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1

Split Cord Malformations of the Lumbar Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a group of 84 patients with split cord malformations presenting to our Department between 1976 and 1990, we have selected 47 cases in whom the split cord was confined to the lower dorsal-lumbar region and in whom there were no other dysraphic features such as meningocele, lipoma or dermoid cyst. We have studied these cases of ‘pure split cord

U. B Andar; W. F. J. Harkness; R. D. Hayward

1997-01-01

2

Split cervical spinal cord malformation and vertebral dysgenesis.  

PubMed

We report a case of vertebral malformation associated with diplomyelia believed to be a type II split cord malformation. Cervicothoracic level cases are exceptional. This article reports the case of an 11-year-old boy with no neurological symptoms who had not undergone surgery. The diagnosis was made during pregnancy by prenatal screening with ultrasound and MRI. Several embryological theories have been offered to provide an explanation for this syndrome. Close follow-up is mandatory. Surgery must only be considered if neurological deterioration occurs. PMID:19837020

Andro, C; Pecquery, R; De Vries, P; Forlodou, P; Fenoll, B

2009-11-01

3

The Effect of Surgery for Split Spinal Cord Malformation on Neurologic and Urologic Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The split spinal cord malformation (SSCM) is an occult spinal dysraphism which causes tethering of the spinal cord. We performed a retrospective analysis of 15 patients who had split cord malformations (without associated open neural tube defect) who underwent both pre- and postoperative urodynamic studies (UDS) in order to determine if a significant percentage of these patients, even in the

Mark R. Proctor; Stuart B. Bauer; R. Michael Scott

2000-01-01

4

Aplasia cutis congenita associated with type I split cord malformation: Unusual case  

PubMed Central

A full-term newborn girl born with large skin, muscle, bone and dural defect in the lumbo-sacral area. The lesion included a split spinal cord by a perpendicular bony spur and connected from its tip to the upper lamina. Patient was diagnosed with aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) associated with type I split cord malformation (SCM). Neurological examination of the lower extremities was normal. Spinal X-rays showed a bony spur on the L2 vertebral column and laminar defect in the lumbo-sacral area. Lesion was operated and closed according to anatomic layers. Clinical and intraoperative findings of this extremely rare case are discussed. PMID:24891898

Abuzayed, Bashar; Erdincler, Pamir

2014-01-01

5

Staged corrective surgery for complex congenital scoliosis and split cord malformation.  

PubMed

Congenital scoliosis associated with split cord malformation raises the issue on how to best manage these patients to avoid neurologic injury while achieving satisfactory correction. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl who first presented when she was 11-year old with such combination but without much physical handicap or neurological deficit. The corrective surgery offered at that time was refused by the family. She again presented after 1 year with documented severe aggravation of the curve resulting in unstable walking and psychological upset. Her imaging studies showed multiple malformations in lower cervical and thoracic spine and a split cord malformation type 2 (fibrous septum with diplomyelia) at the apex of the deformity. A one-stage correction was deemed neurologically too risky. We therefore performed during a first stage a thoracotomy with anterior release. This was followed by skeletal traction with skull tongs and bilateral femoral pins. After gradual increase in traction weights a reasonable correction was achieved without any neurological deficit, over the next 10 days. A second-stage operation was done on the 11th day and a posterior instrumented fusion was performed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful and there were no complications. She was discharged with a Boston Brace to be worn for 3 months. At 2-year follow-up the patient outcome is excellent with excellent balance and correction of the deformity. In this grand round case, we discuss all the different option of treatment of congenital scoliosis associated with split cord malformation. In a medical environment where spinal cord monitoring is lacking, we recommend an initial release followed by skull and bifemoral traction over several days to monitor the neurologic status of the patient. Once optimal correction is achieved with the traction, a posterior instrumentation can be safely done. PMID:19626347

Qureshi, Muhammad Asad; Asad, Ambreen; Pasha, Ibrahim Farooq; Malik, Arslan Sharif; Arlet, Vincent

2009-09-01

6

Split cord malformation with dorsally located bony spur: Report of four cases and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Split cord malformations (SCM) with a dorsally located bony spur are a very rare entity. The authors report a series of four such cases. The literature is reviewed regarding the pathogenesis and management of this uncommon variant of SCM. The presenting features include – scoliosis with motor and autonomic dysfunction (n = 1), scoliosis with cutaneous patch (n = 1), hypertrichotic area (n = 1), and motor deficits alone (n = 1). The location of spur was thoracic and lumbar in two patients (50%) each. Low-lying conus was present in three patients. Long segment syrinx was present in one patient. With respect to the bony anomalies, two patients had a hypertrophied posterior arch (HPA) and one patient had a dysraphic spine. All patients underwent surgical excision of the spur with detethering, if a low-lying conus was present. Two patients developed transient worsening of the neurological status after surgery which recovered at the time of the last follow-up; in both these patients, there was a HPA and a low-lying conus. Surgical excision of the spur with detethering of filum, in cases of low-lying conus, is the treatment of choice. Risk of post-operative worsening of the neurological status is increased in cases in which there is concomitant presence of HPA. PMID:23559998

Prasad, G. L.; Borkar, Sachin A.; Satyarthee, G. D.; Mahapatra, A. K.

2012-01-01

7

Vascular Malformations of the Spine and Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases with a wide variety of neurologic presentations. Their classification depends\\u000a on the differentiation of shunting versus nonshunting lesions, the latter being the spinal cord cavernomas. In the shunting\\u000a lesions, the next step in the proposed classification scheme is related to the feeding artery which can subdivide the dural\\u000a vascular shunts from the pial vascular

Timo Krings

2010-01-01

8

Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformation. Operative video and technical nuances.  

PubMed

Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations account for approximately 5% of all intraspinal lesions. These lesions can present with either acute neurological compromise secondary to hemorrhage inside the spinal cord, or with chronic progressive myelopathy due to repeated microhemorrhages. Surgical resection of spinal cord cavernous malformations remains the definitive treatment strategy for symptomatic lesions. Because of the intimate relationship with surrounding eloquent neural tissue, these lesions can be technically challenging to remove with a significant risk for morbidity. In this operative video, the author demonstrates an illustrative step-by-step technique for microsurgical resection of a large intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformation at C4-5 causing progressive myelopathy. Complete resection was achieved without neurologic compromise. The operative technique and surgical nuances, including the surgical approach, intradural cavernoma removal, and spinal stabilization are illustrated. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/3FUjGSyrKO0. PMID:25175570

Liu, James K

2014-09-01

9

Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation.  

PubMed Central

Split hand/split foot (SHSF; also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by missing central digits and other distal limb malformations. An association between SHSF and cytogenetically visible rearrangements of chromosome 7 at bands q21-q22 provides compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene at this location, and the locus has been designated SHFD1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21-q22 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen-D7S492-D7S527-(D7S479-D7S491)-SHFD1-++ +D7S554-D7S518-qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at three of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrates autosomal dominant SHSF. Evidence against linkage of the SHSF gene to 7q21-q22 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF. We propose the name SHSF2 for this second locus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7912888

Palmer, S. E.; Scherer, S. W.; Kukolich, M.; Wijsman, E. M.; Tsui, L. C.; Stephens, K.; Evans, J. P.

1994-01-01

10

Split-hand/feet malformation in three tamilian families and review of the reports from India  

PubMed Central

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition which can be either syndromic or nonsyndromic. We report three unrelated pedigrees, one with autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance and the other two with autosomal recessive (AR) pattern. We also briefly review the published reports from India. PMID:24959024

Amalnath, S. Deepak; Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Dutta, Tarun Kumar

2014-01-01

11

Bowel function after surgery for anorectal malformations in patients with tethered spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tethered spinal cord (TC) is an anomaly frequently recognized in association with anorectal malformations (ARM). However,\\u000a the influence of TC on bowel function in children with ARM remains unknown. Furthermore, there are few studies that have assessed\\u000a anorectal function in children with ARM and TC. The aim of this study was to evaluate anorectal function in ARM patients with\\u000a TC

Tomoki Tsuda; Naomi Iwai; Osamu Kimura; Yoshihiro Kubota; Shigeru Ono; Yasunari Sasaki

2007-01-01

12

Evidence of endothelial progenitor cells in the human brain and spinal cord arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Objective Brain and spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterized by aberrant angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be recruited by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and participate in vascular remodeling in both physiological and pathological settings. We hypothesized that there was increased EPC levels in the brain and spinal cord AVM nidus. Methods Microsurgical specimens without endovascular embolization and radiosurgery from the brain (n=12) and spinal cord (n=5) AVMs were examined. Hemangioblastoma, meningioma, cerebral cortex obtained from epilepsy surgery, and the basilar artery (BA) from the autopsy were chosen for control comparisons. EPCs were identified as cells that were double-positive for the stem cell marker CD133 and the endothelial cell marker VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or KDR). In addition, SDF-1 was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Results Both brain and spinal AVM tissues displayed more CD133, SDF-1, and CD68-positive signals than epilepsy and basilar artery control tissues. The level of EPCs was increased in the brain and spinal cord AVM nidus, mainly at the edge of the vessel wall. The expression of SDF-1 was co-localized with CD31-positive and ?-smooth muscle cells, and was predominantly found within the vessel wall. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that EPCs are present in the nidus of the brain and spinal cord AVMs, which may mediate pathological vascular remodeling and impact the clinical course of AVMs. PMID:20881566

Gao, Peng; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Su, Hua; Ling, Feng; Young, William L.

2010-01-01

13

Postoperative epidural hematoma contributes to delayed upper cord tethering after decompression of Chiari malformation type I  

PubMed Central

Background: Symptomatic arachnoiditis after posterior fossa surgical procedures such as decompression of Chiari malformation is a possible complication. Clinical presentation is generally insidious and delayed by months or years. It causes disturbances in the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid and enlargement of a syrinx cavity in the upper spinal cord. Surgical de-tethering has favorable results with progressive collapse of the syrinx and relief of the associated symptoms. Case Description: A 30-year-old male with Chiari malformation type I was treated by performing posterior fossa bone decompression, dura opening and closure with a suturable bovine pericardium dural graft. Postoperative period was uneventful until the fifth day in which the patient suffered intense headache and progressive loose of consciousness caused by an acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma. It was quickly removed with complete clinical recovering. One year later, the patient experienced progressive worsened of his symptoms. Upper spinal cord tethering was diagnosed and a new surgery for debridement was required. Conclusions: The epidural hematoma compressing the dural graft against the neural structures contributes to the upper spinal cord tethering and represents a nondescribed cause of postoperative fibrosis, adhesion formation, and subsequent recurrent hindbrain compression.

Lopez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Plaza, Estela; Marquez-Rivas, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

14

Refined mapping of a gene for split hand-split foot malformation (SHFM3) on chromosome 10q25.  

PubMed Central

Split hand-split foot malformation (SHFM) is a genetically heterogeneous limb developmental defect characterised by the absence of digital rays and syndactyly of the remaining digits. Three disease loci have recently been mapped to chromosomes 7q21 (SHFM1), Xq26 (SHFM2), and 10q25 respectively (SHFM3). We report the mapping of SHFM3 to chromosome 10q25 in two large SHFM families of French ancestry (Zmax for the combined families = 6.62 at theta = 0 for marker AFM249wc5 at locus D10S222). Two recombinant events reduced the critical region to a 9 cM interval (D10S1709-D10S1663) encompassing several candidate genes including a paired box gene PAX2 (Zmax = 5.35 at theta = 0). The fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF 8), the retinol binding protein (RBP4), the zinc finger protein (ZNF32), and the homeobox genes HMX2 and HOX11 are also good candidates by both their position and their function. Images PMID:9004130

Raas-Rothschild, A; Manouvrier, S; Gonzales, M; Farriaux, J P; Lyonnet, S; Munnich, A

1996-01-01

15

The neurophysiological balance in Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1), tethered cord and related syndromes.  

PubMed

The Chiari malformation (CM) is a syndrome embodied in heterogeneous groups of malformations, spanning from the more benign and known, the CM1, to more complex syndromes such as the rare association with the tethered cord, as spinal lipomas, and the CM2, associated to open spina bifida. The clinical picture may be well expressed and detected at birth or even during intrauterine life, as for CM2, but in the other cases they may run a rather subtle clinical course. The diagnosis of these syndromes is driven by clinical examination and MRI, and it usually requires a multidisciplinary approach in order to plan the therapeutic strategies, such as surgery. Among the diagnostic investigations, the imaging techniques represent the most useful, for their capabilities to detect subclinical lesions, such as syringomyielia and lipoma; the urological investigation is useful to evaluate the urogenital dysfunctions. The neurophysiological investigations represent a non invasive diagnostic procedure to investigate the peripheral nerve, the spinal cord, the brainstem functionalities and more higher brain functions; the nerve conduction studies and the cranial reflexes, the brainstem (BAEP) and the somatosensory (SEPs) evoked potentials (EPs), alone or in combination, can be used for the diagnosis, follow-up and intraoperative monitoring. The most useful diagnostic tools in CM1 are likely represented by the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and the blink-reflex (BR), while the usefulness of SEPs is still doubtful and debated; in CM2 and tethered cord the neurophysiological techniques can be combined in different ways in order to make a functional balance and to answer specific questions. BAEPs and BR can be useful to investigate the brain stem functionality and SEP to evaluate whether the ascending sensory pathway to the cortex can be hampered at some level; the visual EPs are particularly useful to evaluate the integrity of posterior visual pathway and visual cortex in the case of associated hydrocephalus. In the tethered cord, both nerve conduction study and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are useful to evaluate motor and sensory dysfunction of the lombosacral roots and nerves and spinal cord for their capability to detect subclinical impairment of conduction along the sensory and motor pathway. Finally, last but not the least, the neurophysiological techniques are remarkably useful during surgery; the intraoperative monitoring (IOM) by means of electromyography and direct nerve stimulation and recordings are able to detect early nerve damage, minimize nerve lesions and optimise the surgical techniques. In the operated children with incomplete removal of lipoma and/or persistent tethering, the recordings of SEP and BAEP are useful to demonstrate a conduction deterioration along the ascending sensory pathway due to increasing tethering of the spinal cord due to somatic growth. PMID:22012627

Vidmer, Scaioli; Sergio, Curzi; Veronica, Saletti; Flavia, Tripaldi; Silvia, Esposito; Sara, Bulgheroni; Valentini, Laura Grazia; Daria, Riva; Solero, Carlo Lazzaro

2011-12-01

16

Comparative proteomic analysis of malformed umbilical cords from somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived piglets: implications for early postnatal death  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (scNT)-derived piglets have high rates of mortality, including stillbirth and postnatal death. Here, we examined severe malformed umbilical cords (MUC), as well as other organs, from nine scNT-derived term piglets. RESULTS: Microscopic analysis revealed complete occlusive thrombi and the absence of columnar epithelial layers in MUC (scNT-MUC) derived from scNT piglets. scNT-MUC had significantly lower

Jong-Yi Park; Jae-Hwan Kim; Yun-Jung Choi; Kyu-Chan Hwang; Seong-Keun Cho; Ho-Hyun Park; Seung-Sam Paik; Teoan Kim; Hoon Taek Lee; Han Geuk Seo; Soo-Bong Park; Seongsoo Hwang; Jin-Hoi Kim

2009-01-01

17

Split hand/split foot malformation, deafness, and mental retardation with a complex cytogenetic rearrangement involving 7q21.3.  

PubMed Central

Split hand/split foot malformation (SHSF) has been described in several patients associated with cytogenetically visible rearrangements involving chromosome 7q. Characterisation of these patients has led to localisation of an autosomal dominant form of SHSF to 7q21-22; the locus has been designated SHFM1. We describe a patient with a complex, apparently balanced cytogenetic rearrangement, including a translocation breakpoint at 7q21.3 near the DSS1 gene. In addition to ectrodactyly of all four limbs, the patient has congenital deafness, submucous cleft palate, microcephaly, and mental retardation. This patient represents an additional case of syndromic ectrodactyly related to the SHFM1 gene region, which may be responsible for both syndromic and non-syndromic ectrodactyly. Images PMID:8782053

Ignatius, J; Knuutila, S; Scherer, S W; Trask, B; Kere, J

1996-01-01

18

Refinement of the Region for Split Hand/Foot Malformation 5 on 2q31.1.  

PubMed

Background: Deletions that encompass 2q31.1 have been proposed as a microdeletion syndrome with common clinical features, including intellectual disability/developmental delay, microcephaly, cleft palate, growth delay, and hand/foot anomalies. In addition, several genes within this region have been proposed as candidates for split hand-foot malformation 5 (SHFM5). Methods: To delineate the genotype-phenotype correlation between deletions of this region, we identified 14 individuals with deletions at 2q31.1 detected by microarray analysis for physical and developmental disabilities. Results: All subjects for whom detailed clinical records were available had neurological deficits of varying degree. Seven subjects with deletions encompassing the HOXD cluster had hand/foot anomalies of varying severity, including syndactyly, brachydactyly, and ectrodactyly. Of 7 subjects with deletions proximal to the HOXD cluster, 5 of which encompassed DLX1/DLX2, none had clinically significant hand/foot anomalies. In contrast to previous reports, the individuals in our study did not display a characteristic gestalt of dysmorphic facial features. Conclusion: The absence of hand/foot anomalies in any of the individuals with deletions of DLX1/DLX2 but not the HOXD cluster supports the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of the HOXD cluster, rather than DLX1/DLX2, accounts for the skeletal abnormalities in subjects with 2q31.1 microdeletions. PMID:22140379

Theisen, A; Rosenfeld, J A; Shane, K; McBride, K L; Atkin, J F; Gaba, C; Hoo, J; Kurczynski, T W; Schnur, R E; Coffey, L B; Zackai, E H; Schimmenti, L; Friedman, N; Zabukovec, M; Ball, S; Pagon, R; Lucas, A; Brasington, C K; Spence, J E; Sparks, S; Banks, V; Smith, W; Friedberg, T; Wyatt, P R; Aust, M; Tervo, R; Crowley, A; Skidmore, D; Lamb, A N; Ravnan, B; Sahoo, T; Schultz, R; Torchia, B S; Sgro, M; Chitayat, D; Shaffer, L G

2010-01-01

19

17p13.3 microduplications are associated with split-hand/foot malformation and long-bone deficiency (SHFLD)  

PubMed Central

Split-hand/foot malformation with long-bone deficiency (SHFLD) is a relatively rare autosomal-dominant skeletal disorder, characterized by variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Although several chromosomal loci for SHFLD have been identified, the molecular basis and pathogenesis of most SHFLD cases are unknown. In this study we describe three unrelated kindreds, in which SHFLD segregated with distinct but overlapping duplications in 17p13.3, a region previously linked to SHFLD. In a large three-generation family, the disorder was found to segregate with a 254?kb microduplication; a second microduplication of 527?kb was identified in an affected female and her unaffected mother, and a 430?kb microduplication versus microtriplication was identified in three affected members of a multi-generational family. These findings, along with previously published data, suggest that one locus responsible for this form of SHFLD is located within a 173?kb overlapping critical region, and that the copy gains are incompletely penetrant. PMID:21629300

Armour, Christine M; Bulman, Dennis E; Jarinova, Olga; Rogers, Richard Curtis; Clarkson, Kate B; DuPont, Barbara R; Dwivedi, Alka; Bartel, Frank O; McDonell, Laura; Schwartz, Charles E; Boycott, Kym M; Everman, David B; Graham, Gail E

2011-01-01

20

Discontinuous microduplications at chromosome 10q24.31 identified in a Chinese family with split hand and foot malformation  

PubMed Central

Background Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital disorder characterized by a cleft of the hands and/or feet due to dificiency of central rays. Genomic rearrangement at 10q24 has been found to cause nonsyndromic SHFM (SHFM3). Methods Four patients and fourteen unaffected individuals from a four-generation Chinese pedigree with typical SHFM3 phenotypes were recruited for this study. After informed consent was obtained, genome-wide copy number analysis was performed on all patients and two normal family members using the Affymetrix Cytogenetics Whole-Genome 2.7M Array. The results were then confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all available individuals of this pedigree. Candidate genes were further screened for mutation through sequence analyses. Results Copy number analysis showed a microduplication at chromosome 10q24.31-q24.32 co-segregating with the SHFM phenotype. Compared to other known genomic duplications for SHFM3, the duplication described here contains two discontinuous DNA fragments. The minimal centromeric duplicated segment of 259 kb involves LBX1, POLL and a disrupted BTRC. The minimal telomeric duplication of 114 kb encompasses DPCD and one part of FBXW4. No coding and splice-site mutations of candidate genes in the region were found. Conclusions Genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24.3, which were identified in the current study, provide further evidence for limb-specific cis-regulatory sequences in this region, highlighting the importance of chromosome 10q24.31-q24.32 in limb development and SHFM pathogenesis. PMID:23596994

2013-01-01

21

Novel homozygous mutations in the WNT10B gene underlying autosomal recessive split hand/foot malformation in three consanguineous families.  

PubMed

Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), representing variable degree of median clefts of hands and feet, is a genetically heterogeneous group of limb malformations with seven loci mapped on different human chromosomes. However, only 3 genes (TP63, WNT10B, DLX5) for the seven loci have been identified. The study, presented here, described three consanguineous Pakistani families segregating SHFM in autosomal recessive manner. Linkage in the families was searched by genotyping microsatellite markers and mutation screening of candidate gene was performed by Sanger DNA sequencing. Clinical features of affected members of these families exhibited SHFM phenotype with involvement of hands and feet. Genotyping using microsatellite markers mapped the families to WNT10B gene at SHFM6 on chromosome 12q13.11-q13. Subsequently, sequence analysis of WNT10B gene revealed a novel 4-bp deletion mutation (c.1165_1168delAAGT) in one family and 7-bp duplication (c.300_306dupAGGGCGG) in two other families. Structure-based analysis showed a significant conformational shift in the active binding site of mutated WNT10B (p.Lys388Glufs*36), influencing binding with Fzd8. The mutations identified in the WNT10B gene extend the body of evidence implicating it in the pathogenesis of SHFM. PMID:24211389

Aziz, Abdul; Irfanullah; Khan, Saadullah; Zimri, Faridullah Khan; Muhammad, Noor; Rashid, Sajid; Ahmad, Wasim

2014-01-25

22

Next generation sequencing of chromosomal rearrangements in patients with split-hand/split-foot malformation provides evidence for DYNC1I1 exonic enhancers of DLX5/6 expression in humans  

PubMed Central

Objective Split-hand/foot malformation type 1 is an autosomal dominant condition with reduced penetrance and variable expression. We report three individuals from two families with split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM) in whom next generation sequencing was performed to investigate the cause of their phenotype. Methods and results The first proband has a de novo balanced translocation t(2;7)(p25.1;q22) identified by karyotyping. Whole genome sequencing showed that the chromosome 7 breakpoint is situated within the SHFM1 locus on chromosome 7q21.3. This separates the DYNC1I1 exons recently identified as limb enhancers in mouse studies from their target genes, DLX5 and DLX6. In the second family, X-linked recessive inheritance was suspected and exome sequencing was performed to search for a mutation in the affected proband and his uncle. No coding mutation was found within the SHFM2 locus at Xq26 or elsewhere in the exome, but a 106?kb deletion within the SHFM1 locus was detected through copy number analysis. Genome sequencing of the deletion breakpoints showed that the DLX5 and DLX6 genes are disomic but the putative DYNC1I1 exon 15 and 17 enhancers are deleted. Conclusions Exome sequencing identified a 106?kb deletion that narrows the SHFM1 critical region from 0.9 to 0.1?Mb and confirms a key role of DYNC1I1 exonic enhancers in normal limb formation in humans. PMID:24459211

Lango Allen, Hana; Caswell, Richard; Xie, Weijia; Xu, Xiao; Wragg, Christopher; Turnpenny, Peter D; Turner, Claire L S; Weedon, Michael N; Ellard, Sian

2014-01-01

23

Deletions of exons with regulatory activity at the DYNC1I1 locus are associated with split-hand/split-foot malformation: array CGH screening of 134 unrelated families  

PubMed Central

Background A growing number of non-coding regulatory mutations are being identified in congenital disease. Very recently also some exons of protein coding genes have been identified to act as tissue specific enhancer elements and were therefore termed exonic enhancers or “eExons”. Methods We screened a cohort of 134 unrelated families with split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM) with high resolution array CGH for CNVs with regulatory potential. Results In three families with an autosomal dominant non-syndromic SHFM phenotype we detected microdeletions encompassing the exonic enhancer (eExons) 15 and 17 of DYNC1I1. In a fourth family, who had hearing loss in addition to SHFM, we found a larger deletion of 510 kb including the eExons of DYNC1I1 and, in addition, the human brain enhancer hs1642. Exons 15 and 17 of DYNC1I1 are known to act as tissue specific limb enhancers of DLX5/6, two genes that have been shown to be associated with SHFM in mice. In our cohort of 134 unrelated families with SHFM, deletions of the eExons of DYNC1I1 account for approximately 3% of the cases, while 17p13.3 duplications were identified in 13% of the families, 10q24 duplications in 12%, and TP63 mutations were detected in 4%. Conclusions We reduce the minimal critical region for SHFM1 to 78 kb. Hearing loss, however, appears to be associated with deletions of a more telomeric region encompassing the brain enhancer element hs1642. Thus, SHFM1 as well as hearing loss at the same locus are caused by deletion of regulatory elements. Deletions of the exons with regulatory potential of DYNC1I1 are an example of the emerging role of exonic enhancer elements and their implications in congenital malformation syndromes. PMID:25231166

2014-01-01

24

Frequency of genomic rearrangements involving the SHFM3 locus at chromosome 10q24 in syndromic and non-syndromic split-hand/foot malformation.  

PubMed

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM), or ectrodactyly, is characterized by underdeveloped or absent central digital rays, clefts of the hands and feet, and variable syndactyly of the remaining digits. SHFM occurs as both an isolated finding and a component of many syndromes. SHFM is a heterogeneous condition caused by multiple loci, including SHFM1 (chromosome region 7q21-q22), SHFM2 (Xq26), SHFM3 (10q24), SHFM4 (3q27), and SHFM5 (2q31). Mutations in TP63 at the SHFM4 locus are known to underlie both syndromic and non-syndromic forms SHFM, but the causes of most non-syndromic SHFM cases remain unknown. The recent identification of submicroscopic tandem chromosome duplications affecting the SHFM3 locus in seven families with non-syndromic SHFM has helped to further unravel the molecular basis of this malformation. In our ongoing studies of the SHFM3 locus in 44 additional cases of syndromic and non-syndromic SHFM, we have identified similar chromosome rearrangements in eight additional cases (18%), using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We have also utilized real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to test for the duplications. Seven of the cases with rearrangements were non-syndromic. The current findings bring the total of SHFM3-associated cases with chromosome rearrangements to 15, which constitute 29% (15 of 51) of the cases screened to date. This includes 9 of 9 cases (100%) with known linkage to the SHFM3 locus, all of whom have non-syndromic SHFM, and 6 of 42 additional cases (14%), four of whom have non-syndromic SHFM. Thus, SHFM3 abnormalities underlie a substantial proportion of SHFM cases and appear to be a more frequent cause of non-syndromic SHFM than mutations in TP63. PMID:16761290

Everman, David B; Morgan, Chad T; Lyle, Robert; Laughridge, Mary E; Bamshad, Michael J; Clarkson, Katie B; Colby, Randall; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Innes, A Micheil; Roberson, Jacquelyn; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; van Bokhoven, Hans; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Schwartz, Charles E

2006-07-01

25

Surgical outcomes and natural history of intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations: a single-center series and meta-analysis of individual patient data.  

PubMed

Object Information pertaining to the natural history of intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations (ISCCMs) and patient outcomes after surgery is scarce. To evaluate factors associated with favorable outcomes for patients with surgically and conservatively managed ISCCMs, the authors performed a systematic review and metaanalysis of the literature. In addition, they included their single-center series of ISCCMs. Methods The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library for studies published through June 2013 that reported cases of ISCCMs. Data from all eligible studies were used to examine the epidemiology, clinical features, and neurological outcomes of patients with surgically managed and conservatively treated ISCCMs. To evaluate several variables as predictors of favorable neurological outcomes, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient data and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Variables included patient age, patient sex, lesion spinal level, lesion size, cerebral cavernomas, family history of cavernous malformations, clinical course, presenting symptoms, treatment strategy (operative or conservative), symptom duration, surgical approach, spinal location, and extent of resection. In addition, they performed a meta-analysis to determine a pooled estimate of the annual hemorrhage rate of ISCCMs. Results Eligibility criteria were met by 40 studies, totaling 632 patients, including the authors' institutional series of 24 patients. Mean patient age was 39.1 years (range 2-80 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1. Spinal levels of cavernomas were cervical (38%), cervicothoracic (2.4%), thoracic (55.2%), thoracolumbar (0.6%), lumbar (2.1%), and conus medullaris (1.7%). Average cavernoma size was 9.2 mm. Associated cerebral cavernomas occurred in 16.5% of patients, and a family history of cavernous malformation was found for 11.9% of evaluated patients. Clinical course was acute with stepwise progression for 45.4% of patients and slowly progressive for 54.6%. Symptoms were motor (60.5%), sensory (57.8%), pain (33.8%), bladder and/or bowel (23.6%), respiratory distress (0.5%), or absent (asymptomatic; 0.9%). The calculated pooled annual rate of hemorrhage was 2.1% (95% CI 1.3%-3.3%). Most (89.9%) patients underwent resection, and 10.1% underwent conservative management (observation). Outcomes were better for those who underwent resection than for those who underwent conservative management (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.46-5.33, p = 0.002). A positive correlation with improved neurological outcomes was found for resection within 3 months of symptom onset (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.31-3.41, p = 0.002), hemilaminectomy approach (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.16-8.86, p = 0.03), and gross-total resection (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.24-10.52, p = 0.02). Better outcomes were predicted by an acute clinical course (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10-2.68, p = 0.02) and motor symptoms (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.08-2.86, p = 0.02); poor neurological recovery was predicted by sensory symptoms (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.98, p = 0.04). Rates of neurological improvement after resection were no higher for patients with superficial ISCCMs than for those with deep-seated ISCCMs (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.71-2.60, p = 0.36). Conclusions Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations tend to be clinically progressive. The authors' findings support an operative management plan for patients with a symptomatic ISCCM. Surgical goals include gross-total resection through a more minimally invasive hemilaminectomy approach within 3 months of presentation. PMID:25062285

Badhiwala, Jetan H; Farrokhyar, Forough; Alhazzani, Waleed; Yarascavitch, Blake; Aref, Mohammed; Algird, Almunder; Murty, Naresh; Kachur, Edward; Cenic, Aleksa; Reddy, Kesava; Almenawer, Saleh A

2014-10-01

26

Anorectal malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases, which can affect boys and girls, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. They occur in approximately 1 in 5000 live births. Defects range from the very minor and easily treated with an excellent functional prognosis, to those that are complex, difficult to manage,

Marc A Levitt; Alberto Peña

2007-01-01

27

Short-Course Versus Split-Course Radiotherapy in Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Results of a Phase III, Randomized, Multicenter Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) is often used in the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). This randomized trial was planned to assess the clinical outcome and toxicity of two different hypofractionated RT regimens in MSCC.

Ernesto Maranzano; Rita Bellavita; Romina Rossi; Verena De Angelis; Alessandro Frattegiani; Rita Bagnoli; Marcello Mignogna; Sara Beneventi; Marco Lupattelli; Pietro Ponticelli; Gian Paolo Biti; Paolo Latini

2005-01-01

28

Arteriovenous Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital lesions arising from abnormal blood vessel formation [1]–[3]. Whereas normal embryogenesis results in the differentiation of primordial vascular channels into mature arteries, veins,\\u000a and capillaries, patients with AVMs develop direct arteriovenous shunts without the appropriate intervening vascular beds.\\u000a Recent large, prospective, population-based studies have determined the incidence of newly diagnosed AVM patients to range

Bruce E. Pollock

29

Atypical Presentations in Chiari II Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus is a common association seen in infants with a congenital failure of neurulation. Here we report two cases of such an association presenting with different sets of problems. The first patient presented with severe inspiratory stridor due to bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis, which was relieved completely within 24 h of definitive surgery.

G. P. Rath; P. K. Bithal; A. Chaturvedi

2006-01-01

30

Cerebral Cavernous Malformation  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Information Page Synonym(s): Cavernomas, Cavernous Angioma, Congenital Vascular Cavernous Malformations, Familial Hemangioma, Nevus Cavernosus, Vascular Erectile Tumor, Cavernous Malformation Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ...

31

Congenital malformations in Shimla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital malformations were studied over a period of five years in 10, 100 consecutive births including still births at\\u000a Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. Out of these, 180 babies had one or the other congenital malformations and the overall\\u000a incidence was 1.78%. Amongst the 311 still born babies 47 had congenital malformations indicating that the incidence of congenital\\u000a malformations was

Neelam Grover

2000-01-01

32

X-chromosomally inherited split-hand/split-foot anomaly in a Pakistani kindred.  

PubMed

A Pakistani kindred comprising seven generations and 36 members with the split-hand/split-foot anomaly is described. The full expression of the trait, monodactylous or split hand and split foot, mainly of the lobster-claw type, was present in 33 males and 3 females. Other females showed a distinctly milder expression of the trait, usually in the form of partial syndactyly, metacarpal and phalangeal hypoplasia, and malformation. The distribution of the affected members in the pedigree is compatible with X-chromosomal inheritance. Hemizygous males and presumably homozygous females exhibit the typical split-hand/split-foot anomaly, whereas only a part of the obligatory heterozygous females show the milder expression. There were no associated anomalies, such as ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate, macular degeneration, malformations of the long bones or internal organs, and overt mental retardation. PMID:3817811

Ahmad, M; Abbas, H; Haque, S; Flatz, G

1987-02-01

33

Chiari Type I Malformation: Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiari Type I malformation (Chiari I) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly characterized by downward dis- placement of the cerebellar tonsils through the fora- men magnum. This can lead to compression of cere- bellar components, the lower brainstem, and the upper cervical spinal cord. In turn, a variety of neu- rological deficits and permanent nervous system damage may evolve. This review

John Nash; Joseph S. Cheng; Glenn A. Meyer; Bernd F. Remler

34

Respiratory obstruction as a sign of brainstem dysfunction in infants with Chiari malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laryngeal respiratory obstruction associated with Chiari malformations was first described in 1932. We studied this type of obstruction in six children with one or several disorders pointing to brainstem dysfunction (failure to thrive, velopharyngeal incompetence, gastroesophageal reflux, or vagal hypertonia). The nature of the laryngeal obstruction was highly variable (vocal cord paralysis, paradoxical vocal cord motion, laryngomalacia) as were the

F. Portier; R. Marianowski; M. P. Morisseau-Durand; M. Zerah; Y. Manac'h

2001-01-01

35

Primary tethered cord syndrome: a new hypothesis of its origin.  

PubMed

Primary tethered cord syndrome is defined as low placement of the spinal cord and thickened filum terminale with associated anomalies. This definition excludes anomalies concomitant with overt myelomeningocele and spinal cord tethering secondary to myelomeningocele repair. Embryologically, the primary tethered cord syndrome is an entirely different entity from overt myelomeningocele and associated Arnold-Chiari type II malformation, but its origins have not been satisfactorily explained. The authors postulate that primary tethered cord syndrome is a manifestation of local dysmorphogenesis of all three germ layers at the lumbosacral area, possibly triggered by a hemorrhagic, inflammatory, or some other local lesion occurring in embryogenesis. PMID:6426276

Sarwar, M; Virapongse, C; Bhimani, S

1984-01-01

36

Pelvic vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations (VMs) comprise a wide spectrum of lesions that are classified by content and flow characteristics. These lesions, occurring in both focal and diffuse forms, can involve any organ and tissue plane and can cause significant morbidity in both children and adults. Since treatment strategy depends on the type of malformation, correct diagnosis and classification of a vascular lesion are crucial. Slow-flow VMs (venous and lymphatic malformations) are often treated by sclerotherapy, whereas fast-flow lesions (arteriovenous malformations) are generally managed with embolization. In addition, some cases of VMs are best treated surgically. This review will present an overview of VMs in the female pelvis as well as a discussion of endovascular therapeutic techniques. PMID:24436563

Christenson, Brian M; Gipson, Matthew G; Smith, Mitchell T

2013-12-01

37

Posterior fossa malformations.  

PubMed

Understanding embryologic development of the cerebellum and the 4th ventricle is essential for understanding posterior fossa malformations. Posterior fossa malformations can be conveniently classified into those that have a large posterior fossa and those with normal or small posterior fossa. Disorders associated with a large posterior fossa include classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Blake's pouch cyst, mega cisterna magna, and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. Disorders associated with normal or small posterior fossa include Dandy-Walker variant, Joubert syndrome, tecto-cerebellar dysraphia, rhombencephalosynapsis, the neocerebellar hypoplasias, and cerebellar atrophy. Neuro-imaging features should enable the imager to provide the referring physician a logical approach to these complex posterior fossa malformations. PMID:21596278

Shekdar, Karuna

2011-06-01

38

Management of Vascular Malformations  

PubMed Central

Background: Even though vascular malformations are well categorized, further details are relatively unknown. Of treated patients regarding the frequency, demographic distributions, and other related factors by multivariate regression analyses in proportion to total vascular malformations, methods of treatment and how to manage them have not been elucidated thoroughly. Methods: From January 2006 to March 2012, consecutively treated patients with vascular anomalies were included in this investigation at least 1-year follow-up. Results: Of the total of 123 cases, 86 females and 37 males, the mean follow-up was 3.5?±?1.68 years, and the frequency of treatment was 1–8 times (1.8?±?1.30). Surgery was performed for 22 cases (17.9%) of venous malformations and arteriovenous malformations. In multivariate regression, the frequency of treatment was significantly correlated with the length of follow-up (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.05), and type of malformations (P < 0.05) (R2 = 0.18). Need for surgery was significantly increased with age at odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.80] (P < 0.001), and head/face/neck, and upper limb are more performed at OR of 0.24 (95% CI, 0.07–0.85) (P < 0.05). The satisfaction score varied from 1 to 5 (3.9?±?0.68). Complications occurred in 3 cases (2.4%). In logistic regression of complications, the OR of the satisfaction score was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.02–0.80) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Treatment of vascular malformations is an integral part of multidisciplinary approaches. Venous malformations are more frequent in combination surgery, and if there are fewer complications, the patients’ satisfaction increases.

Houbara, Seiji; Hirano, Akiyoshi

2014-01-01

39

Split Decomp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This worksheet performs split decomposition on a set of four DNA sequences and their associated amino acid sequences. The user can type in the sequences or paste them in from a text file. The program then translates the DNA sequences into amino acid sequences and calculates split indices and four-point conditions for each of the three possible unrooted phylogenies. The user can use these values to assess the data support for each of these topologies.

