Sample records for spray pyrolysis method

  1. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  2. Flame Spray Pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Purwanto; W.-N. Wang; K. Okuyama

    \\u000a Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) has been applied for the production of powders industrially. FSP allows production of powders\\u000a with controlled characteristics at a high rate. In addition to the process parameters, several other factors are crucial for\\u000a nanoparticle production. Precursor type, as an example, is an important factor determining the particle size. Using metalorganic\\u000a precursors, particles in nano-sized order could

  3. Formation of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting film by a spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Maki; Kawai, Tomoji; Masuhira, Hiromi; Takahasi, Makoto

    1987-10-01

    Thin film of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor was formed by a spray pyrolysis method. The temperature dependence of resistance showed the Tc-onset at 95 K and Tc-zero at 83 K with the film on a cubic zirconia single-crystal surface. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the structure of the film was pure orthorhombic phase. It was also shown that the oriented film with its c axis perpendicular to the surface was formed with this conventional spray method by controlling the heat-treatment conditions.

  4. Method to synthesize and produce thin films by spray pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Squillante, Michael R. (Waltham, MA)

    1982-06-22

    Forming a film by spraying onto a heated substrate an atomized solution containing the appropriate salt of a constituent element of the film and a highly soluble (i.e., greater than 1 M) organic acid in sufficient amount to reduce the oxidation state of at least one solute element of the spray solution after contacting the heated substrate.

  5. Method to synthesize and produce thin films by spray pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Turcotte, Richard L. (Malden, MA)

    1982-07-06

    Forming a film by spraying onto a heated substrate an atomized solution containing the appropriate salt of a constituent element of the film and a reducing agent at a concentration greater than 1 M and greater than 10 times the stoichiometric amount of reducing agent.

  6. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I., E-mail: anilaei@gmail.com; R, Reshmi, E-mail: anilaei@gmail.com; John, Manu Punnan, E-mail: anilaei@gmail.com [Optolectronic and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Union Christian College, Aluva-683 102, Kerala (India); V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P. [International School of Photonics, CUSAT, Cochin-22 (India)

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  7. Properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O film formed by the spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Maki; Kawai, Tomoji; Masuhira, Hiromi; Takahasi, Makoto

    An oriented film of the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor was formed by a spray pyrolysis method. The temperature dependence of the resistance showed the Tc-onset at 95 K and Tc-zero at 83 K with the film on a cubic zirconia single crystal surface. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the structure of the film was pure orthorhombic phase. The effect of the substrates and the modification of the substrate surface on the formation of superconducting films is presented.

  8. Photocatalytic Study of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering and Spray Pyrolysis Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Martínez; D. Acosta; A. López

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous and polycrystalline titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis methods on glass and glass coated with fluorine tin oxide (FTO). The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was tested on the degradation of methylene blue. For films deposited by

  9. Superconducting melt-textured thin films prepared by a spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, E.; Matsuoka, Y.; Ogawa, H.

    1990-05-01

    YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films were prepared on (100) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by a spray pyrolysis method. The films were fired rapidly at 1000-1020 C in flowing helium atmosphere and then annealed in oxygen. These melt-textured thin films had the aligned grain structure consisting of large, platelike grains over a wide area. The films thus formed showed relatively high critical current density Jc more than 4000 A/sq cm, and the best Jc of the film fired at 1010 C was 4800 A/sq cm at 77 K in zero magnetic field. The melt-textured growth processing was found to be more useful for the enhancement of the Jc value of thin films than the conventional sintering method.

  10. Spray Drying, Spray Pyrolysis and Spray Freeze Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Eslamian; N. Ashgriz

    \\u000a In conventional spray pyrolysis (CSP or simply SP), a solution is sprayed into a carrier gas forming small droplets; owing\\u000a to the high temperature of the surrounding gas, the solvent is vaporized and the solute is precipitated on and within the\\u000a droplets. If the air temperature is high enough, solute is decomposed to form final solid particles. A schematic diagram

  11. Investigation of the properties of nanostructured Li-doped NiO films using the modified spray pyrolysis method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-doped nickel oxide (L-NiO) films were synthetized using the modified spray pyrolysis method with a two-step grown process. By observing the spectra of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of L-NiO films, the intensity of Ni 2p3/2 peak of Ni3+ bonding state increases with increasing Li concentration that causes the decrease of transparency and resistivity. The L-NiO films with optimum characteristics were obtained at Li = 8 at%, where a p-type resistivity of 4.1 × 10?1 ? cm and optical transparency above 76% in the visible region are achieved. PMID:23331663

  12. Effect of deposition methods on the properties of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis and magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight R Acosta

    2004-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis methods onto glass and glass coated with fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. For films deposited by the sputtering technique we have studied the effect of the total pressure of an

  13. IBA of ZrO 2:Yb/Si thin films produced by the spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Ramirez, E. B.; Alonso, J. C.; Rocha, M. F.

    2008-05-01

    A spray pyrolysis method was used to produce thin films of ZrO2 doped with different Yb concentrations on Si(1 0 0). The films of these ionic semiconductors have potential applications as solid electrolytes in modern ceramic fuel cells of second generation. The determination of the atomic composition of the films is very important because it strongly affects the chemical and thermal stability, as well as electrical properties of the films. A combination of two Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) methods was applied to obtain the atomic composition of the films. A nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) method using a low energy deuterium beam was applied to measure the oxygen content of the films. Heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HI-RBS) method using a 12C3+ beam was applied to measure the Yb and Zr atomic profiles of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ellipsometry were also employed to determine structural properties and refractive index of the films, respectively. The IBA, XRD and the ellipsometry supply a wide range of information about the film layers, which can be used for qualification as well as for feedback to the films production.

  14. Barium strontium titanate powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Brankovi?; Z. Brankovi?; M. S. Góes; C. O. Paiva-Santos; M. Cilense; J. A. Varela; E. Longo

    2005-01-01

    Ultasonic spray pyrolysis (SP) has been investigated for the production of the barium strontium titanate (BST) powders from the polymeric precursors. The processing parameters, such as flux of aerosol and temperature profile inside the furnace, were optimized to obtain single phase BST. The powders were characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, EDS and TEM. The obtained powders

  15. Spray pyrolysis of CuIn(S,Se)2 solar cells with 5.9% efficiency: a method to prevent Mo oxidation in ambient atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ho, John C W; Zhang, Tianliang; Lee, Kian Keat; Batabyal, Sudip K; Tok, Alfred I Y; Wong, Lydia H

    2014-05-14

    Direct spray pyrolysis to form CuInS2 (CIS) on molybdenum substrate in ambient environment has been a challenge because of the ease of Mo oxidation at low temperatures. MoO2 formation affects the wettability of precursor solution during spray pyrolysis, which degrades the uniformity of CIS film and acts as a resistive layer for carrier transport. In this paper, Mo oxidation was prevented by using excess sulfur in the precursor solution under a gradual heating and spray process. A thin precursor layer was initially deposited as a barrier layer to prevent oxygen adsorption on Mo surface before the temperature was increased further to form polycrystalline CuInS2. The CuIn(S,Se)2 (CISSe) device fabricated from selenization of the spray-pyrolyzed CIS film exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.9%. The simple spray method proposed here can be used to deposit a variety of Cu-based chalcopyrite precursor to produce high-quality thin film solar cells. PMID:24697706

  16. Production and characterization of submicron hematite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    K?rc?, Burak; Ebin, Burçak; Gürmen, Sebahattin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method has been used to prepare submicron hematite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles using two different industrial pickling solutions of iron chloride (41 g/L FeCl{sub 2} and 54 g/L FeCl{sub 3}) Particles were obtained by thermal decomposition of generated aerosols from precursor solutions using 1.7 MHz ultrasonic atomizer. Reaction temperature was set up at 800 °C and aerosol droplets were carried into the heated zone by 0.7 L/min air flow rate. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were used to determine the crystal structure and crystallite size of the particles. Results indicate that patterns correspond to hematite phase with rhombohedral crystal structure (space group: R3c). The crystallite sizes of particles prepared from FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} solutions that were calculated from Scherrer equation are 59 and 33 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) investigations give detailed information about particle size, morphology and composition. SEM micrographs show that hematite nanoparticles aggregate and formed spherical secondary particles in submicron range.

  17. Modelling of nanoparticle formation during spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamian, M.; Ahmed, M.; Ashgriz, N.

    2006-03-01

    A mathematical model for the evaporation of micro- and nano-sized solution droplets is developed. This model is used to predict whether the particles produced by spray drying and pyrolysis are fully filled or hollow. The model includes the non-continuum effects on the droplet evaporation. This is achieved by combining an interpolation formula based on the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the transition regime with the continuum based governing equations. Results show that the non-continuum effects can be significant for the evaporation of submicron and nano-sized droplets in atmospheric pressures. Correlations for the final particle size and its wall thickness in terms of reactor temperature and pressure and the initial solution concentration are developed. The predictions are in good agreement with experiments performed on the submicron zirconia particles, prepared by spray pyrolysis.

  18. Multiporous ceria nanoparticles prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Ju Shih; Konstantin B. Borisenko; Li-Jr Liu; Chin-Yi Chen

    2010-01-01

    The morphology of ceria nanoparticles prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP) from cerium (III) acetate and cerium (III) nitrate\\u000a hydrate precursors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that using the nitrate as a precursor,\\u000a particles containing multiple pores in the core can be prepared preferentially as opposed to the acetate precursor, when particles\\u000a with predominantly a single pore

  19. Preparation and photocatalyic properties of TiO2-P25 film prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostani?, J.; Grbi?, B.; Radi?, N.; Stojadinovi?, S.; Vasili?, R.; Vukovi?, Z.

    2013-06-01

    TiO2 films were synthesized by immobilization of Degussa P25 powders on stainless steel support by spray pyrolysis technique. After preparation, the films were annealed at different temperatures in order to obtain materials with different morphological, structural, and textural properties. The photocatalytic activity of obtained films was investigated by monitoring the degradation of arylazo pyridone dye. The results showed that with increasing annealing temperature the photoactivity of films decreased. A comparative photocatalytic activity of the synthesized films and corresponding commercial powders was evaluated under the same experimental conditions. Films generally showed lower photoactivity than powders, due to mass transfer limitations inside film layer, smaller surface exposure to light, and possible presence of metal ions in film layer.

  20. Air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Song, Yu L.; Chen, C. Y.; Tseng, T. K.; Tsai, Chen S.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new findings regarding the effects of precursor drop size and concentration on product particle size and morphology in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of zirconium hydroxyl acetate solutions. Large precursor drops (diameter >30?m) generated by ultrasonic atomization at 120kHz yielded particles with holes. Precursor drops 6-9 ?m in diameter, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer at 1.65MHz and 23.5W electric drive power, yielded uniform spherical particles 150nm in diameter under proper control of heating rate and precursor concentration. Moreover, air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 120kHz and 2.3W yielded spherical particles of which nearly half were smaller than those produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of the 6-9 ?m precursor drops, desprite the much larger precursor drop sizes (28 ?m peak diameter versus 7 ?m mean diameter). These particles are much smaller than those predicted by the conventional one particle per drop mechanism, suggesting that a vapor condensation mechanism may also be involved in spray pyrolysis. It may be concluded that through this new mechanism air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can become a viable process for mass production of nanoparticles.

  1. Synthesis of Doped and Undoped Nanopowders of Tetragonal Polycrystalline Zirconia (TPZ) by Spray-Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurado, E.; Meunier, E.

    1998-11-01

    This work is focused on the synthesis of nanocrystallized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia (TPZ) powders by the spray-pyrolysis method. A design of experiment (DOE) was used with doped zirconia (2YSZ) to understand the influence of four spray-pyrolysis parameters on the crystallization of TPZ: solution concentration, atomizing frequency, carrier gas flow rate, and furnace temperature. Experimental conditions of the spray pyrolysis method were then selected on the DOE basis, in order to synthetize tetragonal undoped zirconia powders (0YSZ) with well controlled crystallite size. Smallest and largest averaged crystallite sizes of 0YSZ obtained by this method were 6.9 and 13.2 nm, respectively. Their influence on the microstructure of TPZ is characterized by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Morphology, particle size, and particle size distribution were studied using SEM and granulometry. Nanocrystallization was observed by TEM.

  2. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMT with Al2O3 deposition by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Lee, Ching-Sung; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Sun, Wen-Ching; Wei, Sung-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Min; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) grown on SiC substrate by using the non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. The Al2O3 was deposited as gate dielectric and surface passivation simultaneously to effectively suppress gate leakage current, enhance output current density, reduce RF drain current collapse, and improve temperature-dependent stabilities performance. The present MOS-HEMT design has shown improved device performances with respect to a Schottky-gate HEMT, including drain-source saturation current density at zero gate bias (IDSS: 337.6 mA mm?1 ? 462.9 mA mm?1), gate-voltage swing (GVS: 1.55 V ? 2.92 V), two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD: ?103.8 V ? ?183.5 V), unity-gain cut-off frequency (fT: 11.3 GHz ? 17.7 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax: 14.2 GHz ? 19.1 GHz), and power added effective (P.A.E.: 25.1% ? 43.6%). The bias conditions for measuring fT and fmax of the studied MOS-HEMT (Schottky-gate HEMT) are VGS = ?2.5 (?2) V and VDS = 7 V. The corresponding VGS and VDS biases are ?2.5 (?2) V and 15 V for measuring the P.A.E. characteristic. Moreover, small capacitance-voltage (C–V) hysteresis is obtained in the Al2O3-MOS structure by using USPD. Temperature-dependent characteristics of the present designs at 300–480 K are also studied.

  3. Preparation of SOFC anode composites by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichi Suda; Mikio Itagaki; Eri Node; Seiji Takahashi; Mitsunobu Kawano; Hiroyuki Yoshida; Toru Inagaki

    2006-01-01

    Lowering the SOFC working temperature would also be greatly attractive, but low temperature working SOFCs require high-performance anodes. The cermet SOFC anodes, which are composed of nickel and samarium doped ceria, were prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP), because SP produces spherical particles with small size distributions. SP-derived particles of NiO, SDC, and NiO\\/SDC composite had a round shape and comprised

  4. Oxide barrier coatings on steel strip by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. López Ibáñez; J. R. Ramos Barrado; F. Martín; F. Brucker; D. Leinen

    2004-01-01

    ZnO, TiO2 and ZrO2 thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis onto differently galvanized steel strips (ThyssenKrupp Steel) for its potential use as protective layer against degradation due to ambient impact during long-term outdoor exposure. The steel strips shall be used as base material for unglazed solar collectors (EU project: SOLABS)11http:\\/\\/www.solabs.net\\/. and must thus comply including all its

  5. Homogeneous ZnO Nanoparticles by Flame Spray Pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Tani; Lutz Mädler; Sotiris E. Pratsinis

    2002-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) of zinc acrylate–methanol–acetic acid solution. The effect of solution feed rate on particle specific surface area (SSA) and crystalline size was examined. The average primary particle diameter can be controlled from 10 to 20?nm by the solution feed rate. All powders were crystalline zincite. The primary particle diameter observed

  6. Synthesis and characterization of YSZ by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, L. D.; Jamale, A. P.; Bharadwaj, S. R.; Varma, Salil; Bhosale, C. H.

    2012-10-01

    The conventional zirconium based yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte has been synthesized from aqueous solution by cost effective air atomized spray pyrolysis technique (SPT). The films show well developed dense, nanocrystalline material. The thermal analysis of zirconyl nitrate reveals the possibility of crystalline YSZ film formation only above 400 °C, which is confirmed from the XRD pattern. The activation energy of 1.14 eV clarifies its conductivity behavior, verified from DC and AC conductivity measurements.

  7. Controlled synthesis of nanostructured particles by flame spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mädler; H. K. Kammler; R. Mueller; S. E. Pratsinis

    2002-01-01

    The flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process was systematically investigated using an external-mixing gas-assisted atomizer supported by six premixed methane–oxygen flameletes. The effect of oxidant and precursor fuel composition on the size of FSP-made silica primary particles (8–40nm) was studied using as precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) dissolved in ethanol, iso-octane or methanol. As oxidant air and pure oxygen were used, that served

  8. Spray pyrolysis deposition of YSZ and YSZ Pt composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovska, R.; Petrova, N.; Todorovsky, D.

    2005-12-01

    In the present paper procedures are described for spray pyrolysis deposition of YSZ films (0.1-30 ?m in thickness) with 8 or 15 mole % of YO 1.5 on different substrates. Aqueous or ethylene glycol solutions of Y-Zr-citrates were used as starting material and O 2 as carrier gas. The crystal structure and the morphology of the films were studied. The optimal deposition and post-deposition annealing conditions were defined, taking into account the desired film thickness and characteristics. Substrate temperatures of 250 °C during the deposition followed by heating for 10 min to 400 °C after every spraying and to 590 °C after every three sprayings with final annealing at 590 °C for 2 h in static air atmosphere were found to be suitable for the production of dense, uniform and cracks-free films.

  9. Nanostructured ZrO2 Powder Synthesized by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Jelena P.; Jugovic, Dragana; Mitric, Miodrag; Makovec, Darko; Milonjic, Slobodan K.; Uskokovic, Dragan P.

    The synthesis of nanostructured zirconia particles from aqueous colloidal dispersion of zirconia (zirconia sol) was carried out by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The morphology of these nanostructured particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The synthesized particles are spherical in shape with the avarage size of 400 nm, consisting of smaller primary particles, with the mean crystallite size of 7 nm. The tetragonal phase was confirmed by both X-ray and electron diffraction measurements.

  10. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes at Different Temperatures by Spray Pyrolysis Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh A. Afre; T. Soga; T. Jimbo; Mukul Kumar; Y. Ando; M. Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Vertically aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were grown by spray pyrolysis of turpentine oil and ferrocene mixture at temperatures higher than 700°C. Using this simple method, we report the successful growth of vertically aligned nanotubes of ~300mum length and diameter in the range of ?20-80nm on Si(100) substrate. The ferrocene acts as an in situ Fe catalyst precursor,

  11. Combustion characteristics of the heat pellet prepared from the Fe powders obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kim; H. Y. Koo; S. K. Hong; J. M. Han; H. C. Jang; Y. N. Ko; Y. J. Hong; Y. C. Kang; S. H. Kang; S. B. Cho

    Fe powders for thermal batteries were prepared by reduction of iron oxide powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. The iron oxide powders prepared by spray pyrolysis had fine size, spherical shape and high surface area. The morphologies of the Fe powders were affected by the preparation temperatures of the iron oxide powders. The Fe powders obtained from the iron oxide powders

  12. Electrochemical properties of LiM 1/6Mn 11/6O 4 (M = Mn, Co, Al and Ni) as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, I.; Song, D.; Wakihara, M.

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide LiMn 2O 4 and its substituted forms LiM 1/6Mn 11/6O 4 (M=Co, Al and Ni) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. As-prepared particles showed a spherical morphology and a densely congested interior structure. The geometric mean diameter was between 0.76 and 0.93 ?m, and the geometric standard deviation was approximately 1.33. The crystallite size was approximately 30 nm, and the specific surface area of the particles ranges from 5.7 to 12.7 m 2/g. As-prepared particles were used as cathode active materials for lithium secondary battery and their charge/discharge properties have been investigated. As a result, it could be seen that ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is an effective method to prepare lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O 4) and its substituted forms within very short production time, which is only 4.8 min in the present work.

  13. Nanocrystalline MgZn Ferrite Obtained by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsikau, D.; Pankov, V.; Petrova, E.

    2013-05-01

    Stoichiometric Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 powder was prepared by spray pyrolysis of water solution of inorganic metal salts in the presence of an inert component. Single phase ferrite with a cubic spinel-type structure and predominant grain size of 20-40 nm was observed after subsequent calcination of the powder at 700 °C and removal of the inert additive. Saturation magnetization of the powder was measured to be 32 emu/g at 300 K.

  14. Resistive substrate heater for film processing by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, B.; De Barros, D.; La Manna, J.; Weiss, F.; Duneau, G.; Odier, P.; De Sousa Meneses, D.; Auger, Y.; Melin, P.; Echegut, P.

    2004-09-01

    We describe a simple and inexpensive resistive heater usable in the spray pyrolysis process. It is based on a resistively heated ceramic plate. By using such a heater substrate temperatures exceeding 900 °C are easily achieved on the substrate. The heater consists of a ceramic plate enclosed in a stainless steel box. A refractory wire woven in a regular frame inside the ceramic provides an excellent heating uniformity over the entire surface. Performances and parameters of the system are given. We apply this device to the preparation of thick films of HTc oxides such as (Hg,Re)Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+?.

  15. Rapid thermal annealing of zirconia films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, N. H.; Balocchi, C.; Errazu, X.; Avila, R. E.; Piderit, G.

    1998-02-01

    Zirconia (8 mol% yttria) (YSZ) amorphous layers were deposited by spray pyrolysis on Si oxidized substrates and crystallized by rapid thermal treatment in a home-made halogen lamps furnace. Uniform films were obtained by depositing up to six layers, followed by the thermal treatment. X-ray analysis showed that the cubic phase is obtained during the initial stage of the annealing process. No significant differences with increasing annealing time nor interaction between the YSZ film and the substrate were observed. Ionic conduction in air, with activation energies comparable to those of bulk YSZ ceramics, was observed. The electrical characteristics of the films make them suitable for microelectronics applications.

  16. Fluorine doped tin oxide films from spray pyrolysis of stannous fluoride solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Morris; A. E. McElnea

    1996-01-01

    Transparent conducting films of fluorine doped tin oxide were deposited using spray pyrolysis. The spray solution was tin (II) fluoride in methanol with or without addition of acid. Film thickness, growth rates and polycrystal grain size increased with deposition time, substrate temperature and amount of hydrochloric acid added to the deposition solution. The crystallite orientations in the films depended also

  17. Size-controlled silver-glass composite powders with nanometer size prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Young Koo; Jang Heui Yi; Jung Hyun Kim; You Na Ko; Young Jun Hong; Yun Chan Kang; Byoung-Kee Kim

    2011-01-01

    Size-controlled silver-glass composite powders with nanometer sizes were directly prepared by high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis. The mean size of the composite powders is changed from 45 to 75nm by controlling the concentrations of the spray solution. Nanosized composite powders are prepared from the spray solution of 0.1M at a high flow rate of carrier gas as 20Lmin?1. However, nanosized composite

  18. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} core/RuO{sub 2} shell particles using multistep ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stopic, Srecko, E-mail: sstopic@ime-aachen.de [IME – Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr. 3, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Friedrich, Bernd [IME – Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr. 3, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [IPC – Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Weirich, Thomas E. [GFE – Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, Ahornstr. 55, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); AIXTAL – Institute of Crystallography, RWTH Aachen University, Jägerstraße 17–19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} core/RuO{sub 2} shell submicron-particles were prepared via a sequential spray pyrolysis. • Spherical particles have the mean particle diameters between 200 and 400 nm. • This method is promising for synthesis of core–shell and core–multishell materials. - Abstract: Spherical submicron-particles with TiO{sub 2} core–RuO{sub 2} shell structure have been synthesized by employing sequential ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The particles have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and different transmission electron microscopy techniques. The quality of the core–shell structure of the particles has been confirmed by comparison of the experimental data with those generated on the basis of a hard sphere core–shell model. It has been found that the mixing of the Ru-containing aerosol with the TiO{sub 2} particle stream has a significant impact on the core–shell formation. The method introduced in this study can probably be applied for preparation of core–shell and core–multishell materials that are difficult to synthesize in a single step spray pyrolysis process.

  19. Electrochromic behaviour of Nb 2O 5 thin films with different morphologies obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Romero; E. A. Dalchiele; F. Martín; D. Leinen; J. R. Ramos-Barrado

    2009-01-01

    Two different procedures to stabilize the precursor NbCl5 have been applied to obtain Nb2O5 thin films by spray pyrolysis. Depending on the procedure used, determined by the way in which the precursor solution was injected into the air stream of the spray nozzle, niobium oxide thin films with different surface morphologies can be obtained. The structural properties of the Nb2O5

  20. Conductive silver films formed from nano-sized silver powders prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Young Koo; Jang Heui Yi; Jung Hyun Kim; You Na Ko; Dae Soo Jung; Yun Chan Kang; Jong-Heun Lee

    2010-01-01

    Nano-sized silver powders were directly prepared by high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis; an ultrasonic spray generator was used in the process. The silver powders were nanometer sized and had a spherical shape; further, they did not show a tendency to form aggregates. Their mean size was 26nm. The mean crystallite size measured using Scherrer's equation was 26nm. Conductive silver films were

  1. Properties of CuInGaSe thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Babu; S. Velumani; Arturo Morales-Acevedo; R. Asomoza

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline films of semiconducting Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) quaternary alloy, one of the promising materials for photovoltaic applications, have been prepared by means of chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP). Copper, Indium and Gallium metal chlorides and Selenourea are used as constituent elements to prepare spray solution. Single phase CIGS films with chalcopyrite structure have been successfully grown on glass substrate at 350°C. The

  2. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on structural, microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO powders synthesised by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Patil; A. R. Bari; M. D. Shinde; Vinita Deo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report on the effect of pyrolysis temperature on structural, microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO powder synthesised by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique. Powder samples P1, P2 and P3 were prepared at various pyrolysis temperatures (temperature of 2nd zone) of 973, 1073 and 1273?K, respectively. Phases were identified and crystallite sizes were calculated from X-ray

  3. Resistance to Corrosion of Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis in Nitrided Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Bethencourt, M.; Cifredo, G.; Blanco, G.

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of zirconium oxide were deposited onto three types of stainless steel, AISI 316L, 2205, and tool steel AISI D2, using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effect of the flux ratio on the process and its influence on the structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. The coatings obtained, 600 nm thick, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The resistance to corrosion of the coatings deposited over steel (not nitrided) and stainless steel nitrided (for 2 h at 823 K) in an ammonia atmosphere was evaluated. The zirconia coating enhances the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion, with the greatest increase in corrosion resistance being observed for tool steel. When the deposition is performed on previously nitrided stainless steel, the morphology of the surface improves and the coating is more homogeneous, which leads to an improved corrosion resistance.

  4. Structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of Al doped ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bahedi; M. Addou; M. El Jouad; Z. Sofiani; S. Bayoud; M. El Haouti; J. Ebothe

    2009-01-01

    Undoped and aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique onto the glass substrates at 450°C using a precursor solution consisting of zinc chloride (AlCl3). The structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of these films were investigated as a function of Al concentration (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 at %). The films showed a hexagonal

  5. Studies on ionic intercalation properties of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D Kadam; S. H Pawar; P. S Patil

    2001-01-01

    Cobalt oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique onto the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from cobalt chloride solution. They were characterized by cyclic-voltammetry, chronoamperometry and spectrophotometry techniques. The films exhibited anodic electrochromism, changing colour from grey to pale yellow. Colouration efficiency at 633nm was calculated to be 12cm2C?1.

  6. Continuous synthesis of graphene sheets by spray pyrolysis and their use as catalysts for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Biao; Wang, Xiao Xia; Huang, Xin Xin; Wang, Jian Nong

    2015-01-14

    Graphene sheets (GNS) were synthesized continuously by spray pyrolysis of iron carbonyl and pyridine. The Pt catalyst supported on GNS exhibited excellent durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The GNS, when used as a metal-free catalyst for ORR, showed performance even better than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. PMID:25421428

  7. Preparation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by combustion spray pyrolysis Sangjin Leea

    E-print Network

    Messing, Gary L.

    to the additional heating, the ultrafine BaTiO3 powders may be aggregated. Powders prepared by spray pyrolysis powders [10­18]. Rapid in situ heating enables the use of relatively inexpensive pre- cursors, offering heated at 800 jC. The number concentration of droplets was decreased and large particles were removed

  8. Preparation and characterization of tin diselenide thin film by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Amalraj, L. [Department of Physics, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar 626001 (India); Jayachandran, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003 (India)]. E-mail: sanjeeviraja@rediffmail.com

    2004-12-02

    Tin diselenide (SnSe{sub 2}) thin film is deposited on to non-conducting glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique at an optimized substrate temperature of 523 K. Hot probe method is used to identify the type of conductivity of the film to be an n-type semiconductor. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of the film with a preferential orientation growth. Spherical shaped grains with an average diameter of 233 nm are observed from the SEM photograph. The elemental composition on the surface of the film is analyzed with EDAX spectrum and formed almost in stoichiometric in composition. Room temperature resistivity of 1.27 x 10{sup 4} {omega} cm is determined using the linear four-probe method. Activation energy of 0.058 eV is determined by studying the variation of resistivity of the film with temperature. Optical absorption spectrum of this sprayed SnSe{sub 2} thin film is analyzed and found to have a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.48 eV.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited by a spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoun, Yacine; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Gasmi, Brahim; Benramache, Said

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique decomposition of zinc acetate dihydrate in an ethanol solution with 30 mL of deposition rate, the ZnO thin films were deposited at two different temperatures: 300 and 350 °C. The substrates were heated using the solar cells method. The substrate was R217102 glass, whose size was 30 × 17.5 × 1 mm3. The films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong (002) preferred orientation. The higher value of crystallite size is attained for sprayed films at 350 °C, which is probably due to an improvement of the crystallinity of the films at this point. The average transmittance of obtain films is about 90%–95%, as measured by a UV—vis analyzer. The band gap energy varies from 3.265 to 3.294 eV for the deposited ZnO thin film at 300 and 350 °C, respectively. The electrical resistivity measured of our films are in the order 0.36 ?·cm.

  10. Investigation on the effect of Zr doping in ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokulakrishnan, V.; Parthiban, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-08-01

    Zirconium doped zinc oxide thin films with enhanced optical transparency were prepared on Corning 1737 glass substrates at the substrate temperature of 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method for various doping concentrations of zirconium (IV) chloride in the spray solution. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the films exhibit hexagonal crystal structure with polycrystalline grains oriented along (0 0 2) direction. The crystalline quality of the films is found to be deteriorating with the increase of doping concentration and acquires amorphous state for higher concentration of 8 at.% in precursor solution. The average transmittance for 5 at.% (solution) zirconium doped ZnO film is significantly increased to ˜92% in the visible region of 500-800 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of films show a band edge between 3.41 and 3.2 eV and strong blue emission at 2.8 eV irrespective of doping concentration and however intensity increases consistently with doping levels. The vacuum annealing at 400 °C reduced the resistivity of the films significantly due to the coalescence of grains and the lowest resistivity of 2 × 10 -3 ? cm is observed for 3 at.% (solution) Zr doped ZnO films which envisages that it is a good candidate for stable TCO material.

  11. Phase control in the synthesis of yttrium oxide nano and micro-particles by flame spray pyrolysis 

    E-print Network

    Mukundan, Mallika

    2009-05-15

    The project synthesizes phase pure Yttria particles using flame spray pyrolysis, and to experimentally determines the effect of various process parameters like residence time, adiabatic flame temperature and precursor ...

  12. Phase control in the synthesis of yttrium oxide nano and micro-particles by flame spray pyrolysis

    E-print Network

    Mukundan, Mallika

    2009-05-15

    The project synthesizes phase pure Yttria particles using flame spray pyrolysis, and to experimentally determines the effect of various process parameters like residence time, adiabatic flame temperature and precursor droplet size on the phase...

  13. Studies on electrochromic properties of nickel oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Kadam; P. S. Patil

    2001-01-01

    Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel chloride solution. Transparent NiO-thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature 350°C. The films were cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (111) direction. Infrared spectroscopy results show presence of free hydroxyl ion

  14. Preparation of AgInS{sub 2} chalcopyrite thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Lopez, M.; Vigil-Galan, O.; Cruz Gandarilla, F.; Solorza-Feria, O

    2003-01-01

    AgInS{sub 2} thin films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique using a water/ethanol solution containing silver acetate, indium chloride and thiourea. We reported our results on the characterization of tetragonal AgInS{sub 2} (chalcopyrite type) films, which were grown from indium deficient spraying solution. The films displayed a n-type conductivity with room temperature resistivities in the range between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} {omega} cm. The absorption spectra of sprayed films revealed two direct band-gaps with characteristic energies around 1.87 and 2.01 eV, which are in good agreement with the reported energy values for interband transitions from the split p-like valence band to the s-like conduction band in tetragonal AgInS{sub 2} single crystals.

