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1

Control of structural type and particle size in alumina synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particles of aluminum oxide (amorphous, ?, ? and ?) have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis as a function of both in situ and annealing temperatures and nature of precursors used in the preparation method. A scanning electron micrograph study shows as-received materials constituted by filled spherical particles, the ulterior annealing leading to the formation of small crystallites on the

M. Vallet-Reg; L. M. Rodrguez-Lorenzo; C. V. Ragel; A. J. Salinas; J. M. Gonzlez-Calbet

1997-01-01

2

Formation of spherical hollow silica particles from sodium silicate solution by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of spherical hollow silica particles from sodium silicate solution with boric acid or urea as an additive was carried out by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. This work dealt with the effect of four parameters (boric acid, urea, feed rate of reactant, and reaction temperature) on particle size and standard deviation. As a result, the mean particle size and

Ki Do Kim; Kwan Young Choi; Ji Won Yang

2005-01-01

3

Method to synthesize and produce thin films by spray pyrolysis  

DOEpatents

Forming a film by spraying onto a heated substrate an atomized solution containing the appropriate salt of a constituent element of the film and a highly soluble (i.e., greater than 1 M) organic acid in sufficient amount to reduce the oxidation state of at least one solute element of the spray solution after contacting the heated substrate.

Squillante, Michael R. (Waltham, MA)

1982-06-22

4

Band Gap Energies of CdO:F Semiconductor Films Produced by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) samples have been deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method (USP). The absorption spectra of the samples showed that CdO:F is a direct band gap material. The direct optical transition has shifted towards the shorter wavelengths, and the transparency of the material has increased at a given wavelength above the fundamental absorption edge. The optical

Sinan Irmak; Metin Kul

2007-01-01

5

Method to synthesize and produce thin films by spray pyrolysis  

DOEpatents

Forming a film by spraying onto a heated substrate an atomized solution containing the appropriate salt of a constituent element of the film and a reducing agent at a concentration greater than 1 M and greater than 10 times the stoichiometric amount of reducing agent.

Turcotte, Richard L. (Malden, MA)

1982-07-06

6

Characterization of MnS films deposited by the spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline MnS film samples were deposited by the spray pyrolysis method onto glass substrates held at 300 C, using aqueous precursor solutions of MnCl2 and (SC(NH2))2 and compressed air as a carrier gas. Electrical resistivity of the MnS films measured by the direct current four-probe technique showed strong correlations with film grain parameters such as grain boundary energy and grain size. The effects of annealing time on dislocation density, microstrain, grain size and grain boundary energy are discussed.

Yilmaz, Ahmet

2011-04-01

7

Preparation of spherical fine ZnO particles by the spray pyrolysis method using ultrasonic atomization techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic atomizer was used in the spray pyrolysis method to prepare fine, spherical and uniform ZnO particles. Almost spherical particles were obtained successfully which had a mean particle size of 0.15 m and had a very narrow particle size distribution. By using alcohol as the solvent, it was found that the particles do not have hollow shell layers which

Tian-Quan Liu; Osamu Sakurai; Nobuyasu Mizutani; Masanori Kato

1986-01-01

8

Mn doped ZnO nanostructured thin films prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mn-doped ZnO thin films with different percentage of Mn content (0, 1, 3 and 5 at.%) and substrate temperature of 350 C, were deposited by a simple ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method under atmospheric pressure. We have studied the structural and optical properties by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultra-violet visible near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. The lattice parameters calculated for the Mn-doped ZnO from XRD pattern were found to be slightly larger than those of the undoped ZnO, which indicate substitution of Mn in ZnO lattice. Compared with the Raman spectra for ZnO pure films, the Mn-doping effect on the spectra is revealed by the presence of additional peak around 524 cm-1 due to Mn incorporation. With increasing Mn doping the optical band gap increases indicating the Burstein-Moss effect.

Baghdad, R.; Kharroubi, B.; Abdiche, A.; Bousmaha, M.; Bezzerrouk, M. A.; Zeinert, A.; El Marssi, M.; Zellama, K.

2012-10-01

9

Ethylene Glycol Assisted Synthesis of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Nanorods Using Improved Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped tin oxide nanorod transparent thin films were fabricated with SnCl4\\Cdot5H2O, NH4F, and ethylene glycol (EG) using an improved spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The fabricated nanorods showed a low resistance of 15.3 ?/sq and a good transparency of 70.8%. The nanorods have a higher surface area than the conventionally used thin films.

Liyanage, Devinda; Bandara, Herath Mudiyanselage Navaratne; Jayaweera, Viraj; Murakami, Kenji

2013-08-01

10

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes from natural precursors byspray pyrolysis method and their field electron emission properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized from botanical hydrocarbons: Turpentine oil and Eucalyptus oil on\\u000a Si(100) substrate using Fe catalyst by simple spray pyrolysis method at 700C and at atmospheric pressure. The as-grown carbon\\u000a nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution\\u000a TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and Raman spectroscopy.

Pradip Ghosh; T. Soga; M. Tanemura; M. Zamri; T. Jimbo; R. Katoh; K. Sumiyama

2009-01-01

11

Spray Drying, Spray Pyrolysis and Spray Freeze Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In conventional spray pyrolysis (CSP or simply SP), a solution is sprayed into a carrier gas forming small droplets; owing\\u000a to the high temperature of the surrounding gas, the solvent is vaporized and the solute is precipitated on and within the\\u000a droplets. If the air temperature is high enough, solute is decomposed to form final solid particles. A schematic diagram

M. Eslamian; N. Ashgriz

12

Self-assembled monolayers assisted thin film growth of aluminum doped zinc oxide by spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) were deposited on pristine and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The measurements of different parameters showed that modifying the surface of the glass substrates with the different SAMs resulted in excellent nucleation sites for the crystal growth of the AZO thin film. Among the different functional groups, SAMs with CH3 terminal group improves the quality of the film remarkably, while the other groups improve the quality moderately. From the results we observed that our finding suggests a novel approach of improving the quality of AZO films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique.

Aklilu, Muluken; Tai, Yian

2013-04-01

13

Preparation of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors by the spray pyrolysis method using ultrasonic atomization techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high Tc oxide superconductor of the Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system was prepared by spray pyrolysis. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sample show a perfectly isolated 110 K phase. Superconducting transition with zero-resistance temperature at Tc = 101 K was achieved for a sample calcined at 850C for 18 hr and sintered at the same temperature for 12 hr. The heat treatment time required to form the pure 110 K phase could be minimized by spray pyrolysis. The critical current density at 77 K in zero magnetic field was 528 A/cm2.

Tomizawa, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Fujishiro, M.; Kakegawa, K.

1990-11-01

14

Preparation and photocatalyic properties of TiO2-P25 film prepared by spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 films were prepared by immobilizing Degussa P25 powders on stainless steel.The spray pyrolysis technique was used for film preparation.The photoactivities of films decreased with increase in calcinations temperature.The films showed lower photoactivity then corresponding powders.

Dostani?, J.; Grbi?, B.; Radi?, N.; Stojadinovi?, S.; Vasili?, R.; Vukovi?, Z.

2013-06-01

15

Preparation and characterization of copper(II) oxide thin films grown by a novel spray pyrolysis method  

SciTech Connect

A novel spray pyrolysis reactor was used to prepare thin films of CuO on silica substrates. The resulting films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, optical and electrical measurements. The films were single phase, homogeneous, and uniform.

DeSisto, W.; Sosnowski, M.; Smith, F.; Deluca, J.; Kershaw, R.; Dwight, K.; Wold, A. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

1989-06-01

16

Intense UV-light absorption of ZnO nanoparticles prepared using a pulse combustion-spray pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via pulse combustion-spray pyrolysis (PC-SP) at a high rate. Instead of using an ultrasonic nebulizer as the atomizer during PC-SP synthesis, a two-fluid nozzle was used to enhance the production rate. A high production rate was achieved by the use of a two-fluid nozzle, which efficiently generated droplets in large

I Made Joni; Agus Purwanto; Ferry Iskandar; Manabu Hazata; Kikuo Okuyama

2009-01-01

17

Thin Film Electrode Materials Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Li4Ti5O12 and the LiCoO2 have been considered as promising candidates of electrode materials for all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. The spray pyrolysis method is a useful economical technique to prepare various thicknesses of oxide films though have not been intensively studied for fabrication of thin film lithium batteries. Thin films of Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 electrode materials about 100-400 nm were

M. Takahashi; J. Tani; H. Kido; A. Hayashi; K. Tadanaga; M. Tatsumisago

2011-01-01

18

Face-to-Face Annealing Process of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis method. Copper(II) acetate monohydrate, zinc(II) acetate dihydrate, tin(II) chloride dihydrate, sodium trihydrate, and pure sulfur powder were used as the starting materials of spray pyrolysis solutions, and N,N-dimethylformamide and monoethanolamine were used as the solvent and the stabilizer, respectively. The solution was coated on a Mo-coated soda lime glass substrate and after coating solutions, the films were annealed in a N2 gas atmosphere at 360, 440, and 520 C with or without placing two films face-to-face. It was found that the face-to-face annealing process prevented losses of S and Sn during the annealing process and the samples annealed with another precursor placed face-to-face at 440 and 520 C showed narrow and large X-ray diffraction peaks and large grains in the surface images.

Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kato, Minoru; Goto, Koichi; Nakano, Yuya; Uchiki, Hisao

2012-10-01

19

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes from natural precursors by spray pyrolysis method and their field electron emission properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized from botanical hydrocarbons: Turpentine oil and Eucalyptus oil on Si(100) substrate using Fe catalyst by simple spray pyrolysis method at 700C and at atmospheric pressure. The as-grown carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that nanotubes grown from turpentine oil have better degree of graphitization and field emission performance than eucalyptus oil grown carbon nanotubes. The turpentine oil and eucalyptus oil grown carbon nanotubes indicated that the turn-on field of about 1.7 and 1.93 V/?m, respectively, at 10 ?A/cm2. The threshold field was observed to be about 2.13 and 2.9 V/?m at 1 mA/cm2 of nanotubes grown from turpentine oil and eucalyptus oil respectively. Moreover, turpentine oil grown carbon nanotubes show higher current density in relative to eucalyptus oil grown carbon nanotubes. The maximum current density of 15.3 mA/cm2 was obtained for 3 V/?m corresponding to the nanotubes grown from turpentine oil. The improved field emission performance was attributed to the enhanced crystallinity, fewer defects, and greater length of turpentine oil grown carbon nanotubes.

Ghosh, Pradip; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.; Zamri, M.; Jimbo, T.; Katoh, R.; Sumiyama, K.

2009-01-01

20

Structural and optical properties of Cd1-xSnxS semiconductor films produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cd1-xSnxS semiconductor films have been produced onto glass substrates at 573 K substrate temperature by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method using an aqueous solution with varying tin concentrations. The thicknesses of the films have been calculated to be in the range of 1-4 ?m. The films have been characterized to evaluate the structure, morphology, composition and optical energy band gap. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal, tetragonal and orthorhombic structures. The morphological and compositional properties of the films have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Sn concentrations in the films have been varied from 0% to 84% as determined from energy dispersive analysis. The optical band gap energies and types of optical transition of the films have been determined from the optical transmittance spectra. The optical band gap energy values of the films decrease from 2.43 to 1.21 eV as the Sn concentration increases.

Peker, Mehmet; Peker, Derya; Selami K?l?kaya, M.

2010-12-01

21

Multiporous ceria nanoparticles prepared by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of ceria nanoparticles prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP) from cerium (III) acetate and cerium (III) nitrate\\u000a hydrate precursors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that using the nitrate as a precursor,\\u000a particles containing multiple pores in the core can be prepared preferentially as opposed to the acetate precursor, when particles\\u000a with predominantly a single pore

Shao-Ju Shih; Konstantin B. Borisenko; Li-Jr Liu; Chin-Yi Chen

2010-01-01

22

Studies on structural and electrical properties of MnO films prepared by the spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MnO film samples of various thicknesses were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique via the atomization of MnCl2 aqueous solutions onto glass substrates held at 350 C using compressed air as a carrier gas. The crystal structure of the MnO films that was determined by x-ray diffraction was found to be polycrystalline. The crystalline structure of all the film samples showed a preferred orientation along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The electrical parameters of the samples were obtained by applying the dc four-probe technique to rectangular-shaped samples. The effect of temperature on the electrical properties of MnO films is described here.

Sur, S.; ztrk, Z.; zta?, M.; Bedir, M.; zdemir, Y.

2011-07-01

23

Structural, optical and electrical properties of molybdenum-doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum-doped cadmium oxide films were prepared by a spray pyrolysis technique at a substrate temperature of 300 C. The effect of doping on structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. X-ray analysis shows that the undoped CdO films are preferentially oriented along the (111) crystallographic direction. Molybdenum doping concentration increases the films' packing density and reorients the crystallites along the (200) plane. A minimum resistivity of 4.6810-4 ? cm with a maximum mobility of 75 cm2 V-1 s-1 is achieved when the CdO film is doped with 0.5 wt.% Mo. The band-gap value is found to increase with doping and reaches a maximum of 2.56 eV for 0.75 wt.% as compared to undoped films of 2.2 eV.

Kumaravel, R.; Bhuvaneswari, S.; Ramamurthi, K.; Krishnakumar, V.

2012-11-01

24

Improved superconducting properties of MgB2 thin films fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method at high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality MgB2 superconducting thin films have been successfully prepared by 2.4 MHz ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) system on single crystal Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrates. The microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of approximately 500-600 nm thick films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), resistance versus temperature (R-T) and magnetization measurements (M-H) under different magnetic fields and transport critical current density (Jc). Films were first heat treated in situ in the spraying chamber with an extra Mg powder during deposition to compensate excess evaporation of Mg from the films and then additionally heat treated in Ar atmosphere at 700 C for a short time. According to the results obtained, orientation on any particular direction for the crystal growth was not seen. Homogeneous, highly dense and highly smooth surface morphology and low resistance have been achieved under optimum conditions. Optimally treated films exhibited relatively high transport critical current density of 2.37 105 A cm-2. These results have been also compared with the Jcmag results calculated from the M-H curves. The electrical resistance property of the best samples was obtained to be 39.5 and 37.4 K for Tc and Tzero, respectively.

Yakinci, M. Eyyuphan; Yakinci, Z. Deniz; Aksan, M. Ali; Balci, Yakup

2012-12-01

25

Aerosol spray pyrolysis & solution phase synthesis of nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the synthesis of nanomaterials by both solution phase and gas phase methods. By the solution phase method, we demonstrate the synthesis of Au/CdS binary hybrid nanoparticles and the Au-induced growth of CdS nanorods. At higher reaction temperature, extremely uniform CdS nanorods were obtained. The size of the Au seed nanoparticles has an important influence on the length and diameter of the nanorods. In addition, preparation of peanut-like FePt-CdS hybrid nanoparticles by spontaneous epitaxial nucleation and growth of CdS onto FePt-seed nanoparticles in high-temperature organic solution is reported. The FePt-CdS hybrid nanoparticles reported here are an example of a bifunctional nanomaterial that combines size-dependent magnetic and optical properties. In the gas phase method, a spray pyrolysis aerosol synthesis method was used to produce tellurium dioxide nanoparticles and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Tellurite glasses (amorphous TeO2 based materials) have two useful optical properties, high refractive index and high optical nonlinearity, that make them attractive for a range of applications. In the work presented here, TeO2 nanoparticles were prepared by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of telluric acid, Te(OH)6. This laboratory-scale process is capable of producing up to 80 mg/hr of amorphous TeO2-nanoparticles with primary particle diameters from 10 to 40 nm, and allows their synthesis in significant quantities from an inexpensive and environmentally friendly precursor. Furthermore, both Er3+ doped and Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped tellurium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous mixture of telluric acid with erbium/ytterbium salts, which exhibit the infrared to green visible upconversion phenomena. ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by spray pyrolysis using zinc diethyldithiocarbamate as a single-source precursor. The home-built scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) is a useful tool for online measurement of the as-produced nanoparticle size distribution in the gas phase. These SMPS results show clearly the transition of precursor aerosol from liquid to vapor phase and that nanoparticle production in the reactor occurs via gas-to-particle conversion. Applicable characterization methods were employed to characterize and to investigate the optical properties of the various materials described in this dissertation.

Zhang, Hongwang

26

Comparative study of nanocrystalline Zr{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} powders synthesised by spray-pyrolysis and gel-combustion methods  

SciTech Connect

Zr{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion and spray-pyrolysis methods were comparatively studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, specific surface area measurements, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and chemical analysis. Fully tetragonal powders were obtained by both methods, as determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Both materials exhibited extremely small crystallite sizes (about 6 nm) and high specific surface areas (93 m{sup 2}/g and 42 m{sup 2}/g for gel-combustion and spray-pyrolysis powders, respectively). In both cases, no tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition was observed in the whole temperature range up to 1300 deg. C by differential thermal analysis. The amounts of the expected impurities (Si, B, C) were acceptable and comparable in both cases.

Lascalea, G.E. [Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos (CINSO), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lamas, D.G. [Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos (CINSO), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: dlamas@citefa.gov.ar; Djurado, E. [Laboratoire dElectrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), INPG-CNRS. ENSEEG, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, Domaine Universitaire, 38402 Saint Martin dHeres, Cedex (France); Cabanillas, E.D. [Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walsoee de Reca, N.E. [Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos (CINSO), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2005-12-08

27

Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide using low-pressure spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low pressure spray pyrolysis (LPSP) process was applied to synthesize crystalline lithium cobalt oxide as a battery cathode material via a liquid route. The effects of temperature and pressure of reactor on the synthesized particles characteristics were systematically investigated. Reactor temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200 C with pressures of 760 and 300 Torr were applied as operating conditions. The characterizations results show that the synthesized particles were highly crystalline and nearly spherical in shape. The results concluded that the low-pressure spray pyrolysis method has ability in control of particles morphology, crystallinity and atomic lithium-to-cobalt ratio.

Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made; Setianto; Panatarani, Camellia; Okuyama, Kikuo

2013-09-01

28

Flame spray pyrolysis for sensing at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in developing novel gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides (SMOX) has been hindered by the cumbersome fabrication technologies currently employed. They involve time intensive synthesis procedures for gaining sensitive materials and preparation of the inks employed for realizing sensing layers. In this paper we review the opportunities offered by the relatively young method of flame spray pyrolysis, with which it is possible not only to synthesize a broad selection of SMOX in pure or doped form, but also to simultaneously deposit thick and highly porous gas sensitive films on a variety of substrates. In less than ten years the properties of nine base materials have been evaluated for all most relevant target gases and the obtained results are promising for future development.

Kemmler, J. A.; Pokhrel, S.; Mdler, L.; Weimar, U.; Barsan, N.

2013-11-01

29

Flame spray pyrolysis for sensing at the nanoscale.  

PubMed

Progress in developing novel gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides (SMOX) has been hindered by the cumbersome fabrication technologies currently employed. They involve time intensive synthesis procedures for gaining sensitive materials and preparation of the inks employed for realizing sensing layers. In this paper we review the opportunities offered by the relatively young method of flame spray pyrolysis, with which it is possible not only to synthesize a broad selection of SMOX in pure or doped form, but also to simultaneously deposit thick and highly porous gas sensitive films on a variety of substrates. In less than ten years the properties of nine base materials have been evaluated for all most relevant target gases and the obtained results are promising for future development. PMID:24113649

Kemmler, J A; Pokhrel, S; Mdler, L; Weimar, U; Barsan, N

2013-10-10

30

Particle structure control through intraparticle reactions by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray pyrolysis is a dropletparticle conversion process comprising of the evaporation of solvents, precipitation of the solutes, decomposition of the solutes, sintering of the formed phases, etc. Purposive control of the reactions within every droplet or particle makes it possible to control the structure, phase composition and shape of the prepared particles. By introducing reactions into every droplets or precisely

Shenglei Che; Osamu Sakurai; Kazuo Shinozaki; Nobuyasu Mizutani

1998-01-01

31

Synthesis of nanostructured carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of high purity submicrometeric spherical particles are of considerable interest for a wide variety of applications, ranging from electronics via ceramics, catalysts to bioceramic due to their unique properties that are primary determined by size, composition and structure. In this paper, the synthesis of carbonate calcium hydroxyapatite by a spray pyrolysis process in an ultrasonic periodical physical field is

V. Jokanovi; I. Nik; D. Uskokovi

32

Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 to 6.661 with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu2S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

Novruzov, V. D.; Keskenler, E. F.; Tomakin, M.; Kahraman, S.; Gorur, O.

2013-09-01

33

Deposition and characterization of La2Ti2O7 thin films via spray pyrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of La2Ti2O7 have been deposited on fused silica and Si substrates by a spray pyrolysis method using ethylene glycol solution of La(III)-Ti(IV)-citrate complexes as starting material and O2 as a carrier gas. The composition, crystal structure and morphology of the films are studied.

D. S. Todorovsky; R. V. Todorovska; M. M. Milanova; D. G. Kovacheva

2007-01-01

34

Deposition and characterization of La 2Ti 2O 7 thin films via spray pyrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of La2Ti2O7 have been deposited on fused silica and Si substrates by a spray pyrolysis method using ethylene glycol solution of La(III)-Ti(IV)-citrate complexes as starting material and O2 as a carrier gas. The composition, crystal structure and morphology of the films are studied.

D. S. Todorovsky; R. V. Todorovska; M. M. Milanova; D. G. Kovacheva

2007-01-01

35

Deposition and characterization of La2Ti2O7 thin films via spray pyrolysis process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of La2Ti2O7 have been deposited on fused silica and Si substrates by a spray pyrolysis method using ethylene glycol solution of La(III)-Ti(IV)-citrate complexes as starting material and O2 as a carrier gas. The composition, crystal structure and morphology of the films are studied.

Todorovsky, D. S.; Todorovska, R. V.; Milanova, M. M.; Kovacheva, D. G.

2007-03-01

36

Controlled synthesis of nanostructured particles by flame spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process was systematically investigated using an external-mixing gas-assisted atomizer supported by six premixed methaneoxygen flameletes. The effect of oxidant and precursor fuel composition on the size of FSP-made silica primary particles (840nm) was studied using as precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) dissolved in ethanol, iso-octane or methanol. As oxidant air and pure oxygen were used, that served

L. Mdler; H. K. Kammler; R. Mueller; S. E. Pratsinis

2002-01-01

37

Properties of zinc telluride containing impurities introduced during spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film ZnTe was prepared in two steps: (i) spray pyrolysis to form ZnO; followed by (ii) reaction between Te vapor and ZnO to form ZnTe. Large increases in thickness were observed when ZnO was converted to ZnTe. The films could be either p- or n-type depending on the Zn and Te content in the films. Dopants, which included B,

Julie De Merchant; M. Cocivera

1996-01-01

38

Structural, optical and electrical studies on CdO thin films using spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium oxide thin films with enhanced electrical property were prepared on glass substrates at the substrate temperature of 300C by spray pyrolysis method for various precursor concentration of cadmium acetate in the spray solution. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films exhibit cubic crystal structure. From the transmittance spectra it was found that the CdO thin films coated on low precursor concentration are highly transparent. Hall measurements confirmed that the semiconducting behavior of CdO with n-type electrical conductivity. Thus the results authenticate that the precursor concentration influences the structural, optical and electrical properties of the deposited films.

Sankarasubramanian, K.; Solaichamy, R.; Sethuraman, K.; Rameshbabu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

2013-02-01

39

Properties of zinc telluride containing impurities introduced during spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Thin film ZnTe was prepared in two steps: (i) spray pyrolysis to form ZnO; followed by (ii) reaction between Te vapor and ZnO to form ZnTe. Large increases in thickness were observed when ZnO was converted to ZnTe. The films could be either p- or n-type depending on the Zn and Te content in the films. Dopants, which included B, Al, Ba, In, P, As, and Sb, were introduced during the spray pyrolysis state. The undoped ZnTe had a resistivity of the order of 10{sup 6} {Omega} cm. When Sb, B, and P were incorporated into the films, the p-ZnTe resistivity was decreased by three to six orders of magnitude. The lower resistivity value obtained for these films was 4.1 {Omega} cm for Sb, 9.7 {Omega} cm for P. Hole densities were as high as 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3} when ZnTe was doped with Sb. Mobilities were generally around 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. The incorporation of Ga, Al, and As had inconsistent effects on the resistivity and on carrier type.

Merchant, J. De; Cocivera, M. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Guelph-Waterloo Centre for Graduate Work in Chemistry

1996-12-01

40

Thickness Dependence of Structure and Optical Characteristics in Fluorine-Doped SnO2 Films Grown by Spray Pyrolysis Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting thin films of fluorine-doped SnO2 were deposited on glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique in order to investigate the effect of film thickness. These films were prepared at a substrate temperature of 500 C. The thickness of the samples was between approximately 70 nm and 1.5 ?m. The preferred grain orientation of the films varied with increasing film thickness. The grain size of the surface increased with increasing film thickness. Crystal growth occurred at several stages of film growth. In the first stage, pores were formed in the film. Secondly, the grains grew in two dimensions and completely coved the substrate surface. Finally, the grains became columnar crystals with increasing film thickness. The electrical resistivity decreased with increasing film thickness although this was accompanied by a decrease in optical transmittance. The IR absorption increased despite a constant carrier concentration. Film thickness also increased. This result meant that with a constant high carrier concentration, the increased film thickness enhanced the absorption.

Oshima, Minoru; Yoshino, Kenji

2012-12-01

41

A newly designed ultrasonic spray pyrolysis device to fabricate YBCO tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly designed ultrasonic spray pyrolysis device has been manufactured to fabricate YBCO tapes. The apparatus is primarily composed of four zones: the ultrasonic generator, the atomization chamber, the pyrolysis chamber and the rotating equipment. Every part of them is designed and fabricated by us. The whole system costs far less than the ready-made equipment facility in which there is always a vacuum apparatus. This apparatus with processing parameters accurately controlled can fabricate short and long YBCO tapes. In this paper, we mainly focused on how to design and manufacture four parts of the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. We have deposited c-axis aligned short YBCO tapes on biaxially textured Ag {110}<110> substrates with Jc=103 A/cm2 using this method with our device. The method is very promising in terms of its precise control of metal compositions, high deposition rate and low cost non-vacuum approach. Improvements of this technique are being carried out to fabricate long YBCO tapes.

Liu, M.; Zhou, M. L.; Zhai, L. H.; Liu, D. M.; Gao, X.; Liu, W.

2003-04-01

42

The thermal stability of porous alumina/stainless steel catalyst support obtained by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active porous alumina coatings were obtained by deposition of boehmite sol on stainless steel (SS) substrate by spray pyrolysis method. The temperature and the doping of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and La 3+ in the boehmite sol effects on the textural and structural properties and surface morphology of alumina coatings on stainless steel samples are presented. It was found that the addition of polyethylene glycol combined with La 3+ to the boehmite sol before spraying improves the thermal stability of porous alumina coatings. X-ray diffraction patterns of a doped sample, even after 5 h at 1000 C, point out to the presence only of ?-Al 2O 3, with a SBET of 74 m 2/g. XPS data and SEM photographs of coated samples show that alumina were well deposited on the metallic supports. The absence of any lanthanum compounds indicates very well homogeneous dispersion of La 3+-ions on the surface of alumina crystallites. AFM images show sphere like alumina grains and agglomerates with surface roughness from 60 to 180 nm, depending on temperature and doping. Surface roughness of doped alumina samples was higher than that of non-doped. It was pointed out that spray pyrolysis method enables preparation of alumina layers with relatively high specific surface area, suitable for applications as catalysts supports.

Novakovi?, Tatjana; Radi?, Nenad; Grbi?, Boko; Dondur, Vera; Mitri?, Miodrag; Randjelovi?, Danijela; Stoychev, Dimitar; Stefanov, Plamen

2008-12-01

43

Factors influencing the gas sensing characteristics of tin dioxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis: understanding and possibilities of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main structure and electronic parameters of SnO2 thin films are considered from the point of view of optimization gas sensor characteristics. The results of phenomenological modeling and their comparison with experiments are used for choosing the correct film parameters and modes of deposition for the processing of SnO2 films by the spray pyrolysis method. Optimal deposition conditions were found,

V. Brinzari; G Korotcenkov; V Golovanov

2001-01-01

44

Optical, structural and electrical properties of tin doped indium oxide thin films prepared by spray-pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin doped indium oxide (In2O3:Sn) or indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been successfully deposited by the low cost spray-pyrolysis method. Low sheet resistance and high mobility films were obtained when the films were deposited at the substrate temperature of 793 K. The direct optical bandgaps for the films deposited at 793 (a) and 753 K (b) were found

Kodigala Subba Ramaiah; V. Sundara Raja; A. K. Bhatnagar; R. D. Tomlinson; R. D. Pilkington; A. E. Hill; S. J. Chang; Y. K. Su; F. S. Juang

2000-01-01

45

Sintering of MulliteZirconia Composite Powder Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinterabilities of mullite (3Al2O32SiO2zirconia (ZrO2)composite powders prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis techniques (USPTs) were examined. Starting mullite powders containing ~18.5 mol% (~15.0 vol%) of zirconia (ZrO2) were prepared by single-nozzle (SN) and double-nozzle (DN) USPT. In SN-USPT, the composite powder was prepared by spray pyrolysis of a waterethanol solution in an Al(NO3)3Si(OC2H5)4ZrOCl2YCl3 system at 900C, using one ultrasonic vibrator. In

Kiyoshi Itatani; Takashi Abiko; Mamoru Aizawa; F. Scott Howell; Akira Kishioka

1998-01-01

46

The Leidenfrost effect during spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide-gadolinia doped ceria composite thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

NiOCe0.8Gd0.2O1.9?x (CGO) thin films were prepared by air blast spray pyrolysis with precursors containing nickel nitrate, cerium nitrate and gadolinium chloride in ethanol and a high boiling point organic solvent. Precursors containing solvents with boiling points between 120 and 314C were sprayed on sapphire, silicon, Foturan, yttria stabilized zirconia and CGO at different substrate surface temperatures.A maximum deposition temperature, above

Ulrich P. Muecke; Gary L. Messing; Ludwig J. Gauckler

2009-01-01

47

Conductive silver films formed from nano-sized silver powders prepared by flame spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-sized silver powders were directly prepared by high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis; an ultrasonic spray generator was used in the process. The silver powders were nanometer sized and had a spherical shape; further, they did not show a tendency to form aggregates. Their mean size was 26nm. The mean crystallite size measured using Scherrer's equation was 26nm. Conductive silver films were

Hye Young Koo; Jang Heui Yi; Jung Hyun Kim; You Na Ko; Dae Soo Jung; Yun Chan Kang; Jong-Heun Lee

2010-01-01

48

Characteristics of nano-sized silverglass composite powders prepared by flame spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-sized silverglass composite powders were directly prepared by high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis applying ultrasonic spray generator. The silverglass composite powders with various glass contents had nanometer size, spherical shape and non-aggregation characteristics. The mean size of the silverglass composite powders was 56nm. The nano-sized silverglass composite powders had pure Ag crystal structures irrespective of adding amounts of glass. The silver

Hye Young Koo; Jang Heui Yi; Yun Chan Kang

2010-01-01

49

Domain switching in spray pyrolysis-deposited nano-crystalline BiFeO3 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-phase nano-scale BiFeO3 (BFO) films have been prepared under a controlled substrate temperature by a simple spray pyrolysis method. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate that single-phase BFO is deposited at low temperature. A magnetoelectric coupling to the anti-ferromagnetic and ?-? phase transitions was observed at 350.2 and 832.8 C, respectively. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves exhibit two coercive fields corresponding to ferroelastic (71 and 109) and ferroelectric (180) domains. Ferroelectric domain switching is dominant at lower electric fields. A non-volatile domain switching in the BFO films can prevent domain wall pinning and can enhance fatigue behavior in the films.

Annapu Reddy, V.; Pathak, N. P.; Nath, R.

2012-12-01

50

Humidity response of SnO2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent SnO2 films, using precursor solutions of different molar concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8M), are prepared by spray pyrolysis method. XRD spectra of the films reveal polycrystalline nature. Surface morphology presents jelly like structures as seen through scanning electron microscope. Humidity sensing behaviour has been studied considering resistance of the films as a monitor parameter. Sensitivity is seen to increase as relative humidity (RH) increases for all the samples. Sensitivity is highest for SnO2 film prepared with precursor of lowest molar concentration (0.2M). Response and recovery time, for the sample with highest sensitivity, are found to be 20 and 25 sec respectively.

Tripathi, Akhilesh; Pandey, Akhilesh; Shukla, R. K.

2013-06-01

51

Synthesis of spherical {beta}-silicon carbide particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Fine agglomerate-free spherical {beta}-SiC powder was synthesized from a dispersion of colloidal silica, saccharose, and boric acid, by means of an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. Droplets of 2.2 {micro}m were formed with an aerosol generator, operated at 2.5 MHz, and carried into a reaction furnace at 900 C with argon. Spherical X-ray amorphous gel particles of 1.1 {micro}m were obtained. {beta}-SiC particles with a mean diameter of 0.79 {micro}m and spherical shape resulted when the SiC gel precursor particles were heated at 1,500 C in argon.

Cerovic, L.S.; Milonjic, S.K. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Zivkovic, L.V. [Nis Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Electronic Engineering; Uskokovic, D.P. [Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Inst. of Technical Sciences

1996-08-01

52

Nanostructure and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite thin films deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinel MgFe2O4 thin films were prepared on the glass substrates at TS=400 C by the spray pyrolysis deposition method. Structural and magnetic properties of the calcinated thin films at different temperatures were also investigated. By changing the calcination temperature from 400 to 600 C, the crystallite size increased from 10 to 15 nm and the crystallinity of the films improved slightly. Thickness of the films calcinated at 400 and 600 C were 0.648 and 1.473 ?m respectively. However, the surface morphology of the films did not change considerably. Magnetic measurements, when the applied magnetic field was in parallel and perpendicular directions, showed the isotropic magnetic nature of the prepared films and their magnetic properties increased with the increment of calcination temperature. The Hc value of thin films calcinated at 400 C was about 168 Oe.

Arabi, H.; Khalili Moghadam, N.

2013-06-01

53

Resistance to Corrosion of Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis in Nitrided Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coatings of zirconium oxide were deposited onto three types of stainless steel, AISI 316L, 2205, and tool steel AISI D2, using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effect of the flux ratio on the process and its influence on the structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. The coatings obtained, 600 nm thick, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The resistance to corrosion of the coatings deposited over steel (not nitrided) and stainless steel nitrided (for 2 h at 823 K) in an ammonia atmosphere was evaluated. The zirconia coating enhances the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion, with the greatest increase in corrosion resistance being observed for tool steel. When the deposition is performed on previously nitrided stainless steel, the morphology of the surface improves and the coating is more homogeneous, which leads to an improved corrosion resistance.

Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Bethencourt, M.; Cifredo, G.; Blanco, G.

2013-10-01

54

Synthesis of (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-YSZ composite particles by spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have been developing a cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) by the pyrolysis method. The unit cell of SOFCs consists of two porous and gas diffusion electrodes (cathode and anode) separated by a dense electrolyte such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which has a high ionic conductivity. Generally, the perovskite (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} has been used mostly as a cathode material. (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}){sub 0.9}MnO{sub 3}-YSZ composite particles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. The mean particle size of the synthesized powders was about 1 {micro}m and the particle size distribution was very narrow. The synthesized powders were composed of the perovskite (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} and cubic phase YSZ. Each particle synthesized consisted of uniform and well-dispersed fine primary particles of (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} and YSZ (0.1 {micro}m particle size).

Fukui, Takehisa; Oobuchi, Takeshi; Ikuhara, Yumi; Ohara, Satoshi; Kodera, Kaseki [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan)

1997-01-01

55

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials. The method comprising: pyrolyzing the carbon-containing materials in a gasification reactor in order to form pyrolysis gases therefrom. The pyrolysis gases having residual tar and oil byproducts entrained therein; passing the pyrolysis gases from the gasification reactor into and through a catalytic reactor having a fluidized bed therein

L. K. Mudge; M. D. Brown; W. A. Wilcox; E. G. Baker

1989-01-01

56

Layer-by-layer deposition of superconducting Sr-Ca-Cu-O films by the spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer-by-layer deposition of Sr-Ca-Cu-O films has been carried out using the spray pyrolysis technique. Reagent-grade nitrates of strontium, calcium and copper were used to prepare starting solutions for spray pyrolysis. A two-step procedure was used for every layer of the constituents in the sequence Sr-Cu-Ca-Cu-Sr: first, deposition onto silver substrate at 350 C, then firing at T ? 450 C,

S. H. Pawar; P. N. Pawaskar; M. J. Ubale; S. B. Kulkarni

1995-01-01

57

A new technique for the growth of epitaxial YBCO using spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for the growth of epitaxial c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7 using spray pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure is described. The technique consists of three steps: the deposition of an oxide precursor by spray pyrolysis of a nitrate solution, fluorination of the oxide precursor in an atmosphere containing a fluorinated gas, and finally, growth of YBa2Cu3O7 by the conventional ex situ process. The microstructure of both the oxide and fluorinated precursor is described along with data on the rate of fluorination. We have routinely achieved critical currents of 0.5 MA/cm2 for 1 ?m thick films at 77 K in self-field.

Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wiesmann, Harold J.; Wu, Li-Jun; Suenaga, Masaki; Venkataraman, Kartik; Maroni, Victor A.

2004-10-01

58

Preparation and characterization of ZnIn 2S 4 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis for hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of ZnIn2S4 were deposited onto indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates from a mixed aqueous solution of ZnCl2, InCl3 and (NH2)2CS by a simple and economical spray pyrolysis technique. Structural, morphologic and optical properties of the deposited films were characterized by XRD, SEM, and UVvis spectra. Moreover, the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties were studied via MottSchottky method, currentvoltage

Mingtao Li; Jinzhan Su; Liejin Guo

2008-01-01

59

Ozone sensors on the base of SnO 2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas-sensing properties of SnO2-based thin films designed for ozone detection are discussed in this paper. The influence of film characteristics on sensor performance is analyzed. SnO2 films with thickness 30200nm were deposited by spray pyrolysis. The SnO2 films have a response to ozone that is quantitative and rapid and sufficient for use in ozone control and monitoring applications. Sensor

G. Korotcenkov; I. Blinov; M. Ivanov; J. R. Stetter

2007-01-01

60

Preparation and photoelectrochemical study of BiVO 4 thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of BiVO4 with monoclinic structure were deposited onto indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The effects of tungsten doping and hydrogen reducing were investigated. The films were characterized with XRD, Raman spectra, SEM, UVVis transmittance spectra. Furthermore, the films were investigated by electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements with regard to splitting water for solar energy

Mingtao Li; Liang Zhao; Liejin Guo

2010-01-01

61

Superhydrophobic and transparent ZnO thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superhydrophobic and transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited by a simple and cost effective spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) onto the glass substrates at 723K from an aqueous zinc acetate precursor solution. The solution concentration was varied from 0.1 to 0.4M and its effect on structural, morphological, wetting and optical properties of ZnO thin films was studied. The synthesized

N. L. Tarwal; P. S. Patil

2010-01-01

62

Preparation of lithium manganese oxide fine particles by spray pyrolysis and their electrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly crystalline nano-sized lithium manganese oxide particles were fabricated by spray pyrolysis. The resultant particles had well-developed facet planes in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image and electron diffraction pattern from a single particle also showed clear diffraction spots, indicating that the prepared particles were highly crystalline. The mean crystallite size estimated from X-ray diffraction peaks was ca. 18nm, which

Y. Iriyama; Y. Tachibana; R. Sasasoka; N. Kuwata; T. Abe; M. Inaba; A. Tasaka; K. Kikuchi; J. Kawamura; Z. Ogumi

2007-01-01

63

Battery performance of nanostructured lithium manganese oxide synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured lithium manganese oxide with spherical particles was synthesized via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique.\\u000a The material shows a pronounced stability upon prolonged cycling at room temperature at high chargedischarge rates up to\\u000a 10C. The electrochemical performance of the cell at elevated temperature was remarkably improved by addition of AlPO4 to the electrolyte. The AC impedance spectroscopy study showed the interface

Zhumabay Bakenov; Masataka Wakihara; Izumi Taniguchi

2008-01-01

64

Thin film CuInS2 prepared by spray pyrolysis with single-source precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both horizontal hot-wall and vertical cold-wall atmospheric chemical spray pyrolysis processes deposited near single-phase stoichiometric CuInS2 thin films. Single-source precursors developed for ternary chalcopyrite materials were used for this study, and a new liquid phase single-source precursor was tested with a vertical cold-wall reactor. The depositions were carried out under an argon atmosphere, and the substrate temperature was kept at

M. H. Jin; Kulinder K. Banger; Jerry D. Harris; Jonathan E. Cowen; Aloysius F. Hepp

2002-01-01

65

Characterization and Electrochromic Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Prepared via Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanadium oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of substrate temperature, vanadium concentration in the initial solution and the solution spray rate on the nanostructural and the electrochromic properties of deposited films are investigated. Characterization and the electrochromic measurements were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammogram. XRD patterns showed that the prepared films have polycrystalline structure and are mostly mixed phases of orthorhombic ?-V2O5 along with minor ?-V2O5 and V4O9 tetragonal structures. The preferred orientation of the deposited films was found to be along [101] plane. The cyclic voltammogram results obtained for different samples showed that only the films with 0.2 M solution concentration, 5 ml/min solution spray rate and 450C substrate temperature exhibit two-step electrochromic properties. The results show a correlation between cycle voltammogram, morphology and resistance of the films.

Mousavi, M.; Kompany, A.; Shahtahmasebi, N.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.-M.

2013-08-01

66

Growth and characterization of molybdenum doped ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and molybdenum doped zinc oxide (MZO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at a substrate temperature of 623 K by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of molybdenum (Mo) dopant concentration (0-4 at%) on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type MZO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the MZO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements showed that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. The surface roughness of the films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was observed that the roughness of the films increases with the increase of Mo doping percentage. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement of the deposited films indicates the incorporation of Mo in ZnO lattice. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity was studied in the range of 300 K-425 K. At 2 at% Mo doping, the films have shown comparatively high electrical conductivity.

Swapna, R.; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.

2013-03-01

67

Solar selective coatings based on nickel oxide obtained via spray pyrolysis.  

PubMed

The paper presents the optimization process for obtaining NiO thin layers on copper substrate for solar absorber coatings, using an inexpensive and up-scalable technique: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). Efficient selective coatings must present a high absorption coefficient of the incident solar irradiation, and low emission of heat. The solar selective coatings design involves tailoring the surface properties for superior optical properties. The deposition parameters were varied for maximizing the solar absorbance and minimizing the thermal emittance. The film morphology was controlled using copolymers of the maleic anhydride as additives into the precursors' solution. The structural and surface properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The Cu/CuO(x)/NiO solar absorber shows good values for the solar absorptance (alpha(s) = 0.95) and thermal emittance (epsilon(T) = 0.05) compared with the ones obtained by other methods employed in literature and new additives are recommended in tailoring the surface of solar selective coatings. PMID:19916443

Voinea, Mihaela; Ienei, Elena; Bogatu, Cristina; Duta, Anca

2009-07-01

68

Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition of SnSe and SnSe2 using a single spray solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of SnSe and SnSe2 have been deposited using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the deposition of SnSe and SnSe2 thin films using a single spray solution. The use of a single spray solution for obtaining both a p-type material, SnSe, and an n-type material, SnSe2, simplifies the deposition technique. The SnSe2 thin films have a bandgap of 1.1 eV and the SnSe thin films have a band gap of 0.9 eV. The Hall measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the thin films. The SnSe2 thin films show a resistivity of 36.73 ?cm and n-type conductivity while the SnSe thin films show a resistivity of 180 ?cm and p-type conductivity.

Narro-Rios, Jorge Sergio; Ramachandran, Manoj; Martnez-Escobar, Dalia; Snchez-Jurez, Aarn

2013-01-01

69

Formation of 1-D ZnTe nanocrystals by aerosol-assisted spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional (1-D) ZnTe nanowires were prepared by aerosol-assisted spray pyrolysis using a mixture of ZnO (1 mmol)\\/OA\\u000a (4 mL)\\/TOPO (0.8 g)\\/ODE (4 mL) as Zn precursor and Te\\/TOP (3 mL of 0.75M) as Te precursor. The shape, size, and crystal structure\\u000a of products were characterized by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape evolution\\u000a of

Dae-Jin Kim; Jun-Woo Kim; Eui Jung Kim; Kee-Kahb Koo

2011-01-01

70

Transparent conducting lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel oxide (NiO) and lithium-doped nickel oxide films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique using NiCl2 and LiCl\\u000a as starting materials. All the films were greenish-grey in colour and confirmed by X-ray analysis. The best NiO films were\\u000a obtained when the substrate temperature, Ts=480 C where a conductivity of 2.110-1?-1 cm-1 and transparency above 80% in\\u000a the visible region

P Puspharajah; S Radhakrishna; A. K Arof

1997-01-01

71

Effect of Mo doping in CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum doped cadmium oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at a substrate temperature of 300 C. The effect of doping on structural and optical and electrical properties was studied. The X-ray analysis shows that the undoped CdO films are preferentially oriented along (111) crystallographic direction. Molybdenum doping concentration increases the films packing density and reorients the crystallites along (200) plane. The band gap value is found to increase with doping and reaches a maximum of 2.56 eV for 0.75 wt.% as compared to undoped films of 2.2 eV.

Kumaravel, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

2012-06-01

72

Characterization of hydroxyapatite powders prepared by ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder was prepared by the ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis technique; the characterization of the resulting powders was performed. Five kinds of the starting solutions with the Ca\\/P ratio of 1.67 were prepared by mixing Ca(NO3)2, (NH4)2HPO4 and HNO3; the concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- were in the ranges of 0.10 to 0.90 mol??dm-3 and 0.06 to 0.54 mol??dm-3, respectively.

M. Aizawa; T. Hanazawa; K. Itatani; F. S. Howell; A. Kishioka

1999-01-01

73

Vertically aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes by spray pyrolysis of turpentine oil and pyridine derivative with dissolved ferrocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were synthesized from the pyrolysis of a mixture of turpentine oil, 4-tert-butylpyridine (C9H13N) and ferrocene on silicon and quartz substrate in nitrogen atmosphere at 700C by simple spray pyrolysis technique. SEM, TEM, TGA\\/DTA, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) techniques were used to characterize the structural analysis and composition of the as-grown

Pradip Ghosh; Tetsuo Soga; Kaushik Ghosh; Rakesh A. Afre; Takashi Jimbo; Yoshinori Ando

2008-01-01

74

Structure and composition of bismuth ferrite films grown by spray pyrolysis of iron and bismuth methacrylate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bismuth ferrite films on single-crystal lanthanum aluminate substrates have been grown for the first time through spray pyrolysis\\u000a of iron and bismuth methacrylate solutions. The film growth process comprises two steps: liquid-phase and crystalline (including\\u000a pyrolysis). In the liquid-phase step, we analyzed the elemental composition and surface morphology of the coatings as functions\\u000a of substrate temperature. In the pyrolytic and

Yu. Ya. Tomashpolsky; N. V. Sadovskaya; L. F. Rybakova

2011-01-01

75

Coat spraying with use of the cold spray method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, physical phenomena accompanying the process of cold spraying as well as principles of bonding particles with a surface were analysed. Moreover, the basic process parameters as well as the construction of actual spraying devices were shown. Numerous advantages of the method and its applications in the industry were presented.

Andrzej Ambroziak; Janusz Kocimski; Roman Gr. Maev; Volf Leshchynsky

2012-01-01

76

Coat spraying with use of the cold spray method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, physical phenomena accompanying the process of cold spraying as well as principles of bonding particles with a surface were analysed. Moreover, the basic process parameters as well as the construction of actual spraying devices were shown. Numerous advantages of the method and its applications in the industry were presented.

Andrzej Ambroziak; Janusz Kocimski; Roman Gr. Maev; Volf Leshchynsky

2011-01-01

77

Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors.  

PubMed

A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (10-20 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi(2)O(3) nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi(2)O(3) nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray. PMID:23408113

Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2011-07-01

78

Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors  

PubMed Central

A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (1020 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi2O3 nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi2O3 nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray.

Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten

2013-01-01

79

Characterisation of samarium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sol-gel chemical spray pyrolysis method was used to deposit samarium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 films onto a quartz substrate at a growth temperature of 450 C using pulsed spray solution feed, followed by annealing at 500 C for 2 h in air. The obtained films exhibited anatase structure independent of the doping level. According to XRD analysis, the mean crystallite size of the undoped TiO2, TiO2:N(25) and TiO2:N(5):Sm(5) films was 32, 38 and 20 nm, respectively. According to AFM, the undoped TiO2 film consisted of agglomerates with a size of 30-200 nm. N-doping (25 at%) transformed the agglomerates into individually distinctive grains with a size of ca. 30 nm, while Sm doping (5 at%) caused a significant decrease in the average diameter of the agglomerates to ca. 100 nm. The RMS roughness of the undoped TiO2 film was 1.7 nm; doping resulted in the formation of smoother films with RMS roughness of 0.9-1.4 nm. XPS data indicated that the Sm and N dopants were incorporated into the TiO2 crystal lattice and/or adsorbed on the surface of the film. An increasing nitrogen concentration in the spray solution correlates to a systematic suppressing of the photoluminescence intensity of Sm3+.

Oja Acik, I.; Kiisk, V.; Krunks, M.; Sildos, I.; Junolainen, A.; Danilson, M.; Mere, A.; Mikli, V.

2012-11-01

80

Preparation of mixed oxide MoO 3WO 3 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique and their characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed oxide MoO3WO3 thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at 300C by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Equimolar ammonium tungstate and ammonium molybdate solutions were mixed together in volume proportions and used as precursors for spraying. The samples were annealed at 400C for 1 h. They

P. R Patil; P. S Patil

2001-01-01

81

Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard  

PubMed Central

Many types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been investigated as alternatives to conventional organic dyes in biochemistry; magnetic beads also have a long history of biological applications. In this work we apply flame spray pyrolysis in order to engineer a novel type of nanoparticle that has both luminescent and magnetic properties. The particles have magnetic cores of iron oxide doped with cobalt and neodymium and luminescent shells of europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd2O3). Measurements by vibrating sample magnetometry showed an overall paramagnetic response of these composite particles. Luminescence spectroscopy showed spectra typical of the Eu ion in a Gd2O3 hosta narrow emission peak centred near 615 nm. Our synthesis method offers a low-cost, high-rate synthesis route that enables a wide range of biological applications of magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles. Using these particles we demonstrate a novel immunoassay format with internal luminescent calibration for more precise measurements.

Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Dumas, Randy K; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D; Liu, Kai; Kennedy, Ian M

2008-01-01

82

Nanostructured ZnO films with various morphologies prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and its growing process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured ZnO films were prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using Zn(CH3COO)22H2O as a precursor. The effects of substrate temperature (Ts) on the morphology and properties were systematically studied. As the Ts increased from 430 C to 610 C, the morphology of the film transforms from closed packed nanosheets to dense nanocrystalline film and then to hexagonal nanorod array. The dense film formed at a temperature of 550 C has the lowest electric resistivity and highest carrier concentration. The optical transmittance for all prepared samples was higher than 90%. The photoluminescence (PL) properties varied with the Ts due to the internal defect difference. The growth mechanism of ZnO film involves island growth and diffusion, which was evident by observing the samples prepared at various times.

Ma, H. L.; Liu, Z. W.; Zeng, D. C.; Zhong, M. L.; Yu, H. Y.; Mikmekova, E.

2013-10-01

83

Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been investigated as alternatives to conventional organic dyes in biochemistry; magnetic beads also have a long history of biological applications. In this work we apply flame spray pyrolysis in order to engineer a novel type of nanoparticle that has both luminescent and magnetic properties. The particles have magnetic cores of iron oxide doped with cobalt and neodymium and luminescent shells of europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd2O3). Measurements by vibrating sample magnetometry showed an overall paramagnetic response of these composite particles. Luminescence spectroscopy showed spectra typical of the Eu ion in a Gd2O3 hosta narrow emission peak centred near 615 nm. Our synthesis method offers a low-cost, high-rate synthesis route that enables a wide range of biological applications of magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles. Using these particles we demonstrate a novel immunoassay format with internal luminescent calibration for more precise measurements.

Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Dumas, Randy K.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Liu, Kai; Kennedy, Ian M.

2007-02-01

84

Formation of CuAlO2 Film by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smooth, crack free and homogenous CuAlO2 film was produced by chemical solution deposition process via spray pyrolysis technique on a cleaned Si substrate. The precursor solution used was comprised of a mixture of 45.87 mmol Cu(NO3)2.3H2O and 90 mmol Al(NO3)3.9H2O at ratio of Cu:Al = 1.2:1. The precursor solution was placed in a mist chamber and was atomized by a nebulizer to produce precursor mist. The precursor mist was then carried out by Ar gas and was sprayed onto a heated Si. Two main parameters were studied: the distance between the nozzle of the precursor mist chamber and the Si and the temperature of the Si substrate. It appears that from the XRD data, CuAlO2 can be detected for samples prepared by spraying the precursor mist at temperature of > 550 C with distance between the nozzle and the substrate of 3cm. Reaction of the Cu and Al ions in the mist near the substrate may have promoted the crystallisation of CuAlO2.

Iping, S.; Lockman, Zainovia; Hutagalung, S. D.; Kamsul, A.; Matsuda, Atsunori

2011-10-01

85

Fabrication of textured SnO 2:F thin films by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conductive SnO 2:F thin films with textured surfaces were fabricated on soda-lime-silica glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. Structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. Results show that the film structure, morphology, haze, transmittance and sheet resistance are dependent on the substrate temperature and film thickness. An optimal 810 nm-thick SnO 2:F film with textured surface deposited at 520 C exhibits polycrystalline rutile tetragonal structure with a (2 0 0) orientation. The sheet resistance, average transmittance in visible region, and haze of this film were 8 ?/?, 80.04% and 11.07%, respectively, which are suitable for the electrode used in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells.

Ren, Yang; Zhao, Gaoyang; Chen, Yuanqing

2011-11-01

86

Optoelectronic characteristics of YAG phosphor-incorporated ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel white light device. An yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phosphor-incorporated zinc oxide (ZnO) film is deposited on a slide glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. A nanoflower consisting of a hexagonal nanopetal is formed on the surfaces of the samples, and the sizes of the nanopetal are approximately 200 to 700 nm. Additionally, the nanopetal becomes blunted with an increasing incorporated amount of YAG. As the incorporated amount is 1.5 and 2.5 wt.%, the photoluminescence color of the YAG-incorporated ZnO film is nearly white, possibly contributing to the YAG emission and the band-to-deep level transition in the ZnO film. PMID:23151219

Chen, Lung-Chien; Huang, Chien-Chung

2012-11-15

87

Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 ?m. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

2013-09-01

88

Optoelectronic characteristics of YAG phosphor-incorporated ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

PubMed Central

This work presents a novel white light device. An yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phosphor-incorporated zinc oxide (ZnO) film is deposited on a slide glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. A nanoflower consisting of a hexagonal nanopetal is formed on the surfaces of the samples, and the sizes of the nanopetal are approximately 200 to 700 nm. Additionally, the nanopetal becomes blunted with an increasing incorporated amount of YAG. As the incorporated amount is 1.5 and 2.5 wt.%, the photoluminescence color of the YAG-incorporated ZnO film is nearly white, possibly contributing to the YAG emission and the band-to-deep level transition in the ZnO film.

2012-01-01

89

Carbon Nanotubes Using Palm Oil as Carbon Source in Spray Pyrolysis System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic decomposition of palm oil, on a silica powder support impregnated with Co, Ni and Co/Ni catalysts in the temperature range 500-900 C by the Spray Pyrolysis System. Co/Ni catalyst with 5 wt.% (molar ratio of Co:Ni = 1:1), impregnated in silica was found most suitable. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) reveals that the CNTs diameter ranging from 33-53 nm depending upon the conditions of deposition. The morphological studies support `tip growth mechanism' and `base growth mechanism' depending on the size of catalyst for the growth of the CNT's. FTIR results also presented in the paper.

Azira, A. A.; Zainal, N. F. A.; Nik, S. F.; Rusop, M.

2009-06-01

90

Flame temperature trends in reacting vanadium and tungsten ethoxide fluid sprays during CO2-laser pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe the "invisible-to-the-naked-eye" flames of tungsten and vanadium ethoxide aerosols when ignited at moderate laser excitation (0< P laser<70 W) by employing an IR thermo-graphic camera. No emission is seen in the visible range whether by the visible region cameras or by spectroscopy. The emissivity of the precursor solution measured was 0.80 and 0.75 for tungsten and vanadium ethoxide, respectively. The spectral emissivities of the tungsten and vanadium ethoxide flames measured using FTIR-spectrometer were used to calculate the pyrolysis flame temperature at various laser intensities and wavelengths. New energy balance equations have been derivedthe transient temperature one extended from Haggerty-Cannon equation and the other based on standard resonance analysis. Fitting these models to experimental data reveals that only small amounts (1.33% and 4.32%, respectively) of the laser power are used in the pyrolysis of the precursor ethoxide aerosols into the desired oxide nanostructures. The low levels of specific heat capacity values obtained in these sprays suggest that these are electronic heat capacities rather than lattice heat capacities; enthalpies are also obtained. The experimental temperature-laser power trends observed were in agreement with previous findings from Tenegal et al. (Chem. Phys. Lett. 335:155, 2001). The damping coefficients, and hence the saturation intensities confirm that the vanadium containing precursor liquid is harder to dissociate into final products than the tungsten precursor as observed experimentally.

Mwakikunga, B. W.; Mudau, A. E.; Brink, N.; Willers, C. J.

2011-11-01

91

Flame spray pyrolysis: An enabling technology for nanoparticles design and fabrication.  

PubMed

Combustion of appropriate precursor sprays in a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process is a highly promising and versatile technique for the rapid and scalable synthesis of nanostuctural materials with engineered functionalities. The technique was initially derived from the fundamentals of the well-established vapour-fed flame aerosols reactors that was widely practised for the manufacturing of simple commodity powders such as pigmentary titania, fumed silica, alumina, and even optical fibers. In the last 10 years however, FSP knowledge and technology was developed substantially and a wide range of new and complex products have been synthesised, attracting major industries in a diverse field of applications. Key innovations in FSP reactor engineering and precursor chemistry have enabled flexible designs of nanostructured loosely-agglomerated powders and particulate films of pure or mixed oxides and even pure metals and alloys. Unique material morphologies such as core-shell structures and nanorods are possible using this essentially one step and continuous FSP process. Finally, research challenges are discussed and an outlook on the next generation of engineered combustion-made materials is given. PMID:20820719

Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Mdler, Lutz

2010-05-17

92

Characterization of WO3/ZnO Nanocomposites Synthesized by Flame Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was employed to synthesize pure ZnO and WO3/ZnO nanocomposites containing 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mol% WO3. WO3 is one of the most versatile and widely applied catalytic metal oxides. Precursor solutions of zinc naphthenate and tungsten ethoxide in ethanol were sprayed and combusted, resulting in crystalline and nanostructured particles. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface area of the nanocomposites was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The ZnO nanocomposites were observed as particles having clear spheroidal, hexagonal and rod-like morphologies. The crystallite sizes of spheroidal and hexagonal ZnO particles were in the range of 5-20 nm. ZnO nanorods were found to be range from 5-10 nm in width and 10-25 nm in length. The WO3 compositions of the ZnO samples were verified by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS).

Siriwong, C.; Wetchakun, N.; Liewhiran, C.; Phanichphant, S.

2009-07-01

93

Synthesis of (La,Sr)MnO-YSZ composite particles by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have been developing a cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) by the pyrolysis method. The unit cell of SOFCs consists of two porous and gas diffusion electrodes (cathode and anode) separated by a dense electrolyte such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which has a high ionic conductivity. Generally, the perovskite (La,Sr)MnO has been used mostly as a

Takehisa Fukui; Takeshi Oobuchi; Yumi Ikuhara; Satoshi Ohara; Kaseki Kodera

1997-01-01

94

Sinterability of spinel (MgAl 2O 4)Zirconia composite powder prepared by double nozzle ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of spinel (MgAl2O4)-zirconia (ZrO2) composite powders were prepared by double nozzle ultrasonic spray pyrolysis; the aqueous solutions in the Mg(NO3)2-Al(NO3)3 and ZrOCl2-YCl3 systems were spray-pyrolysed in a hot zone of an electric furnace heated at 900 C, using two ultrasonic vibrators. The compositions of the composite powders were as follows: (1) Sample No.1: MgAl2O4 93.36 mol% and yttria-stabilized

Takayuki Suzuki; Kiyoshi Itatani; Mamoru Aizawa; F. Scott Howell; Akira Kishioka

1996-01-01

95

Processing and synthesis of multi-metallic nano oxide ceramics via liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process aerosolizes metal-carboxylate precursors dissolved in alcohol with oxygen and combusts them at >1500C. The products are quenched rapidly (10s msec) to < 400C. By selecting the appropriate precursor mixtures, the compositions of the resulting oxide nanopowders can be tailored easily, which lends itself to combinatorial studies of systems facilitating material property optimization. The

Jose Antonio Azurdia

2009-01-01

96

Electrochemical properties of lead oxide films obtained by spray pyrolysis as negative electrodes for lithium secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead(II) oxides in bulk and thin film form were assessed as electrodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions of Pb(CH3COO)22H2O and deposited onto lead substrates at 175C. Films heated at 250C were found to consist of well-crystallized tetragonal PbO and evolve to the orthorhombic polymorph with prolonged heating. Cycling of the cells at

M. Martos; J. Morales; L. Snchez; R. Ayouchi; D. Leinen; F. Martin; J. R. Ramos Barrado

2001-01-01

97

Polycrystalline RbTiOPO 4 and KTiOPO 4 bilayer thin films by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel titanium precursor has been used with spray pyrolysis (SP) to deposit polycrystalline rubidium titanyl phosphate, RbTiOPO4 (RTP), thin films on thin film potassium titanyl phosphate, KTiOPO4 (KTP), for possible waveguide applications. The titanium precursor for this process was titanium peroxohydroxo complex (TPH) in aqueous diluted HNO3. The morphology of thin films of RTP and KTP depended on the

Nickolay Golego; Michael Cocivera

1998-01-01

98

Elaboration and characterization of Co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and the nature of magnetism of ZnO and Zn1?xCoxO (CZO) thin films (0?x?0.09) deposited on glass substrate at 450C by spray pyrolysis technique is investigated. All the CZO thin films have the ZnO wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along the c-axis and had no impurity phase. This was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Transmission UVvisible

Y. Belghazi; M. Ait Aouaj; M. El Yadari; G. Schmerber; C. Ulhaq-Bouillet; C. Leuvrey; S. Colis; M. Abd-lefdil; A. Berrada; A. Dinia

2009-01-01

99

Characteristics of Ag powders coated with Pb-based glass material prepared by spray pyrolysis under various gas environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ag powders coated with Pb-based glass material for Si solar cell application are directly prepared by spray pyrolysis in various gas environments. Pb-based glass is successfully formed in the composite powders irrespective of gas environment. The composite powders have bimodal size distributions of nanometer and submicron sizes. However, the number of nano-sized powders decreases when the reducing gas was used

Jang Heui Yi; Hye Young Koo; Jung Hyun Kim; You Na Ko; Yun Chan Kang; Hye Moon Lee; Jung Yeul Yun

2010-01-01

100

Optical and electrical properties of Bi doped ZnO thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Bismuth doped zinc oxide (ZBO) thin films have been prepared by a simple and inexpensive technique\\u000a namely ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Films were prepared from an aqueous solution of zinc acetate on glass and silicon substrates\\u000a at temperature of 350C. Doping is achieved by adding a small amount of Bi(NO3), H2O salt to the starting solution

F. Chouikh; Y. Beggah; M. S. Aida

2011-01-01

101

Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing performance of SnO 2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, SnO2 thin films were deposited onto alumina substrates at 350C by spray pyrolysis technique. The films were studied after annealing\\u000a in air at temperatures 550C, 750C and 950C for 30min. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning\\u000a electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The grain size was observed to increase with the\\u000a increase

GANESH E PATIL; D D KAJALE; D N CHAVAN; N K PAWAR; P T AHIRE; S D SHINDE; V B GAIKWAD; G H JAIN

102

Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the procedure by Sawada et al. (Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 46), high-quality SnO2:F films were grown on glass substrates at relatively low temperatures of 325340C by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using a perfume atomizer for cosmetics use. Even though the substrate temperature is low, as-deposited films show a high optical transmittance of 92% in the visible range, a

Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro

2004-01-01

103

P-type ZnO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis technique: The effect of solution concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to study the role of concentration variations on precursor solution of nitrogen doped ZnO (ZnO:N) thin films which has been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. SEM micrographs show that ZnO:N films in 0.1ML concentration have a mono-disperse surface with nano-spheres of 50nm in diameter. In higher molarities the nano-spheres agglomerate leading to particle formation.

S. Golshahi; S. M. Rozati; R. Martins; E. Fortunato

2009-01-01

104

The effects of calcination temperature on the electrochemical performance of LiMnPO 4 prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-coated LiMnPO4 powders were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The effects of calcination temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of C-LiMnPO4 were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied with calcination temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the calcination temperature had a strong influence on the morphology of

Seung-Min Oh; Sung Woo Oh; Seung-Taek Myung; Sung-Man Lee; Yang-Kook Sun

2010-01-01

105

Spray pyrolysis deposition and photoelectrochemical properties of n-type BiOI nanoplatelet thin films.  

PubMed

Bismuth oxy-iodide is a potentially interesting visible-light-active photocatalyst; yet there is little research regarding its photoelectrochemical properties. Herein we report the synthesis of BiOI nanoplatelet photoelectrodes by spray pyrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates at various temperatures. The films exhibited n-type conductivity, most likely due to the presence of anion vacancies, and optimized films possessed incident photon conversion efficiencies of over 20% in the visible range for the oxidation of I(-) to I(3)(-) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl in acetonitrile. Visible-light photons (? > 420 nm) contributed approximately 75% of the overall photocurrent under AM1.5G illumination, illustrating their usefulness under solar light illumination. A deposition temperature of 260 C was found to result in the best performance due to the balance of morphology, crystallinity, impurity levels, and optical absorption, leading to photocurrents of roughly 0.9 mA/cm(2) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Although the films performed stably in acetonitrile, their performance decreased significantly upon extended exposure to water, which was apparently caused by a loss of surface iodine and subsequent formation of an insulating bismuth hydroxide layer. PMID:22891667

Hahn, Nathan T; Hoang, Son; Self, Jeffrey L; Mullins, C Buddie

2012-08-20

106

Synthesis and characterization of thorium phosphate phases by spray pyrolysis: chemistry of thorium phosphates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the synthesis of some thorium phosphate compounds with different Th/P ratio (1/2, 2/3 and 3/4) by a spray pyrolysis technique. The so-prepared rough compounds were annealed at different temperatures for 2 h and then analyzed by mainly X-ray diffraction on powder and infrared spectroscopy. Every rough compound is composed by very badly crystallized ThO{sub 2} phase polluted by carbon residue. An annealing treatment at 800 deg. C leads to the thorium diphosphate phase, {alpha}-ThP{sub 2}O{sub 7} in every case. At 900 deg. C, such a phase is decomposed into a thorium phosphate diphosphate phase (Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, called TPD). However, a thorium excess in the initial mixture (Th/P = 3/4) leads also to observe the ThO{sub 2} phase. The TPD phase is stable up to 1200 deg. C and does not react with the ThO{sub 2} compound. Beyond 1200 deg. C, the TPD phase is slowly decomposed into a thorium phosphate compound which should be a thorium oxide phosphate; this compound does not contain any diphosphate species.

Marchin, L.; Trombe, J.C.; Verelst, M

2004-10-04

107

Synthesis of Al2O3 thin films using laser assisted spray pyrolysis (LASP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study reports the development of a laser assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and synthesis of dense optical alumina films using the same. In this technique ultrasonically generated aerosols of aluminum acetylacetonate dissolved in ethanol and a laser beam (Nd:YAG, CW, 1064 nm) were fed coaxially and concurrently through a quartz tube on to a hot substrate mounted on an X-Y raster stage. At the laser focused spot the precursor underwent solvent evaporation and solute sublimation followed by precursor vapor decomposition giving rise to oxide coating, the substrate is rastered to get large surface area coating. The surface morphology revealed coalescence of particles with increase in laser power. The observed particle sizes were 17 nm for films synthesized without laser and 18, 21 and 25 nm for films made with laser at 25, 38 and 50 W, respectively. Refractive index of the films synthesized increased from 1.56 to 1.62 as the laser power increased from 0 to 50 W. The stoichiometry of films was studied using XPS and the increase in interfacial layer thickness with laser power was observed from dynamic SIMS depth profiling and ellipsometry.

Dhonge, Baban P.; Mathews, Tom; Tripura Sundari, S.; Krishnan, R.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Kamruddin, M.; Subbarao, R. V.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

2013-01-01

108

Electrical conductivity and crystallization of amorphous bismuth ruthenate thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis.  

PubMed

Amorphous oxide thin films with tailored functionality will be crucial for the next generation of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). Due to potentially favorable electronic and catalytic properties, amorphous bismuth ruthenate thin films might be applied in this regard. We report on the deposition of amorphous bismuth ruthenate thin films by spray pyrolysis, their crystallization behavior and electrical conductivity. At room temperature the 200 nm thin amorphous films exhibit a high electrical conductivity of 7.7 10(4) S m(-1), which was found to be slightly thermally activated (E(a) = 4.1 10(-3) eV). It follows that a long-range order of the RuO(6) octahedra is no precondition for the electrical conductivity of Bi(3)Ru(3)O(11). Upon heating to the temperature range between 490 C and 580 C the initially amorphous films crystallize rapidly. Simultaneously, a transition from a dense and continuous film to isolated Bi(3)Ru(3)O(11) particles on the substrate takes place. Solid-state agglomeration is proposed as the mechanism responsible for disintegration. The area specific resistance of Bi(3)Ru(3)O(11) particles contacted by Pt paste on gadolinia doped ceria electrolyte pellets was found to be 7 ? cm(2) at 607 C in air. Amorphous bismuth ruthenate thin films are proposed for application in electrochemical devices operating at low temperatures, where a high electrical conductivity is required. PMID:20848026

Ryll, Thomas; Brunner, Andreas; Ellenbroek, Stefan; Bieberle-Hutter, Anja; Rupp, Jennifer L M; Gauckler, Ludwig J

2010-09-17

109

Preparation and characterization of nanostructured nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent crystalline nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were prepared using a simple spray pyrolysis technique from hydrated nickel chloride salt solution (NiCl26H2O) onto glass and silicon (n-type) substrates at different temperatures (280, 320, 360, and 400 C) and with different solution concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 M). Structural and morphological properties of the grown NiO films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope. Optical properties and chemical analysis of the films were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The XRD result showed that the deposited film has an amorphous structure when deposited at temperature of T s = 280 C and concentration of 0.025 M. At higher temperatures (T s = 320, 360, 400 C) and solution concentrations (0.05, 0.075, 0.1 M), the deposited films have cubic polycrystalline structure formed with preferred orientation along (111) plane. The band gap of NiO film increases from 3.4 to 3.8 eV as the molarity decreased from 0.1 to 0.05 M.

Ismail, Raid A.; Ghafori, Sa'ad; Kadhim, Ghada A.

2012-08-01

110

Effect of pH on the production of chalcopyrite CuInSe2 prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films (about 1 micron) of CuInSe2 were prepared by spray pyrolysis from solutions with various initial Cu:In:Se ratios and in which 75-90 percent of the acid was neutralized. The substrate temperature was varied between 225 and 300 C. The chalcopyrite structure dominated the as-sprayed films with 90 percent of the acid neutralized and 300 C substrate temperature. At 225 C all films were sphalerite independent of the degree of acid neutralization. Unlike previous studies which only produced the sphalerite structure in films prepared from unneutralized solutions, the present study indicates that the chalcopyrite phase can be produced in as-sprayed films with a range of initial ratios.

Bates, C. W., Jr.; Nelson, K. F.; Abernathy, C. R.; Uekita, M.; Mooney, J. B.

1983-11-01

111

Effect of temperature on structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline CuInS2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper indium disulphide (CuInS2), is a good absorber material for photovoltaic applications. In this work, CuInS2 is deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis on heated glass substrates. It is observed that the film growth temperature and the ion ratio Cu/In affects the structural and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films. This paper presents the effect of temperature on the growth (for the ion ratio Cu/In=1.25), optical and photoluminescence properties of sprayed CuInS2 films. The XRD patterns confirm the well defined single phase composition of CuInS2 films grown from 300 to 350 C (at Cu/In=1.25) as optimum temperature for depositing well defined crystallites along (1 1 2) oriented CuInS2 thin films with chalcopyrite structure. D2d point symmetry group is associated with the CuInS2 crystallites with energy gap of 1.53 eV at room temperature. The chemical nature and the presence of additional phases are discussed based on the EDAX measurements. The absorption coefficient of sprayed CuInS2 films is found to be in the order of 105-106 cm-1 in the UV-visible region and the optical band gap decreases with increase in temperature. Defects-related photoluminescence properties are also discussed. CuInS2 polycrystalline films are prepared by the cost effective method of spray pyrolysis from the aqueous solutions of copper (II) chloride, indium (III) chloride and thiourea for synthesis on heated glass substrates.