Tony Weisstein (Truman State University;Biology); John Jungck (Beloit College;Biology)

2007-04-20

40

Rare malformation of glans penis: arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Pediatric glans penis malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and radiological evaluations. Pathology reported AVM and the patient is being followed up. The second case is a 2-year-old boy who was admitted with a big lesion involving glans penis and genital area that has been present since birth. In physical and radiological evaluations, lesion on the glans penis was pulsatile. Parents of the patient did not want any surgery and patient has been in follow-up. Diagnosis of the vascular lesions on glans penis is very easy by physical and radiological examinations today. Long-term follow-up is very important for AVM. Clinicians must make a careful effort to document new glans lesions in the pediatric population and decrease anxiety in the parents of affected children. PMID:23771468

Akin, Y; Sarac, M; Yucel, S

2013-01-01

41

Reoperation for Chiari Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We undertook this study to characterize those patients who required reoperations for Chiari malformation and to determine whether modifications in surgical technique at the initial procedure might have obviated the need for repeat surgery. Methods: We reviewed the hospital records, imaging studies, operative reports, and follow-up data of those patients who were undergoing a second operation as part of

David Sacco; R. Michael Scott

2003-01-01

42

Concurrent Chiari decompression and spinal cord untethering in children: feasibility in a small case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  We describe the rationale and safety of concurrent decompression of Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1) and untethering of the\\u000a spinal cord. Spinal cord traction is considered one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of CM, and 14%\\u000a of patients with CM1 have tethered cord syndrome (Milhorat et al., Surg Neurol 7:20–35, 2009; Roth, Neuroradiology 21:133–138, 1981;

Vicko Gluncic; Michael Turner; Delilah Burrowes; David Frim

2011-01-01

43

Congenital Chiari malformations.  

PubMed

Chiari malformation is the commonest anomaly of the craniovertebral junction involving both the skeletal as well as the neural structures. This entity has rapidly evolved over the past decade with newer visualization techniques, thus posing new challenges to diagnosis and management. This review includes the developmental theories, the latest nomenclature and existing treatment modalities of this interesting anomaly. Five theories tried to explain the malformation of the hindbrain and the neuraxis but no single theory completes the development of embryonic defects. Several atypical presentations have been reported with either incidental/asymptomatic features resulting in further classifications. The new magnetic resonance imaging flow techniques attempt to substantiate the clinical presentations and correlate with the abnormality which can be subtle in correlation. Surgical correction to improve the cranial volume, decrease the hydrocephalus and improve flow across the foramen magnum is the mainstay but needs to be tailored to a given type of malformation. Further clinical and imageological studies, especially longitudinal natural history, might improve our understanding of the atypical/asymptomatic presentations and the management that is currently available. PMID:20228456

Vannemreddy, Prasad; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Willis, Brian; Guthikonda, Bharat

2010-01-01

44

Acquired Chiari I Malformation and Syringomyelia after Valveless Lumboperitoneal Shunt in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the case of a 13-year-old boy who experienced frequent disabling episodes of typical postural induced headaches, which revealed a Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia and cervical spinal cord edema. This boy had received a valveless lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt at the age of 18 months for macrocephaly. At this time, cranial CT scan showed moderate enlargement of the subarachnoid

Laurent Riffaud; Carolina Moughty; Pierre-Louis Henaux; Claire Haegelen; Xavier Morandi

2008-01-01

45

Multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From our series of 203 patients with cerebral vascular lesions, 18 (9%) could be included in the multiple arteriovenous malformation category. There were five patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber, one with Wyburn-Mason syndromes and two with concurrent arteriovenous malformations. The remaining ten patients (4%) had multiple brain arteriovenous malformations. Careful angiography with magnification is necessary to try to diagnose multiple brain AVMs,

R. A. Willinsky; P. Lasjaunias; K. Terbrugge; P. Burrows

1990-01-01

46

Arteriovenous Malformation Management  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare vascular lesions that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. In our institutions, initial workup consists of a clinical exam, color Doppler imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. After the initial noninvasive workup, arteriography, at times closed system venography, and ethanol endovascular repair of the AVM is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the size of the lesion, additional Swan-Ganz line and arterial line monitoring are performed. Patients are usually observed overnight and uneventfully discharged the following day if no complication occurs. Patients are followed at periodic intervals despite cure of their lesion. Long-term follow-up is essential in AVM management.

Yakes, Wayne F. [Interventional Radiology and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiology Imaging Associates, P.C., Colorado NeurologicalInstitute, Swedish Medical Center, 501 E. Hampden Avenue, Englewood, CO 80110 (United States); Rossi, Plinio [Department of Radiology, Universita Degli Studi Di Roma, 'La Sapienza', 00161 Rome (Italy); Odink, Henk [Department of Radiology, De Wever Hospital, Henri Dunanstrat 5, 6419 PC Heerlen (Netherlands)

1996-11-15

47

Anencephaly and its Associated Malformations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Anencephaly is a serious neural tube defect in which parts of the brain and skull are not developed. But apart from this it is also associated with other malformations which are not related to neural tube in development. Aim: The present study was undertaken to find the associated congenital malformations in western region of India and establish a aetiological correlation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using 20 anencephalic fetuses. Results: Nearly 80% of fetuses had associated malformations. Spina bifida was seen in 9 fetuses and cleft palate in 8. Female fetus with cleft palate had other severe associated gastrointestinal and skeletal malformation. Conclusion: In cases of anencephaly other associated malfor–mations like spina bifida and cleft palate are commonly seen. PMID:25386414

Meshram, Pritee Madan; Hattangdi, Shanta Sunil

2014-01-01

48

Brain arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a particular abnormality of blood vessels. Brain AVMs are congenital, but symptoms usually do not appear until the second decade of life - if at all. The most common presenting symptom is a brain hemorrhage, but other possible symptoms include neurological deficits, seizures and headaches. Until recently, the gold standard for diagnosing AVM was conventional angiography. However, computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography are now the first-line diagnostic tools for AVMs. This article reviews the presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for brain AVMs, including embolization, micro-surgery and radiosurgery. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. PMID:21771938

Ferrara, Adi R

2011-01-01

49

Radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery is the term coined by Lars Leksell to describe the application of a single, high dose of radiation to a stereotactically defined target volume. In the 1970s, reports began to appear documenting the successful obliteration of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with radiosurgery. When an AVM is treated with radiosurgery, a pathologic process appears to be induced that is similar to the response-to-injury model of atherosclerosis. Radiation injury to the vascular endothelium is believed to induce the proliferation of smooth-muscle cells and the elaboration of extracellular collagen, which leads to progressive stenosis and obliteration of the AVM nidus thereby eliminating the risk of hemorrhage. The advantages of radiosurgery - compared to microsurgical and endovascular treatments - are that it is noninvasive, has minimal risk of acute complications, and is performed as an outpatient procedure requiring no recovery time for the patient. The primary disadvantage of radiosurgery is that cure is not immediate. While thrombosis of the lesion is achieved in the majority of cases, it commonly does not occur until two or three years after treatment. During the interval between radiosurgical treatment and AVM thrombosis, the risk of hemorrhage remains. Another potential disadvantage of radiosurgery is possible long term adverse effects of radiation. Finally, radiosurgery has been shown to be less effective for lesions over 10 cc in volume. For these reasons, selection of the optimal treatment for an AVM is a complex decision requiring the input of experts in endovascular, open surgical, and radiosurgical treatment. In the pages below, we will review the world's literature on radiosurgery for AVMs. Topics reviewed will include the following: radiosurgical technique, radiosurgery results (gamma knife radiosurgery, particle beam radiosurgery, linear accelerator radiosurgery), hemorrhage after radiosurgery, radiation induced complications, repeat radiosurgery, and radiosurgery for other types of vascular malformation. PMID:22004703

Friedman, William A; Bova, Frank J

2011-10-01

50

Spinal cord contusion  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.

Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

2014-01-01

51

Management strategy for facial venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular malformations, caused by abnormalities in the development of the veins. Venous malformations vary in size and location within the body. When the skin or tissues just under the skin are affected, they appear as slightly blue-colored skin stains or swellings. These can vary in size from time to time because of swelling within the malformation. As these are vascular malformations, they are present at birth and grow proportionately with the child. Venous malformations can be very small to large in size, and sometimes, can involve a significant area within the body, When the venous malformation is well localized, this may cause localized swelling, however, when the venous malformation is more extensive, there may be more widespread swelling of the affected body part. Some patients with venous malformations have abnormal blood clotting within the malformation. Most venous malformations cause no life-threatening problems for patients. Some venous malformations cause repeated pain due to intermittent swelling and congestion of the malformation or due to the formation of blood clots within the malformation. Rarely, venous malformations may be part of a syndrome (an association of several clinically recognizable features) or be linked to an underlying genetic abnormality. We present 12 cases of venous malformations of the head and neck area, which have been managed at our hospital.

Kumar, Shailendra; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Surender

2014-01-01

52

Embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation  

PubMed Central

Background: Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rare but potential life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can be lead to massive hemorrhage. Case: We describe here a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation. A 32-year-old woman presented abnormal vaginal bleeding following the induced abortion. A diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation made on the basis of Doppler ultrasonraphy was confirmed through pelvic angiography. The embolization of bilateral uterine arteries was performed successfully. Conclusion: Uterine arteriovenous malformation should be suspected in patient with abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially who had the past medical history incluing cesarean section, induced abortion, or Dillation and Curethage and so on. Although angiography remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is also a good noninvasive technique. The transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective treatment PMID:24639742

Chen, Yan; Wang, Guoyun; Xie, Fubo; Wang, Bo; Tao, Guowei; Kong, Beihua

2013-01-01

53

Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms),\\u000a or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in\\u000a utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered\\u000a in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital

Nadine J. Girard

2010-01-01

54

Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Surgical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are rare vascular lesions [1], [2]; however, because hemorrhage of CCMs can result in significant morbidity and mortality [3], [4], a great deal of effort has been devoted to their detection and treatment. Although previously thought to be solely congenital,\\u000a it is now well recognized that many cavernous malformations are acquired [5], arising de novo or

Robert L. Dodd; Gary K. Steinberg

55

Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

An unusual case of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (P-AVM) combined with esophageal cancer is reported. A 59-year-old man was admitted with upper abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed numerous strongly enhanced abnormal vessels and a hypovascular lesion in the area of the pancreatic tail. Angiographic study of the celiac artery confirmed racemose vascular networks in the tail of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed narrowing and displacement of the main pancreatic duct in the tail of the pancreas. Screening esophagoscopy showed a 0-IIa+IIc type tumor in the lower thoracic esophagus. Histological examination of esophagoscopic biopsies showed squamous cell carcinoma. Based on these findings, P-AVM or pancreatic cancer and esophageal cancer were diagnosed. Video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy and distal pancreatectomy were performed. Histological examination of the resected pancreas revealed abundant abnormal vessels with intravascular thrombi. In addition, rupture of a dilated pancreatic duct with pancreatic stones and both severe atrophy and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma were observed. The final diagnoses were P-AVM consequent to severe chronic pancreatitis and esophageal carcinoma. The patient's postoperative course was relatively good. PMID:24574946

Yamabuki, Takumi; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Okamura, Kunishige; Kuroda, Aki; Takahashi, Ryo; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu

2014-01-01

56

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are abnormal vascular structures that most often connect a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, bypassing the normal pulmonary capillary bed and resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. As a consequence, patients with PAVM can have hypoxemia and paradoxical embolization complications, including stroke and brain abscess. PAVMs may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and simple or complex. Most PAVMs are hereditary and occur in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, an autosomal dominant vascular disorder, and screening for PAVM is indicated in this subgroup. PAVMs may also be idiopathic, occur as a result of trauma and infection, or be secondary to hepatopulmonary syndrome and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunting. Diagnostic testing involves identifying an intrapulmonary shunt, with the most sensitive test being transthoracic contrast echocardiography. Chest CT scan is useful in characterizing PAVM in patients with positive intrapulmonary shunting. Transcatheter embolotherapy is the treatment of choice for PAVM. Lifelong follow-up is important because recanalization and collateralization may occur after embolization therapy. Surgical resection is rarely necessary and reserved for patients who are not candidates for embolization. Antibiotic prophylaxis for procedures with a risk of bacteremia (eg, dental procedures) is recommended in all patients with PAVM because of the risk of cerebral abscess. PMID:24008954

Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Swanson, Karen L; Krowka, Michael J

2013-09-01

57

Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations (dAVMs) are rare lesions that have a high mortality rate and require complex management. The authors report 3 cases of pediatric dAVMs that presented with macrocrania and extracranial venous distension. Dural sinus thrombosis developed in 2 of the cases prior to any intervention, which is an unusual occurrence for this particular disease. All 3 cases were treated using staged endovascular embolization with a favorable outcome in 1 case and a poor outcome in the other 2 cases. Complications developed in all cases and included dural sinus thrombosis, parenchymal hemorrhage, intracranial venous hypertension, and seizures. The strategies and challenges used in managing these patients will be presented and discussed, along with a review of the literature. While outcomes remain poor, the authors conclude that prompt treatment with endovascular embolization provides the best results for children with these lesions. A well-established venous collateral circulation draining directly to the internal jugular veins may further improve the rate of favorable outcome after embolization. PMID:24867128

Appaduray, Shaun P; King, James A J; Wray, Alison; Lo, Patrick; Maixner, Wirginia

2014-07-01

58

Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Summary Treatment options for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are still controversial due to the recent result of stereotactic radiosurgery and the improved result of microsurgical resection. We investigated previously treated AVM cases and discussed the efficacy and safety of preoperative embolization especially for microsurgical resection of high-grade AVM in the Spetzler-Martin grading. Efficacy of preoperative embolization was evaluated based on 126 previously treated AVM cases at Shinshu University Hospital during the last 25 years. The safety of embolization was evaluated based on our previously-embolized 58 AVM cases (91 procedures) in the last 11 years after introduction of preoperative embolization for AVM. In all 126 cases, 82 were treated before introduction of embolization and 44 were treated after introduction of embolization. In 82 cases of the pre-embolization era, 63 lesions were removed totally in 63 AVMs (77%), partially resected in 11 (13%) and untreated in eight (10%). In 74 surgically removed cases, 11 (15%) cases showed severe intra/postoperative bleeding. In 44 cases of the embolization era, lesions were removed totally in 29 AVMs (66%), disappeared only with embolization in one (2%), disappeared with radiosurgery in seven (16%) and were untreated in five (11%). In 32 surgically removed cases, only one (2%) case showed severe intra/postoperative bleeding. In all 58 embolized cases, 44 were surgically removed, six were treated with radiosurgery, one was eliminated with embolization alone and six were partially obliterated and followed up for their location. In 91 procedures for 58 cases, two haemorrhagic and three ischemic complications occurred, three were transient and two remained having neurological deficits. The introduction of preoperative embolization improved the total removal rate and reduced the intra/postoperative bleeding rate in surgical removal of AVM. The total risk of embolization is low and well-designed preoperative embolization makes surgical resection safer even in high-grade AVM in the Spetzler-Martin grading. PMID:20587250

Nagashima, H.; Hongo, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Takamae, T.; Okudera, H.; Koyama, J.I.; Oya, F.; Matsumoto, Y.

2004-01-01

59

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-03-01

60

[Arteriovenous malformation in the mandibula].  

PubMed

A 15-year-old autistic boy of subnormal intelligence appeared at the office of his dental practitioner complaining about pain in the third quadrant. Investigation revealed that the second molar could be intruded easily. No other irregularities, such as caries or periodontal disease were apparent. Due to the severe pain it was decided that the tooth should be extracted. Extraction of the tooth induced massive bleeding. Hemostasis was achieved by repositioning the molar in its alveolus, according to the principle of putting a cork in a bottle. Radiographic investigation showed the presence of an intraosseous arteriovenous malformation. These malformations are potentially life-threatening lesions. Treatment of choice is a combination of transarterial embolization and surgical removal of the malformation. PMID:17715775

Kruizinga, E H W; Meijer, G J; Koole, R; van Es, R J J

2007-07-01

61

Glioblastoma Mimicking an Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Abnormal cerebral vasculature can be a manifestation of a vascular malformation or a neoplastic process. We report the case of a patient with angiography-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who re-presented 3?years later with a large intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Although imaging following the intraparenchymal hemorrhage was suggestive of arteriovenous malformation, the patient was ultimately found to have an extensive glioblastoma associated with abnormal tumor vasculature. The case emphasizes the need for magnetic resonance imaging to investigate angiography-negative SAH in suspicious cases to rule out occult etiologies, such as neoplasm. We also discuss diagnostic pitfalls when brain tumors are associated with hemorrhage and abnormal vasculature. PMID:24137154

Khanna, Arjun; Venteicher, Andrew S.; Walcott, Brian P.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Mordes, Daniel A.; William, Christopher M.; Ghogawala, Zoher; Ogilvy, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

62

Glioblastoma mimicking an arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Abnormal cerebral vasculature can be a manifestation of a vascular malformation or a neoplastic process. We report the case of a patient with angiography-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who re-presented 3?years later with a large intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Although imaging following the intraparenchymal hemorrhage was suggestive of arteriovenous malformation, the patient was ultimately found to have an extensive glioblastoma associated with abnormal tumor vasculature. The case emphasizes the need for magnetic resonance imaging to investigate angiography-negative SAH in suspicious cases to rule out occult etiologies, such as neoplasm. We also discuss diagnostic pitfalls when brain tumors are associated with hemorrhage and abnormal vasculature. PMID:24137154

Khanna, Arjun; Venteicher, Andrew S; Walcott, Brian P; Kahle, Kristopher T; Mordes, Daniel A; William, Christopher M; Ghogawala, Zoher; Ogilvy, Christopher S

2013-01-01

63

Arteriovenous malformation of the pancreas.  

PubMed

Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a very rare and mostly congenital lesion, with less than 80 cases described in the English-published literature. It is defined as a tumorous vascular abnormality that is constructed between an anomalous bypass anastomosis of the arterial and venous networks within the pancreas. It represents about 5% of all arteriovenous malformations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we present a 64-year-old patient with symptomatic PAVM involving the body and tail of the organ, which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The disease spectrum and review of the literature are also presented. PMID:21765845

Charalabopoulos, Alexandros; Macheras, Nikolas; Krivan, Sylvia; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Misiakos, Evangelos; Macheras, Anastasios

2011-01-01

64

Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection.  

PubMed

Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight farms that had submitted lambs for post-mortem examination. This Schmallenberg virus was first reported in Germany and seems to be related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. These preliminary findings suggest that the Schmallenberg virus is the most likely cause of this epizootic of ovine congenital malformations, which is the first such outbreak reported in Europe. PMID:22393844

van den Brom, R; Luttikholt, S J M; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Peperkamp, N H M T; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Vellema, P

2012-02-01

65

Thermocouple split follower  

DOEpatents

Thermoelectric generator assembly accommodating differential thermal expansion between thermoelectric elements by means of a cylindrical split follower forming a slot and having internal spring loaded wedges that permit the split follower to open and close across the slot.

Howell, deceased, Louis J. (late of Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, PA)

1980-01-01

66

Radiosurgery for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

From September 1991 to May 1997, a total of 59 patients diagnosed with cerebral arteriovenous malformations were treated using radiosurgery. There were 29 men and 30 women, with an age range of 5 to 75 years (mean 36). Of these patients, 39 patients were treated using a LINAC-based system (group 1) and 20 using the Leksell ?-knife unit (group 2).

Lucia Zamorano; Amgad Matter; Laurie Caspar; Arturo Saenz; Razvan Buciuc; James Fontanesi; Azucena Garzon; Fernando Diaz

1998-01-01

67

Congenital Pulmonary Malformation in Children  

PubMed Central

Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are a group of rare lung abnormalities affecting the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature. They represent a spectrum of abnormal development rather than discrete pathological entities. They are caused by aberrant embryological lung development which occurs at different stages of intrauterine life. PMID:24278678

Nadeem, Montasser; Elnazir, Basil; Greally, Peter

2012-01-01

68

Omphalocele and gastroschisis and associated malformations.  

PubMed

The etiology of gastroschisis and omphalocele is unclear and their pathogenesis is controversial. Because previous reports have inconsistently noted the type and frequency of malformations associated with omphalocele and gastroschisis, we assessed these associated malformations ascertained between 1979 and 2003 in 334,262 consecutive births. Of the 86 patients with omphalocele, 64 (74.4%) had associated malformations. These included patients with chromosomal abnormalities (25, 29.0%); non-chromosomal syndromes including Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Marshall-Smith syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Oto-palato-digital type II syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, and fetal valproate syndrome; malformation sequences, including ectopia cordis, body stalk anomaly, exstrophy of bladder, exstrophy of cloaca, and OEIS (Omphalocele, Exstrophy of bladder, Imperforate anus, Spinal defect); malformation complexes including Pentalogy of Cantrell, and non-syndromic multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) (26, 30.2%). Malformations of the musculoskeletal system (31, 23.5%), urogenital system (27, 20.4%), cardiovascular system (20, 15.1%), and central nervous system (12, 9.1%) were the most common other congenital malformations in patients with omphalocele and non-syndromic MCA. Of the 60 patients with gastroschisis, 10 (16.6%) had associated malformations. In contrast to omphalocele, gastroschisis was rarely associated with a complex pattern of malformation, that is, one each (1.7%) with a chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 21), sequence (amyoplasia congenita), unspecified dwarfism, and 7 (11.7%) with MCA. We observed a striking difference in the prevalence of total malformations (74.4% vs. 16.6%, P < 0.001) and specific patterns of malformations associated with omphalocele and gastroschisis which emphasizes the need to evaluate all patients with omphalocele and gastroschisis for possible associated malformations. Malformation surveillance programs should be aware that the malformations associated with omphalocele can be often classified into a recognizable malformation syndrome or pattern (44.2%). PMID:18386803

Stoll, Claude; Alembik, Yves; Dott, Beatrice; Roth, Marie-Paule

2008-05-15

69

Arteriovenous Malformation of the Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumors. Lymphatic, capillary, venous, and arteriovenous malformations make up the majority of vascular malformations. Arteriovenous malformation of the head and neck is a rare vascular anomaly but when present is persistent and progressive in nature and can represent a lethal benign disease. Here we present a case report of a 25-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation involving the base of tongue. PMID:24660070

Manjunath, S. M.; Shetty, Sujan; Moon, Ninad J.; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Goyal, Sandeep

2014-01-01

70

Human tail with noncontiguous intraspinal lipoma and spinal cord tethering: case report and embryologic discussion.  

PubMed

Children born with a tail-like appendage have a rare malformation that is frequently associated with abnormalities of the spine and spinal cord. A contiguous fibrolipoma is usually seen extending from the subcutaneous portion of the tail into the inferior spinal cord, resulting in tethered cord syndrome. We present the case of a child born with a tail and intraspinal lipoma that were not contiguous with each other, and were separated by an intact layer of lumbosacral fascia. The tail and lipoma were removed and the spinal cord untethered, and the child is neurologically normal 2 years after surgery. The absence of a contiguous lipoma from the tail to the spinal cord suggests that this condition may be principally caused by a disorder of secondary neurulation and/or regression of the normal embryonic tail bud. The embryology of the lower spine is reviewed and possible etiologies discussed. PMID:15886511

Donovan, Daniel J; Pedersen, Robert C

2005-01-01

71

Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM).\\u000a This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques.\\u000a All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the\\u000a study had MRI. Of the

P. D. Griffiths; S. Blaser; D. Armstrong; S. Chuang; R. P. Humphreys; D. Harwood-Nash

1998-01-01

72

Arteriovenous malformations in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are a leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage, especially among the young. Because they\\u000a pose a lifelong risk of serious bleeding, definitive treatment to obliterate the AVM should be pursued in the majority of\\u000a patients. Microsurgical resection of a small AVM located in the superficial or noneloquent brain achieves high cure rates\\u000a with low morbidity, and is

Glenn D. Graham

2002-01-01

73

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or vascular anomalies are challenging neurosurgical procedures\\u000a for an anaesthetist. Large AVMs are uncommon in children. Only 18% of AVMs become symptomatic before the age of 15 yr. This\\u000a series reviews the experience at this institution during the period of 1982 to 1992. The symptoms at the time of presentation\\u000a are varied and

Carol Millar; Bruno Bissonnette; R. P. Humphreys

1994-01-01

74

Endovascular Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular anomalies are common congenital or neonatal abnormalities. According to the approved classification of vascular lesions\\u000a by Glowacki and Mulliken, hemangiomas and vascular malformations are distinguishable. Hemangiomas usually appear during the\\u000a first days or weeks after birth and grow faster than the whole body of the infant. They are proliferating benign tumors that\\u000a often involute. The opposite of hemangiomas, vascular

Robert Juszkat; Bartosz ?abicki; Pawe? Ch?ci?ski; Marcin Gabriel; Nawal Matar

2009-01-01

75

Spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA): clinical applications of mechanical modeling of the spinal cord and brainstem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal stretch and strain is a major cause of injury to the spinal cord and brainstem. Such forces can develop from age-related degeneration, congenital malformations, occupational exposure, or trauma such as sporting accidents, whiplash and blast injury. While current imaging technologies provide excellent morphology and anatomy of the spinal cord, there is no validated diagnostic tool to assess mechanical stresses exerted upon the spinal cord and brainstem. Furthermore, there is no current means to correlate these stress patterns with known spinal cord injuries and other clinical metrics such as neurological impairment. We have therefore developed the spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA) system, which uses imaging and finite element analysis to predict stretch injury. This system was tested on a small cohort of neurosurgery patients. Initial results show that the calculated stress values decreased following surgery, and that this decrease was accompanied by a significant decrease in neurological symptoms. Regression analysis identified modest correlations between stress values and clinical metrics. The strongest correlations were seen with the Brainstem Disability Index (BDI) and the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), whereas the weakest correlations were seen with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale. SCOSIA therefore shows encouraging initial results and may have wide applicability to trauma and degenerative disease involving the spinal cord and brainstem.

Wong, Kenneth H.; Choi, Jae; Wilson, William; Berry, Joel; Henderson, Fraser C., Sr.

2009-02-01

76

[Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: two sibling cases].  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, are abnormal connections between pulmonary arteries and veins. However it can be presented as an isolated single anomaly, also may be multiple when accompanying with autosomal dominant hereditary hemorrhagic telengiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Syndrome; ROWS). In this case report, two patients operated with the diagnosis of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformation familial screening done with the possibility of ROWS and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation found in her sister, are presented. PMID:21554236

Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kay? Cang?r, Ayten; Atasoy, Kayhan Cetin

2011-01-01

77

Genetics Home Reference: Cerebral cavernous malformation  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases Additional NIH Resources ... cavernous malformations are collections of small blood vessels (capillaries) in the brain that are enlarged and ...

78

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The three most common types of intramedullary spinal cord tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, and high-grade astrocytomas.\\u000a Surgical extirpation is the necessary and sufficient primary treatment for most intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiation\\u000a therapy may also have a role in the management of persistent, recurrent, or progressive low-grade astrocytomas and ependymomas.\\u000a The current treatment of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas,

Daniel C. Bowers; Bradley E. Weprin

2003-01-01

79

Vital Stats SPLIT RESISTIVE  

E-print Network

stacked thousands of these plates inside the Split. Then we nestled several stacks (like a Russian doll through, so our scientists & engineers specially invented the Split Florida-helix to accommo- date-before-possible optics experiments. What's so special about optics experimentation? Scientists learn more about

Weston, Ken

80

Management of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions with significant clinical complications. These lesions are commonly seen in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (formerly Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome). Interventional radiologists are a key part of the treatment team in this complex disease, and a thorough understanding of the disease process is critical to providing good patient care. In this article, the authors review the disease course and its association with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, discusses the clinical evaluation and treatment of these complex patients, and outlines complications and follow-up. PMID:22379273

Meek, Mary E; Meek, James C; Beheshti, Michael V

2011-03-01

81

Aspects cliniques des malformations capillaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary malformations (CM) are defects of the dermal capillary bed. These slow-flow malformations can affect any part of the body and are always lateralized, despite Unna's naevus. Present at birth, they grow proportionally with the child. In rare instance, they can be part of a more complex syndrome such as Sturge-Weber syndrome. Ectatic CMs of telangiectatic types can be cutaneous,

A.-C. Bataille; L.-M. Boon

2006-01-01

82

Chiari II Malformation and Occult Spinal Dysraphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two cases of children with occult spinal dysraphism who were also found to have many associated brain anomalies seen in the Chiari II malformation. No previous report has commented on the possible association between the Chiari II malformation and the ‘closed’ form of neural tube defect. One child had symptoms referable to pathology at the craniocervical junction. Neither

R. Shane Tubbs; John C. Wellons III; Paul A. Grabb; W. Jerry Oakes

2003-01-01

83

[Ureteral triplication whitout other associates malformations].  

PubMed

We report a case of ureteral type III triplication according to Smith's classification, without associated anomalies of the urinary tract. The revision of the bibliography indicates the rarity of this maldformacion and its frequent association with other urinary and extraurinary malformations. The absence of associate malformations in this case increases his exceptionality. PMID:19537075

Diz Rodríguez, Ramón; Arance Gil, Ignacio; Vírseda Chamorro, Miguel; Quijano Barroso, Pablo; Alpuente Román, Carlos; Sáenz Benito, Domingo

2009-03-01

84

The Chiari II Malformation: A Surgical Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty patients between the ages of 7 months and 24 years were treated surgically for symptomatic Chiari II malformation at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital. All patients underwent at least bony decompression of the malformation. Assessments of the patients’ conditions were made at 6 weeks and 1 year after surgery, and complications of surgery were noted. For a majority of the

Charles Teo; Erik C. Parker; Sharon Aureli; Frederick A. Boop

1997-01-01

85

Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions

Beverley Newman

2006-01-01

86

Microsurgical resection of cervical spinal arteriovenous malformation: the pial resection technique.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 26-year-old female patient who had two episodes of sudden, left, upper and lower extremity paresthesias and weakness, which resolved completely after 5 months. After recovery, she presented for evaluation. Imaging demonstrated a C3-C6 intra- and extra-axial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with spinal cord compression and edema. A spinal angiogram showed arterial feeders arising from both vertebral arteries and from the right ascending pharyngeal artery. The AVM had been partially embolized after her first bleeding episode. She underwent C3-C6 laminoplasty and microsurgical resection of the AVM. After locating the main arterial feeders and draining veins, the malformation was resected using the pial resection technique. A postoperative spinal angiogram demonstrated gross total resection. Video used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/JbbIwCTUsuI . PMID:25175573

Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Spetzler, Robert F

2014-09-01

87

Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions  

SciTech Connect

We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2009-10-17

88

Spinal cord abscess  

MedlinePLUS

... exam may show signs of: Spinal cord compression Paralysis of the lower body (paraplegia) or of the entire trunk, arms, and legs (quadriplegia) Changes in sensation below the area of involvement ...

89

Central Cord Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... people recover near-normal function. There is no standard course of treatment, although drug therapy, surgery, and rest are often ... 1996 workshop on spinal cord injury research and treatments ... Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes ...

90

Split spline screw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A split spline screw type payload fastener assembly, including three identical male and female type split spline sections, is discussed. The male spline sections are formed on the head of a male type spline driver. Each of the split male type spline sections has an outwardly projecting load baring segment including a convex upper surface which is adapted to engage a complementary concave surface of a female spline receptor in the form of a hollow bolt head. Additionally, the male spline section also includes a horizontal spline releasing segment and a spline tightening segment below each load bearing segment. The spline tightening segment consists of a vertical web of constant thickness. The web has at least one flat vertical wall surface which is designed to contact a generally flat vertically extending wall surface tab of the bolt head. Mutual interlocking and unlocking of the male and female splines results upon clockwise and counter clockwise turning of the driver element.

Vranish, John M. (inventor)

1993-01-01

91

[Hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Review and update].  

PubMed

In 1982, Mulliken and Glowacki classificated congenital vascular lesions in two biological groups with different treatment, evolution and prognosis: Haemangiomas and Vascular malformations. We have seen 230 patients, 145 with haemangiomas and 85 with vascular malformations (74 with low flow and 11 with high flow). We have reviewed clinical, evolutive and ecographic findings. Depending on the type and localization of the lesion, we completed the study with CT, MRI and angiography. Among all the patients with haemangiomas; 45 were treated with local or systemic steroids because of bleeding, ulceration or affection in functional areas. In two more, we used interferon alfa 2a because of Kassabach-Merritt Syndrome. 23 were operated on with good aesthetic results. Patients with vascular malformations were managed with embolization, sclerotherapy, surgical approach or conservatively. Capillary malformations were treated with lasertherapy. We emphasize in correct classification of vascular lesions prior to start diagnosis, treatment or parents information. PMID:9376236

Lobato, R; Martínez, L; Leal, N; Díaz, M; Díez-Pascual, R; Velasco, B; Ros, Z; López-Gutiérrez, J C

1997-07-01

92

Stabilized Zeeman split laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to stabilize the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The stability of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.

1981-01-01

93

MR imaging of fetal brain malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

MethodsFrom the generally accepted data on the morphogenesis of the brain, the principles for the classification of brain malformations are given, and the salient features of each malformation which may be considered as independent from the developmental stage and therefore practical for MR imaging in the fetus after mid-gestation, are discussed.Results and discussionHowever, the correlation with the clinical results in

Charles Raybaud; Olivier Levrier; Hervé Brunel; Nadine Girard; Philippe Farnarier

2003-01-01

94

Interdisciplinary management of craniofacial vascular malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beside their sometimes unsightly appearance, vascular malformations of the head and neck area can lead to very severe functional\\u000a problems. Reduced field of vision and impairments in breathing and swallowing can occur and are serious problems to deal with.\\u000a During the last 4 years, 17 patients with vascular malformations of the head and neck region were treated in our department.\\u000a Initially,

H. Kubiena; M. Cejna; S. Kreuzer; E. Frey; M. Schoder; M. Frey

2007-01-01

95

Animal models for human craniofacial malformations.  

PubMed

Holoprosencephaly malformations, of which the fetal alcohol syndrome appears to be a mild form, can result from medial anterior neural plate deficiencies as demonstrated in an ethanol treated animal model. These malformations are associated with more medial positioning of the nasal placodes and resulting underdevelopment or absence of the medial nasal prominences (MNPs) and their derivatives. Malformations seen in the human retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) can be produced by administration of the drug 13-cis-retinoic acid in animals. Primary effects on neural crest cells account for most of these RAS malformations. Many of the malformations seen in the RAS are similar to those of hemifacial microsomia, suggesting similar neural crest involvement. Excessive cell death, apparently limited to trigeminal ganglion neuroblasts of placodal origin, follows 13-cis retinoic acid administration at the time of ganglion formation and leads to malformations virtually identical to those of the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). Secondary effects on neural crest cells in the area of the ganglion appear to be responsible for the TCS malformations. Malformations of the DiGeorge Syndrome are similar to those of the RAS and can be produced in mice by ethanol administration or by "knocking out" a homeobox gene (box 1.5). Human and animal studies indicate that cleft lips of multifactorial etiology may be generically susceptible because of small MNP)s or other MNP developmental alterations, such as those found in A/J mice, that make prominence contact more difficult. Experimental maternal hypoxia in mice indicates that cigarette smoking may increase the incidence of cleft lip by interfering with morphogenetic movements. Other human cleft lips may result from the action of a single major gene coding for TGF-alpha variants. A study with mouse palatal shelves in culture and other information suggest that a fusion problem may be involved. PMID:1812129

Johnston, M C; Bronsky, P T

1991-01-01

96

Ultrasound, color - normal umbilical cord (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... is a normal color Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical cord performed at 30 weeks gestation. The cord ... the cord, two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord is connected to the placenta, located in ...

97

The Splitting Loope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

2011-01-01

98

The Splitting Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

2012-01-01

99

Split Injection Gas Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation site deals specifically with split injection in gas chromatography. The animations are short (one to two minutes each) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well.

2011-05-11

100

Plasmonic solar water splitting.  

SciTech Connect

The study of the optoelectronic effects of plasmonic metal nanoparticles on semiconductors has led to compelling evidence for plasmon-enhanced water splitting. We review the relevant physics, device geometries, and research progress in this area. We focus on localized surface plasmons and their effects on semiconductors, particularly in terms of energy transfer, scattering, and hot electron transfer.

Warren, S. C.; Thimsen, E. (Materials Science Division); (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne); (Northwestern Univ.)

2012-01-01

101

Surgical treatment for venous malformation.  

PubMed

Sclerotherapy is generally the preferred treatment for venous malformation (VM) with surgery usually playing an adjunctive role. This study presents our experience with surgical treatment of VMs. Consecutive patients were identified from our vascular anomalies database 1996-2011 and patient demographics, location of the lesion, type of tissue(s) affected and symptoms were analysed. The patients completed a questionnaire to assess the impact of surgery on the severity of symptoms, appearance, function and overall quality of life (QoL), using a visual analogue scale of 0 (no symptom) to 10 (maximal symptom). They also rated their overall satisfaction of treatment using a scale of 0 (complete dissatisfaction) to 10 (complete satisfaction). Fifty patients with VM underwent a total of 58 procedures. Complication occurred in six patients (9.7% of operations), including transient sensory loss (n=3) and permanent frontal branch palsy (n=1), haematoma formation (n=1) and minor wound dehiscence (n=1). At least 50% improvement in symptoms of background pain, acute episodic pain, contour deformity and skin discolouration occurred in 88.9%, 92.3%, 83.3% and 75.0% of patients, respectively. At least 50% improvement in the appearance, function and overall QoL occurred in 54.3%, 71.4% and 70.4% of patients, respectively. The mean overall patient satisfaction with the treatment was 8.9 (range, 1-10). Surgery remains an important treatment modality for selected patients with VM having low complication rates and high patient satisfaction. It improves the appearance, function and overall QoL for the majority of the patients by reducing the severity of pain, contour deformity and skin discolouration. PMID:24012651

Steiner, Frederica; FitzJohn, Trevor; Tan, Swee T

2013-12-01

102

Mechanisms of cerebellar tonsil herniation in patients with Chiari malformations as guide to clinical management  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of Chiari malformations is incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that different etiologies have different mechanisms of cerebellar tonsil herniation (CTH), as revealed by posterior cranial fossa (PCF) morphology. Methods In 741 patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and 11 patients with Chiari malformation type II (CM-II), the size of the occipital enchondrium and volume of the PCF (PCFV) were measured on reconstructed 2D-CT and MR images of the skull. Measurements were compared with those in 80 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals, and the results were correlated with clinical findings. Results Significant reductions of PCF size and volume were present in 388 patients with classical CM-I, 11 patients with CM-II, and five patients with CM-I and craniosynostosis. Occipital bone size and PCFV were normal in 225 patients with CM-I and occipitoatlantoaxial joint instability, 55 patients with CM-I and tethered cord syndrome (TCS), 30 patients with CM-I and intracranial mass lesions, and 28 patients with CM-I and lumboperitoneal shunts. Ten patients had miscellaneous etiologies. The size and area of the foramen magnum were significantly smaller in patients with classical CM-I and CM-I occurring with craniosynostosis and significantly larger in patients with CM-II and CM-I occurring with TCS. Conclusions Important clues concerning the pathogenesis of CTH were provided by morphometric measurements of the PCF. When these assessments were correlated with etiological factors, the following causal mechanisms were suggested: (1) cranial constriction; (2) cranial settling; (3) spinal cord tethering; (4) intracranial hypertension; and (5) intraspinal hypotension. PMID:20440631

Nishikawa, Misao; Kula, Roger W.; Dlugacz, Yosef D.

2010-01-01

103

Splitting water with cobalt.  