  15. Corrosion resistance of zirconium oxynitride coatings deposited via DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis-nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Bethencourt, M.; Olaya, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    ZrOxNy/ZrO2 thin films were deposited on stainless steel using two different methods: ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (SPY-N) and the DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (UBMS). Using the first method, ZrO2 was initially deposited and subsequently nitrided in an anhydrous ammonia atmosphere at 1023 K at atmospheric pressure. For UBMS, the film was deposited in an atmosphere of air/argon with a ?air/?Ar flow ratio of 3.0. Structural analysis was carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphological analysis was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrOxNy rhombohedral polycrystalline film was produced with spray pyrolysis-nitriding, whereas using the UBMS technique, the oxynitride films grew with cubic Zr2ON2 crystalline structures preferentially oriented along the (2 2 2) plane. Upon chemical analysis of the surface, the coatings exhibited spectral lines of Zr3d, O1s, and N1s, characteristic of zirconium oxynitride/zirconia. SEM analysis showed the homogeneity of the films, and AFM showed morphological differences according to the deposition technique of the coatings. Zirconium oxynitride films enhanced the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion using both techniques. The protective efficacy was evaluated using electrochemical techniques based on linear polarization (LP). The results indicated that the layers provide good resistance to corrosion when exposed to chloride-containing media.

  16. Solar selective coatings based on nickel oxide obtained via spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Voinea, Mihaela; Ienei, Elena; Bogatu, Cristina; Duta, Anca

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents the optimization process for obtaining NiO thin layers on copper substrate for solar absorber coatings, using an inexpensive and up-scalable technique: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). Efficient selective coatings must present a high absorption coefficient of the incident solar irradiation, and low emission of heat. The solar selective coatings design involves tailoring the surface properties for superior optical properties. The deposition parameters were varied for maximizing the solar absorbance and minimizing the thermal emittance. The film morphology was controlled using copolymers of the maleic anhydride as additives into the precursors' solution. The structural and surface properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The Cu/CuO(x)/NiO solar absorber shows good values for the solar absorptance (alpha(s) = 0.95) and thermal emittance (epsilon(T) = 0.05) compared with the ones obtained by other methods employed in literature and new additives are recommended in tailoring the surface of solar selective coatings. PMID:19916443

  17. Emission of ZnO:Ag nanorods obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez Lozada, E.; Torchynska, T. V.; Casas Espinola, J. L.; Pérez Millan, B.

    2014-11-01

    Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and its temperature dependence have been studied in ZnO:Ag nanorods (NRs) prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. The time variation at the growth of ZnO:Ag films permits modifying the ZnO phase from the amorphous to crystalline, to change the size of ZnO:Ag NRs and to vary their emission spectra. PL spectra of ZnO:Ag NRs versus temperature has been investigated. This study reveals that the PL band related to the acceptor AgZn (LO phonon replicas of an acceptor bound exciton, ABE (2.877 eV)), and its second-order diffraction peak (1.44 eV) disappeared in the temperature range of 10-170 K with the formation of free exciton (FX). The PL intensity of defect related PL bands decreases monotonously in the range 10-300 K with the activation energy of 13 meV. The PL band (3.22 eV), related to the LO phonon replica of free exciton (FX-2LO) and its second-order diffraction peak (1.61 eV) increase monotonously in the range 10-300 K. FX related peak dominates in PL spectra at room temperature that testifies on the high quality of ZnO:Ag films prepared by the USP technology.

  18. ZnO based visible-blind UV photodetector by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, S. I.; Ganbavle, V. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors were fabricated by economical spray pyrolysis method. The devices have been characterized to investigate the effect of precursor solution concentration on the photoconductive properties of ZnO. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were studied using different techniques. The crystal structure, size and lattice parameters have been estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The UV photodetector device prepared using 0.1 M solution concentration exhibits low dark current and high UV photocurrent of about 134 ?A at 5 V bias at 365 nm peak wavelength. The surface morphology and the surface roughness have been studied by AFM analysis. UV-Vis measurements have been used to study the effect of solution concentration on absorption spectra and hence on the band gap. The present device shows fast response in UV region of electromagnetic spectrum and shows almost no response to visible light. The characteristic times for rise and fall of the photocurrent device were 12 s and 9 s respectively. This devices are providing a simple and economical way to fabricate high-performance 'visible-blind' UV detectors and promising for use in large-area UV-A photodetector applications.

  19. Synthesis of thick and crystalline nanotube arrays by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakaran, R.; Terrones, M.; Seeger, T.; Kohler-Redlich, Ph.; Rühle, M.; Kim, Y. A.; Hayashi, T.; Endo, M.

    2000-11-01

    Arrays of aligned nanotubes of large diameter (100-250 nm) are synthesized by pyrolyzing a jet (spray) solution of Fe(C5H5)2 and C6H6 in an Ar atmosphere at relatively low temperatures (850 °C). The tubular structures consist of highly crystalline nested graphene cylinders (<200 concentric tubes) with tips that are usually open. Raman studies confirm the high degree of perfection of these "thick" structures. Tube diameter, degree of alignment, and crystallinity can be controlled by varying the Ar flow rate and the Fe:C ratio within the precursor solution. Based on these observations a possible growth mechanism is suggested. This low cost route for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is advantageous due to the absence of H2 as a carrier gas and the low pyrolytic temperature.

  20. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-09-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000(th) high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g(-1) at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg(-1). The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles. PMID:23846530

  1. CuInS 2\\/In 2S 3 thin film solar cell using spray pyrolysis technique having 9.5% efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teny Theresa John; Meril Mathew; C. Sudha Kartha; K. P. Vijayakumar; T. Abe; Y. Kashiwaba

    2005-01-01

    Copper indium sulfide (CuInS2)\\/In2S3 solar cells were fabricated using spray pyrolysis method and high short circuit current density and moderate open circuit voltage were obtained by adjusting the condition of deposition and thickness of both the layers. Consequently, a relatively high efficiency of 9.5% (active area) was obtained without any anti-reflection coating. The cell structure was ITO\\/CuInS2\\/In2S3\\/Ag. We avoided the

  2. Effect of gas environment on the properties of silver–glass composite powders with core–shell structure prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Young Koo; Jang Heui Yi; Jung Hyun Kim; You Na Ko; Yun Chan Kang

    2010-01-01

    Silver–glass composite powders were directly prepared by using spray pyrolysis in various gas environments. The composite powders with a core–shell structure and a crystal structure of silver had a spherical shape and submicron size irrespective of the gas environments. The silver conducting thick films formed from the composite powders prepared using spray pyrolysis in air and Ar environments had dense

  3. High resolution TEM studies of carbon nanotubes produced by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, D. H.; Aguilar-Elguézabal, A.; Alonso, G.

    2006-10-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes were grown inside a quartz tube by spray pyrolysis of ferrocene/benzene under gas flow. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used in order to analyze the samples. The main features observed were huge nanotubes of the order of 250 ?m and few nm wide capped at one end. Moreover, onion-like structures were also observed on different regions of the sample. Furthermore, it is good to stress that most of the carbon nanotubes showed filamentary formation although capricious sausage-like structures were also observed with iron particles inside the tubules.

  4. Thin Film CuInS2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis with Single-Source Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael H.; Banger, Kulinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both horizontal hot-wall and vertical cold-wall atmospheric chemical spray pyrolysis processes deposited near single-phase stoichiometric CuInS2 thin films. Single-source precursors developed for ternary chalcopyrite materials were used for this study, and a new liquid phase single-source precursor was tested with a vertical cold-wall reactor. The depositions were carried out under an argon atmosphere, and the substrate temperature was kept at 400 C. Columnar grain structure was obtained with vapor deposition, and the granular structure was obtained with (liquid) droplet deposition. Conductive films were deposited with planar electrical resistivities ranging from 1 to 30 Omega x cm.

  5. Spray-pyrolysis Cd 2SnO 4 films for electrochemical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abrutis; G. Valincius; G. Baltrunas; L. Parafionovic; A. Valiuniene; Z. Saltyte

    2007-01-01

    Conductive cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4,) films were grown by a simple spray-pyrolysis technique using aerosols ultrasonically generated from solutions containing Cd(thd)2(TMEDA) and nBu2Sn(AcAc)2, and monoglyme as solvent (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate, TMEDA = N,N,N?,N?-tetramethylethylenediamine, AcAc = acethylacetonate). The overall film growing procedure was carried out at or below 400 °C thus allowing low-melting temperature materials like glass to be used as film substrates.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of nano silver powder prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiaoxin Zhang; Hao Liu; Xiaohui Wang; Xiaoliang Shi; Xinglong Duan

    2009-01-01

    Silver powder was fabricated by spray pyrolysis, using 2%–20% AgNO3 solution, 336–500 mL\\/h flux of AgNO3 solution, 0.28–0.32 MPa flux of carrier gas and in the 620–820 °C temperature range. The effects of furnace set temperature,\\u000a concentration of AgNO3 aqueous solution, flux of AgNO3 aqueous solution as well as carrier gas on the morphology and particle size distribution of silver

  7. Characterisation of porous doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kadi Allah; S. Yapi Abé; C. M. Núñez; A. Khelil; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; J. C. Bernède; A. Bougrine; M. A. del Valle; F. R. Díaz

    2007-01-01

    Al or Sn doped ZnO films were deposited by spray pyrolysis using aqueous solutions. The films were deposited on either indium tin oxide coated or bare glass substrates. ZnCl2, AlCl3 and SnCl2 were used as precursors. The effect of ZnCl2 molar concentration (0.1–0.3M) and doping percentage (2–4% AlCl3 or SnCl2) have been investigated. The main goal of this work being

  8. Structural and optical characterization of InAs nanocrystals deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, A. M.; Mohammed, M. A.; Kadhim, R.

    2015-03-01

    4-5 nm size InAs nanocrystals were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates from alkaline solution containing InCl3 and As2O. X-Ray diffraction and absorption spectra suggested that the deposition conditions (deposition time and temperature) had a profound influence on the structure and thickness of deposited layers. The optical absorption band edges shifted to lower energy when increasing the thickness with respect to the bulk material. The marked blue shift of the optical absorption edge indicated a strong quantum confinement effect in InAs films.

  9. Semiconducting properties of Tm doped Yb-ZnO films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Imane; Belayachi, Azzam; El Bahraoui, Toufik; Regragui, Mohamed; Abd-Lefdil, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we have investigated the structural, optical and electrical properties of rare earth co-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction has shown that the films are polycrystalline and textured with the c-axis of the wurtzite structure along the growth direction. Scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy were used to study the films composition and morphology. Photoluminescence measurements showed that all the films have a strong emission band at around 380 nm. Layers with electrical resistivity values as low as 5.7 × 10-2 ? cm were obtained.

  10. Low-defect CeO2 films synthesis by combined spray pyrolysis using different precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. G.; Ferreira, A. L.; Ribeiro, E.; Silveira, E.; Mattoso, N.

    2015-03-01

    films were fabricated by combining both a modified spray pyrolysis and the vapour transport deposition techniques. Two different precursors, cerium chloride and cerium acetate, were explored. In our approach, the pyrolytic process was not concomitant with the spray deposition and the introduction of the vapour transport condition has showed to improve both the morphological and optical quality of the films. Samples obtained from cerium chloride show a porous morphology, usual for polycrystalline layers, and a homogeneous light emission. When using vapour transport during thermal treatment, we achieved an enhanced luminescence, blue shifted to 3.08 eV and with negligible presence of defect bands. Films obtained from cerium acetate present similar crystalline properties, and a more defined light emission line shape, also peaked at 3.08 eV but with even lower contribution from known green-red defect bands. These results show that the proposed combined technique leads to films with homogeneous, enhanced optical properties.

  11. Uniform nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) of low cost precursors

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Thomas; Wegner, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    A new flame-assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) reactor design is presented, which allows the use of inexpensive precursors and solvents (e.g., ethanol) for synthesis of nanoparticles (10–20 nm) with uniform characteristics. In this reactor design, a gas-assisted atomizer generates the precursor solution spray that is mixed and combusted with externally fed inexpensive fuel gases (acetylene or methane) at a defined height above the atomizing nozzle. The gaseous fuel feed can be varied to control the combustion enthalpy content of the flame and onset of particle formation. This way, the enthalpy density of the flame is decoupled from the precursor solution composition. Low enthalpy content precursor solutions are prone to synthesis of non-uniform particles (e.g., bimodal particle size distribution) by standard flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) processes. For example, metal nitrates in ethanol typically produce nanosized particles by gas-to-particle conversion along with larger particles by droplet-to-particle conversion. The present FASP design facilitates the use of such low enthalpy precursor solutions for synthesis of homogeneous nanopowders by increasing the combustion enthalpy density of the flame with low-cost, gaseous fuels. The effect of flame enthalpy density on product properties in the FASP configuration is explored by the example of Bi2O3 nanoparticles produced from bismuth nitrate in ethanol. Product powders were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray disk centrifuge, and transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous Bi2O3 nanopowders were produced both by increasing the gaseous fuel content and, most notably, by cutting the air entrainment prior to ignition of the spray. PMID:23408113

  12. ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis: an overview of physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, S. A.; Golego, Nickolay; Cocivera, Michael

    1998-10-01

    ZnO is a versatile, wide band gap material which has found many applications and shown interesting physical properties. Thin zinc oxide films were prepared by a spray pyrolysis technique of zinc nitrate aqueous solution of different concentration between 0.02 and 1.0M(S.A.Studenikin, N.Golego, M.Cocivera, J.Appl.Phys., 1998, 83), 2104.. Influence of preparation conditions on structural, electrical and optical properties has been studied. Dense optical quality or porous films were prepared. Porous films possessed green photoluminescence (S.A.Studenikin, N.Golego, M.Cocivera, J.Appl.Phys., 1998, 84), 2287.. Conductivity of films may be reversibly changed by several orders of magnitude by annealing in hydrogen or oxygen ambient. All films exhibited a long term photoconductivity relaxation occurring over days at room temperature. The relaxation was sensitive to the oxygen partial pressure. Transient photo-Hall effect measurements. were used to extract information about both concentration and mobility changes during the relaxation. For transient analysis, an improved Laplace transform method was used. The desribed approach may be useful for studying other wide band-gap semiconductors.

  13. Preparation of mixed oxide MoO 3–WO 3 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique and their characterisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R Patil; P. S Patil

    2001-01-01

    Mixed oxide MoO3–WO3 thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at 300°C by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Equimolar ammonium tungstate and ammonium molybdate solutions were mixed together in volume proportions and used as precursors for spraying. The samples were annealed at 400°C for 1 h. They

  14. Surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, toward electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Jessica; Bister, Geoffroy; Simonis, Priscilla; Colson, Pierre; Maho, Anthony; Aubry, Philippe; Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Henrist, Catherine; Lardot, Véronique; Cambier, Francis; Cloots, Rudi

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics.

  15. Electrochemical properties of tungsten sulfide-carbon composite microspheres prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Boo, Sung Jin; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten sulfide (WS2)-carbon composite powders with superior electrochemical properties are prepared by a two-step process. WO3-carbon composite powders were first prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis, and they were then sulfidated to form WS2-carbon powders. Bare WS2 powders are also prepared by sulfidation of bare WO3 powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. Stacked graphitic layers could not be found in the bare WS2 and WS2-carbon composite powders. The amorphous bare WS2 and WS2-carbon composite powders have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 2.8 and 4 m(2) g(-1), respectively. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the WS2-carbon composite powders at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) are 1055 and 714 mA h g(-1), respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiency is 68%. On the other hand, the initial discharge and charge capacities of the bare WS2 powders are 514 and 346 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacities of the WS2-carbon composite powders for the 2(nd) and 50(th) cycles are 716 and 555 mA h g(-1), respectively, and the corresponding capacity retention measured after first cycle is 78%. PMID:25169439

  16. Electrochemical properties of tungsten sulfide-carbon composite microspheres prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Boo, Sung Jin; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-08-01

    Tungsten sulfide (WS2)-carbon composite powders with superior electrochemical properties are prepared by a two-step process. WO3-carbon composite powders were first prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis, and they were then sulfidated to form WS2-carbon powders. Bare WS2 powders are also prepared by sulfidation of bare WO3 powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. Stacked graphitic layers could not be found in the bare WS2 and WS2-carbon composite powders. The amorphous bare WS2 and WS2-carbon composite powders have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 2.8 and 4 m2 g-1, respectively. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the WS2-carbon composite powders at a current density of 100 mA g-1 are 1055 and 714 mA h g-1, respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiency is 68%. On the other hand, the initial discharge and charge capacities of the bare WS2 powders are 514 and 346 mA h g-1, respectively. The discharge capacities of the WS2-carbon composite powders for the 2nd and 50th cycles are 716 and 555 mA h g-1, respectively, and the corresponding capacity retention measured after first cycle is 78%.

  17. Electrochemical properties of tungsten sulfide–carbon composite microspheres prepared by spray pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Ho; Boo, Sung Jin; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten sulfide (WS2)–carbon composite powders with superior electrochemical properties are prepared by a two-step process. WO3-carbon composite powders were first prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis, and they were then sulfidated to form WS2-carbon powders. Bare WS2 powders are also prepared by sulfidation of bare WO3 powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. Stacked graphitic layers could not be found in the bare WS2 and WS2–carbon composite powders. The amorphous bare WS2 and WS2–carbon composite powders have Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface areas of 2.8 and 4?m2 g?1, respectively. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the WS2–carbon composite powders at a current density of 100?mA g?1 are 1055 and 714?mA h g?1, respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiency is 68%. On the other hand, the initial discharge and charge capacities of the bare WS2 powders are 514 and 346?mA h g?1, respectively. The discharge capacities of the WS2–carbon composite powders for the 2nd and 50th cycles are 716 and 555?mA h g?1, respectively, and the corresponding capacity retention measured after first cycle is 78%. PMID:25169439

  18. Growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, S. P. S.; Hintermann, H. E.

    Y-Ba-Cu-O films, 1-3 microns thick, on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates have been prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of aqueous-glycerol solutions containing yttrium, barium, and copper nitrates. The effect of glycerol in the metal nitrate solutions on the growth process of Y-Ba-Cu-O films has been investigated. The study shows that aqueous-glycerol nitrate solutions provide better films than aqueous-nitrate solutions. The YBa2Cu3O(7-x) film on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate prepared from aqueous-glycerol nitrate solutions shows a sharp superconducting transition and a Tc zero above 90 K; this film has a preferential orientation of the crystallite c axis of the orthorhombic structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. It is suggested that spray pyrolysis of nitrate solutions provides a viable technique for the preparation of high quality, inexpensive Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting films over large areas, on wires, ribbons or fibers.

  19. Energy band diagram of In: ZnO/p-Si structures deposited using chemical spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Saleh, Arwaa Fadil; Mezher, Sabah J.

    2014-08-01

    Near-ideal In: ZnO/p-Si heterojunction band edge lineup has been investigated with aid of I-V and C-V measurements. The heterojunction was manufactured by spray pyrolysis method of (Zn (CH3COO)2·2H2O) at different indium doping concentrations on monocrystalline p-type silicon. The experimental data of the conduction band offset ? Ec and valence band offset ? Ec were compared with theoretical values. The band offset ? Ec = 0.45 eV and ? Ev = 1.65 eV obtained at 300 K. The energy band diagram of In: ZnO/p-Si HJ was constructed. C-V measurements depict that the junction was an abrupt type and the built-in voltage was determined from C-2-V plot.

  20. Structural, optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting hydrophobic cadmium oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankarasubramanian, K.; Soundarrajan, P.; Sethuraman, K.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium oxide thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method on the glass substrate at 300 °C using different concentration of cadmium acetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the coated CdO film belongs to cubic crystal structure with preferential orientation along (1 1 1) direction. Wettability results revealed that the hydrophobic character of CdO thin film is enhanced with increase in the precursor concentrations. The surface morphology and roughness of the films were determined by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The average optical transmittance of CdO films in the range 400-800 nm, is about 80%. The resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration of CdO thin films were determined by Hall effect measurement. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed a strong emission peak around 590 nm.

  1. Nanopowder synthesis of the SOFC cathode material Nd2NiO4+ by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Nanopowder synthesis of the SOFC cathode material Nd2NiO4+ by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis David to synthesize this material which is of high interest for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC-22 (2010) 1015-1023" DOI : 10.1016/j.ssi.2010.05.041 #12;2 I. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC

  2. Characteristics of Pb-based glass powders prepared by spray pyrolysis as inorganic additive of Al paste for solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang Heui Yi; Hye Young Koo; Jung Hyun Kim; You Na Ko; Yun Chan Kang

    2011-01-01

    Al conducting films are formed from the Al pastes with various amounts of glass powders. Pb-based glass powders with submicron size and spherical shape prepared by spray pyrolysis are used. The Al films formed from the Al pastes with high amount of glass powders have good adhesion properties with Si wafers. The optimum glass contents showing the minimum sheet resistance

  3. Low-cost plasmonic solar cells prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Katerski, Atanas; Oja Acik, Ilona; Mikli, Valdek; Mere, Arvo; Sildos, Ilmo; Krunks, Malle

    2014-01-01

    Summary Solar cells consisting of an extremely thin In2S3/CuInS2 buffer/absorber layer uniformly covering planar ZnO were prepared entirely by chemical spray pyrolysis. Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were formed via thermal decomposition of a gold(III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) precursor by spraying 2 mmol/L of the aqueous precursor solution onto a substrate held at 260 °C. Current–voltage scans and external quantum efficiency spectra were used to evaluate the solar cell performance. This work investigates the effect of the location of the Au-NP layer deposition (front side vs rear side) in the solar cell and the effect of varying the volume (2.5–10 mL) of the sprayed Au precursor solution. A 63% increase (from 4.6 to 7.5 mA/cm2) of the short-circuit current density was observed when 2.5 mL of the precursor solution was deposited onto the rear side of the solar cell. PMID:25551068

  4. Low-cost plasmonic solar cells prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kärber, Erki; Katerski, Atanas; Oja Acik, Ilona; Mikli, Valdek; Mere, Arvo; Sildos, Ilmo; Krunks, Malle

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells consisting of an extremely thin In2S3/CuInS2 buffer/absorber layer uniformly covering planar ZnO were prepared entirely by chemical spray pyrolysis. Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were formed via thermal decomposition of a gold(III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) precursor by spraying 2 mmol/L of the aqueous precursor solution onto a substrate held at 260 °C. Current-voltage scans and external quantum efficiency spectra were used to evaluate the solar cell performance. This work investigates the effect of the location of the Au-NP layer deposition (front side vs rear side) in the solar cell and the effect of varying the volume (2.5-10 mL) of the sprayed Au precursor solution. A 63% increase (from 4.6 to 7.5 mA/cm(2)) of the short-circuit current density was observed when 2.5 mL of the precursor solution was deposited onto the rear side of the solar cell. PMID:25551068

  5. Electrochemistry of LiMn2O4 nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Patey, T J; Büchel, R; Nakayama, M; Novák, P

    2009-05-21

    Crystalline LiMn2O4 nanoparticles with specific surface areas between 53.9 and 203.4 m2 g(-1) (particle size of 25.9-6.9 nm) were produced in a one-step flame spray pyrolysis process by varying the specific combustion enthalpy. An optimized nano-sized powder retained the highest galvanostatic discharge capacity of over 80 mAh g(-1) beyond 60 cycles at 50 C, a suitable positive material for high power Li-ion batteries. Due to the increase in specific surface area, nanoparticles have the advantages of decreased diffusion path lengths and improved charge transfer, however, it is seen in this work that the lack of crystalline bulk present in LiMn2O4 nanoparticles less than 15 nm in size does not justify the advantages of higher specific surface area between the current densities of 0.5-50 C. PMID:19421488

  6. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 ?m. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  7. Superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis of metal acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaslow, Dale F.; Dieckmann, Gunter H.; Elli, David Dawson; Ellis, Arthur B.; Holmes, D. Scott; Lefkow, Anthony; MacGregor, Mark; Nordman, James E.; Petras, Michael F.; Yang, Yifeng

    1988-07-01

    Superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu oxide thin films have been prepared on ZrO2-coated silicon (111) wafers by spray pyrolysis of metal acetate precursors followed by rapid annealing to 850 °C in air. Resistivity measurements indicate a broad superconducting transition with Tc onset near 90 K and zero resistivity below 60 K. The films are highly oriented with the c axis normal to the substrate surface and can be indexed to a tetragonal structure with lattice parameters of a=3.832(1) Å and c=30.78(5) Å. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements indicate the loss of Ca to the ZrO2 buffer layer.

  8. Polymetallic citric complexes as precursors for spray-pyrolysis deposition of thin ferrite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanova, M.; Koleva, I.; Todorovska, R.; Zaharieva, J.; ?ostadinov, M.; Todorovsky, D.

    2011-06-01

    Thin films of ferrites of the type M IIFe 2O 4 (M = Cu, Mg, Zn) are prepared by spray-pyrolysis using ethylene glycol solutions of mixed-metal citric complexes of the respective metals at substrate temperature between 350 °C and 450 °C and post-deposition annealing at 480-750 °C in air. Phase composition, crystal structure, morphology and adhesion of the obtained films (40-400 nm in thickness) are studied by X-ray diffraction, SEM, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and AFM. Single phase dense uniform films with grains from 30-100 nm (M = Cu, Mg) to 0.15-2 ?m (M = Zn) are obtained.

  9. Physical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures using spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, T.; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Safarulla, A.; Ganesan, V.; Barman, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2010-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited with various substrate temperatures by spray pyrolysis technique onto glass substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the random growth orientation of the crystallites and the presence of the wurtzite phase of ZnO. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal the presence of Zn 2+ and chemisorbed oxygen in ZnO thin films. Atomic force micrograms (AFM) revealed a granular, polycrystalline morphology for the films. The grain size is found to increase as the substrate temperature increases. All films exhibit a transmittance of about 85% in the visible region. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicated that the intensity of emission peaks significantly varying with substrate temperature. Electrical resistivity has been found to decrease; while the carrier concentration increases with substrate temperature.

  10. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hendrik; Lin, Yen-Hung; Thomas, Stuart R; Zhao, Kui; Pliatsikas, Nikos; McLachlan, Martyn A; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ?250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1) and current on/off ratio in excess of 10(6). Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (?7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements. PMID:25490965

  11. Waste plastic pyrolysis process control method based on morphological characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Hai; Chen De-zhen; Wang Zhong-hui; Zhou Gongming

    2011-01-01

    During pyrolysis process reaction state of waste plastics cannot be easily observed and controlled, which makes it is difficult to control the process precisely. In this paper, a new process control method is proposed based on some special morphological characteristics of plastic wastes during their pyrolysis process. These characteristics' quantitative values can be obtained by sampling photograph images in sequence

  12. Chemical spray pyrolysis of ?-In2S3 thin films deposited at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sall, Thierno; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    In2S3 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis while keeping the substrates at different temperatures. The structures of the sprayed In2S3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XFD). The quality of the thin films was determined by Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy were used to explore the surface morphology and topography of the thin films, respectively. The optical band gap was determined based on optical transmission measurements. The indium sulfide phase exhibited a preferential orientation in the (0, 0, 12) crystallographic direction according to the XRD analysis. The phonon vibration modes determined by Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the In2S3 phase in our samples. According to SEM, the surface morphologies of the films were free of defects. The optical band gap energy varied from 2.82 eV to 2.95 eV.

  13. Core-shell microspherical Ti(1-x)Zr(x)O2 solid solution photocatalysts directly from ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Zheng, Zhi; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi; Fan, Xiaoxing; Zou, Zhigang

    2006-10-01

    A series of Ti(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) solid solutions photocatalysts (x = 0.000, 0.045, 0.090, 0.135, and 0.180) was directly obtained by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. Compared with previous methods for solid solutions, our preparation was very fast. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The characterizations revealed core-shell spherical structures of the resulting solid solutions. We evaluated photocatalytic activities of the solid solutions on degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution under simulated solar light. It was found that Ti(0.91)Zr(0.09)O(2) solid solution exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all the as-prepared samples. Its activity was much higher than that of P25. The formation mechanism of core-shell spherical structures was proposed. Moreover, we successfully extended this method to prepare microspheres of ceria and ceria-zirconia solid solutions. We think this general method may be easily scaled up for industrial production of microspherical solid solutions photocatalysts and catalysts. PMID:17004788

  14. Third order non linear optical properties of ZnO:Al thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bahedi; M. Addou; M. El Jouad; Z. Sofiani; S. Bayoud; M. Bouaouda; B. Sahraoui; Z. Essaidi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 450degC. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and third harmonic generation (THG) are used to characterize their structure , morphology and nonlinear optical properties as a function of Al concentration (0,

  15. Characterization of dip-coated ITO films derived from nanoparticles synthesized by?low-pressure spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ogi; Ferry Iskandar; Yoshifumi Itoh; Kikuo Okuyama

    2006-01-01

    In2O3:Sn (Indium Tin Oxide; ITO) films were prepared from a sol solution with highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles (less than 20 nm in size with 10 at.% Sn) which had been prepared by low-pressure spray pyrolysis (LPSP) in a single step. The ITO sol solution was prepared by dispersing LPSP-prepared ITO nanoparticles into ultra pure water. The nanoparticle ITO film was deposited on

  16. Chemical Analysis of Spray Pyrolysis Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Electrolyte Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. M. Rupp; Tanja Drobek; Antonella Rossi; Ludwig J. Gauckler

    2007-01-01

    Current solid oxide fuel cell research aims for the reduction of operating temperatures while maintaining power output to reduce the cost of operation. A promising strategy for achieving this goal is to replace common microcrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes of 10 -200 Ìm thickness with nanocrystalline gadolinia-doped ceria electrolytes (CGO) of 100-500 nm thickness deposited by spray pyrolysis. While decreasing

  17. Organic light emitting diodes using fluorine doped tin oxide thin films, deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis, as anode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ouerfelli; S. Ouro Djobo; J. C. Bernède; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; Y. Berredjem

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of tin oxide doped with fluorine (SnO2:F) have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis. The SnO2:F thin films are crystallized in the excepted tetragonal structure, with a preferential orientation of their crystallites along the (200) direction. They exhibit a good transparency in the visible and a small resistivity (?=4.23×10?4?cm). These SnO2:F thin films have been used as anode

  18. Fabrication and characterization of fluorine-doped thin oxide thin films and nanorod arrays via spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Russo; G. Z. Cao

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films via intermittent spray\\u000a pyrolysis utilizing a solution mixture of tin chloride pentahydrate and ammonia fluoride. Utilizing the same solution, nanorod\\u000a arrays were fabricated via template-based growth. Uniform and crack-free FTO films over 20×20 mm with a thickness up to 900 nm\\u000a have been routinely achieved; such FTO films

  19. Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro

    2004-01-01

    Following the procedure by Sawada et al. (Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 46), high-quality SnO2:F films were grown on glass substrates at relatively low temperatures of 325–340°C by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using a perfume atomizer for cosmetics use. Even though the substrate temperature is low, as-deposited films show a high optical transmittance of 92% in the visible range, a

  20. Electron microscopy and EXAFS studies on oxide-supported gold–silver nanoparticles prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hannemann; Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt; Frank Krumeich; Peter Kappen; Alfons Baiker

    2006-01-01

    Gold and gold–silver nanoparticles prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) were characterized by electron microscopy, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their catalytic activity in CO oxidation. Within this one-step flame-synthesis procedure, precursor solutions of dimethyl gold(III) acetylacetonate and silver(I) benzoate together with the corresponding precursor of the silica, iron oxide or titania support,

  1. Effects of N- and N-In doping on ZnO films prepared by using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Park, Se-Jeong; Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Zhang, Yiwen; Li, Xiaomin

    2014-12-01

    The effects of N-doping, and N-In co-doping on ZnO films were studied by analyzing the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films prepared by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data, all films had very complex surface structures. Their polycrystallinity were also proven by using an X-ray diffraction method. The Hall-effect measurement showed that both the undoped and the N-doped ZnO films exhibited n-type conductivity and that the N-In co-doped ZnO film showed p-type conductivity. In the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, the number of oxygen atoms in the N-In codoped ZnO films was found to be larger than that in the N-doped and the undoped ZnO films. The photoluminescence spectra also showed that the N-In co-doping suppressed the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the ZnO films. Through an effective incorporation of indium atoms, more oxygen atoms seem to have been introduced into the lattice of the N-In co-doped ZnO films.

