 km s-1 from the systemic) has dynamics that mirror that of the underlying halo emission and we suggest that this high column material (n(H I) ˜ 1019.4 cm-2), which is also seen in C IV absorption, represents an outflowing shell that has been driven by the active galactic nuclei (AGN) or the star formation within the galaxy. The weaker (n(H I) ˜ 1014 cm-2) and less blueshifted (Δv ˜ -500 km s-1) absorber most likely represents material in the cavity between the outflowing shell and the Lyα halo. We estimate that the mass in the shell must be ˜1010 M⊙ - a significant fraction of the interstellar medium from a galaxy at z = 4. The large scales of these coherent structures illustrate the potentially powerful influence of AGN feedback on the distribution and energetics of material in their surroundings. Indeed, the discovery of high-velocity (˜1000 km s-1), group-halo-scale (i.e. >150 kpc) and mass-loaded winds in the vicinity of the central radio source is in agreement with the requirements of models that invoke AGN-driven outflows to regulate star formation and black hole growth in massive galaxies.

  5. A young star-forming galaxy at z = 3.5 with an extended Lyman α halo seen with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrício, Vera; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Turner, Monica L.; Christensen, Lise; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Blaizot, Jérémy; Bacon, Roland; Contini, Thierry; Lagattuta, David; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Clément, Benjamin; Soucail, Geneviève

    2016-03-01

    Spatially resolved studies of high-redshift galaxies, an essential insight into galaxy formation processes, have been mostly limited to stacking or unusually bright objects. We present here the study of a typical (L*, M⋆ = 6 × 109 M⊙) young lensed galaxy at z = 3.5, observed with Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), for which we obtain 2D resolved spatial information of Lyα and, for the first time, of C III] emission. The exceptional signal-to-noise ratio of the data reveals UV emission and absorption lines rarely seen at these redshifts, allowing us to derive important physical properties (Te ˜ 15600 K, ne ˜ 300 cm-3, covering fraction fc ˜ 0.4) using multiple diagnostics. Inferred stellar and gas-phase metallicities point towards a low-metallicity object (Zstellar = ˜0.07 Z⊙ and ZISM < 0.16 Z⊙). The Lyα emission extends over ˜10 kpc across the galaxy and presents a very uniform spectral profile, showing only a small velocity shift which is unrelated to the intrinsic kinematics of the nebular emission. The Lyα extension is approximately four times larger than the continuum emission, and makes this object comparable to low-mass LAEs at low redshift, and more compact than the Lyman-break galaxies and Lyα emitters usually studied at high redshift. We model the Lyα line and surface brightness profile using a radiative transfer code in an expanding gas shell, finding that this model provides a good description of both observables.

  6. Complex Principal Components for Robust Motion Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, F. William; Viola, Francesco; Walker, William F.

    2010-01-01

    cross-correlation with cosine fitting (NC CF). More modest gains were observed relative to spline-based time delay estimation (sTDE). PCDE was also tested on experimental elastography data. Compressions of approximately 1.5% were applied to a CIRS elastography phantom with embedded 10.4-mm-diameter lesions that had moduli contrasts of −9.2, −5.9, and 12.0 dB. The standard deviation of displacement estimates was reduced by at least 67% in homogeneous regions at 35 to 40 mm in depth with respect to estimates produced by Loupas, NC CF, and sTDE. Greater improvements in CNR and displacement standard deviation were observed at larger depths where speckle decorrelation and other noise sources were more significant. PMID:21041131

  7. Comparative analysis of selected aspects of the MUSE-4 experiments with the JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrat, J. F.; Tommasi, J.; Suteau, C.; Plisson-Rieunier, D.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of some selected experiments of the MUSE-4 program with the ERANOS-2.1 code system using either the JEF-2.2 library or the more recent JEFF-3.1 one; focus has been given to the reactivities calculations and to the spectral indices of the MUSE-4-Reference and SC3-Pb core configurations. Both libraries provide comparable results on the k{sub eff} of the Reference configuration due to large negative and positive compensating reactivity effects, whereas there is a -400 pcm effect on SC3-Pb. A perturbation analysis demonstrates that the large negative total reactivity effect in this configuration comes from the increase of the lead contribution and from the decrease of the sodium contribution. The new library improves the C/E for all the spectral indices in the fuel zone and for most of them in the lead zone except for {sup 238}U and {sup 243}Am. (authors)

  8. Estimating Rain Rates from Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianxin; Fisher, Brad L.; Wolff, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the cubic spline based operational system for the generation of the TRMM one-minute rain rate product 2A-56 from Tipping Bucket (TB) gauge measurements. Methodological issues associated with applying the cubic spline to the TB gauge rain rate estimation are closely examined. A simulated TB gauge from a Joss-Waldvogel (JW) disdrometer is employed to evaluate effects of time scales and rain event definitions on errors of the rain rate estimation. The comparison between rain rates measured from the JW disdrometer and those estimated from the simulated TB gauge shows good overall agreement; however, the TB gauge suffers sampling problems, resulting in errors in the rain rate estimation. These errors are very sensitive to the time scale of rain rates. One-minute rain rates suffer substantial errors, especially at low rain rates. When one minute rain rates are averaged to 4-7 minute or longer time scales, the errors dramatically reduce. The rain event duration is very sensitive to the event definition but the event rain total is rather insensitive, provided that the events with less than 1 millimeter rain totals are excluded. Estimated lower rain rates are sensitive to the event definition whereas the higher rates are not. The median relative absolute errors are about 22% and 32% for 1-minute TB rain rates higher and lower than 3 mm per hour, respectively. These errors decrease to 5% and 14% when TB rain rates are used at 7-minute scale. The radar reflectivity-rainrate (Ze-R) distributions drawn from large amount of 7-minute TB rain rates and radar reflectivity data are mostly insensitive to the event definition.

  9. VLT/MUSE view of the highly ionized outflow cones in the nearby starburst ESO338-IG04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, A.; Östlin, G.; Hayes, M.; Adamo, A.; Melinder, J.; Amram, P.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The Lyα line is an important diagnostic for star formation at high redshift, but interpreting its flux and line profile is difficult because of the resonance nature of Lyα. Trends between the escape of Lyα photons and dust and properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) have been found, but detailed comparisons between Lyα emission and the properties of the gas in local high-redshift analogs are vital for understanding the relation between Lyα emission and galaxy properties. Aims: For the first time, we can directly infer the properties of the ionized gas at the same location and similar spatial scales of the extended Lyα halo around the local Lyα emitter and Lyman-break galaxy analog ESO 338-IG04. Methods: We obtained VLT/MUSE integral field spectra. We used ionization parameter mapping of the [S ii]/[O iii] line ratio and the kinematics of Hα to study the ionization state and kinematics of the ISM of ESO 338-IG04. Results: The velocity map reveals two outflows, one toward the north, the other toward the south of ESO 338. The ionization parameter mapping shows that the entire central area of the galaxy is highly ionized by photons leaking from the H ii regions around the youngest star clusters. Three highly ionized cones have been identified, of which one is associated with an outflow detected in the Hα. We propose a scenario where the outflows are created by mechanical feedback of the older clusters, while the highly ionized gas is caused by the hard ionizing photons emitted by the youngest clusters. A comparison with the Lyα map shows that the (approximately bipolar) asymmetries observed in the Lyα emission are consistent with the base of the outflows detected in Hα. No clear correlation with the ionization cones is found. Conclusions: The mechanical and ionization feedback of star clusters significantly changes the state of the ISM by creating ionized cones and outflows. The comparison with Lyα suggests that especially the outflows could