PubMed

The future of energy supply depends on innovative breakthroughs regarding the design of cheap, sustainable, and efficient systems for the conversion and storage of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. The production of hydrogen, a fuel with remarkable properties, through sunlight-driven water splitting appears to be a promising and appealing solution. While the active sites of enzymes involved in the overall water-splitting process in natural systems, namely hydrogenases and photosystem II, use iron, nickel, and manganese ions, cobalt has emerged in the past five years as the most versatile non-noble metal for the development of synthetic H(2)- and O(2)-evolving catalysts. Such catalysts can be further coupled with photosensitizers to generate photocatalytic systems for light-induced hydrogen evolution from water. PMID:21748828

Artero, Vincent; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Fontecave, Marc

2011-08-01

104

Fee splitting in ophthalmology.  

PubMed

Fee splitting and co-management are common practices in ophthalmology. These arrangements may conflict with the ethical principles governing the doctor-patient relationship, may constitute professional misconduct, and at times, may be illegal. Implications and perceptions of these practices may vary between different cultures. Full disclosure to the patient may minimize the adverse effects of conflicts of interest that arise from these practices, and may thereby allow these practices to be deemed acceptable by some cultural morays, professional guidelines, or by law. Disclosure does not necessarily relieve the physician from a potential ethical compromise. This review examines the practice of fee splitting in ophthalmology, its legal implications, the policies or guidelines governing such arrangements, and the possible ethical ramifications. A comparative view between 3 countries, Canada, the United States, and Oman, was conducted; illustrating that even in disparate cultures, there may be some universality to the application of ethical principles. PMID:21283153

Levin, Alex V; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed

2011-02-01

105

[High flow vascular malformations in children].  

PubMed

Unlike hemangiomas and low-flow vascular malformations which are very common in children, arterial anomalies have small incidence. Differential diagnosis is difficult, and needs a physician familiarized with vascular anomalies. Appropriate treatment must be planned by multidisciplinary team considering the patient's age, and anatomical location. Twenty-eight children with high flow vascular malformations have been treated since 1990 at La Paz Children's Hospital Vascular Anomalies Program. We excluded of the study group patients with central nervous system lesions. 85% of the patients had malformation in stage I or II (according the ISSVA accepted Schöbinger stating) and most of them were erroneously diagnosed as hemangioms with a variety of inappropriate treatments previously performed. Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance confirmed malformation flow and extension. Angiography and selective embolization was only considered as therapeutic approach in candidates to surgical resection. 16 patients underwent complete resection of the malformation including one foot and two fingers amputation and five more incomplete resection of the ulcerate area. In conclusion, we did not find age at onset, sex and symptoms relationship. Laser, radiotherapy, surgical ligation or partial resection must be considered inappropriate therapies which may stimulate AVM exacerbation. Only radical surgical procedure after selective endovascular embolization will be successful but then reconstructive surgery should be performed to achieve good aesthetic and functional results. PMID:12601971

López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros, Z; Martínez, L; Díaz, M; Leal, N; Rivas, S; Hernández, F

2002-10-01

106

A proposed radiographic classification scheme for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds.  

PubMed

Congenital vertebral malformations are common in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds such as French bulldogs, English bulldogs, Boston terriers, and pugs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether a radiographic classification scheme developed for use in humans would be feasible for use in these dog breeds. Inclusion criteria were hospital admission between September 2009 and April 2013, neurologic examination findings available, diagnostic quality lateral and ventro-dorsal digital radiographs of the thoracic vertebral column, and at least one congenital vertebral malformation. Radiographs were retrieved and interpreted by two observers who were unaware of neurologic status. Vertebral malformations were classified based on a classification scheme modified from a previous human study and a consensus of both observers. Twenty-eight dogs met inclusion criteria (12 with neurologic deficits, 16 with no neurologic deficits). Congenital vertebral malformations affected 85/362 (23.5%) of thoracic vertebrae. Vertebral body formation defects were the most common (butterfly vertebrae 6.6%, ventral wedge-shaped vertebrae 5.5%, dorsal hemivertebrae 0.8%, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae 0.5%). No lateral hemivertebrae or lateral wedge-shaped vertebrae were identified. The T7 vertebra was the most commonly affected (11/28 dogs), followed by T8 (8/28 dogs) and T12 (8/28 dogs). The number and type of vertebral malformations differed between groups (P = 0.01). Based on MRI, dorsal, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae were the cause of spinal cord compression in 5/12 (41.6%) of dogs with neurologic deficits. Findings indicated that a modified human radiographic classification system of vertebral malformations is feasible for use in future studies of brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dogs. PMID:24833506

Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guevar, Julien; Stalin, Catherine; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Penderis, Jacques

2014-11-01

107

Congenital malformations and testicular germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism is one of the few known risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). It has been postulated that other congenital malformations, in particular hypospadias, are also associated with increased risk; however, associations with birth defects have not been extensively studied. Using Swedish population-based registries we evaluated the relationship between birth defects and risk of TGCT. TGCT cases (n=6,593) diagnosed between 15 and 65 years of age were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry between 1964 and 2008. Five controls per case were randomly selected from the population register and matched on birth year and birth county. Congenital malformations were identified via linkage with the Hospital Discharge Register. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each group of malformations and TGCT were estimated using conditional logistic regression. In addition to the expected association between cryptorchidism and TGCT risk [OR (95% CI): 3.18 (2.50 to 4.04)], hypospadias [2.41 (1.27 to 4.57)], inguinal hernia [1.37 (1.11–1.68)] and other genital malformations [2.19 (1.17 to 4.10)] were associated with an increased risk of TGCT. Mutual adjustment for cryptorchidism, hypospadias, inguinal hernia, and other genital malformations did not appreciably change the associations (ORs: 3.16; 2.25; 1.30; 1.90, respectively). The other (non-genital) malformations evaluated were not associated with TGCT. These data suggest that developmental urogenital abnormalities, specifically cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and inguinal hernia, are associated with an increased risk of TGCT; further supporting the hypothesis that prenatal exposure(s) related to proper genital development are related to this tumor. PMID:23580254

Trabert, Britton; Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; McGlynn, Katherine A; Akre, Olof

2014-01-01

108

Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience  

SciTech Connect

The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

Cornelis, F., E-mail: francoiscornelis@hotmail.com [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Neuville, A. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology (France); Labreze, C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pediatric Dermatology (France); Kind, M. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Bui, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Oncology (France); Midy, D. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (France); Palussiere, J. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

2013-06-15

109

Extrapyramidal dysfunction with cerebral arteriovenous malformations 1  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations have only rarely been implicated as a cause of basal ganglia dysfunction. In four instances where such a lesion was uncovered, abnormal involuntary movements were present. In two, tremor involving the contralateral limbs occurred, while in others the head and neck were involved in dystonic movements and posture. The clinical and angiographic characteristics of these four patients have been assessed and are presented in detail in this report. The possible mechanism by which arteriovenous malformations may disturb the internal circuitry of the basal ganglia and induce symptoms are discussed. Images PMID:4829531

Lobo-Antunes, Joao; Yahr, Melvin D.; Hilal, Sadek K.

1974-01-01

110

Heterotopic spinal cord? A curiosity.  

PubMed

Unusual morphological findings were encountered in a high cervical meningomyelocele sac of a neonate. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive liquid-filled sac traversed by a linear structure. The spinal cord was seen to be located normally within the spinal canal. At operation, a spinal cord-like structure was identified within the sac. This cord terminated posteriorly at the neural tissue lining the meningomyelocele sac. There were fibrous strands connecting the cord to the sac like the rigging of a ship. The anterior end of this cord terminated in a fibrous band. It extended upwards into the spinal canal through the narrow neck of the meningomyelocele sac above the arch of the atlas. The whole of this cord, along with the meningomyelocele sac, was excised. Histological analysis confirmed that this spinal cord-like structure consisted of glial tissue with an ependymal-lined cavity. The excised sac was lined by neural tissue. PMID:8697461

Choudhury, A R; Gonog, M A; Mahmood, K

1996-03-01

111

Spinal compression due to atlantal vertebral malformation in two African lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

Two young (14-mo-old and 6-mo-old), unrelated, male African lions (Panthera leo) were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospitals of Oklahoma State University and Kansas State University with progressive ambulatory difficulty. In both cases, limited neurologic evaluation demonstrated pelvic limb paresis and ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits. Spinal imaging showed nearly identical lesions in both cases. Radiography and myelography demonstrated cervical stenosis secondary to atlantal (C1) malformation producing a dorsoventral deformity of the laminar arch with atlantoaxial spinal cord compression between the ventrally displaced laminar arch of the atlas and the underlying odontoid process of C2. Computed tomography of the atlanto-axial junction confirmed cervical stenosis and cord compression, showing flattening of the spinal cord between the laminar arch of C1 and the dens of C2. Decompressive surgery consisting of dorsal laminectomy of C1 was performed. Each lion demonstrated progressive improvement of neurologic status to recovery of normal ambulation after surgical intervention. Neurologic disease in large captive felids is rare; atlanto-axial spondylomyelopathy has not been reported previously. PMID:12462492

Galloway, David S; Coke, Rob L; Rochat, Mark C; Radinsky, Mary Anne G; Hoover, John P; Carpenter, James W; Hubbard, Jennifer J; Ketz-Riley, Cornelia J

2002-09-01

112

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Splitting Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Photosynthetic water oxidation is the largest global source of atmospheric O2 and provided the impetus for the evolution of complex life on Earth. In his Perspective, Dismukes highlights the recent publication of a structural model of the polypeptide subunit organization of the enzyme responsible for this reaction. These results, which are based on x-ray crystallographic data, provide hope that a detailed atomic model of the water-splitting catalyst should be forthcoming.

G. C. Dismukes (Princeton University;Department of Chemistry and the Princeton Environmental Institute)

2001-04-20

113

Segmental colonic motility in patients with anorectal malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Constipation is one of the most important functional sequelae in patients with anorectal malformations. The cause of this motility disorder is unknown. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess total colonic transit time (TCT) and segmental colonic transit time (SCT) in patients with anorectal malformations. Method: Ninety patients with anorectal malformations (40 low and 50 high; median

R. J Rintala; E Marttinen; K Virkola; M Rasanen; C Baillie; H Lindahl

1997-01-01

114

Obstetric complications and congenital malformation in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed increasingly intense research activity concerning early life somatic trauma and dysmorphogenesis which are associated with the later development of schizophrenia. The two somatic factors that have received the most extensive scientific attention as antecedents of schizophrenia are obstetric complications (OCs) and the congenital malformations termed `minor physical anomalies' (MPAs). Head circumference (HC) at birth has also

Thomas F McNeil; Elizabeth Cantor-Graae; Baher Ismail

2000-01-01

115

Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

2009-01-01

116

Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation with duodenal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We report the color Doppler ultrasonography features of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas, a very rare disease. The patient was a 52-year-old man with congenital AVM of the pancreas and a duodenal ulcer that had been resistant to medication. Endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (color Doppler EUS) revealed many abnormal color signals showing pulsatile wave form at the portion

Shigeo Tano; Norio Ueno; Tomio Ueno; Shin-Ichi Wada; Toshiyuki Aizawa; Ken Kimura

1996-01-01

117

Body growth in urinary tract malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body height and height velocity were analysed in 54 children with obstructive urinary tract malformations over a mean period of 8.7 years, using new auxological methods. At the time of diagnosis, 9% of patients had a height of more than 2 standard deviations below the normal mean. Mean relative height changed significantly from the first to the last observation, the

C. Seidel; F. Schaefer; K. Schärer

1993-01-01

118

Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: arjunsahgal@yahoo.com; Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Weinstein, Phil [Department of Neurologic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2008-10-01

119

Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare and account for only 5–6% of all central nervous systems (CNS) tumors (Sloof\\u000a and McCarthy 1964; Goh et al. 1997b; Houten and Weiner 2000). These tumors can occur at any age, but most are identified during\\u000a the first three decades of life. Approximately 100–200 cases of pediatric IMSCT are diagnosed each year in

Isaac Yang; Andrew T. Parsa

120

Spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Spinal cord tumors are rare; however, every radiologist should be able to recognize and readily identify those lesions often\\u000a found in younger patients or children [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9]. Early diagnosis plays an important role in the management\\u000a of the lesions and interferes with the prognosis and final outcome of the patient [10]. Plain X-ray

D. L. F. Balériaux; Service de Radiologie

1999-01-01

121

A 6-year experience treating vascular malformations with foam sclerotherapy.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors present an analysis of the outcomes of 105 low-flow vascular malformation patients treated over a 6-year period and report specific lesion characteristics that correlate with those vascular malformations that will benefit from sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam sclerotherapy (STS FS) versus surgical resection as well as morphological characteristics of vascular malformations that are associated with a poor response to FS treatment. Improvement in symptoms was documented in 92.9% of patients treated with STS FS. There were no complications. Low-flow vascular malformations that were morphologically characterized by microcystic, septated vessels did not respond to FS, and these vascular malformations are best treated with surgical resection. Primary surgical resection is also the treatment of choice for localized, microcystic, and superficial low-flow vascular malformations. Symptomatic, diffuse, extensive, macrocystic malformations that involve multiple tissue planes and vital structures are best treated with FS. PMID:22918935

Markovic, Jovan N; Kim, Charles Y; Lidsky, Michael E; Shortell, Cynthia K

2012-06-01

122

Baryogenesis through split Higgsogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the cosmological evolution of asymmetries in the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Standard Model, prior to the electroweak phase transition. If Higgs flavour-exchanging interactions are sufficiently slow, then a relative asymmetry among the Higgs doublets corresponds to an effectively conserved quantum number. Since the magnitude of the Higgs couplings depends on the choice of basis in the Higgs doublet space, we attempt to formulate basis-independent out-of-equilibrium conditions. We show that an initial asymmetry between the Higgs scalars, which could be generated by CP violation in the Higgs sector, will be transformed into a baryon asymmetry by the sphalerons, without the need of B - L violation. This novel mechanism of baryogenesis through (split) Higgsogenesis is exemplified with simple scenarios based on the out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy singlet scalar fields into the Higgs doublets.

Davidson, Sacha; Felipe, Ricardo González; Serôdio, Hugo; Silva, João P.

2013-11-01

123

Treatment of spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Tumors associated with the spinal cord can have devastating effects on patient function and quality of life. Most of these\\u000a tumors are from metastatic disease, usually to the epidural space. Less frequently, the tumors are intrinsic to the spinal\\u000a cord itself (ie, primary tumor). Regardless of the etiology, spinal cord tumors often present first with progressive local\\u000a or radicular

Brian Vaillant; Monica Loghin

2009-01-01

124

Tethered cord syndrome in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

RE: Gupta SK, Khosla VK, Sharma BS, Mathuria SN, Pathak A, Tewari MK. Tethered cord syndrome in adults. Surg Neurol 1999;52:362–70.The authors present a series of 18 adult patients with tethered cord syndrome who were evaluated with MRI. The most frequent MRI finding was a low-lying cord with an intradural and\\/or extradural lipoma; MRI findings correlated well with operative findings.

F. B Maroun; J. C Jacob; G. P Murray

2000-01-01

125

Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice  

MedlinePLUS

... practice of splitting tablets, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the American Medical Association, and other medical organizations advise against it unless it's specified in the drug's labeling. Tablet splitting often involves buying higher strength tablets and then breaking the tablets in ...

126

Embolization and radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires a multidisciplinary management including microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). This article reviews the recent advancements in the multimodality treatment of patients with AVMs using endovascular neurosurgery and SRS. We describe the natural history of AVMs and the role of endovascular and radiosurgical treatment as well as their interplay in the management of these complex vascular lesions. Also, we present some representative cases treated at our institution. PMID:22826821

Plasencia, Andres R.; Santillan, Alejandro

2012-01-01

127

Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: embryology, radiology and quandary  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (BPFM) are a heterogeneous group of pulmonary developmental anomalies that present\\u000a at varying ages and with overlapping symptoms, signs and radiology. This article discusses the embryology of these lesions\\u000a with reference to possible common origins and the link between aetiology and radiological appearance. The radiology of each\\u000a lesion, both antenatally and postnatally, is described and illustrated. A

N. A. Barnes; D. W. Pilling

2003-01-01

128

Spontaneous resolution of isolated Chiari I malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Spontaneous resolution of Chiari I abnormality is very rare. In most patients, the radiological abnormality either stays unchanged with time or deriorates.Case report  We present a male patient who was diagnosed at the age of 18 months as having radiological evidence of Chiari I malformation without syringomyelia, which had resolved 5 years later on a subsequent MR scan. At the time

N. S. Jatavallabhula; J. Armstrong; S. Sgouros; W. Whitehouse

2006-01-01

129

Epilepsy in type 1 Chiari malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI), epileptic seizures are occasionally reported both in symptomatic patients\\u000a candidate to surgery and in patients without symptoms of tonsillar displacement in whom CM1 is often an incidental finding\\u000a in the diagnostic work up for idiopathic epilepsies. In both groups of patients, the course of epilepsy is almost invariably\\u000a favorable, with a few

Tiziana GranataLaura; Laura Grazia Valentini

130

Dandy-Walker malformation: An incidental finding  

PubMed Central

Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM) is a rare intracranial congenital abnormality that affects the cerebellum and some of its components; particularly cerebellar vermis, fourth ventricle and is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa. Although there is an extensive list of signs attributed to DWM, final diagnosis is solely dependent on imaging techniques as there are no signs that are characteristic of DWM. This article reports a case with DWM who was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:20838490

Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Kumar, Santhosh; Mamatha, G. P.

2010-01-01

131

Neuroembryology and brain malformations: an overview.  

PubMed

Modern neuroembryology integrates descriptive morphogenesis with more recent insight into molecular genetic programing and data enabled by cell-specific tissue markers that further define histogenesis. Maturation of individual neurons involves the development of energy pumps to maintain membrane excitability, ion channels, and membrane receptors. Most malformations of the nervous system are best understood in the context of aberrations of normal developmental processes that result in abnormal structure and function. Early malformations usually are disorders of genetic expression along gradients of the three axes of the neural tube, defective segmentation, or mixed lineages of individual cells. Later disorders mainly involve cellular migrations, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and myelination. Advances in neuroimaging now enable the diagnosis of many malformations in utero, at birth, or in early infancy in the living patient by abnormal macroscopic form of the brain. These images are complimented by modern neuropathological methods that disclose microscopic, immunocytochemical, and subcellular details beyond the resolution of MRI. Correlations may be made of both normal and abnormal ontogenesis with clinical neurological and EEG maturation in the preterm or term neonate for a better understanding of perinatal neurological disease. Precision in terminology is a key to scientific communication. PMID:23622157

Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura

2013-01-01

132

Gynecologic concerns in patients with anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

Children with anorectal malformations (ARMs) constitute a significant group within a pediatric surgery practice. In females, the most common ARM is an imperforate anus with a rectovestibular fistula, followed by an imperforate anus with a rectoperineal fistula and then cloacal anomalies. Some malformations, such as an imperforate anus with a rectovestibular fistula, may seem straightforward, treated with a posterior sagittal anorectoplasty; however, it is vital to recognize the association with gynecologic anomalies. Girls with the most complex anorectal defect, cloacal malformation, have significant associated urological and gynecologic anomalies, which should be recognized and treated. An opportunity to diagnose and treat such anomalies may be missed in the newborn period or at the definitive surgery, unless the pediatric surgeon is aware of this association. With the knowledge of the associated anomalies and long-term sequelae, surgeons can provide better care for girls and important counseling for parents. Important gynecologic issues to consider may be divided into several categories, such as infancy, puberty, sexual intimacy, and obstetrical concerns. Knowledge of reproductive-related issues in females with ARMs allows the pediatric surgeon and their gynecology colleagues to provide optimal surgical management throughout infancy, childhood, and into young adulthood. Appropriate counseling for patients and families about potential reproductive concerns that may develop many years after the definitive surgical repair allows preparation and planning to preserve future fertility. PMID:20307850

Breech, Lesley

2010-05-01

133

Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that arise as a consequence of an interruption to the normal steps of formation of the cortical plate. The human cortex develops its basic structure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy as a series of overlapping steps, beginning with proliferation and differentiation of neurons, which then migrate before finally organizing themselves in the developing cortex. Abnormalities at any of these stages, be they environmental or genetic in origin, may cause disruption of neuronal circuitry and predispose to a variety of clinical consequences, the most common of which is epileptic seizures, A large number of MCDs have now been described, each with characteristic pathological, clinical, and imaging features. The causes of many of these MCDs have been determined through the study of affected individuals, with many MCDs now established as being secondary to mutations in cortical development genes. This review will highlight the best-known of the human cortical malformations associated with epilepsy. The pathological, clinical, imaging, and etioiogic features of each MCD will be summarized, with representative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images shown for each MCD, The malformations tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaiy, classical iissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia, periventricular nodular heterotopia, polymicrogyria, and schizencephaly will be presented. PMID:18472484

Leventer, Richard J.; Guerrini, Renzo; Dobyns, William B.

134

Split supersymmetry radiates flavor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

2014-09-01

135

Split-ball resonator  

E-print Network

We introduce a new concept of split-ball resonator and demonstrate a strong omnidirectional magnetic dipole response for both gold and silver spherical plasmonic nanoparticles with nanometer-scale cuts. Tunability of the magnetic dipole resonance throughout the visible spectral range is demonstrated by a change of the depth and width of the nanoscale cut. We realize this novel concept experimentally by employing the laser-induced transfer method to produce near-perfect spheres and helium ion beam milling to make cuts with the nanometer resolution. Due to high quality of the spherical particle shape, governed by strong surface tension forces during the laser transfer process, and the clean, straight side walls of the cut made by helium ion milling, magnetic resonance is observed at 600 nm in gold and at 565 nm in silver nanoparticles. Structuring arbitrary features on the surface of ideal spherical resonators with nanoscale dimensions provides new ways of engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-f...

Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Rahmani, Mohsen; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kivshar, Yuri; Pickard, Daniel S; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

2014-01-01

136

Split SUSY Radiates Flavor  

E-print Network

Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

2014-01-01

137

Giant spermatic cord liposarcoma.  

PubMed

Abstract We report a case of giant spermatic cord liposarcoma (SCL) in an 81-year-old patient, presenting with a huge scrotal mass that reached up to the knee joint. SCL is a rare tumor, and about 200 cases have been reported in the literature so far. Although 20% of liposarcomas arise in the retroperitoneum, only 0.1% present as incidental inguinal hernias. The occasional presence of myxoid stroma in well-differentiated liposarcomas can lead to confusion with myxoid sarcoma subtypes. Correct diagnosis is critical and reflects remarkable differences in behavior and therapeutic choices. PMID:25058774

Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio; Pierconti, Francesco

2014-01-01

138

Cerebral cavernous malformation: novel mutation in a Chinese family and evidence for heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Familial cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder producing vascular anomalies throughout the central nervous system associated with seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Linkage analysis has shown evidence for at least three genetic loci underlying this disorder with a founder mutation in the Mexican/Hispanic community. We report the first family of Chinese ethnic origin with CCM having a novel mutation in the CCM1 gene. The mutation in exon 19 causes a premature stop codon (Q698X) predicted to produce a truncated Krev1 interaction-trapped 1 (KRIT1) protein. Members of the family with this mutation have a wide range in age of onset with seizures, ataxia, spinal cord vascular malformation, headaches and skin lesions. An additional unrelated sporadic subject with brain lesions compatible with CCM as well as vascular skin findings suggesting the blue rubber bleb nevus (BRBN) syndrome has no mutation detected in the CCM1 gene. These findings expand the phenotype of and demonstrate further evidence for the heterogeneity in the CCM syndrome. PMID:11959162

Chen, Dong-Hui; Lipe, Hillary P; Qin, Zhen; Bird, Thomas D

2002-04-15

139

Vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The advent of fiberoptic endoscopy, which became widespread in the evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, has dramatically changed both our understanding of the extent to which vascular malformations account for gastrointestinal blood loss and our ability to treat these lesions at the time of diagnosis. Colonic vascular malformations appear to be the single most common cause of acute or recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding episodes in patients over 60 years of age, being responsible for the bleeding in as many as 35% of such patients. Although less common as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, these lesions still account for 2% to 5% of bleeding lesions in older patients. Diagnosis is accomplished by endoscopy, and the vascular malformations can then be coagulated via the endoscope using one of a number of thermal systems. The argon laser, the heater probe, and the BICAP system are all effective and safe throughout the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the cecum and right colon, where the majority of sporadic vascular malformations occur. Monopolar cautery and the Nd:YAG laser are equally efficacious, but their greater and less predictable depth of coagulation make them much less safe in the cecum and right colon. There are no apparent advantages in terms of efficacy and safety between laser treatment and the other thermal modalities. The laser has the advantage of being quicker, which is especially important when treating large or multiple lesions. The other modalities have the advantages of portability and low relative cost. Endoscopic therapy with lasers or other thermal devices is nonspecific. The effects are achieved by thermally coagulating the mucosal vascular lesions, allowing the coagulated tissue to slough, and leaving a mucosal ulceration that subsequently heals with re-epithelialization. Endoscopic coagulation has thus been reported effective in the treatment of gastrointestinal mucosal vascular lesions regardless of their etiology or characteristics. It has been effective for sporadic vascular malformations, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease), radiation proctocolitis, the blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome, and diffuse gastric antral vascular ectasia (the watermelon stomach). As we move through the 1990s and beyond, these endoscopic modalities offer an effective, relatively safe, and clearly less invasive treatment option for the many patients who experience acute, recurrent, or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from any of these lesions. PMID:1589831

Buchi, K N

1992-06-01

140

Malformations in neotropical viperids: qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Malformations can occur in all living species, but there is little information about anomalies that occur in snakes and their frequency. This study assessed malformations in newborn South American pit vipers (Bothrops jararaca) and South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) from wild captured pregnant females (240 and 35 litters, respectively). Newborn snakes were measured, weighed, sexed and studied grossly and by radiography for the presence of malformations. Ninety-five malformed pit vipers were identified from 4,087 births (2.3%), while 36 malformed rattlesnakes were found from 324 births (11.1%). Spinal abnormalities were the most common in both species, followed by fusion of ventral scales. Pit vipers showed a greater range of malformations including schistosomia (22.1%), kinked tail (13.7%), bicephaly (3.1%) and hydrocephaly (2.1%). PMID:23885804

Sant'Anna, S S; Grego, K F; Lorigados, C A B; Fonseca-Pinto, A C B C; Fernandes, W; Sá-Rocha, L C; Catão-Dias, J L

2013-11-01

141

Split-illumination electron holography  

SciTech Connect

We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inada, Yoshikatsu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Taniyama, Akira [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tonomura, Akira [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

2012-07-23

142

Malformations Among the X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Malformations are significant contributions to childhood mortality and disability. Their co-occurrence with intellectual disability may compound the health burden, requiring additional evaluation and management measures. Overall, malformations of greater or lesser severity occur in at least some cases of almost half of the 153 XLID syndromes. Genitourinary abnormalities are most common, but tend to contribute little or no health burden and occur in only a minority of cases of a given XLID syndrome. Some malformations (e.g., lissencephaly, hydranencephaly, long bone deficiency, renal agenesis/dysplasia) are not amenable to medical or surgical intervention; others (e.g., hydrocephaly, facial clefting, cardiac malformations, hypospadias) may be substantially corrected. PMID:24166814

Stevenson, Roger E.; Schwartz, Charles E.; Rogers, R. Curtis

2013-01-01

143

Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

2010-01-01

144

Photocatalytic water splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New photocatalystic materials Ti-In oxy(nitride) and nanosized Ru-loaded strontium titanate doped with Rh (Ru/SrTiO3:Rh) have been synthesized. The textural and surface characteristic properties were studied by nitrogen BET analysis, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder XRD. The photocatalytic properties were enhanced by the binary metal oxides of titanium dioxide and indium oxide. The XRD patterns confirmed the oxygen exchange between two metal oxides during the synthesis. Moreover, the presence of titanium dioxide can help the stabilization of InN during hot NH3(g) treatment. On the other hand, the particle sizes of aerogel prepared Ru/SrTiO3:Rh varied from 12 to 25 nm depended on different Rh doping. A mixture of ethanol and toluene was found to be the best binary solvent for supercritical drying, which yielded a SrTiO3 sample with a surface area of 130 m2/g and an average crystallite size of 6 nm. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production under UV-vis light irradiation was achieved by ammonolysis of intimately mixed titanium dioxide and indium oxide at high temperatures. Gas chromatography monitored steadily the formation of hydrogen when sacrificial (methanol or ethanol) were present. XRD patterns confirmed that the photocatalysts maintain crystalline integrity before and after water splitting experiments. Moreover, the presence of InN may be crucial for the increase of hydrogen production activities. These Ru/SrTiO3:Rh photocatalysts have been studied for photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light. The band gap of the bulk SrTiO 3 (3.2 eV) does not allow response to visible light. However, after doping with rhodium and loaded with ruthenium, the modified strontium titanates can utilize light above 400 nm due to the formation of valence band or electron donor levels inside of the band gap. Moreover, the surface areas of these photocatalysts are much larger than conventional solid-state synthesized samples (1--2 m2/g), which yielded more Ru loading and reaction sites. The aerogel and hydrothermal synthesized samples required basic (alkaline) conditions for hydrogen generation facilitation compared with acidic conditions for conventional solid-state samples.

Kuo, Yenting

145

A unifying hypothesis for hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, anencephaly and spina bifida  

PubMed Central

This work is a modified version of the Casey Holter Memorial prize essay presented to the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, June 29th 2007, Heidelberg, Germany. It describes the origin and consequences of the Chiari malformation, and proposes that hydrocephalus is caused by inadequate central nervous system (CNS) venous drainage. A new hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis, anencephaly and spina bifida is described. Any volume increase in the central nervous system can increase venous pressure. This occurs because veins are compressible and a CNS volume increase may result in reduced venous blood flow. This has the potential to cause progressive increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Venous insufficiency may be caused by any disease that reduces space for venous volume. The flow of CSF has a beneficial effect on venous drainage. In health it moderates central nervous system pressure by moving between the head and spine. Conversely, obstruction to CSF flow causes localised pressure increases, which have an adverse effect on venous drainage. The Chiari malformation is associated with hindbrain herniation, which may be caused by low spinal pressure relative to cranial pressure. In these instances, there are hindbrain-related symptoms caused by cerebellar and brainstem compression. When spinal injury occurs as a result of a Chiari malformation, the primary pathology is posterior fossa hypoplasia, resulting in raised spinal pressure. The small posterior fossa prevents the flow of CSF from the spine to the head as blood enters the central nervous system during movement. Consequently, intermittent increases in spinal pressure caused by movement, result in injury to the spinal cord. It is proposed that posterior fossa hypoplasia, which has origins in fetal life, causes syringomyelia after birth and leads to damage to the spinal cord in spina bifida. It is proposed that hydrocephalus may occur as a result of posterior fossa hypoplasia, where raised pressure occurs as a result of obstruction to flow of CSF from the head to the spine, and cerebral injury with raised pressure occurs in anencephaly by this mechanism. The current view of dysraphism is that low central nervous system pressure and exposure to amniotic fluid, damage the central nervous system. The hypothesis proposed in this essay supports the view that spina bifida is a manifestation of progressive hydrocephalus in the fetus. It is proposed that that mesodermal growth insufficiency influences both neural tube closure and central nervous system pressure, leading to dysraphism. PMID:18405364

Williams, Helen

2008-01-01

146

Spinal cord regeneration.  

PubMed

Three theories of regeneration dominate neuroscience today, all purporting to explain why the adult central nervous system (CNS) cannot regenerate. One theory proposes that Nogo, a molecule expressed by myelin, prevents axonal growth. The second theory emphasizes the role of glial scars. The third theory proposes that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) prevent axon growth. Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptors indeed can stop axon growth in vitro and improve functional recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. These therapies also increase sprouting of surviving axons and plasticity. However, many investigators have reported regenerating spinal tracts without eliminating Nogo, glial scar, or CSPG. For example, many motor and sensory axons grow spontaneously in contused spinal cords, crossing gliotic tissue and white matter surrounding the injury site. Sensory axons grow long distances in injured dorsal columns after peripheral nerve lesions. Cell transplants and treatments that increase cAMP and neurotrophins stimulate motor and sensory axons to cross glial scars and to grow long distances in white matter. Genetic studies deleting all members of the Nogo family and even the Nogo receptor do not always improve regeneration in mice. A recent study reported that suppressing the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene promotes prolific corticospinal tract regeneration. These findings cannot be explained by the current theories proposing that Nogo and glial scars prevent regeneration. Spinal axons clearly can and will grow through glial scars and Nogo-expressing tissue under some circumstances. The observation that deleting PTEN allows corticospinal tract regeneration indicates that the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates axonal growth. Finally, many other factors stimulate spinal axonal growth, including conditioning lesions, cAMP, glycogen synthetase kinase inhibition, and neurotrophins. To explain these disparate regenerative phenomena, I propose that the spinal cord has evolved regenerative mechanisms that are normally suppressed by multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors but can be activated by injury, mediated by the PTEN/AKT/mTOR, cAMP, and GSK3b pathways, to stimulate neural growth and proliferation. PMID:24816452

Young, Wise

2014-01-01

147

The split view of motion  

PubMed Central

In fruitflies and vertebrates, signals from photoreceptor cells are immediately split into two opposing channels in the downstream neurons. This might facilitate the computation of visual motion. PMID:21068820

LEE, CHI-HON

2014-01-01

148

Epileptogenic brain malformations: clinical presentation, malformative patterns and indications for genetic testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here those malformations of the cerebral cortex which are most often observed in epilepsy patients, for which a genetic basis has been elucidated or is suspected and give indications for genetic testing.There are three forms of lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria) resulting from mutations of known genes, which can be distinguished because of their distinctive imaging features. They account for about

Romeo Carrozzo

2001-01-01

149

Laser treatment of oral vascular malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral Vascular Malformations (OVM) are congenital anomalies characterized by morph-structural and/or functional changes of nature in severity and extension. OVM can affect any type of vessels arterial, venous or lymphatic and any capillary or anatomical. They are divided into two categories: low and high flow. In this study were treated 40 patients with OVM with a range size from 2 mm to 44 mm; they were subjected to clinical examination supported by Colour-Doppler Ultrasound instrumental examination and only for doubt cases the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was prescribed. Only low flow venous and capillary malformations were treated by GaAlAs laser (Wiser®, Lambda, Brindole,Italy, 980nm) and KTP laser (SmartLite®, DEKA, Florence, Italy, 532nm) with two different techniques: the Transmucosal Thermophotocoagulation (TMT) and the Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP). These techniques permitted a good control of haemostasis, avoiding bleeding both during surgery and in the postoperative. It is obtained an excellent and good healing respectively in 10% and 60% of cases, a moderate and poor resolution respectively in 22.5% and 7.5% of cases. A clear diagnosis allowed the management of Venous malformations (VM) by laser devices with wavelengths highly absorbed in haemoglobin in safety and efficacy and according to the principles of minimal invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to verify if the laser is effective in the treatment of OVM for the purpose of the clinical findings and the postoperative course. The Authors concluded that the laser can be considered the "gold standard" for treating OVM.

Romeo, U.; Gaimari, G.; Mohsen, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.

2014-01-01

150

Stereotactic radiosurgery of intracranial arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has been performed since the 1970s. When an AVM is treated with radiosurgery, radiation injury to the vascular endothelium induces the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and the elaboration of extracellular collagen, which leads to progressive stenosis and obliteration of the AVM nidus. Obliteration after AVM radiosurgery ranges from 60% to 80%, and relates to the size of the AVM and the prescribed radiation dose. The major drawback of radiosurgical AVM treatment is the risk of bleeding during the latent period (typically 2 years) between treatment and AVM thrombosis. PMID:24093574

Friedman, William A

2013-10-01

151

The pediatric Chiari I malformation: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Both the diagnosis and treatment regimens for the Chiari I malformation (CIM) are varied and controversial. The present paper\\u000a analyzes the literature regarding this form of hindbrain herniation in regard to definition, anatomy, pathobiology, symptoms,\\u000a findings, treatment, and outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussions  Appropriate literature germane to the CIM is reviewed and discussed. There is variation in the reported anatomy, outcome,\\u000a and treatment for

R. Shane Tubbs; Michael J. Lyerly; Marios Loukas; Mohammadali M. Shoja; W. Jerry Oakes

2007-01-01

152

Surgical management of pediatric cerebral arteriovenous malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in children. Different options exist\\u000a for their successful management consisting of surgery, endovascular embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery, or a combination\\u000a of these treatments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  In this paper, we discuss the different treatment modalities in the treatment of pediatric cerebral AVMs emphasizing the role\\u000a of surgery and endovascular embolization as a preoperative

David Rubin; Alejandro Santillan; Jeffrey P. Greenfield; Mark Souweidane; Howard A. Riina

2010-01-01

153

Toward postnatal reversal of ocular congenital malformations.  

PubMed

Aniridia is a panocular disorder that severely affects vision in early life. Most cases are caused by dominantly inherited mutations or deletions of the PAX6 gene, which encodes a transcription factor that is essential for the development of the eye and the central nervous system. In this issue of the JCI, Gregory-Evans and colleagues demonstrate that early postnatal topical administration of an ataluren-based formulation reverses congenital malformations in the postnatal mouse eye, providing evidence that manipulation of PAX6 after birth may lead to corrective tissue remodeling. These findings offer hope that ataluren administration could be a therapeutic paradigm applicable to some major congenital eye defects. PMID:24355915

Sahel, José-Alain; Marazova, Katia

2014-01-01

154

[Pelvic arteriovenous malformation : a case report].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old male presented with intermittent macroscopic hematuria. There was no history of previous trauma or pelvic operation. At first, we were unable to clarify the origin of the hematuria, but 3D computed tomography revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) consisting of multiple feeding vessels arising from the bilateral, especially right, internal iliac artery. Treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with a combination of lipiodol and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate twice was effective. He needs to be followed up carefully for recurrence of AVM. PMID:23945325

Suzuki, Kotaro; Kusuda, Yuji; Yamada, Yuji; Nose, Ryuichiro; Matsui, Takashi; Sanda, Yuki; Mori, Takeki; Sugimoto, Koji

2013-07-01

155

A child with split-hand/foot associated with tibial hemimelia (SHFLD syndrome) and thrombocytopenia maps to chromosome region 17p13.3.  

PubMed

We describe a-2-year-old boy who presented with a neonatal history of thrombocytopenia associated with a constellation of limb malformations mimicking split hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency (SHFLD) syndrome. Limb malformations consisted of unilateral monodactyly with radial aplasia, unilateral split foot and bilateral club foot. Tibial aplasia of one limb and tibial hypoplasia of the other limb were notable. Partial agenesis of the sacrum was additional skeletal malformation. Craniofacial features included dense thick scalp hair, narrow frontal area, thick eye-brows, deep-set eyes, depressed nasal bridge, and small overhanging nasal tip, full-cheeks, and large ears. Array-CGH showed duplication of the short arm of chromosome 17p13.3 in the boy and his father, respectively. The father was free from any skeletal abnormalities, though he shares similar craniofacial dysmorphic features like his son. In addition, a paternal sib (uncle of the proband) manifested a phenotype similar to that of the proband. To the best of our knowledge the overall phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were consistent but not completely compatible with the traditional type of TAR syndrome or with SHFLD syndrome. We report on what might be a novel variant of SHFLD associated with transient thrombocytopenia, dysmorphic facial features, and a constellation of bone malformations. PMID:24838992

Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Rötzer, Katharina M; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

2014-09-01

156

Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock-turbulence interactions. The fourth is to determine if this method can be extended to other physical equations of state and other evolutionary equation sets. If numerical dissipation is needed, the Yee, Sandham, and Djomehri (1999) numerical dissipation is employed. The Yee et al. schemes fit in the Olsson and Oliger framework.

Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

1999-01-01

157

Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... to adjusting to spinal cord injury is personal motivation . Individuals who are newly injured are often motivated ... to find purpose in your life and the motivation to achieve your goals. It may help to ...

158

Depression and Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...

159

Table of Contents CORD 2014  

E-print Network

s 5C Method of Communication for Emergency Medicine ResidentEmergency Medicine (CORD-EM) Taskforce Report on Remediation of Interpersonal and CommunicationCommunication Skills Curriculum Sobehart RJ, Pollock G Western Journal of Emergency

Pham, Kevin

2014-01-01

160

Scanning electron microscopic studies on floral malformation in mango  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies with scanning electron microscope in mango variety Amrapali revealed the presence of many hair line cracks, pin-sized to large holes, disorganised cells and fungal mycelial infection at the base of the malformed bud during bud-inception stages. Among other possible reasons, tissue damage caused by the fungi and sucking pests may lead to the abnormal development of the malformed tissues.

K. Usha; A. M. Goswami; H. C. Sharma; Bhupinder Singh; P. C. Pande

1997-01-01

161

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: a rare anterior mediastinal mass.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare pulmonary vascular lesions which are associated with Osler Weber Rendu syndrome (hereditary haemorrhagic telangectasia). They act as right-to-left shunts and have cardiovascular and embolic complications. We present a patient with an apparent anterior mediastinal mass secondary to a pulmonary arteriovenous malformations which was successfully treated percutaneously. PMID:23043574

Walklin, Ryan Patrick; Entwisle, James; Cheung, Ying Kei; Dayal, Viswas

2012-10-01

162

History, anatomic forms, and pathogenesis of Chiari I malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionChiari I malformations constitute a group of entities of congenital or acquired etiology that have in common descent of the cerebellar tonsils into the cervical spinal canal. In recent years, since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging, an increasing number of asymptomatic, doubtfully symptomatic, and minimally symptomatic patients with Chiari I malformations have been diagnosed. This has resulted in controversy

Edgardo Schijman; C. Durand

2004-01-01

163

The ear and its malformations: strange beliefs and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the strange beliefs and misconceptions related to the ear and its malformations, and how these have changed from ancient times until today.Methods. Ancient documents, journal articles, and history books were studied to research ancient and current beliefs and misconceptions with regard to the ear and its malformations.Results. The ear has been the centre of various beliefs and

Irene E Gamatsi; Thomas P Nikolopoulos; Dimitra E Lioumi

2003-01-01

164

Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome: the brain malformation defines a core phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background: Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome (OCCS) is characterised by orbital cysts and anophthalmia or microphthalmia, focal aplastic or hypoplastic skin defects, skin appendages, and brain malformations. The eye and skin abnormalities are well described but the neuropathological features less so. To date, 28 patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of OCCS have been reported, with a preponderance of males. Objective: To evaluate the brain imaging studies, clinical records, photographs, and pathological material of two new and nine previously reported cases of OCCS. Results: There was a consistent pattern of malformations in eight of the 11 cases, consisting of frontal predominant polymicrogyria and periventricular nodular heterotopia, enlarged lateral ventricles or hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum sometimes associated with interhemispheric cysts, and a novel mid-hindbrain malformation. The latter consisted of a giant and dysplastic tectum, absent cerebellar vermis, small cerebellar hemispheres in most cases, and a large posterior fossa fluid collection. Conclusions: The mid-hindbrain malformation appears pathognomonic for OCCS. The eye and skin features of OCCS show considerable overlap with several other syndromes, such as encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, and focal dermal hypoplasia, none of which has a comparable pattern of brain malformations. In particular the unique mid-hindbrain malformation also distinguishes OCCS from related syndromes with comparable forebrain anomalies. The pattern of malformation described thus helps in differentiating OCCS from other entities. The mid-hindbrain malformation points to a defect of the mid-hindbrain organiser as the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:15879499

Moog, U; Jones, M; Bird, L; Dobyns, W

2005-01-01

165

Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads  

E-print Network

Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads With Radiographic Interpretations U.S. Department recently metamorphosed frogs that were collected in Minnesota, Vermont, Wisconsin and Maine and examined on the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). The malformations and the method of their classification are reported

Torgersen, Christian

166

Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm in a child  

PubMed Central

Abernethy malformation is an extremely rare anomaly of the splanchnic venous system. We describe multidetector computed tomography findings of an incidentally detected Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm in a two-and-half-year old child. The computed tomography scan was performed for the evaluation of respiratory distress, poor growth, and loss of appetite. PMID:21430844

Chandrashekhara, Sheragaru H.; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikash, C. S.; Kabra, Susheel Kumar

2011-01-01

167

Counseling pregnant women treated with paroxetine Concern about cardiac malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

QUESTION I have always reassured my patients that taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy would not increase their risk of having children with major malformations. A recent warning from Health Canada, based on results of a study from GlaxoSmithKline, stated that infants exposed to paroxetine might be at higher risk of congenital malformations, specifi cally cardiovascular defects. Some

Adrienne Einarson; Gideon Koren

168

Nursery care of the newborn with malformation syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital malformations are not so rare, and represent a relevant challenge to health care providers. We delineate a methodology for the clinical approach to the malformed newborn, that takes into account the needs of the patient as single person and as part of a familiar and social context. We consider first the medical problem that the neonatologists face in the

Francesca Romana Pluchinotta; Luigi Memo

2009-01-01

169

Surgical Treatment of Chiari I Malformation, with Preservation of Arachnoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The author describe the results of performing a standard posterior craniovertebral decompression and duroplasty, with preservation of arachnoid layer, for the treatment of patients with symptomatic chiari I malformation with and without syringomyelia Patients and methods: This is a retrospectively analyzed series of ten patients with symptomatic chiari I malformation underwent surgical treatment from June 2003 to January 2007.

Alaa A. Farag

2007-01-01

170

Cerebral cavernous malformations (cavernomas) in the pediatric age-group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavernomas are vascular malformations composed of a compact mass of sinusoidal-type vessels that are immediately contiguous with one another and have no intervening parenchyma. Cavernous malformations were previously held to be a rare pathology occurring predominantly in adults. New neuroradiological techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrate, on the contrary, that these lesions are also

C. Mazza; R. Scienza; A. Beltramello; R. Da Pian

1991-01-01

171

Intralesional laser therapy for vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Intralesional laser therapy for the treatment of vascular malformations (VMs) has been previously reported for select patient populations. Larger studies, over a wider variety of indications, are needed to better define the potential role of this technology. In the current study, a 12-year, retrospective review of 44 patients who underwent 73 intralesional Nd:YAG or diode laser treatments of VMs was performed. The most commonly encountered lesions were venous malformations (66%) and the most commonly involved anatomic locations were the head and neck regions (41%) and lower extremity (39%). Primary indications for treatment were enlargement (73%) and pain (52%). Lesion size was reduced in 94% of cases after treatment and pain was improved in 91% of cases. Minor postoperative complications occurred in 16 (36%) patients. There was no difference in treatment response among various VM subtypes or anatomic locations (P = 0.497, P = 0.866) or in the incidence of complications (P = 0.531, P = 0.348). Age was the only factor associated with an increased risk of complications (odds ratio, 1.034; P = 0.038). When used in accordance with the suggested guidelines, intralesional laser therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality for VMs of varying compositions and locations. PMID:24625513

Ma, Linda W; Levi, Benjamin; Oppenheimer, Adam J; Kasten, Steven J

2014-11-01

172

The study of malformations "by the company they keep".  

PubMed Central

Our study of individuals with thalidomide embryopathy reaffirms many of the principles of clinical teratology concerning sensitivity of developing structures and specificity of action. It also highlights important features of ocular teratology that differ from those of other organ systems. Because malformations of the eye and associated structures do not significantly threaten the survival of the embryo, fetus, or neonate, any variation in prevalence in older individuals is not due to the nature of the ocular malformation but may be significantly modified by "the company they keep," the systemic malformations occurring at the same time as the original insult, whether it be an environmental, a genetic, or a local disturbance. Additionally, the presence of clusters of malformations caused by a teratogen at a specific time supports the concept of a common pathogenic mechanism and provides suggested avenues for further research into the cause of these malformations. PMID:1494822

Miller, M T; Stromland, K

1992-01-01

173

Approche psychologique de la malformation congénitale de la main.La malformation congénitale, le désir de savoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological approach to congenital malformation is determined by the stares of the others and the individual?s needs. The relationship of the body of the person afflicted with a congenital malformation is a question of aesthetic suffering and not of functional use. Caught up in a network of a priori and anxiety- based projections, it is difficult for patients, children,

A. Didierjean-Pillet

2002-01-01

174

Fine mapping of the split-hand/split-foot locus (SHFM3) at 10q24: evidence for anticipation and segregation distortion.  

PubMed Central

Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, ectrodactyly, or lobster-claw deformity) is a human limb malformation characterized by aberrant development of central digital rays with absence of fingers and toes, a deep median cleft, and fusion of remaining digits. SHFM is clinically heterogeneous, presenting both in an isolated form and in combination with additional abnormalities affecting the tibia and/or other organ systems, including the genitourinary, craniofacial, and ectodermal structures. Three SHFM disease loci have been genetically mapped to chromosomes 7q21 (SHFM1), Xq26 (SHFM2), and 10q24 (SHFM3). We mapped data from a large Turkish family with isolated SHFM to chromosome 10q24 and have narrowed the SHFM3 region from 9 cM to an approximately 2-cM critical interval between genetic markers D10S1147 and D10S1240. In several instances we found evidence for a more severe phenotype in offspring of a mildly affected parent, suggesting anticipation. Finally, data from this family, combined with those from six other pedigrees, mapped to 10q24, demonstrate biased transmission of SHFM3 alleles from affected fathers to offspring. The degree of this segregation distortion is obvious in male offspring and is possibly of the same magnitude for female offspring. PMID:10330351

Ozen, R S; Baysal, B E; Devlin, B; Farr, J E; Gorry, M; Ehrlich, G D; Richard, C W

1999-01-01

175

Split notochord syndrome associated with dorsal neuroenteric fistula: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

Split notochord syndrome (SNS) is an extremely rare congenital malformation associated with anomalies of the vertebral column, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. Twenty cases of SNS associated with dorsal enteric fistula have been reported in literature till date. The present report describes a unique case of SNS associated with lumbosacral meningomyelocele, dorsal neuroenteric fistula and dorsal herniation of right kidney along with vessels. The neonate was well managed by excision of enteric fistula, closure of duramater of meningomyelocele and repair of posterior wall hernia after placement of kidney in renal fossa. This kind of entity is uncommon and not been reported earlier. PMID:21559161

Srivastava, Punit; Gangopadhyay, A. N.; Gupta, D. K.; Sharma, S. P.

2010-01-01

176

Cord pilot trial - immediate versus deferred cord clamping for very preterm birth (before 32 weeks gestation): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Preterm birth is the most important single determinant of adverse outcome in the United Kingdom; one in every 70 babies (1.4%) is born before 32 weeks (very preterm), yet these births account for over half of infant deaths. Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between baby and placenta to continue for a short time. This often leads to increased neonatal blood volume at birth and may allow longer for transition to the neonatal circulation. Optimal timing for clamping the cord remains uncertain, however. The Cochrane Review suggests that deferring umbilical cord clamping for preterm births may improve outcome, but larger studies reporting substantive outcomes and with long-term follow-up are needed. Studies of the physiology of placental transfusion suggest that flow in the umbilical cord at very preterm birth may continue for several minutes. This pilot trial aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomised trial comparing immediate and deferred cord clamping in the UK. Methods/Design Women are eligible for the trial if they are expected to have a live birth before 32 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria are known monochorionic twins or clinical evidence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome, triplet or higher order multiple pregnancy, and known major congenital malformation. The interventions will be cord clamping within 20 seconds compared with cord clamping after at least two minutes. For births with cord clamping after at least two minutes, initial neonatal care is at the bedside. For the pilot trial, outcomes include measures of recruitment, compliance with the intervention, retention of participants and data quality for the clinical outcomes. Information about the trial is available to women during their antenatal care. Women considered likely to have a very preterm birth are approached for informed consent. Randomisation is close to the time of birth. Follow-up for the women is for one year, and for the children to two years of age (corrected for gestation at birth). The target sample size is 100 to 110 mother-infant pairs recruited over 12 months at eight sites. Trial registration ISRCTN21456601, registered on 28 February 2013. PMID:24981366

2014-01-01

177

Associated malformations in patients with limb reduction deficiencies.  

PubMed

Infants with limb reduction deficiencies (LRD) often have other associated congenital malformations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated malformations in a defined population. This study included special strengths: each affected child was examined by a geneticist, all elective terminations were ascertained, and the surveillance for malformations was continued until 1 year of age. The associated malformations in infants with LRD were collected in all livebirths, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 25 years in 347,810 consecutive births in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital malformations. Of the 271 LRD infants born during this period, representing a prevalence of 7.8 per 10,000, 57.9% had associated malformations. There were 17(6.3%) patients with chromosomal abnormalities including 10 trisomies 18, and 62 (22.9%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VA(C)TER(L) association. However numerous recognized dysmorphic conditions were registered including Poland, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting, oral-facial-digital, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber, oculo-auriculo-vertebral defect spectrum, CHARGE, Townes-Brocks, Moebius, Du Pan, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, hypoglossia-hypodactyly, amniotic band, De Lange, Rubinstein-Taybi, Fanconi, radius aplasia- thrombocytopenia, Roberts, Holt-Oram, and fetal diethylstilbestrol. Seventy eight (28.8%) of the patients were multiply, non-syndromic, non chromosomal malformed infants (MCA). Malformations in the cardiac system, in the genital system, and in the central nervous system were the most common other malformations, 11.4%, 9.4%, and 7.7% of the associated malformations, respectively, followed by malformations in the renal system (4.8%), and in the digestive system (4.6%). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 48.4% of dysmorphic syndromes with LRD. The overall prevalence of associated malformations, which was more than one in two infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of infants with LRD.A routine screening for other malformations especially cardiovascular system, urogenital system, central nervous system, and digestive system may be considered in infants and in fetuses with LRD. PMID:20670696

Stoll, Claude; Alembik, Yves; Dott, Beatrice; Roth, Marie-Paule

2010-01-01

178

Split ring containment attachment device  

DOEpatents

A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1996-01-01

179

Biphasic water splitting by osmocene  

PubMed Central

The photochemical reactivity of osmocene in a biphasic water-organic solvent system has been investigated to probe its water splitting properties. The photoreduction of aqueous protons to hydrogen under anaerobic conditions induced by osmocene dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane and the subsequent water splitting by the osmocenium metal-metal dimer formed during H2 production were studied by electrochemical methods, UV-visible spectrometry, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Density functional theory computations were used to validate the reaction pathways. PMID:22665787

Ge, Peiyu; Todorova, Tanya K.; Patir, Imren Hatay; Olaya, Astrid J.; Vrubel, Heron; Mendez, Manuel; Hu, Xile; Corminboeuf, Clemence; Girault, Hubert H.

2012-01-01

180

Multimodal device for assessment of skin malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of multi-spectral imaging devices is commercially available and used for skin diagnostics and monitoring; however, an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analysis of skin. A compact multimodal device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. A polarized LED light source illuminates the skin surface at four different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (545 nm), red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm). Spectra of reflected light from the 25 mm wide skin spot are imaged by a CMOS sensor. Four spectral images are obtained for mapping of the main skin chromophores. The specific chromophore distribution differences between different skin malformations were analyzed and information of subcutaneous structures was consecutively extracted.

Bekina, A.; Garancis, V.; Rubins, U.; Spigulis, J.; Valeine, L.; Berzina, A.

2013-11-01

181

Malformations and the Manx Syndrome in Cats  

PubMed Central

Breeding experiments were conducted on cats with congenital taillessness, to test the dissemination pattern of taillessness in their offspring. Clinical evaluation, radiographic analysis of the vertebral column and histological studies of the digestive tract and central nervous tissue were conducted to determine the association of malformations of these systems in cats born with different degrees of taillessness noted in the rumpy and stumpy cats. The mode of transmission of the tailless (Manx) condition assumed to be through an autosomal dominant factor (M) was confirmed by this investigation. It is hypothesized that the problems associated with the tailless condition such as spina bifida, urinary and faecal incontinence and locomotor disturbances of the pelvic limbs may all be related to a disturbance affecting the development of the central nervous system in the early embryonic life. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:393376

DeForest, M. E.; Basrur, P. K.

1979-01-01

182

[The hand: embryology and main malformative mechanisms].  

PubMed

Upper limb bud appears in the cervical region of the embryo during the fifth week of development. It is made of epithelia and underlying mesenchyme. Diffusible growth factors, expressed by the apical ectodermal ridge, direct the proximal-distal growth. Other factors are expressed by zone of polarizing activity and ectoderm. They induce together anterior-posterior growth and dorsal-ventral polarity of the limb bud. The development of axial skeleton pattern is controlled by transcription factors from the HOX family, which are expressed in a stripe along the proximal and distal edges of the limb bud. Embryologic mechanisms of the main hand malformations are described, as well as their known genetic or mechanical aetiologies. PMID:18838286

Perrin, J; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Metzler-Guillemain, C

2008-12-01

183

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy. The parents were first cousins, suggesting autosomal recessive transmission. MRI showed Dandy-Walker variant in the girl, with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and expansion of the cisterna magna, which communicated with the fourth ventricle. Her brother had mega cisterna magna communicating with the fourth ventricle and a normal cerebellum. The 2 children had abnormally high signal in the supratentorial white matter. Visual and auditory evoked potentials revealed prolonged latencies. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. Muscle and nerve biopsies were normal. Metabolic exploration demonstrated no abnormality. PMID:9258968

Humbertclaude, V T; Coubes, P A; Leboucq, N; Echenne, B B

1997-05-01

184

Resurgent functions and splitting problems  

E-print Network

The present text is an introduction to \\'Ecalle's theory of resurgent functions and alien calculus, in connection with problems of exponentially small separatrix splitting. An outline of the resurgent treatment of Abel's equation for resonant dynamics in one complex variable is included. The emphasis is on examples of nonlinear difference equations, as a simple and natural way of introducing the concepts.

Sauzin, David

2006-01-01

185

Torque-Splitting Gear Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

Kish, J.

1991-01-01

186

Water splitting: Catalyst or spectator?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition of cobalt-phosphate onto photocatalytic haematite improves its ability to split water and thus create clean hydrogen fuel. The source of this improvement is, however, not yet understood, and now two separate studies suggest different roles for the deposited cobalt-phosphate.

Gamelin, Daniel R.

2012-12-01

187

Thoracic spinal cord cavernous angioma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cavernous angiomas of the spinal cord are rare vascular malformations, which account for approximately 5 to 12 percent of spinal cord vascular lesions. They usually originate in the vertebrae, with occasional extension into the extradural space, and intramedullary cavernomas, even if reported in the literature, are very rare. Case presentation We report the case of a 34-year-old Caucasian woman affected by a thoracic intramedullary cavernous angioma. Our patient complained of 10-day history of acute dorsal pain, progressive weakness of both lower extremities, worse on the right side, a ‘pins and needles’ sensation in the abdominal region and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed, at D5 level, a vascular malformation, which was not documented at spinal angiography. Our patient underwent surgical treatment with total removal of the lesion and her symptoms gradually improved. A histological examination revealed the typical features of a cavernous angioma. Conclusions Intramedullary cavernous angioma is a rare lesion that should be diagnosed early and surgically treated before rebleeding or enlargement of the lesion can occur. PMID:25106882

2014-01-01

188

Laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation in a newborn.  

PubMed

Abdominal lymphatic malformations may be challenging to eradicate. Retroperitoneal lesions may more difficult to resect than mesenteric ones; however, the latter may predispose to intestinal volvulus, leading to calls for their prompt excision. Such lesions identified perinatally may pose particular challenges: in one case, respiratory failure caused by abdominal distension required emergency drainage followed by later laparoscopic excision; laparoscopy has also been used promptly to diagnose and resect neonatal mesenteric lymphatic malformations with their inherent volvulus risk. We illustrate that even if neonatal laparoscopy identifies a retroperitoneal rather than mesenteric lymphatic malformation, curative endosurgical excision remains feasible. PMID:21292064

Solari, Valeria; Mullassery, Dhanya; Lansdale, Nick; Jesudason, Edwin C

2011-02-01

189

Neurosurgical management of congenital malformations of the brain.  

PubMed

Congenital malformations encompass a diverse group of disorders that often present at birth, either as the result of genetic abnormalities, infection, errors of morphogenesis, or abnormalities in the intrauterine environment. Congenital disorders affecting the brain are now often diagnosed before delivery with the use of prenatal ultrasonography. Over the past several decades, there have been major advances in the understanding and management of these conditions. This review focuses on the most common cranial congenital malformations, limiting the discussion to the neurosurgically relevant aspects of arachnoid cysts, pineal cysts, Chiari malformations, and encephaloceles. PMID:21807319

Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Maher, Cormac O

2011-08-01

190

Imaging of Chiari type I malformation and syringohydromyelia.  

PubMed

Chiari malformations are anatomic anomalies that comprise a broad spectrum of neurologic conditions. The most common malformation, a Chiari type I malformation, can present with a variety of signs and symptoms, most frequently an occipital Valsalva-induced headache. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used to identify the degree of tonsillar descent and document the presence of syringohydromyelia. The advent of cine-MR flow imaging (cine as in "cinema") has provided new insight as to the dynamic process involved in the evolution of this pathophysiology. This article reviews the neuroimaging of this fascinating disorder. PMID:24287386

McVige, Jennifer W; Leonardo, Jody

2014-02-01

191

Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... your doctor may recommend percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), which is performed at 18 weeks' gestation. ... it connects to the umbilical cord determine which method your doctor uses. If the placenta is attached ...

192

Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts  

MedlinePLUS

... variety of shapes and sizes. Depending upon the nature of the polyp, it can cause a wide range of voice disturbances. Vocal Cord Cyst A vocal cord cyst is a firm mass of tissue contained within a membrane (sac). ...

193

Complex malformations of the female genital tract. New types and revision of classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Complex malformations of the female genital tract are often incorrectly identified, treated and reported, probably due to not considering the malformation as a cause of the clinical symptoms and neither the embryological origin of the different elements of the genitourinary tract. METHODS: Complex malformations are studied and classified, and new types are presented. The new types of complex malformations

Pedro Acien; Maribel Acien; Marisa Sanchez-Ferrer

194

Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

Mohedano, Rubén; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone

2014-09-01

195

Aging with Spinal Cord Injury: Selected Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury is a complex condition with many chal- lenging issues and co-morbid conditions. Aging with spinal cord injury adds to the complexity and can threaten the individual's independence. Some common medical complications associated with spinal cord injury and the effects of aging will be highlighted, to include the genitourinary system, the musculoskeletal system and pain, and the skin,

Deborah G. Stewart

196

Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal cord is the main relay for signals between the brain and the body. Spinal cord injury completely or partially deprives the individual of mobility and sensory input as well as autonomic nervous system control below the level of the lesion. The major- ity of spinal cord injuries affect the cervical segments, leaving the patient para- or tetraplegic depending

Fanie Barnabe; Jonas Frisen

2008-01-01

197

Electrical Extension Cords Relocatable Power Taps  

E-print Network

Electrical Extension Cords & Relocatable Power Taps: (RPT's) #12; If either device is not use; In summary it's a - "flexible multi- conductor cord having an attachment plug at one end for plugging unto of mostly plastic rather than copper; So a 16 gauge cord may only have the copper content of a 24 gauge

Jia, Songtao

198

Malformation syndromes associated with disorders of sex development.  

PubMed

When embryological development of the internal and/or external genitalia is disrupted, the patient presents with a disorder of sex development (DSD) in the neonatal period or sometime later in life. Some of these patients have other, nongenital malformations, which makes their overall management more complex than if they just had a DSD. This Review summarises these malformation syndromes and discusses the recent research into their aetiology. The genetic causes of these malformation syndromes, when they are known, will also be described. Many specific genetic mutations are now known in malformation syndromes with a defect in hormonal function. By contrast, the genetic causes remain unknown in many nonhormonal morphological anomalies that affect the genitalia. PMID:24913517

Hutson, John M; Grover, Sonia R; O'Connell, Michele; Pennell, Samuel D

2014-08-01

199

Genetics Home Reference: Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Registry: Megalencephaly cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita M-CM Network: How is M-CM Diagnosed? You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome in Educational resources ...

200

[Cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. Importance of prenatal diagnosis].  

PubMed

Cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung is a rare malformation of the lung airway which often performed diagnosed in the prenatal period by ultrasound. Ultrasound monitoring should be performed during pregnancy to assess lung development. We report the case of a 4-year-old patient with prenatal diagnosis of cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung, not confirmed by chest radiograph at birth. The patient underwent surgery at 4 years of age after diagnosis was made for presenting recurrent pneumonia. A normal chest radiograph at birth does not exclude this malformation and a computerized tomography at 4 weeks of birth must be done to confirm or rule out this anomaly. Once the diagnosis is made, surgical treatment should be prompted to avoid complications. PMID:21465061

Cabeza, Beatriz; Oñoro, Gonzalo; Cantarín Extremera, Verónica; Sanz Santiago, Verónica; Sequeiros, Adolfo

2011-04-01

201

Cloacal malformations: lessons learned from 490 cases.  

PubMed

In this review we describe lessons learned from the authors' series of patients born with the most complex of congenital anorectal problems, cloacal malformations, with the hope to convey the improved understanding and surgical treatment of the condition's wide spectrum of complexity learned from patients cared for over the last 25 years. This includes a series of 490 patients, 397 of whom underwent primary operations, and 93 who underwent reoperations after attempted repairs at other institutions. With regard to the newborn, we have learned that the clinician must make an accurate neonatal diagnosis, drain a hydrocolpos when present, and create an adequate, totally diverting colostomy, leaving enough distal colon available for the pull-through, and a vaginal replacement if needed. A correct diagnosis will avoid repairing only the rectal component. For the definitive reconstruction, all patients in the series were managed with a posterior sagittal approach; 184 of whom also required a laparotomy. The average length of the common channel was 4.6 cm for patients who required a laparotomy and 2.5 cm for those who did not. Hydrocolpos was present in 139 patients (30%). Vaginal reconstruction involved a vaginal pull-through in 308 patients, a vaginal flap in 44, vaginal switch in 48, and vaginal replacement in 90 (33 with rectum, 15 with colon, and 42 with small bowel). A total of 220 underwent total urogenital mobilization, which was first introduced in 1996. Complications included rectal prolapse in 26, vaginal stricture or atresia in 18, urethrovaginal fistula in 13, and urethral atresia in 6. A total of 53% of all cases have voluntary bowel movements. The others are kept clean with a mechanical daily emptying (an enema) as part of a bowel management program. Indications for reoperations included persistent urogenital sinus after initial repair in 39 patients. Fifty-one had problems such as rectal prolapse, stricture, retraction, dehiscence or atresia, 29 had a mislocated rectum, 34 had vaginal stricture, retraction, dehiscence, atresia, or stenosis, 16 had urethrovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae, and 5 had urethral stricture or atresia. The series was divided into 2 distinct groups of patients where common channel measurement was known (n = 400): group A were those with a common channel < or = 3.0 cm (n = 225, 56%) and group B had a common channel >3 cm (n = 175, 44%). The separation into these 2 groups has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. Patients in Group A can be repaired posterior sagittally with a reproducible operation. Because they represent most patients, most well-trained pediatric surgeons should be able to repair these types of malformations, and the prognosis is good. Patients in Group B (those with a common channel >3 cm), usually require a laparotomy, have a much higher incidence of associated urological problems, and often require special maneuvers for vaginal reconstruction. Surgeons who repair Group B malformations require special training in urology; the operations are prolonged and technically demanding, and the functional results are not as good as in group A. PMID:20307849

Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto

2010-05-01

202

Coil Embolization of a Neonatal Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM), as a part of Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome, in the neonate, is a rare hereditary vascular malformation. Large intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting, causing hypoxaemia and cyanosis, can be a life-threatening condition. Repeated transcatheter coil embolization procedures proved to be a favorable strategy to improve systemic arterial oxygen saturation, with a good outcome in a newborn child. While the radiation

R. G. Bennhagen; G. Holje; S. Laurin; E. Pesonen

2002-01-01

203

Multiple medullary venous malformations decreasing cerebral blood flow: Case report  

SciTech Connect

A rare case of multiple medullary venous malformations in the right cerebral hemisphere is reported. The literature review yielded only one case of multiple medullary venous malformations. Computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified lesions with linear contrast enhancement representing abnormal dilated vessels and mild atrophic change of the right cerebral hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere.

Tomura, N.; Inugami, A.; Uemura, K.; Hadeishi, H.; Yasui, N. (Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

1991-02-01

204

Lymphatic malformations: A dilemma in diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck, also known as lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas, are a diverse group of lesions. Lymphangiomas represent benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels with a marked predilection for the head, neck and oral cavity. These lesions, like most of the swellings occurring in the neck, frequently pose a dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. This is a case report of a lymphatic malformation which presented as a painless mass in the lower border of mandible. PMID:24808711

Ramashankar; Prabhakar, Chandan; Shah, Nishit Kumar; Giraddi, Girish

2014-01-01

205

The Arnold-Chiari Type II Malformation at Midgestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arnold-Chiari malformation type II (ACMII) is reported to be reversible after closure of a myelomeningocele at midgestation. To elucidate the developmental state of the ACMII malformation at the approximate time fetal surgery is performed, the ACMII of a 20-week human fetus was investigated in vitro using high-field magnetic resonance microscopy at 9.4 T and compared with the hindbrain of

E. Beuls; L. Vanormelingen; J. van Aalst; M. Vandersteen; P. Adriaensen; E. Cornips; H. Vles; Y. Temel; J. Gelan

2003-01-01

206

Contemporary Themes: Congenital Malformations and the Problem of their Control*  

PubMed Central

The possibility of preventing or reducing the prevalence of human congenital malformations is discussed in the light of current knowledge about their aetiology. The original data presented are derived from an epidemiological study of all the infants (92,982) born in the three years 1964-6 to women resident in a defined area of South Wales and all the congenital malformations (3,242) discovered in those infants by the second anniversary of their birth. PMID:4262651

Lowe, C. R.

1972-01-01

207

[Lung perfusion scintigraphy in pediatric patients with congenital malformations].  

PubMed

Congenital malformations are an heterogeneous group of disorders that can lead changes in pulmonary perfusion and then can be evaluated with lung perfusion scintigraphy. We selected five patients in which the role of lung perfusion scintigraphy emerges as a reliable and non-invasive imaging technique. Lung perfusion scintigraphy is a useful tool in pediatric patients with congenital malformations allowing an accurate evaluation of the best therapeutic strategy and its results. PMID:24042425

Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Di Palo, Alessandra; Rubini, Domenico; Pisani, Antonio Rosario; Ferrari, Cristina; Notaristefano, Antonio; Rubini, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

208

Post-mortem examination of prenatally diagnosed fatal renal malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Renal malformations can be associated with genetic syndromes and chromosomal disorders. Fetal autopsy including histopathological examination of kidney is important to arrive at definite diagnosis. The objective was to assess importance of fetal autopsy and histopathology.Study Design:Retrospective analysis of cases with fetal renal malformations was done. All fetuses terminated were examined with whole body radiograph, external and internal examination and

N Kumari; M Pradhan; V H Shankar; N Krishnani; S R Phadke

2008-01-01

209

Three-dimensional spiral CT of craniofacial malformations in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the value of three-dimensional CT (3D CT) in the diagnosis and management of suspected paediatric craniofacial\\u000a malformations.¶Materials and methods. Twenty-eight children (12 girls, 16 boys) with a mean age of 4 years, suffering from craniofacial or cervical malformations,\\u000a underwent craniofacial spiral CT. 3D reformatting was performed using an independent workstation.¶Results. 3D CT allowed the preoperative evaluation of

S. Binaghi; F. Gudinchet; B. Rilliet

2000-01-01

210

7 CFR 51.2958 - Splits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2958 Splits. Splits means walnuts with the seam opened completely around the nut so that the two halves of the...

2010-01-01

211

Ethical Aspects of Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Malformations  

PubMed Central

Fetal malformations complicate approximately 3% of all pregnancies. Many of these are minor or can be corrected after birth, but there are certain malformations that are lethal and others that are severe and others, that, even if corrected lead to permanent disability. Advances in prenatal diagnosis made possible the diagnosis of many fetal malformations. This led to the concept of the fetus a patient, independent of the pregnant woman, even though the moral status of the fetus is in dispute. Many of the lethal malformations are untreatable. However, for some, innovative in utero treatments, both medical and surgical, became possible. These interventions should be evaluated for the relative benefit and risk for both the fetus and the mother, because any such treatment has to involve the integrity of her body. This raises the ethical question of beneficence (to the fetus) versus the autonomy of the pregnant woman. The process of resolving this issue will be discussed, especially how to obtain a truly informed consent. For the lethal malformations or for those severe or multiple malformations whose treatment is theoretically possible but the results of such treatment are unpredictable or may lead to life long disabilities and serious burdens for the infant or child and the family, prenatal counseling should include “prenatal advance directive” and a plan for palliative care, the components of which will be described. PMID:23610506

Fadel, Hossam E.

2012-01-01

212

Syndromes associated with vascular tumors and malformations: a pictorial review.  

PubMed

Use of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification system has been strongly recommended in recent years because of the need for separate therapeutic measures for patients with vascular tumors and malformations. In the ISSVA classification system, vascular tumors, which are neoplastic, are distinguished from vascular malformations, which are caused by vascular structural anomalies and are not neoplastic, on the basis of the presence or absence of neoplastic proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. It is important that radiologists be familiar with the development, diagnosis, and treatment of vascular tumors and malformations, especially the imaging features of low- and high-flow vascular malformations. Some vascular tumors and malformations develop in isolation, whereas others develop within the phenotype of a syndrome. Syndromes that are associated with vascular tumors include PHACE syndrome. Syndromes that are associated with vascular malformations include Sturge-Weber, Klippel-Trénaunay, Proteus, blue rubber bleb nevus, Maffucci, and Gorham-Stout syndromes, all of which demonstrate low flow, and Rendu-Osler-Weber, Cobb, Wyburn-Mason, and Parkes Weber syndromes, all of which demonstrate high flow. Because imaging findings may help identify such syndromes as systemic, it is important that radiologists familiarize themselves with these conditions. PMID:23322836

Nozaki, Taiki; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Miyazaki, Osamu; Makidono, Akari; Yamamoto, Asako; Niwa, Tetsu; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Noriko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Saida, Yukihisa

2013-01-01

213

Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.  

PubMed Central

Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research. PMID:11102301

Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

2000-01-01

214

A review of cavernous malformations with trigeminal neuralgia.  

PubMed

Cavernous malformation with trigeminal neuralgia is relatively rare; only 10 cases have been reported. In deciding treatment strategies, it is helpful to classify cavernous malformation according to its origin, as follows: in the Gasserian ganglion (Type G); between the cisternal and intra-axial portions of the trigeminal nerve root (Type C); in the intra-axial trigeminal nerve root in the pons (Type P); or in the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve root (Type S). A 62-year-old male presented with left trigeminal neuralgia (V2 area) and left facial hypoesthesia. Imaging studies revealed a cerebellopontine angle mass lesion with characteristics of a cavernous malformation and evidence of hemorrhage. The lesion was completely removed via a left anterior transpetrosal approach. The mass was attached to the trigeminal nerve root; it was located between the cisternal and intra-axial portions of the nerve root, and feeding off microvessels from the trigeminal nerve vascular plexus. Histological examination confirmed a cavernous malformation. In this case, the cavernous malformation was Type C. We review cases of cavernous malformation with trigeminal neuralgia and discuss therapeutic strategies according to the area of origin. PMID:25129386

Adachi, Kazuhide; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Hayashi, Takuro; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hirose, Yuichi

2014-10-01

215

Two-party information splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider the very general process where the state of a quantum system is encoded into a (possibly larger) quantum system, which is then physically split into pieces A and B. One can ask: how much information does A have (about the original state), how much does B have, and how are they related? We find a deterministic trade-off between the quantum information in A and that in B. One can go a step further and consider different types of information (e.g. the X, Y, and Z components of angular momentum), asking how much each party has of each information type. While classical information can be copied to both A and B, we find a trade-off inequality for an information type in A and a mutually-unbiased type in B, e.g. I(X,A)+I(Z,B)<=1 for X-information in A and Z-information in B. Even more intriguing is our finding that, for certain information measures, the information splitting between A and B, I(W,A)-I(W,B), is invariant to the information type W. The fundamental phenomena of measurement and decoherence can be viewed as information splitting processes between the system and the apparatus (or environment), so our results are applicable to these phenomena.

Coles, Patrick; Yu, Li; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert

2010-03-01

216

Split torque transmission load sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

1992-10-01

217

Testing Split Supersymmetry with Inflation  

E-print Network

Split supersymmetry (SUSY) -- in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators -- has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

Nathaniel Craig; Daniel Green

2014-03-27

218

REVIEW ARTICLE Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors  

E-print Network

of a nanocavity. This review describes the history of realizing vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) in the single-QD (SQDREVIEW ARTICLE Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors The recent development of techniques. We discuss the recent results on vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot, emphasizing

Loss, Daniel

219

Visualization of Splitting and Merging Processes  

E-print Network

of tree processes include cell mitosis, the Unix Ã?Ã? without a Ã? Ã? and broadcast communication with no ac- knowledgments. In cell mitosis, cells split in a branching process and die at the leaves. After a split a duplicate of itself by calling Ã?Ã? . Unlike splitting cells in mitosis, the original Unix process retains its

Robbins, Steven

220

Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between the arteries and veins, with possible serious consequences of intracranial hemorrhage. The curative treatment for AVMs includes microsurgery and radiosurgery, sometimes with embolization as an adjunct. However, controversies exist with the treatment options available for large to giant AVMs. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) is one treatment option for such difficult lesions. We aim to review recent literature, looking at the treatment outcome of HSRT in terms of AVM obliteration rate and complications. The rate of AVM obliteration utilizing HSRT as a primary treatment was comparable with that of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For those not totally obliterated, HSRT makes them smaller and turns some lesions manageable by single-dose SRS or microsurgery. Higher doses per fraction seemed to exhibit better response. However, patients receiving higher total dose may be at risk for higher rates of complications. Fractionated regimens of 7 Gy × 4 and 6–6.5 Gy × 5 may be accepted compromises between obliteration and complication. Embolization may not be beneficial prior to HSRT in terms of obliteration rate or the volume reduction. Future work should aim on a prospectively designed study for larger patient groups and long-term follow-up results. PMID:22826813

Wang, Huan-Chih; Chang, Rachel J.; Xiao, Furen

2012-01-01

221

Stereotactic linac radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed Central

Stereotactic linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery has been in operation in the West Midlands since 1987, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Forty two patients with high-flow cerebral arteriovenous malformations have been treated, 26 of whom have been followed up. Angiography one year after treatment showed that five lesions were obliterated, 11 were reduced in size and/or flow rate and 10 were unchanged. Overall results show that nine out of 10 patients reviewed at 24 months had total obliteration. Three patients had complications; one has fully recovered, one died of an unrelated cause at 36 months and the other died from recurrent haemorrhage at nine months. Two patients had recurrent non-fatal haemorrhage within 24 months of treatment; both recovered without further deficit. All patients are fit to work but eight are unemployed. Although the follow up period is short, the early results indicate a success rate similar to those published by others using linac radiosurgery. Images PMID:1640237

Kenny, B G; Hitchcock, E R; Kitchen, G; Dalton, A E; Yates, D A; Chavda, S V

1992-01-01

222

The management of arteriovenous malformations in children.  