  2. Self-organized macroporous carbon structure derived from phenolic resin via spray pyrolysis for high-performance electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Balgis, Ratna; Sago, Sumihito; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2013-11-27

    The synthesis and evaluation of porous carbon derived from phenolic resin using a fast and facile spray pyrolysis method has been studied for use as a new electrocatalyst support material. By adding polystyrene latex nanoparticles as a template to the phenolic resin precursor, self-organized macroporous carbon structure was first developed. The mass ratio of phenolic resin to PSL at 0.625 gave the optimum porous morphology. Pt nanoparticles (?20 wt %) were grown on the carbon surface using a standard industrial impregnation method. Well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles of average size 3.91 nm were observed on the surface of porous carbon particles. The high catalytic performance of porous Pt/C electrocatalyst was confirmed by the high mass activity and electrochemically active surface area, which were 450.81 mA mg(-1)-Pt and 81.78 m(2) g(-1)-Pt, respectively. The porous Pt/C catalyst obtains two times higher mass activity than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst and performs excellent durability under acid conditions. PMID:24171401

  3. ZnO-based thin film transistors employing aluminum titanate gate dielectrics deposited by spray pyrolysis at ambient air.

    PubMed

    Afouxenidis, Dimitrios; Mazzocco, Riccardo; Vourlias, Georgios; Livesley, Peter J; Krier, Anthony; Milne, William I; Kolosov, Oleg; Adamopoulos, George

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of SiO2 gate dielectrics with metal oxides of higher dielectric constant has led to the investigation of a wide range of materials with superior properties compared with SiO2. Despite their attractive properties, these high-k dielectrics are usually manufactured using costly vacuum-based techniques. To overcome this bottleneck, research has focused on the development of alternative deposition methods based on solution-processable metal oxides. Here we report the application of spray pyrolysis for the deposition and investigation of Al2x-1·TixOy dielectrics as a function of the [Ti(4+)]/[Ti(4+)+2·Al(3+)] ratio and their implementation in thin film transistors (TFTs) employing spray-coated ZnO as the active semiconducting channels. The films are studied by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, impedance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and field-effect measurements. Analyses reveal amorphous Al2x-1·TixOy dielectrics that exhibit a wide band gap (?4.5 eV), low roughness (?0.9 nm), high dielectric constant (k ? 13), Schottky pinning factor S of ?0.44 and very low leakage currents (<5 nA/cm(2)). TFTs employing stoichiometric Al2O3·TiO2 gate dielectrics and ZnO semiconducting channels exhibit excellent electron transport characteristics with low operating voltages (?10 V), negligible hysteresis, high on/off current modulation ratio of ?10(6), subthreshold swing (SS) of ?550 mV/dec and electron mobility of ?10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). PMID:25774574

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Mo doped SnO2 thin films with spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgut, Güven; Sönmez, Erdal

    2014-05-01

    Tin oxide thin films doped with different Mo content were successfully grown by spray pyrolysis and they were characterized as a function of Mo content, changed from 0 to 3.5 at.% with 0.5 at.% step. The XRD studies showed that the films had SnO2 cassiterite structure with (2 1 1) preferential orientation and the best crystal properties was observed for 2 at.% Mo doped sample. The SEM images indicated the films were made up of nanosized grains and it was observed pyramidal, polyhedron shaped grains on the deposited films' surfaces. From electrical and optical studies, although 2 at.% Mo doped SnO2 film exhibited the lowest sheet resistance (39.81 ?) and the highest IR reflective (81.77%), 1 at.% Mo doped film has the highest optical band gap (4.011 eV). The lowest Urbach energy (293 meV) and the highest figure of merit (1.80 × 10-3 ?-1) values were observed for 0.5 at.% Mo doped sample between all films. The results found in present study showed that Mo doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells, IR coating and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

  5. Hydrophilic CdSe thin films by low cost spray pyrolysis technique and annealing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logu, T.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Soundarrajan, P.; Sethuraman, K.

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 200°C by homemade chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The as-deposited films were annealed in air atmosphere for 3 hrs, at two different temperatures (350 and 450°C). The as-deposited film has been observed to possess uniform surface with crystalline sphalerite cubic structure and optical band gap of E g = 2.4 eV. It is worth noting that after annealing, metastable cubic sphalerite phase transforms into stable well crystalline hexagonal wurtzite phase. The optical band gap was found to decrease from 2.4 eV to 1.75 eV. The average surface roughness is 1.5 nm for the as-deposited film which rises to 4.2 nm after annealing the film in air atmosphere. The contact angle was found to vary from 94° ± 1° to 81° ± 1° with annealing temperature. In addition, from Wenzel's relation it is concluded that CdSe thin film is hydrophilic in nature. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Production of single phase chalcopyrite CuInSe2 by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abernathy, C. R.; Bates, C. W., Jr.; Anani, A. A.; Haba, B.; Smestad, G.

    1984-10-01

    Thin films of CuInSe2 were prepared by spray pyrolysis from solutions with various pH levels and initial Cu:In ratios, and in which the Cu source was either CuCl or CuCl2. The substrate temperature was varied between 225 and 300 C. All films prepared with CuCl2 were chalcopyrite, while only Cu-rich CuCl-based films exhibited this phase. The appearance of Cu(2-x)Se and/or Cu2Se as a second phase was found to depend strongly on solution stoichiometry, pH, temperature, and substrate. Two-layer structures consisting of a Cu-deficient layer on top of a Cu-rich layer were produced without the presence of any second phases on both glass and Mo-coated glass. A CuInSe2/CdS photovoltaic cell made from a single-phase double layer films on glass gave a V(oc) of 0.558 V after heat treatment. This V(oc) is higher than any reported to date. Absorption spectra were also measured and found to improve when CuCl2 was used instead of CuCl.

  7. Spray pyrolysis synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles from a single-source precursor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Zhang, Hongwang; Swihart, Mark T

    2009-06-10

    ZnS, a II-VI semiconductor with a relatively high direct bandgap (approximately 3.6 eV) in the near-UV region, has potential applications in areas such as solar cells, lasers and displays. In addition, ZnS nanoparticles can be applied as phosphors, probes for bioimaging, emitters in light emitting diodes and photocatalysts. Here, we report synthesis of cubic ZnS nanoparticles from a low-cost single-source precursor in a continuous spray pyrolysis reactor. In this approach, the evaporation and decomposition of precursor and nucleation of particles occur sequentially. Product particles were characterized by HRTEM, XRD, and EDX. Particles with diameters ranging from 2 to 7 nm were produced. HF was used to remove ZnO impurities and other surface contamination. As-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles exhibit blue photoluminescence near 440 nm under UV excitation and have quantum yields up to 15% after HF treatment. This demonstrates a potentially general approach for continuous low-cost synthesis of semiconductor quantum dots for applications where tight control of the size distribution is less important than scalable, economical production. PMID:19451680

  8. Hierarchical porous carbon by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis yields stable cycling in lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Tae Hoon; Lee, Ji Hoon; Koo, Hye Young; Shakoor, Rana A; Kahraman, Ramazan; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-08-13

    Utilizing the unparalleled theoretical capacity of sulfur reaching 1675 mAh/g, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been counted as promising enablers of future lithium ion battery (LIB) applications requiring high energy densities. Nevertheless, most sulfur electrodes suffer from insufficient cycle lives originating from dissolution of lithium polysulfides. As a fundamental solution to this chronic shortcoming, herein, we introduce a hierarchical porous carbon structure in which meso- and macropores are surrounded by outer micropores. Sulfur was infiltrated mainly into the inner meso- and macropores, while the outer micropores remained empty, thus serving as a "barricade" against outward dissolution of long-chain lithium polysulfides. On the basis of this systematic design, the sulfur electrode delivered 1412 mAh/g sulfur with excellent capacity retention of 77% after 500 cycles. Also, a control study suggests that even when sulfur is loaded into the outer micropores, the robust cycling performance is preserved by engaging small sulfur crystal structures (S2-4). Furthermore, the hierarchical porous carbon was produced in ultrahigh speed by scalable spray pyrolysis. Each porous carbon particle was synthesized through 5 s of carrier gas flow in a reaction tube. PMID:25007002

  9. Study of Optical and Electrical Properties of In2S3:Sn Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraini, M.; Bouguila, N.; Halidou, I.; Moadhen, A.; Vázquez-Vázquez, C.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Alaya, S.

    2015-07-01

    Tin-doped In2S3 films were grown by the chemical spray pyrolysis method using compressed air as a carrier gas. Tin is incorporated in the solution using SnCl4. Structural and optical properties of films were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to explore the surface morphology. The properties of In2S3 thin films are influenced by Sn doping. XRD studies revealed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature exhibiting cubic structure and oriented preferentially towards (111). According to FESEM, the surface morphology of the films was free of defects. Raman studies showed different peaks related to In2S3 phase and did not show any secondary phases of In-Sn and Sn-S. In2S3:Sn films exhibited transparency over 60-85% in the visible and infrared regions. The optical band gap was found to vary in the range 2.71-2.58 eV for direct transitions. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies revealed two PL bands, centered at 529 nm (band A) and 725 nm (band B). From these results, one can conclude that our material can be used as transmittive windows in low-cost solar cells. The conductance and capacitance characterization at ambient temperature were also investigated and gave interesting physical properties for photovoltaic applications.

  10. Study of Optical and Electrical Properties of In2S3:Sn Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraini, M.; Bouguila, N.; Halidou, I.; Moadhen, A.; Vázquez-Vázquez, C.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Alaya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Tin-doped In2S3 films were grown by the chemical spray pyrolysis method using compressed air as a carrier gas. Tin is incorporated in the solution using SnCl4. Structural and optical properties of films were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to explore the surface morphology. The properties of In2S3 thin films are influenced by Sn doping. XRD studies revealed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature exhibiting cubic structure and oriented preferentially towards (111). According to FESEM, the surface morphology of the films was free of defects. Raman studies showed different peaks related to In2S3 phase and did not show any secondary phases of In-Sn and Sn-S. In2S3:Sn films exhibited transparency over 60-85% in the visible and infrared regions. The optical band gap was found to vary in the range 2.71-2.58 eV for direct transitions. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies revealed two PL bands, centered at 529 nm (band A) and 725 nm (band B). From these results, one can conclude that our material can be used as transmittive windows in low-cost solar cells. The conductance and capacitance characterization at ambient temperature were also investigated and gave interesting physical properties for photovoltaic applications.

  11. Effect of the fluorine content on the structural and electrical properties of SnO 2 and ZnO–SnO 2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo I. Martinez; Dwight R. Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide thin films of SnO2 (TO) and of ZnO–SnO2 binary–binary system (ZO–TO system) have been prepared by the spray pyrolysis method. In this work, we study the influence of fluorine doping concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of films above mentioned. Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films on glass present resistivity around to 4×10?4 ?

  12. Effect of calcination temperature on morphology, crystallinity and electrochemical properties of nano-crystalline metal oxides (Co 3O 4, CuO, and NiO) prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Woo Oh; Hyun Joo Bang; Young Chan Bae; Yang-Kook Sun

    2007-01-01

    Nano-crystalline metal oxides (Co3O4, CuO, and NiO) are synthesized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effects of calcination temperature on the morphology, crystallite size and electrochemical properties of the metal oxides are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the crystallite size varies with the final calcination temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and

  13. Effect of annealing on the properties of Bi doped ZnO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda Kumar, N.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of transparent and conducting Bi doped ZnO (BZO) films deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique was investigated. The BZO thin films were annealed in the temperature range from 450 °C to 550 °C for 4 h in air atmosphere. The grain size of the BZO films increased with increasing annealing temperature. The annealed BZO films were electrically stable and there was a drastic change in the electrical conductivity after annealing. The films annealed at 500 °C showed better conductivity and optical transmittance.

  14. Structure of high-T c superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roul, B. K.; Pramanik, P.; Chopra, K. L.

    1989-10-01

    High- Tc superconducting films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis of nitrate precursors onto yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), followed by rapid annealing at 840°C in air/oxygen. The films are preferentially oriented with c-axis parallel to the plane of the substrate surface. The diffraction patterns of the films correspond to a mixed phase orthorhombic structure, with different c-values of 24.49 Å, 30.78 Å and 37.25 Å. These films exhibit superconductivity at 91 K and zero resistance at 77 K.

  15. High-rate production of functional nanostructured films and devices by coupling flame spray pyrolysis with supersonic expansion.

    PubMed

    Wegner, K; Vinati, S; Piseri, P; Antonini, A; Zelioli, A; Barborini, E; Ducati, C; Milani, P

    2012-05-11

    The fabrication of functional thin films and devices by direct deposition of nanoparticles from the gas phase is a promising approach enabling, for instance, the integration of complex analytical and sensing capabilities on microfabricated platforms. Aerosol-based techniques ensure large-scale nanoparticle production and they are potentially suited for this goal. However, they are not adequate in terms of fine control over the lateral resolution of the coatings, mild processing conditions (avoiding high temperature and aggressive chemicals), low contamination and compatibility with microfabrication processes. Here we report the high-rate and efficient production of functional nanostructured films by nanoparticle assembling obtained by the combination of flame spray pyrolysis and supersonic expansion. Our approach merges the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis for bulk nanopowders such as process stability and wide material library availability with those of supersonic cluster beam deposition in terms of lateral resolution and of direct integration of nanomaterials on devices. We efficiently produced nanostructured films and devices (such as gas sensors) using metal oxide, pure noble metal and oxide-supported noble metal nanoparticles. PMID:22516767

  16. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Joseph L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Lloyd D. (Rigby, ID)

    1990-01-01

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity.

  17. Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A.; Dariani, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism.

  18. Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

  19. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro; Takashi Ida; Hiroo Hashizume

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles

  20. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.M. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia)] [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Torres, J., E-mail: njtorress@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Lopez Carreno, L.D. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia)] [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)] [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  1. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  2. One-step synthesis of bismuth molybdate catalysts via flame spray pyrolysis for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein.

    PubMed

    Schuh, K; Kleist, W; Høj, M; Trouillet, V; Jensen, A D; Grunwaldt, J-D

    2014-12-18

    Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) of Bi(III)- and Mo(VI)-2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene resulted in various nanocrystalline bismuth molybdate phases depending on the Bi/Mo ratio. Besides ?-Bi2Mo3O12 and ?-Bi2MoO6, FSP gave direct access to the metastable ?-Bi2Mo2O9 phase with high surface area (19 m(2) g(-1)). This phase is normally only obtained at high calcination temperatures (>560 °C) resulting in lower surface areas. The ?-phase was stable up to 400 °C and showed superior catalytic performance compared to ?- and ?-phases in selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein at temperatures relevant for industrial applications (360 °C). PMID:25350295

  3. Impact of active layer thickness in thin-film transistors based on Zinc Oxide by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Miguel A.; Flores, Francisco; Luna, Adan; Martinez, Javier; Luna-Lopez, Jose A.; Alcantara, Salvador; Rosales, Pedro; Reyes, Claudia; Orduña, Abdu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low-temperature and its application in thin-film transistors (TFTs) are presented, as well, the impact of the active layer thickness and gate dielectric thickness in the electrical performance of the ZnO TFTs. A thinner active layer resulted in better transfer characteristics such as higher on/off-current ratio, while a thicker active layer resulted in better output characteristics. The ZnO films were deposited from 0.2 M precursor solution of Zinc acetate in methanol, using air as carrier gas on a hotplate at 200 °C. The ZnO films obtained at 200 °C were characterized by optical transmittance, Photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Synthesis of In2S3 thin films by spray pyrolysis from precursors with different [S]/[In] ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sall, Thierno; Nafidi, A.; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2014-06-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from solutions with different [S]/[In] ratios on glass substrates at a constant temperature of 250 °C. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and optical transmittance spectroscopy. All samples exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a preferential orientation along (0, 0, 12). A good stoichiometry was attained for all samples. The morphology of thin film surfaces, as seen by SEM, was dense and no cracks or pinholes were observed. Raman spectroscopy analysis shows active modes belonging to ?-ln2S3 phase. The optical transmittance in the visible range is higher than 60% and the band gap energy slightly increases with the sulfur to indium ratio, attaining a value of 2.63 eV for [S]/[In] = 4.5.

  5. Effect of annealing on the properties of Sb doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N. Sadananda; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka,Surathkal - 575025, Mangalore (India)

    2014-01-28

    Sb doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the as deposited films are polycrystalline in nature with (100) preferred orientation. Whereas the films annealed at 450° C for 6h show a preferential orientation along (101) direction. Crystallites size varies from 15.7 nm to 34.95 nm with annealing duration. The Scanning electron microscopic analysis shows the plane and smooth surface of the films. The optical properties of annealed films have shown a variation in the band gap between 3.37 eV and 3.19 eV. Transparency of as grown and annealed films decreases from 78 % to 65% respectively in the visible region. The electrical conductivity of the as grown film shows an increase in the electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude with increase in the annealing duration.

  6. Characterization of ultrafine La x Sr1-x MnO3 powder prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Zhang, R.; Lu, L.; Xie, H.

    1997-10-01

    The characterization of La x Sr1-x MnO3 powders produced by spray pyrolysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, specific surface area (Brunauer-Emett-Teller), and particle size distribution measurements shows that the resultant large particles are loose agglomerates consisting of many small particles. However, the sintered tiny particles can form hard agglomerates, and the particle size increases remarkably. The structures of the powders before and after sintering were identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The study of the electrical property of the powder shows that the powder is a metallic conductor. In a reducing atmosphere, the powder can be decomposed. When the powder is cofired with yttria-stabilized zirconia 5% (YSZ) powder at 1200 °C for 5 h, no new phase is produced, and the powder remains a single provskite hexagonal-rhombohedral structure.

  7. Observation of Nanospherical n-SnO2/p-Si Heterojunction Fabricated by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bo; Xu, Jing; Xing, Huaizhong; Wang, Chunrui; Guo, Ying; Lu, Hongwei

    2013-10-01

    Thin film of tin oxide (SnO2) was prepared on p-type polished silicon wafer by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique using SnCl4 precursor solution to fabricate nanospherical n-SnO2/p-Si heterojunction photoelectric device. Deposition of film was achieved at 400°C substrate temperature. The self-made ultrasonic spray pyrolysis system is very cheap and convenient. The microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the SnO2 film were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, UV-VIS spectrophotometer, four point probe and Hall effect measurement, respectively. The SnO2 film has the nanospherical particles. The electrical properties of heterojunction were investigated by I-V measurement, which reveals that the heterojunction shows strong rectifying behavior under a dark condition. The ideality factor and the saturation current density of this diode are 4.27 and 2.52 × 10-6 A/cm2, respectively. And the values of IF/IR (IF and IR stand for forward and reverse current, respectively) at 5 V is found to be as high as 248. The SnO2/p-Si heterojunction device exhibits obvious photovoltaic effect. Under an AM1.5 illumination condition, the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (JSC), fill factor (FF) of the device are 150 mV, 3.9 × 10-3 mA/cm2 and 20.58%, respectively. High photocurrent is obtained under a reverse bias when the crystalline quality of SnO2 film is good enough to transmit the light into p-Si. Under 6.3 mW/cm2 illumination, when the reverse bias is -5 V, the photocurrent gain is as high as 86.

  8. Morphological Control of Y2O3:Eu Phosphor Particles by Adding Polymeric Precursors in Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jong Rak; Kang, Yun Chan; Park, Hee Dong

    2002-05-01

    The Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles having a spherical shape and dense morphology were prepared by a pilot-scale spray pyrolysis process which involved the introduction of polymeric precursors in the spray solution. The Y2O3:Eu particles prepared from the solution without polymeric precursors had a hollow and fractured structures. However, the particles prepared from the solutions with citric acid and ethylene glycol had a completely spherical shape and dense morphology. The polymeric chains formed from the esterification reaction between carboxyl and alcohol groups changed the drying and decomposition stages of the droplets. The ratio of citric acid, ethylene glycol and their concentrations were critical factors in the control of the morphology of the Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles. The mean crystallite sizes of the particles prepared from solutions with and without citric acid and ethylene glycol were 49 nm and 33 nm, respectively. The maximum photoluminescence intensity of the particles prepared from the solution with suitable concentrations of citric acid and ethylene glycol was 125% of that of the particles prepared from the solution without polymeric precursors.

  9. Superior electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 yolk-shell powders prepared by a simple spray pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Sim, Chul Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-07-01

    LiMn2O4 yolk-shell powders with a distinctive filled-core@void@shell configuration are prepared by a spray pyrolysis process. The yolk-shell powders have discharge capacities of 127, 120, and 115 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles, even at high current densities of 3 C (360 mA g(-1)), 5 C, and 10 C, respectively. PMID:23714849

  10. Spray pyrolysis deposition of ZnO thin films on FTO coated substrates from zinc acetate and zinc chloride precursor solution at different growth temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ü. Alver; A. Kudret; S. Tekerek

    2011-01-01

    ZnO thin films were fabricated using zinc chloride and zinc acetate precursors by the spray pyrolysis technique on FTO coated glass substrates. The ZnO films were grown in different deposition temperature ranges varying from 400 to 550°C. Influences of substrate temperature and zinc precursors on crystal structure, morphology and optical property of the ZnO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns

  11. Porous TiO 2 thin films synthesized by a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique and their application to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Okuya; Koji Nakade; Shoji Kaneko

    2002-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates from titanium(IV)oxy acetylacetonate 2-butanol solution by a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique. The films consisted of TiO2 leaflets and showed the oriented growth along the (200) direction. The surface area of the film was successfully increased by adding a small amount of aluminum(III) acetylacetonate (AA) in the source solution. This

  12. Effect of temperature on structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline CuInS 2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mahendran; N. Suriyanarayanan

    2010-01-01

    Copper indium disulphide (CuInS2), is a good absorber material for photovoltaic applications. In this work, CuInS2 is deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis on heated glass substrates. It is observed that the film growth temperature and the ion ratio Cu\\/In affects the structural and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films. This paper presents the effect of temperature on the growth (for

  13. Mixed-metal oxide nanopowders by liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP): Synthesis and processing of core-shell nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, liquid feed--flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) was used for the synthesis and characterization of mixed-metal oxide nanopowders in the Ce-Zr-Al-O system for potential catalytic, photonic, electronic and structural applications. The LF-FSP process aerosolizes metalloorganic precursors dissolved in an alcohol solvent with oxygen, combusts the aerosol, and then rapidly quenches the gaseous species to produce nanosize oxide \\

  14. Probing the effect of nitrogen gas on electrical conduction phenomena of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debadhyan Behera; Jagannath Panigrahi; Bhabani S. Acharya

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were prepared on borosilicate glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique.\\u000a The X-ray diffraction study revealed that Cu doping caused a reduction in crystallite size. AFM study showed an increase in\\u000a roughness with doping. This is attributed to the aggregation of particles to form clusters. From transmission electron microscopy\\u000a analysis, the particle

  15. Physicochemical and electrocatalytic properties of Li-Co 3O 4 anodes prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis for application in alkaline water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdani; M. I. S. Pereira; J. Douch; A. Ait Addi; Y. Berghoute; M. H. Mendonça

    2004-01-01

    An electrode kinetic study of oxygen evolution has been made on Li-Co3O4 thin films in KOH aqueous solutions with different concentrations. Oxide films with different amounts of Li were prepared on glass, by chemical spray pyrolysis at 300°C, followed by a heat treatment at 400°C in air. The Li doping increases the electrical conductivity of these materials. In what concerns

  16. The characteristic and evaluation method of fast pyrolysis of microalgae to produce syngas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhifeng; Ma, Xiaoqian; Li, Longjun

    2013-07-01

    The fast pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris was carried out in a quartz tube reactor under different pyrolysis temperature levels. The product fractional yields, gaseous products and the evaluation method based on heating value and energy consumption were analyzed in order to obtain the optimal condition to produce syngas. The results indicated that the higher the pyrolysis temperature level was, the higher the bio-fuel yield was. 900°C is the best temperature to obtain the maximum bio-fuel yield (91.09 wt.%). And the highest emission of CO and H2 were achieved under the pyrolysis temperature of 800 and 900°C, respectively. According to the evaluation method based on heating value and energy consumption, there was a significant impact on the syngas production under different pyrolysis temperatures. Furthermore, the evaluation method based on energy consumption indicated that 800°C was the optimal pyrolysis temperature to produce syngas. PMID:23693148

  17. Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO:Eu/p-ZnO:(Ag, N) homojunction by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swapna, R.; Kumar, M.C. Santhosh, E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper authors report the fabrication of ZnO homojunction by the deposition of 2 at.% Eu doped ZnO (n-ZnO:Eu) layer grown over the 4 at.% Ag–N dual acceptor doped ZnO (p-ZnO:(Ag, N)) layer by spray pyrolysis technique. The as-grown n-type and p-type ZnO films on glass substrates have been characterized by Hall measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV–vis and luminescence spectroscopy techniques. Hall measurement shows that 4 at.% ZnO:(Ag, N) film exhibits p-type conductivity with high hole concentration of 2.17 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3} and n-type conductivity is observed in the ZnO:Eu film. The current–voltage characteristics measured from the two-layer structure show typical rectifying characteristics of p–n homojunction with a low turn on voltage of about 1.85 V. I–V characteristics of the n-ZnO:Eu/p-ZnO:(Ag, N) homojunction. - Highlights: • The n-ZnO:Eu/p-ZnO:(Ag, N) homojunction is fabricated and characterized. • Low resistive and stable p-type ZnO films are achieved by dual acceptor-doping. • Homojunction with best dual-doped ZnO film shows good rectifying characteristics. • The fabricated ZnO homojunction is suitable for optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In the present study, the authors report the fabrication of ZnO homojunction by the deposition of 2 at.% Eu doped ZnO (n-ZnO:Eu) layer grown over the 4 at.% Ag–N dual acceptor doped ZnO (p-ZnO:(Ag, N)) layer by spray pyrolysis technique. The as-grown n-type and p-type ZnO films on glass substrates have been characterized by Hall measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV–vis and luminescence spectroscopy techniques. Hall measurement shows that 4 at.% ZnO:(Ag, N) film exhibits p-type conductivity with high hole concentration of 2.17 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3} and n-type conductivity is observed in the ZnO:Eu film. The current–voltage characteristics measured from the two-layer structure show typical rectifying characteristics of p–n homojunction with a low turn on voltage of about 1.85 V.

  18. The structural, thermoelectric and photoconductive properties of sulfur doped In2O3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan Zadeh Maha, M.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.-M.; Azimi-Juybari, H.; Shokooh-Saremi, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this study In2O3 and In2O3:S thin films were prepared on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of sulfur impurities on the structural, morphological, electrical, thermo-electrical, optical and photoconductive properties of films has been investigated. The sulfur to indium atomic ratios (x = [S]/[In]) were varied from 0 to 15 in the spray solution. From the x-ray diffraction analysis, a phase transition occurred from the cubic In2O3 to the cubic ?-In2S3 phase with increasing S-doping level. SEM images indicated that the nanostructure of the films has a particle-cluster type growth. The Hall effect measurements have shown n-type conductivity in all of the deposited films. The lowest resistance of 19 k? sq-1 and the highest carrier concentration of 1.32 × 1019 cm-3 were obtained for the film deposited with an [S]/[In] atomic ratio of 0.6. The maximum of the Seebeck coefficient equal to 141 ?V K-1 was obtained at 400 K for the film deposited with an [S]/[In] atomic ratio of 1. The average transmittance of films varied over the range 40-80% with S-concentration. The band gap values of samples were obtained in the range of 3.85-3.96 eV. From the photoconductivity studies, the sample prepared with the [S]/[In] atomic ratio of 0.2 exhibited the highest photoconductivity among the In2O3:S films.

  19. Optical, structural, and electrical characteristics of high dielectric constant zirconium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Reyna-Garcia, G.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Guzman-Mendoza, J.; Falcony, C.

    2004-07-01

    The spray pyrolysis technique was used to obtain high dielectric constant zirconium oxide films. These films were deposited on silicon substrates, and quartz slides from two different solution concentrations (0.033 and 0.066 M) of zirconium acetylacetonate dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide at substrate temperatures in the range of 400-600 °C. The films are transparent with a surface roughness lower than 40 Å and with the ZrO2 stoichiometry. The refractive index of the films was up to 2.12 at 630 nm. Infrared spectroscopy measurements show a dominant absorption band associated to ZrO2 at 420 cm-1 and the presence of silicon oxide (SiO2) peaks as well. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of these films reveal the existence of a thin layer at the silicon substrate interface with the deposited ZrO2 film. It is also found from both cross-section and plan-view TEM observations that the deposited layers consist of tetragonal ZrO2 nano-crystallites embedded in an amorphous zirconium oxide matrix. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were fitted assuming the existence of a thin interface layer on top of the Si substrate, composed of SiO2, ZrO2, and crystalline silicon. The as-deposited films have a dielectric constant in the range from 10.9 to 17.5 when they are deposited at different substrate temperatures for the two spraying solution concentrations studied. The films withstand electric fields up to 3 MV/cm, without observing destructive dielectric breakdown. .

  20. Photoelectrochemical investigations of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Yadav; E. U. Masumdar

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and thiourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configurations n-CdS\\/1M (NaOH+Na2S+S)\\/C were used for studying the capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics in dark, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in dark and under illumination,

  1. Yolk-shell structured Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor prepared by spray pyrolysis: the effect of preparation conditions on microstructure and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-01-14

    Gd2O3:Eu(3+) yolk-shell phosphor powders with high photoluminescence intensity were prepared by spray pyrolysis. Preparation temperature and spray solution concentration were varied to find the optimum process conditions for preparation of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) with yolk-shell structure. The formation mechanism of yolk-shell Gd2O3:Eu(3+) was systematically investigated by observing the microstructures of particles produced under various preparation conditions. The morphological structure of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) powders was clearly dependent on reactor temperature and on the precursor solution concentration. Eventually, pure yolk-shell structured Gd2O3:Eu(3+) powders were obtained for a reaction temperature of 1000 °C and concentration of the spray solution below 0.2 M. Also, the yolk-shell structure formed showed high thermal stability, making it possible to maintain the original spherical yolk-shell structure through calcination at high temperatures. As a result, highly crystalline Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor powders having yolk-shell structure and an agglomeration-free spherical shape were successfully synthesized by spray pyrolysis. These phosphor powders were shown to have good photoluminescence characteristics. PMID:25424414

  2. Ni-SiO? catalysts for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane: varying support properties by flame spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Emma C; Scott, Jason; Amal, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Silica particles were prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as a support for nickel catalysts. The impact of precursor feed rate (3, 5 and 7 mL/min) during FSP on the silica characteristics and the ensuing effect on catalytic performance for the carbon dioxide, or dry, reforming of methane (DRM) was probed. Increasing the precursor feed rate: (i) progressively lowered the silica surface area from ?340 m2/g to ?240 m2/g; (ii) altered the silanol groups on the silica surface; and (iii) introduced residual carbon-based surface species to the sample at the highest feed rate. The variations in silica properties altered the (5 wt %) nickel deposit characteristics which in turn impacted on the DRM reaction. As the silica surface area increased, the nickel dispersion increased which improved catalyst performance. The residual carbon-based species also appeared to improve nickel dispersion, and in turn catalyst activity, although not to the same extent as the change in silica surface area. The findings illustrate both the importance of silica support characteristics on the catalytic performance of nickel for the DRM reaction and the capacity for using FSP to control these characteristics. PMID:25774491

  3. The effect of solution concentration on the physical and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, M.; Kompany, A.; Shahtahmasebi, N.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of solution concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M and 0.3 M) on the nanostructural, electrical, optical, and electrochromic properties of deposited films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV—vis spectroscopy, and cyclic volta-metrics. The X-ray diffraction shows that only the sample at 0.1 M has a single ?-V2O5 phase and the others have mixed phases of vanadium oxide. The lowest sheet resistance was obtained for the samples prepared at 0.3 M solution. It was also found that the optical transparency of the samples changes from 70% to 35% and the optical band gap of the samples was in the range of 2.20 to 2.41 eV, depending on the morality of solution. The cycle voltammogram shows that the sample prepared at 0.3 M has one-step electerochoromic but the other samples have two-step electerochoromic. The results show a correlation between the cycle voltammogram and the physical properties of the films.