  10. The elite and stochastic model for iPS cell generation: multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are readily reprogrammable into iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted a great deal of attention, although the mechanism by which they are generated is still not fully understood. Currently, two theories, the stochastic and elite models, have been proposed. Some reports provide theoretical support for the stochastic model. Other reports, however, support the elite model. For example, some human fibroblasts, such as Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are reported to be pluripotent and a primary source of iPS cells. Thus, the mechanism of iPS cell generation continues to be debated. In this review, we discuss the properties of the original cell source, such as the components of the original populations and the potential of each population to become iPS cells, and further discuss the implications of the two theories for iPS cell research. PMID:22693162

  11. MUSE crowded field 3D spectroscopy of over 12 000 stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. I. The first comprehensive HRD of a globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Dreizler, Stefan; Wendt, Martin; Wulff, Nina; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Roth, Martin M.; Monreal-Ibero, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the high multiplex advantage of crowded field 3D spectroscopy with the new integral field spectrograph MUSE by means of a spectroscopic analysis of more than 12 000 individual stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. Methods: The stars are deblended with a point spread function fitting technique, using a photometric reference catalogue from HST as prior, including relative positions and brightnesses. This catalogue is also used for a first analysis of the extracted spectra, followed by an automatic in-depth analysis via a full-spectrum fitting method based on a large grid of PHOENIX spectra. Results: We analysed the largest sample so far available for a single globular cluster of 18 932 spectra from 12 307 stars in NGC 6397. We derived a mean radial velocity of vrad = 17.84 ± 0.07 km s-1 and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.120 ± 0.002, with the latter seemingly varying with temperature for stars on the red giant branch (RGB). We determine Teff and [Fe/H] from the spectra, and log g from HST photometry. This is the first very comprehensive Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) for a globular cluster based on the analysis of several thousands of stellar spectra, ranging from the main sequence to the tip of the RGB. Furthermore, two interesting objects were identified; one is a post-AGB star and the other is a possible millisecond-pulsar companion. Data products are available at http://muse-vlt.eu/scienceBased on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme ID 60.A-9100(C)).

  12. Blood vessel segmentation and width estimation in ultra-wide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Enrico; Robertson, Gavin; Trucco, Emanuele; MacGillivray, Tom J; Lupascu, Carmen; van Hemert, Jano; Williams, Michelle C; Newby, David E; van Beek, Edwin; Houston, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    Features of the retinal vasculature, such as vessel widths, are considered biomarkers for systemic disease. The aim of this work is to present a supervised approach to vessel segmentation in ultra-wide field of view scanning laser ophthalmoscope (UWFoV SLO) images and to evaluate its performance in terms of segmentation and vessel width estimation accuracy. The results of the proposed method are compared with ground truth measurements from human observers and with existing state-of-the-art techniques developed for fundus camera images that we optimized for UWFoV SLO images. Our algorithm is based on multi-scale matched filters, a neural network classifier and hysteresis thresholding. After spline-based refinement of the detected vessel contours, the vessel widths are estimated from the binary maps. Such analysis is performed on SLO images for the first time. The proposed method achieves the best results, both in vessel segmentation and in width estimation, in comparison to other automatic techniques. PMID:25574441

  13. Musings about beauty.

    PubMed

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for perfect form. What do these criteria imply for mental representations that are experienced as beautiful? Complexity theory can be used to specify constraints on mental representations abstractly formulated as vectors in a high-dimensional space. A central feature of the proposed model is that perfect form depends both on features of the objects or events perceived and on the nature of the encoding strategies or model of the observer. A simple example illustrates the proposed calculations. A number of interesting implications that arise as a consequence of reformulating beauty in this way are noted. PMID:22303897

  14. Introduction: Information and Musings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    The following sections are included: * Victor Frenkel * Background * The Accused * Alexander Leipunsky * Alexander Weissberg * Holodomor * The beginning of the Great Purge * Other foreigners at UPTI * The Ruhemanns * Tisza * Lange * Weisselberg * A detective story * Stalin's order * Yuri Raniuk * Giovanna Fjelstad * Giovanna's story * First time in the USSR * Fisl's humor * Houtermans and Pomeranchuk * Choices to make * Closing gaps * Houtermans and the Communist Party of Germany * Houtermans and von Ardenne * Houtermans' trip to Russia in 1941 * Why Houtermans had to flee from Berlin in 1945 * Houtermans in Göttingen in the 1940's * Denazification * Moving to Bern * Yuri Golfand, the discoverer of supersymmetry * Bolotovsky's and Eskin's essays * Moisei Koretz * FIAN * Additional recommended literature * References

  15. Musings about Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion. As the term "beauty" is overextended in general usage, I choose as my starting point the notion of "perfect form." Aesthetic theorists are in reasonable agreement about the criteria for…

  16. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    PubMed

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. PMID:21507749

  17. Spline-based Study of the Extragalactic Background Light Spectrum using Gamma-Ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Anoushka; Rathmann-Bloch, Julia; Biteau, Jonathan; Williams, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is made of all the light emitted by stars and galaxies throughout cosmic history. Expanding on the work of Biteau & Williams 2015, we develop a novel natural cubic spline model of the local EBL spectrum and constrain its parameters using the gamma-ray spectra of 38 blazars measured in the high-energy (HE, 0.1 to 100 GeV) and very-high-energy (VHE, 0.1 to 20 TeV) bands. Starting from this best-fit model, we then study the so-called "delta gamma" (ΔΓ) observable, defined as the difference between the VHE and HE photon indices. This second study is focused on a subset of nine BL Lac objects. The application of a scaling factor to the cosmic optical background (0.1 - 10 nm) significantly impacts the predicted ΔΓ as a function of redshift, whereas a similar modification of the cosmic infrared background (10 - 1000 nm) has no impact. We conclude that the simple delta gamma approach can only constrain part of the EBL spectrum, while a detailed study of the spectra, such as presented in the first part of this research, is needed to constrain the cosmic infrared background.

  18. NURBS- and T-spline-based isogeometric cohesive zone modeling of interface debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitri, R.; De Lorenzis, L.; Wriggers, P.; Zavarise, G.