Mahendran, C.; Suriyanarayanan, N.

2010-04-01

112

Magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles synthesized by spray pyrolysis and their application in immunoassays with internal standard.  

PubMed

Many types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been investigated as alternatives to conventional organic dyes in biochemistry; magnetic beads also have a long history of biological applications. In this work we apply flame spray pyrolysis in order to engineer a novel type of nanoparticle that has both luminescent and magnetic properties. The particles have magnetic cores of iron oxide doped with cobalt and neodymium and luminescent shells of europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd(2)O(3)). Measurements by vibrating sample magnetometry showed an overall paramagnetic response of these composite particles. Luminescence spectroscopy showed spectra typical of the Eu ion in a Gd(2)O(3) host-a narrow emission peak centred near 615 nm. Our synthesis method offers a low-cost, high-rate synthesis route that enables a wide range of biological applications of magnetic/luminescent core/shell particles. Using these particles we demonstrate a novel immunoassay format with internal luminescent calibration for more precise measurements. PMID:18974844

Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Dumas, Randy K; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D; Liu, Kai; Kennedy, Ian M

2007-07-01

113

Spray pyrolysis synthesis of particles possessing magnetic and luminescent properties: application of magnetic/luminescent particles in immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of fluorescent nanoparticles have been investigated as alternatives to conventional organic dyes in biochemistry. In addition, magnetic beads are another type of particle that have a long history of biological applications. In this work we apply flame spray pyrolysis in order to engineer a novel type of nanoparticle that has both luminescent and magnetic properties. The particles have magnetic cores of iron oxide doped with cobalt and neodymium and luminescent shells of europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd2O3). Measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer showed an overall paramagnetic response of these composite particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed spectra typical of the Eu ion in a Gd2O3 host; a narrow emission peak centered near 615 nm. Our synthesis method offers low-cost, high-rate synthesis allowing a wide range of biological applications of magnetic/fluorescent core/shell particles. We demonstrate an immunoassay using the magnetic and fluorescent properties of the particles for separation and detection purposes.

Dosev, D.; Nichkova, M.; Dumas, R. K.; Liu, Kai; Kennedy, I. M.

2006-01-01

114

In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of silver-containing hydroxyapatite prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis route.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite (HAp), with its high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, readily absorbs proteins, amino acids and other substances, which in turn favor the adsorption and colonization of bacteria. To prevent bacterial growth and biofilm formation on HAp discs, silver-containing (1-20mol%) HAp (Ag-HAp) powders were synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USSP) technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks were very broad, indicating low crystallinity, and this induced the release of Ag(+) ions from Ag-HAp powders. In addition, a gradual increase in Ca(2+) ion release was observed. These results suggest that dissolution of Ca(2+) ion in Ag-HAp triggered the release of Ag(+) ions. The antimicrobial efficacy of Ag-HAp disc was tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Samples with Ag contents of more than 5mol% were found to be highly effective against bacterial colonization and biofilm formation in vitro. In vivo antibacterial tests using bioluminescent strains also showed reductions in the viability of bacteria with Ag-HAp (5mol%) discs. Biocompatibility tests using a modified Transwell insert method showed that Ag-HAp (5mol%) discs have negative effects on osteoblast proliferation. These results indicate that Ag-HAp (5mol%) has effective antibacterial activity and good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo together with good biocompatibility, thus confirming its utility as a bactericidal material. PMID:24094218

Honda, Michiyo; Kawanobe, Yusuke; Ishii, Ken; Konishi, Toshiisa; Mizumoto, Minori; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Morio; Aizawa, Mamoru

2013-09-07

115

Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing citric acid and polyethylene glycol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles were prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis. The morphological control of Y2O3:Eu particles in spray pyrolysis was attempted by adding polymeric precursors to the spray solution. The effect of composition and amount of polymeric precursors on the morphology, crystallinity and photoluminescence characteristics of Y2O3:Eu particles was investigated. Particles prepared from a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) with an average molecular weight of 200 had a hollow structure, while those prepared from solutions containing adequate amounts of citric acid (CA) and PEG had a spherical shape, filled morphology and clean surfaces after post-treatment at high temperature. Y2O3:Eu particles prepared from an aqueous solution with no polymeric precursors had a hollow structure and rough surfaces after post-treatment. The phosphor particles prepared from solutions with inadequate amounts of CA and/or PEG also had hollow and/or fragmented structures. The particles prepared from the solution containing 0.3 M CA and 0.3 M PEG had the highest photoluminescence emission intensity, which was 56% higher than that of the particles prepared from aqueous solution without polymeric precursors.

Roh, H. S.; Kang, Y. C.; Park, H. D.; Park, S. B.

116

Electrical, structural and optical properties of SnO 2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of the substrate temperature on the structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of undoped SnO2 films prepared by a spray deposition method. The films were deposited at various substrate temperatures ranging from 300500C in steps of 50C and characterized by different optical and structural techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallite size and preferential

T. Serin; N. Serin; S. Karadeniz; H. Sari; N. Tugluoglu; O. Pakma

2006-01-01

117

Effect of colloidal silica addition on the formation of porous spherical ?-calcium orthophosphate agglomerates by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of colloidal silica (SiO2; CS) addition on the formation of porous spherical ?-calcium orthophosphate (?-Ca3(PO4)2; ?-TCP) agglomerates has been examined. The starting powder was prepared by the spray pyrolysis of calcium phosphate (Ca\\/P ratio = 1.50) solution containing 0.9 mol?dm-3 Ca(NO3)2, 0.6 mol?dm-3 (NH4)2HPO4, CS (mean particle size; 14, 24 and 39 nm) and concentrated HNO3 at 600C,

Kiyoshi ITATANI; Ari OOE; Ian J. DAVIES; Tomohiro UMEDA; Yoshiro MUSHA; Seiichiro KODA

2009-01-01

118

A study of ferroelectric thin films deposited on a LaNiO3 barrier electrode by nebulized spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PT) and Pb(Zr0.5 Ti0.5 )O3 (PZT) as well as antiferroelectric PbZrO3 (PZ) have been prepared on LaNiO3 \\/SiO2 \\/Si substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP) of metal-organic precursors. The metallic LaNiO3 (LNO) electrode layer was also deposited by NSP. The ferroelectric films obtained show satisfactory morphology and desirable dielectric properties. Typical values of the coercive

P. Murugavel; Rajat Sharma; A. R. Raju; C. N. R. Rao

2000-01-01

119

Effect of calcination temperature on morphology, crystallinity and electrochemical properties of nano-crystalline metal oxides (Co 3O 4, CuO, and NiO) prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-crystalline metal oxides (Co3O4, CuO, and NiO) are synthesized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effects of calcination temperature on the morphology, crystallite size and electrochemical properties of the metal oxides are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the crystallite size varies with the final calcination temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and

Sung Woo Oh; Hyun Joo Bang; Young Chan Bae; Yang-Kook Sun

2007-01-01

120

Morphology Study of Prepared Carbon Nanotubes using Palm Oil as Carbon Source in Spray Pyrolysis Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface morphology study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using newly developed spray pyrolysis chemical vapor deposition (Spray-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from palm oil as carbon sources were synthesized in Argon gas ambient by using Spray-CVD system. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that palm oil can serve as a precursor materials for nanotubes formation. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Spray-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs. The palm oil of hydrocarbons not only found acts as the precursors but also enhances the production rate of CNTs.

Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

2010-03-01

121

Leidenfrost temperature related CVD-like growth mechanism in ZnO-TFTs deposited by pulsed spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide thin films were prepared by pulsed spray pyrolysis (SP) from aqueous zinc acetate precursor solution. The deposition behavior of the solution with regard to the pool boiling curve of the solvent was investigated to gain insights of the deposition mechanism which leads to homogeneous and reproducible ZnO layers. The Leidenfrost effect was found to play an important role since the Leidenfrost temperature has to be exceeded to form high quality layers. It is concluded that 3D nucleation of ZnO nano-crystals takes place out of the gaseous phase by a CVD-like process on ITO as well as on SiO2 substrates. Crystal orientation and surface roughness of the zinc oxide layer are found to depend strongly on the substrate. An increasing grain size with film thickness is observed. These findings were utilized to fabricate and investigate the semiconducting properties of the films in ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). The mobility exceeded 12 cm2 V-1 s-1, the on-set was at 1 V and the on-off current ratio was found to be higher than 108. Hence the morphology and the electrical parameters of the ZnO films deposited by pulsed spray pyrolysis from non-toxic aqueous zinc acetate solution above the Leidenfrost point show excellent properties for electronic applications.

Ortel, Marlis; Wagner, Veit

2013-01-01

122

One-step spray pyrolysis synthesized CuO-carbon composite combined with carboxymethyl cellulose binder as anode for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Copper oxide-carbon composite with hollow sphere structure has been synthesized by a one-step spray pyrolysis method and tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Different analytical methods, including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and systematic electrochemical tests were performed. The results demonstrate that the CuO-carbon composite in conjunction with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder has an excellent electrochemical performance, with a capacity of 577 mAh g(-1) up to 100 cycles. The usage of the water soluble binder, CMC, not only obviously improves the electrochemical performance, but also makes the electrode fabrication process much easier and more environmentally friendly. PMID:22629946

Zhong, Chao; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Gao, Xuan-Wen; Chou, Shu-Lei; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Liu, Hua-Kun

2012-02-01

123

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOEpatents

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

1988-01-21

124

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOEpatents

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity.

Alvarez, Joseph L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Lloyd D. (Rigby, ID)

1990-01-01

125

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

DOEpatents

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27

126

Compositional and physico-optical characterization of 0-5% Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly transparent polycrystalline Al-doped ZnO thin films were deposited in open atmosphere by chemical spray pyrolysis on fused silica and glass substrates at 623 K. The influence of Al doping, 0 to 5%, was studied. XPS results revealed a linear relationship between Al content in the precursor solutions and Al content in the films. XPS depth profiling showed that any

R. Romero; R. Lpez-Ibez; E. A. Dalchiele; J. R. Ramos-Barrado; F. Martn; D. Leinen

2010-01-01

127

Effect of temperature on the growth of TiO 2 thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis: Structural, compositional and optical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large surface area coatings of oxygen deficient nanocrystalline TiO2 are of immense use in antifogging mirrors and self cleaning windows. Spray pyrolysis is a simple versatile technique to coat relatively large surface area. A clear understanding of effect of substrate temperature on the coating morphology, structure, composition and optical properties is essential to produce coatings of desired properties. Oxygen deficient

N. C. Raut; Tom Mathews; P. Chandramohan; M. P. Srinivasan; S. Dash; A. K. Tyagi

2011-01-01

128

Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

2007-01-01

129

Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.|

Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

2007-01-01

130

Effect of the flame temperature on the characteristics of zirconium oxide fine particle synthesized by flame assisted spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium oxide fine particles were synthesized by flame assisted spray pyrolysis using zirconium chloride solution as precursor. Propane gas and air were used as a fuel and an oxidizer, respectively. The ratio of flow rate of oxidizer and fuel was maintained constant at 10:1 to ensure a complete combustion. Increasing fuel flow rate led to the increase of temperature distribution in the flame reactor. The intensity of XRD patterns increased with temperature and precursor concentration. Phase composition of zirconium oxide produced by this process consisted of monoclinic and tetragonal phases. The volume fraction of monoclinic phase of zirconium oxide increased with temperature and precursor concentration. The morphology particles observed by SEM resulted in spherical particles with size in the submicron range depending on the precursor concentration.

Widiyastuti, W.; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

2013-09-01

131

Photoluminescence of (YGd)2O3:Eu phosphors produced by nanoparticle-seeded flame-assisted spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on synthesis of europium-doped (Y1-xGdx)2O3 by flame-assisted spray py-rolysis in premixed propane/air flames. Phosphor powders with an average particle size on the order of 0.5 ?m were obtained from 0.2 M aqueous solutions of the corresponding metal salts. Relative concentration of gadolinium (x) was varied in the range 0 to 1. For excitation at a wavelength of 254 nm, the highest intensity of photoluminescence was achieved for x = 0.2 (110% of brightness of the samples without gadolinia). Doping pure yttria and gadolinia with nanoparticles of Y2O3:Eu (dBET = 24 nm) was tested. Addition of nanoseeds (up to 50 mol.% in the obtained powders) noticeably decreased surface roughness of phosphor particles.

Kubrin, R.; Huang, J.; Moglia, F.; Petermann, K.; Bauhofer, W.

2011-05-01

132

Structural, optical, electrical and surface properties of Co-doped ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study undoped and Co-doped ZnO films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Co-doped ZnO films were obtained on glass substrates at different Co concentrations (at 2%, 4%) using zinc acetate and cobalt chloride as precursors. The effect of Co doping was investigated on the structural, optical, electrical and surface properties. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry and four-point probe techniques. Consequently available potential of Co doped ZnO films for technological applications was searched.

Gency?lmaz, O.; Atay, F.; Akyuz, I.

2012-09-01

133

Effect of annealing on the properties of zinc oxide nanofiber thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanofiber thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline with the hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation along (002) direction for films annealed for 1 h at 450 C. Further increase in annealing time changes the preferred orientation to (100) direction. The scanning electron microscopic analysis showed the formation of ZnO nanofiber with an average diameter of approximately 800 nm for annealed films. The compositional analysis of nanofiber ZnO thin films were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, which indicated oxygen deficiency in the films. The optical properties of annealed films have shown a variation in the band gap between 3.29 and 3.20 eV. The electrical conductivity of the as grown and annealed films showed an increase in the conductivity by two orders of magnitude with increase in annealing duration.

Sadananda Kumar, N.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

2013-01-01

134

Synthesis and characterization of nanostructural CuS-ZnS binary compound thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of zinc concentration ([Zn]/[Cu]=0-100 at%) on nanostructural, optical and electrical properties of CuS-ZnS binary thin films grown on glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films were crystallized with mixed structures of CuS hexagonal and ZnS cubic structure. UV-vis optical measurements analysis showed that these binary films have a relatively high absorption coefficient (105 cm-1) in the visible spectrum with a direct band gap in the range of 2.57-2.45 eV in agreement with the corresponding room temperature PL spectra. The electrical studies showed that all these samples have a p-type conductivity and the free hole density decreases with increasing [Zn]/[Cu] molar ratio, in agreement with the reflectance spectra of the layers, originating from plasma oscillations.

Adelifard, Mehdi; Eshghi, Hosein; Bagheri Mohagheghi, Mohammad Mehdi

2012-10-01

135

Studies on structural and optical properties of Cu doped CdxZn1-XS thin films by Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu doped CdxZn1-XS thin films have been produced by Spray Pyrolysis technique at 2750C+/-50C. This work describes structural, surface morphology and optical (UV-Vis) properties of as-deposited Cu doped CdxZn1-XS thin films as a function of Zn in the solution. It has been observed that CdZnS films have hexagonal structure and the grain sizes are found to increase with increasing Zn content in the solution. The energy band gap values obtained are 2.330, 2,447, 2.716, 3.044 and 3.519eV for Zn as 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% respectively.

Rane, D. S.; Patil, L. A.

2012-06-01

136

Observation of Nanospherical n-SnO2/p-Si Heterojunction Fabricated by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film of tin oxide (SnO2) was prepared on p-type polished silicon wafer by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique using SnCl4 precursor solution to fabricate nanospherical n-SnO2/p-Si heterojunction photoelectric device. Deposition of film was achieved at 400C substrate temperature. The self-made ultrasonic spray pyrolysis system is very cheap and convenient. The microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the SnO2 film were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, UV-VIS spectrophotometer, four point probe and Hall effect measurement, respectively. The SnO2 film has the nanospherical particles. The electrical properties of heterojunction were investigated by I-V measurement, which reveals that the heterojunction shows strong rectifying behavior under a dark condition. The ideality factor and the saturation current density of this diode are 4.27 and 2.52 10-6 A/cm2, respectively. And the values of IF/IR (IF and IR stand for forward and reverse current, respectively) at 5 V is found to be as high as 248. The SnO2/p-Si heterojunction device exhibits obvious photovoltaic effect. Under an AM1.5 illumination condition, the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (JSC), fill factor (FF) of the device are 150 mV, 3.9 10-3 mA/cm2 and 20.58%, respectively. High photocurrent is obtained under a reverse bias when the crystalline quality of SnO2 film is good enough to transmit the light into p-Si. Under 6.3 mW/cm2 illumination, when the reverse bias is -5 V, the photocurrent gain is as high as 86.

He, Bo; Xu, Jing; Xing, Huaizhong; Wang, Chunrui; Guo, Ying; Lu, Hongwei

2013-10-01

137

A New Method for Spray Deposit Assessment 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are dis tributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual rec ognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and non target portions of sprayed areas. The forest is a three- dim

CHESTER M. HIMEL; LELAND VAUGHN; RAYMOND P. MISKUS; ARTHUR D. MOORE

138

Probing the effect of nitrogen gas on electrical conduction phenomena of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were prepared on borosilicate glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique.\\u000a The X-ray diffraction study revealed that Cu doping caused a reduction in crystallite size. AFM study showed an increase in\\u000a roughness with doping. This is attributed to the aggregation of particles to form clusters. From transmission electron microscopy\\u000a analysis, the particle

Debadhyan Behera; Jagannath Panigrahi; Bhabani S. Acharya

139

Oriented ferroelectric thin films of PbTiO3, (Pb,La)TiO3, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 by nebulized spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nebulized spray pyrolysis provides a good low-temperature chemical route for preparing thin films of PbTiO3, (Pb0.9,La0.1)TiO3 and Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3. The films are a- or c- axis oriented, with spherical grains of ?30 nm and give satisfactory P-E hysteresis loops.

A. R. Raju; C. N. R. Rao

1995-01-01

140

Dye-sensitized solar cell based on optically transparent TiO 2 nanocrystalline electrode prepared by atomized spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of crack-free thin films of interconnected and non-agglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles on electronically conducting fluorine doped tin oxide surfaces is instrumental in designing and developing transparent dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A novel technique called Atomized Spray Pyrolysis (ASP) has been designed and developed to achieve such perfectly transparent thin films. Optical transmittance of TiO2 films produced on FTO surface by

H. M. N. Bandara; R. M. G. Rajapakse; K. Murakami; G. R. R. A. Kumara; G. Anuradha Sepalage

2011-01-01

141

Growth of nitrogen-doped p-type ZnO films by spray pyrolysis and their electrical and optical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-doped ZnO films were deposited on silicon (100) substrate using zinc acetate and ammonium acetate aqueous solution as precursors by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Successful p-type doping can be realized at optimized substrate temperature. The p-type ZnO films show excellent electrical properties such as hole concentration of ?1018cm?3, hole mobility of ?102cm2V?1s?1 and resistivity of ?10?2?cm. In the photoluminescence measurement, a

Jun-Liang Zhao; Xiao-Min Li; Ji-Ming Bian; Wei-Dong Yu; Can-Yun Zhang

2005-01-01

142

The structural, thermoelectric and photoconductive properties of sulfur doped In2O3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study In2O3 and In2O3:S thin films were prepared on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of sulfur impurities on the structural, morphological, electrical, thermo-electrical, optical and photoconductive properties of films has been investigated. The sulfur to indium atomic ratios (x = [S]/[In]) were varied from 0 to 15 in the spray solution. From the x-ray diffraction analysis, a phase transition occurred from the cubic In2O3 to the cubic ?-In2S3 phase with increasing S-doping level. SEM images indicated that the nanostructure of the films has a particle-cluster type growth. The Hall effect measurements have shown n-type conductivity in all of the deposited films. The lowest resistance of 19 k? sq-1 and the highest carrier concentration of 1.32 1019 cm-3 were obtained for the film deposited with an [S]/[In] atomic ratio of 0.6. The maximum of the Seebeck coefficient equal to 141 ?V K-1 was obtained at 400 K for the film deposited with an [S]/[In] atomic ratio of 1. The average transmittance of films varied over the range 40-80% with S-concentration. The band gap values of samples were obtained in the range of 3.85-3.96 eV. From the photoconductivity studies, the sample prepared with the [S]/[In] atomic ratio of 0.2 exhibited the highest photoconductivity among the In2O3:S films.

Hasan Zadeh Maha, M.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.-M.; Azimi-Juybari, H.; Shokooh-Saremi, M.

2012-11-01

143

Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin-films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing treatments on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes for solar water splitting was studied. Thin films of BiVO4 were deposited on ITO-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) in the aqueous precursor. The 1.7 ?m - 2.2 ?m thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375 C in 3% H2 exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1 W cm-2 AM1.5 illumination. This performance enhancement was believed to be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies, which are shallow electron donors, in the films. Films doped with 1% or 5% tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced photoelectrochemical performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder X-ray diffraction data of the undoped films indicated that they were comprised primarily of the monoclinic scheelite phase while unidentified phases were also present. Scanning electron microscopy showed slightly different morphology characteristics for the Wdoped films. It is surmised that the addition of W in the deposition process promoted the morphology differences and the formation of different phases, thus reducing the PEC performance of the photoanode samples. Significant PEC performance variability was also observed among films deposited using the described process.

Holland, Stephen K.; Dutter, Melissa R.; Lawrence, David J.; Reisner, Barbara A.; DeVore, Thomas C.

2013-09-01

144

A study of ferroelectric thin films deposited on a LaNiO3 barrier electrode by nebulized spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PT) and Pb(Zr0.5 Ti0.5 )O3 (PZT) as well as antiferroelectric PbZrO3 (PZ) have been prepared on LaNiO3 /SiO2 /Si substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP) of metal-organic precursors. The metallic LaNiO3 (LNO) electrode layer was also deposited by NSP. The ferroelectric films obtained show satisfactory morphology and desirable dielectric properties. Typical values of the coercive field, remnant polarization and dielectric constant (300 K) for the PT/LNO/SiO2 /Si film are 170 kV cm-1 , 22 C cm-2 and 210, respectively, with the corresponding values for the PZT/LNO/SiO2 /Si film being 120 kV cm-1 , 13 C cm-2 and 540, respectively. The PZ/LNO/SiO2 /Si film shows typical antiferroelectric characteristics including the electric-field induced reversible antiferroelectric - ferroelectric transition. The various films deposited on LNO/SiO2 /Si by NSP are comparable in all respects to those prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2 /Si by the same technique.

Murugavel, P.; Sharma, Rajat; Raju, A. R.; Rao, C. N. R.

2000-04-01

145

Structural and magnetic characterization of LiMn{sub 1.825}Cr{sub 0.175}O{sub 4} spinel obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Quaternary spinel oxide LiMn{sub 1.825}Cr{sub 0.175}O{sub 4} powder was synthesized by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method, without additional annealing. The crystal structure of the as-prepared powder was revealed by X-ray powder diffraction and identified as a single spinel phase with Fd3m space group. The powders had a spherical morphology with extremely smooth surface appearance and densely congested interior structure. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particle consisted by the cohesion of the primary particles. Magnetic measurements performed in DC field in both zero-field-cooled and field-cooled regimes, as well as AC susceptibility experiments, show that system undergoes spin-glass transition at the freezing temperature T {sub f} = 20 K. The value of the effective magnetic moment {mu} {sub eff} = 4.34 {mu} {sub B} obtained from the Curie-Weiss fit in the high temperature region confirms the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} ions with Cr{sup 3+} ions.

Jugovic, D. [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Cvjeticanin, N. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 137, Belgrade (Serbia); Kusigerski, V. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitric, M. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Miljkovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis (Serbia); Makovec, D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Uskokovic, D. [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia)

2007-03-22

146

The tab method for numerical calculation of spray droplet breakup  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a method for calculating drop aerodynamic breakup in engine sprays. A short history is first give of the major milestones in the development of the stochastic particle method for calculating liquid fuel sprays. The most recent advance has been the discovery of the importance of drop breakup in engine sprays. They present a new method, called the TAB method, for calculating drop breakup. Some theoretical properties of the method are derived; its numerical implementation in the computer program KIVA is described; and comparisons are presented between TAB-method calculations and experiments and calculations using another breakup model.

O'Rourke, P.J.; Amsden, A.A.

1987-01-01

147

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars\\/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level

Lyle K. Mudge; Michael D. Brown; Wayne A. Wilcox; Eddie G. Baker

1989-01-01

148

Encapsulation of Proteins by Spray Drying and Crystal Transformation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray drying is commonly used as a dehydration technique in the pharmaceutical industry for making powdery products directly from liquid. It is also an attractive alternative for obtaining solid pharmaceutical molecules that are traditionally produced by freeze drying. Spray drying is often regarded as a harsh drying method, due to the high temperature of the drying gas. Therefore, some excipients

Hidefumi Yoshii; Tze Loon Neoh; Takeshi Furuta; Masaaki Ohkawara

2008-01-01

149

Thermal NDE Method for Thermal Spray Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a feasibility demonstration of a thermal scanning NDE system for thermal spray coatings. Non-bonds were detected between several types of coatings and their substrates. Aluminum anti-skid coatings having very rough surfaces were inclu...

D. R. Green M. D. Schmeller R. A. Sulit

1982-01-01

150

A New Method for Spray Coloring Silicone Elastomer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method has been developed for coloring extraoral maxillofacial prostheses prepared from silicone elastomer RTV 399. In this method, the RTV elastomer prosthesis, containing pigments which impart a basic shade to the elastomer, is sprayed using an ar...

J. E. Ouellette

1968-01-01

151

Dense Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Dense oriented superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films having zero resistance as high as 100 K have been made using a technique in which spray deposited and pyrolyzed films are densified by either melt quenching or flux sintering. The highest T/sub c/ films were those prepared with PbO as a dopant/flux on MgO substrates. Films without lead doping prepared on both BeO and MgO substrates yielded resistive transitions of 81--83 K. For these latter films, it was demonstrated that a subsequent anneal in argon enhanced the T/sub c/ to 87 K. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and four-point probe resistance measurements. The critical current density of a film having a T/sub c/ of 81 K was 4000 A/cm/sup 2/ at 78 K and 14 000 A/cm/sup 2/ at 55K.

Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.; DeLuca, J.; Hilbert, C.; Miracky, R.F.; Smith, L.N.

1989-03-06

152

Method for preventing plugging in the pyrolysis of agglomerative coals  

DOEpatents

To prevent plugging in a pyrolysis operation where an agglomerative coal in a nondeleteriously reactive carrier gas is injected as a turbulent jet from an opening into an elongate pyrolysis reactor, the coal is comminuted to a size where the particles under operating conditions will detackify prior to contact with internal reactor surfaces while a secondary flow of fluid is introduced along the peripheral inner surface of the reactor to prevent backflow of the coal particles. The pyrolysis operation is depicted by two equations which enable preselection of conditions which insure prevention of reactor plugging.

Green, Norman W. (Upland, CA)

1979-01-23

153

Novel trapping system for size wise sorting of SnO 2 nanoparticles synthesized from pyrolysis of ultrasonically atomized spray for gas sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity, nanostructured SnO2 powders were synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Ultrasonic generator was used to convert aqueous solution (0.1M\\/0.5M\\/0.75M) of SnCl45H2O into very fine droplets. When droplets pass through two zone furnace, they would be pyrolysed and nanoparticles of SnO2 would form. Simple but novel trap system (with traps) was employed for size wise sorting of the nanoparticles.

L. A. Patil; M. D. Shinde; A. R. Bari; V. V. Deo

2009-01-01

154

Chemical spray pyrolysis deposition and characterization of p-type CuCr 1? x Mg x O 2 transparent oxide semiconductor thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical spray pyrolysis technique for deposition of p-type Mg-doped CuCrO2 transparent oxide semiconductor thin films using metaloorganic precursors is described. As-deposited films contain mixed spinel CuCr2O4 and delafossite CuCrO2 structural phases. Reduction in spinel CuCr2O4 fraction and formation of highly crystalline films with single phase delafossite CuCrO2 structure is realized by annealing at temperatures ?700C in argon. A mechanism

S. H. Lim; Suma Desu; A. C. Rastogi

2008-01-01

155

Properties of undoped n-type ZnO film and NIn codoped p-type ZnO film deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and NIn codoped ZnO films were deposited on Si(100) by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ZnO based films were investigated. Results indicate that the low-resistivity p-type ZnO film with the resistivity of 5.0410?3 ?cm, high mobility of 33.5 cm2\\/Vs, carrier concentration of 3.691019 cm?3, and Seebeck coefficient of 825 ?V\\/K was obtained by

Jiming Bian; Xiaomin Li; Lidong Chen; Qin Yao

2004-01-01

156

Electrochemical properties of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 \\/ carbon cathode materials prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4\\/C powder of pure olivine phase can be prepared with the duplex process of spray pyrolysis synthesis (at 450?C) and subsequent heat treatment (at 700?C for 2, 4 and 8h). From scanning electron microscopy observation with corresponding elemental mapping images of iron, phosphorous and magnesium, it could be found that the LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 powders are covered with fine pyrolyzed carbon.

Tsung-Hsien Teng; Mu-Rong Yang; She-Hung Wu; Yi-Ping Chiang

2007-01-01

157

The properties of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films with silver doping prepared by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting silver-doped films of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) have been deposited by spray pyrolysis of aqueous nitrate solutions onto MgO substrates. The superconducting transport properties, microstructure, and microwave losses have been characterized for various amounts of AgNO3 added to the spraying solution. These films had resistive transition temperatures between 79 and 85 K with widths from 3 to 7 K. The room-temperature resistivity was a strong function of the silver doping, dropping by a factor of 50 for the heavily doped films. Critical current densities at 4 K were typically several thousand A/sq cm with little correlation to the silver doping. Lattice constants also were not significantly affected by the silver doping level, however, lightly doped films were denser, had the strongest c axis preferred orientation, and a smoother surface.

Cukauskas, E. J.; Allen, L. H.; Newman, H. S.; Henry, R. L.; van Damme, P. K.

1990-06-01

158

Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the characteristics of PZT films deposited by the sol-gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600C on the materials and ferroelectric characteristics of PZT films deposited by the sol-gel method. SEM showed that the grain size increased slightly with the pyrolysis temperature. X-ray diffraction showed that the texture was mainly [111] orientation for pyrolysis temperatures below 400C, but changed to [100] orientation for pyrolysis

C. W. Law; K. Y. Tong; J. H. Li; K. Li

1998-01-01

159

Catalytic conversion of 1,2-dichlorobenzene over mesoporous V2O5/TiO2 prepared from spray pyrolysis.  

PubMed

Mesoporous V2O5/TiO2 particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis and applied to the catalytic oxidation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB). Two different precursors (alkoxide and nanoparticles) for the TiO2 support were used to determine the effects on the texture properties and the catalytic activity of the mesoporous V2O5/TiO2 particles. The 5 wt% V2O5/TiO2 particles had the largest surface area (173 m2/g) and 4.7 nm in average pore size. The catalytic activity of the V2O5/TiO2 particles depended strongly on the loading quantity of vanadium, whereas the P25-derived samples showed no significant change in catalytic activity with weight% of vanadium. The surface area of the V2O5/TiO2 particles prepared using the alkoxide precursor was larger than that of the particles prepared using P25 nanoparticles. The P25-derived V2O5/TiO2 particles, however, showed a higher catalytic activity compared with those alkoxide-derived, which is due to the difference in the vanadium quantity exposed to the pore surface. It was confirmed that the 10 wt% V2O5/TiO2 particles prepared by spray pyrolysis had an excellent activity for the oxidation of 1,2-DCB, particularly at temperatures below 300 degrees C. PMID:21456273

Jung, Kyeong Youl; Jung, Yu Ri; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

2011-02-01

160

Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating  

DOEpatents

The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

Byrnes, Larry Edward (Rochester Hills, MI); Kramer, Martin Stephen (Clarkston, MI); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-08-26

161

The TAB method for numerical calculation of spray droplet breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history is given of the major milestones in the development of the stochastic particle method for calculating liquid fuel sprays. The most recent advance has been the discovery of the importance of drop breakup in engine sprays. A new method, called TAB, for calculating drop breakup is presented. Some theoretical properties of the method are derived; its numerical implementation in the computer program KIVA is described; and comparisons are presented between TAB-method calculations and experiments and calculations using another breakup model.

Orourke, P. J.; Amsden, A. A.

162

Processing and synthesis of multi-metallic nano oxide ceramics via liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process aerosolizes metal-carboxylate precursors dissolved in alcohol with oxygen and combusts them at >1500C. The products are quenched rapidly (10s msec) to < 400C. By selecting the appropriate precursor mixtures, the compositions of the resulting oxide nanopowders can be tailored easily, which lends itself to combinatorial studies of systems facilitating material property optimization. The resulting nanopowders typically consist of single crystal particles with average particle sizes (APS) < 35 nm, specific surface areas (SSA) of 20-60 m2/g and spherical morphology. LF-FSP provides access to novel single phase nanopowders, known phases at compositions outside their published phase diagrams, intimate mixing at nanometer length scales in multi metallic oxide nanopowders, and control of stoichiometry to ppm levels. The materials produced may exhibit unusual properties including structural, catalytic, and photonic ones and lower sintering temperatures. Prior studies used LF-FSP to produce MgAl2O4 spinel for applications in transparent armor and IR radomes. In these studies, a stable spinel structure with a (MgO)0.1(Al2O3)0.9 composition well outside the known phase field was observed. The work reported here extends this observation to two other spinel systems: Al2O3-NiO, Al2O3-CoOx; followed by three series of transition metal binary oxides, NiO-CoO, NiO-MoO3, NiO-CuO. The impetus to study spinels derives both from the fact that a number of them are known transparent ceramics, but also others offer high SSAs coupled with unusual phases that suggest potentially novel catalytic materials. Because LF-FSP provides access to any composition, comprehensive studies of the entire tie-lines were conducted rather than just compositions of value for catalytic applications. Initial efforts established baseline properties for the nano aluminate spinels, then three binary transition metal oxide sets (Ni-Co, Ni-Mo and Ni-Cu) known for their catalytic properties. These materials then serve as baseline studies for ternary systems, such as Al:(Ni-Co)O, or Al(Ni-Cu)O likely to offer superior catalytic properties because of the relatively high SSA Al2O3. The final chapter returns to photonic materials, in the MgO-Y2O 3 system targeting transparent ceramics through select compositions along the tie-line. The work presented here builds on the MgAl2O 4 spinel material and continues to develop the processing techniques required to achieve transparent nano-grained ceramic materials. Thus the overall goal of this dissertation was to systematically produce novel nano-oxide materials and characterized their material properties. The first chapters focus on solid solutions at low Ni or Co amounts that form phase pure spinels outside the expected composition range, at 21-22 mol % NiO and CoO. Additionally, (NiO)0.22(Al2O3) 0.78 was found to be very stable, as it did not convert to alpha-Al 2O3 plus cubic-NiO on heating to 1200C for 10 h. The last chapter is a preliminary step toward identifying optimal Y 2O3-MgO powders that can be transparent ceramics. Ball milling led to much higher adsorption of surface species. Preliminary sintering studies of the this system showed that vacuum has the largest effect on lowering the temperature of maximum shrinkage rate by ? 80C.

Azurdia, Jose Antonio

163

An Investigation on Impurity and Grain Boundary Effects on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of fluorine dopant concentration (0-15 F/Sn wt.%) on structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique. According to the experimental evidences and data analysis, we found in these samples: (1) the polycrystalline layers, while in undoped conditions it mainly grow along (211) direction in doped ones (200) is the preferred direction with a direct band gap energy of about 3.7-3.9 eV; (2) The main cause for the relatively high absorption coefficients below Eg could be due to the presence of wide (~ 1-2 eV) band tails in the forbidden gap; (3) the highest (5.4 10-3 ?-1) figure of merit belongs to the sample with 5 wt.% F/Sn concentration; (4) the grain boundary scattering is the main limiting mechanism in the electrical transport properties of the layers.

Eshghi, Hosein; Biaram, Alireza; Adelifard, Mehdi

164

Blue green red luminescence from CeCl3- and MnCl2-doped hafnium oxide layers prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hafnium oxide films doped with CeCl3 and/or MnCl2, and deposited at 300 C by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process, were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The XRD results revealed that the films are predominantly amorphous. The weak green-red emission of Mn2+ is enhanced through an efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to Mn2+ ions. Spectroscopic data revealed that the energy transfer is nonradiative in nature and it could occur in Ce3+ and Mn2+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism. The efficiency of this transfer increases with the Mn2+ ion concentration, so that an efficiency of about 78% is attained for a 5 at.% of MnCl2 concentration, which makes these films interesting phosphors for the design of luminescent layers with blue, green and red emissions.