PubMed

Between January 1941 and June 1989, 46 children below the age of 18 with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) were managed. There were 7 patients with AVM diagnosed before the age of 2; 10 patients were diagnosed between the ages of 3 and 10; and 29 patients were diagnosed between 11 and 18. There were equal numbers of male and female patients. Twenty-five of the AVMs were large (greater than 5 cm longest diameter). All 7 AVMs diagnosed before the age of 2 were large. The usual clinical presentation was congestive heart failure, bruit and an enlarging head. Three patients underwent excision with 2 deaths and 1 excellent result. In 11 patients (aged 3-18) with AVM without history of hemorrhage, 3 had excision with 2 excellent and 1 fair result. Four remained stable. Four developed progressive deficits or hemorrhage. In 10 patients (aged 3-18) with AVM and hemorrhage who were treated medically, 7 (70%) had an episode of re-hemorrhage. Three patients had excision of AVM after re-hemorrhage, but before the age of 18 with an excellent result. Eighteen patients (aged 3-18) with AVM and a single episode of hemorrhage underwent excision with 17 excellent or good results and 1 fair result. The overall mortality was 7%. Eighty-five percent of the children with excision of AVM had an excellent or good result. The best treatment for AVM in children is surgical excision. PMID:2054808

Malik, G M; Sadasivan, B; Knighton, R S; Ausman, J I

1991-02-01

223

Flexible split-ring electrode for insect flight biasing using multisite neural stimulation.  

PubMed

We describe a flexible multisite microelectrode for insect flight biasing using neural stimulation. The electrode is made of two layers of polyimide (PI) with gold sandwiched in between in a split-ring geometry. The split-ring design in conjunction with the flexibility of the PI allows for a simple insertion process and provides good attachment between the electrode and ventral nerve cord of the insect. Stimulation sites are located at the ends of protruding tips that are circularly distributed inside the split-ring structure. These protruding tips penetrate into the connective tissue surrounding the nerve cord. We have been able to insert the electrode into pupae of the giant sphinx moth Manduca sexta as early as seven days before the adult moth emerges, and we are able to use the multisite electrode to deliver electrical stimuli that evoke multidirectional, graded abdominal motions in both pupae and adult moths. Finally, in loosely tethered flight, we have used stimulation through the flexible microelectrodes to alter the abdominal angle, thus causing the flying moth to deviate to the left or right of its intended path. PMID:20176539

Tsang, Wei Mong; Stone, Alice L; Aldworth, Zane N; Hildebrand, John G; Daniel, Tom L; Akinwande, Akintunde Ibitayo; Voldman, Joel

2010-07-01

224

RASA1 mutations and associated phenotypes in 68 families with capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) is an autosomal-dominant disorder, caused by heterozygous RASA1 mutations, and manifesting multifocal CMs and high risk for fast-flow lesions. A limited number of patients have been reported, raising the question of the phenotypic borders. We identified new patients with a clinical diagnosis of CM-AVM, and patients with overlapping phenotypes. RASA1 was screened in 261 index patients with: CM-AVM (n = 100), common CM(s) (port-wine stain; n = 100), Sturge-Weber syndrome (n = 37), or isolated AVM(s) (n = 24). Fifty-eight distinct RASA1 mutations (43 novel) were identified in 68 index patients with CM-AVM and none in patients with other phenotypes. A novel clinical feature was identified: cutaneous zones of numerous small white pale halos with a central red spot. An additional question addressed in this study was the "second-hit" hypothesis as a pathophysiological mechanism for CM-AVM. One tissue from a patient with a germline RASA1 mutation was available. The analysis of the tissue showed loss of the wild-type RASA1 allele. In conclusion, mutations in RASA1 underscore the specific CM-AVM phenotype and the clinical diagnosis is based on identifying the characteristic CMs. The high incidence of fast-flow lesions warrants careful clinical and radiologic examination, and regular follow-up. PMID:24038909

Revencu, Nicole; Boon, Laurence M; Mendola, Antonella; Cordisco, Maria Rosa; Dubois, Josée; Clapuyt, Philippe; Hammer, Frank; Amor, David J; Irvine, Alan D; Baselga, Eulalia; Dompmartin, Anne; Syed, Samira; Martin-Santiago, Ana; Ades, Lesley; Collins, Felicity; Smith, Janine; Sandaradura, Sarah; Barrio, Victoria R; Burrows, Patricia E; Blei, Francine; Cozzolino, Mariarosaria; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Vicente, Asuncion; Abramowicz, Marc; Désir, Julie; Vilain, Catheline; Chung, Wendy K; Wilson, Ashley; Gardiner, Carol A; Dwight, Yim; Lord, David J E; Fishman, Leona; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chamlin, Sarah; Ghali, Fred; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Joss, Shelagh; Boente, Maria Del C; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Bayliss, Susan; Martorell, Loreto; González-Enseñat, Maria-Antonia; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; O'Donnell, Brid; Bessis, Didier; Pyeritz, Reed E; Salhi, Aicha; Tan, Oon T; Wargon, Orli; Mulliken, John B; Vikkula, Miikka

2013-12-01

225

Epidemiologic features of male genital malformations and subtypes in Texas.  

PubMed

Although distinct categories of male genital malformations share some common risk factors, few studies have systematically compared epidemiologic features across phenotypes. We evaluated the relationship between several maternal and infant characteristics and five categories of male genital malformations: second- or third-degree hypospadias, hypospadias (regardless of degree), small penis, cryptorchidism, and any male genital malformation. Data for 16,813 cases with isolated male genital malformations and 1,945,841 male live births delivered from 1999 to 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. For each phenotype category, 13 maternal and infant variables were assessed, and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated based on the same multivariable Poisson regression model. A significant negative association was observed between previous live births versus no previous live births and four phenotypes (e.g., adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] for any male genital malformation: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-0.81). The prevalence of 4 of the phenotypes was significantly higher among multiple versus singleton pregnancies (e.g., aPR for any male genital malformation: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.25-1.47). We also observed significant associations between multiple phenotypes and residential region at delivery, delivery year, month of conception, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and birthplace, including significant associations for trends (maternal age, maternal education, and birth year modeled ordinally). Our results allow for comparison of characteristics across phenotypes and suggest that there may be some common risk factors for multiple male genital malformations (e.g., characteristics related to maternal estrogen levels), while other risk factors may be unique to specific defects. PMID:24458943

Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Canfield, Mark A

2014-04-01

226

Stereotactic radiosurgery after embolization for arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

We sought to define the long-term benefits and risks of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients who underwent prior embolization. Between 1987 and 2006, we performed Gamma Knife® SRS on 120 patients with AVM who underwent embolization followed by SRS. Sixty-four patients (53%) had at least 1 prior hemorrhage. The median number of embolizations varied from 1 to 5. The median target volume was 6.6 cm3 (range, 0.2-26.3 cm3). The median margin dose was 18 Gy (range, 13.5-25 Gy). After embolization, 25 patients (21%) developed symptomatic neurological deficits. The overall rates of total obliteration documented by either angiography or magnetic resonance imaging were 35, 53, 55 and 59% at 3, 4, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Nine patients (8%) had a hemorrhage during the latency interval and 7 patients died due to hemorrhage. The actuarial rates of AVM hemorrhage after SRS were 0.8, 3.5, 5.4, 7.7 and 7.7% at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Permanent neurological deficits due to adverse radiation effects developed in 3 patients (2.5%) after SRS. Using a case-match control technique, we found that embolization prior to SRS was associated with a lower rate of total obliteration (p=0.028) in comparison to radiosurgery alone. In this 20-year experience, we found that prior embolization reduced the rate of total obliteration after SRS and latency interval hemorrhage risks were not affected by prior embolization. In the future, the role of embolization after SRS should be explored. PMID:23258513

Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C; Park, Kyung-Jae; Iyer, Aditya; Yang, Huai-che; Liu, Xiaomin; Monaco, Edward A; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

2013-01-01

227

AUTISM WITH OPHTHALMOLOGIC MALFORMATIONS: THE PLOT THICKENS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To review the association of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in individuals manifesting thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence and compare them with three new studies in which ASD was also associated with ocular and systemic malformations: (1) a Swedish study of individuals with CHARGE association (Coloboma, Heart, choanal Atresia, developmental or growth Retardation, Genital anomaly, and Ear involvement); (2) a Swedish study of Goldenhar syndrome; and (3) Brazilian Möbius syndrome (sequence) study. Methods In the Swedish CHARGE study, 31 patients met the inclusion criteria (3+ or 4 of the common characteristics of the CHARGE syndrome). The same team of investigators also evaluated 20 Swedish patients with Goldenhar syndrome. In the Brazilian Möbius study, 28 children with a diagnosis of Möbius sequence were studied; some children had a history of exposure during their mother’s pregnancy to the abortifacient drug misoprostol in an unsuccessful abortion attempt Results In the CHARGE study, five patients had the more severe autism disorder and five had autistic-like condition. In the Goldenhar study, two had autism disorder and one had autistic-like condition. In the Brazilian Möbius study, the systemic findings of the misoprostol-exposed and misoprostol-unexposed patients were almost undistinguishable, and ASD was present in both groups (autism disorder in five and autistic-like condition in three). Conclusion Autism spectrum disorder has been reported in two conditions with known early pregnancy exposure to the teratogenic agents thalidomide and misoprostol. In the Brazilian Möbius study, autism also occurred in both the misoprostol-exposed and misoprostol-unexposed groups. Autism also was present in patients with both CHARGE association and Goldenhar syndrome. PMID:15747750

Miller, Marilyn T; Stromland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana; Johansson, Maria; Bandim, Jose M; Gillberg, Christopher

2004-01-01

228

Split quaternion nonlinear adaptive filtering.  

PubMed

A split quaternion learning algorithm for the training of nonlinear finite impulse response adaptive filters for the processing of three- and four-dimensional signals is proposed. The derivation takes into account the non-commutativity of the quaternion product, an aspect neglected in the derivation of the existing learning algorithms. It is shown that the additional information taken into account by a rigorous treatment of quaternion algebra provides improved performance on hypercomplex processes. A rigorous analysis of the convergence of the proposed algorithms is also provided. Simulations on both benchmark and real-world signals support the approach. PMID:19926443

Ujang, Bukhari Che; Took, Clive Cheong; Mandic, Danilo P

2010-04-01

229

Defining anural malformations in the context of a developmental problem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes terminology and general concepts involved in animal development for the purpose of providing background for the study and understanding of frog malformations. The results of our radiographic investigation of rear limb malformations in Rana pipiens provide evidence that frog malformations are the product of early developmental errors. Although bacteria, parasites and viruses were identified in these metamorphosed frogs, the relevant window to look for the teratogenic effect of these agents is in the early tadpole stage during limb development. As a result, our microbiological findings must be regarded as inconclusive relative to determining their contribution to malformations because we conducted our examinations on metamorphosed frogs not tadpoles. Future studies need to look at teratogenic agents (chemical, microbial, physical or mechanical) that are present in the embryo, tadpole, and their environments at the stages of development that are relevant for the malformation type. The impact of these teratogenic agents then needs to be assessed in appropriate animal models using studies that are designed to mimic field conditions. The results of these laboratory tests should then be analyzed in such a way that will allow comparison with the findings in the wild-caught tadpoles and frogs.

Meteyer, C.U.; Cole, R.A.; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.; Wolcott, M.; Helgen, J.C.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

2000-01-01

230

Transgenerational transmission of radiation damage: genomic instability and congenital malformation.  

PubMed

The congenital malformation gastroschisis has a genetic disposition in the inbred mouse strain HLG/Zte. It is increased after preconceptional irradiation of males or females. Radiation exposures during the meiotic stages are most efficient. This malformation can also be induced by ionising radiation when the exposure takes place during the preimplantation period especially during the zygote stage. This latter effect can be transmitted to the next mouse generation. Other macroscopically visible or skeletal malformations are not significantly induced under these experimental conditions. These latter malformations are increased by radiation exposures during major organogenesis. The mechanisms for the development of the effects are different. Radiation exposure of the mouse zygote (1 to 3 hours p.c.) also leads to the induction of genomic instability in skin fibroblasts of the fetus. This phenomenon also occurs in a mouse strain (C57BL/6J) which is not susceptible to radiation-induced gastroschisis during the preimplantation period. The genomic instability is transmitted to the next mouse generation. During genomic instability chromatide breaks are dominating as in non-exposed cells. With respect to "spontaneous" malformations gastroschisis is dominating in HLG/Zte mice. Late radiation effects seem to have similar patterns as observed in non-exposed subjects, however, the rates are increased after irradiation. PMID:17019048

Streffer, Christian

2006-01-01

231

Population dependent differences of distribution of congenital heart malformations.  

PubMed

The aim of the work was to study the pattern of congenital circulatory system malformations in the newborns in Upper Silesia, Poland (N = 355), and to compare it with the data known from the literature, predominantly with genetically very distant Chinese population from Hong Kong (N = 744). There were significantly more boys (about 60%) than girls (about 40%) in both groups. Much higher rate of the heart defects with pulmonary outflow obstruction was found in Hong Kong neonates (37.8%) than in the Polish ones (16.1%). Left ventricular outflow obstruction malformations were more common in Chinese group (22.7%) than in Polish one (14.1%), as well. On the other hand, Polish neonates were significantly more often admitted to cardiological hospital because of left-to-right shunts (37.7%) as compared to Chinese population (15.5%). The rate of complete transposition of great arteries was similar in both studied groups (12.1% in Poland versus 12.4% in Hong Kong). So called common mixing malformations were not significantly more often found in Polish newborns (12.1%) than in Hong Kong ones (8.3%). It is concluded that it significant race dependent distribution difference of congenital heart malformations exists between Polish (Silesian) and Chinese (Hong Kong) newborn populations. On the other hand the pattern of congenital heart malformations found in Polish newborns seems to be not very different from these ones, known from literature, described in the USA or in Europe. PMID:12901266

Rokicki, W?adys?aw; Leung, Maurice; Kohut, Joanna; Durma?a, Jacek; Borowicka, Ewa

2003-01-01

232

Vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation mimicking coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen is a rare congenital intracranial anomaly lacking a capillary bed and subsequent aneurysmal enlargement of the arterial and venous system, warranting careful management due to associated morbidity and mortality. Coarctations of aorta demonstrate similar neonatal echocardiographic signs to the vein of Galen arterial malformation (VGAM). We present a boy at 37 weeks of gestation whose initial ultrasound and echocardiographic investigations showed a dominant right ventricle and isthmal hypoplasia, suggestive of coarctation of aorta. Follow-up ultrasound and echocardiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation involving middle and posterior cerebral artery branches, eliminating coarctation of aorta. VGAM was confirmed by further ultrasound and angiographic investigation, which demonstrated a tangle of cerebral and choroidal arterial branches centrally feeding into an enlarged vein of Galen. The boy's hemodynamic and neurological statuses were confirmed to be stable despite increased venous pressure. Elective embolization at 7 months of age was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident, resulting in right hemiparesis despite no residual cardiac issues. This case demonstrates that rarely, arteriovenous malformations such as the vein of Galen malformations may be the primary cause of patients presenting with coarctation of aorta. The rarity of this condition and its guarded prognosis make our case of special interest to cardiologists and the perinatal care team. PMID:25368688

Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Mondal, Tapas

2014-12-01

233

Neuroimaging of Dandy-Walker malformation: new concepts.  

PubMed

Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common human cerebellar malformation, characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle, and an enlarged posterior fossa with upward displacement of the lateral sinuses, tentorium, and torcular. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, there are several genetic loci related to DWM as well as syndromic malformations and congenital infections. Dandy-Walker malformation is associated with other central nervous system abnormalities, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, ectopic brain tissue, holoprosencephaly, and neural tube defects. Hydrocephalus plays an important role in the development of symptoms and neurological outcome in patients with DWM, and the aim of surgical treatment is usually the control of hydrocephalus and the posterior fossa cyst. Imaging modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for the diagnosis of DWM and distinguishing this disorder from other cystic posterior fossa lesions. Persistent Blake's cyst is seen as a retrocerebellar fluid collection with cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity and a median line communication with the fourth ventricle, commonly associated with hydrocephalus. Mega cisterna magna presents as an extraaxial fluid collection posteroinferior to an intact cerebellum. Retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts frequently compress the cerebellar hemispheres and the fourth ventricle. Patients with DWM show an enlarged posterior fossa filled with a cystic structure that communicates freely with the fourth ventricle and hypoplastic vermis. Comprehension of hindbrain embryology is of utmost importance for understanding the cerebellar malformations, including DWM, and other related entities. PMID:24132069

Correa, Gustavo Gumz; Amaral, Lázaro Faria; Vedolin, Leonardo Modesti

2011-12-01

234

Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in “research silos” with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation, and HHT Foundation International. Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations.

Akers, Amy L.; Ball, Karen L.; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M.; Faughnan, Marie E.; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P.; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S.; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L.

2013-01-01

235

Spinal Cord Injury in Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify special characteristics of the pediatric spinal cord-injured (SCI) population, we analyzed a database of 1,770 traumatic SCI patients; 88 (5%) fell into the two pediatric subgroups: 0-12 years (n = 26) and 13-15 years (n = 62) at time of injury. Differences between age groups were identified with regard to demographics, neurologic characteristics, associated injuries and complications, and

David F. Apple; Carol A. Anson; John D. Hunter; R. Bryan Bell

1995-01-01

236

Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare neoplasms which most commonly occur in the ovary. Granulosa cell tumors are the most common\\u000a histologic subtype. Presenting symptoms and signs may be specific to this group of tumors, and treatment is determined by\\u000a many factors, including age and histologic subtype. Appropriate therapy usually includes surgery, and chemotherapy often plays\\u000a a role. Much progress has

Jubilee Brown; David M. Gershenson

237

Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed Central

Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs. PMID:1866960

Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.

1991-01-01

238

Blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury: Relation to revascularization and wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury produces prominent disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier. We have defined the blood- spinal cord barrier breakdown to the protein luciferase (61 kDa) in the acutely injured murine spinal cord and during revascularization. We show that newly formed and regenerating blood vessels that have abnormal perme- ability exhibit differential expression of the glucose-1 transporter (Glut-1), and that

William D. Whetstone; Jung-Yu C. Hsu; Manuel Eisenberg; Zena Werb; Linda J. Noble-Haeusslein

2003-01-01

239

Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri).  

PubMed

White lions (Panthera leo krugeri) have never been common in the wild, and at present, the greatest population is kept in zoos where they are bred for biological and biodiversity conservation. During the years 2003 to 2008 in a zoological garden in northern Italy, 19 white lions were born to the same parents, who were in turn paternally consanguineous. Out of the 19 lions, 4 (21%) were stillborn, 13 (69%) died within 1 month, and 1 (5%) was euthanatized after 6 months because of difficulty with prehension of food. Six lions (32%) showed malformations involving the head (jaw, tongue, throat, teeth, and cranial bones). One lion (5%) still alive at 30 months revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation upon submission for neurological evaluation of postural and gait abnormalities. Paternal consanguinity of the parents, along with inbreeding among white lions in general, could account for the high incidence of congenital malformations of the head in this pride of white lions. PMID:20826844

Scaglione, F E; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Zeira, O; Bollo, E

2010-11-01

240

Venous malformations: Sclerotherapy with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the usefulness of a mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol in the management of venous malformations. Methods. Percutaneous sclerotherapy was performed with a mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol (9:1) in 17 patients with venous malformations, once in 12 patients, twice in 5. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by pain reduction. Conventional radiographs (n=15) and posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging (n=5) were obtained for the follow-up evaluation. Results. Sclerotherapy was successful in all but two patients. The therapeutic effect was excellent in two patients, good in seven, fair in five, and poor in one. Radiopacity of lipiodol was beneficial for monitoring the procedure rather than for follow-up evaluations. Areas with low signal-intensity strands were increased on T2-weighted images obtained after the sclerotherapy. Conclusion. Sclerotherapy with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol is effective in treating venous malformations.

Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyoo-Ho [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Na, Jae-Bum [Kyungsang University, College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jong-Yun [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Soo-Bong [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-15

241

Radiation therapy for arteriovenous malformations: a review.  

PubMed

There have been numerous case reports and series of patients treated with partial brain irradiation, linear accelerator-based radiosurgery, gamma knife radiosurgery, and Bragg peak therapy for inoperable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). These cases are summarized and compared. There is convincing evidence that radiation therapy does have a role in obliterating carefully chosen inoperable lesions. The changes that occur in vessel walls after radiation are reviewed. Data about x-ray and gamma radiation are mostly historical and difficult to evaluate because of the techniques of partial brain irradiation. There is a lack of data about the volume of AVM treated and the minimum dose delivered to the AVM nidus. For gamma knife, heavy particle, and linear accelerator therapy, more complete data are available. The incidence of hemorrhage during the first 2 years after treatment, when radiation-induced vascular changes are proposed to occur, is approximately 2.6% per year for gamma knife therapy, 2% per year for proton beam therapy, 2.3% per year for helium beam therapy, and 2.3% per year for linear accelerator therapy. These rates are similar to the recurrence rate for hemorrhage of 2.2 to 3% per year expected based on the natural history of untreated AVMs. If AVM obliteration after therapy is not achieved, the incidence of recurrent hemorrhage remains between 2% per year after treatment with gamma knife therapy. The incidence of hemorrhage for all patients treated was reported as 0.15% per year in one study and 20% over 8 years in a follow-up study using proton beam therapy. Mortality from hemorrhage after treatment was 0.6% after gamma knife therapy, 2.3% after helium beam therapy, and 2 to 5% after proton beam therapy. These figures for mortality are all lower than the 11% observed for the natural history of untreated AVMs. Permanent neurological deficits experienced as a complication of radiation occurred in 2 to 3% of patients treated with gamma knife therapy, 4% of patients treated with helium beam therapy, 1.7% of patients treated with proton beam therapy, and 3% of patients treated with stereotactic linear accelerator therapy. Proton beam therapy has been used for both small and large lesions. The majority of lesions in patients treated with gamma knife, helium beam, and linear accelerator therapy have been small (usually less than 3.0 cm average diameter) lesions. In these patients with small inoperable lesions treated with accurately directed fields of isocentric radiation, the greatest incidence of AVM obliteration has been observed on follow-up angiograms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2191236

Ogilvy, C S

1990-05-01

242

Outlets, surge protectors and extension cords Never overload extension cords, wall sockets, or  

E-print Network

of the circuit breaker indicates overloaded outlet or other electrical problems Electrical ConsiderationsOutlets, surge protectors and extension cords · Never overload extension cords, wall sockets, or circuits. Avoid using "octopus plugs" which allow many cords to be plugged into a single receptacle · Never

Liu, Alice Y.C.

243

Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias

2012-01-01

244

Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

2014-09-22

245

Technical Note: Some Properties of Splitting Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various criteria have been proposed for deciding which split is best at a given node of a binary classification tree. Consider the question: given a goodness-of-split criterion and the class populations of the instances at a node, what distribution of the instances between the two children nodes maximizes the goodness-of-split criterion? The answers reveal an interesting distinction between the gini

Leo Breiman; Paul Utgoff

1996-01-01

246

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS POTENTIALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MALFORMATIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN ANURAN AMPHIBIANS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of species of anuran amphibians from different regions across North America have recently exhibited an increased occurrence of, predominantly, hind limb malformations. Research concerning factors potentially responsible for these malformations has focused extensively on ...

247

Maternal diabetes and congenital malformations among live births in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The frequency of congenital malformations, in 187,266 live births in Hawaii from 1956 through 1966, was found to be significantly\\u000a higher among offspring of diabetic mothers (0.0175) than in offspring of non-diabetic mothers (0.0086) or mothers with no\\u000a complications of pregnancy (0.0074). However, the frequency of malformations in offspring of diabetic mothers was not significantly\\u000a higher than in offspring of

Madeleine J. Goodman

1976-01-01

248

Multiple Complex Congenital Malformations in a Rabbit Kit (Oryctolagus cuniculi)  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations may occur during early embryogenesis in cases of genetic abnormalities or various environmental factors. Affected subjects most often have only one or 2 abnormalities; subjects rarely have several unrelated congenital defects. Here we describe a case of a stillborn New Zealand white rabbit with multiple complex congenital malformations, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, gastroschisis, and a supernumerary hindlimb, among other anomalies. There was no historical exposure to teratogens or other known environmental causes. Although not confirmed, this case was most likely a rare spontaneous genetic event. PMID:24209970

Booth, Jennifer L; Peng, Xuwen; Baccon, Jennifer; Cooper, Timothy K

2013-01-01

249

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations  

PubMed Central

Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract are the most common sonographically identified ­malformations in the prenatal period. Obstructive uropathies account for the majority of cases. The aim of prenatal diagnosis and management is to detect those anomalies having impact on the prognosis of the affected child and ­requiring early postnatal evaluation or treatment to minimize adverse outcomes. In this paper, we summarize the embryology of kidneys and urinary tract, the normal sonographic appearance through­out pregnancy and the prenatal diagnosis of their congenital malformations. PMID:24753862

Hindryckx, A.; De Catte, L.

2011-01-01

250

Imaging features of ductal plate malformations in adults.  

PubMed

Ductal plate malformations, also known as fibrocystic liver diseases, are a group of congenital disorders resulting from abnormal embryogenesis of the biliary ductal system. The abnormalities include choledochal cyst, Caroli's disease and Caroli's syndrome, adult autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease, and biliary hamartoma. The hepatic lesions can be associated with renal anomalies such as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), medullary sponge kidney, and nephronophthisis. A clear knowledge of the embryology and pathogenesis of the ductal plate is central to the understanding of the characteristic imaging appearances of these complex disorders. Accurate diagnosis of ductal plate malformations is important to direct appropriate clinical management and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:21840516

Venkatanarasimha, N; Thomas, R; Armstrong, E M; Shirley, J F; Fox, B M; Jackson, S A

2011-11-01

251

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations presenting as refractory heart failure  

PubMed Central

A 22-year-old young man with a history of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) was admitted to our hospital due to difficult-to-control heart failure. A thoracic X-ray showed multiple nodules at the both pulmonary hilus and upper lobe of the right lung. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the thorax confirmed arteriovenous malformation (AVM). However, effective treatment was impossible due to the poor physical condition; he died a few days later. Here we reported on the case of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) being misdiagnosed as refractory heart failure. PMID:25276390

Chen, Kai-Hong; Huang, Guo-Yong; Song, Wei

2014-01-01

252

Intervalley splittings of Si quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intervalley splittings of Si quantum wells are studied using a multivalley effective mass theory and a finite element method. It is found that the contributions to the valley splitting mainly come from the quantum well interfaces and the external field. Especially the derivatives of the confinement potential which appears in the valley coupling Hamiltonian cause the periodic oscillation of the splitting with the well width. Theoretical predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the recent experimental observation of valley splitting in a SiO2/Si/SiO2 quantum well, which proves the validity of our approach.

Park, S.-H.; Lee, Y. Y.; Ahn, Doyeol

2008-08-01

253

Split immunological tolerance to trophoblast.  

PubMed

Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, and particularly relevant in equine pregnancy. In pregnant mares, antibody responses to paternal foreign Major Histocompatibility Complex class I antigens are robust, while anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell responses are diminished compared to those mounted by non-pregnant mares. Here, we compared the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing Interferon Gamma (IFNG) and Interleukin 4 (IL4) and the level of expression of the immunoregulatory transcription factor FOXP3 between pregnant and non-pregnant mares, and between peripheral blood and the endometrium during pregnancy. In a cohort of mares in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested during early pregnancy and in the non-pregnant state, there were only slight changes observed during pregnancy. In contrast, comparison of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lymphocytes isolated from the endometrial cups of pregnant mares revealed striking differences in lymphocyte sub-populations. The endometrial cups contained higher numbers of IFNG+ lymphocytes, and lower numbers of lymphocytes expressing IL4. The endometrial cup lymphocytes also had higher numbers of FOXP3+ cells compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:19876828

de Mestre, Amanda; Noronha, Leela; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F

2010-01-01

254

A Registry-Based Assessment of Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral malformations are 1 of the many possible causes of cerebral palsy. In this study, a population-based comprehensive cerebral palsy registry was used to identify children whose cerebral palsy could be attributed to a cerebral malformation. The clinical features of these children were then compared with other children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy and cerebral malformation did not

Lauren Self; Michael I. Shevell

2010-01-01

255

Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

2009-01-01

256

X-Chromosomally inherited split-hand\\/split-foot anomaly in a Pakistani kindred  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pakistani kindred comprising seven generations and 36 members with the split-hand\\/split-foot anomaly is described. The full expression of the trait, monodactylous or split hand and split foot, mainly of the lobster-claw type, was present in 33 males and 3 females. Other females showed a distinctly milder expression of the trait, usually in the form of partial syndactyly, metacarpal and

Mahmud ahmad; Hasan Abbas; Sayedul Haque; Gebhard Flatz

1987-01-01

257

New Views on Old Cords: Accounting, Performance  

E-print Network

Gary Urton New Views on Old Cords: Accounting, Performance and Power in the Inca Empire The Inca quipus ­ the knotted-cord devices used for accounting and record keeping in the Inca Empire ­ have long Americas ­ the Inca Empire of South America? This talk looks at what we have learned about quipus from

Tufts University

258

Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking  

PubMed Central

Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available. PMID:21750089

Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M.

2011-01-01

259

Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking.  

PubMed

Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available. PMID:21750089

Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M

2011-11-01

260

Tethered Cord Syndrome: An Updated Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a diverse clinical entity characterized by symptoms and signs which are caused by excessive tension on the spinal cord. The majority of cases are related to spinal dysraphism. TCS can present in any age group, and presentations differ according to the underlying pathologic condition and age, with pain, cutaneous signs, orthopedic deformities and neurological deficits

Sean M. Lew; Karl F. Kothbauer

2007-01-01

261

Pain Management Following Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... SCI Care Center Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal Cord Injury coming from somewhere other ... abdomen (stomach area) either above or below the level of injury. The pain is described as burning, ... Pain management usually includes treatment with medications, modified ...

262

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the role of spinal cord stimulation in contemporary chronic pain management. The anatomical and neurophysiological correlates of stimulation of the intraspinal structures are discussed. The most common indications are presented, including failed back syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, and spinal cord injury, etc. The most common complications are presented, including paralysis, infection, electrode migration,

Giancarlo Barolat

2000-01-01

263

Management of primary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is scarce on surgical and\\/or radiotherapeutic management of primary neoplasms of the spinal cord, a rare form of tumor. We have reviewed retrospectively the records of all patients with spinal cord tumor who were treated at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1950 to 1975, a total of 34 patients. Patients were treated with megavoltage equipment to

J. G. Schwade; W. M. Wara; G. E. Sheline; S. Sorgen; C. B. Wilson

1978-01-01

264

Childhood scoliosis revealing spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord tumors typically show slow and insidious growth and scoliosis may be the only presenting feature of these lesions. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and\\/or imaging signs that can contribute in uncovering the underlying etiology of a presumed “idiopathic” scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of histologically confirmed spinal cord tumors presenting as scoliosis

M. Chelli Bouaziz; M. S. Daghfous; M. F. Ladeb

2006-01-01

265

14 CFR 31.57 - Rip cords.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pounds. (c) The end of the rip cord to be operated by the pilot must be colored red. (d) The rip cord must be long enough to allow an increase of at least 10 percent in the vertical dimension of the...

2010-01-01

266

14 CFR 31.57 - Rip cords.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pounds. (c) The end of the rip cord to be operated by the pilot must be colored red. (d) The rip cord must be long enough to allow an increase of at least 10 percent in the vertical dimension of the...

2012-01-01

267

14 CFR 31.57 - Rip cords.  

...pounds. (c) The end of the rip cord to be operated by the pilot must be colored red. (d) The rip cord must be long enough to allow an increase of at least 10 percent in the vertical dimension of the...

2014-01-01

268

14 CFR 31.57 - Rip cords.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pounds. (c) The end of the rip cord to be operated by the pilot must be colored red. (d) The rip cord must be long enough to allow an increase of at least 10 percent in the vertical dimension of the...

2011-01-01

269

14 CFR 31.57 - Rip cords.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pounds. (c) The end of the rip cord to be operated by the pilot must be colored red. (d) The rip cord must be long enough to allow an increase of at least 10 percent in the vertical dimension of the...

2013-01-01

270

Pulmonary mucormycosis presenting with vocal cord paralysis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary mucormycosis is a relatively uncommon infection. It can present in various forms. Very few cases of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis have been described in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis presenting as vocal cord paralysis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient.

Gayathri Devi, H.J.; Mohan Rao, K.N.; Prathima, K.M.; Moideen, Riyaz

2013-01-01

271

Polymicrogyria: a common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. PMID:24888723

Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

2014-06-01

272

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in the newborn: A familial case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare cause of cyanosis in the newborn with nine previously reported cases. Typical signs at presentation include cyanosis, murmur, and congestive heart failure. Abnormality on chest x-ray is common with cardiomegaly, oligemia, and focal pulmonary density. There is a male predominance, unlike older children and adults with PAVM. Familial cases of PAVM have been

Steven W. Allen; Jonathan M. Whitfield; David R. Clarke; Eva Sujansky; James W. Wiggins

1993-01-01

273

Spontaneous Regression of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). I report a case of a patient with HHT with four cerebral AVMs in whom one AVM spontaneously regressed during a 5-year period. The spontaneous regression of this AVM in this patient with HHT supports the theory that AVMs associated with this syndrome have a different nat- ural

Harry J. Cloft

274

Fusarium species associated with waterberry (Syzygium cordatum) floral malformation  

E-print Network

or in swampy spots. This evergreen tree has white, fluffy flowers that bloom from August to November. Its fruit is an edible berry that turns dark-purple when ripe. In rural areas the tree is used as a remedy large numbers of flowers. With time these malformed inflorescences dry out without ever bearing fruit

275

Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia: A Novel Recessive Brain Malformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic "butterfly"-like contour of the midbrain on…

Zaki, Maha S.; Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

276

Failed transarterial embolization of subserosal uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare but potentially life-threatening from excessive vaginal bleeding. All uterine AVMs reported to date have been found in the endometrial or myometrial layers. Here we present a patient with a subserosal type AVM on the fundus of uterus, which spontaneously ruptured. PMID:24328024

Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jin; Sohn, In Sook; Kwon, Han Sung; Park, Sang Woo; Hwang, Han Sung

2013-09-01

277

SHORT COMMUNICATION Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the Sultanate of Oman in the beginning of 2005 in plantations at Sohar in the Sultanate of Oman. The affected inflorescences were factor 1 . -tubulin Mango (Mangifera indica) is an important perennial crop in the Sultanate of Oman

278

Management of the fetus with a cystic adenomatoid malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal detection and serial sonographic study of fetuses with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) now makes it possible to define the natural history of this lesion, determine the pathophysiologic features that affect clinical outcome, and formulate management based on prognosis. In a series of 22 prenatally diagnosed cases, the overall prognosis depended on the effects of the lung mass and

N. Scott Adzick; Michael R. Harrison

1993-01-01

279

Valproic Acid and Congenital MalformationsA Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infant exposed in utero to valproic acid was born with multiple congenital malformations, including duodenal atresia, lumbar vertebral fusion, thoracolumbar scoliosis, renal abnormalities, diastasis recti abdominis, depigmentation of the eye brows, and a large hemangioma. The child had neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and postnatal growth deficiency. This case report is an addition to the literature im plicating valproic acid as a

Maj Eric W. Bantz

1984-01-01

280

Valproic acid and congenital malformations. A case report.  

PubMed

An infant exposed in utero to valproic acid was born with multiple congenital malformations, including duodenal atresia, lumbar vertebral fusion, thoracolumbar scoliosis, renal abnormalities, diastasis recti abdominis, depigmentation of the eyebrows, and a large hemangioma. The child had neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and postnatal growth deficiency. This case report is an addition to the literature implicating valproic acid as a human teratogen. PMID:6426840

Bantz, E W

1984-06-01

281

Proximity to Pollution Sources and Risk of Amphibian Limb Malformation  

PubMed Central

The cause of limb deformities in wild amphibian populations remains unclear, even though the apparent increase in prevalence of this condition may have implications for human health. Few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of multiple exposures on the risk of limb deformities. In a cross-sectional survey of 5,264 hylid and ranid metamorphs in 42 Vermont wetlands, we assessed independent risk factors for nontraumatic limb malformation. The rate of nontraumatic limb malformation varied by location from 0 to 10.2%. Analysis of a subsample did not demonstrate any evidence of infection with the parasite Ribeiroia. We used geographic information system (GIS) land-use/land-cover data to validate field observations of land use in the proximity of study wetlands. In a multiple logistic regression model that included land use as well as developmental stage, genus, and water-quality measures, proximity to agricultural land use was associated with an increased risk of limb malformation (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–3.58; p < 0.001). The overall discriminant power of the statistical model was high (C = 0.79). These findings from one of the largest systematic surveys to date provide support for the role of chemical toxicants in the development of amphibian limb malformation and demonstrate the value of an epidemiologic approach to this problem. PMID:16263502

Taylor, Brynn; Skelly, David; Demarchis, Livia K.; Slade, Martin D.; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

2005-01-01

282

Coiling of a vulvar arterio-venous malformation  

PubMed Central

The authors report the case of a 13-year-old girl with a painful vulvar swelling and abnormal vaginal bleeding, increasing in size after trauma. With MRI (GE Signa HDx 1.5 Tesla), it is diagnosed as an arterio-venous malformation arising from the left superior femoral artery. It is treated by embolisation using a coil. PMID:22674935

Van der Woude, Daisy Adriana Annejan; Stegeman, Marjan; Seelen, Jan L

2011-01-01

283

Maternal smoking and congenital malformations: an epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case-control study undertaken in several hospitals in Connecticut, it was found that women who reported smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day during pregnancy had a relative risk of about 1.6 for congenital malformations in the offspring of that pregnancy compared with women who said they had not smoked at all during pregnancy. However, there was no significant

J L Kelsey; T Dwyer; T R Holford; M B Bracken

1978-01-01

284

Development and malformations of the human pyramidal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corticospinal tract develops over a rather long period of time, during which malformations involving this main central motor pathway may occur. In rodents, the spinal outgrowth of the corticospinal tract occurs entirely postnatally, but in primates largely prenatally. In mice, an increasing number of genes have been found to play a role during the development of the pyramidal tract.

H. J. ten Donkelaar; M. M. Y. Lammens; P. Wesseling; A. Hori; A. J. M. Keyser; J. J. Rotteveel

2004-01-01

285

Spitz nevus arising upon a congenital glomuvenous malformation.  