    2014-08-01

    Cohesive zone (CZ) models have long been used by the scientific community to analyze the progressive damage of materials and interfaces. In these models, non-linear relationships between tractions and relative displacements are assumed, which dictate both the work of separation per unit fracture surface and the peak stress that has to be reached for the crack formation. This contribution deals with isogeometric CZ modeling of interface debonding. The interface is discretized with generalized contact elements which account for both contact and cohesive debonding within a unified framework. The formulation is suitable for non-matching discretizations of the interacting surfaces in presence of large deformations and large relative displacements. The isogeometric discretizations are based on non uniform rational B-splines as well as analysis-suitable T-splines enabling local refinement. Conventional Lagrange polynomial discretizations are also used for comparison purposes. Some numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed formulation based on isogeometric analysis is a computationally accurate and efficient technology to solve challenging interface debonding problems in 2D and 3D.

  19. Improving spatial resolution in skin-contact thermography: comparison between a spline based and linear interpolation.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele

    2008-07-01

    A wearable device for skin-contact thermography [Giansanti D, Maccioni G. Development and testing of a wearable integrated thermometer sensor for skin contact thermography. Med Eng Phys 2006 [ahead of print

  20. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Shigemoto, Taeko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine. PMID:24710542

  1. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Shigemoto, Taeko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine. PMID:24710542

  2. MUSE sneaks a peek at extreme ram-pressure stripping events - II. The physical properties of the gas tail of ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, Matteo; Fumagalli, Michele; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Sun, Ming; Wilman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the physical properties of the disc and tail of ESO137-001, a galaxy suffering from extreme ram-pressure stripping during its infall into the Norma cluster. With sensitive and spatially resolved MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) spectroscopy, we analyse the emission line diagnostics in the tail of ESO137-001, finding high values of [N II]/Hα and [O I]/Hα that are suggestive of the presence of shocks in turbulent gas. However, the observed line ratios are not as strong as commonly seen in pure shock heating models, suggesting that other emission mechanisms may contribute to the observed emission. Indeed, part of the observed emission, particularly at close separations from the galaxy disc, may originate from recombination of photoionized gas stripped from the main body of ESO137-001. We also identify a large number of bright compact knots within in the tail, with line ratios characteristic of H II regions. These H II regions, despite residing in a stripped gas tail, have quite typical line ratios, densities, temperatures, and metallicity (˜0.7 solar). The majority of these H II regions are embedded within diffuse gas from the tail, which is dynamically cool (σ ˜ 25-50 km s- 1). This fact, together with a lack of appreciable gradients in age and metallicity, suggests that these H II regions formed in situ. While our analysis represents a first attempt to characterize the rich physics of the ESO137-001 tail, future work is needed to address the importance of other mechanisms, such as thermal conduction and magnetohydrodynamic waves, in powering the emission in the tail.

  3. Lyman alpha escape in local starburst laboratories, a VLT/MUSE view of the ISM state and kinematics of ESO338-IG04 and Haro 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, Arjan; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Menacho, Veronica; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Amram, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Lyman alpha (Lyα) is one of the most important diagnostics in extra galactic astrophysics, however, its appearance strongly depends on the state and kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM). To understand the relation between Lyα escape and ISM properties at high redshift detailed studies of the ISM and Lyα emission of local Lyα emitting galaxies are required.We present high quality integral field spectroscopy taken with VLT/MUSE of two local Lyman break galaxy analogues: ESO 338-IG04 and Haro 11, providing us with an unprecedented view of the state and kinematics of the ionized gas in the galaxy and their halos. I will present our recent results on studying the ISM state of these two galaxies. The data of both galaxies show that the mechanical and ionization feedback of the super star clusters in the galaxy modify the state and kinematics of the ISM substancially by creating highly ionized bubbles around the cluster, making the central part of the galaxy highly ionized. This shows that the HII regions around the individual clusters are density bounded, allowing the ionizing photons to escape and ionize the ISM further out.On larger scales however, we find remarkable differences. ESO 338-IG04 shows highly ionized cones and galaxy scale outflows all the way to the outskirts of the galaxy halo. Comparison with the cluster populations suggests that the mechanical feedback of the older (30 Myrs) cluster population is responsible for driving the outflows, while the youngest cluster have ionized some of those outflow cones with the EUV photons emitted by the massive stars. A comparison with the Lyα emission suggests that mainly the outflows facilitate Lyα escape. Haro 11 shows a much less clear relation between outflows and Lyα and most of the kinematics seem to be dominated by the merger which the galaxy is undergoing.

  4. dPIRPLE: A Joint Estimation Framework for Deformable Registration and Penalized-Likelihood CT Image Reconstruction using Prior Images

    PubMed Central

    Dang, H.; Wang, A. S.; Sussman, Marc S.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Sequential imaging studies are conducted in many clinical scenarios. Prior images from previous studies contain a great deal of patient-specific anatomical information and can be used in conjunction with subsequent imaging acquisitions to maintain image quality while enabling radiation dose reduction (e.g., through sparse angular sampling, reduction in fluence, etc.). However, patient motion between images in such sequences results in misregistration between the prior image and current anatomy. Existing prior-image-based approaches often include only a simple rigid registration step that can be insufficient for capturing complex anatomical motion, introducing detrimental effects in subsequent image reconstruction. In this work, we propose a joint framework that estimates the 3D deformation between an unregistered prior image and the current anatomy (based on a subsequent data acquisition) and reconstructs the current anatomical image using a model-based reconstruction approach that includes regularization based on the deformed prior image. This framework is referred to as deformable prior image registration, penalized-likelihood estimation (dPIRPLE). Central to this framework is the inclusion of a 3D B-spline-based free-form-deformation model into the joint registration-reconstruction objective function. The proposed framework is solved using a maximization strategy whereby alternating updates to the registration parameters and image estimates are applied allowing for improvements in both the registration and reconstruction throughout the optimization process. Cadaver experiments were conducted on a cone-beam CT testbench emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. Superior reconstruction accuracy and image quality were demonstrated using the dPIRPLE algorithm as compared to more traditional reconstruction methods including filtered backprojection, penalized-likelihood estimation (PLE), prior image penalized-likelihood estimation (PIPLE) without registration

  5. Attitude Control Flight Experience: Coping with Solar Radiation and Ion Engines Leak Thrust in Hayabusa (MUSES-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Kominato, Takashi; Shirakawa, Ken'ichi

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the attitude reorientation taking the advantage of solar radiation pressure without use of any fuel aboard. The strategy had been adopted to make Hayabusa spacecraft keep pointed toward the Sun for several months, while spinning. The paper adds the above mentioned results reported in Sedona this February showing another challenge of combining ion engines propulsion tactically balanced with the solar radiation torque with no spin motion. The operation has been performed since this March for a half year successfully. The flight results are presented with the estimated solar array panel diffusion coefficient and the ion engine's swirl torque.

  6. Estimating Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss mass as one of the three fundamental measurements (the others being length and time), noting that estimation of mass is little taught and assessed in primary schools. This article briefly explores the reasons for this in terms of culture, practice, and the difficulty of assessing estimation of mass. An activity using the…

  7. The Pillars of Creation revisited with MUSE: gas kinematics and high-mass stellar feedback traced by optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. F.; Dale, J. E.; Ginsburg, A.; Ercolano, B.; Gritschneder, M.; Ramsay, S.; Testi, L.