Martnez-Martnez, R.; Garca, M.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Falcony, C.; Caldio, U.

2008-10-01

165

Investigation of the structural, optical and electrical properties of Nd-doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neodymium-doped zinc oxide (NZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that both undoped and Nd-doped ZnO films exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a preferential orientation along [0 0 2] direction. The effective doping concentration has been determined by Rutherford backscattering measurements showing that the neodymium is not incorporated easily into ZnO host matrix. The surface roughness was shown to increase with Nd doping. NZO films are highly transparent in the visible region. The lowest electrical resistivity value of about 4.0 10-2 ? cm was obtained for 1% Nd effective doping.

Douayar, A.; Prieto, P.; Schmerber, G.; Nouneh, K.; Diaz, R.; Chaki, I.; Colis, S.; El Fakir, A.; Hassanain, N.; Belayachi, A.; Sekkat, Z.; Slaoui, A.; Dinia, A.; Abd-Lefdil, M.

2013-01-01

166

Method of synthesizing sprinkler spray patterns. Research report  

SciTech Connect

There are practical difficulties in obtaining data on water-sprinkler spray patterns over coal stockpiles under various wind conditions. A method is developed for synthesizing the spray-droplet patterns, based on laboratory tests to observe the droplets discharged from a sprinkler nozzle; this data is employed with the theoretical equations for droplet movement to calculate the trajectories of representative spray droplets, including cases where local air flows due to wind are important. From observations made by Watkins in the course of wind tunnel model studies of wind effects over coal stockpile areas, it was evident that local air flows could have a marked effect on the trajectories of water droplets from water sprinklers used for dust suppression.

Watkins, R.D.

1983-06-01

167

Pyrolysis Gas Flow in Thermally Ablating Media Using Time-Implicit Discontinuous Galerkin Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work, we apply time-implicit discontinuous Galerkin methods to the problem of thermal ablation, where we solve for the dynamics of flow of pyrolysis gas in a charring ablating media. We have benchmarked our results with the published data. The pro...

A. Bhatia R. Gosse S. Roy

2011-01-01

168

Modeling of Solution Droplet Evaporation and Particle Evolution in Droplet-to-Particle Spray Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for the entire process of micro- and nanoparticle formation via one-step, direct conversion of solution droplets to particles with application to spray-drying and pyrolysis techniques is developed. Here we identify three physical stages for drying of solution droplets, including shrinkage, induction, and constant-diameter periods. The characteristics of these periods are studied by considering the drying of a

Morteza Eslamian; Mahmoud Ahmed; Nasser Ashgriz

2009-01-01

169

10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves...test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves...pursuant to EPCA, the water consumption flow rate of commercial prerinse spray...

2013-01-01

170

Spray pyrolysis of MgO templates on Hastelloy C276 and 310austenitic stainless steel substrates for Y Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) deposition by pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

MgO thin films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 (HC) and 310 austenitic stainless steel by the spray pyrolysis technique, using magnesium nitrate and magnesium acetate as precursors. Thermogravimetrical analysis of the decomposition of the precursors was used to provide a guideline temperature for the thin film deposition. It was suggested that an amorphous MgO thin film was deposited on both

Shadi Al Khateeb; T. W. Button; J. S. Abell

2010-01-01

171

Electrochemical properties of LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 / carbon cathode materials prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4/C powder of pure olivine phase can be prepared with the duplex process of spray pyrolysis synthesis (at 450 ?C) and subsequent heat treatment (at 700 ?C for 2, 4 and 8 h). From scanning electron microscopy observation with corresponding elemental mapping images of iron, phosphorous and magnesium, it could be found that the LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 powders are covered with fine pyrolyzed carbon. Raman spectra indicate that the phase of carbon with higher electronic conductive phase is predominant when prolonged subsequent heat treatment is carried out. The carbon coatings on the LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 surface can improve the conductivity of the LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 powder (3.810-5 S cm-1) to about a factor of 104 higher than the conductivity of LiFePO4. The stability and cycle life of a charge/discharge cycle test of lithium ion secondary batteries are also enhanced. The results indicate that the LiFe0.9Mg0.1PO4 powder, prepared at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 ?C and with post-heat-treatment at 700 ?C for 8 h, exhibits a specific initial discharge capacity of about 132 mA h g-1 at C/10 rate, 105 mA h g-1 at 1C, and 87 mA h g-1 at 5C.

Teng, Tsung-Hsien; Yang, Mu-Rong; Wu, She-Hung; Chiang, Yi-Ping

2007-05-01

172

Effects of N,N-Dimethylacetamide as Drying Control Chemical Additive on Characteristics of Zn2SiO4:Mn,Ba Phosphor Powders Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zn2SiO4:Mn,Ba phosphor powders were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from spray solutions with and without a drying control chemical additive (DCCA). N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) used as the DCCA affected the morphology, surface area, mean crystallite size, and photoluminescence intensity of Zn2SiO4:Mn,Ba phosphor powders. The phosphor powders prepared from a spray solution with an optimum concentration of DMA of 1 M had a finer size and narrower size distribution than those prepared from a spray solution without DMA. The mean crystallite size of the phosphor powders was changed from 37 to 44 nm depending on the concentration of DMA added to the spray solutions. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of the phosphor powders prepared from spray solutions with concentrations of DMA of 0.5, 1, and 3 M were 5.1, 3.2, and 2.1 m2/g, respectively. The phosphor powders prepared from the spray solution with an optimum concentration of DMA of 1 M had an 8% higher photoluminescence intensity than the commercial product.

Koo, Hye Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

2008-09-01

173

Manual fire suppression methods on typical machinery space spray fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), potassium bicarbonate powder (PKP) and Halon 1211, alone and in various combinations, in extinguishing spray fires. The sprays were generated by JP-5 jet fuel issuing from an open sounding tube, and open petcock, a leaking flange or a slit pipe, and contacting an ignition source. The results indicate that typical fuel spray fires, such as those simulated in this series, are very severe. Flame heights ranged from 6.1 m (20 ft) for the split pipe to 15.2 m (50 ft) for the sounding tube scenario. These large flame geometries were accompanied by heat release rates of 6 MW to greater than 50 MW, and hazardous thermal radiation levels in the near field environment, up to 9.1 m (30 ft) away. Successful suppression of these fires requires both a significant reduction in flame radiation and delivery of a suppression agent to shielded areas. Of the nine suppression methods tested, the 95 gpm AFFF hand line and the hand line in conjunction with PKP were particularly effective in reducing the radiant flux.

Carhart, H. W.; Leonard, J. T.; Budnick, E. K.; Ouellette, R. J.; Shanley, J. H., Jr.

1990-07-01

174

Growth of zinc oxide films by a novel ultrasonic nebulization and pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films of ZnO have been grown on various substrates by an ultrasonic nebulization and pyrolysis method. The resulting films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. They were found to be single-phase, homogeneous, and uniform in thickness. These films are comparable in quality to films prepared by more elaborate methods. Zinc oxide films are useful in a number

P. Wu; Y. M. Gao; R. Kershaw; K. Dwight; J. Baglio; A. Wold

1989-01-01

175

Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals  

DOEpatents

A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alexeff, Igor (Oak Ridge, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

1990-01-01

176

Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals  

DOEpatents

A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

1988-07-19

177

Effect of substrate temperature on optical, structural and electrical properties of FeSe thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The versatile spray pyrolysis technique was employed to prepare thin films of iron selenide on glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The deposition temperature was varied between 473 and 673 K. The as-deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, optical and electrical characterization techniques. The X-ray studies reveal that the films are nanocrystalline with tetragonal structure and exhibit (101) preferred orientation. The SEM and AFM studies indicate that the film surface is homogenous with no cracks or pinholes and well covers the glass substrate. The film thickness was found to vary from 110 to 230 nm with substrate temperature. The optical band gap was found to decrease from 2.92 to 2.68 eV depending on deposition temperature. The resistivity of p-type FeSe film is of the order of 8104 ? cm and it decreases to 1.5104 ? cm as substrate temperature is increased from 473 K to 673 K.

Ubale, A. U.; Sakhare, Y. S.

2013-10-01

178

Photoelectrochemical performances of n-CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

SciTech Connect

The CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (0.0 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) thin films of various compositions have been deposited onto the amorphous and FTO coated glass substrates using a spray pyrolysis technique. An electrode/electrolyte interface has been formed between an n-type CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (0.0 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) alloyed/mixed type semiconductor and a sulphide/polysulphide redox electrolyte and investigated through the current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and photovoltaic power output characteristics. The dependence of the dark current through the junction and the junction capacitance on the voltage across the junction have been examined and analysed. Upon illumination of the interface with a light of 20 mW/cm{sup 2}, an open-circuit voltage of the order of 335 mV and a short-circuit current of 1.02 mA/cm{sup 2} have been developed (for x = 0.8), which results in energy conversion efficiency and fill factor 0.79% and 0.46% respectively. The magnitudes of the barrier heights at the interfaces have been determined. The significant electrochemical properties have been observed for a cell with electrode composition x = 0.8. (author)

Yadav, A.A.; Masumdar, E.U. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur-413 512, Maharashtra (India)

2010-08-15

179

Spray pyrolysis of tin selenide thin-film semiconductors: the effect of selenium concentration on the properties of the thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of tin selenide (SnxSey) with an atomic ratio of , 1 and 1.5 were prepared on a glass substrate at T = 470C using a spray pyrolysis technique. The initial materials for the preparation of the thin films were an alcoholic solution consisting of tin chloride (SnCl4 5H2O) and selenide acide (H2SeO3). The prepared thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning helium ion microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photoconductivity and thermoelectric effects of the SnxSey thin films were then studied. The SnxSey thin films had a polycrystalline structure with an almost uniform surface and cluster type growth. The increasing atomic ratio of r in the films, the optical gap, photosensitivity and Seebeck coefficient were changed from 1.6 to 1.37 eV, 0.01 to 0.31 and ?26.2 to ?42.7 mV/K (at T = 350 K), respectively. In addition, the XRD patterns indicated intensity peaks in r = 1 that corresponded to the increase in the SnSe and SnSe2 phases.

Fadavieslam, M. R.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M. M.

2013-08-01

180

Influence of deposition temperature, solvent, and solute concentration on the deposition mechanisms and final structure of mercury iodide fabricated using the spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury iodide (HgI2) samples were deposited by spray pyrolysis under varying fabrication parameters. Different solvents (water and ethanol) and substrate temperatures (from 40 up to 130 C) were used. Yellowish films were obtained using water and temperatures above 100 C, while reddish films were obtained using ethanol and temperatures below 75 C. The structure and the stoichiometry of the samples were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The yellowish films show lattice constants of 4.379, 7.1953, and 12.5505 A? that correspond to a space group similar to the structure of the orthorhombic ?-HgI2. The reddish films show lattice constant averages of 4.3550 and 12.2200 A? that correspond to a space group similar to the structure of the tetragonal ?-HgI2. We observed problems related to the stoichiometry of the films caused by the volatile characteristic of iodine atoms. Typical thickness can be estimated to be around a few microns. The deposition mechanisms and final structure of the samples are discussed as a function of deposition temperature, type of solvent, and solute concentration. Optimized deposition conditions are presented for the development of thin films for radiation detectors.

Ugucioni, J. C.; Mulato, M.

2006-08-01

181

Morphology control and luminescent property of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb particles prepared by spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A spray pyrolysis process was used to prepare spherical yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb) phosphor particles with enhanced luminescence properties. The aim of the process was to improve the morphology and luminescent intensity of the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb phosphor particles by modifying the precursor solution. The particles produced from a nitrate aqueous solution were spherical with a hollow structure that was deformed by the post treatment at 1400 deg. C. To avoid the hollowness, the nitrate solution was modified by the addition of an NH{sub 4}OH solution so that a polycation solution could be obtained. Compared with the hollow particles prepared from the nitrate aqueous solution, the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb particles with the spherical morphology and nonaggregated structure, even after the post treatment, were successfully prepared and found to have an improved photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence intensity.

Jung, Kyeong Youl [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kyjung@krict.re.kr; Lee, Dong Youl [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-08

182

Preparation and characterization of nanostructures of in-doped ZnO films deposited by chemically spray pyrolysis: Effect of substrate temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deposited undoped (ZnO) and indium-doped ZnO (IZO) films onto glass substrate via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The variation in structural, surface morphology, electrical, optical and photoluminescent properties as a function of substrate temperature is investigated. X-rays pattern confirms that as-synthesized IZO phase is grown along a (002) preferential plane. Nanosized grains (<50 nm) are determined by X-ray analysis. Morphology of as-grown films shows broadened nanostructures which have grown along c-axis and nanostructures are found to be smooth (RMS60 nm). Study by spectrophotometer reveals that the as-grown films are highly transparent in the visible and IR spectra (T 88%), and that the bandgap is slightly narrowed (3.17 eV). Electrical measurements confirm the enhancement of conductivity, ? < 1 ? cm, due to indium incorporation into the starting solution. An electron concentration of 1017 cm?3 and a mobility of 3 cm2/Vs are found for IZO films grown at 400 C. The photoluminescence analysis demonstrates strong yellow (2.1 eV) and blue (2.8 eV) light and weak green (2.3 eV) emissions.

Benhaliliba, M.; Benouis, C. E.; Mouffak, Z.; Ocak, Y. S.; Tiburcio-Silver, A.; Aida, M. S.; Garcia, A. A.; Tavira, A.; Sanchez Juarez, A.

2013-11-01

183

Sn-Doped In2O3 Nanocrystalline Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: Microstructural, Optical, Electrical, and Formaldehyde-Sensing Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and Sn-doped (1, 1.5 and 2 at.%) indium oxide (In2O3) thin films have been grown by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique on cleaned glass substrates using indium nitrate [In(NO3)3] and stannic tetrachloride hydrated (SnCl45H2O) as the host and dopant precursors, respectively, and deionized water as the solvent. Structural characterization using x-ray diffraction reveals that the films possess cubic structure, with the average crystallite size in the range 10-14 nm. The surface morphology and roughness of the films have been investigated by means of an atomic force microscope. UV-Vis measurements indicate an enhancement in the optical transmittance in the visible region on Sn doping. Further, the doping effect has been found to substantially reduce the electrical resistance to a few orders of magnitude of the undoped In2O3 film. We report a simultaneous improvement in both the optical and electrical properties of indium oxide thin film due to the doping of Sn ions. These results indicate that Sn-doped In2O3 thin film can be a potential candidate for use in various optoelectronic devices. Among all the films examined, the 1 at.% Sn-doped film shows the maximum response (~91%) at 300 C for 80 ppm concentration of formaldehyde in air.

Pramod, N. G.; Pandey, S. N.; Sahay, P. P.

2013-04-01

184

Effect of Sb dopant on the structural, optical and electrical properties of SnS thin films by spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of antimony doped tin sulphide (SnS:Sb) with different antimony concentrations have been prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at the substrate temperature of 350 C. The physical properties of the films were studied as a function of increase in antimony dopant concentration (up to 10 at.%). The films were characterized by different techniques to study their structural, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films were polycrystalline in nature and having orthorhombic crystal structure with a preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction. Due to Sb doping, the crystalline quality and the preferential orientation of SnS films were improved up to 6 at.% of doping concentration. However, when doping concentration was increased above 6 at.%, the crystalline quality and the preferential orientation of SnS films was deteriorated. Atomic force microscopy images revealed that the surface roughness of the films increased due to Sb doping. Optical measurements showed that the band gap values decreased from 1.60 eV to 1.15 eV with increase in Sb concentration. The photoluminescence spectra displayed that all the samples have an emission peak centered at 760 nm. At 6 at.% of Sb doping, the film has the lowest resistivity of 2.598 10-2 ? cm while the carrier concentration was high.

Santhosh Kumar, K.; Manoharan, C.; Dhanapandian, S.; Gowri Manohari, A.

2013-11-01

185

Flow rate effect on surface morphology of Cu doped CdS thin film by spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a potential material whose functional properties can be tuned by introducing nano-structuring. Here we report the results of flow rate variation in spray technique where in Cu (1%) doped thin film was prepared with varying flow rate of deposited precursor solution. CdS thin film sets in many nano features like grains, nano-rods etc. XRD and AFM techniques are used for the analysis of film morphology. There is a systematic change is morphology which can be explained in the light of models pertaining to the Ostwald ripening.

Panda, Richa; Rathore, Vandana; Rathore, Manoj; Shelke, Vilas; Badera, Nitu; Jain, Deepti; Gangrade, M.; Ganesan, V.

2012-06-01

186

Hydrogen storage for carbon nanotubes synthesized by the pyrolysis method using lanthanum nickel alloy as catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the adsorption of hydrogen of multiwall carbon nanotubes synthesized by the pyrolysis method using a lanthanum nickel hydrogen storage alloy as a catalyst. The mechanism of carbon nanotubes synthesized using a La-Ni alloy catalyst is discussed. In the hydrogen atmosphere and high-temperature process of carbon nanotube preparation, the LaNi5 alloy particle may be changed into an intermetallic

Haiyan Zhang; Yimin Chen; Shunhua Li; Xiaojuan Fu; Yanjuan Zhu; Shuangping Yi; Xinmin Xue; Yanyang He; Yulian Chen

2003-01-01

187

Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-01-01

188

Visualizing Bromide and Iodide Water Tracer in Soil Profiles by Spray Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

mide tracer, which can faithfully represent the move- ment of water (Flury and Papritz 1993), no on-site obser- In this study we developed and tested a spray method to visualize vation method has been reported up to now. bromide water tracer in soil profiles. The method is based on the Compared with the above-mentioned methods, spray transformation reaction of a

Jianhang Lu; Laosheng Wu

2003-01-01

189

Method and apparatus for pyrolysis of atactic polypropylene  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an apparatus and a method for pyrolytic decomposition of polymeric materials into lower molecular weight products involving the heat treatment of raw polymeric material within reactive conduits submerged in a fluidized bed furnace operated at pyrolyzing temperatures. 1 fig.

Staffin, H.K.; Roaper, R.B.

1986-09-23

190

Method and apparatus for pyrolysis of atactic polypropylene  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an apparatus and a method for pyrolytic decomposition of polymeric materials into lower molecular weight products involving the heat treatment of raw polymeric material within reactive conduits submerged in a fluidized bed furnace operated at pyrolizing temperatures.

Staffin, H. Kenneth (New Brunswick, NJ); Roaper, R. B. (Martinsville, NJ)

1986-09-23

191

In Situ Monitoring of Plasma Spraying Process by Laser Acoustic Emission Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of microfractures in ceramic coating layer during plasma spraying process is critical for its reliability. Acoustic emission (AE) method enables in-process monitoring of such microfractures. Laser AE method was adopted to realize the monitoring of plasma spraying process by non-contact detection of AE with laser interferometer. Also a high performance method for noise reduction of laser AE waveform was

Kaita Ito; Manabu Enoki; Makoto Watanabe; Seiji Kuroda

2008-01-01

192

Method of making powder for thermal spray application  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for preparing an intimate mixture of powders of nickel-chromium-boron-silicon alloy, molybdenum metal powder, and chromium carbide/nichrome alloy suitable for thermal spray coatings. It comprises milling a starting mixture of the nickel-chromium-boron-silicon alloy, molybdenum powder, and the chromium carbide/nichrome alloy to produce a milled mixture wherein the average particle size is less than about 10 micro-meters in diameter; forming an aqueous slurry of the resulting milled mixture and a binder selected from the group consisting of an ammoniacal molybdate compound and polyvinyl alcohol and agglomerating the milled mixture and the binder to produce the intimate mixture.

Anand, V.; Sampath, S.; Houck, D.L.; Vanderpool, J.E.

1992-06-30

193

Spray-spinning: a novel method for making alginate\\/chitosan fibrous scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of our investigations was the process of obtaining alginate\\/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) fibers. In\\u000a this study, a novel method named spray-spinning was developed for the making of these hybrid fibers. In spray-spinning,\\u000a a chitosan solution was sprayed into a flowing sodium alginate solution and sheared into streamlines. The elongated streamlines\\u000a subsequently transformed into alginate\\/chitosan PEC fibers. Average diameter

Jian-Zheng Wang; Xiao-Bo Huang; Jing Xiao; Nan Li; Wei-Ting Yu; Wei Wang; Wei-Yang Xie; Xiao-Jun Ma; Ying-Li Teng

2010-01-01

194

Method of electrolytically finishing spray-hole of fuel injection nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of finishing at least one spray-hole bored by machining in a body of a fuel injection nozzle for an internal combustion engine by removing burrs that remain after the machining around an inside mouth of each spray-hole. The method consists of subjecting an inner surface of the nozzle body in an area containing the inside

Y. Matsui; M. Uchiyama

1986-01-01

195

Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

Moore, Karen A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zatorski, Raymond A. (East Hampton, CT)

2007-10-02

196

Preparation of spherical ceria-doped tetragonal zirconia by the spray-pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been considerable interest in tetragonal zirconia polycrystals because of the excellent fracture strength and fracture toughness [1]. Although yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) show high fracture strength and fracture toughness, the mechanical properties are sometimes greatly degraded by the undesirable tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation at low temperature in a humid atmosphere or in hot aqueous solutions [2-4]. It

T. Yoshioka; K. Dosaka; T. Sato; A. Okuwaki; S. Tanno; T. Miura

1992-01-01

197

Epitaxial nature of the films of LaNiO{sub 3}, Pb(Zr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and La{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} obtained by nebulized spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This study focused on the synthesis of thin films of oxides such as LNO, PZT and LMO via nebulized spray pyrolysis and the characterization of the epitaxial nature of these films. Such characterization was conducted using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. 16 refs., 9 figs.

Aiyer, H.N.; Raju, A.R.; Subbanna, G.N.; Rao, C.N.R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)]|[Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur (India)

1997-03-01

198

Second chance for pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on how pyrolysis is being used not only for breaking down municipal waste, plastics and tires but also for handling toxic wastes that can foul incinerators. One big advantage over conventional disposal methods (e.g. incineration) is that the contaminants don't pass on to the gaseous emissions and foul up downstream units. Key to the pyrolysis unit will be a

L. Kaplan; R. Lewald; H. Short; S. Ushio

1982-01-01

199

Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the

W. J. Jr. Boegly; W. R. Mixon; C. Dean; D. J. Lizdas

1977-01-01

200

Method for Making SiC Coatings on Fissile or Fertile Materials by Pyrolysis of Silico-Organic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for making Si--C coatings on fertile or fissile substances by pyrolysis of a silico-organic compound at temperatures greater than about 1000 exp 0 C is described. The silico-organic compound is a halogen-free organo-silane with SiC, SiH, or Si--S...

K. Drittler H. Luleich

1972-01-01

201

Analytical pyrolysis as a direct method to determine the lignin content in wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the genetics and the environment determine the chemical composition of wood. To assess the chemical composition analytical pyrolysis is being increasingly used. Each single pyrogram is a fingerprint of the chemical composition that should reflect tissue, species, and site related information although hidden in an amount of data.Principal component analysis was applied to evaluate the pyrolysis results with respect

Ana Alves; Notburga Gierlinger; Manfred Schwanninger; Jos Rodrigues

2009-01-01

202

Characterization of Ti cold spray coatings by indentation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical behavior of Ti cold spray coatings deposited on Ti substrates was determined and compared to that of a bulk Ti specimen. Hardness testing was performed over a wide range of loads with both nanoindentation and microindentation. A model for strain gradient plasticity was used to explain the indentation size effect observed for nanoindentation measurements and determine true hardness

Jihane Ajaja; Dina Goldbaum; Richard R. Chromik

2011-01-01

203

Mixed-metal oxide nanopowders by liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP): Synthesis and processing of core-shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, liquid feed--flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) was used for the synthesis and characterization of mixed-metal oxide nanopowders in the Ce-Zr-Al-O system for potential catalytic, photonic, electronic and structural applications. The LF-FSP process aerosolizes metalloorganic precursors dissolved in an alcohol solvent with oxygen, combusts the aerosol, and then rapidly quenches the gaseous species to produce nanosize oxide "soot" with the same compositions as those in the starting precursor solutions. The wide variety of potential metal oxide precursors allows the synthesis of multiple chemical compositions, phase and unique particle morphologies in the resulting nanopowders. Surprisingly, LF-FSP with the correct choice of metalloorganic precursors provides access to core-shell nanopowders in a single step. The (ZrOx)x(Al2O3 )1-x system was explored first for potential structural applications as zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composites. During the LF-FSP process, core-shell nanoparticles with ?-alumina shell and tetragonal zirconia core form at (ZrO2)x(Al2O3) 1-x (x = 0.4-0.8). Evidence is presented suggesting the incorporation of Zr2+/3+ ions in the ?-alumina lattice. The (CeOx)x(Al2O3)1-x system was studied for potential catalytic and photonic applications. Small amounts of Ce3+ ions substitute into the ?-alumina lattice at all concentrations and Ce-magnetoplumbite is observed at 5-10 mole % CeOx concentrations. The CexZr1-xO2 and (Ce0.7Zr 0.3O2)x(Al2O3)1-x systems were also investigated for potential catalytic applications. We were able to produce nano-size single crystal Ce1- xZrxO 2 solid solutions and core-shell nanostructured (Ce0.7Zr 0.3O2)x(Al2O3)1-x nanopowders. Sintering studies of the (ZrOx)x(Al2O 3)1-x core-shell nanopowders were performed to produce ZTA composites for structural applications. We were able to produce ZTA composites with 99 +% density and average grain sizes less than 200 nm by pressureless sintering < 1150 C. Tetragonal zirconia was partially stabilized without added yttria. Phase transformation of zirconia (tetragonal to monoclinic) was observed by applied pressure. Additionally, nanopowders in the (ZnO)x(Al2O 3)1-x system were produced as potential transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for display applications. Al2O3 doped ZnO nanopowders (ZnO rich region) were characterized suggesting Al 3+ ions incorporation into the interstitial sites of zincite. Spinel phase was found not only at 50 mole % ZnO in Al2O3 but also at 30 mole % ZnO in Al2O3.

Kim, Min

204

Preparation of Doped Ceria Electrolyte Films for SOFCs by Spray Coating Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray coating method is a cost-effective technique suitable for the preparation of uniform and large-area thin films. This article presents findings on the preparation of dense electrolyte thin films by spray coating method. Dense, crack-free Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC) thin films with a thickness of approximately 2m were successfully prepared on porous NiO-GDC substrates. The influence of the dispersion of GDC

Changsheng Ding; Hongfei Lin; Kazuhisa Sato; Yoshifumi Tsutai; Hiromichi Ohtaki; Mabito Iguchi; Chiharu Wada; Toshiyuki Hashida

2009-01-01

205

Method of electrolytically finishing spray-hole of fuel injection nozzle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of finishing at least one spray-hole bored by machining in a body of a fuel injection nozzle for an internal combustion engine by removing burrs that remain after the machining around an inside mouth of each spray-hole. The method consists of subjecting an inner surface of the nozzle body in an area containing the inside mouth of each spray-hole to an electrolytic polishing treatment. The nozzle body is made the anode by inserting a tubular electrode having an insulator cover into the nozzle body such that an end portion of the electrode comes close to each spray-hole and supplies a pressurized electrolyte liquid into the interior of the nozzle body through the tubular electrode to flow out through each spray-hole. The method is characterized in that a portion of the insulator cover is so formed as to completely cover the end portion of the electrode. An outer surface makes close contact with the area of the inner surface of the nozzle body, that for each spray-hole the insulator cover is formed with a liquid passage which communicates with the interior of the tubular electrode and has an outlet port in the outer spray-hole and is only slightly larger in diameter than the mouth of the spray-hole. During the electrolytic polishing treatment, the electrolyte liquid is supplied through the tubular electrode flow out of the insulator cover only through the passage formed for each spray-hole.

Matsui, Y.; Uchiyama, M.

1986-03-25

206

Production Characteristics of Liquid Ice by Solution Spraying Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has been performed to investigate the production characteristics of liquid ice as a new phase change material along horizontal cylinders immersed in a cold air stream with spraying droplets of propylene-glycol aqueous solution. The experiments were carried out under a variety of experimental parameters such as wind velocity, air temperature, and droplet mass flow rate. Both single lucite tube and three tubes, on which stainless steel foil of 50m in thickness was wound, were utilized as icing cylinders. The formation of the ice layer along the cylinders were extensively observed. The weight of the liquid ice produced in the wind tunnel were measured. For the present experiments, it was found that the most suitable condition for producing the liquid ice might be in wind velocity Ua=6 m/s and air temperature =-120C. In this condition, more than 90% of the sprayed aqueous solution could be collected as the liquid ice in the wind tunnel.

Horibe, Akihiko; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko

207

Fabrication of porous particulate for the scaffold by applying solution spraying method.  

PubMed

A simple and novel method--in the form of solution spraying--was developed to fabricate biodegradable, porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) particulates for scaffold. PLLA pellets were dissolved in an organic solvent. Then, 5 % PLLA-dioxane solution was sprayed using an air-assisted atomizer with a nozzle diameter of 2.5 mm at an air flow rate of 15 L/min. After the sprayed solution solidified in liquid nitrogen, spherical particulates with median diameter of 225microm were obtained. Morphology of sprayed products could be altered by varying the fabrication conditions. When nozzle diameter was reduced to 1.5 mm, sprayed products became fibrous. When the concentration of PLLA-dioxane solution was increased, the diameter of particulates increased too. On the other hand, when air flow rate was increased, the diameter of particulates decreased. Likewise, solidification conditions also affected the morphology of sprayed products, such that they were either thin film-like or in particulate form. Based on the results of the present study, we concluded that PLLA particulates of varying morphologies could be obtained by adjusting the fabrication conditions. PMID:15881212

Tamasaki, Hideki; Sohmura, Taiji; Teraoka, Fumio; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Hirose, Yousuke; Takahashi, Junzo; Niwa, Hitoshi

2005-03-01

208

Antibody immobilization using pneumatic spray: comparison with the avidin-biotin bridge immobilization method.  

PubMed

The formation of a thin antibody film on a glass surface using pneumatic spray was investigated as a potential immobilization technique for capturing pathogenic targets. Goat-Escherichia coli O157:H7 IgG films were made by pneumatic spray and compared against the avidin-biotin bridge immobilized films by assaying with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transformed E. coli O157:H7 cells and fluorescent reporter antibodies. Functionality, stability, and immobilization of the films were tested. The pneumatic spray films had lower fluorescence intensity values than the avidin-biotin bridge films but resulted in similar detection for E. coli O157:H7 at 10(5)-10(7)cells/ml sample concentrations with no detection of non-E. coli O157:H7 strains. Both methods also resulted in similar percent capture efficiencies. The results demonstrated that immobilization of antibody via pneumatic spray did not render the antibody non-functional and produced stable antibody films. The amount of time necessary for immobilization of the antibody was reduced significantly from 24h for the avidin-biotin bridge to 7 min using the pneumatic spray technique, with additional benefits of greatly reduced use of materials and chemicals. The pneumatic spray technique promises to be an alternative for the immobilization of antibodies on glass slides for capturing pathogenic targets and use in biosensor type devices. PMID:22955211

Figueroa, Jhon; Magaa, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V; Schlaf, Rudy

2012-08-15

209

Characterization of Ti cold spray coatings by indentation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical behavior of Ti cold spray coatings deposited on Ti substrates was determined and compared to that of a bulk Ti specimen. Hardness testing was performed over a wide range of loads with both nanoindentation and microindentation. A model for strain gradient plasticity was used to explain the indentation size effect observed for nanoindentation measurements and determine true hardness values for each sample. For microindentation, a plateau hardness was determined by averaging data at high loads in a region where the hardness values did not vary with indentation depth. The mechanism for the indentation size effect for nanoindentation was the formation of geometrically necessary dislocations. For microindentation, the mechanism was related to larger scale defects such as porosity and prior particle boundaries. As a result of the difference in mechanisms, the plateau hardness was always lower than the true hardness. Overall, it was demonstrated that the sprayed powders were harder than the bulk titanium specimen but higher particle velocities were necessary to achieve mechanical behavior approaching that of the bulk.

Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard R.

2011-12-01

210

Monte Carlo Method for Predicting a Physically Based Drop Size Distribution Evolution of a Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in this paper a method for predicting the evolution of a physically based drop size distribution of a spray, by coupling the Maximum Entropy Formalism and the Monte Carlo scheme. Using the discrete or continuous population balance equation, a Mass Flow Algorithm is formulated taking into account interactions between droplets via coalescence. After deriving a kernel for coalescence, we solve the time dependent drop size distribution equation using a Monte Carlo method. We apply the method to the spray of a new print-head known as a Spray On Demand (SOD) device; the process exploits ultrasonic spray generation via a Faraday instability where the fluid/structure interaction causing the instability is described by a modified Hamilton's principle. This has led to a physically-based approach for predicting the initial drop size distribution within the framework of the Maximum Entropy Formalism (MEF): a three-parameter generalized Gamma distribution is chosen by using conservation of mass and energy. The calculation of the drop size distribution evolution by Monte Carlo method shows the effect of spray droplets coalescence both on the number-based or volume-based drop size distributions.

Tembely, Moussa; Lcot, Christian; Soucemarianadin, Arthur

2010-03-01

211

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOEpatents

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

212

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOEpatents

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31

213

Syngas production by two-stage method of biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification.  

PubMed

A two-stage technology integrated with biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification processes was utilized to produce syngas (H(2)+CO). In the presence of different nickel based catalysts, effects of pyrolysis temperature and gasification temperature on gas production were investigated. Experimental results showed that more syngas and char of high quality could be obtained at a temperature of 750C in the stage of pyrolysis, and in the stage of gasification, pyrolysis char (produced at 750C) reacted with steam and the maximum yield of syngas was obtained at 850C. Syngas yield in this study was greatly increased compared with previous studies, up to 3.29Nm(3)/kg biomass. The pyrolysis process could be well explained by Arrhenius kinetic first-order rate equation. XRD analyses suggested that formation of Mg(0.4)Ni(0.6)O and increase of Ni(0) crystallite size were two main reasons for the deactivation of nickel based catalysts at higher temperature. PMID:22342084

Xie, Qinglong; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yangsheng; Zeng, Hui

2012-01-14

214

Nanometer Sized Silver Particles Embedded Silica Particles--Spray Method  

PubMed Central

Spherical shaped, nanometer to micro meter sized silica particles were prepared in a homogeneous nature by spray technique. Silver nanoparticles were produced over the surface of the silica grains in a harmonized manner. The size of silver and silica particles was effectively controlled by the precursors and catalysts. The electrostatic repulsion among the silica spheres and the electro static attraction between silica spheres and silver particles make the synchronized structure of the synthesized particles and the morphological images are revealed by transmission electron microscope. The silver ions are reduced by sodium borohydride. Infra red spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirm the formation of silversilica composite particles. Thermal stability of the prepared particles obtained from thermal analysis ensures its higher temperature applications. The resultant silver embedded silica particles can be easily suspended in diverse solvents and would be useful for variety of applications.

2009-01-01

215

Sealing HVOF Thermally Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings by Sol-Gel Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The offshore industry faces challenges with corrosion resistance in hydraulic cylinders used in marine environments. Thermal spray coating appears to be a promising technique for replacing electroplated coating in many applications, but the performance of thermal spray coatings in highly corrosive environments must be improved. In the present work, a new sealing method for HVOF WC-CoCr coatings for their application on hydraulic cylinders for marine environments has been tested. The method consists of applying sol-gel solution that can penetrate, fill, and thus seal the pores and cracks in the coating. The sealed coatings have been tested with and without posttreatment and compared with as-sprayed coatings. Open-circuit potential (OCP) and tribocorrosion tests in 3.4% NaCl were performed to evaluate the performance of the sealing method. Both tests showed that the sealed coatings had the best performance.

Armada, S.; Tilset, B. G.; Pilz, M.; Liltvedt, R.; Bratland, H.; Espallargas, N.

2011-06-01

216

Methods for estimating the transfer efficiency of a compressed air spray gun.  