PubMed

There are several reports of the collision of vascular and pigmentary anomalies (e.g., phakomatosis pigmentovascularis) and the association between congenital melanocytic nevi and infantile hemangiomas. We report a case of Spitz nevus arising in skin overlying a congenital plaque-like glomuvenous malformation (GVM). This is the first report of a Spitz nevus arising in direct contiguity to a GVM. PMID:22304367

Arica, Deniz A; Arica, Ibrahim E; Yayli, Savas; Cobanoglu, Umit; Akay, Bengu N; Anadolu, Rana; Bahadir, Sevgi

2013-01-01

286

A syndrome including thumb malformations, microcephaly, short stature, and hypogonadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on eight patients from seven different families affected with a syndrome which includes thumb defects, short stature, microcephaly, and mental retardation. Most of the patients had additional malformations, in particular amenorrhoea and azoospermia in the adults. There were no haematological manifestations and the chromosomes were normal without evidence of breakage even after stimulation. In five of the cases

J Zlotogora; J Dagan; A Ganen; M Abu-Libdeh; Z Ben-Neriah; T Cohen

1997-01-01

287

LIMITED PCB ANTAGONISM OF TCDD-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

C57BL/6N mice, used to model induction of cleft palate and kidney malformations in offspring following maternal treatment with TCDD, were dosed on gestation day (gd) 9 with ,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro-biphenyl (HCB) (62.5, 125, 250, 500. 1000 mg/kg) and/or gd 10 with 2,3,7,8-tetrach...

288

Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with cerebellar malformations: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cerebellar malformations are increasingly diagnosed in the fetal period. Consequently, their consideration requires stressful and often critical decisions from both clinicians and families. This has resulted in an emergent need to understand better the impact of these early life lesions on child development. We performed a comprehensive literature search of studies describing neurodevelopmental outcomes of cerebellar malformations between January 1997 and December 2007. Overall, the data suggested that children with isolated inferior vermis hypoplasia (IVH) and mega cisterna magna (MCM) have a good developmental outcome, whereas children with molar tooth sign/Joubert syndrome, vermis hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) type II, and cerebellar agenesis experience moderate to severe global developmental delays. Reports for Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) were conflicting; however, the presence of a normally lobulated vermis and the absence of associated brain anomalies were associated with a more favourable outcome. Finally, children with isolated cerebellar hypoplasia experienced fewer impairments. Important methodological limitations highlighted include a lack of standardized outcome measure use in 79% of studies and the predominant use of retrospective study designs (85%), with 40% limited to case reports or case-series. In summary, rigorous outcome studies describing the spectrum of disabilities in survivors are urgently needed to accurately delineate the long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of cerebellar malformations. PMID:19191827

Bolduc, Marie-Eve; Limperopoulos, Catherine

2009-04-01

289

A Split Sprint mission to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive infrastructure analysis is central to developing architectures necessary to support the Space Exploration Initiative. In the ``Split Sprint'' architecture, the cargo is split from the crew. An efficient low thrust ``slow boat'' is used for the cargo and a high thrust ``sprint'' vehicle is used for the crew. Infrastructure analysis is utilized in developing initial element designs to meet

Kyle Shepard; Jack Duffey; Dom D'Annible; Jeff Holdridge; Walter Thompson; Robert C. Armstrong

1992-01-01

290

Evaluation of Interconnected Power Systems Splitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled splitting of an interconnected power system is the last defense line against wide-area blackout. As a special protection scheme, the methodology of system splitting is a comprehensive decision-making problem. This article introduces a novel approach for separation of the integrated power systems into several stable islands. The proposed method combines both the dynamic and static characteristics of interconnected power

S. R. Najafi; S. H. Hosseinian; M. Abedi

2010-01-01

291

REMINISCING STOCK SPLITS ANNOUNCEMENT: A MALAYSIAN CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to understands and verify the effects of stock splits on the abnormal returns of announcing companies share prices using Market Adjusted Returns (MAR) Model. Test findings reveal splits announcements in Malaysia result in positive but insignificant abnormal returns. Additional OLS test was carry out to examine the relationship between companies' cumulative abnormal returns (CAAR) and prior dividend

Zahiruddin Ghazali; Noraini Othman

2014-01-01

292

Parallel programming in Split-C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce the Split-C language, a parallel extension of C intended for high performance programming on distributed memory multiprocessors, and demonstrate the use of the language in optimizing parallel programs. Split-C provides a global address space with a clear concept of locality and unusual assignment operators. These are used as tools to reduce the frequency and cost of remote

A. Krishnamurthy; D. E. Culler; A. Dusseau; S. C. Goldstein; Steven Lumetta; Thorsten von Eicken; Katherine A. Yelick

1993-01-01

293

Conditions for a split diffusion flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual phenomenon has been observed in a methane jet diffusion flame subjected to axial acoustic forcing. At specific excitation frequencies and amplitudes, the driven flame splits into a central jet and one or two side jets. The splitting is accompanied by a partial detachment of the flame from the nozzle exit, a shortening of the flame by a factor

Jean R. Hertzberg

1997-01-01

294

Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

2008-01-01

295

Precision aligned split V-block  

DOEpatents

A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

George, Irwin S. (3240 Siringo Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87501)

1984-01-01

296

JSP Splitting for Improving Execution Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splitting a JSP (JavaServer Pages) page into fragments can improve the execution performance of JSP pages when the Web application server can separately cache the Web page fragments obtained by executing the JSP fragments. If a JSP page is split into fragments according to the update frequency of each portion of the Web page obtained by executing the JSP page,

Takuya Nakaike; Goh Kondoh; Hiroaki Nakamura; Fumihiko Kitayama; Shin'ichi Hirose

2004-01-01

297

History of the spinal cord localization.  

PubMed

The first reference to spinal cord injury is recorded in the Edwin Smith papyrus. Little was known of the function of the cord before Galen's experiments conducted in the second century AD. Galen described the protective coverings of the spinal cord: the bone, posterior longitudinal ligament, dura mater, and pia mater. He gave a detailed account of the gross anatomy of the spinal cord. During the medieval period (AD 700-1500) almost nothing of note was added to Galen's account of spinal cord structure. The first significant work on the spinal cord was that of Blasius in 1666. He was the first to differentiate the gray and white matter of the cord and demonstrated for the first time the origin of the anterior and posterior spinal nerve roots. The elucidation of the various tracts in the spinal cord actually began with demonstrations of pyramidal decussation by Mistichelli (1709) and Pourfoir du Petit (1710). Huber (1739) recorded the first detailed account of spinal roots and the denticulate ligaments. In 1809, Rolando described the substantia gelatinosa. The microtome, invented in 1824 by Stilling, proved to be one of the fundamental tools for the study of spinal cord anatomy. Stilling's technique involved slicing frozen or alcohol-hardened spinal cord into very thin sections and examining them unstained by using the naked eye or a microscope. With improvements in histological and experimental techniques, modern studies of spinal cord anatomy and function were initiated by Brown-Sequard. In 1846, he gave the first demonstration of the decussation of the sensory tracts. The location and direction of fiber tracts were uncovered by the experimental studies of Burdach (1826), Turck (1849), Clarke (1851), Lissauer (1855), Goll (1860), Flechsig (1876), and Gowers (1880). Bastian (1890) demonstrated that in complete transverse lesions of the spinal cord, reflexes below the level of the lesion are lost and muscle tone is abolished. Flatau (1894) observed the laminar nature of spinal pathways. The 20th century ushered in a new era in the evaluation of spinal cord function and localization; however, the total understanding of this remarkable organ remains elusive. Perhaps the next century will provide the answers to today's questions about spinal cord localization. PMID:15264793

Naderi, Sait; Türe, U?ur; Pait, T Glenn

2004-01-15

298

Neurotrophic factors in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

A major challenge in repairing the injured spinal cord is to assure survival of damaged cells and to encourage regrowth of severed axons. Because neurotrophins are known to affect these processes during development, many experimental approaches to improving function of the injured spinal cord have made use of these agents, particularly Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). More recently, neurotrophins have also been shown to affect the physiology of cells and synapses in the spinal cord. The effect of neurotrophins on circuit performance adds an important dimension to their consideration as agents for repairing the injured spinal cord. In this chapter we discuss the role of neurotrophins in promoting recovery after spinal cord injury from both a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24668482

Boyce, Vanessa S; Mendell, Lorne M

2014-01-01

299

Process for photosynthetically splitting water  

SciTech Connect

In one form of the invention, hydrogen is produced by providing a reactor containing a body of water. The water contains photolytic material, i.e., photoactive material containing a hydrogen-catalyst. The interior of the reactor is isolated from atmosphere and includes a volume for receiving gases evolved from the body of water. The photolytic material is exposed to light to effect photosynthetic splitting of the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The gas-receiving volume is continuously evacuated by pumping to promote evolution of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into that volume and to withdraw them therefrom. In another form of the invention, separation of the hydrogen and oxygen is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane in a separation zone while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient biasing the oxygen away from the membrane. In a third form of the invention, the withdrawn gas is contacted with a membrane blocking flow of water vapor to the region for effecting recovery of the hydrogen. In a fourth embodiment, the invention comprises a process for selectively recovering hydrogen from a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen. The process is conducted in a separation zone and comprises contacting the mixture with a semipermeable membrane effecting selective diffusion of hydrogen while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient effecting movement of oxygen in a direction away from the membrane.

Greenbaum, E.

1982-01-28

300

Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study  

SciTech Connect

Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

Lv, Ming-ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China); Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China); Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)

2013-10-15

301

Effect of the central canal in the spinal cord on fluid movement within the cord.  

PubMed

Computational studies are used to demonstrate the effect of oscillating CSF flow on pressures within the spinal cord. We tested the hypothesis that the central canal in the spinal cord affects spinal cord pressure gradients resulting from oscillatory CSF flow. Two computational models of the spinal cord were created with the same dimensions. Model 1 had a homogeneous porous structure. Model 2 had the same structure with the addition of a central fluid filled space, representing the central canal of the cord. We simulated oscillatory flow in the fluid space using standard computational fluid dynamics tools. For all phases of the CSF flow cycle and for specific projections through the model we calculated pressure gradients and fluid movement in the cord models. Pressures in the models varied through the flow cycle. Model 1 had linearly varying pressure along its long axis that varied with the cycle and had no pressure gradients across the cord. Model 2 had nonlinear varying pressure along its long axis varying with the time in the cycle and had transient centrifugal and centripetal pressure gradients with a central fluid space. The radial pressures varied linearly with distance from the fluid space. Centrifugal and centripetal pressure gradients resulted in radially directed fluid flow in the cord. The central canal within the spinal cord alters the pressure fields occurring during oscillatory CSF flow and creates centrifugal and centripetal fluid flux in the cord. PMID:24199820

Drøsdal, Ida N; Mardal, Kent-Andre; Støverud, Karen; Haughton, Victor

2013-10-01

302

Intraoperative measurement of spinal cord blood flow in syringomyelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of spinal cord ischemia in the pathophysiology of syringomyelia remains undetermined. Previous reports in the literature suggest that shunting of syringes can improve spinal cord blood flow. In order to determine the effects of syrinx decompression on spinal cord blood flow in patients with syringomyelia, we prospectively measured regional spinal cord blood flow (RSCBF) intraoperatively pre and post

William F Young; Ronald Tuma; Timothy O’Grady

2000-01-01

303

A Crater Split In Two  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 23 September 2003

A 22 km-diameter crater has been sliced by the tectonic forces that produced the rift known as Sirenum Fossae. The orientation of this rift is roughly radial to the great Tharsis volcano Arsia Mons, probably indicating a link between the formation of the rift and the volcano. Note how the rift cuts through a jumble of mounds on the floor of the crater. This indicates a sequence of events beginning with the formation of the crater followed by an infilling of material that was then eroded into the mounds and ultimately split open by the shifting martian crust.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -29.7, Longitude 211.7 East (148.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

304

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

Donnelly, Eleanor M; Lamanna, Jason; Boulis, Nicholas M

2012-01-01

305

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

2012-01-01

306

Complementation in Chol (Mayan) : a theory of split ergativity :  

E-print Network

The central claim of this dissertation is that aspect-based split ergativity does not mark a split in how Case is assigned, but rather, a split in sentence structure. Specifically, I argue that the contexts in which we ...

Coon, Jessica

2010-01-01

307

Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view of learning  

E-print Network

Review Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view o Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Spinal cord Instrumental conditioning Pavlovian training can induce a lasting change in spinal cord function. A framework for the study of learning

Grau, James

308

Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds. PMID:23945984

Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2013-10-01

309

Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord hemangioblastoma.  

PubMed

Spinal cord hemangioblastomas account for about 10% of spinal cord tumors. They usually arise from the dorsolateral pia mater and are characterized by their significant vascularity. The principles and techniques of safe resection are different than those employed for the more commonly occurring intramedullary glial tumors (e.g. ependymoma, astrocytoma) and consist of circumferential detachment of the tumor margin from the surrounding normal pia. This video demonstrates the microsurgical techniques of resection of a thoracic spinal cord hemangioblastoma. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/yT5KLi4VyAo. PMID:25175571

McCormick, Paul C

2014-09-01

310

Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners  

E-print Network

A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely...

Domanski, P. A.

1988-01-01

311

Divided Opinions on the Split Fovea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explain once again the distinction between the "split fovea theory" and the "bilateral projection theory", and consider the implications of the two theories for understanding the processing of centrally fixated words and faces.

Ellis, Andrew W.; Brysbaert, Marc

2010-01-01

312

Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5}-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed.

Shen, Jian-Ren [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology/Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Umena, Yasufumi [The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan and PRESTO, JST (Japan); Kawakami, Keisuke [The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Kamiya, Nobuo [The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan and Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan)

2013-12-10

313

Photosynthetic Water Splitting for Hydrogen Fuel Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three key advances in photosynthesis research are reported. A significant advance in microalgal water splitting has been made. In the linear, low-intensity region of the light saturation curves, equivalent solar conversion efficiencies of 10% have been me...

E. Greenbaum

1985-01-01

314

Arteriovenous malformation of the mandible and parotid gland  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the jaws are relatively rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Their real importance lies in their potential to result in exsanguination, which usually follows an unrelated treatment, such as tooth extraction, surgical intervention, puncture wound or blunt injury in involved areas, with the dentist unaware of the existence of the AVM. The present case illustrates an AVM in an 18-year-old female with swelling on the right side of the face. This case report is unique because although there was no history of bleeding episodes, thorough examination and investigation diagnosed it as high-flow vascular malformation. We ascertain the importance of dentists' awareness of the fatal outcome of these lesions and emphasize that, prior to performing any procedure, necessary investigations should always be done. PMID:22282511

Shailaja, S R; Manika; Manjula, M; Kumar, L V

2012-01-01

315

[Chiari type I malformation in a patient with Poland's syndrome].  

PubMed

Chiari malformation type I and Poland's syndrome are two rare diseases and their simultaneous presentation had not been previously described in the literature. We report the case of a 27 year old male with history of Poland's syndrome, who referred headache and motor impairment of the intrinsic muscles of the left hand. In a cervical spine MR a Chiari I malformation with syringomyelia from C1 to T2 was found, which was treated by foramen magnum decompression, dural plasty and removal of the posterior arch of the atlas. A discussion of the embryological mechanisms that might be involved in the coexistence of these two entities is presented, emphasizing the role of para-axial mesoderm. PMID:22167290

Apellido, Nombre; Alcalá-Cerra, G; Sabogal-Barrios, R; Niño-Hernández, L M; Gutiérrez-Paternina, J J; Moscote-Salazar, L R; Preciado-Mesa, E

2011-12-01

316

Arnold-Chiari malformation in a captive African lion cub.  

PubMed

Progressive ataxia, delayed growth, dementia and tremors were noted in a female African lion (Panthera leo) cub at the Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Zoological Center (Israel). The lioness was 3-mo-old when clinical signs were first noticed. Repeated neurological evaluations and blood tests were conducted in an attempt to establish a diagnosis. A congenital abnormality was suspected and the lioness died 6 molater. Post mortem examination revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation. The abnormality was classified as a Chiari type 2 malformation, based on the herniation of the cerebellar vermis and paravermis and the slight caudal displacement of the medulla, combined with lack of displacement in other parts of the brainstem. PMID:9706583

Shamir, M H; Horowitz, I H; Yakobson, B; Ofri, R

1998-07-01

317

Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.  

PubMed

Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

2014-04-01

318

Resection of pontine cavernous malformation through the pontomedullary sulcus.  

PubMed

In this video, we illustrate a right far-lateral craniotomy for resection of a 13-mm cavernous malformation of the pons in a healthy 53-year-old female patient presenting with diplopia and right 6th nerve palsy. The cavernous malformation was surrounded by normal pons, but was within 1 mm of the pontomedullary sulcus. The lesion was exposed from below through a far lateral craniotomy and accessed through the vasoaccessory triangle, superior to olivary nucleus and 12th cranial nerve. The alternative retrosigmoid craniotomy would have involved significant transgression of the middle cerebellar peduncle. The patient had gross-total resection and some temporary increase in her abducens nerve palsy without any complication. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/8nOnrnTk3Tg . PMID:24380516

Abla, Adib Adnan; Clark, Aaron J; Lawton, Michael L

2014-01-01

319

Cloacal malformation: embryology, anatomy, and prenatal imaging features.  

PubMed

Cloacal malformation is a rare but important anomaly. Prenatal diagnosis is possible with knowledge of the distinctive imaging features. The purpose of this case series is to illustrate characteristic prenatal sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging features of cloacal malformation using imaging from 6 cases seen at a single academic center to augment published data. The imaging feature common to all cases was a central cystic pelvic mass containing a characteristic fluid-fluid level. Additional anomalies include uterine and vaginal duplication, hydronephrosis, and lumbosacral anomalies. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the normal T1-hyperintense meconium-filled rectum in all cases. Prenatal diagnosis may affect immediate neonatal care (eg, immediate drainage of hydrocolpos) with an ultimate improved outcome. PMID:23091258

Winkler, Nicole S; Kennedy, Anne M; Woodward, Paula J

2012-11-01

320

[Facial venous malformation presented with an unusual course].  

PubMed

Venous malformations are constitutionally-dependent vascular anomalies. In contrast to haemangiomas, they show no spontaneous regression. We describe here the case of a 21-year-old woman with a very severe facial disfigurement caused by a large venous malformation. After intensive consultation, advice and planning, the patient decided to undergo therapy and was admitted to hospital for treatment by an interdisciplinary team, consisting of a radiologist and a plastic surgeon. Under general anaesthesia, percutaneous sclerosis was performed twice. This enabled thrombosing and subsequent extensive resection of the monstrously large tumour. The well-planned and efficiently performed surgery helped the patient to gain a significant improvement in her quality of life. PMID:19085823

Piza-Katzer, H; Waldenberger, P

2009-04-01

321

Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in Association with Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Summary Pilocytic astrocytomas are highly vascular, relatively common primary brain tumors in the pediatric population, but their association with a true arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is extremely rare. We describe an eight-year-old girl with a right supratentorial juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) with an angiographically documented AVM entangled in the tumor mass who presented with intracranial hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior choroidal artery pseudoaneurysm encased in the lesion. The AVM nidus as well as the hemorrhage site was embolized with Onyx. A literature review revealed only one previous report of a true intermixture of these two lesions. We hypothesize whether the association of vascular malformations and primary brain tumors are merely coincidental or if they point to the existence of a distinct entity and/or a common etiologic factor. PMID:22681727

Soltanolkotabi, M.; Schoeneman, S.E.; Dipatri, A.J.; Hurley, M.C.; Ansari, S.A.; Rajaram, V.; Tomita, T.; Shaibani, A.

2012-01-01

322

Tailor-made split-plot experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of split-plot experiments has received a considerable amount of attention during the last few years. In this paper, it is shown that crossed split-plot designs are optimal for a given set of treatments and that two-level factorial and fractional factorial designs are D-optimal for estimating first order response surface models. In addition, an algorithm is presented for computing

Peter Goos; Martina Vandebroek

2002-01-01

323

Split-Quaternions and the Dirac Equation  

E-print Network

We show that Dirac 4-spinors admit an entirely equivalent formulation in terms of 2-spinors defined over the split-quaternions. In this formalism, a Lorentz transformation is represented as a $2 \\times 2$ unitary matrix over the split-quaternions. The corresponding Dirac equation is then derived in terms of these 2-spinors. In this framework the $SO(3,2; {\\bf R})$ symmetry of the Lorentz invariant scalar $\\overline{\\psi}\\psi$ is manifest.

Francesco Antonuccio

2014-04-25

324

Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups  

SciTech Connect

It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n{>=}1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n{>=}1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.

Atabekyan, Varuzhan S [Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)] [Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)

2013-02-28

325

Perinatal outcome in cases of isolated single umbilical artery and its effects on neonatal cord blood gas indices.  

PubMed

Abstract We aimed to evaluate perinatal outcomes and blood gas indices of isolated single umbilical artery (SUA). In this retrospective study, 134 fetuses with SUA were evaluated. A total of 77 (57.4%) fetuses with isolated SUA (iSUA) were compared with maternal age-matched 95 fetuses with double umbilical arteries (DUA), with respect to pregnancy outcome and umbilical cord blood gas indices. The incidence of SUA in our cohort was 1.04%. Patients with iSUA had lower neonatal birth weight compared with the control group (2,635 ± 972 g vs 2,991 ± 669 g; p = 0.009). Small for gestational age (SGA) frequency was higher in the group of iSUA when compared with fetuses with DUA (17.4% vs 5.4%; p = 0.03). Regarding the umbilical cord blood gas, the parameters were comparable between the two groups. SUA has a favourable obstetric outcome as long as the accompanying malformations are ruled out. Furthermore, neonatal cord blood gas parameters in fetuses with iSUA do not differ from fetuses with DUA. PMID:24867412

Do?an, S; Özyüncü, Ö; Atak, Z; Turgal, M

2014-10-01

326

Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

Przybojewski, Stefan J., E-mail: drstefanp@hotmail.com; Sadler, David J. [University of Calgary, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Foothills Hospital (Canada)

2011-02-15

327

Pediatric stroke: the importance of cerebral arteriopathy and vascular malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Population-based estimates of the annual incidence of childhood stroke range from 2 to 13 per 100,000 person-years. More than\\u000a half of children who have had a stroke have long-term neurological sequelae. The goal of this article is to review recent\\u000a literature on both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in children with a focus on cerebral arteriopathy and vascular malformations\\u000a as stroke

Lauren A. Beslow; Lori C. Jordan

2010-01-01

328

Arteriovenous Malformation of the Pancreas: Report of a Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas (AVMP) is uncommon and generally asymptomatic; therefore, few cases have\\u000a so far been reported. The symptoms of AVMP include gastrointestinal bleeding, pain, and portal hypertension. Definitive diagnosis\\u000a is confirmed by angiographic study, and surgery is the only effective treatment. We report a case of AVMP confirmed by computed\\u000a tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiographic

Jean M. Butte; Francisco Pacheco; Antonieta Solar; Fernando J. Crovari; Nicolás P. Jarufe

2007-01-01

329

Epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of vascular tumours and malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular tumours and vascular malformations are common vasculose anomalies characteristic for dissimilar clinical course, specific biological as well as immune cytological and histological properties. Vascular lesions classification system and their detailed division into groups and subgroups were elaborated and implemented in Rome, in 1996, during meeting of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). It was based on modification of an earlier going division by Mullikien and G?owacki from 1982. Infantile hemangiomas are the most numerous group of benign tumours of mesenchymal origin. Vascular malformations appear definitely less often. They are composed of normal endothelium lined displastic vessels which originate from vascular tissue abnormal morphogenesis. In contrast, in hemangiomas, at the proliferation stage, increased, multiplication of endothelial cells is observed as well as of fibroblasts, mastocytes and macrophages. Infantile hemangiomas are usually not present at the moment of birth and white chloasma with superficial teleangiectasis appears which increases within 3-4 weeks and gets bright red colour and reveal very characteristic clinical course basing on intensive growth period and involution long process. Vascular malformations are observed most often at the delivery moment or they may appear at an early childhood. They enlarge proportionally along with the child's growth and their sudden expansion may be triggered by an infection, hormonal changes or trauma. Contrary to hemangiomas, they do not subside spontaneously and their abrupt increase may result in impairment or deformation of important anatomical structures. Infantile hemangiomas and vascular malformations require different and individual treatments which are often multi-stage procedures carried on in specialistic centres of plastic surgery, vascular surgery or maxillofacial surgery. PMID:24979522

Wójcicki, Piotr; Wójcicka, Karolina

2014-01-01

330

Venous thoracic outlet syndrome caused by a congenital rib malformation  

PubMed Central

Summary Venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS) represents a rare disorder. Hypertrophy of the anterior scalene musculature is the cause of the compression syndrome in most cases. To our knowledge, we describe the first reported case worldwide of a venous compression syndrome caused by a congenital malformation of the 1st and 2nd ribs. Treatment by transaxillary partial rib resection was necessary and a very good postoperative result was achieved. PMID:22544354

Kirschbaum, Andreas; Palade, Emanuel; Csatari, Zoltan; Passlick, Bernward

2012-01-01

331

Surgical treatment of symptomatic cavernous malformations of the brainstem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Introduction and objectives. Cavernous malformations (CM) at the level of the brainstem, continue to present a challenge in therapeutic terms and are\\u000a an important source of controversy. Here we present our experience and the results obtained by adopting surgical treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods. The results of a consecutive series of 17 patients were studied. The surgical intervention was designed

R. G. Sola; P. Pulido; J. Pastor; M. Ochoa; J. Castedo

2007-01-01

332

Gated magnetic resonance imaging of congenital cardiac malformations  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a variety of cardiac malformations in 19 patients aged 1 week to 33 years were obtained using pulse plethysmographic- or ECG-gated spin echo pulse sequences. Coronal, axial, and sagittal images displaying intracardiac structures with excellent spatial and contrast resolution were acquired during systole or diastole. It is concluded that MR will be a valuable noninvasive method of diagnosing congenital heart disease.

Fletcher, B.D.; Jocobstein, M.D.; Nelson, A.D.; Riemenschneider, T.A.; Alfidi, R.J.

1984-01-01

333

Cerebral arteriovenous malformation: prenatal and postnatal central blood flow dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Doppler technique, this study compared the prenatal and postnatal flow patterns of an infant with cerebral arteriovenous (AV) malformation. Fetal right ventricular end-diastolic dimension was 1.7 cm with right ventricular ejection equaling 66% of the combined cardiac output. Diastolic flow was reversed in the fetal aortic isthmus but forward-moving in the descending aorta, resulting in a watershed phenomenon.

D. J. Patton; J-C Fouron

1995-01-01

334

Probing Students' Epistemologies Using Split Tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do students really believe the physical principles they learn in class? To explore this question, we gave an FCI "split" task in which students indicated the answers they think a scientist would give and also indicated the answers they really believe. To interpret the splits that students indicated between what they believe and what they were taught, we interviewed students about why they split. It turns out that a split does not indicate that the student disbelieves the scientist's answer. The splits actually arose for other reasons, one of which was students indicating a discrepancy between what they were taught and what makes sense to them. For this and other reasons, we devised a new split task focused on these discrepancies between "what makes sense" and what a scientist would say. The results of this new experiment, including validation interviews, will be discussed briefly. Evidence suggests that students are more willing to reconcile physics concepts with their everyday experience if epistemological development is an explicit goal of instruction.

McCaskey, Timothy L.; Elby, Andrew

2005-09-01

335

Effect of membrane splitting on transmembrane polypeptides  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of membrane splitting on the primary structure of human erythrocyte membrane polypeptides. Monolayers of intact, chemically unmodified cells were freeze-fractured and examined by one-dimensional SDS PAGE. Silver-stained gels revealed all major polypeptides that stain with Coomassie Blue as well as all bands that stain with periodic acid Schiff's reagent. Both nonglycosylated and glycosylated membrane polypeptides could be detected at concentrations of only a few nanograms per band. Membrane splitting had no effect on the position or number of bands. Monolayers of intact erythrocytes that had been enzymatically radioiodinated with lactoperoxidase were examined by electrophoresis, fluorography, and liquid scintillation counting. Radioactivity was quantified before and after monolayer formation and splitting, and at several stages of gel staining, drying, and fluorography. Although overexposed fluorographs revealed several minor radioiodinated bands in addition to band 3 and the glycophorins, no new bands were detected in split membrane samples derived from intact cells. These observations support the conclusion that neither the band 3 anion channel nor the glycophorin sialoglycoproteins are fragmented during freeze-fracturing. Although both band 3 and glycophorin partition to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, preliminary quantitative observations suggest an enrichment of glycophorin in the split extracellular "half" membrane. We conclude that the process of membrane splitting by planar monolayer freeze- fracture does not cleave the covalent polypeptide backbone of any erythrocyte membrane protein, peripheral or integral. PMID:3944190

1986-01-01

336

Volume measurement of cerebral arteriovenous malformations from angiography.  

PubMed

We designed software for measuring the volume of cerebral arteriovenous malformations from angiography and validated it against prescription volumes in radiosurgery. We aimed to create a model for the risk for complications as a function of volume, based on established outcome prediction models for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, but without the need for dose planning. We created an application for computing the volume of cerebral arteriovenous malformations from the intersection of two X-ray cones in stereotactic space. Volume measurements were compared with prescription volumes from dose planning, in phantoms and in patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Previous studies of 1128 treated patients were used to calculate the risk for complication as a function of the nidus volume. In 63 patients volumes measured with either method correlated, R2 = 0.85. Volume as measured with the intersecting cone model (ICM) correlated with predicted Gamma Knife radiosurgery complication rate, R2 = 0.84. The ICM can thus be used for measurement of AVM volumes less than 10 cm3 from angiography. Outcome models from Gamma Knife radiosurgery may be applied, but with reduced exactness. Standardised AVM volume measurement is valuable for comparing outcome and for quantification of volume reduction after therapy, notably embolisation. Thus the optimal management plan may be selected in conjunction with diagnostic or therapeutic angiography. PMID:11071447

Söderman, M; Karlsson, B; Launnay, L; Thuresson, B; Ericson, K

2000-09-01

337

Environmental monitoring using malformed embryos of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis  

SciTech Connect

Reproduction variables of Monoporeia affinis, such as embryonic malformation were confirmed as the most sensitive variable, when soft bottom microcosms were exposed to metals such as cadmium and lead, arsenic, organic compounds such as 4,5,6 trichloroguaiacol, contaminated sediment from areas impacted by heavy metals and pulp mill effluents. The effects were demonstrated also in low concentrations that did not significantly affect the meiofauna community. The microcosm test-system with high ecological realism could offer a possibility to translate laboratory results to the natural environments. Field surveys outside different types of pulp mills and metal works on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia have confirmed the laboratory results. Significantly higher levels of malformed embryos of Monoporeia affinis were demonstrated in the impacted areas in comparison with reference areas. The reproduction variables of Monoporeia affinis have been used in the national environmental monitoring program during two years and results indicated possibilities to distinguish between effects of xenobiotica and secondary eutrophication effects, such as unsaturated oxygen condition and occurrence of sulfides, which resulted in increased frequencies of dead eggs but not affected the frequencies of malformed eggs and embryos.

Sundelin, B.; Eriksson, A.K. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

1995-12-31

338

Sonographic markers for early diagnosis of fetal malformations  

PubMed Central

Fetal malformations are very frequent in industrialized countries. Although advanced maternal age may affect pregnancy outcome adversely, 80%-90% of fetal malformations occur in the absence of a specific risk factor for parents. The only effective approach for prenatal screening is currently represented by an ultrasound scan. However, ultrasound methods present two important limitations: the substantial absence of quantitative parameters and the dependence on the sonographer experience. In recent years, together with the improvement in transducer technology, quantitative and objective sonographic markers highly predictive of fetal malformations have been developed. These markers can be detected at early gestation (11-14 wk) and generally are not pathological in themselves but have an increased incidence in abnormal fetuses. Thus, prenatal ultrasonography during the second trimester of gestation provides a “genetic sonogram”, including, for instance, nuchal translucency, short humeral length, echogenic bowel, echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst, that is used to identify morphological features of fetal Down’s syndrome with a potential sensitivity of more than 90%. Other specific and sensitive markers can be seen in the case of cardiac defects and skeletal anomalies. In the future, sonographic markers could limit even more the use of invasive and dangerous techniques of prenatal diagnosis (amniocentesis, etc.). PMID:24179631

Renna, Maria Daniela; Pisani, Paola; Conversano, Francesco; Perrone, Emanuele; Casciaro, Ernesto; Renzo, Gian Carlo Di; Paola, Marco Di; Perrone, Antonio; Casciaro, Sergio

2013-01-01

339

[Complications in the evolution of haemangiomas and vascular malformations].  

PubMed

The differentiation of haemangiomas and vascular malformations is histological, clinical and prognostic. Although the majority of haemangiomas evolve towards spontaneous resolution, as many as 10% of cases can develop complications with ulceration, pain and haemorrhaging. Besides, the localisation of haemangiomas in the head and neck, next to vital structures, can compromise their functions. Hence, compression of the airway might be a vital emergency. Periorbital haemangiomas can give rise to amblyopia due to sensory deprivation or due to a restrictive strabismus. Lumbosacral haemangiomas must be studied with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance because of their frequent association with alterations in the midline at the level of the spine, anus, genitals or kidneys. Amongst visceral haemangiomas, hepatic haemangiomas are the most serious due to their association with congestive cardiac insufficiency. The association of extensive facial haemangiomas with anomalies of the central nervous system, vascular, cardiac, ocular and sternal anomalies, is denominated PHACE syndrome and is frequently complicated by mental deficiency, convulsions or ictus. Vascular malformations of trigeminal localisation are associated in up to 15% of cases with glaucoma or choroidal or leptomeningeal haemangiomas (Sturge-Weber syndrome). Combined vascular malformations localised in the extremities can become complicated with thrombophlebitis, regional osteolysis and even distant thromboembolisms (Klippel-Treneaunay Syndrome). On the other hand, there is a coagulopathy due to consumption (Kassabach-Merrit Syndrome) that can complicate some vascular tumours such as the Kaposiform haemangioendothelioma and the tufted angioma. Finally, the complications of the treatments employed are reviewed. PMID:15148512

Belzunce, A; Casellas, M

2004-01-01

340

Congenital malformations of the central nervous system in spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed Central

A study of 2620 pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortion revealed a CNS defect in 3.6% of embryos and fetuses, and 3% of all complete conceptuses. The type of malformation observed varied with the gestational age at expulsion, encephaloceles being predominant in earlier specimens, while more typical anencephalus and spina bifida were more common among later abortions. Chromosome abnormalities were found in 40% of abortuses with CNS defects, but were almost entirely confined to those which were still at the embryonic stage of development. 53% of the latter were chromosomally abnormal, which is the same as the proportion found among embryos without a CNS malformation. Using published life-tables of recognized pregnancies it was estimated that the prevalence of anencephalus, spina bifida, or related malformation (other than hydrocephalus), without a chromosome anomaly, is 5.3 per thousand conceptuses at the beginning of the eighth week of gestation. By comparing this with the prevalence in total births, it was further estimated that only 24% of these are born alive, with 54% aborting spontaneously and 22% being stillborn. PMID:775092

Creasy, M R; Alberman, E D

1976-01-01

341

Guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformation is one of the most common benign vascular lesions, with approximately 40% of cases appearing in the head and neck. They can affect a patient’s appearance and functionality and even cause life-threatening bleeding or respiratory tract obstruction. The current methods of treatment include surgery, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or a combined. The treatment of small and superficial venous malformations is relatively simple and effective; however, the treatment of deep and extensive lesions involving multiple anatomical sites remains a challenge for the physicians. For complex cases, the outcomes achieved with one single treatment approach are poor; therefore, individualized treatment modalities must be formulated based on the patient’s condition and the techniques available. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatments have been adapted to achieve the most effective results. In this paper, based on the national and international literature, we formulated the treatment guidelines for head and neck venous malformations to standardize clinical practice. The guideline will be renewed and updated in a timely manner to reflect cutting-edge knowledge and to provide the best treatment modalities for patients. PMID:23724158

Zheng, Jia Wei; Mai, Hua Ming; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yan An; Fan, Xin Dong; Su, Li Xin; Qin, Zhong Ping; Yang, Yao Wu; Jiang, Yin Hua; Zhao, Yi Fang; Suen, James Y

2013-01-01

342

OBESITY AND THE RISK AND DETECTION OF FETAL MALFORMATIONS  

PubMed Central

The incidence of obesity in pregnancy has increased over the past two decades, with nearly 50% of U.S. women aged 15–49 are classified as overweight or obese. Obesity (independent of diabetes) among gravidae poses unique risks which extend towards the fetus, with several large population-based analyses demonstrating independent increased risks for fetal malformations including neural tube defects, cardiac anomalies, and orofacial clefts as well as stillbirth and macrosomia. Unfortunately, several lines of evidence also suggest that the quality of the prenatal fetal anatomic survey and certain aspects of prenatal diagnostic screening programs are significantly limited. The net effect is that among obese gravidae, the increased risk of fetal anomalies is further offset by a concomitant diminished ability to sonographically detect such malformation in the prenatal interval. The purpose of this summary review is to systematically examine the evidence suggesting an increased risk of fetal malformations in obese gravidae, the contributing role of diabetes, and the limitations of prenatal diagnostic and sonographic screening among this at-risk population. PMID:22713503

RACUSIN, Diana; STEVENS, Blair; CAMPBELL, Genevieve; AAGAARD-TILLERY, Kjersti

2012-01-01

343

Spinal cord implants for nerve regeneration  

E-print Network

It has only been in the last couple decades that the potential for regeneration in the spinal cord became accepted. However, there is still no proven method for enabling this regeneration. An implant model was developed ...

Abbaschian, Lara Suzanne, 1979-

2004-01-01

344

Spinal Cord Stroke: Acute Imaging and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord infarction is an uncommon disease and as such is often a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. It can vary in its onset, severity, outcome, and recovery from patient to patient. Treatment options for this relatively rare condition also remain elusive. Current consensus recommendations are antiplatelet therapy and the symptomatic management of associated complications such as paraplegia and thromboembolic disease. There are multiple studies in surgical literature of a variety of interventions and adjuncts used for reducing the risk of ischemic spinal cord neurological injury, seen most often in the setting of thoracoabdominal aortic repair operations. We report two cases of acute non-surgical-related spinal cord infarcts, where early diagnosis was made and aggressive, early treatments instituted. With often devastating outcomes, we highlight the need for early detection and that interventions, commonly used in preventing neurological injury after high-risk aneurysm repairs, may be beneficial in treating and reducing the severity of disability in acute spinal cord stroke. PMID:22937358

Lynch, Karen; Oster, Joel; Apetauerova, Diana; Hreib, Kinan

2012-01-01

345

Intramedullary sarcoidosis of the cervical spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis showed clinical, myelographic and intra-operative evidence of a C5-C6 spinal cord tumour, which was diagnosed by biopsy as a pure intramedullary granuloma. Among the 29 published cases of histologically proven cord sarcoidosis, only five presented with pure parenchymatous infiltration without meningeal involvement. Corticosteroids are the most useful therapy, and surgery is indicated only for minimal biopsy when the parenchyma is invaded. Images PMID:3998754

Vighetto, A; Fischer, G; Collet, P; Bady, B; Trillet, M

1985-01-01

346

Repair of the Injured Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myelin protein Nogo-A is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in the central nervous system, thus contributing to the incapacity of fiber tracts in the adult spinal cord to regenerate after injury. In this review we report on a joint approach of different research groups to develop a therapy applying anti-Nogo-A antibodies to the injured spinal cord. While basic

Anita D. Buchli; Eric Rouiller; Roland Mueller; Volker Dietz; Martin E. Schwab

2007-01-01

347

Antioxidant Therapies for Acute Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One of the most investigated molecular mechanisms involved in the secondary pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury (SCI)\\u000a is free radical-induced, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation (LP) and protein oxidative\\/nitrative damage to spinal neurons,\\u000a glia, and microvascular cells. The reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite and its highly reactive free radicals are key initiators\\u000a of LP and protein nitration in the injured spinal cord,

Edward D. Hall

2011-01-01

348

Power and phase spectra for detonating cord  

SciTech Connect

A simple mathematical model is presented for a detonating cord seismic source. This model can be used for most configurations of detonating cord. Power and phase spectra are calculated. Numerical results are presented for a straight strand detonated in the center. Time delays associated with the initiation of vertically travelling energy at low frequencies can be determined from the phase spectra. 2 references, 5 figures.