    2015-06-01

    Integral field unit (IFU) data of the iconic Pillars of Creation in M16 are presented. The ionization structure of the pillars was studied in great detail over almost the entire visible wavelength range, and maps of the relevant physical parameters, e.g. extinction, electron density, electron temperature, line-of-sight velocity of the ionized and neutral gas are shown. In agreement with previous authors, we find that the pillar tips are being ionized and photoevaporated by the massive members of the nearby cluster NGC 6611. They display a stratified ionization structure where the emission lines peak in a descending order according to their ionization energies. The IFU data allowed us to analyse the kinematics of the photoevaporative flow in terms of the stratified ionization structure, and we find that, in agreement with simulations, the photoevaporative flow is traced by a blueshift in the position-velocity profile. The gas kinematics and ionization structure have allowed us to produce a sketch of the 3D geometry of the Pillars, positioning the pillars with respect to the ionizing cluster stars. We use a novel method to detect a previously unknown bipolar outflow at the tip of the middle pillar and suggest that it has an embedded protostar as its driving source. Furthermore we identify a candidate outflow in the leftmost pillar. With the derived physical parameters and ionic abundances, we estimate a mass-loss rate due to the photoevaporative flow of 70 M⊙ Myr-1 which yields an expected lifetime of approximately 3 Myr.

  8. MUSE crowded field 3D spectroscopy of over 12 000 stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. II. Probing the internal dynamics and the presence of a central black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamann, S.; Husser, T.-O.; Brinchmann, J.; Emsellem, E.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Wendt, M.; Krajnović, D.; Roth, M. M.; Bacon, R.; Dreizler, S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the kinematics of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6397 based on more than ~18 000 spectra obtained with the novel integral field spectrograph MUSE. While NGC 6397 is often considered a core collapse cluster, our analysis suggests a flattening of the surface brightness profile at the smallest radii. Although it is among the nearest globular clusters, the low velocity dispersion of NGC 6397 of < 5 km s-1 imposes heavy demands on the quality of the kinematical data. We show that despite its limited spectral resolution, MUSE reaches an accuracy of 1 km s-1 in the analysis of stellar spectra. We find slight evidence for a rotational component in the cluster and the velocity dispersion profile that we obtain shows a mild central cusp. To investigate the nature of this feature, we calculate spherical Jeans models and compare these models to our kinematical data. This comparison shows that if a constant mass-to-light ratio is assumed, the addition of an intermediate-mass black hole with a mass of 600 M⊙ brings the model predictions into agreement with our data, and therefore could be at the origin of the velocity dispersion profile. We further investigate cases with varying mass-to-light ratios and find that a compact dark stellar component can also explain our observations. However, such a component would closely resemble the black hole from the constant mass-to-light ratio models as this component must be confined to the central ~5″ of the cluster and must have a similar mass. Independent constraints on the distribution of stellar remnants in the cluster or kinematic measurements at the highest possible spatial resolution should be able to distinguish the two alternatives. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme ID 60.A-9100(C))

  9. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  10. Estimating risk.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A free mobile phone app has been launched providing nurses and other hospital clinicians with a simple way to identify high-risk surgical patients. The app is a phone version of the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT), originally developed for online use with computers by researchers from the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death and the University College London Hospital Surgical Outcomes Research Centre. SORT uses information about patients' health and planned surgical procedures to estimate the risk of death within 30 days of an operation. The percentages are only estimates, taking into account the general risks of the procedures and some information about patients, and should not be confused with patient-specific estimates in individual cases. PMID:27369709

  11. Estimation Destinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threewit, Fran

    This book leads students through a journey of hands-on investigations of skill-based estimation. The 30 lessons in the book are grouped into four units: Holding Hands, The Real Scoop, Container Calculations, and Estimeasurements. In each unit children work with unique, real materials intended to build an awareness of number, quantity, and…

  12. Muses on the Gregorian Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with an exploration of the origins of the Gregorian Calendar. Next it describes the function of school inspector Christian Zeller (1822-1899) used to determine the number of the elapsed days of a year up to and including a specified date and how Zeller's function can be used to determine the number of days that have elapsed in…

  13. Musings on the Naked Trucker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, dean of academic affairs at Augustana College in Illinois, reflects on an alumnus, English major David Allen, who has gained prominence in his field. A photo of the alumnus, wearing nothing but a cap, a pair of boots, and a strategically-placed guitar, appeared on the front page of a local newspaper, under a headline…

  14. Light and enlightenment: some musings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patthoff, Donald D.

    2012-03-01

    In the beginning of the age of enlightenment (or reason), the language of philosophy, science, and theology stemmed equally from the same pens. Many of these early enlightenment authors also applied their thoughts and experiences to practical inventions and entrepreneurship; in the process, they noted and measured different characteristics of light and redirected the use of lenses beyond that of the heat lens which had been developing for over 2000 years. Within decades, microscopes, telescopes, theodolites, and many variations of the heat lens were well known. These advances rapidly changed and expanded the nature of science, subsequent technology, and many boundary notions; that is the way boundaries are defined not just in the sense of what is land and commercial property, but also what notions of boundary help shape and define society, including the unique role that professions play within society. The advent of lasers in the mid twenty century, though, introduced the ability to measure the effects and characteristic of single coherent wavelengths. This also introduced more ways to evaluate the relationship of specific wavelengths of light to other variables and interactions. At the most basic level, the almost revolutionary boundary developments of lasers seem to split down two paths of work: 1) a pursuit of more sophisticated heat lenses having better controls over light's destructive and cutting powers and, 2) more nuanced light-based instruments that not only enhanced the powers of observation, but also offered more minute measurement opportunities and subtle treatment capabilities. It is well worth deliberating, then, if "enlightenment" and "light" might share more than five letters in a row. And (if a common underlying foundation is revealed within these deliberations) , is it worth questioning any possible revelations that might arise, or that might bear relevance on today's research and developments in light based sciences, technology, clinical professions, and other bio applications. And, finally, how might any such insight influence, then, the future of light based research and its possible application?