PubMed

The transfer efficiency of a compressed air spray gun is an important performance index with regard to worker health, environmental, and economic considerations. It is defined as the fraction of paint sprayed that coats the surface. Worker exposure has been identified as a function of the transfer efficiency based on total mass of paint sprayed, which can be predicted by a mathematical model developed with nonvolatile oil. This study extends the existing model to include volatile effects by employing a mathematical approach based on a mass balance. This method allows the current model to predict transfer efficiency bounds at two extreme situations: all volatile compounds evaporate either before or after droplet impaction. Model predictions show that tight transfer efficiency bounds are obtained, especially for high values of transfer efficiency. Thus, the average of the upper and lower bounds should be a reasonable estimate of transfer efficiency. It is also found that the current model prediction, which is based on total mass of paint sprayed, for nonvolatile material can be converted to a transfer efficiency based on the mass of solids. The laboratory study shows that the predicted transfer efficiency based on the mass of solids is within the 95 percent C.I. of the measured value. This work relates the transfer efficiency used in industry, which is calculated on the basis of paint solids, with a model that predicts worker exposure during spray painting operations. PMID:11800405

Tan, Yu-Mei; Flynn, Michael R

2002-01-01

217

Confined-pyrolysis as an experimental method for hydrothermal organic synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A closed pyrolysis system has been developed as a tool for studying the reactions of organic compounds under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Small high pressure stainless steel vessels in which the ratio of sediment or sample to water has been adjusted to eliminate the headspace at peak experimental conditions confines the organic components to the bulk solid matrix and eliminates the partitioning of the organic compounds away from the inorganic components during the experiment. Confined pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally driven catagenetic changes in sedimentary organic matter using a solids to water ratio of 3.4 to 1. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated the hydrothermal transformations observed in nature. Molecular probe experiments using alkadienes, alkenes and alkanes in H2O and D2O elucidated the isomerization and hydrogenation reactions of aliphatic compounds and the competing oxidative reactions occurring under hydrothermal conditions. This confined pyrolysis technique is being applied to test experiments on organic synthesis of relevance to chemical evolution for the origin of life.

Leif, Roald N.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

1995-10-01

218

Alternative methods for herbicide spray drift detection in corn and cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceptance of herbicide-resistant crops and the subsequent increase in glyphosate use throughout the growing season has led to increased problems with herbicide drift in corn and cotton. Potential yield losses due to herbicide spray drift cannot always be accurately assessed using visual ratings or by measuring reductions in plant height. This research was conducted to determine if other methods,

Nathan Wade Buehring

2004-01-01

219

Simplified Calculation Method for Determining Smoke Downdrag Due to a Sprinkler Spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method has been developed to predict smoke behavior subject to a sprinkler spray. The method considers whether\\u000a downdrag is likely to occur and the distance that smoke is then pulled down should downdrag be present. The method is validated\\u000a using third party experimental data. Empirical equations are applied in the calculations to determine the heat loss from a

K. Y. Li; M. J. Spearpoint

2011-01-01

220

Fabrication and characterization of transparent p-n and p-i-n heterojunctions prepared by spray pyrolysis technique: Effect of post-annealing process and intrinsic middle layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, p-n and p-i-n heterojunctions based on transparent semiconducting oxides are fabricated employing the spray pyrolysis technique. The prepared p-NiO:Li/n-SnO2:F (bi-layer) and p-NiO:Li/i-ZnO/n-SnO2:F (tri-layer) junctions are structurally, electrically and optically characterized, and the effect of insertion of the intrinsic buffer layer (i-ZnO) followed by post-annealing is investigated through I-V measurements. The measurement results for the proposed p-NiO:Li/n-SnO2:F device show that the forward threshold and the reverse breakdown voltages are about 0.4 and -2.8 V, respectively. By applying the middle layer, the forward threshold and reverse breakdown voltages reach 1 and -4.2 V; then by post-annealing this element at 700 C for 30 min, the mentioned voltages reach about 1.6 and -3.1 V, respectively.

Azimi Juybari, Hasan; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Ahmad Ketabi, Seyed; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

2010-11-01

221

Effect of Ag doping on the transition temperature and critical current density of Hg1-xTlxBa2Ca2Cu3O8+? films fabricated through spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ag doped Hg(Tl):1223 films have been synthesised by annealing Ba2Ca2.2Cu3.3Oz(Agy); y = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 precursors deposited by spray pyrolysis on single crystal MgO and ZrO2 substrates, in controlled Hg-Tl vapour ambient in an evacuated sealed quartz tube at 860C for 720 minutes. The transition temperature (Tc), dc transport critical current density (Jc) and microstructure of the films have been found sensitive to Ag content. The microstructural details as revealed through scanning electron microscopy exhibit the curious characteristics of the existence of spiral like growth feature which is found to deteriorate with increasing Ag concentration. The maximum Tc = 126 K of the as synthesized Ag doped film with Ag = 0.50 is nearly the same as the Tc = 127 K of oxygen annealed Ag-free films, suggesting insitu oxygenation. The transition temperature has been found to decrease for higher Ag contents (0.50 < y < 1.00). The Jc has been observed to decrease steadily with increase in silver content, being highest (7.2 104 A/cm2, 20 K) in Ag-free case. This decrease in Jc has been accounted for in term of formation of Ag(Hg) amalgam due to the reaction of Ag with Hg already present in the grain boundary region.

Singh, H. K.; Saxena, A. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

1997-02-01

222

Epitaxial HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital y}} films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

SciTech Connect

HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital y}} (Hg-1223) films with a thickness of 1{endash}2 {mu}m and {ital T}{sub {ital c}} (zero){approximately}130 K have been fabricated by utilizing a spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction indicates that the films consist of predominantly Hg-1223 phase grains with {ital c}-axis orientation. Moreover, the oscillation photograph taken by a Weissenberg camera confirms that the film grains are in-plane aligned and epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3}. In electrical transport measurements, the as-fabricated film exhibits a {ital T}{sub {ital c}} (zero) of 123 K, and a zero-field {ital J}{sub {ital c}} of 3.7{times}10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Additional post-annealing at 320 {degree}C for 50 h in flowing oxygen has improved the transport properties as {ital T}{sub {ital c}} (zero){approximately}130 K and {ital J}{sub {ital c}}{approximately}4.4{times}10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} (77 K, 0 T). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Moriwaki, Y.; Sugano, T.; Gasser, C.; Fukuoka, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Adachi, S.; Tanabe, K. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, International Superconductivity Technology Center, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135 (Japan)

1996-11-01

223

Spray pyrolysis of MgO templates on Hastelloy C276 and 310-austenitic stainless steel substrates for Y Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) deposition by pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MgO thin films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 (HC) and 310 austenitic stainless steel by the spray pyrolysis technique, using magnesium nitrate and magnesium acetate as precursors. Thermogravimetrical analysis of the decomposition of the precursors was used to provide a guideline temperature for the thin film deposition. It was suggested that an amorphous MgO thin film was deposited on both 310-stainless steel and Hastelloy C-276 when using low concentration of the magnesium nitrate precursor. Higher concentrations were needed to obtain (200) oriented MgO films on C276. However, 310-stainless steel was found to not be a suitable substrate for MgO thin film deposition due to surface instability. A (200) oriented MgO thin film was grown on Hastelloy C276 using a magnesium acetate precursor at a much lower concentration compared to the nitrate precursor. The characterization of the thin films was done using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction 2?-scans, rocking curves (?-scans), and pole figure measurements. MgO was found to have a very weak in-plane texture.

Khateeb, Shadi Al; Button, T. W.; Abell, J. S.

2010-09-01

224

The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation module. A performance test on each module was executed and the results have been reported. A combined test of the four modules, however, has not been performed as yet. The main objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the full PFC spray decontamination process. Decontamination of the inside of the IMEF hot cell by the PFC spray method was also performed. PFC spray decontamination process was demonstrated by using a surrogate wall contaminated with Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The spray pressure was 41 kgf/cm{sup 2}, the orifice diameter was 0.2 mm and the spray velocity was 0.2 L/min. And, the decontaminated area was 100 cm{sup 2}. From previous test results, we found that the decontamination factor of the PFC spray method was in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. When the decontamination efficiency of Co-60 was high, then the decontamination efficiency of Cs-137 was also high. As the surface roughness of the specimen increased, the PFC spray decontamination efficiency decreased. Inferring from the previous results, the surface of the surrogate wall was cleaned by the PFC spray method. The vacuum cup of the collection module operated well and gathered more than 99 % of the PFC solution. Also, filtration and distillation modules operated well. All the filtered PFC solution flowed to the storage chamber where some of the PFC solution was distilled. The coolant of the distillation module was a dry ice. And, the recycled solution was transferred to the spray module by a high pressure pump. To evaluate the PFC spray decontamination efficiency, a smear device was fabricated and operated by a manipulator. Before and after decontamination, a smear test was performed. The tested area was 100 cm{sup 2} and the radioactivity was estimated indirectly by measuring the radioactivity of the filter paper. The average decontamination factor was in the range between 10 and 15. One application time was 2 minutes. The sprayed PFC solution was collected by the vacuum cup and it was stored in the collection equipment. After the termination of the decontamination test, th

Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-01-15

225

Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

2007-05-01

226

Effect of Al-doped on physical properties of ZnO Thin films grown by spray pyrolysis on SnO2: F/glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting thin films of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) have been deposited on SnO2:F/glass by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate (CH3CO2)2Zn.2H2O and aluminum chloride AlCl3. The effect of changing the aluminum-to-zinc ratio y from 0 to 3 at.%, has been thoroughly investigated. It was found that the optical and electrical properties of Al doped ZnO films improved with the addition of aluminum in the spray solution until y=2%. At this Al doping percentage, the thin layers have a resistivity equal to 4.1 10-4 ?.cm and a transmittance of about 90 % in the region [600-1000] nm. XRD patterns confirm that the films have polycristalline nature and a wurtzite (hexagonal) structure which characterized with (100), (002) and (101) principal orientations. The undoped films have (002) as the preferred orientation but Al doped ones have (101) as the preferred orientation. Beyond y= 1%, peak intensities decrease considerably.

Ajili, M.; Jebbari, N.; Kamoun Turki, N.; Castagn, M.

2012-06-01

227

Solid dispersion particles of tolbutamide prepared with fine silica particles by the spray-drying method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid dispersion particles of tolbutamide (TBM) were prepared by formulating nonporous (Aerosil 200 (hydrophilic), Aerosil R972 (hydrophobic)) or porous (Sylysia 350 (hydrophilic), Sylophobic 200 (hydrophobic)) silica as a carrier and applying the spray-drying (SD) or evaporation (Eva) method. In the solid dispersion particles prepared by the SD method, TBM existed in a meta-stable form (Form II) irrespective of the type

Hirofumi Takeuchi; Shinsuke Nagira; Hiromitsu Yamamoto; Yoshiaki Kawashima

2004-01-01

228

New technique deducing plasma potential by a capacitive coupling method in spraying dielectric barrier discharge plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A new method to measure the plasma potential in an atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas is developed for a new spraying DBD plasma source, which is sustained by electric fields generated by flowing plasmas at the outer region of the electrodes, since conventional electric probe can not be applied due to arcing. The new technique is to measure the spatially averaged plasma potential by using a capacitive coupling method with calculation of collisional sheath thickness.

Choi, Yong-Sup; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Jung, Yong Ho; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae [Electric Probe Applications Laboratory (ePAL), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-01-01

229

Temperature Effects on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) Films Deposited by Spraying Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

CZTS containing ink was prepared by a sonochemical method, and properties of CZTS thin films deposited by a spraying method were investigated. We used CuCl2, ZnCl, SnCl2 and thiourea as precursor materials, 2-methoxyethanol as a solvent, and monoethanolamine as a stabilizer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns from the CZTS films mainly exhibited the (112), (200), (220), and (312) planes of a

Hong Tak Kim; Donghwan Kim

2012-01-01

230

Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of aluminium doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films deposited using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer from starting solutions having different volumes (10, 20, , 50 mL) of solvent. The effect of solvent volume on the structural, electrical, optical, photoluminescence (PL) and surface morphological properties was studied. The electrical resistivity of the AZO films is remarkably influenced by the variation in the solvent volume. The X-ray diffraction profiles clearly showed that all the films have preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane irrespective of the solvent volume. The crystallite size was found to be in the nano range of 35-46 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible region is desirably high (>85%). The AFM images show columnar morphology with varying grain size. The PL studies revealed that the AZO film deposited from 50 mL of solvent volume has good quality with lesser defect density.

Jabena Begum, N.; Mohan, R.; Ravichandran, K.

2013-01-01

231

Laser diffraction particle sizing by wet dispersion method for spray-dried infant formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser diffraction particle sizing method involving wet analysis could be adapted effectively to measure the accurate particle size distribution of a spray-dried infant formula. Polar, polar aprotic and non-polar solvents, such as ethanol, methanol, acetone, pentane, heptane and hexane, were tested as dispersants for wet analysis. Non-polar solvents such as pentane, heptane and hexane found to be suitable dispersant

Byung-Man Kwak; Ji Eun Lee; Jang-Hyuk Ahn; Tae-Hong Jeon

2009-01-01

232

Growth of CuI buffer layer prepared by spraying method  

Microsoft Academic Search

CuI thin films with nano-scale grains of about 35nm were deposited via spraying method with using acetonitrile as solvent. The influence of iodine doping concentration in acetonitrile solution on the structure, topographic and optical properties of CuI thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction results showed that CuI iodine-doped films doped CuI:I2 were in ?-phase of zinc blende structure with (111)

You-hua YAN; Ying-chun LIU; Ling FANG; Zhi-chao LU; Zheng-bang LI; Shao-xiong ZHOU

2011-01-01

233

Rapid synthesis of a BN\\/CNT composite particle via spray routes using ferrocene\\/ethanol as a catalyst\\/carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron nitride (BN)\\/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite particles in submicrometer-sizes were successfully prepared using a spray pyrolysis method. Using an ultrasonic nebulizer, BN nanoparticles, ferrocene (as catalyst), and ethanol (as solvent and carbon source) were sprayed into a tubular furnace (fixed temperature of 800C) under an Argon flow of 1L\\/min. Ethanol was used as a solvent as well as a carbon

Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto; Yutaka Kaihatsu; Ferry Iskandar; Kikuo Okuyama

2009-01-01

234

Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

2012-06-01

235

Solid Waste Utilization: Pyrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy fro...

W. J. Boegly W. R. Mixon C. Dean D. J. Lizdas

1977-01-01

236

Gas phase temperature measurements in the liquid and particle regime of a flame spray pyrolysis process using O2-based pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.  

PubMed

For the production of oxide nanoparticles at a commercial scale, flame spray processes are frequently used where mostly oxygen is fed to the flame if high combustion temperatures and thus small primary particle sizes are desired. To improve the understanding of these complex processes in situ, noninvasive optical measurement techniques were applied to characterize the extremely turbulent and unsteady combustion field at those positions where the particles are formed from precursor containing organic solvent droplets. This particle-forming regime was identified by laser-induced breakdown detection. The gas phase temperatures in the surrounding of droplets and particles were measured with O(2)-based pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). Pure rotational CARS measurements benefit from a polarization filtering technique that is essential in particle and droplet environments for acquiring CARS spectra suitable for temperature fitting. Due to different signal disturbing processes only the minority of the collected signals could be used for temperature evaluation. The selection of these suitable signals is one of the major problems to be solved for a reliable evaluation process. Applying these filtering and signal selection steps temperature measurements have successfully been conducted. Time-resolved, single-pulse measurements exhibit temperatures between near-room and combustion temperatures due to the strongly fluctuating and flickering behavior of the particle-generating flame. The mean flame temperatures determined from the single-pulse data are decreasing with increasing particle concentrations. They indicate the dissipation of large amounts of energy from the surrounding gas phase in the presence of particles. PMID:22945152

Engel, Sascha R; Koegler, Andreas F; Gao, Yi; Kilian, Daniel; Voigt, Michael; Seeger, Thomas; Peukert, Wolfgang; Leipertz, Alfred

2012-09-01

237

Study of surface cleaning methods and pyrolysis temperatures on nanostructured carbon films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of diblock copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, 177 (2009)]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of diblock copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) at two different temperatures were carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % nitrogen was present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 Degree-Sign C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration decreased significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 Degree-Sign C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen subpeaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic clusters, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 Degree-Sign C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.

Kerber, Pranita; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, Lynne A.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Engelhard, Mark; Baer, Donald [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chemistry Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2012-11-15

238

Preparation of HfO2 Thin Films using Flashing Spray CVD Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors proposed a novel chemical vapor deposition system, a new evaporation supply method by using flash boiling spray, to improve several kinds of problems such as the decomposition of the precursor at supply line and evaporator. In this paper, the relation between film surface condition and injection quantity was investigated. Tetraethyl methyl amino hafnium and n-pentane were used as the mixed solution, and HfO2 film was deposited on Si substrate by using this method. As a result, the film surface roughness and grain size are increased as increasing injection quantity.

Oshima, Motohiro; Senda, Jiro; Tominaga, Koji; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Ishida, Kozo

239

Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

Jin, J. M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J. E.

2011-01-01

240

Multi-fluid modelling of laminar polydisperse spray flames: origin, assumptions and comparison of sectional and sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first attempt at deriving a fully Eulerian model for polydisperse evaporating sprays was developed by Tambour et al with the so-called sectional approach. However, the complete derivation of the sectional 'multi-fluid' conservation equations from the Boltzmann-type spray equation was never provided, neither was the set of underlying assumptions nor the comparison with the classical Lagrangian model: the sampling method.

Claude Bernard

241

A new formulation for orally disintegrating tablets using a suspension spray-coating method.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that has high tablet hardness and a fast oral disintegration rate using a new preparation method. To obtain rapid disintegration granules (RDGs), a saccharide, such as trehalose, mannitol, or lactose, was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension method). As an additional disintegrant, crospovidone, light anhydrous silicic acid, or hydroxypropyl starch was also included in the suspension. The RDGs obtained possessed extremely large surface areas, narrow particle size distribution, and numerous micro-pores. When tabletting these RDGs, it was found that the RDGs increased tablet hardness by decreasing plastic deformation and increasing the contact frequency between granules. In all tablets, a linear relationship was observed between tablet hardness and oral disintegration time. From each linear correlation line, a slope (D/H value) and an intercept (D/H(0) value) were calculated. Tablets with small D/H and D/H(0) values could disintegrate immediately in the oral cavity regardless of the tablet hardness and were considered to be appropriate for ODTs. Therefore, these values were used as key parameters to select better ODTs. Of all the RDGs prepared in this study, mannitol spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (2.5:1 w/w ratio) showed most appropriate properties for ODTs; fast in vivo oral disintegration time, and high tablet hardness. In conclusion, this simple method to prepare superior formulations for new ODTs was established by spray-coating mannitol with a suspension of appropriate disintegrants. PMID:19686825

Okuda, Y; Irisawa, Y; Okimoto, K; Osawa, T; Yamashita, S

2009-08-15

242

A novel preparation method for drug nanocrystals and characterization by ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and continuous method for preparing a nanosized particle of drug crystals and to characterize its properties. Materials and methods A new apparatus was introduced to crystallize nanosized drug crystals of amitriptyline hydrochloride as a model drug. The samples were prepared in the pure state by ultrasonic spray, and elaborated deposition was completed via electrostatic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the size of the particles; this was subsequently followed by differential scanning calorimetry. Results and discussion Nanoparticles of drug crystals were successfully prepared. The size of the drug crystals ranged from 20 nm to 400 nm; the particle size of amitriptyline hydrochloride was approximately 71 nm. The particles were spherical and rectangular in shape. Moreover, the melting point of the nanoparticles decreased from 198.2C to 196.3C when compared to raw particle crystals. Furthermore, the agglomeration effect was also attenuated as a result of electrostatic repulsion among each particle when absorbed, and depositing on the inner wall of the gathering unit occurred under the electrostatic effect. Conclusion Ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption is a very effective and continuous method to produce drug nanocrystals. This method can be applied to poorly water-soluble drugs, and it can also be a very effective alternative for industrial production. Once the working parameters are given, drug nanocrystals will be produced continuously.

Gao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Dunju; Zhu, Ziqiang; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Guangcheng; Nie, Fude

2013-01-01

243

Kinetics of biomass catalytic pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CoatsRedfern method was used to analyze the kinetic characteristics of biomass catalytic pyrolysis, indicating that it can be described by multi-step reactions, rather than as a simple first-order reaction. Friedman model-free calculations were used to describe the starting reaction types and the corresponding initial kinetic parameters. Finally, nonlinear regression of biomass catalytic pyrolysis showed that the reaction mechanism of

Changbo Lu; Wenli Song; Weigang Lin

2009-01-01

244

Alternative methods for herbicide spray drift detection in corn and cotton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceptance of herbicide-resistant crops and the subsequent increase in glyphosate use throughout the growing season has led to increased problems with herbicide drift in corn and cotton. Potential yield losses due to herbicide spray drift cannot always be accurately assessed using visual ratings or by measuring reductions in plant height. This research was conducted to determine if other methods, such as biochemical assays or remote sensing, could be used to assess potential yield reductions and visual injury associated with herbicide drift. Other objectives included using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing for herbicide drift detection in corn and cotton. Classification accuracies were highest 14 DAA when distinguishing untreated from treated corn. When the data were classified by herbicides, overall accuracies of ?74% resulted 14 and 28 DAA. Classifications based on yield reduction also resulted in highest overall classification accuracies 14 and 28 DAA, ranging from 69 to 70%. Within the glufosinate-treated corn, overall accuracies for classifying percent yield reductions was 85% at 3 DAA and decreased to 68% at 28 DAA. Overall classification accuracies for determining percent yield reductions with glyphosate were higher 14 and 28 DAA. With pyrithiobac, overall accuracies for determining percent yield reductions ranged from 73 to 82% across all evaluations. Of the nine vegetative indices tested to classify the data, Anthocyanin Reflective Index (ARI) and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Ratio of reflectance at 735 nm/700 nm (CF 735) were the most important for classifying, assessing, and detecting herbicide spray drift in corn. Multispectral aerial imagery was also used to identify cotton affected by a simulated bromoxynil drift event. Multispectral aerial imagery collected 9 DAA in 2002 resulted in better classification accuracies for identifying bromoxynil rate, percent visual injury, and percent yield reduction than imagery collected 21 DAA in 2001. The results from this research indicate that bromoxynil spray drift could be detected with multispectral aerial imagery. However, the images would need to be collected soon (9 DAA) after the drift event occurred. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Buehring, Nathan Wade

245

[Effect of snail control of niclosamide by soil mixing and spraying methods in high dam of terrace].  

PubMed

The snail control efffect of niclosamide by soil mixing and spraying method were compared, and the results showed that the effects of the two methods were similar. Though there was difficulties in getting soil and mixing durg with soil, and the cost was high, the effect of soil mixing method in some special environment such as stone ditches and terraces. PMID:22799185

Yang, Hui; Zuo, Ji-Mao; Yang, Meng-Xian; Bi, Wan-Zeng

2012-04-01

246

Integrated gray-level gradient method for 3D velocity fields extraction of sprays in in-line digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, integrated gray-level gradient method, locating the best focal plane, is applied to extract the 3D velocity fields of sprays in in-line digital holography. This method consists of a conventional edge-sharpness [Es] method and a new method, namely, overall-sharpness [Os] method which is an efficient supplement of the former. The respective scopes of application of above criterions were discussed by using numerical simulation holograms of particles. And then, The integrated gray-level gradient method is proved to be an effective tool for the determination of focal plane by using the calibration target. Finally, the synchronization system is designed and assembled to record double exposure spray holograms in a short time interval. Using the integrated gray-level gradient method and some image processing techniques, the 3D coordinates of droplets are easily obtained which can be used to evaluate the 3D velocity fields of sprays. It proves that the integrated gray-level gradient method is well applied to measure the characteristics of sprays in in-line digital holography.

Yang, Yan; Li, Guangyong; Tang, Lili; Huang, Liang

2011-08-01

247

Comparison of sampling methods for monomer and polyisocyanates of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate during spray finishing operations.  

PubMed

A comparison study of isocyanate sampling methods for 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI-based polyisocyanates was conducted in spray painting environments. This study compared the performance of the Iso-chek sampler against existing and proposed National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) monitoring methods for HDI-based isocyanates. Six methods for monitoring HDI monomer and polyisocyanate levels were compared. Fifty-eight sampling sets were collected during spray painting of aircraft and aircraft parts at four U.S. Air Force bases. Impinger and cassette samplers were mounted side-by-side on a mannequin located in paint overspray areas. For HDI monomer sampling results, there were no significant differences between NIOSH 5521, NIOSH 5522, OSHA 42, MAP (the proposed NIOSH method), and the Iso-Chek. For HDI-based polyisocyanates, NIOSH 5522, NIOSH 5521, Iso-Chek, and the Total Aerosol Mass Method (TAMM) were significantly different from one another. There was no significant difference between MAP and the NIOSH 5522 polyisocyanate sampling results. This study suggests the Iso-Chek and MAP sampling methods compare favorably with established methods for monitoring in HDI spray painting environments and the Total Aerosol Mass Method provides a reasonable upper boundary for estimating HDI polyisocyanate concentrations. The results also reemphasize aerosol sampling physics and sampler geometries must be carefully considered and appropriate samplers used when measuring exposures in spray paint environments where particulates are of the inhalable size. PMID:10853287

England, E; Key-Schwartz, R; Lesage, J; Carlton, G; Streicher, R; Song, R

2000-06-01

248

The structure of Fe-Cr-B coatings obtained using selected methods of thermal spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents issues connected with the production of protective coatings via thermal spraying. Information about wire coating materials which contain phases from the Fe-Cr-B system is presented. Arc thermal spraying is characterised and its possible applications are determined. The results of the examinations of the structure of coatings obtained by means of various arc spraying systems are discussed. Coatings of this type are used in the machine building and power engineering industries.

Szyma?ski, K.; Szpak, M.

2012-05-01

249

Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to

Bao Mi; Robert Bayles

2007-01-01

250

A computational and experimental method for estimating degradation of mechanical characteristics of steels under the conditions of high-temperature pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using computational and experimental methods of strain and fracture mechanics for describing degradation\\u000a of mechanical properties of steels under conditions of pyrolysis is demonstrated. Experimental and theoretical temperature\\u000a dependences of the ultimate strength of 10Kh23N18 steel which are characterized by a high degree of correlation are obtained.\\u000a It is revealed that it is necessary to use correlation

A. G. Chirkova; N. A. Makhutov; M. M. Gadenin; M. I. Kuzeev; V. V. Farkhutdinov

2010-01-01

251

An approximate method for analyzing transient condensation on spray in HYLIFE-II  

SciTech Connect

The HYLIFE-II conceptual design calls for analysis of highly transient condensation on droplets to achieve a rapidly decaying pressure field. Drops exposed to the required transient vapor pressure field are first heated by condensation but later begin to reevaporate after the vapor temperature falls below the drop surface temperature. An approximate method of analysis has been developed based on the assumption that the thermal resistance is concentrated in the liquid. The time dependent boundary condition is treated via the Duhamel integral for the pure conduction model. The resulting Nusselt number is enhanced to account for convection within the drop and then used to predict the drop mean temperature history. Many histories are considered to determine the spray rate necessary to achieve the required complete condensation.

Bai, R.Y.; Schrock, V.E. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1990-01-01

252

Preparation of HfO2 Thin Films Using Flashing Spray CVD Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors proposed the novel evaporation supply method, flashing spray chemical vapor deposition (FS-CVD). In the experiment, tetrakisethylmethylamidohafnium (TEMAH) was used as the precursor and n-pentane was used as the low boiling point organic solvent. The critical consolute temperature of TEMAH and n-pentane mixed material solution was 276K. The vapor pressure of the mixed material solution was ten times higher than that of TEMAH by formation of two-phase region. HfO2 film was deposited on Si wafer by using TEMAH and n-pentane with FS-CVD. As the result, the uniformity of HfO2 film was +/-5% and film thickness was 133.6nm. The uniformity of HfO2 film of refractive index was +/-5% and refractive index was 1.63. It is found that the precursor was evaporated by flash boiling and HfO2 film was deposited by decomposition.

Ohshima, Motohiro; Kimura, Daiichiro; Tsuchida, Tomoya; Senda, Jiro

253

Measurement of spray combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

Peters, C.E.; Arman, E.F.; Hornkohl, J.O.; Farmer, W.M.

1984-04-01

254

Pyrolysis of Waste Paper: Characterization and Composition of Pyrolysis Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an experimental study of waste paper pyrolysis in tubular furnace pyrolysis equipment. Pyrolysis of waste paper has been conducted in different pyrolysis temperatures and heating rates to investigate the product distribution and yields of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis oil was characterized by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, which are HPLC, H

Lin Li; Hongxun Zhang; Xuliang Zhuang

2005-01-01

255

Fabrication and analysis of PMMA, ABS, PS, and PC superhydrophobic surfaces using the spray method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using a facile spraying technique with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC). Also, the surface energy was qualitatively analyzed via the water contact angle with respect to the spraying time and the sprayed position. Firstly, PMMA, ABS, PS and PC were dissolved by using solvents such as methyl chloride, methanol, THF (tetrahydrofuran), and methanol, respectively. After that, the dissolved polymer was sprayed onto a thin film of the same polymer for various spraying times. Nozzle size, pressure and spraying distance were fixed as 0.2 mm, 0.1 bar, and 100 mm, respectively, after several feasibility experiments. For the sprayed surfaces, the topology was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy, and the surface energy was qualitatively analyzed using the water-contactangle measurement. According to a quantitative analysis using the roughness factor and he Wenzel equation, all specimens could be assumed to be in a Wenzel state. To convert the Wenzel state into a Cassie-Baxster state by decreasing the surface energy of polymer-sprayed specimen, we treated the polymer-sprayed surfaces by using trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane. Consequently, non-sticky superhydrophobic surfaces having water contact angles greater than 155 and water sliding angles lower than 8 were fabricated. The water contact angle and the water sliding angle were measured by using a contact-angle-measuring device. In addition, a brief qualitative analysis of the effect of surface topology on the water sliding angle was conducted for the polymer-sprayed specimens.

Cho, Young-Sam; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Lee, Se-Hwan

2013-07-01

256

Production and Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Oils from Proteinaceous Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is a facile method for producing high yields of liquid fuel intermediates. However,\\u000a because most fast pyrolysis oils are highly oxygenated, acidic, and unstable, identification of feedstocks that produce higher\\u000a quality pyrolysis liquids is desirable. Therefore, the effect of feedstock protein content was studied by performing fast\\u000a pyrolysis experiments on biomass with varying protein content.

Charles A. Mullen; Akwasi A. Boateng

257

PYROLYSIS OF WASTE POLYSTYRENE IN HEAVY OIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste plastics are an environmental problem because of recycling limitations and their resistance to natural decomposition. This research investigates the thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of waste polystyrene in heavy oil as a tertiary recycling method. Kinetic parameters for pyrolysis were obtained, and distillate products from the reaction were characterized by gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy. Four types of heavy oil were used to

JOHN A. MARSH; C. Y. CHA; F. D. GUFFEY

1994-01-01

258

Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for biofuels production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast pyrolysis bio-oils currently produced in demonstration and semi-commercial plants have potential as a fuel for stationary power production using boilers or turbines but they require significant modification to become an acceptable transportation fuel. Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors using zeolites is a potentially promising method for removing oxygen from organic compounds and converting them to hydrocarbons. This work evaluated

Richard French; Stefan Czernik

2010-01-01

259

Production and analysis of fast pyrolysis oils from proteinaceous biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is a facile method for producing high yields of liquid fuel intermediates. However, because most fast pyrolysis oils are highly oxygenated, acidic and unstable identification of feedstocks that produce higher quality pyrolysis liquids is desirable. Therefor...

260

Thermal Diffusivity Measurement for Thermal Spray Coating Attached to Substrate Using Laser Flash Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings are used as heat and wear shields of gas turbine blades. There is a strong need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of coating for thermal design and use. The thermal conductivity of a bulk material is obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density above room temperature in many cases. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are unique for a given material because they are sensitive to the structure of the material. Therefore, it is important to measure them in each sample. However it is difficult to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of coatings because coatings are attached to substrates. In order to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of a coating attached to the substrate, we have examined the laser flash method with the multilayer model on the basis of the response function method. We carried out laser flash measurements in layered samples composed of a CoNiCrAlY bond coating and a 8YSZ top coating by thermal spraying on a Ni-based superalloy substrate. It was found that the procedure using laser flash method with the multilayer model is useful for the thermal diffusivity evaluation of a coating attached to a substrate.

Akoshima, Megumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Endo, Satoshi; Baba, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshio; Kojima, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Akira; Ono, Fumio

2011-11-01

261

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash using different extraction methods.  

PubMed

In this study, traditional Soxhlet, automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction techniques were employed to determine the speciation and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples collected from the baghouse of a spreader stoker boiler. To test the efficiencies of different extraction methods, LSD ash samples were doped with a mixture of 16 US EPA specified PAHs to measure the matrix spike recoveries. The results showed that the spike recoveries of PAHs were different using these three extraction methods with dichloromethane (DCM) as the solvent. Traditional Soxhlet extraction achieved slightly higher recoveries than automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. Different solvents including toluene, DCM:acetone (1:1 V/V) and hexane:acetone (1:1 V/V) were further examined to optimize the recovery using ultrasonic extraction. Toluene achieved the highest spike recoveries of PAHs at a spike level of 10 microg kg(-1). When the spike level was increased to 50 microg kg(-1), the spike recoveries of PAHs also correspondingly increased. Although the type and concentration of PAHs detected on LSD ash samples by different extraction methods varied, the concentration of each detected PAH was consistently low, at microg kg(-1) levels. PMID:15990154

Sun, Ping; Weavers, Linda K; Taerakul, Panuwat; Walker, Harold W

2005-06-28

262

Method for the recovery of clean pyrolysis off-gas and a rotary recycling means therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for stripping entrained organic vapor and solid particulate matter from a pyrolytic off-gas stream is disclosed. The off-gas is introduced at the top of a conical chamber having a variable speed ''squirrel cage'' rotor at its top. The wet, dirty, off-gas is drawn into the rotor from below and impinged upon the chamber walls which causes

L. W. Elston; D. R. Hurst

1981-01-01

263

Comparison of Isolated Indentation and Grid Indentation Methods for HVOF Sprayed Cermets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the results of two approaches of instrumented indentation for characterization of mechanical properties of HVOF coatings. Three types of HVOF sprayed coatings (Cr3C2-NiCr, WC-Co, (Ti, Mo)(C,N)-NiCo) were investigated by the means of isolated nanoindentation and grid indentation methods. The results of the isolated indentation revealed hardness and elastic modulus of the individual phases in very good agreement with the corresponding bulk material. The grid indentation method, based on statistical evaluation of a large number of indentations, was influenced by the carbide-matrix interface, which gave rise to a third peak apart from the two peaks corresponding to the carbides and metallic matrix. As a consequence, the bimodal Gaussian fit was insufficient and a trimodal fit had to be used. The results extracted from low load grid nanoindentations were quite close to the results of isolated indentations whereas higher load grid nanoindentation revealed overall properties of the coating.

Nohava, Ji?; Hauild, Petr; Houdkov, rka; Enl, Radek

2012-06-01

264

Rheological properties of suspensions containing cross-linked starch nanoparticles prepared by spray and vacuum freeze drying methods.  

PubMed

The rheological behavior of suspensions containing vacuum freeze dried and spray dried starch nanoparticles was investigated to explore the effect of these two drying methods in producing starch nanoparticles which were synthesized using high pressure homogenization and mini-emulsion cross-linking technique. Suspensions containing 10% (w/w) spray dried and vacuum freeze dried nanoparticles were prepared. The continuous shear viscosity tests, temperature sweep tests, the frequency sweep and creep-recovery tests were carried out, respectively. The suspensions containing vacuum freeze dried nanoparticles showed higher apparent viscosity within shear rate range (0.1-100 s(-1)) and temperature range (25-90 C). The suspensions containing vacuum freeze dried nanoparticles were found to have more shear thinning and less thixotropic behavior compared to those containing spray dried nanoparticles. In addition, the suspensions containing vacuum freeze dried particles had stronger elastic structure. However, the suspensions containing spray dried nanoparticles had more stiffness and greater tendency to recover from the deformation. PMID:22944440

Shi, Ai-min; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-jun; Adhikari, Benu

2012-07-31

265

Laser melted ZrO 2Y 2O 3 thermal barrier obtained by plasma spraying method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of laser melting upon the selected physical properties of ZrO2Y2O3 ceramic coatings deposited by APS method on super-alloys which function as TBC. Laser melting which helps to eliminate pores and other structural defects of coatings deposited by plasma spraying method should contribute to the improvement of their density and durability

Krystyna Kobyla?ska Szkaradek

2010-01-01

266

Friability of spray-applied fireproofing and thermal insulations: the basis for a field-test method  

SciTech Connect

The investigation was Phase 1 of a two-part study to develop a test method that can be used in the field to measure the friability of spray-applied fireproofing and insulating materials containing asbestos fibers. Four test methods were selected; compression/shear, indentation, abrasion, and impact. For each of the four tests, mechanical devices were devised by modification of existing material test apparatus. A description of the test devices is given in the report.

Rossiter, W.J.; Roberts, W.E.; Mathey, R.G.