  4. Structural, optical and thermal properties of ?-SnS_2 thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khélia, C.; Maïz, F.; Mnari, M.; Ben Nasrallah, T.; Amlouk, M.; Belgacem, S.

    2000-03-01

    Tin disulfide ?-SnS2 thin films have been prepared on pyrex substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique using tin tetrachloride and thiourea as starting materials. The depositions were carried out in the range of substrate temperatures from 240 to 400 ^{circ}C. Highly c-axis oriented ?-SnS2 films, having a strong (001) X-ray diffraction line are obtained at temperature 280 ^{circ}C and using concentration ratio in solution Re = [S]/[Sn] = 2.5. Films surfaces were analyzed by contact Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the effect of the deposited temperature on the surface structure. On the other hand, from transmission and reflection spectra, the band gap energy determined is about 2.71 eV. Finally using the photodeflection spectroscopy technique, the thermal conductivity K_c and diffusivity D_c were obtained. Their values are 10 Wm^{-1}K^{-1} and 10^{-5} m2s^{-1} respectively.

  5. Characterization of luminescent praseodymium-doped ZrO2 coatings deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; García-Hipólito, M.; Alejo-Armenta, C.; Alvarez-Fragoso, O.; Falcony, C.

    2007-11-01

    ZrO2 : Pr films were synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process. X-ray diffraction studies, as a function of the deposition temperature, indicate a tetragonal crystal structure of zirconia as the substrate temperature was increased. Luminescence (photo- and cathodoluminescence) properties of the films were studied as a function of growth parameters such as the substrate temperature and the praseodymium concentration. For an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, all the photoluminescent emission spectra show peaks located at 490, 510, 566, 615, 642, 695, 718, 740 and 833 nm, associated with the electronic transitions 3 P0 ? 3H4, 3P0 ? 3 H4, 3P1 + 1I6 ? 3H5, 1D2 ? 3H4, 3 P0 ? 3H6, 1D2 ? 3 H5, 1D2 ? 3H5, 3 P0 ? 3F3,4 and 1D2 ? 3 F2 of the Pr3+ ion. As the deposition temperature is increased, an increasing intensity of the luminescence emission is observed. Also, quenching of the luminescence, with increasing doping concentration, is observed. The chemical composition of the films as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy is reported as well. In addition, the surface morphology characteristics of the films, as a function of the deposition temperature, are presented.

  6. Effects of synthesis conditions on Curie temperature of La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 fine particles formed by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Takuya; Furuyabu, Takamitsu; Adachi, Motoaki

    2014-10-01

    Manganese perovskite La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 (LSM) fine particles were synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method at various synthesis temperatures (Ts), reaction times (tr), and source solution concentrations (Ctotal) to clarify the effects of these synthesis conditions on their Curie temperature Tc and maximum particle temperature attained by magnetic heating at Thmax. At constant Ctotal, the Tc of synthesized LSM particles was increased from 288.6 to 363.5 K (15.6 to 90.5 °C) by increasing Ts from 1073 to 1627 K (800 to 1400 °C), and was increased from 281.8 to 339 K (8.89 to 66 °C) by increasing tr from 2.4 to 19 s. When the AC magnetic field was applied, the particles generated heat, and the particle temperature Th increased with time for t < about 2 min, and then attained constant Thmax near Tc. Thmax increased with increasing Tc. The LSM particles produced at Ts = 1213 K, Ctotal = 0.5 mol L-1, and tr = 9.4 s had Thmax = 316.6 K (43.6 °C), which is within the temperature range of 316-318 K (43-45 °C) for hyperthermia therapy for cancer.

  7. Polymer and surfactant-templated synthesis of hollow and porous ZnS nano- and microspheres in a spray pyrolysis reactor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish K; Rohani, Parham; Liu, Sha; Kaus, Mark; Swihart, Mark T

    2015-01-13

    Nanostructured zinc sulfide can provide unique photonic, electronic, and catalytic properties that are of interest for applications ranging from bioimaging to photocatalysis. Here we report an easily controllable continuous method to produce porous and hollow ZnS nano- and microspheres. We used poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer (Pluronic F-38), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as templates to synthesize ZnS nano- and microspheres with controlled internal morphology in a spray pyrolysis process, starting from an aqueous solution of chemical precursors and templating agents. Spherical particles were produced by droplet-to-particle conversion of droplets. Zinc acetate and thiourea, used here as precursors for ZnS, react in solution to form bis-thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA), which precipitates with the evaporation of solvent. Upon further heating, BTZA decomposes to yield ZnS. During solvent evaporation, PEG and Pluronic precipitate after BTZA, driving formation of a shell of ZnS and a hollow core. In contrast, PVP and CTAB interact strongly with BTZA and ZnS, such that the PVP and ZnS remain intermixed. After evaporation of solvent, the templating agents can be pyrolyzed at high temperature to leave behind porous or hollow ZnS microspheres composed of many much smaller nanocrystals. PMID:25547202

  8. Highly photoconducting O2-doped CdS films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D.; El-Korashy, A. M.; Stirn, R. J.; Karulkar, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    CdS films have been prepared by spraying in air solutions of thiourea with either cadmium chloride or cadmium acetate with varying mole ratio and substrate temperature, and subsequently heat treating in oxygen. Substrates included both bare glass or sapphire and transparent conducting oxide-coated sapphire for electrical measurements lateral and transverse to the CdS plane, respectively. Dark resistances of over 10 to the 14th ohms and light-to-dark conductivities of up to 10 to the 7th were obtained using uncoated substrates. The use of Cd(C2H3O2)2 in place of CdCl2 greatly increased the speed of response although with some sacrifice in photoconductivity. Deposition of CdS on ITO-coated surfaces led to greatly reduced dark resistances for the case of CdCl2, but not Cd(C2H3O2)2, presumably due to HCl reaction with the ITO coating in the course of spraying with the former. Ion microprobe analysis detected indium within the CdS films exhibiting low dark resistance. Measurements of the dark and light conductivities at temperatures down to 77 K are given as are the response times for unetched and HCl-etched surfaces.

  9. Effects of Y/Gd Ratio and Boron Excess on Vacuum Ultraviolet Characteristics and Morphology of (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu Phosphor Particles Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hye Young; Jung, Dae Soo; Hong, Seung Kwon; Kang, Yun Chan; Jung, Kyeong Youl

    2007-06-01

    (Y1-xGdx)BO3:Eu (0? x? 1) phosphor particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis. The optimal amount of boric acid for the high photoluminescence intensity of there particles differed depending on the molar ratio of Y to Gd. With decreasing Y/Gd molar ratio, an increasing amount of excess boric acid was required. The difference in excess quantity of boric acid, which was demanded for the highest photoluminescence intensity according to the Y/Gd ratio, influenced the morphology and mean size of the (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu phosphor particles. The (Y1-xGdx)BO3:Eu (0? x? 1) phosphor particles had a regular morphology. The mean sizes of the GdBO3:Eu and YBO3:Eu phosphor particles were 1.4 and 1 ?m, respectively. The high reactivity of boron and yttrium components produced YBO3:Eu phosphor particles with high photoluminescence intensities by spray pyrolysis using a spray solution with a stoichiometric amount of boric acid.

  10. Preparation of iron aluminate (FeAl2O4) nanoparticles from FeAl2O4 hollow particles fabricated by using a spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jaecheol; Kim, Yangdo; Park, Dahee; Yun, Jung-Yeul

    2015-05-01

    Iron aluminate (FeAl2O4) hollow particles with a spinel structure were synthesized by using a spray pyrolysis process. FeAl2O4 hollow particles were formed at a reaction temperature of 900 °C at a flow rate of 40 L/min as a result of the rapid solvent evaporation and decomposition gases from the droplets in the spray solution prepared from metal salts and organic reagents. FeAl2O4 hollow particles were fabricated at a reaction temperature of 900 °C with a flow rate of 40 L/min. The FeAl2O4 hollow particles were heat treated for 3 hours at 600 °C in a 5% H2/Ar atmosphere to form the crystal particles. Subsequently, FeAl2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated from the FeAl2O4 hollow particles by using the wet milling process. After milling for 60 minutes, transmission electron microscopy revealed the FeAl2O4 particles to have a mean size of approximately 50 nm. The FeAl2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated successfully by using a two-step process, spray pyrolysis and wet milling.

  11. Dual acceptor doping and aging effect of p-ZnO:(Na, N) nanorod thin films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swapna, R.; Amiruddin, R.; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to realize p-type ZnO by dual acceptor doping (Na-N) into ZnO thin films. Na and N doped ZnO thin films of different concentrations (0 to 8 at.%) have been grown by spray pyrolysis at 623 K. The grown films on glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to validate the p-type conduction. The surface morphology and roughness of the ZnO:(Na, N) films are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Hall measurement shows that all the films exhibit p-type conductivity except for 0 at.% Na-N doped ZnO film. The obtained resistivity (5.60×10-2 ? cm) and hole concentration (3.15×1018 cm-3) for the best dual acceptor doped film is 6 at.%. It has been predicted that (NaZn-NO) acceptor complex is responsible for the p-type conduction. The p-type conductivity of the ZnO:(Na, N) films is stable even after 6 months. The crystallinity of the films has been studied by XRD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of Na and N in 6 at.% ZnO:(Na, N) film. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO:(Na, N) films show NBE and deep level emissions in the UV and visible regions, respectively. The ZnO:(Na, N) films exhibit a high transmittance about 90% in the visible region.

  12. Dual acceptor doping and aging effect of p-ZnO:(Na, N) nanorod thin films by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swapna, R., E-mail: swapna.ramella@yahoo.com, E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu; Amiruddin, R., E-mail: swapna.ramella@yahoo.com, E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu; Santhosh Kumar, M. C., E-mail: swapna.ramella@yahoo.com, E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620 015 (India)

    2014-01-28

    An attempt has been made to realize p-type ZnO by dual acceptor doping (Na-N) into ZnO thin films. Na and N doped ZnO thin films of different concentrations (0 to 8 at.%) have been grown by spray pyrolysis at 623 K. The grown films on glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to validate the p-type conduction. The surface morphology and roughness of the ZnO:(Na, N) films are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Hall measurement shows that all the films exhibit p-type conductivity except for 0 at.% Na-N doped ZnO film. The obtained resistivity (5.60×10{sup ?2} ? cm) and hole concentration (3.15×10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3}) for the best dual acceptor doped film is 6 at.%. It has been predicted that (Na{sub Zn}?N{sub O}) acceptor complex is responsible for the p-type conduction. The p-type conductivity of the ZnO:(Na, N) films is stable even after 6 months. The crystallinity of the films has been studied by XRD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of Na and N in 6 at.% ZnO:(Na, N) film. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO:(Na, N) films show NBE and deep level emissions in the UV and visible regions, respectively. The ZnO:(Na, N) films exhibit a high transmittance about 90% in the visible region.

  13. Influences of alcoholic solvents on spray pyrolysis deposition of TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Changyun, E-mail: jiangc@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Koh, Wei Lin; Leung, Man Yin [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Hong, Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Li, Yuning, E-mail: yuning.li@uwaterloo.ca [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore) [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zhang, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-02-15

    Influences of alcoholic solvents for titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TPA) precursor solutions on the spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} films and the photovoltaic performance of the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) using these TiO{sub 2} films as the blocking layers were investigated. Smooth TiO{sub 2} films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition of a TPA solution in isopropanol (IPA) at a relatively low temperature of 260 Degree-Sign C. On the other hand, when ethanol was used as solvent, the TiO{sub 2} films fabricated at the same temperature showed much rougher surfaces with many pinholes. Our results showed that ethanol reacts with TPA to form titanium diethoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TEA), which requires a higher thermal decomposition temperature than that of TPA. SDSCs with TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films fabricated using a TPA solution in IPA showed higher power conversion efficiencies with smaller variations. - Graphical abstract: Alcoholic solvents used for the TiO{sub 2} precursor play a critical role in determining the surface morphology of blocking layers and thus the photovoltaic performance of the SDSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent influences morphology of spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol reacts with TPA, resulting poor quality of blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isopropanol is better than ethanol for obtaining smooth blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SDSC with blocking layer made with isopropanol showed better performance.

  14. Influence of Boron doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdO thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, P., E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in; Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli- 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur - 603203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    Cadmium oxide and Boron (B) doped Cadmium oxide thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of undoped and B doped CdO films are analyzed by varying the dopant concentration in the solution. The structural study shows the polycrystalline nature and cubic structure of undoped and B doped CdO thin films. Surface morphological study reveals that the grains are spherical in shape. Optical and electrical studies showed n-type semiconducting nature and optical band gap of 2.44 eV of deposited thin films.

  15. Using simple spray pyrolysis to prepare yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 systems with the optimum composition for superior electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-03-10

    A spray-pyrolysis process is introduced as an effective tool for the preparation of yolk-shell-structured materials with electrochemical properties suitable for anode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 systems with various molar ratios of the Zn and Mn components are prepared. The yolk-shell-structured ZnO-Mn3O4 powders with a molar ratio of 1:1 of the Zn and Mn components are shown to have high capacities and good cycling performances. PMID:24532417

  16. Microwave pyrolysis of corn stalk bale: A promising method for direct utilization of large-sized biomass and syngas production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiqiang Zhao; Zhanlong Song; Hongzhen Liu; Zongqiang Li; Longzhi Li; Chunyuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    The microwave pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of conventional pyrolysis methods such as heating slow and necessity of feedstock shredding, has been used to pyrolyze the corn stalk bale. The experiments were carried out with respect to the time-resolved temperature distribution, mass loss and product properties. In order to get a deeper understanding, the traditional pyrolysis using electric

  17. Improvement on acid pyrolysis method for alkyl homolog and phenyl isomer distribution of alkylbenzene sulfonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Uchiyama; Akihiko Kawauchi

    1999-01-01

    An acid pyrolysis method developed by H.L. Lew in 1967 has been further investigated and improved. Alkylbenzene sulfonates\\u000a are pyrolyzed with phosphoric acid. This gives quantitative desulfonation. The resulting alkylbenzenes are online analyzed\\u000a by gas chromatography. Lew's approach replaced the time-consuming reflux desulfonation gas chromatography methodology. While\\u000a greatly reducing turnaround time, phosphoric acid used for acid pyrolysis in Lew's method

  18. Feasibility of thermal NDE methods for Naval thermal spray coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Green; C. R. Wandling; M. D. Schmeller; R. A. Sulit

    1983-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings are widely used to prevent corrosion in metal structures. They are also used to repair and reduce wear in machinery. A feasibility demonstration has shown that infrared-thermal scanning can be applied to nondestructively examine the coating-to-substrate bonds in a variety of thermal spray coatings. Emissivity independent and thermal wave methods must be applied in some cases to

  19. The TAB method for numerical calculation of spray droplet breakup

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, P.J.; Amsden, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A short history is given of the major milestones in the development of the stochastic particle method for calculating liquid fuel sprays. The most recent advance has been the discovery of the importance of drop breakup in engine sprays. We present a new method, called the TAB method, for calculating drop breakup. Some theoretical properties of the method are derived; its numerical implementation in the computer program KIVA is described; and comparisons are presented between TAB-method calculations and experiments and calculations using another breakup model.

  20. Flame spray pyrolysis for finding multicomponent nanomaterials with superior electrochemical properties in the CoO(x)-FeO(x) system for use in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-10-01

    High-temperature flame spray pyrolysis is employed for finding highly efficient nanomaterials for use in lithium-ion batteries. CoO(x)-FeO(x) nanopowders with various compositions are prepared by one-pot high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis. The Co and Fe components are uniformly distributed over the CoO(x)-FeO(x) composite powders, irrespective of the Co/Fe mole ratio. The Co-rich CoO(x)-FeO(x) composite powders with Co/Fe mole ratios of 3:1 and 2:1 have mixed crystal structures with CoFe2O4 and Co3O4 phases. However, Co-substituted magnetite composite powders prepared from spray solutions with Co and Fe components in mole ratios of 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1 have a single phase. Multicomponent CoO(x)-FeO(x) powders with a Co/Fe mole ratio of 2:1 and a mixed crystal structure with Co3O4 and CoFe2O4 phases show high initial capacities and good cycling performance. The stable reversible discharge capacities of the composite powders with a Co/Fe mole ratio of 2:1 decrease from 1165 to 820?mA?h?g(-1) as the current density is increased from 500 to 5000?mA?g(-1); however, the discharge capacity again increases to 1310?mA?h?g(-1) as the current density is restored to 500?mA?g(-1). PMID:25065898

  1. New method for modeling a commercial process for hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Feigin, E.A.; Verbitskaya, S.N.; Romanova, N.N.; Butovskii, V.A.

    1982-08-01

    Based on information concerning the relative rate constants of fundamental reactions a mathematical model is formulated for pyrolysis of a hydrocarbon raw material. The relative kinetic constants are calculated based on structural analogies of molecules, thermodynamic functions of known reactions and several empirical parameters, estimated from experimental data. The model proposes ideal mixing from molecular components and significant change in concentrations of radicals and temperature with respect to reactor radius. The results of modeling of the process are used to calculate an industrial furnace unit for pyrolysis. 37 references, 1 figure.

  2. A comparative study on structural, optical, photoconductivity properties of In and Al doped ZnO thin films grown onto glass and FTO substrates grown by spray pyrolysis process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Benhaliliba; C. E. Benouis; M. S. Aida; A. Sanchez Juarez; F. Yakuphanoglu; A. Tiburcio Silver

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study on In and Al doped ZnO thin films grown onto glass and FTO substrates by spray pyrolysis technique has been done. The obtained results show that the structural shape, crystalline, grain size parameter, transmittance, absorption coefficient and optical band gap and photoconductivity of the ZnO films were changed by the nature of the substrate used.

  3. A fluorescent tracer method for evaluating spray transport and fate of field and laboratory spray applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory testing spray nozzles and application systems use spray collectors to assess where the spray deposits once it leaves the spray system. Tracer materials, such as oil and water soluble fluorescent dyes, can be mixed into spray solutions in small amounts with minimal impact on the...

  4. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee [Yonsei University, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Photoelectrochemical performances of indium-doped CdS 0.2Se 0.8 thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhijit A. Yadav; E. U. Masumdar

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline undoped and indium-doped CdS0.2Se0.8 thin films were deposited on FTO-coated glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The cell configurations CdS0.2Se0.8\\/1M (Na2S+S+NaOH)\\/C and In:CdS0.2Se0.8\\/1M (Na2S+S+NaOH)\\/C were used to study a wide range of photoelectrochemical characteristics including capacitance–voltage in the dark, current–voltage characteristics in the dark and under illumination, photovoltaic power output and spectral response and to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies.

  6. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ida, Takashi; Hashizume, Hiroo [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Tajimi, Gifu 507-0071 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2005-04-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles of 7 nm in average size show an ionization potential of 5.01 eV, as compared with {approx}4.76 and {approx}4.64 eV in ITO and FTO films, respectively, which decreases as the FTO particle size increases. The ionization potentials are practically invariant against oxidation and reduction treatments, promising a wide application of the films to transparent conducting oxide electrodes in organic electroluminescent devices and light-emitting devices of high efficiencies.

  7. The Controlled Single-Step Synthesis of Ag/TiO2 and Au/TiO2 by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovic, J.; Rudolf, R.; Friedrich, B.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the synthesis of Ag/TiO2 and Au/TiO2 nanoparticles by single-step ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) conducted by an investigation of the process parameters and the morphological characteristics of the obtained nanostructures. The influence of the ratio in the precursor solution, physical characteristics of used components, and temperature had a large influence on the formation of different nanoparticle morphologies. The experimental investigations were performed using classic USP equipment, with variations of the process parameters. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and focused ion beam analyses were used to characterize the complex nanostructures. Based on the obtained results, the optimal process window for the formation of the different morphologies for the Ag/TiO2 and Au/TiO2 nanoparticles is determined and the possibility of synthesis of the core-shell structures in one step by USP is confirmed.

  8. Crystalline phase reduction of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles accompanied by a morphology change during ethanol-assisted spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Firmansyah, Dudi Adi; Kim, Taeil; Kim, Songkil; Sullivan, Kyle; Zachariah, Michael R; Lee, Donggeun

    2009-06-16

    Metallic copper nanoparticles are produced by spray pyrolysis of copper nitrates with an addition of ethanol as cosolvent at 600 degrees C. Depending on the synthesis temperature, two interesting reaction pathways are found: below 525 degrees C, approximately 10% of hollow Cu(2)O parent particles are oxidized to CuO and then reduced to Cu, but at higher temperature, the remaining Cu(2)O takes a direct path to Cu, accompanied by a morphology change. These interesting reaction regimes are discussed in the aspects of phase-transformation kinetics, gas-phase and solid-phase thermodynamics, force balance, and their possible influences on structural instability. Experimental observations are fairly consistent with the predictions by the present models. PMID:19505165

  9. The Effect of Film Composition on the Texture and Grain Size of CuInS2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael H.-C.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2003-01-01

    CuInS2 was deposited by spray pyrolysis using single-source precursors synthesized in-house. Films with either (112) or (204/220) preferred orientation always showed Cu-rich and In-rich composition respectively. The In-rich (204/220)-oriented films always contained a secondary phase evaluated as an In-rich compound, and the hindrance of (112)-oriented grain growth was confirmed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction. In conclusion, only the Cu-rich (112)-oriented films with dense columnar grains can be prepared without the secondary In-rich compound. The effect of extra Cu on the grain size and the solar cell results will be also presented.

  10. The Effect of Film Composition on the Texture and Grain Size of CuInS2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael H.; Banger, Kulinder K.; Harris, Jerry D.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2003-01-01

    Ternary single-source precursors were used to deposit CuInS2 thin films using chemical spray pyrolysis. We investigated the effect of the film composition on texture, secondary phase formation, and grain size. As-grown films were most often In-rich. They became more (204/220)-oriented as indium concentration increased, and always contained a yet unidentified secondary phase. The (112)-prefened orientation became more pronounced as the film composition became more Cu-rich. The secondary phase was determined to be an In-rich compound based on composition analysis and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, as-grown Cu-rich (112)-oriented films did not exhibit the In-rich compound. Depositing a thin Cu layer prior to the growth of CuInS2 increased the maximum grain size from - 0.5 micron to - 1 micron, and prevented the formation of the In-rich secondary phase.

  11. Influence of impregnation method on metal retention of CCB-treated wood in slow pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Kinata, Silao Espérance; Loubar, Khaled; Bouslamti, Amine; Belloncle, Christophe; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-09-30

    In the present work, the effects of copper, chromium and boron on the pyrolysis of wood and their distribution in the pyrolysis products were investigated. For this, the wood has been impregnated with chromium-copper-boron (CCB). In addition, to describe the effects of impregnation method, vacuum-pressure and dipping methods were also conducted. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results show that an increase in the final residue and decrease in degradation temperature on both methods of treated wood compared to untreated wood. Then, slow pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a laboratory reactor. The mass balance of pyrolysis products is confirmed by TGA. Furthermore, the concentration of metals in the final residue is measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results show that the final residue contains more than 45% of the initial amount of metal present in the treated wood. The phenomenon is more pronounced with vacuum-pressure treated wood. The heating values of pyrolysis products were analyzed. The heating value of charcoal obtained from treated and untreated wood is approximately same. But the heating value of tar from untreated wood is higher than the heating value of the tar from treated wood. PMID:22835770

  12. Structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured Cd1-xFexS thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, S. G.; Ubale, A. U.

    2014-11-01

    Multi-component nanostructured thin films of Cd1-xFexS were successfully deposited onto glass substrates from aqueous solutions of ferric chloride, cadmium chloride and thiourea using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, compositional and morphological studies were carried out by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The structural study revealed that, CdS, FeS and Cd1-xFexS films are nanocrystalline in nature with hexagonal lattice. The optical characterization shows that the band gap of the spray deposited CdS film is 2.20 eV and it increases with ‘x' and becomes 2.44 eV for FeS. The electrical resistivity of Cd1-xFexS thin films is of the order of 106 ? cm and shows variation depending on ‘x'. The thermo-emf measurement confirms n-type conductivity of Cd1-xFexS thin films.

  13. Formation of core-shell-structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres with superior electrochemical properties by one-pot spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-01-14

    Core-shell structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres with different carbon contents are prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis without any further heating process. A Zn2SnO4-carbon composite microsphere is prepared from one droplet containing Zn and Sn salts and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Melted PVP moves to the outside of the composite microsphere during the drying stage of the droplet. In addition, melting of the phase separated metal salts forms the dense core. Carbonization of the phase separated PVP forms the textured and porous thick carbon shell. The discharge capacities of the core-shell structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres for the 2(nd) and 120(th) cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1) are 864 and 770 mA h g(-1), respectively. However, the discharge capacities of the bare Zn2SnO4 microspheres prepared by the same process without PVP for the 2(nd) and 120(th) cycles are 1106 and 81 mA h g(-1), respectively. The stable and reversible discharge capacities of the Zn2SnO4-carbon composite microspheres prepared from the spray solution with 15 g PVP decrease from 894 to 528 mA h g(-1) as current density increases from 0.5 to 5 A g(-1). PMID:25429709

  14. Electrical Characteristics and Preparation of Nanostructured Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 Films by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Chen, Mi; Hotta, Yoichi; Kawai, Tomoji

    2007-07-01

    Nanostructured thin films of Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 on Pt (1000 Å)/Ti (100 Å)/SiO2 (2000 Å)/Si substrates are prepared by spray pyrolysis and subsequently rapid thermal annealing. Lead nitrate, zirconium nitrate and titanium isopropoxide are used as starting material with ethylene glycol as solvent. The crystal structure of the as-sprayed films are transformed from the amorphous, pyrochlore and multiple phases of pyrochlore and perovskite to the single phase of perovskite as the annealing temperature is increased up to 500 °C. For the formation of single phase perovskite, excess lead of 10 mol % is required to compensate the loss of lead during the processing of the primitive films. The physical characteristics of the resultant films show the dielectric constant (\\varepsilonr) of 400, remanent polarization (2Pr) of 30.0 ?C/cm2 and coercive field (2Ec) of 70.0 kV/cm, respectively.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF NANOSTRUCTURED LiM0.15Mn1.85O4 (M = Mn, Co, Al, AND Fe) PARTICLES BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Taniguchi; Shinya Nakajima; Zhumabay Bakenov

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed to directly produce fine ceramic powders from liquid solution via spray pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor (SPFBR). Using this technique the preparation of LiM0.15Mn1.85O4 (M = Mn, Co, Al, and Fe), which are the most promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, has been carried out at a superficial velocity U0 of 0.71 m\\/s, a reactor temperature

  16. Cold spray modeling and validation using an optical diagnostic method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Jodoin; F. Raletz; M. Vardelle

    2006-01-01

    The Cold Gas Dynamic Spray process uses the kinetic energy of unmelted sprayed particles to produce coatings. The most important element of the cold spray system is the nozzle used to accelerate the particles. Consequently, the nozzle design optimisation is a key to improve the coating quality and reduce the spraying costs. In this study, an axi-symmetric two-dimensional mathematical model

  17. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Moore; Raymond A. Zatorski

    2007-01-01

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may

  18. Formation of core-shell-structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres with superior electrochemical properties by one-pot spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-12-01

    Core-shell structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres with different carbon contents are prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis without any further heating process. A Zn2SnO4-carbon composite microsphere is prepared from one droplet containing Zn and Sn salts and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Melted PVP moves to the outside of the composite microsphere during the drying stage of the droplet. In addition, melting of the phase separated metal salts forms the dense core. Carbonization of the phase separated PVP forms the textured and porous thick carbon shell. The discharge capacities of the core-shell structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres for the 2nd and 120th cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1 are 864 and 770 mA h g-1, respectively. However, the discharge capacities of the bare Zn2SnO4 microspheres prepared by the same process without PVP for the 2nd and 120th cycles are 1106 and 81 mA h g-1, respectively. The stable and reversible discharge capacities of the Zn2SnO4-carbon composite microspheres prepared from the spray solution with 15 g PVP decrease from 894 to 528 mA h g-1 as current density increases from 0.5 to 5 A g-1.Core-shell structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres with different carbon contents are prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis without any further heating process. A Zn2SnO4-carbon composite microsphere is prepared from one droplet containing Zn and Sn salts and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Melted PVP moves to the outside of the composite microsphere during the drying stage of the droplet. In addition, melting of the phase separated metal salts forms the dense core. Carbonization of the phase separated PVP forms the textured and porous thick carbon shell. The discharge capacities of the core-shell structured Zn2SnO4-carbon microspheres for the 2nd and 120th cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1 are 864 and 770 mA h g-1, respectively. However, the discharge capacities of the bare Zn2SnO4 microspheres prepared by the same process without PVP for the 2nd and 120th cycles are 1106 and 81 mA h g-1, respectively. The stable and reversible discharge capacities of the Zn2SnO4-carbon composite microspheres prepared from the spray solution with 15 g PVP decrease from 894 to 528 mA h g-1 as current density increases from 0.5 to 5 A g-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05373g

  19. Growth, structure and optical characterization of high quality ZnO thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Andrade; M. Miki-Yoshida

    1999-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolytic decomposition of zinc acetate onto a glass substrate. Auger spectroscopy showed that the film stoichiometry is close to the ZnO phase with a little excess of oxygen. X-ray diffraction spectra show that the structure belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite crystal type, with a mean crystallite size in the range 20–33nm. Under

  20. Preparation of pyrolysis reference samples: evaluation of a standard method using a tube furnace.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P Mark L

    2012-05-01

    A new, simple method for the reproducible creation of pyrolysis products from different materials that may be found at a fire scene is described. A temperature programmable steady-state tube furnace was used to generate pyrolysis products from different substrates, including softwoods, paper, vinyl sheet flooring, and carpet. The temperature profile of the tube furnace was characterized, and the suitability of the method to reproducibly create pyrolysates similar to those found in real fire debris was assessed. The use of this method to create proficiency tests to realistically test an examiner's ability to interpret complex gas chromatograph-mass spectrometric fire debris data, and to create a library of pyrolsates generated from materials commonly found at a fire scene, is demonstrated. PMID:22220974

  1. Electrochemical properties of Li2O-2B2O3 glass-modified LiMn2O4 powders prepared by spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kim, Jung Hyun; Ko, You Na; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2012-07-01

    Li2O-2B2O3 glass-modified LiMn2O4 cathode powders are prepared using spray pyrolysis. The powders with 1 and 5 wt% glass material have a spherical shape, dense structure, and large grain size. The BET surface areas of LiMn2O4 powders with 0 and 1 wt% glass material are 15.0 and 5.9 m2 g-1, and their mean crystallite sizes are 29 and 49 nm. The lithium boron oxide (LBO) glass material improves the cycle properties as well as the initial discharge capacities of the LiMn2O4 powders at a constant current density of 1 C. The discharge capacity of LiMn2O4 powders without any glass material decreases from 116.3 to 92.6 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, the reduced capacity being 80% of the initial capacity. However, the discharge capacity of the LiMn2O4 powders with 1 wt% glass material decreases from 131.0 to 113.2 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles; thus, the capacity retention is 86% of the initial capacity.

  2. Influence of deposition temperature, solvent, and solute concentration on the deposition mechanisms and final structure of mercury iodide fabricated using the spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugucioni, J. C.; Mulato, M.