  15. Invoking the muse: Dada's chaos.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Dada, a self-proclaimed (anti)art (non)movement, took shape in 1916 among a group of writers and artists who rejected the traditions of a stagnating bourgeoisie. Instead, they adopted means of creative expression that embraced chaos, stoked instability and undermined logic, an outburst that overturned centuries of classical and Romantic aesthetics. Paradoxically, this insistence on disorder foreshadowed a new order in understanding creativity. Nearly one hundred years later, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems theory (NDS) gives renewed currency to Dada's visionary perspective on chance, chaos and creative cognition. This paper explores commonalities between NDS-theory and this early precursor of the nonlinear paradigm, suggesting that their conceptual synergy illuminates what it means to 'be creative' beyond the disciplinary boundaries of either. Key features are discussed within a 5P model of creativity based on Rhodes' 4P framework (Person, Process, Press, Product), to which I add Participant-Viewer for the interactivity of observer-observed. Grounded in my own art practice, several techniques are then put forward as non-methodical methods that invoke creative border zones, those regions where Dada's chance and design are wedded in a dialectical tension of opposites. PMID:24894264

  16. A B-Spline-Based Colocation Method to Approximate the Solutions to the Equations of Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Richard Wayne; Landon, Mark Dee

    1999-07-01

    The potential of a B-spline collocation method for numerically solving the equations of fluid dynamics is discussed. It is known that B-splines can resolve curves with drastically fewer data than can their standard shape function counterparts. This feature promises to allow much faster numerical simulations of fluid flow than standard finite volume/finite element methods without sacrificing accuracy. An example channel flow problem is solved using the method.

  17. A wavelet Galerkin method employing B-spline bases for solid mechanics problems without the use of a fictitious domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Okazawa, Shigenobu

    2012-07-01

    This study develops a wavelet Galerkin method (WGM) that uses B-spline wavelet bases for application to solid mechanics problems. A fictitious domain is often adopted to treat general boundaries in WGMs. In the analysis, the body is extended to its exterior but very low stiffness is applied to the exterior region. The stiffness matrix in the WGM becomes singular without the use of a fictitious domain. The problem arises from the lack of linear independence of the basis functions. A technique to remove basis functions that can be represented by the superposition of the other basis functions is proposed. The basis functions are automatically eliminated in the pre conditioning step. An adaptive strategy is developed using the proposed technique. The solution is refined by superposing finer wavelet functions. Numerical examples of solid mechanics problems are presented to demonstrate the multiresolution properties of the WGM.

  18. A B-Spline-Based Colocation Method to Approximate the Solutions to the Equations of Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Landon; R. W. Johnson

    1999-07-01

    The potential of a B-spline collocation method for numerically solving the equations of fluid dynamics is discussed. It is known that B-splines can resolve complex curves with drastically fewer data than can their standard shape function counterparts. This feature promises to allow much faster numerical simulations of fluid flow than standard finite volume/finite element methods without sacrificing accuracy. An example channel flow problem is solved using the method.

  19. Micro-scale blood particulate dynamics using a non-uniform rational B-spline-based isogeometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, V; Mousel, J; Lu, J; Vigmostad, S

    2014-12-01

    The current research presents a novel method in which blood particulates - biconcave red blood cells (RBCs) and spherical cells are modeled using isogeometric analysis, specifically Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in 3-D. The use of NURBS ensures that even with a coarse representation, the geometry of the blood particulates maintains an accurate description when subjected to large deformations. The fundamental advantage of this method is the coupling of the geometrical description and the stress analysis of the cell membrane into a single, unified framework. Details on the modeling approach, implementation of boundary conditions and the membrane mechanics analysis using isogeometric modeling are presented, along with validation cases for spherical and biconcave cells. Using NURBS - based isogeometric analysis, the behavior of individual cells in fluid flow is presented and analyzed in different flow regimes using as few as 176 elements for a spherical cell and 220 elements for a biconcave RBC. This work provides a framework for modeling a large number of 3-D deformable biological cells, each with its own geometric description and membrane properties. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first application of the NURBS - based isogeometric analysis to model and simulate blood particulates in flow in 3D. PMID:25132674

  20. Comparison of Total Variation with a Motion Estimation Based Compressed Sensing Approach for Self-Gated Cardiac Cine MRI in Small Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marinetto, Eugenio; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Compressed sensing (CS) has been widely applied to prospective cardiac cine MRI. The aim of this work is to study the benefits obtained by including motion estimation in the CS framework for small-animal retrospective cardiac cine. Methods We propose a novel B-spline-based compressed sensing method (SPLICS) that includes motion estimation and generalizes previous spatiotemporal total variation (ST-TV) methods by taking into account motion between frames. In addition, we assess the effect of an optimum weighting between spatial and temporal sparsity to further improve results. Both methods were implemented using the efficient Split Bregman methodology and were evaluated on rat data comparing animals with myocardial infarction with controls for several acceleration factors. Results ST-TV with optimum selection of the weighting sparsity parameter led to results similar to those of SPLICS; ST-TV with large relative temporal sparsity led to temporal blurring effects. However, SPLICS always properly corrected temporal blurring, independently of the weighting parameter. At acceleration factors of 15, SPLICS did not distort temporal intensity information but led to some artefacts and slight over-smoothing. At an acceleration factor of 7, images were reconstructed without significant loss of quality. Conclusion We have validated SPLICS for retrospective cardiac cine in small animal, achieving high acceleration factors. In addition, we have shown that motion modelling may not be essential for retrospective cine and that similar results can be obtained by using ST-TV provided that an optimum selection of the spatiotemporal sparsity weighting parameter is performed. PMID:25350290

  1. Estimating potential evapotranspiration with improved radiation estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is of great importance to estimation of surface energy budget and water balance calculation. The accurate estimation of PET will facilitate efficient irrigation scheduling, drainage design, and other agricultural and meteorological applications. However, accuracy o...

  2. SURFACE VOLUME ESTIMATES FOR INFILTRATION PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volume balance calculations used in surface irrigation engineering analysis require estimates of surface storage. These calculations are often performed by estimating upstream depth with a normal depth formula. That assumption can result in significant volume estimation errors when upstream flow d...

  3. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sricharan, Kumar; Wei, Dennis; Hero, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of estimation of density functionals like entropy and mutual information has received much attention in the statistics and information theory communities. A large class of estimators of functionals of the probability density suffer from the curse of dimensionality, wherein the mean squared error (MSE) decays increasingly slowly as a function of the sample size T as the dimension d of the samples increases. In particular, the rate is often glacially slow of order O(T−γ/d), where γ > 0 is a rate parameter. Examples of such estimators include kernel density estimators, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) density estimators, k-NN entropy estimators, intrinsic dimension estimators and other examples. In this paper, we propose a weighted affine combination of an ensemble of such estimators, where optimal weights can be chosen such that the weighted estimator converges at a much faster dimension invariant rate of O(T−1). Furthermore, we show that these optimal weights can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem which can be performed offline and does not require training data. We illustrate the superior performance of our weighted estimator for two important applications: (i) estimating the Panter-Dite distortion-rate factor and (ii) estimating the Shannon entropy for testing the probability distribution of a random sample. PMID:25897177