Burkhard, N.R.

1983-11-01

349

Supernumerary phantom limbs in spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design and objectives:Case report and review of supernumerary phantom limbs in patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:SCI rehabilitation centre.Case report:After a ski accident, a 71-year-old man suffered an incomplete SCI (level C3; AIS C, central cord syndrome), with a C3\\/C4 dislocation fracture. From the first week after injury, he experienced a phantom duplication of both upper limbs that

A Curt; C Ngo Yengue; L M Hilti; P Brugger

2011-01-01

350

DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING  

SciTech Connect

Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-06-20

351

CT of the fixed vocal cord.  

PubMed

The presence or absence of mobility of the vocal cords is one of the major clinical criteria used in staging laryngeal cancer. Decisions regarding radical laryngectomy may be made on the basis of vocal cord mobility rather than an appraisal of the actual tumor extension. Seventy-one patients in whom the status of vocal cord mobility was clinically proven was studied by computed tomographic (CT) scanning. CT showed two cancers to be more advanced than estimated by normal vocal cord motion due to involvement of the preepiglottic or subglottic space. In three patients with suspected laryngeal tumor presenting with neck pain and hoarseness, CT showed that the sequelae of "occult" trauma had limited vocal cord mobility and had given a false clinical impression of possible tumor. CT correctly predicted vocal cord fixation in 16 of 19 patients with tumor and in eight of nine patients after trauma. In both groups, most patients had multiple findings which could explain fixation. In the tumor group, cricoarytenoid involvement (12 instances) and paralaryngeal space spread (10 instances) were the most frequent. In the trauma group, injuries to the laryngeal skeleton (nine instances) and a variety of soft tissue changes (seven instances) were the most frequent findings, related to fixation. PMID:6773399

Mancuso, A A; Tamakawa, Y; Hanafee, W N

1980-09-01

352

Bill malformations in double-crested cormorants with low exposure to organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Eight of 20 newly hatched double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), captured at Dore Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada) and raised in captivity, developed malformed bills when they were 2 to 3 weeks old. Malformation was characterized by abnormal flexure and rotation of the maxilla and mandible, resulting in a crossed bill. By radiography, the premaxillary and dental bones were misshapen. Morphologically similar malformed bills in free-living comorants have been attributed to exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the concentrations of total PCBs in the livers of these captive cormorants with malformed bills and in their diet were lower than have been previously associated with such malformations and were considered too low to have been the cause. The bill malformations may have been caused by deficiency of vitamin D{sub 3}, because the cormorants were kept indoors without exposure to ultraviolet light and were fed frozen fish that may have been deficient in this vitamin.

Kuiken, T.; Fox, G.A.; Danesik, K.L.

1999-12-01

353

SCIM – spinal cord independence measure: a new disability scale for patients with spinal cord lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a new disability scale developed specifically for patients with spinal cord lesions in order to make the functional assessments of patients with paraplegia or tetraplegia more sensitive to changes. The SCIM includes the following areas of function: self-care (subscore 0 – 20), respiration and sphincter management (0 – 40) and mobility (0 –

A Catz; M Itzkovich; E Agranov; H Ring; A Tamir

1997-01-01

354

Sphincter (ring muscle) gymnastics for spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphincter gymnastics seem to be able to recruit central pattern generators – networks of neurons that generate motor patterns – through peripheral rhythmic stimuli and to activate them without supraspinal signals. This physical therapy method is thus suitable for treating spinal cord injured and spinal cord transected patients, for it can reach below the injured segment and feed signals into

S. Yom-Tov

2000-01-01

355

Spinal cord transplants enhance the recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal spinal cord transplants placed into the site of a neonatal spinal cord lesion alter the response of immature CNS neurons to injury. The transplants prevent the retrograde cell death of immature axotomized neurons and support the growth of axons into and through the site of injury. In the present experiments we used a battery of locomotor tasks to determine

E. Kunkel-Bagden; B. S. Bregman

1990-01-01

356

Thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformation as a rare cause of isolated intraventricular hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spinal vascular malformations are rare vascular lesions that most frequently present with back pain, radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy. Neurological decline is typically secondary to progressive radiculopathy, myelopathy, venous thrombosis, and stroke. Few case reports have described thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations that present with both subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. This is the first reported case of a thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformation presenting with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage on initial imaging followed by acute and fatal rehemorrhage. PMID:24784978

Marlin, Evan S; Entwistle, John J; Arnold, Michael A; Pierson, Christopher R; Governale, Lance S

2014-07-01

357

Combined laparoscopic and cystoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bladder venous malformation: a novel technique.  

PubMed

Treatment of vascular malformations of the urinary bladder can be challenging. We report a case of bladder venous malformation treated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS 3%) sclerotherapy, using a combined cystoscopic and percutaneous transperitoneal laparoscopy guided approach. When cystoscopic views are poor, the laparoscopic approach is a useful adjunct to aid sclerotherapy of bladder venous malformation. This technique has not been previously described. PMID:22841403

Sinha, C K; Barnacle, A; Mushtaq, I; Cherian, A

2013-02-01

358

Papillary endothelial hyperplasia in association with vascular malformation of the hand.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations are uncommonly encountered in the hand. This case report involves the unique case of a rapidly enlarging mass associated with a known vascular malformation. Final pathology revealed dense reactive fibrous tissue, with prominent blood vessels, consistent with a venous malformation and associated papillary endothelial hyperplasia. The intraoperative finding of two separately identifiable masses, one fibrotic and one vascular, has not previously been reported. PMID:24875342

Alves, Kristin; Bauer, Andrea; Jupiter, Jesse

2014-01-01

359

Aortic Runoff as a Sign of Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arteriovenous malformation rarely causes pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure in the newborn. Its diagnosis is challenging because cardiomegaly may suggest an intra-cardiac structural lesion. Case Presentation We present two newborns, one 2-day-old male and the other 11-day-old female, with intracranial arteriovenous malformation and misdiagnosis of congenital heart disease. Conclusion Precise echocardiography revealed the secondary signs of cranial arteriovenous malformation and had the major role in early diagnosis. PMID:23724190

Moradian, Maryam; Nokhostin-Davari, Paridokht; Merajie, Mahmood; Pouraliakbar, Hamid-Reza

2013-01-01

360

Emerging role of contrast-enhanced MRI in diagnosing vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations comprise a diverse and rare group of lesions which generally pose a formidable treatment challenge. Requisite for optimal surgical planning are imaging modalities capable of delineating involved anatomy and malformation flow characteristics. In this regard, we and others have purported the advantages of contrast-enhanced MRI. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding the emerging of role of contrast enhanced MRI for the management of vascular malformations. PMID:25301311

Turley, Ryan S; Lidsky, Michael E; Markovic, Jovan N; Shortell, Cynthia K

2014-07-01

361

Cervical spine malformation in cornelia de lange syndrome: a report of three patients.  

PubMed

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex genetic disease with skeletal involvement mostly related to upper limb malformations. We report on three males with clinical and molecular diagnoses of CdLS. Besides typical CdLS features, all showed different cervical spine malformations. To the best of our knowledge, this is an unusual malformation in the CdLS phenotypic spectrum. PMID:24668777

Bettini, Laura Rachele; Locatelli, Laura; Mariani, Milena; Cianci, Paola; Giussani, Carlo; Canonico, Francesco; Cereda, Anna; Russo, Silvia; Gervasini, Cristina; Biondi, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo

2014-06-01

362

Optimal elastic cord assistance for sprinting in collegiate women soccer players.  

PubMed

Overspeed exercises are commonly integrated into a training program to help athletes perform at a speed greater than what they are accustomed to when unassisted. However, the optimal assistance for maximal sprinting has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal elastic cord assistance for sprinting performance. Eighteen collegiate women soccer players completed 3 testing sessions, which consisted of a 5-minute warm-up, followed by 5 randomized experimental conditions of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% body weight assistance (BWA). In all BWA sessions, subjects wore a belt while attached to 2 elastic cords and performed 2 maximal sprints under each condition. Five minutes of rest was given between each sprint attempt and between conditions. Split times (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 0-20 yd) for each condition were used for analysis. Results for 0-20 yd demonstrated a significant main effect for condition. Post hoc comparisons revealed that as BWA increased, sprint times decreased up to 30% BWA (0%: 3.20 ± 0.12 seconds; 10%: 3.07 ± 0.09 seconds; 20%: 2.96 ± 0.07 seconds; 30%: 2.81 ± 0.08 seconds; 40%: 2.77 ± 0.10 seconds); there was no difference between 30 and 40% BWA. There was also a main effect for condition when examining split times. Post hoc comparisons revealed that as BWA increased, sprint times decreased up to 30% BWA for distances up to 15 yd. These results demonstrate that 30% of BWA with elastic cords appears optimal in decreasing sprint times in collegiate women soccer players for distances up to 15 yd. PMID:21478764

Bartolini, J Albert; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Judelson, Daniel A; Spiering, Barry A; Aguirre, Nick W; Carney, Keven R; Harris, Kenten B

2011-05-01

363

Surgical resection of subependymoma of the cervical spinal cord.  

PubMed

Subependymomas can rarely occur in the spinal cord, and account for about 2% of symptomatic spinal cord tumors. It most often occurs in the cervical spinal cord, followed by cervicothoracic junction, thoracic cord and conus medullaris. It often has an eccentric location in the spinal cord and lacks gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. We present a rare case of symptomatic subependymoma of the cervical spinal cord, which underwent successful gross total resection. Surgical pearls and nuances are discussed to help surgeons to avoid potential complications. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Rsm9KxZX7Yo. PMID:25175581

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Mhanna, Nakhle; Fontes, Ricardo B V; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-09-01

364

Localizing the spinal cord in oblique off-cord lung boosts  

SciTech Connect

We present a method to accurately localize the spinal cord in oblique projections on plain radiographs. Utilizing a CT scan done with the patient in the treatment position, a template is generated to localize the spinal cord. The technique involves analyzing successive axial CT slices and locating cord position relative to the beam central axis. The template is then placed on the simulator fiducial plate at the time of verification simulation. Cord position is documented in the beam's eye view on the radiograph. Utilizing this technique, our radiation oncologists are more comfortable defining the medial field border in oblique setups. In most cases, this technique will minimize the perceived need to add superfluous spinal cord blocks that compromise tumor dose.

McCune, K.; Amundsen, J.; Travaglini, J. (Virginia Mason Clinic, Seattle, WA (USA))

1989-09-01

365

Clinical Features: Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome (GOSHS, OMIM #609460) is a multiple malformation disorder  

E-print Network

malformation disorder characterized by Hirschsprung megacolon, microcephaly, hypertelorism, submucous cleft:185-189. 2. Hurst, JA., et al. Unknown syndrome: Hirschsprung's disease, microcephaly, and iris coloboma

Ober, Carole

366

Complex thoracic malformations: is there an association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and pectus excavatum?.  

E-print Network

??Study Design: This is a retrospective review of 220 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Objectives: When combined thoracic malformations occur scoliosis and pectus excavatum (PE)… (more)

Berdan, Elizabeth Ann

2013-01-01

367

Trematode infection causes malformations and population effects in a declining New Zealand fish.  

PubMed

1. Animal malformations engender wide public and scientific concern because of associated environmental health risks. This is highlighted by increased incidence of limb malformations in amphibians associated with trematode infections and disturbance. Malformations may signal new emerging disease threats, but whether the phenomenon is broadly applicable across taxa, or has population-scale impacts, is unknown. 2. Malformations are widely reported in fish and, until now, have been attributed mainly to contaminants. We tested whether the trematode Telogaster opisthorchis caused severe malformations, leading to population effects, in Galaxias anomalus, a threatened New Zealand freshwater fish. 3. Experimental infection of larval fish caused increasing spinal malformation and mortality with infection intensity that closely matched field patterns. Field malformation frequency peaked in January (65%), before declining sharply in February (25%) and remaining low thereafter. 4. The peak occurred during a 'critical window' of larval development, with the decline coincident with a population crash, indicating that malformation was causing mortality in the field. 5. The occurrence of such critical developmental windows may explain why this mechanism of population impact has been overlooked. With global environmental stressors predicted to enhance trematode infections, our results show that parasite-induced malformation, and its population-scale impacts, could be more widespread than previously considered. PMID:19886894

Kelly, David W; Thomas, Harriet; Thieltges, David W; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

2010-03-01

368

Single gene influences on radiologically-detectable malformations of the inner ear.  

PubMed

Inner ear malformations associated with hearing loss or vestibular dysfunction are discussed from the viewpoint of the etiologies of the malformation. Symptoms of classification of inner ear malformations are discussed. The significance of malformations of the cochlea and vestibular aqueduct to auditory function are discussed. Genetics features and characteristics of Branchio-oto-renal, Waardenburg's, Pendred's, DiGeorge's, Wildervanck, Fountain, and Treacher Collins syndromes are discussed in relation to ear abnormalities and hearing. Similar attention is given to genetic studies of nonsyndromic hearing loss. PMID:9777486

Smith, S D; Harker, L A

1998-01-01

369

Observers and splitting structures in relativistic electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a relativistic splitting structure as a means to map fields and equations of electromagnetism from curved four-dimensional space–time to three-dimensional observer?s space. We focus on a minimal set of mathematical structures that are directly motivated by the language of the physical theory. Space–time, world-lines, time translation, space platforms and time synchronization all find their mathematical counterparts. The splitting structure is defined without recourse to coordinates or frames. This is noteworthy since, in much of the prevalent literature, observers are identified with adapted coordinates and frames. Among the benefits of the approach is a concise and insightful classification of splitting structures that is juxtaposed to a classification of observers. The application of the framework to the Ehrenfest paradox and Schiff?s ‘Question in General Relativity’ further illustrates the advantages of the framework, enabling a compact, yet profound analysis of the problems at hand.

Auchmann, B.; Kurz, S.

2014-10-01

370

Cultured buffalo umbilical cord matrix cells exhibit characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Recent findings have demonstrated umbilical cord, previously considered as a biomedical waste, as a source of stem cells with promising therapeutic applications in human as well as livestock species. The present study was carried out to isolate the umbilical cord matrix cells and culture for a prolonged period, cryopreserve these cells and test their post-thaw viability, characterize these cells for expression of stem cell markers and differentiation potential in vitro. The intact umbilical cord was taken out of the amniotic sac of a fetus and then incised longitudinally to remove umbilical vessels. Wharton's jelly containing tissue was diced into small pieces and placed in tiny drops of re-calcified buffalo plasma for establishing their primary culture. Confluent primary culture was trypsinized and passaged with a split ratio of 1:2 for multiplication of cells. Cryopreservation of cells was performed at three different passages in cryopreservation medium containing 15%, 20% and 25% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A significant increase in post-thaw viability was observed in cells cryopreserved in freezing medium with higher concentration of FBS. After re-culturing, frozen-thawed cells started adhering, and spike formation occurred within 4-6 h with similar morphology to their parent representative cultures. The normal karyotype and positive expression of alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency genes OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 were observed at different passages of culture. When induced, these cells differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic cells as confirmed by oil red O and alizarin red stains, respectively. This study indicates that buffalo umbilical cord matrix cells have stemness properties with mesenchymal lineage restricted differentiation and limited proliferation potential in vitro. PMID:23708916

Singh, Jarnail; Mann, Anita; Kumar, D; Duhan, J S; Yadav, P S

2013-06-01

371

Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children with Craniofacial Malformations  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms in a clinical sample of children with congenital craniofacial malformations (CFM) followed at a tertiary medical center and non-selected for sleep problems. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 575 children aged 2-18 years followed at the Craniofacial Anomalies Program between March 2007 and May 2011. The Sleep-Related Breathing Disturbance scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire was used to screen for SDB, snoring, and sleepiness. A cutoff value ? 0.33 of the total answered questions identified children with positive screening for SDB symptoms. Results: Overall, 25% of children screened positive for SDB, 28% for snoring, and 20% for sleepiness. In children with non-syndromic CFM, those with Robin sequence had the highest frequency of SDB, snoring, and sleepiness (43%, 44%, and 38%, respectively). In children with syndromic CFM, velocardiofacial/ DiGeorge syndrome had the highest frequency of SDB and sleepiness (48% and 43%, respectively). Children with Treacher Collins had the highest frequency of snoring (83%). The presence of cleft palate was not associated with an increased frequency of SDB symptoms. Nevertheless, children with syndromic CFM, compared to those with non-syndromic CFM, had a higher SDB score (0.27 ± 0.21 vs.0.21 ± 0.19, p = 0.003) and were more likely to have sleepiness (26% vs. 18%, p = 0.05). Conclusions: Congenital craniofacial malformations in children are associated with high risk for SDB symptoms. Our findings should encourage a high index of suspicion for SDB in children with CFM, with a low threshold for further testing and close follow-up. Citation: Moraleda-Cibrián M; Edwards SP; Kasten SJ; Berger M; Buchman SR; O'Brien LM. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing in children with craniofacial malformations. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):307-312. PMID:24634629

Moraleda-Cibrian, Marta; Edwards, Sean P.; Kasten, Steven J.; Berger, Mary; Buchman, Steven R.; O'Brien, Louise M.

2014-01-01

372

Parallel programming in Split-C  

SciTech Connect

The authors introduce the Split-C language, a parallel extension of C intended for high performance programming on distributed memory multiprocessors, and demonstrate the use of the language in optimizing parallel programs. Split-C provides a global address space with a clear concept of locality and unusual assignment operators. These are used as tools to reduce the frequency and cost of remote access. The language allows a mixture of shared memory, message passing, and data parallel programming styles while providing efficient access to the underlying machine. They demonstrate the basic language concepts using regular and irregular parallel programs and give performance results for various stages of program optimization.

Culler, D.E.; Dusseau, A.; Goldstein, S.C.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Lumetta, S.; Eicken, T. von; Yelick, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Science Division

1993-12-31

373

Fermion localization on a split brane  

SciTech Connect

In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.

Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B. [UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista - Campus de Guaratingueta - DFQ. Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira Cunha, 333 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP Brasil (Brazil)

2011-05-15

374

Giant fibrolipoma of the spermatic cord.  

PubMed

Fibrolipoma of the spermatic cord is extremely rare. A case of giant fibrolipoma of the right spermatic cord is reported here. A 68-year-old man noticed a mass in the right inguinal region, and was admitted to Shizuoka City Shimizu Hospital. Tumorectomy and right orchiectomy were performed. Grossly, the tumor was a well-defined, yellowish white, solid, firm tumor measuring 13 x 10 x 9 cm. The tumor had a thin capsule. The tumor was attached to the right spermatic cord, and was remote from the right testis and epididymis. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mature adipose tissue (40% in area) and collagenous fibrous tissue (60% in area). No lipoblasts were recognized, and on immunohistochemistry the tumor was negative for MDM2 and CDK4. Neither smooth muscle nor vascular proliferation was recognized. The tumor was diagnosed as giant fibrolipoma of the right spermatic cord. To the best of the author's knowledge, only two cases of fibrolipoma in the spermatic cord, scrotum, and testis have been reported in the English-language literature. PMID:20403037

Terada, Tadashi

2010-04-01

375

Rehabilitation and treatment of spinal cord tumors  

PubMed Central

Context Due to advances in acute oncological treatment, patients with spinal cord tumors exhibit improved survival. However, these patients have not received the full benefits of rehabilitation services to address their neurological deficits and rehabilitation goals. Objective To evaluate the epidemiology and pathophysiology of spinal cord tumors, address methods of acute oncological management, review treatment for neurological sequelae, and understand the implications as they relate to rehabilitation. Methods An extensive literature review was performed regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, acute oncological management, neurological sequelae, and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord tumors. Databases used included pubmed.gov and OVID, as well as individual journal and textbook articles. Results Access to treatment should be increased given improved survival and functional deficits for patients with spinal cord tumors. Individuals can benefit from inpatient rehabilitation programs, in spite of increased medical co-morbidity and neurological deficits. Specific areas of improvement include functionality, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adjustments to treatment plans must incorporate medical complications from cancer and its treatment, perceived quality of life, and prognosis. Conclusions Patients with spinal cord tumors who participate in rehabilitation programs show general improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adaptations to care plans should be made to accommodate medical co-morbidities from cancer and its treatment, patient perceptions, and prognosis. PMID:23433329

Raj, Vishwa S.; Lofton, LaTanya

2013-01-01

376

Treatment of vascular malformation of the gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are rare phenomenon. They are generally manifested by upper or lower GI - bleeding and do not resolve spontaneously. Emergency intervention is necessary. This paper reports on 10 cases, treated in the Dept. of Pediatric surgery of the FU Berlin, recorded from 1981 to 1999. We use the Nd:YAG laser 1064 nm, Fibertom 5100, Dornier, Germany, with a 600nm barefiber. Reduction in size of the hemangiomas and stop of the GI-bleeding was achieved in all cases.

Waldschmidt, Juergen; Stroedter, L.; Doede, T.; Kischkel, A.

2000-06-01

377

Urothelial mucosal malformation: a rare cause for ureteropelvic junction obstruction.  

PubMed

Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) constitutes a significant cause of morbidity in children and exists in a wide range of severity and clinical manifestations. The cause of UPJO remains largely unknown except for a small group, in which crossing vessels have been considered etiological. Herein we describe a unique case in which intraluminal occlusion was the result of mucosal malformation, characterized by invaginated and branching urothelial epithelium present in the lamina propria. We believe that the present case is the first such description of this type of alteration. PMID:16808629

Huang, Weei-Yuarn; Olumi, Aria F; Rosen, Seymour

2006-01-01

378

Management of palatal vascular malformation using absolute ethanol sclerotherapy  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformation is treated by variety of techniques over the years. Sclerotherapy is considered an effective and conservative technique for the treatment of benign vascular lesions and replaced the traditional role of surgical therapy, especially for the venous lesions that are surgically difficult or at inaccessible areas. Absolute ethanol was adopted as a new sclerosant agent for this complex form of venous defects to improve overall treatment results with acceptable morbidity and recurrence rates. Sclerotherapy has the advantage of no external scaring, low cost, and few complications in comparison to the surgical treatment. PMID:24765386

El-Hakim, Ibrahim; Alyamani, Ahmed

2011-01-01

379

Causes of Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge of the causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated factors is critical in the development of successful prevention programs. Objective: This study analyzed data from the National SCI Database (NSCID) and National Shriners SCI Database (NSSCID) in the United States to examine specific etiologies of SCI by age, sex, race, ethnicity, day and month of injury, and neurologic outcomes. Methods: NSCID and NSSCID participants who had a traumatic SCI from 2005 to 2011 with known etiology were included in the analyses (N=7,834). Thirty-seven causes of injury documented in the databases were stratified by personal characteristics using descriptive analysis. Results: The most common causes of SCI were automobile crashes (31.5%) and falls (25.3%), followed by gunshot wounds (10.4%), motorcycle crashes (6.8%), diving incidents (4.7%), and medical/surgical complications (4.3%), which collectively accounted for 83.1% of total SCIs since 2005. Automobile crashes were the leading cause of SCI until age 45 years, whereas falls were the leading cause after age 45 years. Gunshot wounds, motorcycle crashes, and diving caused more SCIs in males than females. The major difference among race/ethnicity was in the proportion of gunshot wounds. More SCIs occurred during the weekends and warmer months, which seemed to parallel the increase of motorcycle- and diving-related SCIs. Level and completeness of injury are also associated with etiology of injury. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that prevention strategies should be tailored to the targeted population and major causes to have a meaningful impact on reducing the incidence of SCI. PMID:23678280

2013-01-01

380

29 CFR 1926.908 - Use of detonating cord.  

...connectors or short-interval-delay electric blasting caps are used with detonating cord, the practice shall...recommendations. (i) When connecting a blasting cap or an electric blasting cap to detonating cord, the cap shall be taped or...

2014-07-01

381

What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012). Spinal cord injury: Hope through research . Retrieved May 22, 2012, from ...

382

Spinal cord ischemia after aortic surgery.  

PubMed

This article discusses the etiology of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) mechanisms that may lead to paraplegia during open and endovascular repair from an anatomical and physiological perspective as well as the role of various protective measures used in prevention of this dreadful complication of aortic surgery. There are many adjuncts that must be considered to reduce the risk of spinal cord injury, such as revascularisation of intercostal arteries, maintenance of high mean blood pressure, spinal cord drainage and a few new promising models like NIRS and MISACE which usefulness is yet to be determined. These measures and techniques as well as possible etiology mechanisms of SCI are discussed, highlighting the evidence available for each method, the practical ways in which they may be used, giving some new theories and explanations. PMID:25017787

Davidovic, L; Ilic, N

2014-12-01

383

Intractable Pruritus After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective. PMID:19777867

Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana

2009-01-01

384

Nuclear vector polarizability correction to hyperfine splitting  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of orbital electrons with the charge and magnetic moment of the nucleus polarizes it, and the detailed description requires a careful treatment of the nuclear vector polarizability. We present a complete and closed-form expression for the resulting contribution to hyperfine splitting in light atomic systems.

Pachucki, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2007-08-15

385

Crystal-field splitting in Pr dideuteride  

SciTech Connect

From inelastic neutron scattering experiments, it is concluded that the crystal-field splitting in PrD/sub 1.95/ is 41 meV. Because of this high value, the antiferromagnetic ordering below T/sub N/ = 2.3 K is ascribed to a magnetic ground state, probably GAMMA/sub 5/, of the Pr/sup 3 +/ ions.

Arons, R.R.; Cable, J.W.; Nicklow, R.M.

1985-08-01

386

Supporting Students' Constructions of the Splitting Operation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of particular instructional practices that support students' constructions of the partitive unit fraction scheme and measurement concepts for fractions. Another body of research has demonstrated the power of a particular mental operation--the splitting operation--in supporting students'…

Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

2013-01-01

387

Photon splitting cascades and a new statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon splitting cascades in a magnetic field are considered. It is shown, in the stochastic limit approximation, that photons in cascades might form entangled states (``triphons'') and that they obey not Bose but a new type of statistics, the so called infinite or quantum Boltzmann statistics. These states belong to an interacting Fock space which is a generalization of the

L. Accardi; I. Ya. Aref'eva; I. V. Volovich

1997-01-01

388

7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split...which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction...

2011-01-01

389

7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split...which is open and conspicuous for a distance of more than one-fourth the circumference of the shell, measured in the direction...

2012-01-01

390

Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons  

SciTech Connect

The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Guo, Feng-Kun; /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.; Hanhart, Christoph; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

2011-08-18

391

Associations between petrol-station density and manganese and lead in the cord blood of newborns living in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Although the anti-knocking agents used in Taiwan do not contain manganese, there are relatively high concentrations of the element in diesel fuel. As such, there have been many concerns about the impact of exposure to diesel fuels on health. This study was conducted in Taiwan to investigate the relationship between the concentration of manganese in cord blood of Taiwanese newborns and the geographic density of petrol stations as a surrogate for determining manganese emissions from vehicular traffic. A total of 1526 full-term newborns without major congenital malformations were consecutively recruited from various medical facilities from May 2004 to July 2005. Questionnaires were completed by the newborns' mothers after delivery to collect information on demographic characteristics, medical history, living environment, and other factors. Cord blood samples were collected at birth and analyzed for manganese and lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geographic density of petrol stations within a 10 km zone around each newborn's residence was calculated for 1343 newborns using the Arc9 Geographic Information System. The geometric means of cord blood manganese and lead concentrations were 47.0 ?g/L (GSD=1.42) and 12.6 ?g/L (GSD=1.76), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, and maternal education, the results of a multiple linear regression model indicated that the concentration of cord blood manganese increased monotonically with an increasing density of petrol stations. However, no such association was found for levels of lead in cord blood. Further smoothing spline model analysis indicated that a ten unit increment in petrol station density made cord blood manganese and lead levels change by factors of 1.0092 (95% CI: 1.0058, 1.0127) and 0.9994 (95% CI: 0.9890, 0.9998), respectively. This finding suggests that exposure to manganese-containing fuel from motor vehicles may result in elevated manganese levels in the fetus. Further research is warranted to explore the relationship between traffic-related manganese exposure and potential adverse effects on fetal development. PMID:21236420

Lin, Ying-Ying; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Liu, Jyung-Hung; Wu, Hui-Chen; Hwang, Yaw-Huei

2011-02-01

392

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation  

E-print Network

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

Kreinovich, Vladik

393

Turkish Adaptation of Spinal Cord Independence Measure--Version III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various rating scales have been used to assess ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. There is no specific functional assessment scale for Turkish patients with spinal cord injury. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a specific test, which has become popular in the last decade. A study was conducted to validate and evaluate the…

Kesiktas, Nur; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Sencan, Sureyya; Karan, Ayse; Muslumanoglu, Lutfiye

2012-01-01

394

Compression behavior of porcine spinal cord white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury often results from a compressive load; however, the compression behavior of spinal cord white matter has not been clearly established. Quantifying the compression behavior is important for advancing our understanding of spinal cord injury mechanics and facilitating the use of finite element models to study injury. The objective of this study was to characterize the unconfined compression

Carolyn J. Sparrey; Tony M. Keaveny

2011-01-01

395

Operation jump start: a CORDS integration prototype using DCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CORDS is an ongoing project whose goal is to create a prototype environment for developing and managing distributed applications. This paper describes the , in which mechanisms were added to the existing midware layer of CORDS and OSF\\/DCE to assist in developing distributed applications, and the CORDS environment was used to develop distributed applications. The applications developed were an integrated

Gopi K. Attaluri; Dexter P. Bradshaw; Patrick J. Finnigant; Nigel Hinds; Michael H. Kalantar; Kelly A. Lyons; Andrew D. Marshall; Jan K. Pachl; Hong Tran

1993-01-01

396

Spermatic cord metastasis as early manifestation of small bowel adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumors of the spermatic cord are rare. There are a few case reports on spermatic cord metastasis from colonic, gastric, pancreas, and prostatic cancer. Here, we report a 36-year-old man with brucellosis presenting with spermatic cord metastasis as early manifestation of small bowel adenocarcinoma. PMID:23662014

Valizadeh, Nasim; Oskuie, Ali Eishi; Tehranchi, Ali

2013-01-01

397

Congenital malformations in offspring of women with hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our aim was to determine risk factors for congenital malformations in offspring of women with hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy (i.e., women with gestational diabetes). Study Design: A total of 3743 pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus delivered at >20 weeks of gestation were reviewed for the presence of congenital malformations diagnosed before hospital discharge. Anomalies were categorized as

Ute M. Schaefer; Giulana Songster; Anny Xiang; Kathleen Berkowitz; Thomas A. Buchanan; Siri L. Kjos

1997-01-01

398

Screening for Systemic Manifestations of Vascular Malformations in Patients With Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (Osler Disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) is a disease characterized by systemic vascular malformations. Typical clinical manifestations are recurrent epistaxis and telangiectases of the skin and the mucous membranes. The syndrome is furthermore characterized by its hereditary aspect. The disease seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, mainly because of the accompanying vascular malformations in vital organs, like the

Ana Cerra Pohl; Jochen Alfred Werner; Benedikt Josef Folz

399

A review of contemporary options for medical management of hemangiomas, other vascular tumors, and vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies include vascular tumors and vascular malformations. With growing pharmacologic options and parallels to cancer treatment and biology, the hematologist-oncologist has assumed a more prominent role in clinical care and research relating to these diagnoses. This also is a growing area for targeted therapies and drug repositioning. We performed a review of contemporary options for medical management of these lesions. PubMed was searched for "vascular anomaly", "hemangioma", "vascular malformation", "arteriovenous malformation", "capillary malformation", "cerebral cavernous malformation", "lymphatic malformation", and "venous malformation", each with "drug treatment" as a modifier. Manuscripts were reviewed to verify diagnoses, indications for treatment, dose-schedules, evidence of effectiveness, toxicities, and mechanisms of action. ClinicalTrials.gov also was reviewed for relevant trials. More than 20 agents were identified which have been used to treat vascular anomalies. Rigorous studies are lacking for many of these. The rarity of these tumors has limited development of medical approaches to treatment. Cooperative group trials will be needed to prove the effectiveness of drugs which have shown promise in cases and small series. The observant clinician remains a powerful tool for identifying potential new treatments for vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:23665062

Blatt, Julie; McLean, Thomas W; Castellino, Sharon M; Burkhart, Craig N

2013-09-01

400

Exceptional Multiplicity of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (Osler Weber-Rendu Syndrome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and imaging features of seven patients with hereditary hem- orrhagic telangiectasia and an exceptional number of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). METHODS: One hundred thirty-six patients from a dedicated hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia clinic were screened systematically for cerebral AVMs by means of MR imaging. Thirty-one were found to have abnormalities suggestive of a vascular malformation. Eighteen

Christopher M. Putman; John C. Chaloupka; Robert K. Fulbright; Issam A. Awad; Robert I. White; Pierre B. Fayad

401

Congenital malformations after the use of inhaled budesonide in early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study possible teratogenic risks with the use of an inhaled glucocorticoid, budesonide, in early pregnancy.Methods: Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, congenital malformations were studied in 2014 infants whose mothers had used inhaled budesonide for asthma in early pregnancy. The presence of congenital malformations was checked further with auxilliary registries.Results: No increase in the general rate of congenital

Bengt Källén; Hakan Rydhstroem; Anders Åberg

1999-01-01

402

Treatment of the Chiari malformation by Drs. H.E. James and A. Brant  

Microsoft Academic Search

the secondary distortion, atrophy, or fibrosis. A common anomaly in Chiari types I and II is hypoplasia of the posterior fossa, which is usually not accompanied by histological malformations in the brain. We suggest that the central nervous system anomalies in Chiari anomalies types I and II are not the primary CNS malformation but only an adaptation to the hypoplasia

Akira Hori; A. Brant

2002-01-01

403

A cloverleaf skull syndrome probably of Beare-Stevenson type associated with Chiari malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of cloverleaf skull (CLS) syndrome with Chiari malformation was reported. The patient developed congenital hydrocephalus, upper airway obstruction and breath holding spells. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt improved the hydrocephalus, but the patient progressively developed apneic episodes in spite of intubation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed severe Chiari malformation. Laminectomy of the cervical vertebrae and craniectomy at the occipital bone

Shuichi Ito; Kiyoshi Matsui; Etsuro Ohsaki; Akiko Goto; Kimiyo Takagi; Mitsuhiko Koresawa; Susumu Ito; Kenichi Sekido; Masami Suzuki; Katsuyuki Torikai; Noriko Aida

1996-01-01

404

Clinical Features Microcephaly-Capillary Malformation syndrome [MICCAP, OMIM#614261] is characterized by severe progressive  

E-print Network

4/13 Clinical Features Microcephaly-Capillary Malformation syndrome [MICCAP, OMIM#614261] is characterized by severe progressive microcephaly, early-onset refractory epilepsy, profound developmental delay Analysis for Microcephaly-Capillary Malformation Syndrome #12;4/13 References: 1. Carter MT, Geraghty MT

Das, Soma

405

Radionuclide blood pool scintigraphy in a child with intestinal arteriovenous malformation (juvenile angiodysplasia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arteriovenous (AV) malformation or angiodysplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is a very rare cause of bleeding in children. These lesions are congenital anomalies and thought to be of hamartomatous origin. We report on a 4-year-old child with an AV malformation of the distal ileum treated by local resection. A brief review of the relevant literature is included. The importance of

I. Garty; L. Siplovich; J. Horowitz; D. Miron; A. Verstandig; M. Dharan

1991-01-01

406

The cyclops and the mermaid: an epidemiological study of two types of rare malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants with cyclopia or sirenomelia are born at an approximate rate of 1 in 100,000 births. Eight malformation monitoring systems around the world jointly studied the epidemiology of these rare malformations: 102 infants with cyclopia, 96 with sirenomelia, and one with both conditions were identified among nearly 10.1 million births. Maternal age is somewhat increased for cyclopia, indicating the likely

B Källén; E E Castilla; P A Lancaster; O Mutchinick; L B Knudsen; M L Martínez-Frías; P Mastroiacovo; E Robert

1992-01-01

407

Hepatic vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: Doppler sonographic screening in a large family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The prevalence of hepatic vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia has been estimated in the literature on clinical criteria, thus giving unreliable data. In our study the presence of hepatic vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was evaluated in a large Italian family by using Doppler sonography as screening technique. Doppler sonographic findings were compared to computed tomography and

Elisabetta Buscarini; Luigi Buscarini; Cesare Danesino; Mauro Piantanida; Giuseppe Civardi; Pietro Quaretti; Sandro Rossi; Michele Di Stasi; Matteo Silva

1997-01-01

408

Vulnerable Groups Living with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There is considerable variation in rehabilitation outcomes within the population of spinal cord–injured individuals across racial and socioeconomic groups. This suggests that the long-term health following spinal cord injury (SCI) is determined, at least in part, by group differences in exposure to advantages and disadvantages among persons living in the community. This article conceptualizes the nature of vulnerability and how increased vulnerability leads to disparities in SCI outcomes. Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic determinants of adverse outcomes among vulnerable groups are discussed. Finally, a research model that outlines potential processes that elicit vulnerability following SCI and clinical implications is reviewed. PMID:23966760

Fyffe, Denise C.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Myaskovsky, Larissa

2013-01-01

409

Microsurgical resection of intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma.  

PubMed

Ependymomas are the most commonly occurring intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. With few exceptions these tumors are histologically benign, although they exhibit some biologic variability with respect to growth rate. While unencapsulated, spinal ependymomas are non-infiltrative and present a clear margin of demarcation from the surrounding spinal cord that serves as an effective dissection plane. This video demonstrates the technique of microsurgical resection of an intramedullary ependymoma through a posterior midline myelotomy. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/lcHhymSvSqU. PMID:25175587

McCormick, Paul C

2014-09-01

410

Clinical, Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Congenital Vertebral Malformations  

PubMed Central

Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. Additional information remains to be learned regarding the natural history of congenital scoliosis and related health problems. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the process of somite formation, which gives rise to vertebral bodies, there is a wide gap in our understanding of how genetic factors contribute to CVM development. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications. This review highlights several emerging clinical issues related to CVM, including pulmonary and orthopedic outcome in congenital scoliosis. Recent breakthroughs in genetics related to gene and environment interactions associated with CVM development are discussed. The Klippel-Feil syndrome which is associated with cervical segmentation abnormalities is illustrated as an example in which animal models, such as the zebrafish, can be utilized to provide functional evidence of pathogenicity of identified mutations. PMID:23653580

Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Blank, R.D.; McCarty, C.; Broeckel, U.; Pickart, M.A.