1987-12-01

267

Method for the recovery of clean pyrolysis off-gas and a rotary recycling means therefor  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for stripping entrained organic vapor and solid particulate matter from a pyrolytic off-gas stream is disclosed. The off-gas is introduced at the top of a conical chamber having a variable speed ''squirrel cage'' rotor at its top. The wet, dirty, off-gas is drawn into the rotor from below and impinged upon the chamber walls which causes part of the organic vapor to condense and flow to the chamber bottom, thereby cleaning the chamber walls. A portion of the impinged gas is recirculated through the rotor while the remainder exits at the chamber bottom. The ratio of recycled gas to through gas is controlled by the speed of the rotor. Heating and cooling coils on the chamber walls are operable to control the rate of condensation.

Elston, L.W.; Hurst, D.R.

1981-07-14

268

Structural changes of thermally sprayed hydroxyapatite investigated by Rietveld analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were prepared by three thermal spraying methods: flame spraying, high velocity oxygen fuel spraying and plasma spraying. The HA was then examined by Rietveld analysis using the General Structure Analysis Software package (GSAS) and the results compared with those for the precursor powder. A comparison between HA before and after spraying showed that all three spraying methods

J. C. Knowles; K. Gross; C. C. Berndt; W. Bonfield

1996-01-01

269

Experimental results of investigation into the two-phase flow and air entrainment in the spray cone of an atomizer obtained by the phase-Doppler-method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental work reported here first comprises the results of the measurements of the gas flow in the vicinity of the spray, i.e., main velocity components into rectangularly arranged planes of the spray cone. The vertical as well as the horizontal components were measured for different locations. Secondly, results are presented on the drop size and velocity measurements in the spray cone, obtained by a laser-Doppler velocity size-meter (LDVS) based on the phase-Doppler method. To obtain the spray cone contours and to determine the LDA measuring points in the horizontal and vertical measuring planes investigated, a laser light slit method was employed. The results of drop sizing by LDVS are compared with measurements obtained by laser diffraction spectrometry as a reference technique. Finally, the attempt is made to balance calculations of the air flow in the spray cone.

Dannehl, M.; Schulte, G.

270

Characterization of scandia doped pressed cathode fabricated by spray drying method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scandia doped pressed cathode was prepared by a new method of spray drying combined with two-step hydrogen reduction process. The Sc 2O 3 and barium-calcium aluminate co-doped powders have sub-micrometer size in the range of 0.1-1 ?m and scandium oxide and barium-calcium aluminate are distributed evenly in the powders. The cathodes sintered by powder metallurgy at 1600 C b have a smooth surface and sub-micrometer grain structure with homogeneous distribution of scandium, barium, calcium and aluminum which are dispersed over and among the tungsten grains. This cathode has good emission, e.g., the current density of this cathode reaches 31.50 A/cm 2 at 850 C b. After proper activation, the cathode surface is covered by a Ba-Sc-O active substances layer with a preferable atomic ratio, leading to its good emission property. The evaporation activation energy of SDP cathode with 4.58 eV is the highest among the Ba-W, M-type and SDP cathodes, and the average evaporation velocity vt of SDP cathode with 1.28 10 -8 g cm -2 s -1 at 1150 C b is the lowest one.

Cui, Yuntao; Wang, Jinshu; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yiman; Zhou, Meiling

2011-10-01

271

Fluorine doped-tin oxide prepared using spray method for dye sensitized solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by spray deposition method. FTO films were prepared in different sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq. X-ray diffractograms showed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. The prepared FTO film have an average transmittance of 80% in the visible region (?=400-800 nm). These FTO films were then used to fabricate Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The working electrode was made from TiO2 paste using doctor blade technique. DSSC samples were characterized using solar simulator under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). It is found that the efficiency of DSSC was much affected by sheet resistance of FTO film. The efficiency of DCCS was 2.32, 2.4, 1.1 and 0.97 (%) for the FTO sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq, respectively. It is shown that the optimum DSSC efficiency was made from FTO with sheet resistance 12.1 ?/sq.

Widiyandari, Hendri; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Suyitno; Hidayanto, Eko

2013-09-01

272

Preparation of Pt supported on WO 3C with enhanced catalytic activity by microwave-pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WO3C hybrid materials are prepared by intermittently microwave-pyrolysis using ammonium tungstate as the precursor, and then Pt nano-particles are deposited by microwave-assited polyol process on WO3C. The TEM images show the dispersion of ?10nm WO3 particles size supported on carbon and ?3nm Pt metal crystallites supported on WO3C. XRD results illustrate that WO3 presented as monoclinic phase and the

Jilei Ye; Jianguo Liu; Zhigang Zou; Jun Gu; Tao Yu

2010-01-01

273

Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer coated with CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 surface deposit at from about 1000.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C. to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01

274

Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer coated with CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface deposit at from about 1,000 C to 1,200 C to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.

1995-02-14

275

Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang (George); Bayles, Robert

2007-03-01

276

Industrial pyrolysis of cellulosic materials. [Chemical reactions occurring during pyrolysis and analysis of volatile fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial pyrolysis of cellulosic materials to various fuels and chemicals requires an understanding of the complex reactions involved and how they can be controlled to provide acceptable yields. Investigation of a variety of model compounds and cellulosic substrates by modern methods of thermal and chemical analysis has shown that initial pyrolysis of glycosidically linked compounds takes place through transglycosylation to

Shafizadeh

1975-01-01

277

An improved whitecap timescale for sea spray aerosol production flux modeling using the discrete whitecap method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete whitecap method (DWM) to model the sea spray aerosol (SSA) production flux explicitly requires a whitecap timescale, which up to now has only considered a whitecap decay timescale, ?decay. A reevaluation of the DWM suggests that the whitecap timescale should account for the total whitecap lifetime (?wcap), which consists of both the formation timescale (?form) and the decay timescale (timescale definitions are given in the text). Here values of ?form for 552 oceanic whitecaps measured at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory on the east coast of the USA are presented, and added to the corresponding values of ?decay to form 552 whitecap timescales. For the majority of whitecaps, ?form makes up about 20-25% of ?wcap, but this can be as large as 70% depending on the value of ?decay. Furthermore, an area-weighted mean whitecap timescale for use in the DWM (?DWM) is defined that encompasses the variable nature of individual whitecap lifetimes within a given time period, and is calculated to be 5.3 s for this entire data set. This value is combined with previously published whitecap coverage parameterizations and estimates of SSA particle production per whitecap area to form a size-resolved SSA production flux parameterization (dF(r80)/dlog10r80). This parameterization yields integrated sea-salt mass fluxes that are largely within the range of uncertainty of recent measurements over the size range 0.029 m < r80 < 0.580 m. Physical factors controlling whitecap lifetime such as bubble plume lifetime and surfactant stabilization are discussed in the context of SSA production from whitecaps.

Callaghan, Adrian H.

2013-09-01

278

APPLICATION METHODS OF PESTICIDES TO AN AQUATIC MESOCOSM IN ORDER TO SIMULATE EFFECTS OF SPRAY DRIFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatment procedure was developed to mimic spray drift deposition of pesticides on the water surface of outdoor experimental ditches. The performance of this procedure was evaluated in two studies (using the pesticides chlorpyrifos and linuron, respectively) by testing the capability to apply pesticides to the ditches accurately, without contaminating adjacent control ditches. This was done by measuring the volume

R. RONDAY; G. H. AALDERINK; S. J. H. CRUM

1998-01-01

279

Spray Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This was a Joint Industry Project (JIP) to review the state-of-the-art in spray ice developments. The development of spray ice technology is relatively new. No comprehensive source of information exists on designing and building with spray ice. Much of th...

E. G. Funegard J. P. Poplin J. S. Weaver R. Sisodiya W. St. Lawrence

1992-01-01

280

Spray forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray forming is a relatively new manufacturing process for near net shape preforms in a wide variety of alloys. Spray formed materials have a characteristic equiaxed microstructure with small grain sizes, low levels of solute partitioning, and inhibited coarsening of secondary phases. After consolidation to full density, spray formed materials have consistently shown properties superior to conventionally cast materials, and

P. S. Grant

1995-01-01

281

Fundamental Pyrolysis Studies  

SciTech Connect

Progress on the direct mass spectrometric sampling of pyrolysis products from wood and its constituents is described for the period from June 1982 to February 1983. A brief summary and references to detailed reports, of the qualitative demonstration of our approach to the study of the separated processes of primary and secondary pyrolysis is presented. Improvements and additions to the pyrolysis and data acquisition systems are discussed and typical results shown. Chief of these are a heated-grid pyrolysis system for controlled primary pyrolysis and a sheathed flame arrangement for secondary cracking studies. Qualitative results of the secondary cracking of cellulose, lignin, and wood are shown as are comparisons with the literature for the pyrolysis spectra of cellulose, lignin, and levoglucosan. 'Fingerprints' for a number of materials are shown, with spectra taken under carefully controlled conditions so that sensitivity calibrations for different compounds, now being determined, can be applied.

Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J.; Soltys, M. N.

1983-03-01

282

Assessment of Nasal Spray Deposition Pattern in a Silicone Human Nose Model Using a Color-Based Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsDeposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple\\u000a on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital\\u000a camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop.

Vipra Kundoor; Richard N. Dalby

2010-01-01

283

Mechanical behavior of Ti cold spray coatings determined by a multi-scale indentation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the indentation load on the hardness measurements on cold spray Ti coatings was evaluated. Varied load indentation was carried out with nanoindentation at loads between 1 and 20mN and microindentation at loads between 0.1 and 5N. Nanoindentation measurements showed an indentation size effect and were fit to the NixGao model for strain gradient plasticity. The microindentation measurements

Dina Goldbaum; Jihane Ajaja; Richard R. Chromik; Wilson Wong; Stephen Yue; Eric Irissou; Jean-Gabriel Legoux

284

Fentanyl pectin nasal spray: a novel intranasal delivery method for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain.  

PubMed

Fentanyl pectin nasal spray is a novel intranasal formulation for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in patients taking and tolerant to opioids for persistent cancer pain. The pectin-based delivery modulates the product's transmucosal absorption. Nasal delivery allows fentanyl pectin nasal spray to achieve a greater maximum plasma concentration than oral transmucosal fentanyl products and at a much faster rate. Compared with intranasal fentanyl compounded with aqueous solutions, the pectin-based system decreases the maximum plasma concentration and prolongs exposure to more closely match the time course of a typical breakthrough cancer pain episode. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, it was shown to be safe and effective in doses between 100 and 800g per breakthrough pain episode. Fentanyl pectin nasal spray is the only proprietary intranasal fentanyl formulation in the USA and one of two in Europe. Owing to the medication's delivery system, the pharmacokinetics and subsequent dosing are unique to this product and should not be interchanged with any other proprietary or compounded fentanyl product. PMID:23272789

Bulloch, Marilyn N; Hutchison, Amber M

2013-01-01

285

Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to

James R Keiser; Michael A Bestor; Samuel Arthur Lewis Sr; John Morse Storey

2011-01-01

286

Pressure dye-spray: A simple and reliable method for differentiating adenomas from hyperplastic polyps in the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Based on 10 years of experience with chromoendoscopy, our hypothesis was that colonic adenomas can be differentiated from hyperplastic polyps by use of a high-pressure spray-jet of dye (pressure dye-spray). To test the accuracy of pressure dye-spray, classification of colonic polyps as adenomas and hyperplastic polyps by pressure dye-spray and ordinary colonoscopic findings (shape, size, and color surface appearance)

Toshinari Kanamori; Makoto Itoh; Naoki Yoshimi

2002-01-01

287

A coupled implicit solution method for turbulent spray combustion in propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many reacting flows in propulsion devices cannot be efficiently calculated by modern compressible flow CFD algorithms. Most low-speed reacting flow codes based on TEACH-type technologies are inefficient and lack robustness for complex flows. Tremendous progress has been made in high-speed compressible flow CFD in the past two decades; extending its application range to low-speed regimes is highly desirable. The objectives of this document is to present an efficient and robust algorithm for multi-phase chemically reacting flows at all speeds, with emphasis on low Mach number flows, and to calculate turbulent spray combustion flow in a gas turbine combustor.

Chen, K.-H.; Shuen, J.-S.

288

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Richards, Von L. (Anyola, IN)

1995-01-01

289

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO{sub 3} layer to about 1100 C to 1300 C to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

Spengler, C.J.; Folser, G.R.; Vora, S.D.; Kuo, L.; Richards, V.L.

1995-06-20

290

Fabrication of microporous polyurethane by spray phase inversion method as small diameter vascular grafts material.  

PubMed

Microporous polyurethane vascular prostheses with a 4 mm diameter and 0.3-0.4 mm wall thickness were fabricated by a spray phase inversion technique. In this study, the effect of distance between spray guns (SG) and rotating mandrel (RM), the effect of rate of rotating mandrel (RRM), and the type of nonsolvent on pore morphology of PU films were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. It was observed that when the distance between SG and RM was increased or the rate of RM was decreased, the porosity of PU films increased and consequently the tensile strength decreased and compliance value increased. Compliance was measured in vitro by volume and vessel diameter changes. Furthermore, when the coagulant (water) was changed to the water/methanol, the porosity of PU film increased and porous morphology changed to filamentous morphology. Attachment of anchorage dependent cells, namely L929 fibroblast cells, were investigated in stationary culture conditions. The cells adhesion and cells growth were studied using optical photomicrographs. The results show that by increasing the porosity content of PU films would consequently increase the cell ingrowths. PMID:16392129

Khorasani, M T; Shorgashti, S

2006-05-01

291

Spray drying method for large-scale and high-performance silicon negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Nanostructured silicon electrodes have shown great potential as lithium ion battery anodes because they can address capacity fading mechanisms originating from large volume changes of silicon alloys while delivering extraordinarily large gravimetric capacities. Nonetheless, synthesis of well-defined silicon nanostructures in an industrially adaptable scale still remains as a challenge. Herein, we adopt an industrially established spray drying process to enable scalable synthesis of silicon-carbon composite particles in which silicon nanoparticles are embedded in porous carbon particles. The void space existing in the porous carbon accommodates the volume expansion of silicon and thus addresses the chronic fading mechanisms of silicon anodes. The composite electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, such as 1956 mAh/g at 0.05C rate and 91% capacity retention after 150 cycles. Moreover, the spray drying method requires only 2 s for the formation of each particle and allows a production capability of ~10 g/h even with an ultrasonic-based lab-scale equipment. This investigation suggests that established industrial processes could be adaptable to the production of battery active materials that require sophisticated nanostructures as well as large quantity syntheses. PMID:23537321

Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Tae Hoon; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

2013-04-05

292

DEVELOPMENT OF THE THERMAL SPRAYING PROCESS FOR SURFACE COATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commonly used methods of anticorrosion protection of large metal structures are painting and metal spraying. Painting is considerably cheaper than metal spraying, but the latter gives structures protection up to 20 years and reduces maintenance costs substantially. Metal spraying is typically achieved by spraying of molten zinc, aluminium or their alloys using thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame

Igor A. Gorlach; Daniela Ghelase; Nelson Mandela

293

Pyrolysis of scrap tyres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-section samples (23 cm wide), representative of a whole car tyre, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5 dm3 autoclave at 300C, 400C, 500C, 600C and 700C. The whole solid, liquid and gaseous products generated during each pyrolysis were collected and characterised. No significant influence of temperature on the amount and characteristics of pyrolysis products was observed over 500C.

Isabel de Marco Rodriguez; M. F Laresgoiti; M. A Cabrero; A Torres; M. J Chomn; B Caballero

2001-01-01

294

Relationship between hydrous and ordinary pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis results are reviewed briefly with the intent of drawing comparisons between open, high pressure, and hydrous pyrolysis. Empirically, the degree of pyrolysis severity to form volatile products in open pyrolysis is similar to that required to form an expelled oil phase in hydrous pyrolysis. The yields of hydrocarbons from open pyrolysis are close to those from hydrous pyrolysis, but hydrous pyrolysis tends to assist the separation of hydrocarbons from polar materials. Pressure has a small but measurable affect on the generation kinetics.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-06-01

295

Thermodynamics Calculation of the Pyrolysis of Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is a prominent alternative fuel made from triglycerides. Generally, transestrification of triglycerides with methanol is the traditional method applied to produce biodiesel. The controlled un-sequential pyrolysis, however, proves to be more effective in converting poor quality vegetable oil, animal fats, even rotten wasted cook oil into biodiesel. Because of complicated pyrolysis mechanism of triglycerides, thermodynamic calculation by computer simulation

CHENG ZHENYI; JI XING; LI SHUYUAN; LI LI

2004-01-01

296

Characterization of pyrolytic carbon blacks from commercial tire pyrolysis plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of used tires yields oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CBP). The tire pyrolysis process can be performed either in vacuo or at atmospheric pressure. The CBP recovered in both processes are different from the commercial carbon blacks used in the tire fabrication. Different spectroscopic methods such as ESCA, SIMS, Auger-spectroscopy and XRD were used to characterize CBP obtained in

Hans Darmstadt; Christian Roy; Serge Kaliaguine

1995-01-01

297

Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report  

SciTech Connect

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

2012-03-01

298

Interacting Sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In many disparate engineering systems, ranging from cooling systems for microelectronics to jet engines, multiple sprays are\\u000a utilized and the way they interact with one another is the subject matter of this chapter. A general overview of published\\u000a research on interacting sprays is presented. Both experimental and theoretical or numerical investigations of combusting or\\u000a noncombusting systems are covered. The nature

J. B. Greenberg

299

Chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the development of the field of chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. The techniques applied to pyrolysis oil analysis are reviewed including proximate and ultimate analysis, water (moisture) analysis, and chemical component analysis by various forms of chromatography, solvent separations, and spectrophotometric analyses, like infrared and ultraviolet. Advanced analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular beam -- mass spectrometry are also discussed. This paper reviews and compares the methods and the results of the analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the various methods applied are identified. Comparisons derived from the IEA Round Robin are incorporated.

Elliott, D.C.

1994-09-01

300

Thickness-dependent properties of sprayed iridium oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iridium oxide thin films with variable thickness were deposited by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT), onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at 350C. The volume of iridium chloride solution was varied to obtain iridium oxide thin films with thickness ranging from 700 to 2250. The effect of film thickness on structural and electrical properties was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies

P. S Patil; P. S Chigare; S. B Sadale; T Seth; D. P Amalnerkar; R. K Kawar

2003-01-01

301

Engineering bulletin: Pyrolysis treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Engineering Bulletins are a series of documents that summarize the latest information available on selected treatment and site remediation technologies and related issues. Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis is a thermal process that transforms hazardous organic materials into gaseous components and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed carbon and ash. Upon cooling, the gaseous components condense, leaving an oil/tar residue. Pyrolysis is applicable to a wide range of organic wastes and is generally not used in treating wastes consisting primarily of inorganics and metals. The bulletin provides information on the technology applicability, the types of residuals resulting from the use of the technology, the latest performance data, site requirements, the status of the technology, and where to go for further information.

Not Available

1992-10-01

302

Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of pyrolyzing shale comprising the steps of: passing a recycle gas stream through a gas-permeable, highheat capacity solar-heated heat exchange element to form a heated carrier gas, at a temperature of at least 350/sup 0/C; passing the carrier gas downwardly through a pipe positioned within a bed of shale; flowing the gas upwardly through a bed of shale to pyrolyze the shale without combustion of the shale and evolve gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons therefrom into the carrier gas to form pyrolysis gas; removing the pyrolysis gas from the bed; separating liquid product from the pyrolysis gas to form liquid product and gas product; and dividing a portion of the gas product into a recycle gas stream and recovering the remainder.

Qader, S.A.

1986-04-15

303

Pyrolysis of the tetra pak  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

Korkmaz, Ahmet [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Yanik, Jale [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: jale.yanik@ege.edu.tr; Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia ['Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Laboratory, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

2009-11-15

304

Nondestructive Evaluation of Flaking-Resistance in Thermal Sprayed Ceramic Coatings with X-ray Diffraction Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal spraying has emerged as an important tool of increasingly sophisticated surface engineering technology. Therefore, the demand for technology that is checked non-destructively has become more insistent. This paper presents the nondestructive evaluation of fl aking-resistance in thermal sprayed Al2O3, ZrO2 and TiO2 coating. The full-width at half maximum taken from the X-ray diffraction peak profi le was used as

Toru Ito; Toshifumi Kubohori; Jyunji Morimoto

2007-01-01

305

Vapor Phase Pyrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it diss...

W. Steurer

1992-01-01

306

Evaluation of optical parameters and characterization of ultrasonically sprayed MgO films by spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MgO is a chemically stable buffer layer and a good candidate with its unique optical and structural characteristics such as low refractive index and good lattice matching for the deposition of technologically important materials. In this work, we have produced MgO films by a low cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and tried to improve their characteristics by thermal annealing. MgO films have been obtained on glass substrates at 325 5 C and annealed at two different temperatures as 500 C and 600 C for 2 h. Elemental analyses have been made by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thicknesses, refractive indices and extinction coefficient values have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry technique using Cauchy-Urbach model. Band gap values of the films have been calculated using the absorbance spectra and optical method. X-ray diffraction patterns have been used to investigate the structural properties and to calculate lattice parameters. Atomic force microscope images have been taken to see the effect of thermal annealing on surface morphology. Electrical resistivity values of the films have been determined using a four-point probe set-up. As a result, annealing temperature has a strong effect on the mentioned properties and a low cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique allows the production of new and alternative MgO buffer layers for technological applications.

Kurtaran, S.; Akyuz, I.; Atay, F.

2013-01-01

307

Processing of damage-tolerant, oxidation-resistant ceramic matrix composites by a precursor infiltration and pyrolysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage-tolerant, continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites have been produced by an inexpensive method. According to this method, the space between the fibers is filled with a powder. The powder particles are heat treated to form a porous framework without shrinkage, which is then strengthened with an inorganic synthesized from a precursor. High particle packing densities can be achieved within the

F. F. Lange; W. C. Tu; A. G. Evans

1995-01-01

308

Co-liquefaction of Makarwal coal and waste polystyrene by microwavemetal interaction pyrolysis in copper coil reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the co-pyrolysis of waste polystyrene with coal was investigated. This method is based on high temperature obtained by microwave copper interaction. This pyrolysis is believed to be the combine action of the high temperature, microwaves interaction and the active species produced during the process. The metal antenna may also catalyze the pyrolysis process and affect the

Zahid Hussain; Khalid Mohammed Khan; Nadia Basheer; Khadim Hussain

2011-01-01

309

Production of p-xylene from biomass by catalytic fast pyrolysis using ZSM-5 catalysts with reduced pore openings.  

PubMed

Pores for thought: Chemical liquid deposition of silica onto ZSM-5 catalysts led to smaller pore openings that resulted in >90% selectivity for p-xylene over the other xylenes in the catalytic fast pyrolysis of furan and 2-methylfuran (see scheme). The p-xylene selectivity increased from 51% with gallium spray-dried ZSM-5 to 72% with a pore-mouth-modified catalyst in the pyrolysis of pine wood. PMID:23038098

Cheng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zhuopeng; Gilbert, Christopher J; Fan, Wei; Huber, George W

2012-10-04

310

Linear-Source Ultrasonic Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Fabrication of ZnMgO Films and Ultraviolet Photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear-source ultrasonic spray chemical vapor deposition method has been developed and applied to fabricate ZnMgO ternary alloy thin films on glass substrates. A water solution of zinc acetate and magnesium acetate was ultrasonically atomized to form aerosol particles of water containing the sources, and then they were supplied onto the heated substrate by a nitrogen carrier gas through a nozzle with a linear aperture to form ZnMgO films. The source concentration ratios in the water solution successfully controlled the solid composition and hence raised the band gap of ZnMgO up to 3.75 eV, keeping the optical transmission higher than 90% for the visible-light region. An UV photodetector fabricated using the ZnMgO film showed the photoresponsivity to be as high as a few A/W, suggesting that this simple and cost-effective technique is promising for fabricating ZnMgO films for various applications.

Kamada, Yudai; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Nishinaka, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shizuo

2006-08-01

311

Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tire rubbers. 1: Using DTG and TGA  

SciTech Connect

Tire pyrolysis kinetics was investigated to explore an economically viable design for the pyrolysis process. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were found to provide valuable information on pyrolysis kinetics and mechanisms of a heterogeneous compound like scrap tire rubbers. Kinetic parameters of each compositional compound were obtained by analyzing DTG and TGA results with a series of mathematical methods proposed in this study. The pyrolysis kinetics of the scrap tire rubbers tested was well accounted for by the first-order irreversible independent reactions of three compositional compounds. The sidewall and tread rubber exhibited different thermal degradation patterns, suggesting a compositional difference between them. Isothermal pyrolysis results showed that the sidewall rubber would hardly be degraded at low temperature regions (<600 K), whereas it would be more rapidly degraded than the tread rubber at higher temperatures ({>=}746 K). Because of the shorter pyrolysis time, the higher isothermal pyrolysis temperature appeared to be more economically favorable.

Kim, S.; Park, J.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chun, H.D. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

1995-07-01

312

Measurements of surface contamination of spray equipment with pesticides after various methods of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional method to determine operator dermal exposure is to quantify the amount of pesticide coming into contact with specific body regions and then to integrate the deposition density values with the total body surface. It is known that extremely high deposition values may occur in the hand region; however, the source of contamination is generally assumed to be direct

K. Yoshida; I. Fuzesi; M. Suzan; L. Nagy

1990-01-01

313

A Robust Moment Method for Evaluation of the Disappearance Rate of Evaporating Sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we tackle a critical issue in the numerical modeling, by Eulerian moment methods, of polydisperse multiphase systems, constituted of dispersed particles or droplets, a general class of systems which include aerosols. Their modeling starts at a mesoscopic scale with an equation on the number density function NDF of particles\\/droplets which satisfies a population balance equation. (PBE, also

Marc Massot; Frdrique Laurent; Damien Kah; Stphane de Chaisemartin

2010-01-01

314

Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings  

DOEpatents

A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

1997-06-03

315

Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings  

DOEpatents

A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Price, R. Eugene (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

316

Progress in developing spray-drying methods for the production of controlled morphology particles: From the nanometer to submicrometer size ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of particle size and morphology has increasingly captured the attention of researchers for decades. The exploration of unique sizes and shapes as they relate to various properties has become a great quest for large field applications. To meet these demands, this review covers recent developments in particle processing. An aerosol-assisted self-assembly technique, with a spray-drying method as a representative

Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto; Kikuo Okuyama

2011-01-01

317

A laboratory-based method to measure relative pesticide and spray oil efficacy against broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)(Acari: Tarsonemidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six pesticides and two spray oils were tested against Polyphagotarsonemus latus. The chemicals were evaluated under laboratory conditions, requiring the development of a novel bioassay method, which is reported here. The pesticide toxicities fell into three distinct groups, namely abamectin, conventional pesticides and oils. The relative pesticide toxicities at the LC50 level were abamectin 4.910-8 g ai l-1, endosulfan 1.110-3

Grant Herron; Laura Jiang; Robert Spooner-Hart

1996-01-01

318

Nondestructive Measurement of Fatigue Damage of Thermally Sprayed Al 2 O 3 \\/NiCr Using ESPI Method Under High Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature fatigue (R = 0) damage and deformation behaviors of SUS304 steel thermally sprayed with an Al2O3\\/NiCr coating were investigated using a servopulse fatigue-testing machine, SEM, and an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) method. The relation between crack\\/delamination and strain variation is discussed. Surface cracks occurred at the outer Al2O3 coating but stopped at the inner NiCr coating after one

Rongguang Wang; Mitsuo Kido

2002-01-01

319

Kinetics of the low-temperature pyrolysis of walnut shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The walnut shell with particle size less than 0.154 mm pyrolysis mass loss behaviour was studied at different heating rates (5, 10, 20, 30, 40?C\\/min) using pyris1 thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) instrument. Results showed that the activation energies of walnut shell pyrolysis under the different fractions decomposed were centred on 134?172 kJ\\/mol by Ozawa method and Kissinger?Akahira?Sunose method and centred on

Ronghou Liu; Hairong Yuan

2008-01-01

320

Characteristics of hydroxyapatite coated titanium porous coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by plasma sprayed method.  

PubMed

A porous metal coating applied to solid substrate implants has been shown, in vivo, to anchor implants by bone ingrowth. Calcium phosphate ceramics, in particular hydroxyapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), HA], are bioactive ceramics, which are known to be biocompatible and osteoconductive, and these ceramics deposited on to porous-coated devices may enhance bone ingrowth and implant fixation. In this study, bi-feedstock of the titanium powder and composite (Na(2)CO(3)/HA) powder were simultaneously deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate by a plasma sprayed method. At high temperature of plasma torch, the solid state of Na(2)CO(3) would decompose to release CO(2) gas and then eject the molten Ti powder to induce the interconnected pores in the coatings. After cleaning and soaking in deionized water, the residual Na(2)CO(3) in the coating would dissolve to form the open pores, and the HA would exist at the surface of pores in the inner coatings. By varying the particle size of the composite powder, the porosity of porous coating could be varied from 25.0 to 34.0%, and the average pore size of the porous coating could be varied to range between 158.5 and 202.0 microm. Using a standard adhesive test (ASTM C-633), the bonding strength of the coating is between 27.3 and 38.2 MPa. By SEM, the HA was observed at the surface of inner pore in the porous coating. These results suggest that the method exhibits the potential to manufacture the bioactive ceramics on to porous-coated specimen to achieve bone ingrowth fixation for biomedical applications. PMID:17245748

Yang, C Y; Chen, C R; Chang, E; Lee, T M

2007-08-01

321

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol extraction. Sodium stearate contained in a stainless steel miniature reactor was heated at 450°C in a fluidized sand bath. Pyrolysis

Chong

1985-01-01

322

Modeling CFB biomass pyrolysis reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized bed-fast pyrolysis of biomass is considered as having a high commercial potential for the thermal treatment of biomass.This paper mainly presents a model developed further to improvements in the understanding of the science, and capable of predicting pyrolysis yields that are in satisfactory agreement with literature data.The kinetics and endothermicity of biomass pyrolysis are reviewed from extensive TGA and

Manon Van de Velden; Jan Baeyens; Ioannis Boukis

2008-01-01

323

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

324

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

SciTech Connect

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17

325

Catalytic pyrolysis of automobile shredder residue  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, approximately 10 million automobiles are scrapped and shredded each year. The mixture of plastics and other materials remaining after recovery of the metals is known as Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). In 1994, about 3.5 million tons of ASR was produced and disposed of in landfills. However, environmental, legislative, and economic considerations are forcing the industry to search for recycling or other alternatives to disposal. Numerous studies have been done relating the ASR disposal problem to possible recycling treatments such as pyrolysis, gasification, co-liquefaction of ASR with coal, chemical recovery of plastics from ASR, catalytic pyrolysis, reclamation in molten salts, and vacuum pyrolysis. These and other possibilities have been studied intensively, and entire symposia have been devoted to the problem. Product mix, yields, toxicology issues, and projected economics of conceptual plant designs based on experimental results are among the key elements of past studies. Because the kinds of recycling methods that may be developed, along with their ultimate economic value, depend on a very large number of variables, these studies have been open-ended. It is hoped that it may be useful to explore some of these previously studied areas from fresh perspectives. One such approach, currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is the catalytic pyrolysis of ASR.

Arzoumanidis, G.G.; McIntosh, M.J.; Steffensen, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

326

The Pristane Formation Index, a new molecular maturity parameter. A simple method to assess maturity by pyrolysis\\/evaporation-gas chromatography of unextracted samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of eleven samples from the Handil borehole, Mahakam delta, Indonesia, has been analyzed to test the hypothesis that the Pristane Formation Index (PFI = [pristane]\\/{[pristane]+ [pristenes]}) can be used as a molecular maturation parameter. By pyrolysis\\/evaporation-gas chromatography (py\\/ev-GC) of unextracted samples the amounts of the product (pristane) and of the precursor(s) (measured as pristenes) of the pristane formation

H. Goossens; A. Due; J. W. de Leeuw; B. van de Graaf; P. A. Schenck

1988-01-01

327

Assessment of Pulsed Gasoline Fuel Sprays by Means of Qualitative and Quantitative Laser-based Diagnostic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of qualitative measuring techniques such as imaging, with quantitative drop sizing techniques like Laser Diffraction and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), has been applied for assessing the sprays formed by injectors for gasoline direct injection (DI) engines. Both, the sizing instruments as well as the imaging, are offering temporal resolution in order to investigate the important features of pulsed

Didier Robart; Stephan Breuer; Wolfgang Reckers; Reinhold Kneer

2001-01-01

328

Simple method for preparing superhydrophobic paper: spray-deposited hydrophobic silica nanoparticle coatings exhibit high water-repellency and transparency.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings are deposited onto paper by spraying alcohol suspensions of SiO(2) nanoparticles. Superhydrophobicity depends on the aggregation states of nanoparticles, which are determined by the type of alcohol used in the suspensions. The superhydrophobicity of the paper is maintained after touching the paper with a bare finger. PMID:22369269

Ogihara, Hitoshi; Xie, Jing; Okagaki, Jun; Saji, Tetsuo

2012-02-29

329

Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

1995-01-01

330

Non-isothermal pyrolysis kinetics of three Turkish oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-isothermal experimental study using thermogravimetric analysis (t.g.a.) was conducted to determine the overall kinetics of pyrolysis of three Turkish oil shales: Beypazari, Seyitmer and Himmeto?lu. The integral method was used in the analysis of the t.g.a. data to determine first-order pyrolysis kinetics. Particle sizes of 0.7, 1.3 and 2.6 mm and final temperatures of 400, 550 and 700C were

. Murat Do?an; B. Zht Uysal

1996-01-01

331

Vacuum Pyrolysis of Sodium Stearate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol ext...

S. L. Chong

1985-01-01

332

In situ fuel concentration measurement near a spark plug in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine using infrared absorption method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaporized fuel concentration in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition (SG-DISI) engine was measured using an optical sensor installed in a spark plug. A laser infrared absorption method was applied to quantify the instantaneous gasoline concentration near the spark plug. This paper discusses the feasibility of obtaining in situ air-fuel ratio measurements with this sensor installed inside an SG-DISI engine cylinder. First, the effects of the spray plume from a multi-hole injector on the vaporized fuel concentration measurements near the spark-plug sensor were examined using a visible laser. We determined the best position for the sensor in the engine, which was critical due to the spray and vapor plume formation. Then, a 3.392-?m He-Ne laser that coincided with the absorption line of the hydrocarbons was used as a light source to examine the stratified mixture found during ultra-lean engine operation. A combustible mixture existed around the spark plug during the injection period when a preset air-fuel ratio of 45.0 was used with different fuel injection timings and net mean effect pressure conditions. The effects of the orientation of the spark plug on the measured results and ignitability of the SG-DISI engine were examined. Orienting the spark plug vertically to one of the spray plumes provided more accurate results and better engine reliability. The study demonstrated that it was possible to qualify the air-fuel ratio near the spark plug during the injection period using the developed spark-plug sensor in an SG-DISI engine.

Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tomita, Eiji; Kadowaki, Takuya; Honda, Tetsuya; Katashiba, Hideaki

2010-10-01

333

Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01

334

Structure and pyrolysis characteristics of lignin derived from wood powder hydrolysis residues.  

PubMed

Physicochemical characteristics of wood powder acid hydrolysis residue (WAHR) were studied firstly in this study, and WAHL (lignin derived from WAHR) was separated successfully from WAHR based on an improved isolating method. The content of functional group such as phenolic hydroxyl group of guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroxyl-phenyl units in WAHL were identified by (31)P-NMR and DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) method. Thermal degradation experiments were carried out on a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer to show pyrolysis characteristics of WAHL. The compositions of pyrolysis products of WAHL were also studied throughout a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analyzer. It was shown that the pyrolysis of WAHL took place in a wide temperature range and there were two obvious peaks in the differential thermogravimetric diagram. Results of Py-GC-MS analysis indicated that pyrolysis products were mainly formed through cleavage of the ?-O-4 connection and multiple pyrolysis. PMID:21603951

Zhang, Bin; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi; Qiu, Zejing; Wang, Congwei; Huang, Yanqin; Ma, Longlong; Wu, Shubin

2011-05-21

335

Characterization of the water-insoluble fraction from pyrolysis oil (pyrolytic lignin). Part I. PYGC\\/MS, FTIR, and functional groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolytic lignins have been obtained from pyrolysis oil as fine homogeneous powder by a novel precipitation method. The paper presents results obtained for various pyrolytic lignins of pyrolysis oils from different fast pyrolysis processes. They were subjected to various physico-chemical characterization methods. Analysis methods comprise chromatography, spectroscopy and wet chemical techniques. FTIR data indicate that a changing oxygen content mainly

B Scholze; D Meier

2001-01-01

336

Visualization of the evaporation of a diesel spray using combined Mie and Rayleigh scattering techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporating Diesel sprays are studied by laser Rayleigh scattering measurements in an optically accessible high-pressure/high-temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. n-Decane is injected into the vessel using a state-of-the-art near-production three-hole nozzle. Global images of the distributions of the liquid and vapor phases of the injected fuel are obtained using a combined Schlieren and Mie scattering setup. More details about the evaporation are revealed when the spray is illuminated by a laser light sheet: laser light can be scattered by molecules in the gas phase (Rayleigh scattering) or comparably large fuel droplets (Mie scattering). The former is seen in regions where the fuel has completely evaporated, and the latter is dominant in regions with high droplet concentrations. Studying the polarization of the signal light allows the distinction of three different regions in the spray that are characterized by a moderate, low or negligible concentration of liquid fuel droplets. The characteristics of fuel evaporation are investigated for different observation times after the start of injection, chamber conditions and injection pressures. For the quantification of the fuel concentration measurements based on Rayleigh scattering, a calibration method that uses propane as a reference gas is presented and tested. At high ambient temperatures, the accuracy of the concentration measurements is limited by pyrolysis of the fuel molecules.