  4. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  5. Estimating avian population size using Bowden's estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Avian researchers often uniquely mark birds, and multiple estimators could be used to estimate population size using individually identified birds. However, most estimators of population size require that all sightings of marked birds be uniquely identified, and many assume homogeneous detection probabilities. Bowden's estimator can incorporate sightings of marked birds that are not uniquely identified and relax assumptions required of other estimators. I used computer simulation to evaluate the performance of Bowden's estimator for situations likely to be encountered in bird studies. When the assumptions of the estimator were met, abundance and variance estimates and confidence-interval coverage were accurate. However, precision was poor for small population sizes (N ??? 50) unless a large percentage of the population was marked (>75%) and multiple (???8) sighting surveys were conducted. If additional birds are marked after sighting surveys begin, it is important to initially mark a large proportion of the population (pm ??? 0.5 if N ??? 100 or pm > 0.1 if N ??? 250) and minimize sightings in which birds are not uniquely identified; otherwise, most population estimates will be overestimated by >10%. Bowden's estimator can be useful for avian studies because birds can be resighted multiple times during a single survey, not all sightings of marked birds have to uniquely identify individuals, detection probabilities among birds can vary, and the complete study area does not have to be surveyed. I provide computer code for use with pilot data to design mark-resight surveys to meet desired precision for abundance estimates. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct Density Derivative Estimation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Noh, Yung-Kyun; Niu, Gang; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the derivatives of probability density functions is an essential step in statistical data analysis. A naive approach to estimate the derivatives is to first perform density estimation and then compute its derivatives. However, this approach can be unreliable because a good density estimator does not necessarily mean a good density derivative estimator. To cope with this problem, in this letter, we propose a novel method that directly estimates density derivatives without going through density estimation. The proposed method provides computationally efficient estimation for the derivatives of any order on multidimensional data with a hyperparameter tuning method and achieves the optimal parametric convergence rate. We further discuss an extension of the proposed method by applying regularized multitask learning and a general framework for density derivative estimation based on Bregman divergences. Applications of the proposed method to nonparametric Kullback-Leibler divergence approximation and bandwidth matrix selection in kernel density estimation are also explored. PMID:27140943

  7. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  8. Information geometric density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    We investigate kernel density estimation where the kernel function varies from point to point. Density estimation in the input space means to find a set of coordinates on a statistical manifold. This novel perspective helps to combine efforts from information geometry and machine learning to spawn a family of density estimators. We present example models with simulations. We discuss the principle and theory of such density estimation.

  9. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  10. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  11. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  12. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  13. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  14. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  15. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Carl D.

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of the weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.

  16. Parameter estimating state reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

  17. Musings on Willower's "Fog": A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick

    1998-01-01

    Professor Willower complains about the "fog" encountered in postmodernist literature and the author's two articles in "Journal of School Leadership." On closer examination, this miasma is simply the mildew on Willower's Cartesian glasses. Educational administration continues to substitute management and business fads for any real effort to create…

  18. Molecular musings in microbial ecology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A few major discoveries have influenced how ecologists and evolutionists study microbes. Here, in the format of an interview, we answer questions that directly relate to how these discoveries are perceived in these two branches of microbiology, and how they have impacted on both scientific thinking and methodology. The first question is "What has been the influence of the 'Universal Tree of Life' based on molecular markers?" For evolutionists, the tree was a tool to understand the past of known (cultured) organisms, mapping the invention of various physiologies on the evolutionary history of microbes. For ecologists the tree was a guide to discover the current diversity of unknown (uncultured) organisms, without much knowledge of their physiology. The second question we ask is "What was the impact of discovering frequent lateral gene transfer among microbes?" In evolutionary microbiology, frequent lateral gene transfer (LGT) made a simple description of relationships between organisms impossible, and for microbial ecologists, functions could not be easily linked to specific genotypes. Both fields initially resisted LGT, but methods or topics of inquiry were eventually changed in one to incorporate LGT in its theoretical models (evolution) and in the other to achieve its goals despite that phenomenon (ecology). The third and last question we ask is "What are the implications of the unexpected extent of diversity?" The variation in the extent of diversity between organisms invalidated the universality of species definitions based on molecular criteria, a major obstacle to the adaptation of models developed for the study of macroscopic eukaryotes to evolutionary microbiology. This issue has not overtly affected microbial ecology, as it had already abandoned species in favor of the more flexible operational taxonomic units. This field is nonetheless moving away from traditional methods to measure diversity, as they do not provide enough resolution to uncover what lies below the species level. The answers of the evolutionary microbiologist and microbial ecologist to these three questions illustrate differences in their theoretical frameworks. These differences mean that both fields can react quite distinctly to the same discovery, incorporating it with more or less difficulty in their scientific practice. Reviewers This article was reviewed by W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Maureen A. O'Malley. PMID:22074255

  19. Musings on the Future of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the author contemplates the future of accreditation in the changing landscape of higher education in the United States. He presents a set of proposals for how accreditation can regain the confidence of college leaders and public policymakers. He begins with the assumption that changes in accreditation--some significant in their…

  20. Musings on the Internet, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerf, Vinton G.

    2004-01-01

    In t his article, the author discusses the role of higher education research and development (R&D)--particularly R&D into the issues and problems that industry is less able to explore. In addition to high-speed computer communication, broadband networking efforts, and the use of fiber, a rich service environment is equally important and is…

  1. Transits of Venus and Mercury as muses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, William

    2013-11-01

    Transits of Venus and Mercury have inspired artistic creation of all kinds. After having been the first to witness a Venusian transit, in 1639, Jeremiah Horrocks expressed his feelings in poetry. Production has subsequently widened to include songs, short stories, novels, novellas, sermons, theatre, film, engravings, paintings, photography, medals, sculpture, stained glass, cartoons, stamps, music, opera, flower arrangements, and food and drink. Transit creations are reviewed, with emphasis on the English- and French-speaking worlds. It is found that transits of Mercury inspire much less creation than those of Venus, despite being much more frequent, and arguably of no less astronomical significance. It is suggested that this is primarily due to the mythological associations of Venus with sex and love, which are more powerful and gripping than Mercury's mythological role as a messenger and protector of traders and thieves. The lesson for those presenting the night sky to the public is that sex sells.

  2. Musings: "Hasten Slowly:" Thoughtfully Planned Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2008-01-01

    Acceleration is one of the best researched interventions for gifted students. The author is an advocate of acceleration. However, advocating for the thoughtful, carefully judged employment of a procedure with well researched effectiveness does not imply approval of cases where the procedure is used without sufficient thought--especially where it…

  3. Zen Musings on Bion's "O" and "K".

    PubMed

    Cooper, Paul C

    2016-08-01

    The author defines Bion's use of "O" and "K" and discusses both from the radical nondualist realizational perspective available through the lens of Eihei Dogen's (1200-1253) Soto Zen Buddhist orientation. Fundamental differences in core foundational principles are discussed as well as similarities and their relevance to clinical practice. A case example exemplifies and explicates the abstract aspects of the discussion, which draws from Zen teaching stories, reference to Dogen's original writings, and the scholarly commentarial literature as well as from contemporary writers who integrate Zen Buddhist study and practice with Bion's psychoanalytic writings on theory and technique. PMID:27500703

  4. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  5. Estimating mutual information.