2013-01-01

411

Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.  

PubMed

Congenital thoracic malformations (CTMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders that may involve the airways or lung parenchyma. The authors have focused on the condition that causes the most controversy, namely, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). The reported incidence is 3.5 and 0.94 per 10,000 live births for CTMs and CCAMs respectively. Ultrasound is the antenatal imaging modality of choice for screening for CCAMs whilst magnetic resonance imaging is complimentary for morphological and volumetric evaluation of the foetal lung. Most CCAMs are detected antenatally with only a small proportion presenting postnatally. Only a few CCAMs cause foetal problems, with foetal hydrops being the best predictor of death. Although many CCAMs regress during pregnancy, most remain detectable postnatally by CT scans. Surgical excision of symptomatic lesions is relatively straightforward, but management of asymptomatic lesions is controversial. Some surgeons adopt a "wait and see" approach operating only on those patients who develop symptoms, but others operate on asymptomatic patients usually within the first year of life. Due to the potential of malignant transformation, children should have long term follow up. There is an urgent need to delineate the natural history of antenatally detected CCAMs to guide future management. PMID:22726873

Kotecha, S; Barbato, A; Bush, A; Claus, F; Davenport, M; Delacourt, C; Deprest, J; Eber, E; Frenckner, B; Greenough, A; Nicholson, A G; Antón-Pacheco, J L; Midulla, F

2012-09-01

412

PDCD10 Gene Mutations in Multiple Cerebral Cavernous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular abnormalities that may cause seizures, intracerebral haemorrhages, and focal neurological deficits. Familial form shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Three genes have been identified causing familial CCM: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3. Aim of this study is to report additional PDCD10/CCM3 families poorly described so far which account for 10-15% of hereditary cerebral cavernous malformations. Our group investigated 87 consecutive Italian affected individuals (i.e. positive Magnetic Resonance Imaging) with multiple/familial CCM through direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis. We identified mutations in over 97.7% of cases, and PDCD10/CCM3 accounts for 13.1%. PDCD10/CCM3 molecular screening revealed four already known mutations and four novel ones. The mutated patients show an earlier onset of clinical manifestations as compared to CCM1/CCM2 mutated patients. The study of further families carrying mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 may help define a possible correlation between genotype and phenotype; an accurate clinical follow up of the subjects would help define more precisely whether mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 lead to a characteristic phenotype. PMID:25354366

Cigoli, Maria Sole; Avemaria, Francesca; De Benedetti, Stefano; Gesu, Giovanni P.; Accorsi, Lucio Giordano; Parmigiani, Stefano; Corona, Maria Franca; Capra, Valeria; Mosca, Andrea; Giovannini, Simona; Notturno, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Fausta; Volpi, Lilia; Estienne, Margherita; De Michele, Giuseppe; Antenora, Antonella; Bilo, Leda; Tavoni, Antonietta; Zamponi, Nelia; Alfei, Enrico; Baranello, Giovanni; Riva, Daria; Penco, Silvana

2014-01-01

413

A tortuous proximal urethra in urorectal septum malformation sequence?  

PubMed

We observed a newborn boy with urorectal septum malformation sequence. Anomalies of the genitalia and rectum were present. He expired on the first day of life, due to severe lung hypoplasia. Autopsy showed a colon that ended in a blind sac, an enlarged bladder with no grossly visible urethra, and dysplastic kidneys. A cone-shaped tissue at the usual site of the bladder outlet contained tortuous and slit-like lumina, suggesting an undeveloped proximal urethra. The urethral structure was lined by transitional epithelium with squamous metaplasia. Many small buds-lined with columnar epithelium-branched from the urethral structure. These ductal buds lined with columnar epithelium stained for prostatic acid phosphatase. Basal cells surrounding the ductal buds stained for p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratin-supporting an interpretation that the buds were early prostatic ducts with normal histology. To our knowledge, these are the first histological images of an undeveloped, obstructed urethra associated with the urorectal septum malformation sequence. PMID:24665006

Lin, Henry J; Lugo, Hector; Tran, Thu; Tovar, Jason P; Corral, Julia; Zork, Noelia M; Smith, Lynne M; French, Samuel W; Barajas, Luciano

2014-05-01

414

Surgical Management of Patients with Chiari I Malformation  

PubMed Central

Chiari malformations (CMs) constitute a variety of four mainly syndromes (I, II, III, and IV), which describe the protrusion of brain tissue into the spinal canal through the foramen magnum. These malformations frequently occur in combination with other pathological entities such as myelomeningocele, hydrocephalus, and/or hydrosyringomyelia. The recent improvement of imaging techniques has increased not only the rate of CM diagnosis but also the necessity for its early treatment. Several different surgical techniques have been employed in the treatment of patients with symptomatic CM-I. In our current study, a systematic and critical review of the pertinent literature was made for identifying the most commonly employed surgical procedures in the management of these patients. Emphasis was given in outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each surgical approach. Moreover, an attempt was made for defining those parameters that may be prognostic factors for their surgical outcome. There is a consensus that surgical treatment is reserved only for symptomatic patients with CM-I. It has also been postulated that early surgically intervention is usually associated with better outcome. Despite the large number of previously published clinical series, further clinical research with large-scale studies is necessary for defining surgical treatment guidelines in these patients. PMID:22811732

Siasios, John; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z.; Fountas, Kostas N.

2012-01-01

415

CHARGE association in Sweden: malformations and functional deficits.  

PubMed

CHARGE association (CA) consists of a non-random association of ocular coloboma (C), heart anomaly (H), atresia of choanae (A), retarded growth and/or development (R), genital hypoplasia (G), and ear anomalies and/or hearing impairment (E). A prospective multidisciplinary study of 31 Swedish patients with CA was undertaken in order to describe the associated malformations and functional deficits, find possible etiological factors and identify critical time periods for the maldevelopment. The clinical files were analyzed, the mothers answered a questionnaire on history of prenatal events, and a clinical evaluation of systemic findings, vision, hearing, balance, speech, oral and swallowing function, and neuro-psychiatric function, especially autism, was performed. The most frequent physical abnormalities affected ears (90%), eyes (90%), brain (61%), heart (52%), retarded growth (48%), genitals (38%), choanae (35%), and facial nerve (32%). Sixty-one percent of the patients were visually impaired or blind, and 74% had hearing loss or deafness. Problems in balance, speech, and eating were common. Forty percent of the patients had autism/atypical autism, and 82% had developmental delay. Three children were born following assisted fertilization and two mothers had diabetes. The mothers reported infections, bleedings, and drug use during pregnancy. Analysis of possible critical time periods suggested that most malformations were produced early in pregnancy, mainly during post conceptual weeks 4, 5, and 6. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in the assessment and management of CA. PMID:15633180

Strömland, Kerstin; Sjögreen, Lotta; Johansson, Maria; Ekman Joelsson, Britt-Marie; Miller, Marilyn; Danielsson, Susanna; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Jacobsson, Catharina; Norinder, Jan Andersson; Granström, Gösta

2005-03-15

416

The Alimentary Tract Malformations in the Rabbit Thalidomide Embryopathy  

PubMed Central

Among 906 thalidomide exposed young from 6 different rabbit strains, 141 major malformations involving the alimentary tract were found. All but 4 of the defects can confidently be regarded as a drug effect. The lesions occurred in the derivatives of the foregut, hindgut and umbilicus. Foregut anomalies (68 specimens) comprised hiatus hernia, megaoesophagus, prepyloric notching of the greater curvature of the stomach and deficient septum formation between oesophagus and trachea. In many rabbits all 4 lesions were present together. Hindgut malformations (61 specimens) were made up of rectal atresia and a small number of diverticula and/or saccular dilatations of the terminal colon, some in company with atresia. The 32 examples of atresia which were examined in detail had a coexistent fistula extending to the urethra or the anus. Omphalocoele (6 specimens in one strain) was the umbilical defect. It is suggested that some of the lesions result from impeded septum formation in the laryngotracheal grouve and the cloaca. ImagesFigs. 7-12Figs. 25-30Figs. 13-20Figs. 1-6Figs. 21-24 PMID:5429073

Vickers, T. H.

1970-01-01

417

Patterns of anomalies in children with malformed ears.  

PubMed

Sixteen children with anomalies of the auricle and/or middle ear who presented malformations of the face, mouth, upper airway, spine, limbs, heart, gastrointestinal (GI), and/or genitourinary (GU) systems, were described. While clusters of anomalies suggested syndromes such as the oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome of Goldenhar, hamifacial microsomia, mandibulo-facial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome), Pierre Robin, Klippel-Feil, Moebius, Duane, and/or VATER syndromes, many children did not fit what are usually considered even minimal criteria for these syndromes. Several children had malformations which fit the description of more than one syndrome. The importance of investigating the children for unsuspected anomalies, especially of the GU system, was emphasized. Life threatening problems in this group consisted of airway problems, congenital heart disease, and major anomalies of the GI and GU systems. Better management of sucking, swallowing and airway problems might have decreased the early morbidity and mortality (3/16) in this group. Children with multiple defacing anomalies may not be mentally retarded so that aggressive management of their visceral anomalies and hearing problems, and early educational intervention are mandatory. Delay in development may be due to hearing loss, vestibular impairment, ataxia, the consequences of early malnutrition, and multiple hospitalizations rather than to mental retardation. A pessimistic attitude in infancy is unwarranted since it is impossible to predict which children will end up competitive individuals. PMID:966914

Rapin, I; Ruben, R J

1976-10-01

418

Gene Expression Profile of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Paired Umbilical Cord Units: Cord is Different from Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells which can be obtained from several adult and fetal tissues including human\\u000a umbilical cord units. We have recently shown that umbilical cord tissue (UC) is richer in MSC than umbilical cord blood (UCB)\\u000a but their origin and characteristics in blood as compared to the cord remains unknown. Here we compared, for the first

Mariane Secco; Yuri B. Moreira; Eder Zucconi; Natassia M. Vieira; Tatiana Jazedje; Alysson R. Muotri; Oswaldo K. Okamoto; Sergio Verjovski-Almeida; Mayana Zatz

2009-01-01

419

Bradykinin antagonist decreases early disruption of the blood–spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bradykinin is one of the key molecules involved in the disruption of the blood–brain barrier and blood–spinal cord barrier occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Previously we have shown a biphasic opening of the blood–spinal cord barrier as well as increased transport of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) after SCI by compression of the lumbar spinal cord in mice. To evaluate

Weihong Pan; Abba J Kastin; Lajos Gera; John M Stewart

2001-01-01

420

Chiari type I malformation, syncope, headache, hypoglycemia and hepatic steatosis in an 8-year old girl: a causal association?  

PubMed Central

Chiari type I malformation (CMI) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly characterized by downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Chiari type I malformation often presents with a complex clinical picture and can be sporadic or linked to a variety of genetic conditions. We report on a girl in whom Chiari type I malformation was associated with hypoglycemia, headache, vertigo, syncope and hepatic steatosis. We hypothesize that these symptoms are primarily a consequence of Chiari type I malformation. PMID:21589844

Tarani, Luigi; Del Balzo, Francesca; Costantino, Francesco; Properzi, Enrico; D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Liberati, Natascia; Spalice, Alberto

2010-01-01

421

Relationship between the characteristics of the menstrual cycle and congenital malformations in the human.  

PubMed

We have studied the characteristics of conceptional and pre-conceptional cycles in mothers of malformed infants. A comparison made with a control group of mothers of normal, term infants showed that for the former the hypothermic phase during the conceptional cycle was longer than for the latter (20.4 and 16.9 days, respectively). Moreover, the mothers of malformed infants showed a slower temperature rise (greater than 3 days) in 45% of cases, vs 28% in the controls. The menarche of the mothers of malformed infants occurs later (14.3 vs 12.8 years). They usually have long menstrual cycles and a bad obstetric and gynaecological history. The risk for congenital malformations is thus closely related to the length of the hypothermic phase and to a slow temperature rise in the conceptional cycle. Therefore we suggest that the preovulatory oocyte overripeness is one of the mechanisms of congenital malformation. PMID:4054048

Troya, M; Bomsel-Helmreich, O; Bertrand, P; Papiernik, E; Spira, A

1985-09-01

422

Pituitary gland and axial skeletal malformations in human fetuses with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to describe the pituitary gland and axial skeleton, including the sella turcica, in human fetuses with spina bifida. Ten fetuses with gestational ages (GA) 15 1/2-28 weeks were investigated radiographically (Faxitron X-ray apparatus) and immunohistochemically. Four of the fetuses have been described previously. The study showed that nine fetuses had minor or no skeletal abnormalities in the vertebral bodies of the spine, and one fetus had severely malformed vertebral bodies. In all cases the sella turcica and the pituitary gland were malformed. Adenopituitary tissue was in all cases located in both the sella turcica and the pharyngeal submucosa. The most severe sella turcica/pituitary gland malformation was seen in the fetus with the malformed spine. The connection between the prenatally registered sella turcica/pituitary gland malformation and the endocrinological status of children with spina bifida should be emphasized in future studies. PMID:10661842

Kjaer, I; Fischer Hansen, B; Reintoft, I; Keeling, J W

1999-12-01

423

Amniotic band syndrome and/or limb body wall complex: split or lump.  

PubMed

Six cases of amniotic band syndrome/limb body wall complex were studied in respect to clinicopathologic characteristics. The diagnosis was based on two out of three of the following manifestations: cranio facial clefts; limb body wall defects and amniotic band attachment. Four cases were stillborn and associated with internal defects, including central nervous system. Two cases had facial and limb defects and were live born (3-5 years old at examination). Phenotypic features of the stillborn cases were craniofacial clefting, thoracoabdominoschisis, amputation, ring constriction, amniotic band adhesion, placental adhesions, and internal malformations. Histology of bands revealed fibroconnective tissue as well as flattened epithelial cells together with neuroectodermal elements. Umbilical cord section revealed an abnormal number of vessels. When analyzing the observed data in relation to their etiology, it was found that amniotic disruption, vascular disruption or genetic disruption could explain the amniotic band syndrome/limb body wall complexes, alone or in combinations. A brief review of literature in search of pathogenesis is offered along with an etiopathogenetic model. PMID:23776348

Halder, Ashutosh

2010-01-01

424

Fetal Spinal Cord Transplants Support Growth of Supraspinal and Segmental Projections after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in the Neonatal Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spinal cord injury at birth permanently disrupts fore- limb function in goal-directed reaching. Transplants of fetal spinal cord tissue permit the development of skilled forelimb use and associated postural adjustments (Diener and Bregman, 1998, companion article). The aim of this study was to deter- mine whether transplants of fetal spinal cord tissue support the remodeling of supraspinal and segmental

Pamela S. Diener; Barbara S. Bregman

1998-01-01

425

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of the spinal cord during spinal cord and spine surgery: A review focus on the corticospinal tracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in technology and the refinement of neurophysiological methodologies are significantly changing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) of the spinal cord. This review will summarize the latest achievements in the monitoring of the spinal cord during spine and spinal cord surgeries. This overview is based on an extensive review of the literature and the authors’ personal experience. Landmark articles and

Vedran Deletis; Francesco Sala

2008-01-01

426

Generation of a dual-functional split-reporter protein for monitoring membrane fusion using self-associating split GFP.  

PubMed

Split reporter proteins capable of self-association and reactivation have applications in biomedical research, but designing these proteins, especially the selection of appropriate split points, has been somewhat arbitrary. We describe a new methodology to facilitate generating split proteins using split GFP as a self-association module. We first inserted the entire GFP module at one of several candidate split points in the protein of interest, and chose clones that retained the GFP signal and high activity relative to the original protein. Once such chimeric clones were identified, a final pair of split proteins was generated by splitting the GFP-inserted chimera within the GFP domain. Applying this strategy to Renilla reniformis luciferase, we identified a new split point that gave 10 times more activity than the previous split point. The process of membrane fusion was monitored with high sensitivity using a new pair of split reporter proteins. We also successfully identified new split points for HaloTag protein and firefly luciferase, generating pairs of self-associating split proteins that recovered the functions of both GFP and the original protein. This simple method of screening will facilitate the designing of split proteins that are capable of self-association through the split GFP domains. PMID:22942393

Ishikawa, Hirohito; Meng, Fanxia; Kondo, Naoyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Matsuda, Zene

2012-12-01

427

Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

2000-01-01

428

Evaluation of Craniocervical Decompression with Duraplasty for Symptomatic Syringomyelia Associated with Chiari Type 1 Malformation in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: many modalities for treatment of syringomyelia associated with Chiari type 1- malformation have evolved. The aim of our study is to evaluate the results of cranio-cervical decompression together with arachnoid lysis, and duraplasty for symptomatic syringomyelia associated with Chiari type- I malformation in 16 adult patients. Methods: Sixteen adult patients with symptomatic syringomyelia associated with Chiari type 1- malformation

Khaled El

2008-01-01

429

Acquired Chiari malformation Type I associated with a supratentorial arteriovenous malformation. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I), a condition defined by caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, is generally considered a congenital lesion. Several authors, however, have described an acquired form that appears identical to the congenital lesion on neuroimages. The most commonly reported cause of an acquired CM-I is cerebrospinal fluid diversion through a lumboperitoneal shunt. In this paper, the authors report the case of a patient in whom an acquired CM-I developed in association with a supratentorial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the brain. Development of the acquired CM was documented on serial magnetic resonance images. Moreover, the CM was seen to originate and worsen in concert with the clinicoradiological progression of the AVM. The underlying mechanism responsible for the acquired CM in this case is thought to be a high-flow venopathy of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses causing occlusion on the right and redirection of venous outflow into posterior fossa veins, with consequent venous congestion and swelling of the posterior fossa structures. PMID:16509477

O'Shaughnessy, Brian A; Bendok, Bernard R; Parkinson, Richard J; Shaibani, Ali; Walker, Matthew T; Shakir, Ebrahim; Batjer, H Hunt

2006-01-01

430

[Local spinal cord glucose utilization and extracellular potassium activity changes after spinal cord injury in rats].  

PubMed

Spinal microenvironment and metabolic alterations after experimental contusional injury of the spinal cord were evaluated in the same Wistar rats. Severe spinal cord injury was made under light GOF anesthesia with a 10 g weight drop onto the exposed Th-8 spinal cord from a 10 cm height and then halothane was ceased. The author studied extracellular potassium activity ([K+]e) and DC potential for 2 hours after paraplegic spinal cord injury in conscious rats. Furthermore, at 2 hours after cord injury, local spinal cord glucose utilization (1-SCGU) was measured with quantitative autoradiographic 2-[14C] deoxy-glucose method (Sokoloff et al.). [K+]e in injured spinal cords was 59 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) mEq at 10 min after injury and was cleared with an exponential half-life of 1 hour. At 2 hours after injury [K+]e was still high with a value of 16 +/- 1 mEq compared with 4 mEq of control animals. DC potential changes was a mirror image of that of [K+]e. DC potential changed by a mean of 10.7 mV positively from 10 min. to 2 hours after injury. 1-SCGU at the impact site was extremely low in both white and gray matters. At 6mm rostral from the impact center 1-SCGU was remarkably reduced in the gray matter, and in the lateral white matter. But at 3 mm rostral 1-SCGU was well preserved. And at 20 mm rostral there was no difference in 1-SCGU with control animals. Massive potassium efflux from the injured spinal cord to the adjacent spinal segment was clarified at this experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1888573

Murai, H; Itoh, C; Wagai, N; Nakamura, T; Yamaura, A; Makino, H

1991-04-01

431

Vocational outcome following spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: Non-experimental (ex post facto) survey research design involving the use of a fixed alternative format questionnaire. Objectives: To investigate variables influencing vocational outcome, to identify barriers to gaining and sustaining employment and to identify the effects of variables on the type of work engaged in following spinal cord injury. The two sets of independent variables considered were, individual

L Conroy; K McKenna

1999-01-01

432

Omental transposition in chronic spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of omental transposition in chronic spinal cord injury have been reported in 160 patients operated upon in the United States, Great Britain, China, Japan, India and Mexico, with detailed outcomes reported in few studies. Recovery of function to a greater degree than expected by natural history has been reported. In this series, 15 patients with chronic traumatic spinal

G L Clifton; W H Donovan; M M Dimitrijevic; S J Allen; A Ku; J R Potts; F G Moody; C Boake; A M Sherwood; J V Edwards

1996-01-01

433

Surgery of intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis and management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors have been significantly influenced by new diagnostic and surgical tools such as MRI, ultrasonic aspiration, intraoperative ultrasound, and evoked potential monitoring. In this study we compared the surgical results of our earlier cases using conventional methods with more recent cases using these new methods. We report our experience based on 44

M. Zileli; E. Co?kun; N. Özdamar; I. Övül; E. Tunçbay; K. Öner; N. Oktar

1996-01-01

434

Pediatric Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Special Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) of the pediatric population are rare and comprise thirty-five percent of intraspinal neoplasms. Low-grade astrocytomas predominate; ependymomas increase in frequency with ascending age and become the most frequent IMSCT in adults. Gangliogliomas are very rare in adults but comprise nearly thirty percent of tumors in children under three years of age. The cervical spine is

John K. Houten; Howard L. Weiner

2000-01-01

435

Pain in Children with Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain in children is generally not accorded the same significance by allied health professionals as pain in adults. To some extent this relative neglect may be the result of a general belief that pain is less of a problem in the pediatric age-group. However, it is the authors’ experience that the management of pain in children with spinal cord tumors

Yoon Sun Hahn; David G. McLone

1984-01-01

436

Spinal Cord Stimulation Revisited: Psychological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

97 patients undergoing spinal cord stimulation (SCS) were studied for a median of 24 days after initiation of treatment. SCS was associated with significant improvement in memory, visuo-spatial integration, activation, cognitive efficiency, attention and overall psychological status. Significant emotional improvement in self-image, anxiety and depression was also confirmed following SCS. Diagnosis did not differentially affect psychological outcome except for relief

Eric Levita; Bruce A. Sorkin; Joseph M. Waltz

1986-01-01

437

Spinal Cord Stimulation in Deafferentation Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) was used in 49 cases to control resistant deafferentation pain resulting from causalgia, phantom limb, plexus and nerve root avulsion, postherpetic neuralgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and amputation. In all cases, one or two Standard percutaneous leads were introduced into the epidural space and manipulated until the spinal segment at which external stimulation provoked paresthesic sensation in

M. J. Sánchez-Ledesma; G. García-March; P. Diaz-Cascajo; J. Gómez-Moreta; J. Broseta

1989-01-01

438

Exercise induces metallothioneins in mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Regular exercise has displayed a beneficial effect on the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the mechanism is poorly understood. We here present that regular exercise on a treadmill induces metallothioneins (MTs: MT-1, MT-2, and MT-3) in spinal cords of mice. As MTs are strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species and have some neurotrophic activities, exercise may have some beneficial effects on spinal motor neurons in patients with ALS owing to the induction of MTs. The running exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day increased the mRNA expression levels of MT-1, MT-2, and MT-3 up to 193%, 298%, and 196%, respectively, of the control value 12 h after the start of exercise. After two weeks of daily exercise, Western blotting of the MTs proteins showed that the expression levels of MT-1/2 and MT-3 reached 173% and 146%, respectively, compared with those in sedentary mice. Running exercise on a treadmill for 2 weeks led to the gradual accumulation of MT proteins in the spinal cords of the mice. In addition, MT-1/2 and MT-3 immunoreactivities were enhanced in astrocytes particularly in the gray matter of the spinal cord. We revealed that regular exercise induced transient increases in the expression levels of MT mRNAs and resulted in accumulation of MT proteins in the spinal cords of the normal mice. PMID:19490933

Hashimoto, K; Hayashi, Y; Inuzuka, T; Hozumi, I

2009-09-29

439

Differentiation of idiopathic spinal cord herniation from CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions displacing the cord.  

PubMed

Focal spinal cord displacement can be caused by idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), in which the cord protrudes through a dural defect into the epidural space, causing cord displacement and tethering. ISCH is uncommon and often is misdiagnosed initially, which results in delayed management. ISCH can be mimicked by space-occupying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions, such as epidermoid cysts or teratomas, intradural arachnoid cysts, epidural hematomas or abscesses, cystic nerve sheath tumors, synovial or Tarlov cysts, meningoceles, and pseudomeningoceles. Initial computed tomography (CT) and unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies may depict focal cord displacement and a widened CSF space but often are not sufficient to identify the underlying cause. High-resolution thin-section MR imaging can delineate the exact location of the dural defect and the protrusion of the herniated cord through this defect into the epidural space. At imaging, unimpeded CSF pulsation artifacts seen within a widened CSF space exclude a space-occupying lesion. A filling defect seen at conventional or CT myelography can help confirm a CSF-isointense space-occupying lesion; intravenous contrast agent administration can help exclude a rim-enhancing cystic extramedullary lesion. The clinical presentation usually is nonspecific, but symptom acuity, fever, and trauma can guide the imaging evaluation and help narrow the differential diagnosis. A multimodality imaging approach is essential to differentiate ISCH from space-occupying CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions. PMID:24617681

Haber, Marc D; Nguyen, Dustin D; Li, Shan

2014-01-01

440

Analysis of Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Congenital Vertebral Malformations  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective chart review of cases with congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) and controls with normal spine morphology. Objective To determine the relative contribution of maternal environmental factors (MEF) during pregnancy including maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, valproic acid, alcohol, smoking, hyperthermia, twin gestation, assisted reproductive technology, in-vitro fertilization and maternal clomiphene usage to CVM development. Summary of Background Data Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) represent defects in formation and segmentation of somites occurring with an estimated incidence of between 0.13–0.50 per 1000 live births. CVM may be associated with congenital scoliosis, Klippel-Feil syndrome, hemifacial microsomia and VACTERL syndromes, and represent significant morbidity due to pain and cosmetic disfigurement. Methods A multicenter retrospective chart review of 229 cases with CVM and 267 controls with normal spine morphology between the ages of 1–50 years was performed in order to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of MEF related to CVM among cases vs. controls. CVM due to an underlying syndrome associated with a known gene mutation or chromosome etiology were excluded. An imputation based analysis was performed in which subjects with no documentation of MEF history were treated as no maternal exposure.” Univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to calculate the OR. Results Of the 229 total cases, 104 cases had single or multiple CVM without additional congenital malformations (CM) (Group 1) and 125 cases had single or multiple CVM and additional CM (Group 2). Nineteen percent of total cases had an identified MEF. The OR (95% CI, P-value) for MEF history for Group 1 was 6.0 (2.4–15.1, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The OR for MEF history in Group 2 was 9.1 (95%CI, P-value) (3.8–21.6, P<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The results were confirmed in the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, and institution. Discussion These results support a hypothesis for an association between the above MEF during pregnancy and CVM and have implications for development of prevention strategies. Further prospective studies are needed to quantify association between CVM and specific MEF. PMID:23446706

Hesemann, Jennifer; Lauer, Emily; Ziska, Stephen; Noonan, Kenneth; Nemeth, Blaise; Scott-Schwoerer, Jessica; McCarty, Catherine; Rasmussen, Kristen; Goldberg, Jacob M.; Sund, Sarah; Eickhoff, Jens; Raggio, Cathleen L.; Giampietro, Philip F.

2014-01-01

441

Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

Adachi, Y.; Oyama, D.; Somchai, N.; Kawabata, S.; Uehara, G.

2014-05-01

442

Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

Jun, Kimin

2011-01-01

443

Design of water-splitting photocatalysts by first principles computations  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the design of novel inorganic water-splitting photocatalysts for solar applications using first principles computations. Water-splitting photocatalysts are materials that can photo-catalyze the ...

Wu, Yabi

2014-01-01

444

Split Rejection in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Graft monitoring following vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) relies primarily on serial skin biopsy. However, given that VCA comprised multiple tissue types, skin biopsy may not accurately reflect rejection in other transplanted tissue. Methods: A review of the literature on episodes of both acute and chronic rejection following VCA was completed. Special attention was given to how these patients were monitored for rejection and whether skin biopsy accurately reflected the state of other tissue types within VCA. Results: Following VCA, skin biopsies accurately reflected episodes of acute rejection, but chronic rejection, resulting in both muscle fibrosis and graft vasculopathy, did not present with any ostensible skin changes. Conclusion: Various tissue types within VCA can reject at different times and rates. We define this phenomenon as “split rejection.” Split rejection has significant implications on flap monitoring, as it suggests that skin biopsy alone may not be sufficient in monitoring long-term graft rejection. PMID:24244785

Sinha, Indranil; Pomahac, Bohdan

2013-01-01

445

Evolution of Advection Upstream Splitting Method Schemes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on the evolution of advection upstream splitting method(AUSM) schemes. The main ingredients that have led to the development of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been reviewed, thus the ideas behind AUSM. First and foremost is the concept of upwinding. Second, the use of Riemann problem in constructing the numerical flux in the finite-volume setting. Third, the necessity of including all physical processes, as characterised by the linear (convection) and nonlinear (acoustic) fields. Fourth, the realisation of separating the flux into convection and pressure fluxes. The rest of this review briefly outlines the technical evolution of AUSM and more details can be found in the cited references. Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics methods, hyperbolic systems, advection upstream splitting method, conservation laws, upwinding, CFD

Liou, Meng-Sing

2010-01-01

446

Phase splitting for periodic Lie systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the Floquet theory, using a variation of parameter argument, we show that the logarithm of the monodromy of a real periodic Lie system with appropriate properties admits a splitting into two parts called dynamic and geometric phases. The dynamic phase is intrinsic and linked to the Hamiltonian of a periodic linear Euler system on the co-algebra. The geometric phase is represented as a surface integral of the symplectic form of a co-adjoint orbit.

Flores-Espinoza, R.; de Lucas, J.; Vorobiev, Yu M.

2010-05-01

447

Metal Oxide Photoanodes for Water Splitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solar hydrogen production through photocatalytically assisted water splitting has attracted a great deal of attention since\\u000a its first discovery almost 30 years ago. The publication of investigations into the use of TiO2 photoanodes has continued apace since and a critical review of current trends is reported herein. Recent advances in the\\u000a understanding of the behaviour of nanoparticulate TiO2 films is summarized

J. Augusty?ski; B. Alexander; R. Solarska

448

Nanostructured hematite for photoelectrochemical water splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar water splitting is an environmentally friendly reaction of producing hydrogen gas. Since Honda and Fujishima first demonstrated solar water splitting in 1972 by using semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell, extensive efforts have been invested into improving the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency and lower the production cost of photoelectrochemical devices. In the last few years, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photoanodes for PEC water splitting. Although nanostructured hematite can improve its photoelectrochemical water splitting performance to some extent, by increasing active sites for water oxidation and shortening photogenerated hole path length to semiconductor/electrolyte interface, the photoactivity of pristine hematite nanostructures is still limited by a number of factors, such as poor electrical conductivities and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics. Previous studies have shown that tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their optical and electrical properties. In this thesis, I will first demonstrate an unintentional Sn-doping method via high temperature annealing of hematite nanowires grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to enhance the donor density. In addition to introducing extrinsic dopants into semiconductors, the carrier densities of hematite can also be enhanced by creating intrinsic defects. Oxygen vacancies function as shallow donors for a number of hematite. In this regard, I have investigated the influence of oxygen content on thermal decomposition of FeOOH to induce oxygen vacancies in hematite. In the end, I have studied low temperature activation of hematite nanostructures.

Ling, Yichuan

449

Photosynthetic water splitting for hydrogen fuel synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Three key advances in photosynthesis research are reported. A significant advance in microalgal water splitting has been made. In the linear, low-intensity region of the light saturation curves, equivalent solar conversion efficiencies of 10% have been measured. A technological advance in the ability to genetically screen individual algal colonies has been made. Successive subcultures of anaerobiosis-stressed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibited enhanced capacity for photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen.

Greenbaum, E.

1985-01-01

450

Plasmonic resonance in planer split ring trimer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have numerically investigated the plasmon properties supported by asymmetry planer split ring trimer structures. We investigate the modification of gap distance, thickness and gap width on the transmission properties of the weak coupling model (g is larger than or equal to 120 nm, d=48 nm, t is larger than 30 nm, w1=200 nm, and w2=40 nm), as the coupling becomes weaker, the first peak sharply attenuates, the second peak slightly decreases, the transmission dip in the near-infrared region becomes shallow, and they are very sensitive to the gap distance between two small split ring pairs and the thickness and gap width of the big split ring. We also study the change of gap distance on the strong coupling model (g is smaller than or equal to 40 nm, d=24 nm, t=10 nm, w1=80 nm, and w2=20 nm), there exists a new Fano resonance peak, the strongest peak in visible region becomes symmetry, while the peak in near-infrared region becomes asymmetry. The resonator design strategy opens up a rich pathway for the implementation of optimized optical properties for specific applications.

Xu, Haiqing; Li, Hongjian; Xiao, Gang

2014-12-01

451

Streamlined Expressed Protein Ligation Using Split Inteins  

PubMed Central

Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant ?-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein ?-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein ?-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein ?-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein ?-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody. PMID:23265282

2012-01-01

452

Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

453

Photon Splitting in Soft Gamma Repeaters  

E-print Network

The exotic quantum process of photon splitting has great potential to explain the softness of emission in soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) if they originate in neutron stars with surface fields above the quantum critical field $B_{\\rm cr}=4.413\\times 10^{13}$Gauss. Splitting becomes prolific at such field strengths: its principal effect is to degrade photon energies, initiating a cascade that softens gamma-ray spectra. Uniform field cascade calculations have demonstrated that emission could be softened to the observed SGR energies for fields exceeding about $10^{14}$Gauss. Recently, we have determined splitting attenuation lengths and maximum energies for photon escape in neutron star environments including the effects of magnetospheric dipole field geometry. Such escape energies $\\erg_{esc}$ suitably approximate the peak energy of the emergent spectrum, and in this paper we present results for $\\erg_{esc}$ as a function of photon emission angles for polar cap and equatorial emission regions. The escape energy is extremely insensitive to viewing perspective for equatorial emission, arguing in favour of such a site for the origin of SGR activity.

M. G. Baring; A. K. Harding

1995-07-14

454

Staged-volume radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: a review.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury is higher in patients with large AVMs. Multistaged volumetric management of large AVMs was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. This strategy offers a promising method for obtaining high AVM obliteration rates with minimal normal tissue damage. The use of embolization as an adjunctive method in the treatment of large AVMs remains controversial. Unfortunately, staged-volume radiosurgery (SVR) has a number of potential pitfalls that affect the outcome. The aim of this article is to highlight the role of SVR in the treatment of large AVMs, to discuss the outcome comparing it to other treatment modalities, and to discuss the potential improvement that could be introduced to this method of treatment. PMID:25175440

AlKhalili, Kenan; Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

2014-09-01

455

Paradoxical embolism following intralesional sclerotherapy for cervical venous malformation.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of a 47-year-old woman admitted to our maxillofacial surgery department for a large cervicofacial venous malformation. The patient underwent fluoroscopy-guided intralesional foam sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate and air under general anaesthesia. On awakening, after 48?h of endotracheal intubation, she displayed dysarthria and dysmetria. Her brain CT scan showed no haemorrhagic lesions. A chest CT scan ruled out a potential pulmonary embolism. Suspicion for a paradoxical embolism was high and echocardiography confirmed a patent foramen ovale, which acted as a passageway for the embolus. Transcranial ultrasound showed mild right-to-left heart shunting. The dysarthria and dysmetria disappeared gradually over 48?h, thus confirming a reversible ischaemic neurological deficit. A brain MRI performed 1?week later showed no ischaemic or haemorrhagic lesions. The patient recovered completely. She was advised cardiosurgical follow-up and discharged. PMID:25422340

Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

2014-01-01

456

Arteriovenous malformation of the scrotum: Is preoperative angioembolization a necessity?  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the scrotum are uncommon lesions, usually picked up incidentally during the evaluation of scrotal masses or infertility. They have also been reported to present with acute bleeding. We present a case who presented with acute pain following an abandoned surgical attempt at excision, elsewhere. Diagnosis was confirmed by duplex ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Angioembolization was deferred quoting concerns with radiation exposure. The patient underwent a near total excision of the scrotal mass. This is the first reported case, in the English literature, of a surgical resection of a scrotal AVM without a preceding angioembolization. Patients should be counselled about radiation exposure risks before angioembolization, and allowed to make an informed decision. PMID:23204665

Zachariah, Jewel R.; Gupta, Ashish K.; Lamba, Shashank

2012-01-01

457

Orbital venous congestion: rare manifestation of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are uncommon vascular lesions which typically present with hemorrhage or, in the case of unruptured lesions, with seizure, headache, or focal neurological deficit. The importance of the venous drainage pattern in AVM natural history and treatment outcomes is well documented. It is exceptionally rare for an AVM to drain into the orbital venous system. We present a 42-year-old man with a large, complex AVM of the midbrain, basal ganglia, and thalamus which partially drained into the superior ophthalmic vein. The patient was referred for treatment with radiosurgery. The resolution of orbital venous congestion symptoms accompanied AVM obliteration. An attempt to relieve orbital venous congestion by endovascular obliteration or surgical ligation without successful and complete cure of the AVM will most likely destabilize the nidus and predispose it to rupture. Serial ophthalmologic monitoring by an experienced neuro-ophthalmologist is crucial to monitoring the ophthalmologic effects of AVM progression and treatment. PMID:24128772

Ding, Dale; Liu, Kenneth C

2014-03-01

458

Quantification of intracerebral steal in patients with arteriovenous malformation  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients with angiographically and/or pathologically proved arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were studied using dynamic, single-photon-emission computed tomography (DSPECT). Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow in structurally normal areas remote from the AVM disclosed areas of decreased flow compared with normal controls in eight of 11 patients examined. Areas of hypoperfusion correlated with altered function as manifested by epileptogenic foci and impaired cognitive function. Dynamic, single-photon-emission computed tomography provides a noninvasive technique to monitor quantitatively hemodynamic changes associated with AVMs. Our findings suggest that such changes are present in the majority of patients with AVMs and that they may be clinically significant. The potential application of regional cerebral blood flow imaging by DSPECT in the management of patients with AVMs is discussed.

Homan, R.W.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Stokely, E.M.; Bonte, F.J.

1986-08-01

459

Onyx® in the management of cranial arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

The ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx® (ev3, Inc., MN, USA), is an embolic agent used in the management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and was approved by the US FDA in 2005. Use of Onyx has resulted in higher curative rates compared with previous embolic agents such as N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Onyx has several advantages over previous embolic agents. For instance, Onyx is a copolymer and does not adhere to catheters but solidifies slowly owing to the diffusion of its solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. This review focuses on different results obtained from the experience of different neurointerventionalists with an emphasis on the aim to cure. The studies presented are compared in terms of curative rates, morbidity and mortality. Ideas are presented for future treatment options for AVM rupture using nanotargeted therapy with the guide of specific markers highly expressed on the surface of cells or tissues of interest. Such nanotargeted therapy might transform AVM treatment with new embolic agents. PMID:23895072

Jalaly, Jalal; Dalfino, John; Mousa, Shaker A

2013-07-01

460