Adam, Anne; Leick, Philippe; Bittlinger, Gerd; Schulz, Christof

2009-09-01

337

Vacuum pyrolysis of PVC I. Kinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum pyrolysis of PVC has been studied emphasizing two aspects: the kinetics of PVC pyrolysis reactions and the yields of pyrolysis products. The purpose of the kinetic study is to identify each apparent reaction involved in PVC pyrolysis. Three stages of weight loss have been evidenced by TG analysis during PVC decomposition both under vacuum and in nitrogen atmosphere, while

Rosa Miranda; Jin Yang; Christian Roy; Cornelia Vasile

1999-01-01

338

Biocrude from biomass: pyrolysis of cottonseed cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of cottonseed cake to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemicals feedstocks, in two different reactors, namely a tubular and a Heinze retort. Pyrolysis atmosphere and pyrolysis temperature effects on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical composition have been investigated. The maximumm oil yield of

N zbay; A. E Ptn; B. B Uzun; E Ptn

2001-01-01

339

Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.  

PubMed

Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate. PMID:19589669

Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martn; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

2009-07-08

340

Comparison of solid oxide fuel cell anode coatings prepared from different feedstock powders by atmospheric plasma spray method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) deposition of a high-performance anode coating, which is essential for obtaining high power density from a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), is developed. A conventional, micron-sized, nickel-coated graphite yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) graphite blend feedstock leads to a non-uniform layered coating microstructure due to the difference in the physical and thermo-physical properties of the

Ohchul Kwon; S. Kumar; Changhee Lee

2007-01-01

341

Discrimination of genetically modified poplar clones by analytical pyrolysisgas chromatography and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS) is a relatively rapid (13h) method for the investigation of polymers. Various wood tissues from transgenic poplar clones and from control samples have been subjected to a screening test by Py-GCMS. Pyrolysis products from lignin- and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis products were subjected to multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). The first three

Dietrich Meier; Ingrid Fortmann; Jrgen Odermatt; Oskar Faix

2005-01-01

342

Studies on pyrolysis of Nomex polyaramid fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis behavior of Nomex [poly(m-phenylene isophtalamide)] fibers under argon was studied using thermoanalytical and infrared spectroscopic methods to get direct information on the progressive changes undergone by the solid material and its carbon fiber residues. Simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG)differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements were carried out in a thermobalance in order to establish the different steps in the thermal degradation

S. Villar-Rodil; A. Mart??nez-Alonso; J. M. D. Tascn

2001-01-01

343

Effects of elemental sulfur during programmed pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of elemental sulfur during programmed pyrolysis (Rock-Eval method) of Eocene Green River shale and common rock matrix minerals were assessed experimentally. Mixtures of elemental sulfur and Green River shale with calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and calcium sulfate were analyzed. With weight-fraction Green River shale held at a near-constant value, geologically realistic contents of elemental sulfur result in substantial

R. Sassen; E. W. Chinn

1989-01-01

344

Apparatus for solid waste pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure is directed to an economical system for the pyrolysis of municipal solid waste to recover valuable byproducts while reducing the putrefaction and bulk of the residue requiring disposal. Prior to this treatment, the solid waste has been processed to remove most of the metallic components, and shredded, which steps are not part of the invention disclosed. The pyrolysis and by-product recovery technology is complicated by (A) the inherent variability of the chemical and physical characteristics of the shredded solid waste as received at the pyrolysis plant and (B) the relatively low heat value of said waste as thus received. This pyrolysis and product recovery system includes an improved pyrolysis retort indirectly heated principally by combustion of the least desirable by-product, the solid char, in combination with a furnace for the char combustion , a condenser for the pyrolysis vapor including means for gravity separation of the gas, liquid and solid residues entraer. Gases evolved in the shaft are sucked do pyrolysis chamber where they are covered bye chosen metal dihalide vapor is ionized by ; the total economic market potential is 64.4% of the technical potential, or 2072.4 MW, equivalent to 83,621 BPDE; and the lack of an operating history-detailing system reliability, safety, and operating costs-iment and test components; technology testing; analytmperature fatigue stren obtained.

Reilly, B.B.

1981-04-14

345

Chemical Composition and Resistivity of Sprayed CuInS2 Thin Films for Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CuInS2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates with the spray pyrolysis technique. The films were sprayed at 390degC using different ratios of x = [Cu] \\/ [In] in the aqueous solutions with the objective of studying their compositional, structural, optical and electrical properties. The values of the Cu\\/In ratio in the aqueous solutions have been changed in the range

J. M. Peza-Tapia; A. Morales-Acevedo; M. Ortega-Lopez

2007-01-01

346

Flame spray synthesis of CoMo\\/Al 2O 3 hydrotreating catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first alumina supported and unsupported cobalt molybdenum hydrotreating catalysts have been prepared by one-step flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) by spraying and combusting tris(acetylacetonato)aluminum, cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate and molybdenum 2-ethylhexaoate dissolved in toluene. The oxide particles produced contained varying amounts of transition metals (8, 16, 24 and 32wt.% Mo with atomic ratio Co\\/Mo=1\\/3 and 16wt.% Mo with atomic ratios Co\\/Mo=2\\/3 and

Martin Hj; Kasper Linde; Thomas Klint Hansen; Michael Brorson; Anker Degn Jensen; Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt

2011-01-01

347

Some physical investigations on AgInS 2 sprayed thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

AgInS2 thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis process using an aqueous solution which contains silver acetate (AgCH3CO2), thiourea (SC(NH2)2) and indium chloride (InCl3) as precursors. The depositions were carried out in the range of the substrate temperature from 260 to 420C. The value of the concentration ratio in the spray solution of indium and

Z. Aissa; T. Ben Nasrallah; M. Amlouk; J. C. Bernde; S. Belgacem

2006-01-01

348

Arc spraying in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although are spraying is not a new technique, recent development of arc spraying device systems, spray wires, research on the coating mechanism, and the dynamic behavior of spraying make it a most active thermal spray process. In China, the arc spraying technique is the most efficient way for long life corrosion protection of steel structures. In addition, the arc spraying process is widely used for renovation and surface modification of machine components, mold making for plastic products, high-temperature corrosion resistance for waterwalls of boilers, antisliding coatings, self-lubricating coatings, etc.

Liu, Xianjun

2001-03-01

349

Kelvin spray ionization.  

PubMed

A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 ?L min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions. PMID:24080942

Ozdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-10-15

350

Modeling of coal pyrolysis kinetics  

SciTech Connect

Four different coals were instantaneously introduced into a laboratory-scale pyrolysis chamber at various temperatures, and their devolatilization profiles were analyzed with respect to kinetics. The experimental setup consisted of a gas chromatograph (GC) with a pyrolysis unit, an empty column, and a detector. Detector signals were digitalized and stored for further handling. Normally, 1,024 values were sampled at 250 Hz. For deconvolving the true instantaneous devolatilization from the observed detector response, the residence time distribution was compensated for. An empirical model approach is developed to correlate the total devolatilization rates when instantaneously introducing a particle in a constant temperature environment. The model is also extended to pyrolysis application.

Liliedahl, T.; Sjoestroem, K. (Inst foer Kemisk Teknologi, Stockholm (Sweden))

1994-09-01

351

Thermal characteristics of bitumen pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis behavior of bitumen was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzermass spectrometer system (TGMS) and\\u000a a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) as well as a pyrolysis-gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer system (Py-GC\\/MS). TG\\u000a results showed that there were three stages of weight loss during pyrolysisless than 110, 110380, and 380600C. Using\\u000a distributed activation energy model, the average activation energy of the thermal decomposition

Hou-yin ZhaoYan; Yan Cao; Song P. Sit; Quentin Lineberry; Wei-ping Pan

352

Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanopowders prepared by electrostatic spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanopowders were successfully prepared by the cost-effective electrostatic spray-pyrolysis\\u000a process. The properties of the silver-doped nanopowder annealed at 500C for 30min were investigated through X-ray diffraction\\u000a analysis, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The silver-doped nanopowders\\u000a with 7090nm particle size showed an antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli.

Kyu-Seog Hwang; Seung Hwangbo; Jin-Tae Kim

2008-01-01

353

Electrochromism in spray deposited iridium oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochromic iridium oxide thin films were deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates from an aqueous iridium chloride solution by pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The as-deposited samples were X-ray amorphous. The electrochromic properties of thin films were studied in an aqueous electrolyte (0.5N H2SO4) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and spectrophotometry. Iridium oxide films show pronounced anodic

P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale

2005-01-01

354

Spray pyrolytic deposition of polycrystalline Cu 2S thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline copper sulfide (Cu2S) thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis using aqueous solutions of copper nitrate and thiourea without any complexing agent at substrate (deposition) temperature of ?200C. The films were deposited onto glass and ITO-coated glass substrates. The deposited films were observed to be blackish brown in color, well adherent to the substrate, pin-hole free and uniform. The

Woo-Young Kim; Balasaheb M. Palve; Habib M. Pathan; Oh-Shim Joo

355

Analysis of red phosphorus using a pyrolysis gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative method has been developed for the analysis of red phosphorus found in clandestine methamphetamine manufacturing laboratories. This method converts the red allotropic form of phosphorus into the white allotropic form of phosphorus using heat (The Merck IndexAn Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, eleventh ed., 1989, p. 1167) from a pyrolysis unit. The pyrolysis unit is interfaced to

J. Schieferecke; D. Worley

2004-01-01

356

Carbon nanotubes produced by aerosol pyrolysis: growth mechanisms and post-annealing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first observation of carbon nanotubes in 1991, their synthesis by different techniques has been extensively investigated. Recently, CVD-based methods have attracted much attention because of both their versatility and the quality of the nanotubes obtained. This work is focused on the aerosol pyrolysis process which is a catalytic CVD-based method involving pyrolysis of mixed liquid aerosols composed of

M. Pinault; M. Mayne-L'Hermite; C. Reynaud; O. Beyssac; J. N. Rouzaud; C. Clinard

2004-01-01

357

Non-isothermal Kinetics of Pyrolysis of Three Kinds of Fresh Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis kinetics of three different kinds of fresh biomass (grass: triple A, wheat straw, corn straw) in nitrogen flow were studied by thermogravimetric analysis at five different heating rates. The kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis process were calculated using the method of Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and the mechanism of reactions were investigated using the method of Popescu. It was found that

Fan-fei MIN; Ming-xu ZHANG; Qing-ru CHEN

2007-01-01

358

Coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln: Part I. Model of the pyrolysis of a single grain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is presented which describes the pyrolysis of a single grain of coal and is designed to be incorporated into an overall model simulating the rotary kiln coal pyrolysis process. The grain model takes into account the principal physical phenomena occurring during the conversion of coal to coke, namely, heat transfer toward and within the grain, drying of the coal, and the evolution of volatile species. Particular care has been taken in the determination of the thermophysical and kinetic parameters necessary for the model. Thus, the drying kinetics for Lorraine coal were measured by thermogravimetry. The kinetics of pyrolysis were determined by both thermogravimetry and gasphase chromatography, in order to separately monitor the evolution of the nine gaseous species considered. The true specific heat and the thermal conductivity of the solid were also measured as a function of temperature. The numerical model, based on the finite-volume method, calculates the temperature, composition, and mass flow rates for the different gases evolved at each point in the grain at any instant of time. The model was, finally, validated by comparing the calculated and measured values of the overall conversion of the pyrolysis reaction and the temperature at the center of the grain.

Patisson, Fabrice; Lebas, Etienne; Hanrot, Franois; Ablitzer, Denis; Houzelot, Jean-Leon

2000-04-01

359

Coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln: Part 1. Model of the pyrolysis of a single grain  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model is presented which describes the pyrolysis of a single grain of coal and is designed to be incorporated into an overall model simulating the rotary kiln coal pyrolysis process. The grain model takes into account the principal physical phenomena occurring during the conversion of coal to coke, namely, heat transfer toward and within the grain, drying of the coal, and the evolution of volatile species. Particular care has been taken in the determination of the thermophysical and kinetic parameters necessary for the model. Thus, the drying kinetics for Lorraine coal were measured by thermogravimetry. The kinetics of pyrolysis were determined by both thermogravimetry and gas-phase chromatography, in order to separately monitor the evolution of the nine gaseous species considered. The true specific heat and the thermal conductivity of the solid were also measured as a function of temperature. The numerical model, based on the finite-volume method, calculates the temperature, composition, and mass flow rates for the different gases evolved at each point in the grain at any instant of time. The model was, finally, validated by comparing the calculated and measured values of the overall conversion of the pyrolysis reaction and the temperature at the center of the grain.

Patisson, F.; Lebas, E.; Hanrot, F.; Ablitzer, D.; Houzelot, J.L.

2000-04-01

360

Centrifuge Testing of a Partially-Confined FC-72 Spray.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of elevated acceleration fields on spray cooling heat transfer are discussed in this paper. Spray cooling has proven to be one of the most efficient methods of heat removal. This technology is being transitioned into more advanced applications...

A. J. Fleming K. L. Yerkes L. J. Elston S. K. Thomas

2006-01-01

361

Investigation on Pyrolysis of Casein  

Microsoft Academic Search

First casein was processed by pyrolysis and investigated under optimal thermal treatment condition to obtain a good quality\\u000a adsorbent with high developed porosity structure and liquid product as a complex raw material for different kind of organic\\u000a compounds with interesting properties and structures. The yields of hard residue, pitch, pyrolysis water and gases were determined\\u000a and compared with the yields

B. Purevsuren; Y. Davaajav

2001-01-01

362

Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500550C with a yield of 20.5%. The

Esin Apaydin-Varol; Ersan Ptn; Ay?e E. Ptn

2007-01-01

363

A Fuzzy Control System for Capturing Target of Intelligence Spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the PCO (pest control operation) market, the intelligence spraying fog with truck-mounted machine is the most advanced method in its profession field currently. Facing with the characteristics of spray target and the require of operation apply, a methods of capturing target and control spray direction are proposed based on fuzzy theory in this paper. It is effectively solved the

Zhang Fajun; Chai Cangxiu

2006-01-01

364

Structural, Optical, and Electrical Characterization of Spray Pyrolysed Indium Sulfide Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were deposited onto the glass substrates by a low cost simple spray pyrolysis technique at 300C temperature. Aqueous solution of indium chloride and thiourea were used to deposit the binary In-S film. The deposited thin films were annealed at 400 and 500C temperatures and characterized structurally, optically and electrically using EDX, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy and four probe van der Pauw methods. The optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient are calculated from absorbance and transmittance data from 300 to 1100 nm wavelength. The optical transmittance increased after annealing at 400 and 500C. The band gap energy was reduced from 2.90 to 2.50 eV after annealing the as deposited films. The electrical conductivity as well as the activation energy was increased after annealing the samples.

Rahman, F.; Podder, J.; Ichimura, M.

2013-04-01

365

Shock-tube study of acetaldehyde pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature pyrolysis of acetaldehyde was studied behind reflected shock waves using a single-pulse (reaction time between 1.5 and 2.9 ms), time-resolved IR-absorption (3.39 m) and UV-absorption (200 nm) methods. The studies were done using mixtures, 5.0% CH3CHO, 4.0% CH3CHO and 2.0% CH3CHO diluted with Ar, in the temperature range 10002-1700 K at total pressures between 1.2 and 3.0 atm. Prom a computer-simulation study, a 58-reaction mechanism that could explain all our data was constructed. The rate constant expressions of reactions (1)-(11) at high temperatures in the CH3CHO pyrolysis were discussed. It was found that, under our experimental conditions, reactions (1), (3) and (4) played an important role as the initiation reaction and reactions (6) and (8) also played a role in the CH3CHO pyrolysis.

Hidaka, Y.; Kubo, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Wakamatsu, H.

366

Apparatus for solid waste pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure is directed to an economical system for the pyrolysis of municipal solid waste to recover valuable byproducts while reducing the putrecibility and bulk of the residue requiring disposal. Prior to this treatment, the solid waste has been processed to remove most of the metallic components, and shredded, which steps are not part of the invention disclosed. The pyrolysis and by-product recovery technology is complicated by (A) the inherent variability of the chemical and physical characteristics of the shredded solid waste as received at the pyrolysis plant and (B) the relatively low heat value of said waste as thus received. This pyrolysis and product recovery system includes an improved pyrolysis retort indirectly heated principally by combustion of the least desirable by-product, the solid waste, in combination with a furnace for the char combustion, a condenser for the pyrolysis vapor including means for gravity separation of the gas, liquid and solid residues entrained therein, and improved means for conveying the materials through the system including intermittently driven rams for delivering solids into the retort and furnace, featuring an inwardly-tapered nozzle in which a plug of waste is maintained to seal against air or gas passage.

Reilly, B. B.

1980-08-12

367

Apparatus for solid waste pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure is directed to an economical system for the pyrolysis of municipal solid waste to recover valuable byproducts while reducing the putrecibility and bulk of the residue requiring disposal. Prior to this treatment, the solid waste has been processed to remove most of the metallic components, and shredded, which steps are not part of the invention disclosed. The pyrolysis and by-product recovery technology is complicated by (A) the inherent variability of the chemical and physical characteristics of the shredded solid waste as received at the pyrolysis plant and (B) the relatively low heat value of said waste as thus received. This pyrolysis and product recovery system includes an improved pyrolysis retort indirectly heated principally by combustion of the least desirable by-product, the solid char, in combination with a furnace for the char combustion , a condenser for the pyrolysis vapor including means for gravity separation of the gas, liquid and solid residues entrained therein, and improved means for conveying the materials through the system including intermittently driven rams for delivering solids into the retort and furnace.

Reilly, B.B.

1981-01-27

368

Comparison of a novel spray congealing procedure with emulsion-based methods for the micro-encapsulation of water-soluble drugs in low melting point triglycerides.  

PubMed

The particle size characteristics and encapsulation efficiency of microparticles prepared using triglyceride materials and loaded with two model water-soluble drugs were evaluated. Two emulsification procedures based on o/w and w/o/w methodologies were compared to a novel spray congealing procedure. After extensive modification of both emulsification methods, encapsulation efficiencies of 13.04% tetracycline HCl and 11.27% lidocaine HCl were achievable in a Witepsol-based microparticle. This compares to much improved encapsulation efficiencies close to 100% for the spray congealing method, which was shown to produce spherical particles of approximately 58 microm. Drug release studies from a Witepsol formulation loaded with lidocaine HCl showed a temperature-dependent release mechanism, which displayed diffusion-controlled kinetics at temperatures approximately 25 degrees C, but exhibited almost immediate release when triggered using temperatures close to that of skin. Therefore, such a system may find application in topical semi-solid formulations, where a temperature-induced burst release is preferred. PMID:18465298

McCarron, Paul A; Donnelly, Ryan F; Al-Kassas, Rasil

2008-09-01

369

Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.  

PubMed

Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate. PMID:23858864

Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

2013-05-01

370

Blue TiO\\/SiO 2 nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite TiSiOC nanoparticles with Ti\\/Si ratio varying in a very large range were prepared by laser pyrolysis of a gasspray mixture of silane and titanium tetra-isopropoxide. The as-formed nanoparticle batches exhibit intense blue colours, varying from dark to light blue while the Ti\\/Si ratio increases. This blue colour is attributed to the formation of sub-stoichiometric TiO$$_{2-x}$$compounds induced by the presence

Hicham Maskrot; Nathalie Herlin-Boime; Yann Leconte; Krystina Jursikova; Ccile Reynaud; Jean Vicens

2006-01-01

371

Pyrolysis characteristics of integrated circuit boards at various particle sizes and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pyrolysis method was employed to recycle the metals and brominated compounds blended into printed circuit boards. This research investigated the effect of particle size and process temperature on the element composition of IC boards and pyrolytic residues, liquid products, and water-soluble ionic species in the exhaust, with the overall goal being to identify the pyrolysis conditions that will have

Hung-Lung Chiang; Kuo-Hsiung Lin; Mei-Hsiu Lai; Ting-Chien Chen; Sen-Yi Ma

2007-01-01

372

Assessment of pyrolysis oil as an energy source for diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study of using tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) obtained from waste automobile tyres by vacuum pyrolysis method, as a fuel in diesel engine. In this work, performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder water cooled diesel engine running on TPO diesel reference fuel (RF) blends in steps of 20% on volume basis of TPO, viz.

S. Murugan; M. C. Ramaswamy; G. Nagarajan

2009-01-01

373

In?situ NMR characterization of pyrolysis oil during accelerated aging.  

PubMed

COMING OF AGE: A method for investigating the accelerated aging of biomass pyrolysis oils is reported. The?in situ NMR investigation, done by using quantitative H, C?NMR and heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC)-NMR techniques, reveals the chemical structural changes of pyrolysis oil during the aging process, providing insight into the mechanism of aging process. PMID:22888014

Ben, Haoxi; Ragauskas, Arthur J

2012-08-07

374

Relative Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases From Some Rigid Foams Used as Thermal Insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various samples of rigid foams used as thermal insulation were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The rigid foam samples included polyurethane, polyimide, polyisocyanurate, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene.The toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyurethane rigid foams seemed to depend on foam composition. Polystyrene rigid foam exhibited the longest

Carlos J. Hilado; Heather J. Cumming; Andjane E. Schneider

1978-01-01

375

A laboratory-based method to measure relative pesticide and spray oil efficacy against broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)(Acari: Tarsonemidae).  

PubMed

Six pesticides and two spray oils were tested against Polyphagotarsonemus latus. The chemicals were evaluated under laboratory conditions, requiring the development of a novel bioassay method, which is reported here. The pesticide toxicities fell into three distinct groups, namely abamectin, conventional pesticides and oils. The relative pesticide toxicities at the LC50 level were abamectin 4.9 x 10(-8) g ai 1(-1), endosulfan 1.1 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), fenpyroximate 2.3 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), pyridaben 4.1 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), tebufenpyrad 4.4 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), dicofol 4.5 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), petroleum spray oil 3.4 x 10(-1) g ai 1(-1) and canola oil 4.1 x 10-(1) g ai 1(-1). The calculation of the LC99.9 values allows for resistance monitoring in P. Latus and the suggested discriminating concentrations are abamectin 1.0 x 10(-4) g ai 1(-1); endosulfan, pyridaben and dicofol 1.0 x 10(-1) g ai 1(-1) fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad 5.0 x 10(-1) g ai 1(-1). PMID:8952071

Herron, G; Jiang, L; Spooner-Hart, R

1996-09-01

376

Effect of deposition temperature on structural and optical properties of sprayed nickel oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on preheated glass substrate. The effect of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties was studied by XRD, AFM and UV-visible spectrophotometer. XRD analysis indicated polycrystalline cubic structure of sprayed films with (111) preferred orientation. It has been found that optical absorption behavior and surface morphology of the films can be controlled by substrate temperature. UV-visible spectra shows that the absorption edges of sprayed films shift to short wavelength with increasing deposition temperature.

Sharma, R.; Acharya, A. D.; Moghe, Shweta; Shrivastava, S. B.; Ganesan, V.

2013-06-01

377

An elastic-perfectly plastic model for simulating an aluminum particle behavior during plasma thermal spraying using the finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a 2D numerical study which treats the splat and flattening of the droplet during a thermal spraying process. An aluminum particle at a high temperature is impacted on steel substrate. A perfectly elastic-plastic model is used instead of the VOF method which is exclusively used in the literature. For this purpose, the finite element method with Ansys mechanical APDL program is used to solve the governing equations. Displacement, elastic and plastic strains, Von-Mises stress, energy densities, and contact pressure are evaluated during the impact of the particle. Additionally, it is found that the initial impact velocity has a significant effect on splat behavior. This mechanical model gives a promise results that can be improved to help understand the impact and flattening phenomenon.

Benramoul, L.; Abdellah El-Hadj, A.

2011-11-01

378

Characterization of controlled flash pyrolysis coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

The complex mixture of reaction products termed coal liquid (resulting from the Controlled Flash Pyrolysis process for the liquefaction of coal has been analyzed, and the results of the analyses for representative samples are tabulated. For the determination of an average property, conventional methods, such as elemental analysis, solvent classification test, gas-phase chromotography, and ASTM 1160 distillation for the liquid analysis, were used. Molecular weight distribution was determined by Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The coal liquid was separated into fractions according to boiling point, polarity, and acidity/basicity prior to the determination of the chemical composition of each fraction by combined spectroscopic methods. (BLM)

Chen, C.B.; Durai-Swamy, K.

1982-01-01

379

Use of aqueous suspensions in plasma spraying of alumina coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines and compares the properties of Al2O3 coatings sprayed using two methods: arc plasma spraying (APS) of micron powders (average particle size is 45 ?m) and suspension\\u000a plasma spraying (SPS) (average particle size is 2.9 ?m). A system for feeding suspension into plasma spray is developed and\\u000a fabricated. It is established that SPS coatings contain finer structural components

V. E. Oliker; A. E. Terentev; L. K. Shvedova; I. S. Martsenyuk

2009-01-01

380

Group combustion of liquid fuel in laminar spray jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the global configuration, detailed structure, and combustion characteristic of sprays under various firing conditions represented by various principal parameters including group combustion number, fuel-air mass ratio, Reynolds number, and spray angle. A system of conservation equations of spray flames in an axisymmetric configuration is solved by a finite-difference method for n-Butylbenzen (CH). An extensive spray sensitivity

1982-01-01

381

Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned

Harry A. Harris; Jones Jr. John B

1978-01-01

382

Pyrolysis-GC-MS Analysis of Antarctic Lake Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic lake sediments were analyzed with Pyrolysis-GC-MS, a method similar to the methods used on board MSL and Exomars. This is the starting point to build a library of data from terrestrial samples to improve the analysis of martian samples.

Steininger, H.; Goetz, W.

2012-03-01

383

Quantitative flash pyrolysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of organic materials.  

PubMed

Thermal degradation is a common technique used to investigate the nature of organic materials. However, existing methods for the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) identification and quantification of volatile products from the thermal degradation of organic materials are limited to the technique of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)-FTIR, which utilizes relatively low heating rates. However, the thermal degradation products of organic materials are known to vary depending on the rate of heating, with lower heating rates of biomass associated with increased yields of solid char and decreased yields of volatiles, as well as a greater opportunity for secondary reactions between the residue and the pyrolysis products. Hence, it is difficult to relate the products of organic matter thermally degraded at <100 degrees C min(-1) in TGA to the products of flash pyrolysis at up to 20,000 degrees C s(-1). We have developed and applied a novel methodology for quantitative flash pyrolysis-FTIR analysis of the volatile pyrolysis products of organic-rich materials. Calibration curves of water, carbon dioxide and methane have been constructed and used to determine absolute volatile release from wood (ash, Lat. Fraxinus). This technique is quicker and simpler than comparable pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques, and avoids errors associated with the lower rates of temperature increase associated with techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis. PMID:19345759

Court, Richard W; Sephton, Mark A

2009-03-06

384

Numerical Analysis of Interfacial Bonding of Al-Si Particle and Mild Steel Substrate by Cold Spray Technique Using the SPH Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition mechanism of the cold spray (CS) technique is investigated numerically using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The CS process is simulated by modeling the impact of a spherical Al-Si powder particle on a mild steel substrate. In this work, the adhesive interaction between the contacting surfaces is described by intersurface forces using the cohesive zone model. Simulation results show that successful bonding is achieved above the critical velocity, but rebound was observed at high velocities. This indicates that optimum deposition is achieved only within a certain range of particle velocities. The simulated deformed particle shape evolution and estimated critical velocity from other sources were compared and good agreement was obtained. The analyses demonstrate the feasibility of the presented SPH methodology and the adhesive interaction model for simulating the deformation behavior of CS particles.

Manap, Abreeza; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Okabe, Tomonaga

385

A Study on the Deposition of Al2O3 Coatings on Polymer Substrates by a Plasma Spray/Micro-Arc Oxidation Two-Step Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To increase the wear resistance of polymer matrix composites, alumina coatings were deposited on polymer substrates by a two-step method combining plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation. The microstructures and phase compositions of the processed coatings were investigated for different treatment times. Uniformly distributed pores were found in addition to the presence of various coral-like structures and floccules on the surface of the coatings. The presence of ?-Al2O3 and ?-Al2O3 phases was identified by XRD. The distribution of alumina was analyzed by EDS and is discussed. The maximum bond strength of the coatings was found to be 5.89 MPa. There was little thermal damage in the polymer substrates after the coatings were produced.

Sun, Guanhong; He, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jiuxing; Sun, Yue; Zhong, Yesheng

2013-02-01

386

Characterization of sprays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

387

Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It is an ... 49 who want to be protected from the flu virus. Unlike the regular vaccine, it is a live virus. Therefore, it is ...

388

Effect of S\\/In concentration ratio on the physical properties of AgInS 2-sprayed thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

AgInS2 thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis process using an aqueous solution, containing silver acetate (AgCH3CO2), thiourea (SC(NH2)2) and indium chloride (InCl3) as precursors. The depositions were carried out at the substrate temperature of 420C. The value of the concentration ratio in the spray solution of indium and silver elements x=[Ag+]\\/[In3+] was equal to

Z. Aissa; M. Amlouk; T. Ben Nasrallah; J. C. Bernde; S. Belgacem

2007-01-01

389

Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on pyrolysis of representative medical waste composition.  

PubMed

To obtain detailed information on the pyrolysis characteristics, a thermogravimetric study on the pyrolysis of 14 typical medical waste compositions was carried out in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment using dynamic techniques in a stream of N2. An index representing pyrolysis reactivity of waste was presented. Kinetic parameters were obtained by Coats-Redfern method and used to model the TG curve. The results showed that: (a) Plastic, protein, cellulosic material, synthetic fibre, and rubber entered pyrolysis process in succession. (b) There was one decomposition stage in the pyrolysis of one-off medical glove, operating glove, cellulosic waste, absorbable catgut suture and adhesive plaster, while other components had two obvious weight loss stages. (c) The obtained apparent activation energy for second stage pyrolysis was comparably higher than that for first stage. (d) Each stage was controlled by only one kinetic mechanism, in which kinetic parameters were constant. (e) The degradation kinetics of medical waste may be affected by special physical and chemical treatment in the product manufacturing process. (f) Among 13 waste samples, the pyrolysis index of cellulosic matter was the highest, which indicated cellulosic matter had strong pyrolysis reactivity. (g) With increasing heating rate, TG curve and DTG peak shifted to high temperatures and main reaction interval of the sample became longer. PMID:17911006

Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-feng; Wang, Yan

2007-10-01

390

Development and validation of a stability indicative HPLC-PDA method for kaurenoic acid in spray dried extracts of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Asteraceae.  

PubMed

A gradient stability indicative HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for assay of the marker kaurenoic acid (KA) in spray dried extract of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski. The marker, and another unidentified polar component, were separated on a Luna Phenomenex C(18) column (2504.6 mm, 5 ?m) with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:acidified water pH 3.0 with phosphoric acid, in a gradient run of 40 min; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), 35 C, using wavelengths of 210 and 338 nm. The method was linear over a KA concentration range of 4.5-30.0 ?g mL(-1), without interference of the herbal matrix on the linearity of the method. The RSD% values for the intra- and inter-day precision studies were <2.0 and <8.0% for inter-laboratorial study. The method showed excellent KA recovery (99.0%). The LOQ value was found to be 1.13 ?g mL(-1) and the method proved to be robust for small, deliberate changes in temperature and pH of the mobile phase with RSD%<2.5% for the KA assay. A forced degradation study of S. trilobata dried extract was conducted under conditions of visible light (1.200.000 lh(-1)) and UV (200 Whm(-2)) irradiation, acid (0.5 mol L(-1) HCl, 30 min), basic (1 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2 h) and oxidative (30% H(2)O(2), 4h) hydrolysis, in order to develop a gradient stability-indicating LC-UV method for KA quantification, the selected marker, and also to detect the major polar components of the extract, under investigation. The KA contents remaining after these stress conditions were 72.3, 70.0, 97.6, 65.8 and 87.0%, respectively. The alkaline conditions resulted in higher degradation for the unknown polar components of the extract, without interference of supplementary peaks at the retention time of the KA. This method can be used for the KA assay and qualitative analysis of polar components in stability study of spray dried extracts of S. trilobata, for subsequent use in the quality control of dosage forms. PMID:23158359

Fucina, Giovana; Block, Luciana Catia; Baccarin, Thaisa; Ribeiro, Thiago Ruiz Gutierrez; Quinto, Nara Lins Meira; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Silva, Ruth Meri Lucinda; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bell

2012-09-25

391

Controlled and efficient electrohydrodynamic spraying of water in an electrostatic wind energy converter (EWICON)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the optimisation of an electrohydrodynamic atomisation based spraying system is discussed which is able to spray charged water droplets in a controlled way. Spraying of charged water droplets is a means to efficiently and ecologically convert wind energy into electrical energy using a method called electrostatic wind energy conversion (EWICON). The new spraying implementations have successfully been

D. Djairam; A. T. de Wit; P. H. F. Morshuis; J. J. Smit

2008-01-01

392

Spray Forming Alloy 625 Marine Piping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-net-shape manufacturing methods for large-diameter Alloy 625 piping have been evaluated to determine cost advantages and product quality over conventional manufacturing and powder metallurgy technologies. One particular method, Osprey spray forming, has proven itself to be a viable alternative. The sprayformed preforms exhibit uniform, equiaxed microstructures and mechanical properties approaching those of wrought via spray forming possesses mechanical properties surpassing those established by current specifications while the microstructures remain fine and quite uniform after cold rolling. In addition, a cost evaluation indicates sizable potential savings when Alloy 625 is produced by spray forming.

Moran, Angela L.; Palko, William A.

1988-12-01

393

Fuels and chemicals by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some data are presented on process conditions and product properties and compositions in the production of ethylene, low- and medium-Btu gas, tar, and liquid products from the flash pyrolysis of West Kentucky bituminous coal, animal waste, rice hulls, fir bark, grass straw, or municipal solid waste by the Garrett Research and Development Co., Inc. process. Flow diagram, graphs, and tables

J. R. Longanbach; F. Bauer

1975-01-01

394

Experimental research on spray and combustion characteristics of the third generation conical spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation conical spray system for conventional diesel engines or premixed combustion diesel engines is introduced. By means of oriented impingement method, flexible spray penetration in design is realized. High-speed photograph was used to investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of the new spray for cases of different impingement angles and needle valve opening pressures. The results show that, by applying spray impingement orientation, fuel jets spread along the cone surface as shape of sectors, so the dispersion of jets is increased obviously. Changing on impingement angle leads to variation of penetration, which is critical in homogeneous mixture preparation. Due to the flexibility of spray penetration in design, the spray impingement on liner is avoided in a great extent. The results also indicate that higher needle valve opening pressure results in longer penetration and larger spray angle after impingement. Combustion characteristics of the impinged conical spray were studied in the 1135 type diesel engine. The new impinged conical spray system work smoothly in full load range with better fuel economy and lower emissions of NO x and soot than the original test engine.