    PubMed

    Kraskov, Alexander; Stögbauer, Harald; Grassberger, Peter

    2004-06-01

    We present two classes of improved estimators for mutual information M(X,Y), from samples of random points distributed according to some joint probability density mu(x,y). In contrast to conventional estimators based on binnings, they are based on entropy estimates from k -nearest neighbor distances. This means that they are data efficient (with k=1 we resolve structures down to the smallest possible scales), adaptive (the resolution is higher where data are more numerous), and have minimal bias. Indeed, the bias of the underlying entropy estimates is mainly due to nonuniformity of the density at the smallest resolved scale, giving typically systematic errors which scale as functions of k/N for N points. Numerically, we find that both families become exact for independent distributions, i.e. the estimator M(X,Y) vanishes (up to statistical fluctuations) if mu(x,y)=mu(x)mu(y). This holds for all tested marginal distributions and for all dimensions of x and y. In addition, we give estimators for redundancies between more than two random variables. We compare our algorithms in detail with existing algorithms. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our estimators for assessing the actual independence of components obtained from independent component analysis (ICA), for improving ICA, and for estimating the reliability of blind source separation. PMID:15244698

  6. Estimating Health Services Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    In computer program NOROCA populations statistics from National Center for Health Statistics used with computational procedure to estimate health service utilization rates, physician demands (by specialty) and hospital bed demands (by type of service). Computational procedure applicable to health service area of any size and even used to estimate statewide demands for health services.

  7. Fano factor estimation.

    PubMed

    Rajdl, Kamil; Lansky, Petr

    2014-02-01

    Fano factor is one of the most widely used measures of variability of spike trains. Its standard estimator is the ratio of sample variance to sample mean of spike counts observed in a time window and the quality of the estimator strongly depends on the length of the window. We investigate this dependence under the assumption that the spike train behaves as an equilibrium renewal process. It is shown what characteristics of the spike train have large effect on the estimator bias. Namely, the effect of refractory period is analytically evaluated. Next, we create an approximate asymptotic formula for the mean square error of the estimator, which can also be used to find minimum of the error in estimation from single spike trains. The accuracy of the Fano factor estimator is compared with the accuracy of the estimator based on the squared coefficient of variation. All the results are illustrated for spike trains with gamma and inverse Gaussian probability distributions of interspike intervals. Finally, we discuss possibilities of how to select a suitable observation window for the Fano factor estimation. PMID:24245675

  8. Estimating cell populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, B. S.; Castleman, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    An important step in the diagnosis of a cervical cytology specimen is estimating the proportions of the various cell types present. This is usually done with a cell classifier, the error rates of which can be expressed as a confusion matrix. We show how to use the confusion matrix to obtain an unbiased estimate of the desired proportions. We show that the mean square error of this estimate depends on a 'befuddlement matrix' derived from the confusion matrix, and how this, in turn, leads to a figure of merit for cell classifiers. Finally, we work out the two-class problem in detail and present examples to illustrate the theory.

  9. Pore Velocity Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devary, J. L.; Doctor, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    Geostatistical data analysis techniques were used to stochastically model the spatial variability of groundwater pore velocity in a potential waste repository site. Kriging algorithms were applied to Hanford Reservation data to estimate hydraulic conductivities, hydraulic head gradients, and pore velocities. A first-order Taylor series expansion for pore velocity was used to statistically combine hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head gradient, and effective porosity surfaces and uncertainties to characterize the pore velocity uncertainty. Use of these techniques permits the estimation of pore velocity uncertainties when pore velocity measurements do not exist. Large pore velocity estimation uncertainties were found to be located in the region where the hydraulic head gradient relative uncertainty was maximal.

  10. Trawsfynydd Plutonium Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Bruce D.; Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Livingston, J.

    2009-11-20

    Report serves to document an estimate of the cumulative plutonium production of the Trawsfynydd Unit II reactor (Traws II) over its operating life made using the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The estimate of the plutonium production in Traws II provided in this report has been generated under blind conditions. In other words, the estimate ofthe Traws II plutonium production has been generated without the knowledge of the plutonium production declared by the reactor operator (Nuclear Electric). The objective of this report is to demonstrate that the GIRM can be employed to serve as an accurate tool to verify weapons materials production declarations.

  11. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  12. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  13. Multidimensional synthetic estimation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The synthetic estimation filter (SEF) crafts an affine variation into its response to a changing parameter (e.g. scale or rotation). Sets of such filters are used in an estimation correlator to reduce the number of filters required for a given tracking accuracy. By overspecifying the system (one more SEF than parameters to be tracked), the ratio of correlation responses between filters forms a robust estimator into the spanned domain of the parameters. Previous results dealt with a laboratory correlator which could track a single parameter. This paper explores the SEF and the estimator's extension to more dimensions. A 2D example is given in which a reduction of filters from 25 to 3 is demonstrated to span a 4-degree square portion of pose space.

  14. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodova, E.; Shchepakina, E.

    2006-12-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models.

  15. Efficient Bayesian Phase Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new method called rejection filtering that we use to perform adaptive Bayesian phase estimation. Our approach has several advantages: it is classically efficient, easy to implement, achieves Heisenberg limited scaling, resists depolarizing noise, tracks time-dependent eigenstates, recovers from failures, and can be run on a field programmable gate array. It also outperforms existing iterative phase estimation algorithms such as Kitaev's method.

  16. Cost-Estimation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  17. Capital cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  18. Efficient Bayesian Phase Estimation.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new method called rejection filtering that we use to perform adaptive Bayesian phase estimation. Our approach has several advantages: it is classically efficient, easy to implement, achieves Heisenberg limited scaling, resists depolarizing noise, tracks time-dependent eigenstates, recovers from failures, and can be run on a field programmable gate array. It also outperforms existing iterative phase estimation algorithms such as Kitaev's method. PMID:27419551

  19. Estimating networks with jumps

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Mladen; Xing, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating a temporally varying coefficient and varying structure (VCVS) graphical model underlying data collected over a period of time, such as social states of interacting individuals or microarray expression profiles of gene networks, as opposed to i.i.d. data from an invariant model widely considered in current literature of structural estimation. In particular, we consider the scenario in which the model evolves in a piece-wise constant fashion. We propose a procedure that estimates the structure of a graphical model by minimizing the temporally smoothed L1 penalized regression, which allows jointly estimating the partition boundaries of the VCVS model and the coefficient of the sparse precision matrix on each block of the partition. A highly scalable proximal gradient method is proposed to solve the resultant convex optimization problem; and the conditions for sparsistent estimation and the convergence rate of both the partition boundaries and the network structure are established for the first time for such estimators. PMID:25013533

  20. Nonparametric conditional estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Many nonparametric regression techniques (such as kernels, nearest neighbors, and smoothing splines) estimate the conditional mean of Y given X = chi by a weighted sum of observed Y values, where observations with X values near chi tend to have larger weights. In this report the weights are taken to represent a finite signed measure on the space of Y values. This measure is studied as an estimate of the conditional distribution of Y given X = chi. From estimates of the conditional distribution, estimates of conditional means, standard deviations, quantiles and other statistical functionals may be computed. Chapter 1 illustrates the computation of conditional quantiles and conditional survival probabilities on the Stanford Heart Transplant data. Chapter 2 contains a survey of nonparametric regression methods and introduces statistical metrics and von Mises' method for later use. Chapter 3 proves some consistency results. Chapter 4 provides conditions under which the suitably normalized errors in estimating the conditional distribution of Y have a Brownian limit. Using von Mises' method, asymptotic normality is obtained for nonparametric conditional estimates of compactly differentiable statistical functionals.