    2006-08-01

    Mercury iodide (HgI2) samples were deposited by spray pyrolysis under varying fabrication parameters. Different solvents (water and ethanol) and substrate temperatures (from 40 up to 130°C) were used. Yellowish films were obtained using water and temperatures above 100°C, while reddish films were obtained using ethanol and temperatures below 75°C. The structure and the stoichiometry of the samples were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The yellowish films show lattice constants of 4.379, 7.1953, and 12.5505Å that correspond to a space group similar to the structure of the orthorhombic ?-HgI2. The reddish films show lattice constant averages of 4.3550 and 12.2200Å that correspond to a space group similar to the structure of the tetragonal ?-HgI2. We observed problems related to the stoichiometry of the films caused by the volatile characteristic of iodine atoms. Typical thickness can be estimated to be around a few microns. The deposition mechanisms and final structure of the samples are discussed as a function of deposition temperature, type of solvent, and solute concentration. Optimized deposition conditions are presented for the development of thin films for radiation detectors.

  3. Physical properties of Zn doped TiO2 thin films with spray pyrolysis technique and its effects in antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, A; Dhanapandian, S; Manoharan, C; Sivakumar, G

    2015-03-01

    Zinc doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2: Zn) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique with the substrate temperature 450°C. The structural, optical, photoluminescence (PL) properties and morphological studies were investigated for the films deposited with various doping concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8at.%) of zinc. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) had shown the presence of anatase peak with a strong orientation along (101) plane at 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed the uniform distribution of grains with porous nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations indicated the tetragonal shape at 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 with the particle size and decrease in surface roughness. The emission at 398nm was observed at the 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 thin film. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility was increased with doping. The antibacterial activity was highly yielded for the Zn-doped TiO2 thin films. PMID:25479105

  4. Structural, microstructural, and optical properties of Zn1-x Mg x O thin films grown onto glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggas, K.; Nouveau, Corinne; Djelloul, A.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-05-01

    Pure and doped Zn1-x Mg x O films were deposited onto glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The variation of lattice constant and the blue shift of near-band-edge emission indicate that Zn2+ ions are successfully substituted by Mg2+ ions within ZnO lattice. At higher Mg content (x ? 0.21), a drastic change appears in the morphology, as a result of structural changes from wurtzite (ZnO) structure into a mixture of wurtzite and cubic (MgO) phases. FTIR study indicated the existence of distinct characteristic absorption peaks at ~442 cm-1 for Zn-O stretching mode that shifted toward the red region with the increase in Mg content. In addition to the host phonons of ZnO, one additional band was observed around 523 cm-1, presumably attributed to the Mg-related vibrational mode. The optical constants and thickness of thin films have been determined using experimental transmittance data. The luminescence intensity at 2.63 eV of Zn0.85Mg0.15O thin films was found to be approximately 13 times higher than that of pure ZnO film measured under the same excitation conditions.

  5. Physical properties of Zn doped TiO2 thin films with spray pyrolysis technique and its effects in antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, A.; Dhanapandian, S.; Manoharan, C.; Sivakumar, G.

    2015-03-01

    Zinc doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2: Zn) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique with the substrate temperature 450 °C. The structural, optical, photoluminescence (PL) properties and morphological studies were investigated for the films deposited with various doping concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 at.%) of zinc. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) had shown the presence of anatase peak with a strong orientation along (1 0 1) plane at 8 at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed the uniform distribution of grains with porous nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations indicated the tetragonal shape at 8 at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 with the particle size and decrease in surface roughness. The emission at 398 nm was observed at the 8 at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 thin film. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility was increased with doping. The antibacterial activity was highly yielded for the Zn-doped TiO2 thin films.

  6. Hemostatic powder spray: a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Changela, Kinesh; Papafragkakis, Haris; Ofori, Emmanuel; Ona, Mel A; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The management of gastrointestinal bleeding is often challenging, depending on its location and severity. To date, widely accepted hemostatic treatment options include injection of epinephrine and tissue adhesives such as cyanoacrylate, ablative therapy with contact modalities such as thermal coagulation with heater probe and bipolar hemostatic forceps, noncontact modalities such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation, and mechanical hemostasis with band ligation, endoscopic hemoclips, and over-the-scope clips. These approaches, albeit effective in achieving hemostasis, are associated with a 5-10% rebleeding risk. New simple, effective, universal, and safe methods are needed to address some of the challenges posed by the current endoscopic hemostatic techniques. The use of a novel hemostatic powder spray appears to be effective and safe in controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Although initial reports of hemostatic powder spray as an innovative approach to manage gastrointestinal bleeding are promising, further studies are needed to support and confirm its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility, clinical efficacy, and safety of hemostatic powder spray (Hemospray, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) as a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review article, we performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series of Hemospray for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, complications, and limitations are discussed. The combined technical and clinical success rate of Hemospray was 88.5% (207/234) among the human subjects and 81.8% (9/11) among the porcine models studied. Rebleeding occurred within 72 hours post-treatment in 38 patients (38/234; 16.2%) and in three porcine models (3/11; 27.3%). No procedure-related adverse events were associated with the use of Hemospray. Hemospray appears to be a safe and effective approach in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26082803

  7. Hemostatic powder spray: a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Papafragkakis, Haris; Ofori, Emmanuel; Ona, Mel A.; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The management of gastrointestinal bleeding is often challenging, depending on its location and severity. To date, widely accepted hemostatic treatment options include injection of epinephrine and tissue adhesives such as cyanoacrylate, ablative therapy with contact modalities such as thermal coagulation with heater probe and bipolar hemostatic forceps, noncontact modalities such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation, and mechanical hemostasis with band ligation, endoscopic hemoclips, and over-the-scope clips. These approaches, albeit effective in achieving hemostasis, are associated with a 5–10% rebleeding risk. New simple, effective, universal, and safe methods are needed to address some of the challenges posed by the current endoscopic hemostatic techniques. The use of a novel hemostatic powder spray appears to be effective and safe in controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Although initial reports of hemostatic powder spray as an innovative approach to manage gastrointestinal bleeding are promising, further studies are needed to support and confirm its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility, clinical efficacy, and safety of hemostatic powder spray (Hemospray, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) as a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review article, we performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series of Hemospray for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, complications, and limitations are discussed. The combined technical and clinical success rate of Hemospray was 88.5% (207/234) among the human subjects and 81.8% (9/11) among the porcine models studied. Rebleeding occurred within 72 hours post-treatment in 38 patients (38/234; 16.2%) and in three porcine models (3/11; 27.3%). No procedure-related adverse events were associated with the use of Hemospray. Hemospray appears to be a safe and effective approach in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26082803

  8. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  9. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  10. The Effect of Mn Incorporation on the Structural, Morphological, Optical, and Electrical Features of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Aydo?an, ?akir

    2015-06-01

    Un-doped and Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystalline thin films and n-ZnO /n-Si heterojunction have been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The microstructure, morphology, optical, and electrical properties have been studied. The X-ray analyses have revealed that all films are in single phase and have wurtzite structure. Besides, it has been indicated that there are not any secondary phases. The optical properties have been evaluated by UV-Vis measurement. It has shown that band gap decreases with Mn incorporation from 3.29 to 3.19 eV. Schottky diode applications of the films have been performed by evaporation of Au on pure and Mn-doped ZnO films. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the n-ZnO /n-Si heterojunction indicate good diode characteristic and the barrier heights have been calculated as 0.89 and 0.79 eV for un-doped and Mn 1 pct-doped ZnO films. Besides, schematic cross section of the Au/ n-ZnO/ n-Si/Al device and energy band diagram of n-ZnO/ n-Si heterojunction has been illustrated to clarify the transport mechanism. All results suggest that the characteristic properties of the ZnO thin films can be adjustable with the Mn doping and Al/ n-Si/ n-ZnO/Au diode can be used for UV detection application in photonic devices.

  11. Understanding the sprayed boric acid method for bulk doping of silicon ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. A.; Pêra, David; Brito, Miguel C.; Alves, Jorge Maia; Serra, João; Vallêra, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The sprayed boric acid (SBA) method for bulk doping of silicon ribbons is investigated. Experimental procedures and main results are reviewed. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental tests using partial spraying suggest the role of gas transported evaporated boron oxide to explain the boron incorporation profiles along the sample. The industrial applicability of the SBA method is discussed.

  12. Understanding the sprayed boric acid method for bulk doping of silicon ribbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Silva; David Pêra; Miguel C. Brito; Jorge Maia Alves; João Serra; A. M. Vallêra

    2011-01-01

    The sprayed boric acid (SBA) method for bulk doping of silicon ribbons is investigated. Experimental procedures and main results are reviewed. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental tests using partial spraying suggest the role of gas transported evaporated boron oxide to explain the boron incorporation profiles along the sample. The industrial applicability of the SBA method is discussed.

  13. Method and apparatus for pyrolysis of atactic polypropylene

    DOEpatents

    Staffin, H. Kenneth (New Brunswick, NJ); Roaper, R. B. (Martinsville, NJ)

    1986-09-23

    This invention relates to an apparatus and a method for pyrolytic decomposition of polymeric materials into lower molecular weight products involving the heat treatment of raw polymeric material within reactive conduits submerged in a fluidized bed furnace operated at pyrolizing temperatures.

  14. Highly durable superhydrophobic coatings with gradient density by movable spray method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Shiratori, Seimei

    2014-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surface is expected to be applied in anti-fouling, anti-icing, and anti-bacterial. However, practical use is interrupted by low mechanical strength, time-consuming process, and limited coating substrate. Here highly durable superhydrophobic coatings were prepared by simple and novel spraying method, which sprays with changing the "spray distance between substrate and spray" (SD), named "movable spray method." We prepared the solution that changes wettability and durability with spraying distance by mixing SiO2 nanoparticles and ethyl alpha cyanoacrylate polymer (EAC). Then, we evaluated the chemical components and surface morphologies of each spraying distance coatings (0 ˜ 50 cm) by XPS, SEM, and laser scanning microscope. It revealed that surface roughness and SiO2/EAC ratio increased as the SD increases. Thus, durable superhydrophobic coatings were designed by spraying with increasing SD gradually. Glow discharge-optical emission spectrometry analysis revealed that designed coatings showed the gradual increase of SiO2/EAC ratio. As a result, coatings prepared on glass, wood, or aluminum substrates maintained their superhydrophobicity up to the abrasion at 40 kPa. This movable spray method is simple coating by the wet process and prepares robust hydrophobic coating on complex shape and large area substrates. The gradient functional surface was found to have mechanical durability and superhydrophobicity, and wide area applications will be expected.

  15. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  16. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Karen A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zatorski, Raymond A. (East Hampton, CT)

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  17. Microstructural and electrochemical impedance study of nickel-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Kim, Gap-Yong; Hillier, Andrew C.; Chandra, Abhijit

    2011-03-01

    Optimization of the electrode microstructure in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an important approach to performance enhancement. In this study, the relationship between the microstructure and electrochemical performance of an anode electrode fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was investigated. Nickel-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (Ni-CGO) anodes were deposited on a dense yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and the resulting microstructure was analyzed. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations revealed the impact of deposition temperature and precursor solution concentration on anode morphology, particle size and porosity. The electrochemical performance of the anode was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a Ni-CGO/YSZ/Ni-CGO symmetrical cell. The deposited anode had a particle size and porosity in ranging between 1.5-17 ?m and 21%-52%, respectively. The estimated volume-specific triple phase boundary (TPB) length increased from 1.37 × 10-3 ?m ?m-3 to 1.77 × 10-1 ?m ?m-3as a result of decrease of the particle size and increase of the porosity. The corresponding area specific charge transfer resistance decreased from 5.45 ohm cm2 to 0.61 ohm cm2 and the activation energy decreased from 1.06 eV to 0.86 eV as the TPB length increased.

  18. Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines

    E-print Network

    Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines the EL method well suited for gas turbine computations, but RANS with the EE approach may also be found

  19. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  20. Synthesis of Nanoporous Metal Oxide Particles by a New Inorganic Matrix Spray Pyrolysis Method

    E-print Network

    Zachariah, Michael R.

    of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3,9H2O) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. The character- istics size distribution measurements, which showed the formation of a nuclei mode at these temperatures of the limitation of pore size to typically

  1. Characterization of Ti cold spray coatings by indentation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihane Ajaja; Dina Goldbaum; Richard R. Chromik

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of Ti cold spray coatings deposited on Ti substrates was determined and compared to that of a bulk Ti specimen. Hardness testing was performed over a wide range of loads with both nanoindentation and microindentation. A model for strain gradient plasticity was used to explain the indentation size effect observed for nanoindentation measurements and determine true hardness

  2. Mixed-metal oxide nanopowders by liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP): Synthesis and processing of core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min

    In this dissertation, liquid feed--flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) was used for the synthesis and characterization of mixed-metal oxide nanopowders in the Ce-Zr-Al-O system for potential catalytic, photonic, electronic and structural applications. The LF-FSP process aerosolizes metalloorganic precursors dissolved in an alcohol solvent with oxygen, combusts the aerosol, and then rapidly quenches the gaseous species to produce nanosize oxide "soot" with the same compositions as those in the starting precursor solutions. The wide variety of potential metal oxide precursors allows the synthesis of multiple chemical compositions, phase and unique particle morphologies in the resulting nanopowders. Surprisingly, LF-FSP with the correct choice of metalloorganic precursors provides access to core-shell nanopowders in a single step. The (ZrOx)x(Al2O3 )1-x system was explored first for potential structural applications as zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composites. During the LF-FSP process, core-shell nanoparticles with ?-alumina shell and tetragonal zirconia core form at (ZrO2)x(Al2O3) 1-x (x = 0.4-0.8). Evidence is presented suggesting the incorporation of Zr2+/3+ ions in the ?-alumina lattice. The (CeOx)x(Al2O3)1-x system was studied for potential catalytic and photonic applications. Small amounts of Ce3+ ions substitute into the ?-alumina lattice at all concentrations and Ce-magnetoplumbite is observed at 5-10 mole % CeOx concentrations. The CexZr1-xO2 and (Ce0.7Zr 0.3O2)x(Al2O3)1-x systems were also investigated for potential catalytic applications. We were able to produce nano-size single crystal Ce1- xZrxO 2 solid solutions and core-shell nanostructured (Ce0.7Zr 0.3O2)x(Al2O3)1-x nanopowders. Sintering studies of the (ZrOx)x(Al2O 3)1-x core-shell nanopowders were performed to produce ZTA composites for structural applications. We were able to produce ZTA composites with 99 +% density and average grain sizes less than 200 nm by pressureless sintering < 1150 °C. Tetragonal zirconia was partially stabilized without added yttria. Phase transformation of zirconia (tetragonal to monoclinic) was observed by applied pressure. Additionally, nanopowders in the (ZnO)x(Al2O 3)1-x system were produced as potential transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for display applications. Al2O3 doped ZnO nanopowders (ZnO rich region) were characterized suggesting Al 3+ ions incorporation into the interstitial sites of zincite. Spinel phase was found not only at 50 mole % ZnO in Al2O3 but also at 30 mole % ZnO in Al2O3.

  3. Spray deposition of highly transparent fluorine doped cadmium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Deokate; S. M. Pawar; A. V. Moholkar; V. S. Sawant; C. A. Pawar; C. H. Bhosale; K. Y. Rajpure

    2008-01-01

    The cadmium oxide (CdO) and F:CdO films have been deposited by spray pyrolysis method using cadmium acetate and ammonium fluoride as precursors for Cd and F ions, respectively. The effect of temperature and F doping on the structural, morphological, optical and Hall effect properties of sprayed CdO thin films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic

  4. Method for Assessing Vulnerability of Aircraft to Spray Fragments of Missile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang PEI; Bi-feng SONG; Qing HAN

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the vulnerability of aircraft to spray fragments of a missile. The input data of aircraft or components for vulnerability assessment is organized by the finite element models. First, the `shot line scanning method' is used to calculate the single-hit vulnerability of aircraft by a fragment of missile. Utilizing Markov-Chain method, the vulnerability of aircraft

  5. Antibody immobilization using pneumatic spray: comparison with the avidin-biotin bridge immobilization method.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jhon; Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V; Schlaf, Rudy

    2012-12-14

    The formation of a thin antibody film on a glass surface using pneumatic spray was investigated as a potential immobilization technique for capturing pathogenic targets. Goat-Escherichia coli O157:H7 IgG films were made by pneumatic spray and compared against the avidin-biotin bridge immobilized films by assaying with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transformed E. coli O157:H7 cells and fluorescent reporter antibodies. Functionality, stability, and immobilization of the films were tested. The pneumatic spray films had lower fluorescence intensity values than the avidin-biotin bridge films but resulted in similar detection for E. coli O157:H7 at 10(5)-10(7)cells/ml sample concentrations with no detection of non-E. coli O157:H7 strains. Both methods also resulted in similar percent capture efficiencies. The results demonstrated that immobilization of antibody via pneumatic spray did not render the antibody non-functional and produced stable antibody films. The amount of time necessary for immobilization of the antibody was reduced significantly from 24h for the avidin-biotin bridge to 7 min using the pneumatic spray technique, with additional benefits of greatly reduced use of materials and chemicals. The pneumatic spray technique promises to be an alternative for the immobilization of antibodies on glass slides for capturing pathogenic targets and use in biosensor type devices. PMID:22955211

  6. Method of high heat flux removal by usage of liquid spray cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smakulski, Przemys?aw

    2013-09-01

    High heat flux removal are important issue in many perspective applications such as computer chips, laser diode arrays, or boilers working on supercritical parameters. Electronic microchips constructed nowadays are model example of high heat flux removal, where the cooling system have to maintain the temperature below 358 K and take heat flux up to 300 W/cm2. One of the most efficient methods of microchips cooling turns out to be the spray cooling method. Review of installations has been accomplished for removal at high heat flux with liquid sprays. In the article are shown high flux removal characteristic and dependences, boiling critical parameters, as also the numerical method of spray cooling analysis.

  7. Fabrication of Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Interpenetrating Heterojunction of Conducting Polymer and C60 by Spray Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Noda; Tokiyoshi Umeda; Hiroyoshi Mizukami; Akihiko Fujii; Masanori Ozaki

    2006-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells with interpenetrating heterojunction of a conducting polymer and C60 have been fabricated by spray method. Photovoltaic cells fabricated by spray method and subsequent heat treatment have demonstrated a high photoconversion efficiency which is as the same as those fabricated by the spin coating method.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY. VOLUME 1. LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report gives results of a program to develop and verify a standardized spray-painting transfer-efficiency test method. Both review of the literature and laboratory research were conducted. Transfer efficiency measurement methods presently used by industry were eval...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY. VOLUME 2. VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report gives results of a program to develop and verify a standardized spray-painting transfer-efficiency test method. Both review of the literature and laboratory research were conducted. Transfer efficiency measurement methods presently used by industry were eval...

  10. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  11. Syngas production by two-stage method of biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yangsheng; Zeng, Hui

    2012-04-01

    A two-stage technology integrated with biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification processes was utilized to produce syngas (H(2)+CO). In the presence of different nickel based catalysts, effects of pyrolysis temperature and gasification temperature on gas production were investigated. Experimental results showed that more syngas and char of high quality could be obtained at a temperature of 750°C in the stage of pyrolysis, and in the stage of gasification, pyrolysis char (produced at 750°C) reacted with steam and the maximum yield of syngas was obtained at 850°C. Syngas yield in this study was greatly increased compared with previous studies, up to 3.29Nm(3)/kg biomass. The pyrolysis process could be well explained by Arrhenius kinetic first-order rate equation. XRD analyses suggested that formation of Mg(0.4)Ni(0.6)O and increase of Ni(0) crystallite size were two main reasons for the deactivation of nickel based catalysts at higher temperature. PMID:22342084

  12. Effect of gas flow swirling on coating deposition by the cold gas-dynamic spray method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, S. P.; Kiselev, V. P.; Zaikovskii, V. N.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of gas flow swirling on the process of coating deposition onto a target by the cold gas-dynamic spray method is studied experimentally and numerically. Flow swirling is found to change the gas flow field and to reduce the gas flow rate under typical conditions of cold gas-dynamic spray. In a non-swirled flow, the shape of the deposited spot is similar to a sharp cone. In contrast, the deposited spot in a swirled flow is shaped as a crater without particles at the center of this crater. It is found that this effect is caused by centrifugal forces acting on particles in a swirled gas flow.

  13. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the properties of carbon/nickel nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, N. Ben; Najeh, I.; Mansouri, S.; El Mir, L.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-nickel nanocomposites (C/Ni) were prepared by sol-gel method after the incorporation of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in organic matrix based on pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF). The nanocomposites heated under inert atmosphere have been characterized by various techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electrical analysis. The XRD spectra exhibited the presence of NiO or metallic Ni phase in amorphous carbon matrix at low pyrolysis temperature, while at 1000 °C the graphite structure line was observed. The TEM images indicate the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) around Ni nanoparticles for the sample treated at high pyrolysis temperature. The AC conductance shows that our nanocomposites have two behaviors: semiconductor and metal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. The voltage-current V(I) characteristics of the compound show two different regions: an Ohmic region at low current and a negative differential resistance (NDR) region at higher current. This switching phenomenal behavior has been explained by an electrothermal model.

  14. Study of the corrosion resistance and loading capacity of superhydrophobic meshes fabricated by spraying method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Hui Xu; Zhao Zhu Zhang; Jin Yang; XiaoTao Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic metal mesh has been fabricated by a simple spraying method. The processes of decreasing surface free energy and increasing surface roughness have been accomplished in one step via the reaction of metal salts and alkanethiols. The loading capacity of these superhydrophobic meshes was performed. The largest loading capacity appeared with pore size of 90?m. Furthermore, the stability and the

  15. Methods for detecting the mobility of trace elements during medium-temperature pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Konopka, K.L.; Cahill, R.A.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1983-01-01

    The mobility (volatility) of trace elements in coal during pyrolysis has been studied for distances of up to 40 cm between the coal and the trace element collector, which was graphite or a baffled solvent trap. Nineteen elements not previously recorded as mobile were detected. ?? 1983.

  16. ?18O analysis of individual carbohydrates - a new method for GC-pyrolysis-IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marco M.; Fischer, Maria; Zech, Michael; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Saurer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the oxygen isotopic composition (?18O) of various plant tissues is a widely used tool to investigate biochemical and physiological processes. While we have a good understanding about the hydrological cycle in plants with an evaporative enrichment in 18O in leaf water, we still lack knowledge about the biochemical link between the oxygen atoms in leaf water, leaf assimilates, and stem cellulose and associated isotope fractionations. Especially, the influence of different environmental factors on ?18O of individual carbohydrates (i.e. sugars) and thus on ?18O of cellulose is not fully resolved. A better understanding of these processes may improve climatic reconstructions of tree-ring studies about past environmental conditions. However, further progress in this topic is limited since a precise and reliable method to determine ?18O of individual sugars has not been available yet. With our new approach we attempt to overcome this issue by establishing a new methylation derivatization method suitable for GC-pyrolysis -IRMS. A methyl group (CH3) was thereby added to all hydroxyl groups of a sugar (e.g., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) during a catalyzed one-pot reaction overnight in acetonitrile with methyl iodide (CH3-I) and silver oxide, making them amenable for GC analysis. First results show a very good precision for ?18O of sucrose, but also ?18O of other high-abundant sugars such as glucose and fructose could be measured for the first time. We successfully analyzed a standard mix of all three sugars and determined various other carbohydrates not only related to plant sciences (e.g. mannitol, lactose), showing promising ?18O results. First tests with real plant samples were performed to make this method available for determining ?18O of individual carbohydrates of diverse plant tissues. In future, this new methylation derivatization method should allow us analyzing plant samples of different field sites and of lab experiments to investigate the link between leaf sugars and stem cellulose, as well as the influence of environmental factors on ?18O of individual carbohydrates in plants, but may be applied also in other research fields working on food quality or on medical applications.

  17. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell-structured CuO-Fe(2)O(3) powders with various Cu/Fe molar ratios prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Min; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-12-01

    Several yolk-shell-structured CuO-Fe2 O3 powders with various Cu/Fe molar ratios have been successfully prepared under equivalent reaction conditions using a one-pot spray pyrolysis process. The Cu and Fe components are uniformly distributed throughout the powders, irrespective of composition. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of the yolk-shell CuO-Fe2 O3 systems increased from 5 to 16?m(2) ?g(-1) if the Cu/Fe molar ratios are decreased from 3:1 to 1:3. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the yolk-shell CuO-Fe2 O3 system (Cu/Fe=1:2), showing maximum values at a constant current density of 1000?mA?g(-1) , are 1436 and 1012?mA?h?g(-1) , respectively. After 130?cycles, the discharge capacities of the yolk-shell CuO-Fe2 O3 powders with Cu/Fe molar ratios of 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 are 1159, 1151, 755, 655, and 651?mA?h?g(-1) , respectively. The discharge capacities of the yolk-shell and dense powder samples after 50?cycles, when subjected to a series of current density increases from 500 to 5000?mA?g(-1) , are 735 and 495?mA?h?g(-1) , respectively. PMID:24106078

  18. Analysis of Biological Samples Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry: An Investigation of Impacts by the Substrates, Solvents and Elution Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yue; Wang, He; Liu, Jiangjiang; Zhang, Zhiping; McLuckey, Morgan N.; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Paper spray has been developed as a fast sampling ionization method for direct analysis of raw biological and chemical samples using mass spectrometry (MS). Quantitation of therapeutic drugs in blood samples at high accuracy has also been achieved using paper spray MS without traditional sample preparation or chromatographic separation. The paper spray ionization is a process integrated with a fast extraction of the analyte from the raw sample by a solvent, the transport of the extracted analytes on the paper, and a spray ionization at the tip of the paper substrate with a high voltage applied. In this study, the influence on the analytical performance by the solvent-substrate systems and the selection of the elution methods was investigated. The protein hemoglobin could be observed from fresh blood samples on silanized paper or from dried blood spots on silica-coated paper. The on-paper separation of the chemicals during the paper spray was characterized through the analysis of a mixture of the methyl violet 2B and methylene blue. The mode of applying the spray solvent was found to have a significant impact on the separation. The results in this study led to a better understanding of the analyte elution, on-paper separation, as well as the ionization processes of the paper spray. This study also help to establish a guideline for optimizing the analytical performance of paper spray for direct analysis of target analytes using mass spectrometry. PMID:24072932

  19. Roughness-based monitoring of transparency and conductivity in boron-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, Rajendra S. [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of) [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Yashwantrao Mohite College, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411038, Maharashtra (India); Bhande, Sambhaji S. [Centre for Nanomaterials and Energy Devices, School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded (India)] [Centre for Nanomaterials and Energy Devices, School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded (India); Mane, Rajaram S., E-mail: rsmane_2000@yahoo.com [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Centre for Nanomaterials and Energy Devices, School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded (India); Pawar, Bhagwat N. [Department of Physics, Yashwantrao Mohite College, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411038, Maharashtra (India)] [Department of Physics, Yashwantrao Mohite College, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411038, Maharashtra (India); Gaikwad, Sanjay L. [Centre for Nanomaterials and Energy Devices, School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded (India)] [Centre for Nanomaterials and Energy Devices, School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded (India); Han, Sung-Hwan [Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Oh-Shim, E-mail: jookat@kist.ac.kr [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)] [Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? We report surface roughness dependent transparency and conductivity in ZnO films. ? The surface roughness with respected to boron doping concentrations is studied. ? Boron doped and pristine Zinc oxide thin films have showed ?95% transmittance. ? Increased carrier concentration of 9.21 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup ?3} revealed from Hall measurement. -- Abstract: Sprayed polycrystalline ZnO and boron-doped ZnO thin films composed of spherical grains of 25–32 nm in diameters are used in roughness measurement and further correlated with the transparency and the conductivity characteristics. The surface roughness is increased up to Zn{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02}O and then declined at higher boron concentrations. The sprayed ZnO films revealed ?95% transmittance in the visible wavelength range, 1.956 × 10{sup ?4} ? cm electrical resistivity, 46 cm{sup 2}/V s Hall mobility and 9.21 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup ?3} charge carrier concentration. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study has confirmed 0.15 eV binding energy change for Zn 2p{sub 3/2} when 2 at% boron content is mixed without altering electro-optical properties substantially. Finally, using soft modeling importance of these textured ZnO over non-textured films for enhancing the solar cells performance is explored.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Spray Combustion with an Unstructured-Grid Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, H. M.; Chen, Y. S.; Liaw, P.; Shih, M. H.; Wang, T. S.

    1996-01-01

    The present unstructured-grid method follows strictly the basic finite volume forms of the conservation laws of the governing equations for the entire flow domain. High-order spatially accurate formulation has been employed for the numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. A two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model is also incorporated in the unstructured-grid solver. The convergence of the resulted linear algebraic equation is accelerated with preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method. A statistical spray combustion model has been incorporated into the present unstructured-grid solver. In this model, spray is represented by discrete particles, rather than by continuous distributions. A finite number of computational particles are used to predict a sample of total population of particles. Particle trajectories are integrated using their momentum and motion equations and particles exchange mass, momentum and energy with the gas within the computational cell in which they are located. The interaction calculations are performed simultaneously and eliminate global iteration for the two-phase momentum exchange. A transient spray flame in a high pressure combustion chamber is predicted and then the solution of liquid-fuel combusting flow with a rotating cup atomizer is presented and compared with the experimental data. The major conclusion of this investigation is that the unstructured-grid method can be employed to study very complicated flow fields of turbulent spray combustion. Grid adaptation can be easily achieved in any flow domain such as droplet evaporation and combustion zone. Future applications of the present model can be found in the full three-dimensional study of flow fields of gas turbine and liquid propulsion engine combustion chambers with multi-injectors.

  1. NDE Methods for the External Tank Spray on Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Santos, Fernando E.; Ussery, W. Warren

    2007-01-01

    The foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the space shuttle External Tank (ET) has provided some unique challenges to the nondestructive testing community. Three nondestructive evaluation methods have been developed to identify defects in the foam TPS of the ET. Terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography have been developed to identify voids in thick foam regions while shearography has been developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam. The basic theory of operation along with factors, determined from a series of designed experiments, affecting the results of these methods will be described. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided, along with predicted probability of detection estimates to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

  2. Effect of boric acid on the properties of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis with droplet classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Young Jun; Choi, Seung Ho; Sim, Chul Min; Lee, Jung-Kul [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan, E-mail: yckang@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Spherical shape Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders are prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis with droplet classifier. ? Boric acid improves the morphological and electrochemical properties of the composite cathode powders. ? The discharge capacity of the composite cathode powders decreases from 217 to 196 mAh g{sup ?1} by the 30th cycle. -- Abstract: Spherically shaped 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·0.7LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders with filled morphology and narrow size distribution are prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis. A droplet classification reduces the standard deviation of the size distribution of the composite cathode powders. Addition of boric acid improves the morphological properties of the product powders by forming a lithium borate glass material with low melting temperature. The optimum amount of boric acid dissolved in the spray solution is 0.8 wt% of the composite powders. The powders prepared from the spray solution with 0.8 wt% boric acid have a mixed layered crystal structure comprising Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} phases, thus forming a composite compound. The initial charge and discharge capacities of the composite cathode powders prepared from the 0.8 wt% boric acid spray solution are 297 and 217 mAh g{sup ?1}, respectively. The discharge capacity of the powders decreases from 217 to 196 mAh g{sup ?1} by the 30th cycle, in which the capacity retention is 90%.