Li-Yan, Feng; Wu-Qiang, Long; Bao-Guo, Du; Hua, Tian; Tomio, Obokata

2005-03-01

395

Taxonomic discrimination of higher plants by pyrolysis mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS) is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical method based on thermal degradation of complex material in a vacuum and has been widely applied to the discrimination of closely related microbial strains. Leaf samples of six species and one variety of higher plants ( Rosa multiflora, R. multiflora var. platyphylla, Sedum kamtschaticum, S. takesimense, S. sarmentosum, Hepatica insularis,

S. W. Kim; S. H. Ban; H. J. Chung; D. W. Choi; P. S. Choi; O. J. Yoo; J. R. Liu

2004-01-01

396

Comparative pyrolysis and combustion kinetics of oil shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, thermal characteristics and kinetic parameters of eight Turkish oil shale samples were determined by thermogravimetry (TG\\/DTG) at non-isothermal heating conditions both for pyrolysis and combustion processes. A general computer program was developed and the methods are compared with regard to their accuracy and the ease of interpretation of the kinetics of thermal decomposition. Activation energies of the

Mustafa Versan Kk; M. Reha Pamir

2000-01-01

397

Microstructural and macroscopic properties of cold sprayed copper coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold spraying is a coating technique in which the formation of dense, tightly bonded coatings occurs only due to the kinetic energy of high velocity particles of the spray powder. These particles are still in the solid state as they impinge on the substrate. This study correlates optimized deposition parameters with the corresponding microstructure as well as mechanical and conductive behavior of cold sprayed copper coatings in order to explain possible bonding mechanisms. In addition, the performance of cold sprayed copper coatings is compared to that of cold rolled copper and to coatings prepared by thermal spray methods.

Borchers, C.; Grtner, F.; Stoltenhoff, T.; Assadi, H.; Kreye, H.

2003-06-01

398

Dynamics of flare sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronagraphs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occurred between 19691974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region

E. Tandberg-Hanssen; Sara F. Martin; Richard T. Hansen

1980-01-01

399

Comparison of the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 coatings elaborated by different thermal spraying processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a comparative study on the microstructure and photocatalytic performances of titanium dioxide coatings\\u000a elaborated by various thermal spraying methods (plasma spraying in atmospheric conditions, suspension plasma spraying, and\\u000a high-velocity oxyfuel spraying). Agglomerated spray dried anatase TiO2 powder was used as feedstock material for spraying. Morphology and microstructural characteristics of the coatings were studied\\u000a mainly by scanning electron

Filofteia-Laura Toma; Dmitry Sokolov; Ghislaine Bertrand; Didier Klein; Christian Coddet; Cathy Meunier

2006-01-01

400

Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

McHugh, K.M.

1995-11-01

401

Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignin over mesoporous Y zeolite using Py-GC/MS.  

PubMed

The catalytic pyrolysis of lignin was carried out at 500 degrees C using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In-situ vapor cracking method, in which the vapor-phase products from the noncatalytic pyrolysis step were catalytically upgraded in the second step, was used. Mesoporous Y zeolite, which was synthesized from commercial zeolite Y (CBV720) using the pseudomorphic synthesis method, was used for the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin for the first time. Further, a representative mesoporous material, Al-MCM-41, was applied for the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin. The main products of the non-catalytic pyrolysis of lignin were phenolic compounds because lignin mainly comprises phenylpropane units. Catalytic upgrading of the non-catalytic pyrolysis products resulted in increased yields of low-molecular-mass phenolics, mono aromatics, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The production of mono aromatics and PAHs was enhanced remarkably when the more acidic mesoporous Y zeolite was used. Conversely, the yield-of alkoxy phenolics was higher when the less acidic Al-MCM-41 was used. With increasing mesoporous Y/lignin ratio, the yield of total phenolics decreased and that of light phenolics increased. The yields of mono aromatics and PAHs increased sharply with increasing mesoporous Y/lignin ratio. PMID:23763139

Lee, Hyung Won; Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Suh, Dong Jin; Park, Young-Kwon

2013-04-01

402

Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

Reed, T. B.

1980-09-01

403

Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.  

PubMed Central

Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

1975-01-01

404

Applications of sprayed coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service demands of the coating properties of sprayed coatings are classified as: preventing, fretting, wear, and corrosion; controlled abradability; and thermal barrier. Developments in both coating techniques and coating materials which have allowed production of coatings which match the performance demands are considered. Applications of sprayed coatings in aircraft components are discussed. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for

H. D. Steffens; M. Malik

1980-01-01

405

Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

1982-11-16

406

Pyrolysis process for solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a process for the recovery of chemical values from waste solids, wherein shredded waste solids are intermixed with hot char and a carrier gas in turbulent flow and passed through a pyrolysis zone under turbulent conditions at a temperature ranging from about 300°F to about 2000°F, with zone residence time of under 10 seconds, with subsequent segregation

D. E. Garrett; G. M. Mallan

1979-01-01

407

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10

408

Fate of forms of arsenic in Yima coal during pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Forms of arsenic in a Chinese bituminous coal, Yima, and their transformation behaviors during coal pyrolysis were investigated. The chemical leaching method was used to characterize the forms of arsenic in the raw coal and the chars. The effect of minerals on arsenic release was also studied. It was found that about 72% arsenic in YM coal is bound to sulfide species; 16% to sulfates, phosphates, or oxides; 10% to organic species; and 2% to aluminosilicates. The organic-bound arsenic is the most releasable, while the aluminosilicates-bound arsenic is the least releasable. Aluminosilicates inhibit arsenic release due to the formation of aluminosilicates-bound arsenic during pyrolysis. Sulfides, sulfates, phosphates, or oxides may also restrain arsenic release. Carbonates and ion exchangeable minerals in Yima coal do not show any significant influence on the release of arsenic during coal pyrolysis. Secondary reactions between arsenic and the coal matrix should exist, as evidenced by significant increase in organic-bound arsenic in chars obtained from pyrolysis in a temperature range of 300-700{sup o}C. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Ruiqing Liu; Jianli Yang; Yong Xiao; Zhenyu Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

2009-04-15

409

Physicochemical Characterization and In Vivo Evaluation of Amorphous and Partially Crystalline Calcium Phosphate Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Implants by the Plasma Spray Method.  

PubMed

Objective. To characterize the topographic and chemical properties of 2 bioceramic coated plateau root form implant surfaces and evaluate their histomorphometric differences at 6 and 12 weeks in vivo. Methods. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interferometry (IFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Implants were placed in the radius epiphysis, and the right limb of dogs provided implants that remained for 6 weeks, and the left limb provided implants that remained 12 weeks in vivo. Thin sections were prepared for bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO) measurements (evaluated by Friedman analysis P < 0.05). Results. Significantly, higher S(a) (P < 0.03) and S(q) (P < 0.02) were observed for ACP relative to PSHA. Chemical analysis revealed significantly higher HA, calcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate for the PSHA surface. BIC and BAFO measurements showed no differences between surfaces. Lamellar bone formation in close contact with implant surfaces and within the healing chambers was observed for both groups. Conclusion. Given topographical and chemical differences between PSHA and ACP surfaces, bone morphology and histomorphometric evaluated parameters showed that both surfaces were osseoconductive in plateau root form implants. PMID:22969806

Bonfante, Estevam A; Witek, Lukasz; Tovar, Nick; Suzuki, Marcelo; Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Coelho, Paulo G

2012-08-27

410

Behavior of diesel spray flame in compression and expansion stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically accessible D.I Diesel engine with a rectangular combustion chamber was constructed to visualize the behavior of sprays and flames in the combustion chamber with close conditions of pressure and temperature of actual engine. The behaviors of sprays and flames in the combustion chamber at compression stroke and expansion stroke in accordance with operating conditions were photographed with high speed camera by Back Illumination Scattering Method and Schlieren method. With photographs taken by these methods, behavior of evaporating sprays and spray droplets, ignition points, the flame propagation were observed and analyzed at a time- and space-dependent fashion with image processor.

Ra, Jin-Hong; Lee, Deok-Bo; Ahn, Soo-Kil

1995-05-01

411

An overview of spray drift reduction testing of spray nozzles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The importance of the development and testing of drift reduction technologies (DRTs) is increasing. Common spray drift reduction technologies include spray nozzles and spray adjuvants. Following draft procedures developed for a DRT program, three spray nozzles were tested under high air speed cond...

412

Comparison of spray freeze drying and the solvent evaporation method for preparing solid dispersions of baicalein with Pluronic F68 to improve dissolution and oral bioavailability.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prepare solid dispersions consisting of baicalein and a carrier with a low glass transition/melting point (Pluronic F68) by spray freeze drying (SFD). We compared these powders to those produced from the conventional solvent evaporation method. In the SFD process, a feeding solution was atomized above the surface of liquid nitrogen following lyophilization, which resulted in instantaneously frozen microparticles. However, solid dispersions prepared by the solvent evaporation method formed a sticky layer on the glass flask with crystalline baicalein separated out from the carrier. The powder samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), surface area measurement, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. SEM and PXRD results suggested that the majority of baicalein in the SFD-processed solid dispersion was in the amorphous state, which has a higher specific surface area than pure baicalein. However, the majority of baicalein was recrystallized in the solid dispersion at the same composition prepared by the solvent evaporation method, which showed a similar dissolution rate to the physical mixture. SFD product was physically and chemically stable after being stored at 40 C with low humidity for 6 months. After enzyme hydrolysis, baicalein in the SFD product displayed a significantly shorter T (max) and higher C (max) than pure baicalein after oral dosing. The relative bioavailability of the SFD product versus pure baicalein determined by comparing the AUC(0-12) was 233%, which demonstrated the significantly improved oral bioavailability of baicalein produced by the SFD technique. PMID:21181514

He, Xiuqiong; Pei, Lixia; Tong, Henry H Y; Zheng, Ying

2010-12-23

413

Investigations on structural, optical and electrical parameters of spray deposited ZnSe thin films with different substrate temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnSe thin films have been deposited on high cleaned glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique within the glass substrate temperature range (400 ?C to 450 ?C). The structural properties of ZnSe thin films have been investigated by (XRD) X-ray diffraction techniques. The X-ray diffraction spectra showed that ZnSe thin films are polycrystalline and have a cubic (zinc blende) structure. The most preferential orientation is along the (111) direction for all spray deposited ZnSe films together with orientations in the (220) and (311) planes also being abundant. The film thickness was determined by an interferometric method. The lattice parameter, grain size, microstrain and dislocation densities were calculated and correlated with the substrate temperature (TS). The optical properties of ZnSe thin films have been investigated by UV/VIS spectrometer and the direct band gap values were found to be in the region of 2.65 eV to 2.70 eV. The electrical properties of ZnSe thin films have been investigated using the Van der Pauw method and the high quality ZnSe thin films were observed to develop at 430 ?C with a resistivity of 56,4105 ohm cm, a conductivity of 1.7710-7 (? cm)-1 and a hall mobility of 0.53 cm2/Vsec.

Bedir, M.; zta?, M.; Bakkalo?lu, . F.; Ormanci, R.

2005-06-01

414

A simple probabilistic estimation of spray drift--factors determining spray drift and development of a model.  

PubMed

Spray drift represents a major mode of exposure in off-crop habitats or surface waters after pesticide spray application. Currently, the estimation of exposure by spray drift is based on a deterministic estimation of the amount of drifting residues, either with the use of default drift values or deterministic models, which, however, do not reproduce the entire range of spray drift observed in reality. However, because a series of data from extensive field trials are available, probabilistic methods based on Monte Carlo simulation can reveal realistic estimates of the entire range of exposures. For the development of a probabilistic spray drift model, previously published data from a series of field trials was analyzed to reveal how these data could be used for the parameterization of a probabilistic model. This analysis showed that wind speed, agricultural equipment (nozzle type, spray pressure), and relative humidity showed the strongest effect on spray drift. But remarkably, the effect differed for different distances from sprayed fields. For example, higher wind speed increased spray drift only at larger distances while it even reduced spray drift very close to field borders. Also spray pressure influenced spray drift predominantly close to fields. After identifying the parameters with the strongest effects, a probabilistic model for the estimation of the exposure by spray drift in off-crop habitats was developed. Spray drift can be simulated for any given distance from fields. It is demonstrated how the exposure and the amount of effects can be estimated when applying this model in real landscapes. Results are compared with a deterministic risk assessment. PMID:18699705

Wang, Magnus; Rautmann, Dirk

2008-12-01

415

Structure of high-speed sprays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work covered both measurements and computations and its results are documented in eight appendices. Measurements were made of drop velocity in vaporizing, steady, full-cone sprays and of drop velocity and drop size in non-vaporizing steady full-cone sprays. In similar conditions, measurements had previously been made of the intact core and of the size of the drops in the immediate vicinity of the injector, thus generating an extensive set of data which were particularly useful for the assessment and the development of multidimensional models of engine sprays. On the computational side, a line source technique was introduced to simulate the intact-core in engine sprays and two extensive numerical studies were carried out to explain the strong anisotropy of the drop velocity fluctuations that had been found in the measurements. In another interesting and timely study, the accuracy of the stochastic method of computing drop collisions and coalescence (which is the one universally used) was assessed by corresponding deterministic computations (more accurate but much more time consuming). It was concluded that the accuracy of the stochastic method in practical computations can be wanting. Finally, a numerical study of the structure of hollow-cone sprays was initiated that has since been followed by significant experimental and computational work on liquid-only and air-assisted hollow-cone injectors and sprays.

Bracco, Frediano V.

1995-01-01

416

Pectin microspheres for oral colon delivery: Preparation using spray drying method and in vitro release of indomethacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery systems that are based on pectin have been studied for colon specific delivery using the specific activity of\\u000a colon microflora. The aim of this study was to design a novel method of manufacturing pectin microspheres without oils and\\u000a surfactants and to investigate the potential use of the pectin microsphere as an oral colon-specific drug carrier. The pectin\\u000a microspheres

Chang-Moon Lee; Dong-Woon Kim; Hyun-Chul Lee; Ki-Young Lee

2004-01-01

417

Influence of temperature on biomass pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinewood sawdust flash pyrolysis has been performed in continuous mode in a pilot plant provided with a conical spouted bed reactor, in the 400600C range. The influence of temperature on the pyrolysis yields and product properties has been studied. Product analysis has been carried out on-line by means of chromatographic methods. High liquid yields have been achieved, with the maximum

M. Amutio; G. Lopez; M. Artetxe; G. Elordi; M. Olazar; J. Bilbao

418

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale. It comprises: pulverizing coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, subjecting the pulverized mixture to a mechanical load, and heating the mechanically loaded mixture to pyrolysis temperature in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture, so as to substantially prevent the mixture from swelling, to form a product fuel.

Khan, M.R.

1989-12-12

419

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

420

General kinetic model of oil shale pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H and CH from char. Oil is

Alan K. Burnham; Robert L. Braun

1985-01-01

421

Limonene ethers from tire pyrolysis oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tire pyrolysis oil was produced by EnerVision Inc., Halifax, Canada using the continuous ablative reactor (CAR) system. The tire oil was separated by distillation into several fractions. Naphtha and limonene enriched naphtha were reacted with methanol over different catalysts. Batch experiments were carried out to separate limonene as methyl limonene ethers.Whole tire pyrolysis oil was distilled and the resulting distillates

Maria Stanciulescu; Michio Ikura

2006-01-01

422

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01

423

Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid

David Carl Rennard

2009-01-01

424

Modulated Structural Characteristics and Microwave Properties of Spray Pyrolyzed Superconducting BCSCO Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-costbased high-Tc superconducting thin film of Bismuth Strontium Calcium Cuprate on yittriya stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using spray pyrolysis deposition technique from nitrate precursors followed by rapid annealing at temperatures between 830 and 840C in air and in O2 is described. The films are highly oriented with the c-axis parallel to the plane of the substrate. Some satellite reflections that occur

B. K. Roul

2001-01-01

425

Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of In-Zn-S sprayed Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, In-Zn-S thin layers were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates at 320C. The molar ratio between zinc and indium x=[Zn2+]\\/[In3+] was varied in 0-0.4 domain whereas [S2- ]\\/[In3+] one was taken constant equal to 2. The atomic composition was carried out with the atomic absorption. The structural study of all layers via X-ray diffraction

S. Lazzez; K. Boubaker; T. Ben; Nasrallah; M. Amlouk; S. Belgacem; M. Mnari; R. Chtourou

2008-01-01

426

Substrate temperature dependent structural, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited iridium oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iridium oxide thin films were deposited onto the glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) using aqueous solution of IrCl33H2O at various substrate (deposition) temperatures ranging from 250 to 400C. Emission of both physisorbed and chemisorbed water takes place during thermal decomposition process and Ir2O3 forms below 600C, above which dehydrated IrO2 formation takes place. The as-deposited samples at all

R. K Kawar; P. S Chigare; P. S Patil

2003-01-01

427

Flame sprayed visible light-active Fe-TiO 2 for photomineralisation of oxalic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible light-active Fe-doped TiO2 was prepared by a one-step flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) technique. The properties of the photocatalysts were characterised by UVvis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta potential techniques. Being a bottom-up approach, the short residence time coupled with rapid quenching during FSP resulted in homogeneous

Wey Yang Teoh; Rose Amal; Lutz Mdler; Sotiris E. Pratsinis

2007-01-01

428

Substrate temperature dependent properties of sprayed CoFe 2O 4 ferrite thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CoFe2O4 ferrite thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures (Ts). The XRD patterns reveal a good (111) texture in the film prepared at Ts=325C. The slow scan XRD studies show that the grain size is of the order of 150 and is not varied much with the substrate temperature. The lattice parameter

S. S Bellad; C. H Bhosale

1998-01-01

429

Spray deposited superhydrophobic ZnO coatings via seed assisted growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superhydrophobic zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) via seed assisted growth onto the glass substrates at 723 K from an aqueous zinc acetate precursor solution. Initially, the ZnO seeds were synthesized from an aqueous 0.4 M zinc acetate solution onto the glass substrates at 723 K. For the seed assisted growth

N. L. Tarwal; V. M. Khot; N. S. Harale; S. A. Pawar; S. B. Pawar; V. B. Patil; P. S. Patil

2011-01-01

430

Structural and optical properties of spray-deposited CdIn 2Se 4 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin films of cadmium indium selenide (CdIn2Se4) have been deposited onto amorphous glass substrates using simple and low cost spray pyrolysis technique. The aqueous solutions containing precursors of Cd, In and Se have been used to obtain good quality deposits at different substrate temperatures. The preparative parameters, such as substrate temperature and concentration of precursor solution have been optimized

V. M Nikale; N. S Gaikwad; K. Y Rajpure; C. H Bhosale

2003-01-01

431

Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different posttreatment methods, such as heat treatment, mechanical processing, sealing, etc., are known to be capable to\\u000a improve microstructure and exploitation properties of thermal spray coatings. In this work, a plasma electrolytic oxidation\\u000a of aluminum coatings obtained by arc spraying on aluminum and carbon steel substrates is carried out. Microstructure and properties\\u000a of oxidized layers formed on sprayed coating as

Vasyl Pokhmurskii; Hrygorij Nykyforchyn; Mykhajlo Student; Mykhajlo Klapkiv; Hanna Pokhmurska; Bernhard Wielage; Thomas Grund; Andreas Wank

2007-01-01

432

High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying  

DOEpatents

Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

Pui, David Y. H. (Plymouth, MN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

2009-03-03

433

Triamcinolone Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

... applicator by removing the blue cover and spray nozzle. Soak the cover and nozzle in warm water for a few minutes, then ... air dry. When it is dry, put the nozzle back onto the bottle. Prime the bottle as ...

434

Nasal corticosteroid sprays  

MedlinePLUS

... The sprays work well: For people with allergic rhinitis symptoms, such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, ... Sur DK, Scandale S. Treatment of allergic rhinitis. Am Fam Physician . ... DV, Dykewicz MS, Bernstein DI, Blessing-Moore J, Cox L, Khan ...

435

Butorphanol Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

... Close your other nostril with your finger and tilt your head slightly forward. Pump the spray firmly ... mouth closed. Remove the sprayer from your nose. Tilt your head backward and sniff gently for a ...

436

Evaluation of Pepper Spray.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation process and field test results of a project to evaluate the effectiveness of pepper spray in police confrontations with humans and animals. A research team from the International Association of Chiefs of Police analyzed Baltimore County...

S. M. Edwards J. Granfield J. Onnen

1997-01-01

437

Nicotine Nasal Spray  

MedlinePLUS

... which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a ... bottles at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

438

Pyrolysis process for scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

A pyrolysis system has been developed to recover useful material from scrap tires. An actual plant was constructed in 1979. The plant will be on trial for a year to demonstrate that the equipment of the plant satisfies the test specifications and that the recovered carbon black has the quality demanded by the rubber industry. After passing one year of testing, it will be put into commercial operation. This project is a full scale recycling for scrap tires supported by public agencies which also supported the pulverizing plant in Osaka. It is expected that the completion of the project will open a new course for recycling and disposal of waste.

Kawakami, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakai, T.

1980-01-01

439

Biomethanation of biomass pyrolysis gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the biological methanation process and conditions for maximum performane were studied. Gasification processes have the potential to produce a synthesis gas from biomass. The advantage of such processes is that all organic components of the biomass may be converted to synthesis gas. However, this low Btu value gas is of limited use as a fuel gas. To convert the synthesis gas into pipeline quality methane, a methanation process is necessary. A more economical alternative to catalytic methanation at high temperature and pressure is the utilization of a biological system to carry out the conversion of biomass pyrolysis gases to methane.

Tracy, C. A.; Ashare, E.

1981-08-01

440

Thermally sprayed coatings  

SciTech Connect

Standardization of specimen preparation for microstructural evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings is considered. Metallographic specimen preparation procedures including sectioning, encapsulation, planar grinding, and power lapping of thermally sprayed coatings are described. A Co-Ni-Cr-W coating on an AISI 410 stainless steel substrate is used as a control sample. Specimen-preparation techniques have been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy for determining the percentage of apparent porosity and energy dispersive spectroscopy for determining elemental composition.

Diaz, D.J.; Blann, G.A. (Buehler, Ltd., Lake Bluff, IL (USA))

1991-05-01

441

Quo vadis thermal spraying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to thermal spraying and presents the state of our current knowledge, as well as the following research\\u000a or development needs: spraying heat sources, i.e., flame, high-velocity oxifuel flame (HVOF), detonation gun (D-Gun), and plasma torches; particle heat and momentum transfer\\u000a (measurements and modeling), process on-line control, powder morphologies, and injection within the hot jet and reactions

P. Fauchais; A. Vardelle; B. Dussoubs

2001-01-01

442

Sensors in Spray Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve\\u000a the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations\\u000a and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities,\\u000a sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also

P. Fauchais; M. Vardelle

2010-01-01

443

Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.  

PubMed

Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8C and inlet-air temperature 178.2C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. PMID:24057235

Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

2013-09-22

444

Forensics, fakes, and failures: Pyrolysis is one part in the overall armoury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis methods are only one section of the wide range of techniques which are currently being used to investigate forensic samples in police work, fakes in art and archaeology, and failures in functional industrial components. Other methods include direct chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods, UV and IR methods, optical and electron microscopy, X-ray methods, isotope and thermoluminescent dating, biochemical methods,

Roy S. Lehrle

1997-01-01

445

Understanding the product distribution from biomass fast pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for crude oil. However, lack of fundamental understanding of the pyrolysis process poses a significant challenge in developing cost-effective pyrolysis based technologies for producing transportation fuels. The fundamental knowledge of pyrolysis pathways, product distribution and underlying

Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan

2010-01-01

446

Kinetic simulation model for steam pyrolysis of shale oil feedstock  

SciTech Connect

Steam pyrolysis of shale oil feedstocks for the production of chemical intermediates was studied in a bench-scale tubular reactor. The results have been correlated as a function of temperature, residence time, and pyrolysis severity. The experimental results obtained upon pyrolysis of shale oil indicate that shale oil should make an excellent feedstock for steam pyrolysis.

Kavianian, H.R.; Yesavage, V.F.; Dickson, P.F.; Peters, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US))

1990-04-01

447

DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J  

EPA Science Inventory

During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

448

An Experimental Investigation and Numerical Analysis of Multi-Component Fuel Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, droplet atomization and vaporization characteristics with multi-component fuel were investigated by experimental and numerical simulation methods. Spray characteristics of multi-component fuel including spray cone angle, spray angle and spray tip penetration were analyzed from shadowgraph imaging. Numerical simulation to investigate spatial distribution of fuel-vapor concentration of each component within multi-component fuel was implemented in KIVA code. Vaporization process was calculated by a simple two-phase region which was approximated by modified saturated liquid-vapor line. Experimental results show that spray cone angle and spray angle become larger increasing in mass fraction of low boiling point component. And spray tip penetration becomes shorter with increasing in mass fraction of low boiling point component in vaporizing spray during that is same on every mixed fuel in non-vaporizing spray. From numerical simulation results, temporal and spatial distribution of each fuel vapor concentration was found to be stratification.

Myong, Kwang-Jae; Arai, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Senda, Jiro; Fujimoto, Hajime

449

Optimization of Fibrin Glue Spray Systems for Ophthalmic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To optimize fibrin glue (FG) spray for ophthalmic surgery using two spray applicators, EasySpray and DuploSpray systems, by varying the distance from point of application and the pressure/flow rate, and to compare the adhesive strength of sutured and sutureless (FG sprayed) conjunctival graft surgery in a rabbit model. Methods FG was sprayed on a 0.2 mm-thick sheet of paper using EasySpray by variously combining application distances of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 cm with pressures of 10, 15, and 20 psi. DuploSpray was used at the same distances but with varying flow rates of 1 and 2 L/min. Subsequently, FG was sprayed on porcine corneas and FG thickness was analyzed by histology. In addition, adhesive strength of the conjunctival graft (0.5 0.5 cm) attached to the rabbit cornea by sutured and sutureless surgery (FG spray) was compared using a tension meter. Results Histology measurements revealed that the FG thickness decreased with increases in distance and pressure of spray using the EasySpray applicator on paper and porcine corneal sections. The adhesive strength of the sutured conjunctival graft (41 4.85 [kilopascal] KPa) was found to be higher than the graft attached by spraying (10 2.3 KPa) and the sequential addition of FG (6 0.714 KPa). Conclusions The EasySpray applicator formed a uniform spread of FG at a distance-pressure combination of 5 cm and 20 psi. The conjunctival graft attached with sutures had higher adhesive strength compared with grafts glued with a spray applicator. Although the adhesive strength of FG applied through the applicator was similar to the drop-wise sequential technique, the former was more cost effective because more samples could be sprayed compared with the sequential manual technique. Translational Relevance The standardization of the spray system for the application of FG in ophthalmology will provide an economical method for delivering consistent healing results after surgery.

Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Champakalakshmi, Ravi; Angunawela, Romesh I.; Tan, Donald T.; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

2012-01-01

450

Electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of hardwoods  

SciTech Connect

This project explored the low-temperature, electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material to low-molecular-weight organic chemicals. Through the agency of low temperature AlCl{sub 3}-based molten salts, aspen hardwood flour was reacted in AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl, AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl:KCl, and AlCl{sub 3}:BPC (n-butylpyridinium chloride) media at temperatures from 30-220 C. A wide variety of water soluble products were formed comprising CO, CO{sub 2}, keto-alcohols and low molecular weight phenolic compounds as determined by GC and FTIR spectroscopy. The compounds represented about 32% by weight of the aspen wood flour. Owing to the narrow (2 volt) electrochemical window versus an Al reference electrode, neither the wood flour nor the reaction products manifested any electro-activity. Authentic samples of cellulose, hemicellulose, and Klason lignin were also subjected to low temperature pyrolysis. Only the hemicellulose reacted to give CO{sub 2} and keto-alcohols.

Koch, V.R.

1986-08-01

451

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01

452

Non-Isothermal Pyrolysis and Kinetics of Oil Shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, non-isothermal pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of three oil shales were studied by thermal analysis methods.\\u000a All the thermal effects were endothermic and no exothermic region was observed in DSC curves. When oil shales are heated in\\u000a nitrogen atmosphere in TG\\/DTG, two different mechanisms causing loss of mass were observed. The region between ambient temperature\\u000a and 500 K

M. V. Kk; M. R. Pamir

1999-01-01

453

Pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of Jordanian oil-shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Jordanian oil-shale samples have been pyrolysed and gasified, non-isothermally, using a thermogravimetric analyser. The controlling parameters studied were the final temperature and influence of particle size as well as the heating rate employed during the process of thermal degradation of the oil-shale sample. The integral method was used in the analysis of weight-loss data to determine the pyrolysis and

J. O. Jaber; S. D. Probert

1999-01-01

454

Study on the corrosiveness of wood pyrolysis oils  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss a study conducted on the rate of corrosion of wood pyrolysis oils in presence of carbon and stainless steel plates. Tests were performed to simulate the conditions existing in storage tanks. The effects of temperature, water content and acetic/formic acid concentration on the rate of corrosion of metals were studied, as well as their possible interaction effects. The method used involved a factorial design of experiments. All primary effects with their interactions were found statistically significant.

Aubin, H.; Roy, C. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1990-01-01

455

In situ destruction of contaminants via hydrous pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test of hydrous pyrolysis\\/oxidation (HPO) was conducted during the summer of 1997, during a commercial application of thermal remediation (Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS)) at the Visalia Pole Yard (a super-fund site) in southern California. At Visalia, Southern California Edison Co. is applying the DUS thermal remediation method to clean up a large (4.3 acre) site contaminated with pole-treating

R D Aines; C Carrigan; M Chiarappa; C Eaker; B Hudson; K Knauss; R Leif; R L Newmark; J Richards; T Sciarotta; A Tompson; R. Weidner

1998-01-01

456

Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter includes the investigation of the mild pyrolysis of unoxidized coals plus a selection of selectively oxidized coals. In addition the effect of particle size and extent of oxidation on pyrolysis was investigated. Some preliminary data concerning pyrolysis under vacuum and ambient pressure was also obtained. Work completed this quarter supports the following conclusions: (1) Desulfurization of unoxidized coals increases with increasing pyrolysis temperature and correlates with the loss of volatile matter. (2) Particle size did not influence the extent of desulfurization significantly. (3) Removing pyrite prior to pyrolysis helps to achieve a lower sulfur product beyond that expected from the removal of pyrite alone. (4) The extent of selective oxidation in teh pretreatment step did not effect the level of desulfurization obtained by pyrolysis alone. However this factor was important in the desulfurization obtained with supercritical methanol (SCM)/base. (5) Up to 84% of the sulfur has been removed from the IBC 101 coal by combining selective oxidation and SCM/base reactions. (6) Evidence for regressive reactions between volatilized sulfur compounds and partially desulfurized products was obtained by studying how changes in pyrolysis pressure effected the product sulfur content.

Hippo, E.J.

1991-01-01

457

Measurements in liquid fuel sprays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

Chigier, N.

1984-04-01

458

Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin. Materials and methods The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical), and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical) build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick) perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (?TBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Results Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups) showed significantly lower ?TBS than control specimens (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the spray-contaminated groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Maintenance spray significantly reduces the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to dentin.

Sugawara, Toyotarou; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Oishi, Takumi; Kukidome, Nobuyuki; Takase, Yasuaki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2010-01-01

459

Suspension and solution thermal spray coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging methods of coating deposition by suspension and solution thermal spraying are described. The liquid suspensions of fine powders and liquid precursors are injected into flames and\\/or jets generated in the torches. The formulation and stability of suspensions as well as the methods of fine powders synthesis are briefly described. Typical solutions, being often the liquid organometallics are also

Lech Pawlowski

2009-01-01

460

A parametric study of a multiple droplet spray evaporator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a closed form solution is presented for spray evaporation on the surface of a spray evaporator. A parametric analysis is performed using a multiple droplet model. Droplets on the evaporator surface are considered as point sinks of heat in a fixed geometric pattern. The method of image systems is used to satisfy both the heat conduction equation

J. J. Rizza

1984-01-01

461

Quantitative optical techniques for dense sprays investigation: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental study of dense sprays by optical techniques poses many challenges and no methods have proven to be completely reliable when accurate quantitative data are required, for example to validate breakup models and CFD simulations. The present survey is aimed to a critical analysis of optical techniques capable to provide quantitative and reliable data in dense sprays and to

A. Coghe; G. E. Cossali

2012-01-01

462

Split injection strategy for diesel sprays: Experiment and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental programme to characterise Diesel fuel sprays was conducted in a Proteus high-pressure rapid compression machine (RCM), at Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratories at University of Brighton. The Proteus experiments aimed to simulate realistic Diesel engine working conditions whilst allowing visualisation of in-cylinder processes by various optical and laser diagnostics techniques. The spray penetration was explored by laser diagnostics methods

K. Karimi; C. Crua; M. R. Heikal; E. M. Sazhina

2007-01-01

463

40 CFR 61.146 - Standard for spraying.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.146 Standard for spraying...owner or operator of an operation in which asbestos-containing materials are spray applied...material containing more than 1 percent asbestos as determined using the method...

2013-07-01

464

Electrostatic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An electrostatic-spray ionization (ESTASI) method has been used for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of samples deposited in or on an insulating substrate. The ionization is induced by a capacitive coupling between an electrode and the sample. In practice, a metallic electrode is placed close to but not in direct contact with the sample. Upon application of a high voltage pulse to the electrode, an electrostatic charging of the sample occurs leading to a bipolar spray pulse. When the voltage is positive, the bipolar spray pulse consists first of cations and then of anions. This method has been applied to a wide range of geometries to emit ions from samples in a silica capillary, in a disposable pipet tip, in a polymer microchannel, or from samples deposited as droplets on a polymer plate. Fractions from capillary electrophoresis were collected on a polymer plate for ESTASI MS analysis. PMID:22876737

Qiao, Liang; Sartor, Romain; Gasilova, Natalia; Lu, Yu; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

2012-08-20

465

From Powders to Thermally Sprayed Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early stages of thermal spray, it has been recognized that the powder composition, size distribution, shape, mass density, mechanical resistance, components distribution for composite particles play a key role in coating microstructure and thermo mechanical properties. The principal characteristics of particles are strongly linked to the manufacturing process. Coatings also depend on the process used to spray particles and spray parameters. Many papers have been devoted to the relationships existing between coating properties and structures at different scales and manufacturing processes. In many conventional spray conditions resulting in micrometric structures, among the different parameters, good powder flow ability, and dense particles are important features. Thermal plasma treatment, especially by RF plasma, of particles, prepared by different manufacturing processes, allows achieving such properties and it is now developed at an industrial scale. Advantages and drawbacks of this process will be discussed. Another point, which will be approached, is the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, depending very strongly upon the starting composite particle manufacturing. However, as everybody knows, "small is beautiful" and nano- or finely structured coatings are now extensively studied with spraying of: (i) very complex alloys containing multiple elements which exhibit a glass forming capability when cooled-down, their under-cooling temperature being below the glass transition temperature; (ii) conventional micrometer-sized particles (in the 30-90 ?m range) made of agglomerated nanometer-sized particles; (iii) sub-micrometer- or nanometer-sized particles via a suspension in which also, instead of particles, stable sol of nanometer-sized particles can be introduced; and (iv) spray solutions of final material precursor. These different processes using plasma, HVOF or sometimes flame and also cold-gas spray will be discussed together with the production of nanometer-sized particles via the chemical reaction method or by a special type of milling: the cryogenic milling process often referred to as "cryomilling."

Fauchais, Pierre; Montavon, Ghislain; Bertrand, Ghislaine

2010-01-01

466

Spray forming technology  

SciTech Connect

The main attraction of spray forming is the single step required to change a molten alloy into a consolidated product. Semi-finished product shapes fabricated by spraying gas-atomized molten metal droplets onto a substrate are free from micro-segregation, are low in oxygen content, and exhibit enhanced hot workability. Other process benefits include low capital costs (less equipment required); low operating costs (low energy consumption and high material yields); and low overhead costs (less stock and work-in-progress, with shorter delivery). In spite of these benefits, significant advances in the spray forming process are necessary in order to compete in the commercial marketplace against high-volume, established ingot metallurgy processes involving ingot casting, forging, and/or rolling. Toward this end, much progress has recently been made.

Leatham, A. [Osprey Metals Ltd., Neath (United Kingdom)

1996-08-01

467

The spray-ILGAR (ion layer gas reaction) method for the deposition of thin semiconductor layers: Process and applications for thin film solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spray Ion Layer Gas Reaction (ILGAR) process starts with ultrasonic nebulisation of the precursor solution, e.g. InCl3\\/ethanol for our successful buffer material In2S3. In an aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) type reaction an In(O,OH,Cl) film is deposited on a heated substrate and is subsequently converted to In2S3 by H2S gas. The cycle of these steps is repeated until

Christian-Herbert Fischer; Nicholas A. Allsop; Sophie E. Gledhill; Tristan Khler; Martin Krger; Rodrigo Sez-Araoz; Yanpeng Fu; Robert Schwieger; Johannes Richter; Peter Wohlfart; Peter Bartsch; Nils Lichtenberg; Martha C. Lux-Steiner

2011-01-01

468

Thermographic Look at Plasma Spraying.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasma spray systems are used to deposit high temperature materials on substrates to form coatings. Thermal analysis of these systems will assist in determining spray parameters for different materials. Infrared videothermography was used to measure tempe...

M. D. Kelly L. D. Abney

1985-01-01

469

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of