  1. Observations and analysis with the spline-based Rydberg-Klein-Rees approach for the 3(1)Σg(+) state of Rb2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinxin; Guan, Yafei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Zhaoyu; Han, Xiaomin; Ma, Jie; Sovkov, Vladimir B; Ivanov, Valery S; Ahmed, Ergin H; Lyyra, A Marjatta; Dai, Xingcan

    2016-01-14

    Ro-vibrational term values of the 3(1)Σg (+) state of (85,85)Rb2 and (85,87)Rb2 and resolved fluorescence spectra to the A(1)Σu (+) state are recorded following optical-optical double resonance excitation. The experimental data are heavily perturbed, and as a result, the standard analysis based on Dunham series representation of the energy levels fails. The analysis is done via modeling the adiabatic potential function with the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential constructed from the generalized smoothing spline interpolation of the vibrational energies Gv and rotational constants Bv. PMID:26772572

  2. Spectral estimators in elastography.

    PubMed

    Konofagou, E E; Varghese, T; Ophir, J

    2000-03-01

    Like velocity, strain induces a time delay and a time scaling to the received signal. Elastography typically uses time delay techniques to indirectly (i.e. via the displacement estimate) measure tissue strain induced by an applied compression, and considers time scaling as a source of distortion. More recently, we have shown that the time scaling factor can also be spectrally estimated and used as a direct measure of strain. Strain causes a Doppler-like frequency shift and a change in bandwidth of the bandpass power spectrum of the echo signal. Two frequency shift strain estimators are described that have been proven to be more robust but less precise when compared to time delay estimators, both in simulations and experiments. The increased robustness is due to the insensitivity of the spectral techniques to phase decorrelation noise. In this paper we discuss and compare the theoretical and experimental findings obtained with traditional time delay estimators and with the newly proposed spectral methods. PMID:10829698

  3. Local likelihood estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tibshirani, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    In this work, we extend the idea of local averaging to likelihood-based regression models. One application is in the class of generalized linear models (Nelder and Wedderburn (1972). We enlarge this class by replacing the covariate form chi..beta.. with an unspecified smooth function s(chi). This function is estimated from the data by a technique we call Local Likelihood Estimation - a type of local averaging. Multiple covariates are incorporated through a forward stepwise algorithm. In a number of real data examples, the local likelihood technique proves to be effective in uncovering non-linear dependencies. Finally, we give some asymptotic results for local likelihood estimates and provide some methods for inference.

  4. Optimal firing rate estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.

    2001-01-01

    We define a measure for evaluating the quality of a predictive model of the behavior of a spiking neuron. This measure, information gain per spike (Is), indicates how much more information is provided by the model than if the prediction were made by specifying the neuron's average firing rate over the same time period. We apply a maximum Is criterion to optimize the performance of Gaussian smoothing filters for estimating neural firing rates. With data from bullfrog vestibular semicircular canal neurons and data from simulated integrate-and-fire neurons, the optimal bandwidth for firing rate estimation is typically similar to the average firing rate. Precise timing and average rate models are limiting cases that perform poorly. We estimate that bullfrog semicircular canal sensory neurons transmit in the order of 1 bit of stimulus-related information per spike.

  5. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, Leslie

    2013-10-15

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy

  6. Parametric Hazard Function Estimation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-09-13

    Version 00 Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking ofmore » the model assumptions.« less

  7. Shrinkage estimators for covariance matrices.

    PubMed

    Daniels, M J; Kass, R E

    2001-12-01

    Estimation of covariance matrices in small samples has been studied by many authors. Standard estimators, like the unstructured maximum likelihood estimator (ML) or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator, can be very unstable with the smallest estimated eigenvalues being too small and the largest too big. A standard approach to more stably estimating the matrix in small samples is to compute the ML or REML estimator under some simple structure that involves estimation of fewer parameters, such as compound symmetry or independence. However, these estimators will not be consistent unless the hypothesized structure is correct. If interest focuses on estimation of regression coefficients with correlated (or longitudinal) data, a sandwich estimator of the covariance matrix may be used to provide standard errors for the estimated coefficients that are robust in the sense that they remain consistent under misspecification of the covariance structure. With large matrices, however, the inefficiency of the sandwich estimator becomes worrisome. We consider here two general shrinkage approaches to estimating the covariance matrix and regression coefficients. The first involves shrinking the eigenvalues of the unstructured ML or REML estimator. The second involves shrinking an unstructured estimator toward a structured estimator. For both cases, the data determine the amount of shrinkage. These estimators are consistent and give consistent and asymptotically efficient estimates for regression coefficients. Simulations show the improved operating characteristics of the shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix and the regression coefficients in finite samples. The final estimator chosen includes a combination of both shrinkage approaches, i.e., shrinking the eigenvalues and then shrinking toward structure. We illustrate our approach on a sleep EEG study that requires estimation of a 24 x 24 covariance matrix and for which inferences on mean parameters critically

  8. Radiation risk estimation models

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, D.G.

    1987-11-01

    Cancer risk models and their relationship to ionizing radiation are discussed. There are many model assumptions and risk factors that have a large quantitative impact on the cancer risk estimates. Other health end points such as mental retardation may be an even more serious risk than cancer for those with in utero exposures. 8 references.

  9. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  10. Quantifying surface normal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert B.; Oxley, Mark E.; Eismann, Michael T.; Goda, Matthew E.

    2006-05-01

    An inverse algorithm for surface normal estimation from thermal polarimetric imagery was developed and used to quantify the requirements on a priori information. Building on existing knowledge that calculates the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP) for a given surface normal in a forward model (from an object's characteristics to calculation of the DOLP and AOP), this research quantifies the impact of a priori information with the development of an inverse algorithm to estimate surface normals from thermal polarimetric emissions in long-wave infrared (LWIR). The inverse algorithm assumes a polarized infrared focal plane array capturing LWIR intensity images which are then converted to Stokes vectors. Next, the DOLP and AOP are calculated from the Stokes vectors. Last, the viewing angles, θ v, to the surface normals are estimated assuming perfect material information about the imaged scene. A sensitivity analysis is presented to quantitatively describe the a priori information's impact on the amount of error in the estimation of surface normals, and a bound is determined given perfect information about an object. Simulations explored the impact of surface roughness (σ) and the real component (n) of a dielectric's complex index of refraction across a range of viewing angles (θ v) for a given wavelength of observation.