  3. An in vitro method for predicting inhalation toxicity of impregnation spray products.

    PubMed

    Sørli, Jorid B; Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Levin, Marcus; Larsen, Søren T

    2015-01-01

    Impregnation spray products are used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. The products are composed of one or more active film-forming components dissolved or suspended in an appropriate solvent mixture. Exposure to impregnation spray products may cause respiratory distress and new cases are reported frequently. The toxicity appears to be driven by a disruption of the pulmonary surfactant film, which coats the inside of the lungs. Due to the complex chemistry of impregnation spray products, it is impossible to predict if inhalation of an aerosolized product is toxic in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether disruption of the pulmonary surfactant film can be used as a predictor of the toxic effects in vivo. Nine impregnation products with various chemical compositions were selected for testing and the main constituents of each product, e.g., solvents, co-solvents and film-forming compounds, were identified by mass spectrometry. We used a capillary surfactometry method to assess disruption of pulmonary surfactant function in vitro and a mouse model to evaluate acute respiratory toxicity during inhalation. Concentration-response relationships were successfully determined both in vitro and in vivo. The true positive rate of the in vitro method was 100%, i.e. the test could correctly identify all products with toxic effects in vivo, the true negative rate was 40%. Investigation of inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant system, e.g. by capillary surfactometry, was found useful for evaluation of the inhalation toxicity of impregnation spray products and thus may reduce the need for animal testing. PMID:25651757

  4. Through-thickness residual stress evaluations for several industrial thermal spray coatings using a modified layer-removal method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Greving; E. F. Rybicki; J. R. Shadley

    1994-01-01

    Residual stresses are inherent in thermal spray coatings because the application process involves large temperature gradients\\u000a in materials with different mechanical properties. In many cases, failure analysis of thermal spray coatings has indicated\\u000a that residual stresses contribute to reduced service life. An estab-lished method for experimentally evaluating residual stresses\\u000a involves monitoring deformations in a part as layers of material are

  5. Criteria of assessment of powders provided to spray by the APS method for new and conventional layers type TBC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Moskal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Verification of up-to-now use of conventional powders, provided to spray by the APS method for layers type TBC and its possible adaptation to layers of new types, which are based on new ceramic compounds, sprayed on conventional high temperature creep resisting alloys. New types of used ceramic powders are so called pyrochlores of the RE2Zr2O7 general formula. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: A

  6. Chemical spray pyrolysis of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O high-T(sub c) superconductors for high-field bitter magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Zhang, John G.; Squillante, Michael R.; Hermann, A. M.; Duan, H. M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1991-01-01

    The deposition of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O thick films by spray pyrolyzing a Ba-Ca-Cu-O precursor film and diffusing thallium into the film to form the superconducting phase is examined. This approach was taken to reduce exposure to thallium and its health and safety hazards. The Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O system was selected because it has very attractive features which make it appealing to device and manufacturing engineering. Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O will accommodate a number of superconducting phases. This attribute makes it very forgiving to stoichiometric fluctuations in the bulk and film. It has excellent thermal and chemical stability, and appears to be relatively insensitive to chemical impurities. Oxygen is tightly bound into the systems, consequently there is no orthorhombic (conductor) to tetragonal (insulator) transition which would affect a component's lifetime. More significantly, the thallium based superconductors appear to have harder magnetic properties than the other high-Tc oxide ceramics. Estimates using magnetoresistance measurements indicate that at 77 K Tl2Ba2CaCu2O10 will have an upper critical field, H(sub c2) fo 26 Tesla for applied fields parallel to the c-axis and approximately 1000 Tesla for fields oriented in the a-b plane. Results to date have shown that superconducting films can be reproducibly deposited on 100 oriented MgO substrates. One film had a zero resistance temperature of 111.5 K. Furthermore, x ray diffraction analysis of the films showed preferential c-axis orientation parallel to the plane of the substrate. These results have now made it possible to consider the manufacture of a superconducting tape wire which can be configured into a topology useful for high-field magnet designs. The research which leads to the preparation of these films and plans for further development are reviewed.

  7. Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on Nano-Structured Carbon Films using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kerber, Pranita B.; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, L. A.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.

    2012-10-12

    Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of di-block copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, (2009) 177]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of di-block copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PAN-b-PBA) at two different temperatures were carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included: HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % of nitrogen present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 °C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration reduced significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 °C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen sub-peaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic cluster, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 °C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.

  8. A novel preparation method for drug nanocrystals and characterization by ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Dunju; Zhu, Ziqiang; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Guangcheng; Nie, Fude

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and continuous method for preparing a nanosized particle of drug crystals and to characterize its properties. Materials and methods A new apparatus was introduced to crystallize nanosized drug crystals of amitriptyline hydrochloride as a model drug. The samples were prepared in the pure state by ultrasonic spray, and elaborated deposition was completed via electrostatic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the size of the particles; this was subsequently followed by differential scanning calorimetry. Results and discussion Nanoparticles of drug crystals were successfully prepared. The size of the drug crystals ranged from 20 nm to 400 nm; the particle size of amitriptyline hydrochloride was approximately 71 nm. The particles were spherical and rectangular in shape. Moreover, the melting point of the nanoparticles decreased from 198.2°C to 196.3°C when compared to raw particle crystals. Furthermore, the agglomeration effect was also attenuated as a result of electrostatic repulsion among each particle when absorbed, and depositing on the inner wall of the gathering unit occurred under the electrostatic effect. Conclusion Ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption is a very effective and continuous method to produce drug nanocrystals. This method can be applied to poorly water-soluble drugs, and it can also be a very effective alternative for industrial production. Once the working parameters are given, drug nanocrystals will be produced continuously. PMID:24143097

  9. Optochemical sensor for water monitoring based on SnO2 particle layer deposited onto optical fibers by the electrospray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusano, A.; Consales, M.; Pisco, M.; Pilla, P.; Cutolo, A.; Buosciolo, A.; Viter, R.; Smyntyna, V.; Giordano, M.

    2006-09-01

    In this letter, experimental results on the capability of a tin dioxide (SnO2)-based silica optical fiber (SOF) sensor to detect sub-ppm ammonia concentrations in water environments, at room temperature, are presented. SnO2 sensitive layers have been deposited on the fiber end by using the simple and low cost electrostatic spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The surface morphology of the deposited SnO2 layers as well as its influence on the near field profile of the emergent electromagnetic field from the fiber coating have been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy and scanning near field optical microscopy. The room temperature adsorption measurements reveal the excellent sensor resolution of 80ppb, good recovery features, high repeatability, and fast response times (a few minutes). The results obtained demonstrate the strong potentiality of the proposed SnO2-based SOF sensor to be employed for water quality monitoring applications.

  10. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc - Reactive plasma spraying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?erban, Viorel-Aurel; Ro?u, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti2N) and small amounts of Ti3O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  11. On radiative transfer in water spray curtains using the discrete ordinates method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, A.; Boulet, P.; Lacroix, D.; Jeandel, G.

    2005-04-01

    Radiative transfer through water spray curtains has been presently addressed in conditions similar to devices used in fire protection systems. The radiation propagation from the heat source through the medium is simulated using a 2D Discrete Ordinates Method. The curtain is treated as an absorbing and anisotropically scattering medium, made of droplets injected in a mixing of air, water vapor and carbon dioxide. Such a participating medium requires a careful treatment of its spectral response in order to model the radiative transfer accurately. This particular problem is dealt with using a correlated-K method. Radiative properties for the droplets are calculated applying the Mie theory. Transmissivities under realistic conditions are then simulated after a validation thanks to comparisons with some experimental data available in the literature. Owing to promising results which are already observed in this case of uncoupled radiative problem, next step will be to combine the present study with a companion work dedicated to the careful treatment of the spray dynamics and of the induced heat transfer phenomena.

  12. The Effect of Three Different Disinfection Materials on Alginate Impression by Spray Method

    PubMed Central

    Badrian, Hamid; Ghasemi, Ehsan; Khalighinejad, Navid; Hosseini, Nafiseh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. Method and Materials. In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of alginate impression material were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 0.525, Deconex, and Epimax by way of spraying. Afterwards, they were kept in plastic bags with humid rolled cotton for 5 and 10 minutes. The number of colonies was counted after 24 and 48 hours for bacteria and after 72 hours for fungus. Statistical Mann-Whitney test was used for data analysis (? = 0.05). Results. After 5 minutes, Epimax showed the highest disinfection action on Staphylococcus aureus as it completely eradicated the bacteria. The disinfection capacity of different agents can be increased as time elapses except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated completely in both 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion. This study revealed that alginate can be effectively disinfected by three types of disinfecting agents by spraying method, although Epimax showed the highest disinfection action after 10 minutes compared to other agents. PMID:22900196

  13. Alternative methods for herbicide spray drift detection in corn and cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehring, Nathan Wade

    The acceptance of herbicide-resistant crops and the subsequent increase in glyphosate use throughout the growing season has led to increased problems with herbicide drift in corn and cotton. Potential yield losses due to herbicide spray drift cannot always be accurately assessed using visual ratings or by measuring reductions in plant height. This research was conducted to determine if other methods, such as biochemical assays or remote sensing, could be used to assess potential yield reductions and visual injury associated with herbicide drift. Other objectives included using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing for herbicide drift detection in corn and cotton. Classification accuracies were highest 14 DAA when distinguishing untreated from treated corn. When the data were classified by herbicides, overall accuracies of ?74% resulted 14 and 28 DAA. Classifications based on yield reduction also resulted in highest overall classification accuracies 14 and 28 DAA, ranging from 69 to 70%. Within the glufosinate-treated corn, overall accuracies for classifying percent yield reductions was 85% at 3 DAA and decreased to 68% at 28 DAA. Overall classification accuracies for determining percent yield reductions with glyphosate were higher 14 and 28 DAA. With pyrithiobac, overall accuracies for determining percent yield reductions ranged from 73 to 82% across all evaluations. Of the nine vegetative indices tested to classify the data, Anthocyanin Reflective Index (ARI) and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Ratio of reflectance at 735 nm/700 nm (CF 735) were the most important for classifying, assessing, and detecting herbicide spray drift in corn. Multispectral aerial imagery was also used to identify cotton affected by a simulated bromoxynil drift event. Multispectral aerial imagery collected 9 DAA in 2002 resulted in better classification accuracies for identifying bromoxynil rate, percent visual injury, and percent yield reduction than imagery collected 21 DAA in 2001. The results from this research indicate that bromoxynil spray drift could be detected with multispectral aerial imagery. However, the images would need to be collected soon (˜9 DAA) after the drift event occurred. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Comparison of KCl denuders with the pyrolysis method and calibration using HgBr2 at an in-service AMNET site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, C.; Jaffe, D. A.; Edgerton, E.; Jansen, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    During the summer of 2013, we initiated a project to examine the performance of Tekran measurements of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury (GOM) with a pyrolysis method at the North Birmingham SEARCH site. Measurements started in June 2013 and will run until September 2013. This project responds to recent studies that indicate problems with the KCl denuder method for collection of GOM (e.g. Lyman et al., 2010; Gustin et al., 2013; Ambrose et al., 2013). For this project, we compared two GOM measurement systems, one using the KCl denuder method and a second method using high temperature pyrolysis of Hg compounds and detection of the resulting Hg0 vapors. Both instruments were also calibrated using an HgBr2 source to understand the recovery of one possible atmospheric GOM constituent. Both instruments sampled from a common, heated manifold. Past work has shown that in order to fully transmit HgBr2 sample lines must be made from PFA lines and heated to 100 °C. The transmission rate of HgBr2 during this project is approximately 90% over 25 feet of sample tubing at this temperature. Very preliminary results from this study have found that the transmitted HgBr2 is captured with 95% efficiency in carbon-scrubbed ambient air for both the KCl denuder and the pyrolysis method. However, the denuder method appears to be significantly less efficient in the capture of GOM when sampling unaltered ambient air versus the pyrolysis validation of total Hg0. Therefore, calibration of GOM measurements is essential in order to accurately correct for fluctuations in the GOM capture efficiency. We have also found that calibrations for GOM can be done routinely in the field and that these are essential to fully understand the GOM measurements. At present our calibration system is performed manually, but in principle this method could be readily automated.

  15. Size-velocity correlations in high order moment methods for polydisperse evaporating sprays: modeling and numerical issues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Size-velocity correlations in high order moment methods for polydisperse evaporating sprays developed the Eulerian Multi-Size Moment model (EMSM) which tackles the modeling and numerical simulation and realizable NDF, potentially in several size intervals, thus leading to an hybrid method between Multifluid

  16. Constrained Response Surface Optimisation and Taguchi Methods for Precisely Atomising Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangpaiboon, P.; Suwankham, Y.; Homrossukon, S.

    2010-10-01

    This research presents a development of a design of experiment technique for quality improvement in automotive manufacturing industrial. The quality of interest is the colour shade, one of the key feature and exterior appearance for the vehicles. With low percentage of first time quality, the manufacturer has spent a lot of cost for repaired works as well as the longer production time. To permanently dissolve such problem, the precisely spraying condition should be optimized. Therefore, this work will apply the full factorial design, the multiple regression, the constrained response surface optimization methods or CRSOM, and Taguchi's method to investigate the significant factors and to determine the optimum factor level in order to improve the quality of paint shop. Firstly, 2? full factorial was employed to study the effect of five factors including the paint flow rate at robot setting, the paint levelling agent, the paint pigment, the additive slow solvent, and non volatile solid at spraying of atomizing spraying machine. The response values of colour shade at 15 and 45 degrees were measured using spectrophotometer. Then the regression models of colour shade at both degrees were developed from the significant factors affecting each response. Consequently, both regression models were placed into the form of linear programming to maximize the colour shade subjected to 3 main factors including the pigment, the additive solvent and the flow rate. Finally, Taguchi's method was applied to determine the proper level of key variable factors to achieve the mean value target of colour shade. The factor of non volatile solid was found to be one more additional factor at this stage. Consequently, the proper level of all factors from both experiment design methods were used to set a confirmation experiment. It was found that the colour shades, both visual at 15 and 45 angel of measurement degrees of spectrophotometer, were nearly closed to the target and the defective at quality gate was also reduced from 0.35 WDPV to 0.10 WDPV. This reveals that the objective of this research is met and this procedure can be used as quality improvement guidance for paint shop of automotive vehicle.

  17. Pyrolysis of Lignin in the Presence of Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide:  A Convenient Method for S\\/G Ratio Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Kuroda; Natsuno Nishimura; Akiko Izumi; Donald R. Dimmel

    2002-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was applied to the determination of the ratio of the abundances of the syringyl ‚-aryl ether subunits to those of the guaiacyl equivalents (S\\/G) in lignin. Diazomethane-methylated kenafs (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) and beech (Fagus crenata) in situ lignins were employed. Relative abundances of pyrolysis products derived from the guaiacyl

  18. Thermal extraction/pyrolysis gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Brandurski, E.L.; Yu, P.F.N.; Bruce, G.D.

    1990-04-04

    This patent describes a method for converting a nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph into a thermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph. It comprises: adapting a temperature control assembly for replacing the heater in the nonthermal extraction gas chromatograph and for receiving the insert chamber of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph without modifying the sample flow path of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph. The temperature control assembly comprises a furnace for controllably heating the sample insert to thermal extraction and pyrolysis temperatures and a cooling means for controlling the temperature of the inlet assembly and for returning the temperature of the inlet assembly to initial state conditions following use of the apparatus, replacing the heater with the thus-adapted temperature control assembly, and maintaining the sample flow path of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph substantially without modification.

  19. Spray combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chigier, N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A survey is presented of the most recent developments in the field of spray combustion. Topics discussed are: physical processes of atomization; drop clusters; droplet arrays and streams; ideal sprays; cloud combustion; theoretical models of spray diffusion flames; spray diagnostic techniques; measurement of drop temperature; and spray combustion measurements. 67 refs.

  20. Thermal sprayed composite melt containment tubular component and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Besser, Matthew F. (Urbandale, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA); Sordelet, Daniel J. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    2002-03-19

    A tubular thermal sprayed melt containment component for transient containment of molten metal or alloy wherein the tubular member includes a thermal sprayed inner melt-contacting layer for contacting molten metal or alloy to be processed, a thermal sprayed heat-generating layer deposited on the inner layer, and an optional thermal sprayed outer thermal insulating layer. The thermal sprayed heat-generating layer is inductively heated as a susceptor of an induction field or electrical resistively heated by passing electrical current therethrough. The tubular thermal sprayed melt containment component can comprise an elongated melt pour tube of a gas atomization apparatus where the melt pour tube supplies molten material from a crucible to an underlying melt atomization nozzle.

  1. A microbiologic investigation following the disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid materials using the spray method.

    PubMed

    Ghahramanloo, Ahmad; Sadeghian, Ali; Sohrabi, Keyvan; Bidi, Ali

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy of three spray disinfectants--0.525 percent sodium hypochlorite (bleach), deconex and Sanosil--was evaluated on contaminated alginate disks. Disks were sprayed eight to 10 times after rinsing in water for 15 seconds. The samples were then placed into plastic bags containing a sterile moist cotton roll for 10 minutes. The use of 0.525 percent sodium hypochlorite sprayed onto the surface of alginate effectively disinfected 96.6 percent of the samples. PMID:19653403

  2. Optimization of the HOVF Spray Parameters by Taguchi Method for High Corrosion-Resistant Fe-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yujiao; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Hong, Sheng; Guo, Wenmin; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Taguchi method was used to optimize the parameters of the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray process and obtain the high corrosion-resistant Fe-based coatings. Based on the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance, the significance of spray parameters in determining the porosity of the coatings was found to be in the order of spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. Thus, the optimal parameters for the porosity of the HVOF sprayed Fe-based coating were determined as 280 mm for the spray distance, 963 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 28 gph for the kerosene flow. The potentiodynamic polarization and EIS tests indicated that the Fe-based coating prepared with the optimal parameters exhibited a higher corrosion potential (E corr) of -196.14 mV, a lower corrosion current density (i corr) of 0.14 ?A/cm2, and a higher coating resistance (R c) of 2.26 × 106 ? cm2 than those of the hard chromium coating in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. This superior corrosion resistance could be attributed to the dense structure with low porosity and partially amorphous phases of the Fe-based coatings.

  3. Comparative study of telmisartan tablets prepared via the wet granulation method and pritor™ prepared using the spray-drying method.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Yeon, Wonki; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2011-03-01

    The wet granulation method was successfully used to manufacture amorphous telmisartan tablets (CNU) for comparison with the spray-drying method, used for Pritor™. Drug crystallinity in the tablet was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction, and pharmaceutical properties of the tablets such as hardness, friability, water absorption, and in vitro dissolution in pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and 7.5 were characterized. Especially with regard to the water absorption feature, the CNU tablets showed better performance by maintaining their original structures and by absorbing less water. Since both Pritor™ and CNU tablets had similar physical properties of crystallinity, hardness, friability, and > 50 f(2) value in an in vitro dissolution study, the bioequivalence of CNU tablets should be analyzed in a future in vivo study. Therefore, telmisartan tablets can be produced using a more economical and easier method than that used to produce Pritor™ tablets. PMID:21547679

  4. WC–Co coatings deposited by the electro-thermal chemical spray method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N Zhitomirsky; S Wald; M Factor; L Rabani; D Zoler; S Cuperman; C Bruma; I Roman

    2000-01-01

    A novel thermal spray technology — an electro-thermal chemical spray (ETCS) for producing hard coatings is presented. The experimental coating apparatus consists of a machine gun barrel, a cartridge containing the coating material in powder form, a solid propellant, and a plasma ignition system. The plasma ignition system produces plasma in pulsed mode to ignite the solid propellant. On ignition,

  5. A high order moment method simulating evaporation and advection of a polydisperse liquid spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kah, D.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.; Jay, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the modeling and numerical simulation of sprays and aerosols, that is dilute gas-droplet flows for which polydispersity description is of paramount importance. Starting from a kinetic description for point particles experiencing transport either at the carrier phase velocity for aerosols or at their own velocity for sprays as well as evaporation, we focus on an Eulerian high order moment method in size and consider a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) on a vector of successive integer size moments of order 0 to N, N > 2, over a compact size interval. There exists a stumbling block for the usual approaches using high order moment methods resolved with high order finite volume methods: the transport algorithm does not preserve the moment space. Indeed, reconstruction of moments by polynomials inside computational cells coupled to the evolution algorithm can create N-dimensional vectors which fail to be moment vectors: it is impossible to find a size distribution for which there are the moments. We thus propose a new approach as well as an algorithm which is second order in space and time with very limited numerical diffusion and allows to accurately describe the advection process and naturally preserves the moment space. The algorithm also leads to a natural coupling with a recently designed algorithm for evaporation which also preserves the moment space; thus polydispersity is accounted for in the evaporation and advection process, very accurately and at a very reasonable computational cost. These modeling and algorithmic tools are referred to as the Eulerian Multi Size Moment (EMSM) model. We show that such an approach is very competitive compared to multi-fluid approaches, where the size phase space is discretized into several sections and low order moment methods are used in each section, as well as with other existing high order moment methods. An accuracy study assesses the order of the method as well as the low level of numerical diffusion on structured meshes. Whereas the extension to unstructured meshes is provided, we focus in this paper on cartesian meshes and two 2D test-cases are presented: Taylor-Green vortices and turbulent free jets, where the accuracy and efficiency of the approach are assessed.

  6. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

  7. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  8. A pyrolysis/gas chromatographic method for the determination of hydrogen in solid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, R. H.; Bustin, R.; Gibson, E. K.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of hydrogen in solid samples. The sample is heated under vacuum after which the evolved gases are separated by gas chromatography with a helium ionization detector. The system is calibrated by injecting known amounts of hydrogen, as determined manometrically. The method, which is rapid and reliable, was checked for a variety of lunar soils; the limit of detection is about 10 ng of hydrogen.

  9. Effect of post annealing treatment on electrochromic properties of spray deposited niobium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; C. A. Betty; V. Ganesan; P. S. Patil

    2007-01-01

    Niobium oxide thin films were deposited on the glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. During deposition of the films various process parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of sprayed solution were optimized to obtain well adherent and transparent films. The films prepared were further annealed and

  10. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy...EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. (a) Scope. This section...

  11. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy...EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. (a) Scope. This section...

  12. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy...EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. (a) Scope. This section...

  13. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy...EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. (a) Scope. This section...

  14. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. 431.264 Section 431.264 Energy...EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform...flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves. (a) Scope. This section...

  15. Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; S. B. Patil; P. S. Patil

    2006-01-01

    Niobium oxide thin films were deposited on the glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Various preparative parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of sprayed solution were optimized to obtain good substrate-adherent and transparent films. Morphological and structural characterizations of the films were carried out using scanning electron microscopy

  16. Properties of spray deposited niobium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Patil; A. R. Patil; S. H. Mujawar; S. B. Sadale

    2005-01-01

    Niobium Oxide (Nb2O5) thin films were deposited on the glass substrates, using spray pyrolysis technique. During deposition the preparative parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of the sprayed solution were kept constant at optimized values. The effect of substrate (deposition) temperature (varied between 250 to 450°C) and post annealing treatment (at temperature 500°C) on the structural, optical

  17. Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material

    DOEpatents

    Lenling, William J. (Madison, WI); Henfling, Joseph A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-06-08

    A method is disclosed for spray coating material which employs a plasma gun that has a cathode, an anode, an arc gas inlet, a first powder injection port, and a second powder injection port. A suitable arc gas is introduced through the arc gas inlet, and ionization of the arc gas between the cathode and the anode forms a plasma. The plasma is directed to emenate from an open-ended chamber defined by the boundary of the anode. A coating is deposited upon a base metal part by suspending a binder powder within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the first powder injection port; a material subject to degradation by high temperature oxygen reactions is suspended within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the second injection port. The material fed through the second injection port experiences a cooler portion of the plasma and has a shorter dwell time within the plasma to minimize high temperature oxygen reactions. The material of the first port and the material of the second port intermingle within the plasma to form a uniform coating having constituent percentages related to the powder-feed rates of the materials through the respective ports.

  18. Rapid furnace annealing of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} thick films on Ni/NiO and inconel substrates prepared by spray pyrolysis of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} powder

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, D.L.; Parilla, P.A.; Gopalaswamy, H.; Swartzlander, A.; Duda, A.; Blaugher, R.D.; Ginley, D.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A spray pyrolysis growth system has been employed for the formation of superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) thick films. YBCO films on polycrystalline Ni/NiO, Inconel 600, and Inconel X substrates ranging in thickness from 80--100 {micro}m have been developed by a three-step process with observed T{sub c zero} values up to 85 K. In the first step, the metallic substrates were examined with and without a preoxidation anneal to form a native oxide layer. Second, superconducting YBCO powder (0.2 {micro}m particle size) was mixed with ethanol and sprayed onto the substrates. Third, the films were sintered at high temperature and oxygenated to form the superconducting phase. The effect of a native oxide buffer layer upon superconducting properties was evaluated as a function of the duration of the preoxidation anneal and the sintering anneal. X-ray diffraction (XRD) {theta}/2{theta}, variable temperature four-probe resistance, and Auger line scan characterization of these films will be discussed.

  19. Fabrication of paper-based devices by lacquer spraying method for the determination of nickel (II) ion in waste water.

    PubMed

    Nurak, Thara; Praphairaksit, Narong; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-30

    A spraying method with lacquer was developed for the fabrication of paper-based devices. A patterned iron mask was initially placed on a filter paper and held tightly attached by a magnetic plate placed on the opposite side. After that, acrylic lacquer was sprayed on the filter paper to create a hydrophobic area while the hydrophilic area was protected with the iron mask. The optimal conditions for the fabrication of this device were studied including lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper. Gloss spray lacquer and filter paper No. 4 were chosen as optimal lacquer type and particle retention efficiency of filter paper, respectively. To evaluate its efficiency, the paper-based devices were used to determine nickel using electrochemical detection. Cu-enhancer solution was employed to increase sensitivity of nickel determination with the optimal concentration of 4.5 ppm. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was observed in the range of 1-50 ppm with a coefficient of determination of 0.9971. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.5 and 1.97 ppm, respectively. Moreover, these paper-based devices coupled with electrochemical detection were applied to determine nickel in waste water of a jewelry factory and compared to those obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that there were no significant variations between this proposed method (4.15±0.043 ppm) and the ICP-OES method (4.06±0.013 ppm). Therefore, this spraying method was found to be an excellent alternative for the fabrication of paper-based devices due to its ease of use, affordability and simplicity. PMID:23953473

  20. Effect of fluorine addition on boron doped ZnO transparent electrode by room temperature spray method and thermal treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil Ho Kim; Deok Hyun Hwang; Seong Ihl Woo

    A room temperature spraying method which reduces the liquid chemical to an aerosol of submicron size droplets was used to deposit B, F–ZnO (precursor: B=0.02, 0?F?0.1) thin films. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate that B, F–ZnO (precursor: B=0.02, 0?F?0.1) thin films have a wurtzite crystal structure. All XRD peaks have shifted higher angle and the crystal orientation was changed at certain

  1. Plasma pyrolysis of toxic waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph G Rutberg

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of technical economic indexes of different waste treatment methods and plasma pyrolysis is presented in the paper. It testifies that plasma technologies are economically expedient for these purposes. Physical prerequisites allowing realizing plasma technologies are presented. Reliable and economical (70–120 Euro per ton of treated product) plasma generation is the basic condition of the technology realization. In this

  2. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum (mtcc 5422) by spray-freeze-drying method and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Priyanka; Anishaparvin, A; Joseph, G S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2011-01-01

    Spray-drying (SD) and freeze-drying (FD) are widely used methods for microencapsulation of heat-sensitive materials like probiotics for long-term preservation and transport. Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) is relatively a new technique that involves spraying a solution into a cold medium and removal of solvent (water) by conventional vacuum FD method. In this study, the SFD microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum powder (1:1 and 1:1.5 core-to-wall ratios of whey protein) is compared with the microencapsulated powders produced by FD and SD methods. The SFD and FD processed microencapsulated powder show 20% higher cell viability than the SD samples. In simulated gastrointestinal conditions, the SFD and FD cells show up to 4?h better tolerance than SD samples and unencapsulated cells in acidic and pepsin condition. The morphology of SFD samples shows particles almost in spherical shape with numerous fine pores, which in turn results in good rehydration behaviour of the powdered product. PMID:21827359

  3. Magnetic metal-organic frameworks: ?-Fe2O3@MOFs via confined in situ pyrolysis method for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-nan; Zhou, Meimei; Li, Shu; Li, Zehua; Li, Jie; Wu, Baozhen; Li, Guangtao; Li, Fengting; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    A general one-step in situ pyrolysis route for the construction of metal-organic frameworks encapsulating superparamagnetic ?-Fe2O3NPs dispersed in the confined cavities of MOFs homogeneously is described. The integration of ?-Fe2O3 NPs or clusters into MOFs can endow these porous materials with superparamagnetic element. By the combination of the thermal stability of MOFs and pyrolysis of metal triacetylacetonate complex at matched conditions, the porous structure of MOFs are well maintained while the size-induced superparamagnetic property of nano ?-Fe2O3 is obtained. As a proof of concept, both the ?- Fe2O3@ZIF-8 and ?-Fe2O3@MIL-53(Al) were successfully prepared, and the latter was chosen to demonstrate its potential drug delivery as a magnetic MOF. PMID:24644065

  4. Method for Thermal Spraying of Coatings Using Resonant-Pulsed Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been devised for high-volume, high-velocity surface deposition of protective metallic coatings on otherwise vulnerable surfaces. Thermal spraying is used whereby the material to be deposited is heated to the melting point by passing through a flame. Rather than the usual method of deposition from the jet formed from the combustion products, this innovation uses non-steady combustion (i.e. high-frequency, periodic, confined bursts), which generates not only higher temperatures and heat transfer rates, but exceedingly high impingement velocities an order of magnitude higher than conventional thermal systems. Higher impingement rates make for better adhesion. The high heat transfer rates developed here allow the deposition material to be introduced, not as an expensive powder with high surface-area-to-volume, but in convenient rod form, which is also easier and simpler to feed into the system. The nonsteady, resonant combustion process is self-aspirating and requires no external actuation or control and no high-pressure supply of fuel or air. The innovation has been demonstrated using a commercially available resonant combustor shown in the figure. Fuel is naturally aspirated from the tank through the lower Tygon tube and into the pulsejet. Air for starting is ported through the upper Tygon tube line. Once operation commences, this air is no longer needed as additional air is naturally aspirated through the inlet. A spark plug on the device is needed for starting, but the process carries on automatically as the operational device is resonant and reignites itself with each 220-Hz pulse.

  5. Superhydrophilic multilayer silica nanoparticle networks on a polymer microchannel using a spray layer-by-layer nanoassembly method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Kug; Ahn, Chong H

    2013-09-11

    Nanoporous and superhydrophilic multilayer silica nanoparticle networks have been developed on a hydrophobic cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microchannel using a spray layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic nanoassembly method. This powerful and promising LbL method provides a simple, cost-effective, and high-throughput nanoporous silica multilayer selectively onto the hydrophobic polymer surfaces. These newly developed multilayer networks have also been successfully characterized by contact angle measurement, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The superhydrophilic effect, which was confirmed by the contact angle measurements, of the silica networks ensured the hydrophilic nature of the selectively constructed nanoporous silica nanoparticles onto the patterned hydrophobic COC microchannel. The capillary effect of the developed surface was characterized by measuring the length of a test liquid driven by the induced capillary forces in an on-chip capillary pumping platform with horizontal microchannels. The pumping capability achieved from the sprayed nanoporous surface for the on-chip micropump was mainly due to the strong capillary imbibition driven by the multicoated bilayers of hydrophilic silica nanoparticles. The developed networks with spray-assembled nanoparticles were also applied for an on-chip blood plasma separation platform with closed microchannels. The spray LbL method developed in this work can be a highly practical approach for the modification of various polymer microchannels because of several advantages such as an extremely simple process for the multilayer formation and flexibly controlled surface functionality at room temperature. PMID:23915270

  6. Method and apparatus for pyrolysis--porous layer open tubular column--cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Nichols, Jessica E

    2013-04-19

    In previous work, dynamic headspace vapor collection on short, porous layer open tubular (PLOT) capillary columns maintained at low temperature was introduced. In this paper, that metrology is extended with the introduction of a small in situ pyrolysis platform that provides for rapid heating and rapid vapor capture for a wide variety of samples. The new approach is referred to as pyro-PLOT-cryo. The pyrolysis platform is made from two small copper lead wires that hold a basket formed from small diameter, high resistance stainless steel or NiCr wire. The basket is formed to accept a small sample, the mass of which can typically range from 0.2 to 0.05 mg. The pyrolysis is performed by use of a resistor capacitor circuit of the type used in spot welders. We have provided examples of the application of this technique with the analysis of facial cosmetics, plastic explosives, organometallic gasoline additives, polymers, and in micro scale chemical reactions. Additional modifications and future work are also discussed. PMID:23477797

  7. Spray winding, a novel one-step spray-technology to perform CMCs from preceramic polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Goerke; E. Feike; H. Schubert

    2005-01-01

    A novel spray-technology to perform CMC tubes has been developed in order to establish an one-step process which enables shorter process times along with the saving of costs. The manufacturing route combines the textile fibre technique with both matrix polymer spraying and IR heated curing\\/pyrolysis which transfers the preceramic polymers into an inorganic amorphous SiOC matrix.The applied metalorganic polymer as

  8. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality By Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mi; G. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-08-10

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  9. Antistatic sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic sprays from several different manufacturers are examined. The sprays are examined for contamination potential (i.e., outgassing and nonvolatile residue), corrosiveness on an aluminum mirror surface, and electrostatic effectiveness. In addition, the chemical composition of the antistatic sprays is determined by infrared spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results show that 12 of the 17 antistatic sprays examined have a low contamination potential. Of these sprays, 7 are also noncorrosive to an aluminum surface. And of these, only 2 demonstrate good electrostatic properties with respect to reducing voltage accumulation; these sprays did not show a fast voltage dissipation rate however. The results indicate that antistatic sprays can be used on a limited basis where contamination potential, corrosiveness, and electrostatic effectiveness is not critical. Each application is different and proper evaluation of the situation is necessary. Information on some of the properties of some antistatic sprays is presented in this document to aid in the evaluation process.

  10. Carbon nanoscrolls by pyrolysis of a polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Prasad; Warule, Sambhaji; Jog, Jyoti; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-12-01

    3D network of carbon nanoscrolls was synthesized starting from pyrolysis of poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt. It is a catalyst-free process where pyrolysis of polymer leads to formation of carbon form and sodium carbonate. Upon water soaking of pyrolysis product, the carbon form undergoes self-assembly to form carbon nanoscrolls. The interlayer distance between the walls of carbon nanoscroll was found to be 0.34 nm and the carbon nanoscrolls exhibited a surface area of 188 m2/g as measured by the BET method.

  11. APPLICATION OF A SPRAY DEPOSITION METHOD FOR REVERSED PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four coal gasification wastewater samples were analyzed for nonvolatile and polar organics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Samples were separated on a reverse phase liquid chromatographic column using an aqueous solvent as the eluant. A special spray depositio...

  12. High order moment method for polydisperse evaporating sprays with mesh movement: application to internal combustion engines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to internal combustion engines D. Kaha,3 , O. Emreb,c,d,2 , Q. H. Trand , S. de Chaisemartind, , S. Jayd , F meshes. Extending the approach to internal combustion engine and fuel injection requires solving two simulations with spray in internal combustion engines have become a critical target in the automotive industry

  13. Study of Coating Thickness of Cold Spray Process using Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarun Goyal; R. S. Walia; T. S. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Taguchi design of experiments L 18 orthogonal array have been adopted for making the electro-conductive coatings. Process parameters selected for this study are: substrate material, type of powder feeding arrangement, stagnation gas temperature, stagnation gas pressure and stand-off distance. The response parameter of cold spray coatings produced is measured in terms of coating thickness. The analyses of

  14. Study of Coating Thickness of Cold Spray Process Using Taguchi Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarun Goyal; Ravinderjit Singh Walia; T. S. Sidhu

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Taguchi design of experiments L 18 orthogonal array have been adopted for making the electro-conductive coatings. Process parameters selected for this study are: substrate material, type of powder feeding arrangement, stagnation gas temperature, stagnation gas pressure, and standoff distance. The response parameter of cold spray coatings produced is measured in terms of coating thickness. The analyses of

  15. Fundamental Pyrolysis Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J.; Soltys, M. N.

    1983-03-01

    Progress on the direct mass spectrometric sampling of pyrolysis products from wood and its constituents is described for the period from June 1982 to February 1983. A brief summary and references to detailed reports, of the qualitative demonstration of our approach to the study of the separated processes of primary and secondary pyrolysis is presented. Improvements and additions to the pyrolysis and data acquisition systems are discussed and typical results shown. Chief of these are a heated-grid pyrolysis system for controlled primary pyrolysis and a sheathed flame arrangement for secondary cracking studies. Qualitative results of the secondary cracking of cellulose, lignin, and wood are shown as are comparisons with the literature for the pyrolysis spectra of cellulose, lignin, and levoglucosan. 'Fingerprints' for a number of materials are shown, with spectra taken under carefully controlled conditions so that sensitivity calibrations for different compounds, now being determined, can be applied.

  16. Formation of P3KHT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction using orthogonal solvents by ultrasonic spray method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Mrunal S.; Lonkar, Ganesh S.; Ghosh, Sanjay S.; Patil, Mahendra B.; Dalal, Dipak S.; Sali, Jaydeep V.

    2015-07-01

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) morphologies with pure domains and sharp interfaces can lead to a more pronounced photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells. In this paper we report the formation of bulk-heterojunction of P3KHT (poly [3-(sodium-6 hexanoate) thiophene-2, 5-diyl]) and PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) using orthogonal solvents by the ultrasonic spray method, which can lead to pure phases and sharp interfaces. P3KHT and PCBM are soluble in water and chlorobenzene respectively, which are orthogonal solvents. The modelling and simulation of the ultrasonic spray method is reported, and shows the possibility of formation of interconnecting phases of the two components in P3KHT:PCBM BHJ, formed using orthogonal solvents, if specific process parameters are chosen. The modelling and simulation also presents a way to determine optimum parameter space in an intermittent spray deposition method using orthogonal solvents. P3KHT:PCBM BHJ has been prepared using three different approaches. Significant photoluminescence quenching, suggesting efficient excitons separation before recombination has been observed in BHJ prepared by the ‘emulsion of solutions’ method. The study of the optical properties of P3KHT:PCBM BHJ suggests that the BHJ may contain bilayer type structures embedded in the BHJ morphology, which is further confirmed by complementary experiments. This new approach to preparing BHJ with pure phase domains and sharp donor/acceptor interfaces may find applications in optoelectronic devices such as organic thin-film transistors, photodetectors, organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells.

  17. Mechanical behavior of Ti cold spray coatings determined by a multi-scale indentation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina Goldbaum; Jihane Ajaja; Richard R. Chromik; Wilson Wong; Stephen Yue; Eric Irissou; Jean-Gabriel Legoux

    The effect of the indentation load on the hardness measurements on cold spray Ti coatings was evaluated. Varied load indentation was carried out with nanoindentation at loads between 1 and 20mN and microindentation at loads between 0.1 and 5N. Nanoindentation measurements showed an indentation size effect and were fit to the Nix–Gao model for strain gradient plasticity. The microindentation measurements

  18. YBa2CuO(7-delta) thin films deposited by an ultrasonic nebulization and pyrolysis method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Desisto; R. L. Henry; M. Osofsky; J. V. Marzik

    1991-01-01

    High T(sub c) superconducting films of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) were deposited by a novel chemical vapor deposition procedure. 1-butanol solutions of the volatile yttrium, barium and copper derivatives of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione were ultrasonically nebulized and pyrolyzed onto MgO substrates at 430 C. The solutions were nebulized with `soft spray' ultrasonic nozzles operating at 60 and 120 kHz giving median droplet sizes of 19

  19. Optical and electrical characteristics of pyrite films prepared by a new spray method using PVDF as a polymeric binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Zanganeh, Mohammad; Ziarati, Mahmoud; Khandan, Nahid; Goudarzi, Ali Reza

    2015-06-01

    Pyrite thin films were deposited on glass substrates by a new and simple spray method using polyvinylidene fluoride as polymeric binder. Prepared pyrite films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Hall auto-measuring instrument. Hall measurements showed p-type conduction of all the prepared thin films. The film prepared by using binder concentration of 2 wt.% showed the best results. Its band gap was estimated 1.55 eV. Also, electrical characteristics of the deposited film were obtained by I-V characteristic curve.

  20. Acoustic microscopy of functionally graded thermal sprayed coatings using1 stiffness matrix method and Stroh formalism2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Acoustic microscopy of functionally graded thermal sprayed coatings using1 stiffness analysis of a line-focus transducer for broadband acoustic microscopy. A thermally sprayed coating on30 agreement between our experimental and numerical analyses on such thermal sprayed coatings with33

  1. Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Richards, Von L. (Anyola, IN)

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

  2. Preparation and properties of sprayed undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shanthi; C. Subramanian; P. Ramasamy

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide have been prepared on borosilicate glass plates by a spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of process parameters, such as tin chloride concentration in the precursor solution, substrate to nozzle distance, carrier gas (air) flow rate, substrate temperature, and doping level of fluorine in the spray solution, on the physical properties of

  3. Method and apparatus for cleaning used air from spray booths wherein articles are lacquered

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, R.; Wagner, H.

    1981-03-24

    For cleaning a flow of used air from a spray booth wherein articles are lacquered, a duct is provided with a first constriction where the flow of used air is brought into contact with washing fluid so as to wet lacquer particles in the used air. Downstream of the first constriction a guide conduit, which has a bend therein deflects the flow of used air and the washing fluid. The guide conduit is provided with a second constriction and after the flow of used air and the washing fluid have been deflected they pass through the second constriction, which is narrower than the first. Turbulence is thus created and the washing fluid is atomized and intimately mixed with the used air.

  4. A Generalized Critical Velocity Window Based on Material Property for Cold Spraying by Eulerian Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. Y.; Yu, M.; Wang, F. F.; Yin, S.; Liao, H. L.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the previously developed Eulerian model (Yu et al., J Therm Spray Technol 21(3):745-752, 2012), which could well predict the critical velocity and erosion velocity, was extended to other commonly used materials such as aluminum, iron, nickel, stainless steel 316, and Inconel718 for studying the influence of material property and establishing a generalized window of critical velocity. Results show that the deformation behavior of the used materials could be classified as coordinated deformation (copper, iron, nickel) and uncoordinated deformation patterns (aluminum, stainless steel, and Inconel718). However, it was found that the steady maximum equivalent plastic strain values at the critical velocity for each material concentrate in the extent of 2.6-3.0 regardless of deformation pattern. Dimensionless analysis shows that, the calculated critical velocity increases with the increase of material characteristic velocity, and this relationship can be primarily used to predict the critical velocity.

  5. Application of ultrasound to microencapsulation of coconut milk fat by spray drying method.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Du; Le, Van Viet Man

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of coconut milk and gelatin solution were treated by ultrasound, mixed with maltodextrin and subsequently spray-dried to yield powder. The effects of ultrasonic power and sonication time on the microencapsulation efficiency (ME) and microencapsulation yield (MY) of coconut fat were investigated. The results indicated that increase in ultrasonic power from 0 to 5.68 W/g and in sonication time from 0 to 2.5 min augmented ME and MY of coconut fat. However, treatment with sonication power higher than 5.68 W/g led to a drop in fat ME and MY, mainly due to aggregation of fat particles and that blocked the adsorption of gelatin molecules on the particle surface. PMID:25829636

  6. Paper spray-MS for bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Huang; Liao, Wei-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Kai; Kuo, Ting-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This Review provides a general understanding of paper spray-MS, including the methodology and theory associated with a number of different related applications. This method has become a direct sampling/ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis at ambient conditions and, as a result, it has greatly simplified and increased the speed of mass-spectrum analysis. It has now become an increasingly popular and important method for MS. The first part of this review discusses the fundamentals of paper spray. Some modifications are also reviewed, including nib-assisted paper spray, droplet monitoring, high-throughput paper spray, leaf spray, tissue spray and wooden tip spray. The second part focuses on recent applications, including the analysis of DBS, foodstuffs, drugs and oil. These studies show that paper spray-MS has great potential for use as a fast sampling ionization method, and for the direct analysis of biological and chemical samples at ambient conditions. PMID:24423596

  7. Gas chromatographic\\/mass spectrometric analysis of on-line pyrolysis–silylation products of monosaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Scalarone; Oscar Chiantore; Chiara Riedo

    2008-01-01

    Classification of polysaccharides may be achieved on the basis of the monosaccharidic composition after cleavage of glycosidic bonds. Pyrolysis is a useful method to obtain polysaccharide decomposition and generally pyrolysis products can be identified by the use of gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. This paper describes an on-line silylation pyrolysis approach and compares the efficiency of two derivatization reagents, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and

  8. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  9. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  10. [Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanocomposite particles by premix membrane emulsification coupled with spray-drying method].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei; Pan, Lin-Mei; Li, Bo; Shi, Fei-Yan; Lu, Jin

    2014-11-01

    For effective inhalable dry-powder drug delivery, tetrandrine-PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomposite particles have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of nanoparticles and microparticles. The primary nanoparticles were prepared by using premix membrane emulsification method. To prepare second particles, they were spray dried. The final particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dry laser particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared analysis (IR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The average size of the primary particles was (337.5 ± 6.2) nm, while that second particles was (3.675 ± 0.16) ?m which can be decomposed into primary nanoparticles in water. And the second particles were solid sphere-like with the drug dispersed as armorphous form in them. It is a reference for components delivery to lung in a new form. PMID:25757290

  11. Spray Calendar. 

    E-print Network

    Sanborn, C. E. (Charles Emerson)

    1908-01-01

    such insects as grasshoppers while crosaing ba es, trly spring before vegetation is abu1ld:rnt: .rren plac ACT SPRAYS, EMULSIONS, DUST SPRAYS, ETC., NOT NECESSARILY POISONOUS. Lime ... 3ulphnr . IT7 1 VIII. LIME SULPTIUR... in cracks and crevices used by them. For ants which enter cupboards, or collect on tables or refrigerators from some "unknown source," encircle the supports or legs with a narrow band of fluffy cotton th'oroughly dusted with this powder. In addition...

  12. Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO 3 thin films for electrochromic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sivakumar; A. Moses Ezhil Raj; B. Subramanian; M. Jayachandran; D. C. Trivedi; C. Sanjeeviraja

    2004-01-01

    The n-type tungsten oxide (WO3) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15ml\\/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited

  13. Control of spray spot shape in cold spray technology. Part 2. Spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikovskii, V. N.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Melamed, B. M.; Trubacheev, G. V.

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studies high-velocity heterogeneous flows produced with nozzle designs unconventional for cold spray; the process of coating deposition was studied under these conditions. The possibility of using unconventional gas dynamic tools (swirling of main flow, nozzles with permeable profiles and with slots in the supersonic part of nozzle) for control of particle distribution in the supersonic jet is investigated: this might be useful for obtaining a proper shape of the spray spot. These experiments offered a method of gas-dynamic design for the spray spot shape, which extends the possibilities of cold spray technique.

  14. Chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of the field of chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. The techniques applied to pyrolysis oil analysis are reviewed including proximate and ultimate analysis, water (moisture) analysis, and chemical component analysis by various forms of chromatography, solvent separations, and spectrophotometric analyses, like infrared and ultraviolet. Advanced analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular beam -- mass spectrometry are also discussed. This paper reviews and compares the methods and the results of the analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the various methods applied are identified. Comparisons derived from the IEA Round Robin are incorporated.

  15. Molecular configuration and pyrolysis reactions of phenolic-novolaks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, E. L.; Parker, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a statistical method for characterizing the structure of an average phenolic-novolak prepolymer molecule in terms of the total number of phenolic nuclei that compose the molecule and the number of these nuclei that are pendent. It is only necessary to resort to experimental pyrolysis to evaluate the thermokinetic parameters for pyrolysis for the ablator. In addition, the fraction of phenolic involved in the major pyrolysis reactions can be estimated in terms of the parameters previously evaluated. It is shown that the overlapping reactions which occur during pyrolysis of a phenolic-novolak can be resolved by pyrolyzing samples with different extents of cure. It is then possible to determine the kinetic parameters for pyrolysis for the major reactions by well-known methods which often fail when reactions are not well resolved.

  16. Characterization of the pyrolysis products of methiopropamine.

    PubMed

    Bouso, Emily D; Gardner, Elizabeth A; O'Brien, John E; Talbot, Brian; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2014-01-01

    1-(Thien-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane (methiopropamine, MPA), appeared as a 'legal high' in late 2010. It is structurally similar to methamphetamine, with a thiophene ring replacing the benzene moiety. Methiopropamine reportedly retains the pharmacological properties of amphetamine stimulants, but it does not fall under existing drug laws in the USA and Ireland. The objective of this research was to identify the pyrolysis products formed under conditions that mimic those used by recreational drugs users. Thirteen pyrolysis products were identified and ten were confirmed by comparison to synthesized standards. Methods for synthesizing the standards as well as an alternative method for the synthesis of methiopropamine were developed. The MPA pyrolysis products are formed through N-dealkylation, N-alkylation, N-formylation, ?-carbon oxidation, ?-carbon oxidation/N-alkylation, amine elimination and carbon-carbon bond cleavage. Two pyrazine isomers also formed. Some of these products have the potential to be psychoactive while others are potentially toxic. PMID:24166818

  17. Method of making supercritical fluid molecular spray films, powder and fibers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a heated nozzle having a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. In another embodiment, the temperature of the solution and nozzle is elevated above the melting point of the solute, which is preferably a polymer, and the solution is maintained at a pressure such that, during expansion, the solute precipitates out of solution within the nozzle in a liquid state. Alternatively, a secondary solvent mutually soluble with the solute and primary solvent and having a higher critical temperature than that of primary solvent is used in a low concentration (<20%) to maintain the solute in a transient liquid state. The solute is discharged in the form of long, thin fibers. The fibers are collected at sufficient distance from the orifice to allow them to solidify in the low pressure/temperature region.

  18. Reducing spray booth VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.

    1990-03-01

    Reducing spray booth overspray, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions and solid waste can be achieved in every installation--from the simplest one-gun booth to the high-production multigun booth. The changes may be as basic as getting the present system under control or changing to another process. Conventional, airless and electrostatic application methods have been available to the finishing market for over 25 years. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. As VOC restrictions began to close in on the coatings industry, the need to improve spray equipment capability increased. The principal objective was to increase transfer efficiency to decrease VOCs.

  19. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polytetrafluoroethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using various test conditions of the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to death appears to be affected by the material of which the pyrolysis tube is made, with Monel tending to give longer times to death than quartz. When quartz tubes are used, time to death seems to be related to carbon monoxide concentration. When Monel tubes are used, carbon monoxide does not appear to be the principal toxicant.

  20. Evaluation of optical parameters and characterization of ultrasonically sprayed MgO films by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtaran, S.; Akyuz, I.; Atay, F.

    2013-01-01

    MgO is a chemically stable buffer layer and a good candidate with its unique optical and structural characteristics such as low refractive index and good lattice matching for the deposition of technologically important materials. In this work, we have produced MgO films by a low cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and tried to improve their characteristics by thermal annealing. MgO films have been obtained on glass substrates at 325 ± 5 °C and annealed at two different temperatures as 500 °C and 600 °C for 2 h. Elemental analyses have been made by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thicknesses, refractive indices and extinction coefficient values have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry technique using Cauchy-Urbach model. Band gap values of the films have been calculated using the absorbance spectra and optical method. X-ray diffraction patterns have been used to investigate the structural properties and to calculate lattice parameters. Atomic force microscope images have been taken to see the effect of thermal annealing on surface morphology. Electrical resistivity values of the films have been determined using a four-point probe set-up. As a result, annealing temperature has a strong effect on the mentioned properties and a low cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique allows the production of new and alternative MgO buffer layers for technological applications.

  1. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale; Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-01

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis. PMID:19674884

  2. Combustion properties of slow pyrolysis bio-oil produced from indigenous Australian species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Stamatov; D. Honnery; J. Soria

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil derived via slow pyrolysis process of two indigenous Australian tree species, red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) from the basin of Murray, Victoria, and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) wood from the region of Mount Gambier, South Australia was blended with ethanol and burned in a circular jet spray at atmospheric pressure. Bio-oil flames were shorter, wider and brighter than diesel fuel

  3. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polypropylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polypropylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The gases from this sample appeared to be equivalent or less toxic than the gases from a sample of polyethylene under these particular test conditions. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant.

  4. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from foam plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-three samples of flexible foams and twelve samples of rigid foams were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the USF toxicity screening test method. Polychloroprene among the flexible foams, and polystyrene among the rigid foams, appeared to exhibit the least toxicity under these particular test conditions.

  5. Spraying Effects on Goat Welfare in Hot and Humid Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazan Darcan; Fatin Cedden; Okan Guney

    Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed:

  6. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-?-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  7. Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2013-02-01

    For the realization of high-efficiency flexible optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes should be fabricated through a low-temperature process and have the crucial feature of low surface roughness. In this paper, we demonstrated a two-step spray-coating method for producing large-scale, smooth and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW)-poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrodes. Without the high-temperature annealing process, the conductivity of the composite film was improved via the lamination of highly conductive PEDOT:PSS modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under the room temperature process condition, we fabricated the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS composite film showing an 84.3% mean optical transmittance with a 10.76 ? sq(-1) sheet resistance. The figure of merit ?(TC) was higher than that obtained from the indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The sheet resistance of the composite film slightly increased less than 5.3% during 200 cycles of tensile and compression folding, displaying good electromechanical flexibility for use in flexible optoelectronic applications. PMID:23241687

  8. Spray pyrolysed microporous TiO2 thin films by optimisation of substrate temperature for ‘all sprayed’ solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, M. V.; Deepu, D. R.; Geethu, R.; Rajeev Kumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 500 °C by a simple, cost effective spray pyrolysis method using commercially available TiO2 powder (Degussa P25). Analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal the microporous nature of the films at 350 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman studies reveal that these films are amorphous in nature. The films were subsequently annealed at 500 °C for 2 h, resulting in crystallisation (the tetragonal anatase phase). XPS analysis was effectively used to study the chemical composition of the samples. Finally, optimized microporous TiO2 thin films were used for the fabrication of an ‘all-sprayed’ solar cell utilizing well-established CuInS2 as the absorber layer. The best device under this study has an open-circuit voltage of 409 mV and a short-circuit current density of 3.90 mA cm?2. The efficiency and fill factor were 0.61% and 38%, respectively.

  9. A laboratory-based method to measure relative pesticide and spray oil efficacy against broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)(Acari: Tarsonemidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant Herron; Laura Jiang; Robert Spooner-Hart

    1996-01-01

    Six pesticides and two spray oils were tested against Polyphagotarsonemus latus. The chemicals were evaluated under laboratory conditions, requiring the development of a novel bioassay method, which is reported here. The pesticide toxicities fell into three distinct groups, namely abamectin, conventional pesticides and oils. The relative pesticide toxicities at the LC50 level were abamectin 4.9×10-8 g ai l-1, endosulfan 1.1×10-3

  10. Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    SciTech Connect

    Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

    2010-12-17

    The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

  11. A Method for Evaluating the Effect of Blowing Agent Condensation on Sprayed Polyurethane Foams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Kumaran; M. T. Bomberg; R. G. Marchand; M. R. Ascough; J. A. Creazzo

    1989-01-01

    An experimental procedure for the determination of temperature de pendence of thermal conductivity of foam insulations blown with condensable gases is presented. The procedure is used to investigate the effect of the blowing agent on thermal conductivity of a polyurethane system blown with CFC-11 or HCFC-123, at various stages of its aging A method to calculate the partial pressure of

  12. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying. PMID:23160638

  13. Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of SnS and SnS2 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Thangaraju; P. Kaliannan

    2000-01-01

    The spray pyrolysis technique is employed to prepare thin films of SnS on glass substrates and SnS2 on glass as well as fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. The pyrolysis temperatures of SnS and SnS2 are 350 °C and 275 °C, respectively. The films are found to be n-type semiconductors. The SnS thin film is amorphous, whereas the

  14. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  15. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  16. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Price, R. Eugene (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of automobile shredder residue

    SciTech Connect

    Arzoumanidis, G.G.; McIntosh, M.J.; Steffensen, E.J. [and others

    1995-07-01

    In the United States, approximately 10 million automobiles are scrapped and shredded each year. The mixture of plastics and other materials remaining after recovery of the metals is known as Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). In 1994, about 3.5 million tons of ASR was produced and disposed of in landfills. However, environmental, legislative, and economic considerations are forcing the industry to search for recycling or other alternatives to disposal. Numerous studies have been done relating the ASR disposal problem to possible recycling treatments such as pyrolysis, gasification, co-liquefaction of ASR with coal, chemical recovery of plastics from ASR, catalytic pyrolysis, reclamation in molten salts, and vacuum pyrolysis. These and other possibilities have been studied intensively, and entire symposia have been devoted to the problem. Product mix, yields, toxicology issues, and projected economics of conceptual plant designs based on experimental results are among the key elements of past studies. Because the kinds of recycling methods that may be developed, along with their ultimate economic value, depend on a very large number of variables, these studies have been open-ended. It is hoped that it may be useful to explore some of these previously studied areas from fresh perspectives. One such approach, currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory, is the catalytic pyrolysis of ASR.

  18. Effects of space spray application methods on fenitrothion efficacy and development of resistance in Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarar, Ali S; Al-Hafiz, Abdulwahab M; Bakr, Yasser Abo; Bayoumi, Alaa E; Hussein, Hamdi I

    2011-06-01

    Efficacy of fenitrothion as thermal fogging (TF) or ultra-low volume (ULV) applications against 6 successive generations of caged adult Culex pipiens and subsequent development of resistance in both adults and larvae were investigated in this study. In addition, larval acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in each generation. Results indicated that the ULV application method was significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than TF against the adults in all treated generations. Selection pressure of TF and ULV applications on the adults after 5 generations resulted in larval resistance by ratios of 30.92- and 28.18-fold, respectively. A gradual decrease in the larval AChE activity was observed with increasing resistance as generations progressed. The AChE activity of susceptible larvae was higher than that of the F5 resistant generation in TF and ULV treatments by 6- and 8-fold, respectively. The results indicated that both the biological efficacy of fenitrothion and the rapidity of resistance development were affected by the application methods. PMID:21805844

  19. Application methods and evaluations of ultra-low-volume sprays for controlling the bollworm, tobacco budworm and boll weevil 

    E-print Network

    Nemec, Stanley Joseph

    1967-01-01

    residual toxicity of methyl parathion ULV anB CLV sprays to the bOXXVRkse 19' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ o ~ 44 Comparative deposits an5 dissipation of ULV enkk CLV sprays of methyl parathion on cotton applietk at a rate of 1. 9 lb. /sera... et al. (1966) found that applications of ULV malathion at rates of 6, lg, snd 16 f 1aM ounces per acre ware as effective against the boll weevil as O. h pound of methyl parathion per acre in 2 gallons ef water. This rate oi' malathion...

  20. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePLUS

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  1. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas C. Elliott; Suh-Jane Lee; Todd R. Hart

    2012-01-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to

  2. Measurement of visibility through spray 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Bruce Alan

    1990-01-01

    . Zimmer samples output at the rate of 25 seconds during a test interval with is initiated by the test vehicle interrupting an infrared beam at the extreme uprange end of the 450 foot test surface. The computer times out 4 seconds later when the vehicle... of visual impairment from simulated levels of splash and spray on target vehicle identification distances. Five levels of hand held spray simulation frames were used to compare image digitization methods with visual performance (Snellen acuity...

  3. Effect of whey protein isolate and ?-cyclodextrin wall systems on stability of microencapsulated vanillin by spray-freeze drying method.

    PubMed

    Hundre, Swetank Y; Karthik, P; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-05-01

    Vanillin flavour is highly volatile in nature and due to that application in food incorporation is limited; hence microencapsulation of vanillin is an ideal technique to increase its stability and functionality. In this study, vanillin was microencapsulated for the first time by non-thermal spray-freeze-drying (SFD) technique and its stability was compared with other conventional techniques such as spray drying (SD) and freeze-drying (FD). Different wall materials like ?-cyclodextrin (?-cyd), whey protein isolate (WPI) and combinations of these wall materials (?-cyd + WPI) were used to encapsulate vanillin. SFD microencapsulated vanillin with WPI showed spherical shape with numerous fine pores on the surface, which in turn exhibited good rehydration ability. On the other hand, SD powder depicted spherical shape without pores and FD encapsulated powder yielded larger particle sizes with flaky structure. FTIR analysis confirmed that there was no interaction between vanillin and wall materials. Moreover, spray-freeze-dried vanillin + WPI sample exhibited better thermal stability than spray dried and freeze-dried microencapsulated samples. PMID:25529646

  4. Modification of light absorption in thin CuInS2 films by sprayed Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Katerski, Atanas; Kärber, Erki; Acik, Ilona Oja; Dolgov, Leonid; Mere, Arvo; Sildos, Ilmo; Mikli, Valdek; Krunks, Malle

    2014-12-01

    The chemical spray pyrolysis method was used to deposit CuInS2 (CIS) thin films and Au nanoparticles (NPs) in two configurations: glass/Au-NP layer covered with CuInS2 film (Au-NP/CIS) and glass/CuInS2 films covered with Au-NP layer (CIS/Au-NP). According to X-ray diffraction (XRD), the spray of 2 mM HAuCl4 aqueous solution with a volume of 2.5 to 15 ml onto a glass substrate at 340°C results in metallic Au nanoparticles with a similar mean crystallite size in the range of 30?-?38 nm. The mean crystallite sizes remain in the range of 15?-?20 nm when grown onto a CIS film. The prepared films show plasmonic light absorption with increasing intensity in the spectral range of 500- 800 nm when increasing the volume of HAuCl4 solution sprayed. When compared to bare CIS on glass, the absorptance was increased ca. 4.5 times in the case of glass/Au-NP/CIS and ca. 3 times in the case of glass/CIS/Au-NP configuration. The glass/Au-NP/CIS configuration had an advantage since Au-NP could be embedded without chemically damaging the CIS. PMID:26088996

  5. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

    1995-02-21

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

  6. Structure and pyrolysis characteristics of lignin derived from wood powder hydrolysis residues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi; Qiu, Zejing; Wang, Congwei; Huang, Yanqin; Ma, Longlong; Wu, Shubin

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wood powder acid hydrolysis residue (WAHR) were studied firstly in this study, and WAHL (lignin derived from WAHR) was separated successfully from WAHR based on an improved isolating method. The content of functional group such as phenolic hydroxyl group of guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroxyl-phenyl units in WAHL were identified by (31)P-NMR and DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) method. Thermal degradation experiments were carried out on a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer to show pyrolysis characteristics of WAHL. The compositions of pyrolysis products of WAHL were also studied throughout a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analyzer. It was shown that the pyrolysis of WAHL took place in a wide temperature range and there were two obvious peaks in the differential thermogravimetric diagram. Results of Py-GC-MS analysis indicated that pyrolysis products were mainly formed through cleavage of the ?-O-4 connection and multiple pyrolysis. PMID:21603951

  7. Modeling metal droplet sprays in spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Muoio, N.G.; Crowe, C.T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Fritsching, U.; Bergmann, D. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany). Inst. for Materials Processing

    1995-12-31

    Spray casting is a process whereby a molten metal stream is atomized and deposited on a substrate. The rapid solidification of the metal droplets gives rise to a fine grain structure and improved material properties. This paper presents a simulation for the fluid and thermal interaction of the fluid and droplets in the spray and the effect on the droplet spray pattern. Good agreement is obtained between the measured and predicted droplet mass flux distribution in the spray.

  8. Cerium oxide based particles as possible alternatives to ZnO in sunscreens: Effect of the synthesis method on the photoprotection results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurianne Truffault; Brad Winton; Benjamin Choquenet; Caroline Andreazza; Cyriaque Simmonard; Thierry Devers; Konstantin Konstantinov; Céline Couteau; Laurence J. M. Coiffard

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize Ca-doped CeO2 nanopowder in order to determine in vitro the photoprotection efficiency of the combination – commercial TiO2\\/Ca-doped CeO2 – incorporated in sunscreen.Cerium based particles were synthesized by two methods, co-precipitation and spray pyrolysis, in order to study the effect of the synthesis method on the photoprotection results.While both samples

  9. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate. PMID:19589669

  10. Effect of concentration of SnCl 4 on sprayed fluorine doped tin oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale

    2008-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of F:SnO2 have been deposited onto preheated glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique by varying the concentration of SnCl4. A fine spray of the source solution using air as a carrier gas has grown films of thickness up to 1108nm. Optical absorption, X-ray diffraction, Van der Pauw technique for measurement of a sheet resistance and

  11. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Brand; A. V. Nieuw Amerongen; D. L. Gambon

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo.Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray.Results Candy sprays have an extremely low

  12. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization. PMID:22751053

  13. Shape memory effect and superelastic behavior of TiNi shape memory alloy processed by vacuum plasma spray method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Nakayama; Minoru Taya; Ronald W. Smith; Travis Nelson; Michael Yu; Edwin Rosenzweig

    2007-01-01

    Machining of TiNi shape memory alloy into a complicated three-dimensional (3D) shape is quite difficult, thus a near-net shape forming of 3D shaped TiNi alloy is attractive and cost-effective. Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process is one of such near-net shape forming processes. In this paper, two kinds of thick TiNi layer, Ni-rich and Ti-rich compositions, were fabricated by VPS process

  14. Detection of segmentation cracks in top coat of thermal barrier coatings during plasma spraying by non-contact acoustic emission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kaita; Kuriki, Hitoshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Enoki, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Numerous cracks can be observed in the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal ones and they have opposite impact on the properties of TBCs. Vertical cracks reduce the residual stress in the top coat and provide strain tolerance. On the contrary, horizontal cracks trigger delamination of the top coat. However, monitoring methods of cracks generation during APS are rare even though they are strongly desired. Therefore, an in situ, non-contact and non-destructive evaluation method for this objective was developed in this study with the laser acoustic emission (AE) technique by using laser interferometers as a sensor. More AE events could be detected by introducing an improved noise reduction filter and AE event detection procedures with multiple thresholds. Generation of vertical cracks was successfully separated from horizontal cracks by a newly introduced scanning pattern of a plasma torch. Thus, generation of vertical cracks was detected with certainty by this monitoring method because AE events were detected only during spraying and a positive correlation was observed between the development degree of vertical cracks and the total AE energy in one experiment.

  15. A cold-gas spray coating process for enhancing titanium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert E. Segall; Anatoli N. Papyrin; Joseph C. Conway; Daniel Shapiro

    1998-01-01

    mance of the surface. The most widely used methods include high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF), detonation guns, plasma spray, flame spray, arc spray, and electron beam-physical vapor deposition. While these methods have been used successfully to improve wear performance, provide thermal barriers for hightemperature applications, and decrease corrosion damage, they are not without potential problems and difficulties. Many of the problems associated

  16. Preparation and characterization of nano-particle LiFePO 4 and LiFePO 4\\/C by spray-drying and post-annealing method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Gao; Zhiyuan Tang; Jianjun Xue

    2007-01-01

    Pure, nano-sized LiFePO4 and LiFePO4\\/C cathode materials are synthesized by spray-drying and post-annealing method. The influence of the sintering temperature and carbon coating on the structure, particle size, morphology and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 cathode material is investigated. The optimum processing conditions are found to be thermal treatment for 10h at 600°C. Compared with LiFePO4, LiFePO4\\/C particles are smaller in

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotube/ZnO nanocrystalline aggregates hybrids by spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. S.; Cao, S. Y.; Zeng, B.; Ning, X. T.; Liu, T. G.; Chen, X. H.; Xiao, Y.; Yu, W. W.

    2014-05-01

    The novel 3D graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/ZnO nanocrystalline aggregate (GR/MWNTs/ZnO) hybrids were prepared by a spray drying method, and their adsorption and photocatalytic degradation for methyl orange (MO) were studied. Experimental results show that the synthetic GR/MWNTs/ZnO nanohybrids exhibited very strong adsorption capacity and high photocatalytic activity for MO. The maximum adsorption capacity of GR/MWNTs/ZnO sample reached 106.2 mg/g, and the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO nanocrystallines was improved about one time by GR/MWNTs hybrids.

  18. Development and beyond: Strategy for long-term maintenance of an online laser diffraction particle size method in a spray drying manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, Joseph; Bric, John; Connelly, Greg; Tolton, Kelly; Warman, Martin

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present the intended use and long-term maintenance strategy of an online laser diffraction particle size method used for process control in a spray drying process. A Malvern Insitec was used for online particle size measurements and a Malvern Mastersizer was used for offline particle size measurements. The two methods were developed in parallel with the Mastersizer serving as the reference method. Despite extensive method development across a range of particle sizes, the two instruments demonstrated different sensitivities to material and process changes over the product lifecycle. This paper will describe the procedure used to ensure consistent alignment of the two methods, thus allowing for continued use of online real-time laser diffraction as a surrogate for the offline system over the product lifecycle. PMID:25958139

  19. Spray pyrolytically deposited PbS thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Thangaraju; P. Kaliannan

    2000-01-01

    The spray pyrolysis technique has been employed to prepare uniform, large-area thin-film coatings of PbS on glass and on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting substrates at various substrate temperatures. Growth of polycrystalline PbS films occurred at a lower temperature (TS = 275 °C) on conducting substrate than on glass (TS = 325 °C) and oriented growth of polycrystalline cubic PbS

  20. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on toxicity of gases from a polyethylene polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Kosola, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    A polyethylene polymer was evaluated for time of toxic effect to occur as the result of exposure to gases generated by pyrolysis at various temperatures, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Times to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 400 C to 800 C. Responses at a pyrolysis temperature of 350 C were more rapid than would be expected from the other data, and may indicate the predominance of different pyrolysis reactions in this particular temperature region.

  1. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of whole recycling process. PMID:22951495

  2. Structural, Optical, and Electrical Characterization of Spray Pyrolysed Indium Sulfide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, F.; Podder, J.; Ichimura, M.

    2013-04-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were deposited onto the glass substrates by a low cost simple spray pyrolysis technique at 300°C temperature. Aqueous solution of indium chloride and thiourea were used to deposit the binary In-S film. The deposited thin films were annealed at 400° and 500°C temperatures and characterized structurally, optically and electrically using EDX, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy and four probe van der Pauw methods. The optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient are calculated from absorbance and transmittance data from 300 to 1100 nm wavelength. The optical transmittance increased after annealing at 400° and 500°C. The band gap energy was reduced from 2.90 to 2.50 eV after annealing the as deposited films. The electrical conductivity as well as the activation energy was increased after annealing the samples.

  3. Thermal characteristics of bitumen pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hou-yin ZhaoYan; Yan Cao; Song P. Sit; Quentin Lineberry; Wei-ping Pan

    The pyrolysis behavior of bitumen was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer–mass spectrometer system (TG–MS) and\\u000a a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) as well as a pyrolysis-gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer system (Py-GC\\/MS). TG\\u000a results showed that there were three stages of weight loss during pyrolysis—less than 110, 110–380, and 380–600 °C. Using\\u000a distributed activation energy model, the average activation energy of the thermal decomposition

  4. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate. PMID:23858864

  5. Determination of triamcinolone in human plasma by a sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method: application for a pharmacokinetic study using nasal spray formulation.

    PubMed

    César, Isabela Costa; Byrro, Ricardo Martins Duarte; de Santana e Silva Cardoso, Fabiana Fernandes; Mundim, Iram Moreira; de Souza Teixeira, Leonardo; de Sousa, Weidson Carlo; Gomes, Sandro Antônio; Bellorio, Karini Bruno; Brêtas, Juliana Machado; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2011-03-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitation of triamcinolone in human plasma after nasal spray application was developed and validated. Betamethasone was used as internal standard (IS). The analytes were extracted by a liquid-liquid procedure and separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C(18) column with a mobile phase composed of 2 mM aqueous ammonium acetate pH 3.2 and acetonitrile (55:45). Selected reaction monitoring was performed using the transitions m/z 435 ? 415 and m/z 393 ? 373 to quantify triamcinolone acetonide and betamethasone, respectively. Calibration curve was constructed over the range of 20-2000 pg/ml for triamcinolone acetonide. The lower limit of quantitation was 20 pg/ml. The mean RSD values were 4.6% and 5.7% for the intra-run and inter-run precision, respectively. The mean accuracy value was 98.5% and a recovery rate corresponding to 97.5% was achieved. No matrix effect was detected in the samples. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the plasma concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide in healthy volunteers, in a pharmacokinetic study with nasal spray formulation. PMID:21394848

  6. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically sprayed CdO thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Bhosale; A. V. Kambale; A. V. Kokate; K. Y. Rajpure

    2005-01-01

    The cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been deposited onto amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The aqueous solution containing precursor of Cd has been used to obtain good quality deposits at optimized preparative parameters. The films have been characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric

  7. Magnetic and Porous Nanospheres from Ultrasonic Spray Won Hyuk Suh and Kenneth S. Suslick*

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Magnetic and Porous Nanospheres from Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Won Hyuk Suh and Kenneth S. Suslick, ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles can be easily encapsulated in the porous silica, and the resulting syntheses of nanocomposites in a continuous flow reactor, specifically porous inorganic oxide nanomaterials

  8. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ? 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor design. Low temperatures are maintained in the fuel delivery system utilizing a water-

  9. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  10. New ionization methods and miniature mass spectrometers for biomedicine: DESI imaging for cancer diagnostics and paper spray ionization for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cooks, R Graham; Manicke, Nicholas E; Dill, Allison L; Ifa, Demian R; Eberlin, Livia S; Costa, Anthony B; Wang, He; Huang, Guangming; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in two new ambient ionization methods for mass spectrometry, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and paper spray (PS), is described and their utility is illustrated with new studies on tissue imaging and biofluid analysis. DESI is an ambient ionization method that can be performed on untreated histological sections of biological tissue in the open lab environment to image lipids, fatty acids, hormones and other compounds. Paper spray is performed in the open lab too; it involves electrospraying dry blood spots or biofluid deposits from a porous medium. PS is characterized by extreme simplicity and speed: a spot of whole blood or other biofluid is analyzed directly from paper, simply by applying a high voltage to the moist paper. Both methods are being developed for use in diagnostics as a means to inform therapy. DESI imaging is applied to create molecular maps of tissue sections without prior labeling or other sample preparation. Like other methods of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), it combines the chemical speciation of multiple analytes with information on spatial distributions. DESI imaging provides valuable information which correlates with the disease state of tissue as determined by standard histochemical methods. Positive-ion data are presented which complement previously reported negative-ion data on paired human bladder cancerous and adjacent normal tissue sections from 20 patients. These data add to the evidence already in the literature demonstrating that differences in the distributions of particular lipids contain disease-diagnostic information. Multivariate statistical analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) is used to analyze the imaging MS data, and so confirm differences between the lipid profiles of diseased and healthy tissue types. As more such data is acquired, DESI imaging has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for future cancer detection in situ; this suggests a potential role in guiding therapy in parallel with standard histochemical and immunohistological methods. The PS methodology is aimed at high-throughput clinical measurement of quantitative levels of particular therapeutic agents in blood and other biofluids. The experiment allows individual drugs to be quantified at therapeutic levels and data is presented showing quantitative drug analysis from mixtures of therapeutic drugs in whole blood. Data on cholesterol sulfate, a new possible prostate biomarker seen at elevated levels in diseased prostate tissue, but not in healthy prostate tissue in serum are reported using paper spray ionization. PMID:21413184

  11. Assessment of pyrolysis oil as an energy source for diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Murugan; M. C. Ramaswamy; G. Nagarajan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of using tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) obtained from waste automobile tyres by vacuum pyrolysis method, as a fuel in diesel engine. In this work, performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder water cooled diesel engine running on TPO diesel reference fuel (RF) blends in steps of 20% on volume basis of TPO, viz.

  12. Chemicals and Energy from Medical Polymer Wastes I. Pyrolysis of Disposable Syringes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vasile; M. Brebu; H. Darie; R. D. Deanin; V. Dorneanu; D. M. Pantea; O. G. Ciochina

    1997-01-01

    The pyrolysis of the disposable syringes has been studied and reaction products have been characterized by gas-chromatography, density, refractive indices, aniline point analysis and spectroscopic methods. It has been concluded that pyrolysis offers a solution for treatment of this kind of medical polymer wastes and fuels and\\/or chemicals can be obtained.

  13. Products and bioenergy from the pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma and its kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Kai Tu; Je-Lung Shie; Ching-Yuan Chang; Chiung-Fen Chang; Cheng-Fang Lin; Sen-Yeu Yang; Jing T. Kuo; Dai-Gee Shaw; Yii-Der You; Duu-Jong Lee

    2009-01-01

    The radio frequency plasma pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of common pyrolysis methods such as less gas products while significant tar formation, was used for pyrolyzing the biomass waste of rice straw. The experiments were performed at various plateau temperatures of 740, 813, 843 and 880K with corresponding loading powers of 357, 482, 574 and 664W, respectively. The

  14. An Investigation on Temperature Distribution Within the Substrate and Nozzle Wall in Cold Spraying by Numerical and Experimental Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ya; Yin, Shuo; Guo, Xueping; Liao, Hanlin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Coddet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    During cold spraying (CS), heat exchange between the hot driving gas and the solid bodies, e.g., spray nozzle and substrate, results in the temperature redistribution within the solid bodies. In this study, numerical and experimental investigations on the heating behavior of the substrate and nozzle wall were conducted to clarify the temperature distribution within the solid bodies in CS. The results show that after heating by the hot gas, the highest temperature presents at the center point of the substrate and decreases toward the substrate back surface and edge. With increasing standoff distance or decreasing inlet temperature, the substrate temperature decreases gradually, but the temperature gradient within the substrate changes little. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental measurements. Besides, it is also found that increasing the substrate size (diameter) can lead to the gradual increment in the substrate temperature. Moreover, the numerical study on the temperature distribution within the nozzle wall reveals that the highest temperature presents at the throat section of the nozzle and that the nozzle material significantly affects the temperature distribution within the nozzle wall.

  15. Research on air sprays and unique foam application methods. Phase II report. Laboratory investigation of foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of air sprays and foam systems for dust control on longwall double-drum shearer faces. Laboratory testing has been conducted using foam systems and promising results have been obtained. Upon Bureau approval, underground testing will be scheduled to assess the effectiveness of foam systems under actual operating conditions. Laboratory testing of air sprays is being conducted at present. This report presents the results of the laboratory testing of foam systems. Specifically, the results obtained on the evaluation of selected foaming agents are presented, the feasibility investigation of flushing foam through the shearer-drum are demonstrated, and conceptual layout of the foam system on the shearer is discussed. The laboratory investigation of the selected foaming agents reveal that the Onyx Microfoam, Onyx Maprosyl and DeTer Microfoam foaming agents have higher expansion ratios compared to the others tested. Flushing foam through the shearer drum is entirely feasible and could be a viable technique for dust suppression on longwall faces.

  16. Delamination Strength of WC-Co Thermal-Sprayed Coating Under Combined Stresses by Torsion-Tension Pin-Test Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Higaki, Keitaro

    2014-08-01

    In this report, the delamination strength of WC -Co thermal-sprayed coatings under combined torsion and tension is evaluated using a newly developed method, which is called the torsion -tension pin-test. First, the effects of both the pin diameter and the coating thickness on the apparent delamination strength were investigated experimentally. Second, the stress distributions around the interface edge between the pin and the coating were numerically obtained by using the finite element analysis program "MARC." It was confirmed that the fractured plane of the torsion pin coincides with the interfacial plane between the coating and the pin. The apparent delamination strength obtained experimentally decreased linearly with increasing pin diameter and increased with increasing coating thickness t, but it was stable at t of 400 ?m or more. The shear delamination strength decreased with increasing tensile stress. Similar stress distributions were observed at the interface when delaminations occurred for rather thick coatings, independent of the pin diameter. The critical combination of the strength of shear stress fields ( Ks) with that of tensile stress fields ( Ka), i.e., the delamination criteria of the coating under combined shear and tensile loadings, was obtained for a WC-12Co thermal-sprayed coating. These combinations were found to be independent of pin diameter and coating thickness.

  17. A laboratory-based method to measure relative pesticide and spray oil efficacy against broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)(Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    PubMed

    Herron, G; Jiang, L; Spooner-Hart, R

    1996-09-01

    Six pesticides and two spray oils were tested against Polyphagotarsonemus latus. The chemicals were evaluated under laboratory conditions, requiring the development of a novel bioassay method, which is reported here. The pesticide toxicities fell into three distinct groups, namely abamectin, conventional pesticides and oils. The relative pesticide toxicities at the LC50 level were abamectin 4.9 x 10(-8) g ai 1(-1), endosulfan 1.1 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), fenpyroximate 2.3 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), pyridaben 4.1 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), tebufenpyrad 4.4 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), dicofol 4.5 x 10(-3) g ai 1(-1), petroleum spray oil 3.4 x 10(-1) g ai 1(-1) and canola oil 4.1 x 10-(1) g ai 1(-1). The calculation of the LC99.9 values allows for resistance monitoring in P. Latus and the suggested discriminating concentrations are abamectin 1.0 x 10(-4) g ai 1(-1); endosulfan, pyridaben and dicofol 1.0 x 10(-1) g ai 1(-1) fenpyroximate and tebufenpyrad 5.0 x 10(-1) g ai 1(-1). PMID:8952071

  18. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (?p = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  19. Pyrolysis-GC/MS of Black Carbon: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaal, J.

    2009-04-01

    Analytical pyrolysis uses controlled thermal degradation (flash heating at ~500-700 °C under anaerobic conditions) to break down large molecules. When combined with GC/MS it facilitates chemical characterisation of macromolecular organic substances. In the last 15 years a substantial body of research has probed the chemical properties of Black Carbon (BC) using pyrolysis-GC/MS. Generally speaking, with only limited success. It confirmed the obvious aromatic nature of BC, enrichment of PAHs and heterocyclic N during fire and it gave information on the variable susceptibility of different biocomponents to thermal impact. Drawbacks often mentioned are the interference of analytical artefacts with the products of BC and the large proportion of non-pyrolysable residue. As a result, analytical pyrolysis is not on the wish list of most researchers of biomass-derived BC. However, the majority of these studies employed a low pyrolysis temperature (meaning incomplete pyrolysis), focussed on markers of biomass that survived charring (instead of on the products obtained from the BC itself), did not discuss the pyrolysates in detail (e.g. the important pyrolysis product benzene is frequently ignored, rendering it difficult to compare studies), did not quantify the pyrograms (small differences between samples overlooked) and involved recent laboratory charcoal (which behaves differently from aged natural BC under pyrolytic conditions). Aiming to prompt initiative to re-evaluate the available data, this presentation is a short overview of BC studies involving pyrolysis-GC/MS. In addition, some preliminary results obtained with an improved method are presented, showing that the pyrograms harbour so far ignored information on e.g. burning intensity.

  20. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sublingual spray unit in one of the provided disposal bags. Remove the backing from the adhesive strip ... Spray the content of the unit into the disposal bottle provided in the packaging. Repeat with each ...

  1. Hydrodechlorination of dichlorobiphenyls over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by spray-drying method.

    PubMed

    Gryglewicz, G; Stolarski, M; Gryglewicz, S; Klijanienko, A; Piechocki, W; Hoste, S; Van Driessche, I; Carleer, R; Yperman, J

    2006-01-01

    The hydrodechlorination (HDCl) process of 2,3-, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorobiphenyls was studied over a sulphided Ni-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst in a stirred autoclave at a hydrogen pressure of 3 MPa. The catalysts were prepared by spray-drying. They were characterized by N(2) adsorption, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis. The reaction temperature of the catalytic HDCl process was varied in the range of 230-290 degrees C. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) free transformer oil was used as reaction medium. The HDCl degree of dichlorobiphenyl isomers was in the range of 82-93%. The efficiency in the chlorine removal was found to be related to the position of the substituted chlorine atom and decreased as follows 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl approximately 2,5-dichlorobiphenyl>2,3-dichlorobiphenyl. For comparison, the HDCl process of 2,3-dichlorobiphenyl (2,3-PCB) without catalyst was also studied. The chlorine removal was 85% for the catalytic HDCl of 2,3-PCB whereas non-catalytic process led only to 16% of dechlorination in the same operating conditions, i.e. at 290 degrees C after 120 min. Monodichlorobiphenyls were not detected in the reaction products. The data for both catalytic and non-catalytic conversion of 2,3-PCB fit to a first-order model. Kinetic constants and the activation energy of the overall HDCl reaction of 2,3-PCB to biphenyl were evaluated. Compared to non-catalytic process, a nearly threefold decrease in the activation energy was observed in the presence of Ni-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst prepared by spray-drying (48 kJ mol(-1) vs. 124 kJ mol(-1)). PMID:15949837

  2. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  3. Azelastine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child-resistant screw cap and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine ... last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist ...

  4. Titanium Cold Spray Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihane Ajaja; Dina Goldbaum; Richard Chromik; Stephen Yue; Ahmad Rezaeian; Wilson Wong; Eric Irissou; Jean-Gabriel Legoux

    2010-01-01

    Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical

  5. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  6. Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-05-01

    The thermal degradation of tyrosine at a residence time of 0.2s was conducted in a tubular flow reactor in flowing N2 and 4% O2 in N2 for a total pyrolysis time of 3min. The fractional pyrolysis technique, in which the same sample was heated continuously at each pyrolysis temperature, was applied. Thermal decomposition of tyrosine between 350 and 550°C yielded predominantly phenolic compounds (phenol, p-cresol, and p-tyramine), while decomposition between 550 and 800°C yielded hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene as the major reaction products. For the first time, the identification of p-tyramine, a precursor for the on of formation of p-tyramine and its degradation to phenol and p-cresol, and toxicological discussion of some of the harmful reaction products is also presented. PMID:23490178

  7. Influence of nozzle-to-skin distance in cryogen spray cooling for dermatologic laser surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Aguilar; Boris Majaron; Karl Pope; Lars O. Svaasand; Enrique J. Lavernia; J. Stuart Nelson

    2001-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cryogen sprays are used for cooling human skin during various laser treatments. Since characteristics of such sprays have not been com- pletely understood, the optimal atomizing nozzle design and operating conditions for cooling human skin remain to be determined. Materials and Methods: Two commercial cryogenic spray nozzles are characterized by imaging the sprays and the resulting areas

  8. Spray deposition process of polycrystalline thin films of CuWO 4 and study on its photovoltaic electrochemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant K. Pandey; N. S. Bhave; R. B. Kharat

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of copper tungstate (CuWO4) thin film for the first time by Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process using its ammonical solution as precursor is presented here. The growth of the film takes place by pyrolytic decomposition of the spraying precursor solution onto the preheated glass substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms the polycrystalline, single-phase nature of the sintered films. Scanning

  9. Sulfur distribution within coal pyrolysis products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Czaplicki; Wojciech Smo?ka

    1998-01-01

    The pyrolysis of coal leads to distribution of sulfur compounds in pyrolysis gas, char and tar generated during the process. The effect of the process parameters of autothermal coal pyrolysis in the circulating fluidized bed reactor on total sulfur distribution has been investigated. Several experimental tests were performed at the temperature of 920°C. Non-coking coal from the Wieczorek Mine (Upper

  10. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

  11. Pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Selim; Topçu, Y?ld?ray

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at investigating physicochemical properties and pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk, an abundant agricultural waste in Turkey. The physicochemical properties were determined by bomb calorimeter, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Physicochemical analysis results showed that hazelnut husk has a high calorimetric value and high volatile matter content. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert conditions and operated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20°C/min). Three different kinetic models, the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models and Coats-Redfern method were applied on TGA data of hazelnut husk to calculate the kinetic parameters including activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order. Simulation of hazelnut husk pyrolysis using data obtained from TGA analysis showed good agreement with experimental data. Combining with physicochemical properties, it was concluded that this biomass can become useful source of energy or chemicals. PMID:24508656

  12. A Comparative study of microwave-induced pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong; Xu, Jing; Huang, Feng; Mamaeva, Alisa

    2015-08-01

    Microwave (MW) pyrolysis of algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied using a modified domestic oven. The pyrolysis temperature was recorded continuously by inserting a thermocouple into the samples. Temperatures as high as 1170 and 1015°C were achieved for peanut shell and Chlorella vulgaris. The activation energy for MW pyrolysis was calculated by Coats-Redfern method and the values were 221.96 and 214.27kJ/mol for peanut shell and C. vulgaris, respectively. Bio-oil yields reached to 27.7wt.% and 11.0wt.% during pyrolysis of C. vulgaris and peanut shell, respectively. The bio-oil samples from pyrolysis were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis contained more phenolic compounds while that from microalgae pyrolysis contained more nitrogen-containing species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results showed that concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char samples decreased significantly after pyrolysis. PMID:25935388

  13. soluble fish proteins obtained by enzymatic treatment of fresh fish offals dried according to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim- milk powder into the feeds containing fish concentrates. The milk substitutes were offered between i2 and 35 days of age and progressively replaced by a standard starter ration containing 20 p. 100 proteins. Performances of the animals

  14. Method of creating starch-like ultra-fine rice flour and effect of spray drying on formation of free fatty acid.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour from long, medium, and short grain cultivars were processed by passing a 32% rice flour slurry through a microfluidizer at 100 MPa, and spray dryer at three different outlet temperatures, OT (50°C, 80°C, and 115°C). Spray drying conditions were controlled by the flow-rate of the slurry ...

  15. Simplifying pyrolysis; using gasification to produce corn stover and wheat straw biochar for sorptive and horitcultural media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a renewable, useful material that can be utilized in many different applications. Biochar is commonly produced via pyrolysis methods using a retort-style oven with inert gas. Gasification is another method that can utilize pyrolysis to produce biochar, but with the advantage of not requir...

  16. Initial Stages of Pyrolysis of Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Konstantin V.

    Combustion and flammability of plastics are important topics of practical interest directly related to fire safety and recycling of polymeric materials; pyrolysis of the solid is the initial step of its combustion. One of the main ways to study such complicated processes is through detailed mechanistic modeling, in which the process is represented by a set of many elementary reactions. Mechanistic modeling of combustion of plastics is considerably hindered by the lack of necessary kinetic data. In virtually all existing models of polymer pyrolysis the majority of kinetic data used are derived from the corresponding gas phase values of smaller species. The use of gas phase rate constants is, generally, not justified without an experimental justification. In the first part of the work the influence of condensed phase on the rate of scission of a carbon-carbon bond (the reaction that initiates pyrolysis and combustion) in polyethylene (PE) was studied using the method of Reactive Molecular Dynamics (RMD). A method based on a two-step kinetic mechanism was developed to decouple the cage effect from the kinetics of the reaction under study. It was observed that under the conditions of condensed phase the rate constant of C-C bond scission in PE decreased by an order of magnitude compared to that obtained in vacuum. It was also shown that under the conditions of polymer melt the rate constant does not depend on the length of the polymer chain. In the second part of the work the kinetics of liquid phase and gas phase products of PE pyrolysis were studied experimentally using Gas Chromatography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Based on the assumption of applicability of gas phase kinetic data for C-C scission reaction and beta-scission reaction under the conditions of polymer melt, rate constants of hydrogen transfer, radical addition to double bonds, and radical recombination were determined via kinetic modeling of the experimental results. The obtained values of the rate constants were found to be in reasonable agreement with the constants of similar reactions of smaller molecules in the gas phase.

  17. Protein Inhalation Powders: Spray Drying vs Spray Freeze Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuh-Fun Maa; Phuong-Anh Nguyen; Theresa Sweeney; Steven J. Shire; Chung C. Hsu

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. To develop a new technique, spray freeze drying, for preparing protein aerosol powders. Also, to compare the spray freeze-dried powders with spray-dried powders in terms of physical properties and aerosol performance.

  18. Application of off-line pyrolysis with dynamic solid-phase microextraction to the GC–MS analysis of biomass pyrolysis products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Torri; Daniele Fabbri

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis coupled with dynamic solid-phase micro extraction (Py-SPME) followed by GC–MS analysis was applied to the determination of volatile compounds evolved by a micro-scale off-line pyrolysis apparatus, in order to extend the information affordable with this type of analytical equipment. The Py-SPME method with a carboxen\\/PDMS fiber working in the retracted mode was tested on four biomass samples (switchgrass, sweet

  19. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, S.V.; Coleman, D.D.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Brown, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (??13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and ??13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and ??13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  1. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  2. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  3. Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method to quantitate acyclovir in cross-linked chitosan microspheres produced by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Murakami, Fábio S; Silva, Marcos A S; Laranjeira, Mauro C M

    2008-07-01

    An accurate, simple, reproducible, and sensitive liquid chromatographic method is developed and validated to quantitate acyclovir (ACV) in cross-linked chitosan microspheres produced by spray drying. The analysis is carried out using a reversed-phase C18 column with UV-vis detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase is diluted with pure water and acetonitrile (95:5 v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. The parameters used in the validation process are: linearity, range, quantitation limit, detection limit, accuracy, specificity precision, and ruggedness. The retention time of acyclovir is approximately 3.5 min with symmetrical peaks. The linearity in the range of 1-10 microg/mL presents a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The chitosan and the tripolyphosphate in the formulation do not interfere with the analysis, and the recovery is quantitative. Results are satisfactory, and the method proves to be suitable to quantitate ACV in cross-linked chitosan microspheres. PMID:18647469

  4. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  5. Kinetic studies on the pyrolysis of pinewood.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Garima; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2015-04-01

    The kinetic study for pyrolysis of pine wood has been studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer in an inert atmosphere. Non isothermal model free kinetic methods were used to evaluate kinetics at six different heating rates of 5-40°C/min. Three zones can be detected from the iso-conversional plot of pine with average activation energy values of 134.32 kJ/mol, 146.89 kJ/mol and 155.76 kJ/mol in the conversion range of 1-22%, 24-84% and 85-90%, respectively. The activation energy values were used to determine the reaction mechanism using master plots and compensation parameters. The results show that the pyrolysis process of pine wood can be described by two dimensional diffusion reaction mechanism in a wide range of conversion up to 0.7, followed by close to one and half order reaction mechanism. The kinetic results were validated by making isothermal predictions from non-isothermal data. PMID:25704102

  6. Adhesion Strength of Thermal Barrier Coatings with Thermal-Sprayed Bondcoat Treated by Compound Method of High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam and Grit Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Guan, Qingfeng; Lv, Peng; Hou, Xiuli; Wang, Zhiping; Han, Zhiyong

    2015-06-01

    Microstructural characteristics and adhesion properties of air plasma spraying, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) having thermally sprayed bond coats treated by high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation, and a combination treatment of HCPEB and grit blasting were investigated. Microstructure observations revealed that the original coarse surface of thermally sprayed bond coat was significantly changed to interconnected bulged nodules with a compact appearance after HCPEB irradiation. With further grit blasting treatment, these series of bulged nodules appeared with successive and uniform jagged edges. Surface roughness of the bond coat after compound treatment became higher due to these bulged nodules with jagged edges, which was conducive to ceramic deposition. The results of the tensile test revealed that the adhesion strength of thermally sprayed TBCs with the bond coats conducted by a compound treatment was obviously increased. The combination treatment of HCPEB and grit blasting improved the interfacial bonding strength as well as the interfacial homogeneity.

  7. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  8. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Stuart, FL); Sanders, Stuart A. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  9. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of safflower seed: influence of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and compositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Beis; Ö. Onay; Ö. M. Koçkar

    2002-01-01

    Fixed-bed slow pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of safflower seed to determine particularly the effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their chemical compositions. The maximum oil yield of 44% was obtained at the final pyrolysis temperature of 500°C, particle size range of +0.425–1.25 mm,

  10. Pyrolysis and oxidation of aromatic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the questions associated with the use of alternate fuels demands knowledge of the chemical mechanism of pyrolysis and oxidation of aromatic compounds. Both pyrolysis and oxidation are important, because fuel-rich conditions may mean that pyrolysis is competitive with oxidation. Soot formation is certainly a pyrolysis problem. The complexity of system characteristics makes a detailed study of thermodynamical and kinetic conditions difficult. The matter can be simplified somewhat by generalizing the chemistry by classes of molecules. The criteria for such a generalization of the chemistry are discussed along with an evaluation of the rate constants and their temperature and pressure dependences. Attention is given to the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, the oxidation of hydrocarbons, the oxidation reactions of alkanes, aspects of codification and extrapolation, group additivity, structural consideration, kinetics, and the pyrolysis of aromatic compounds.

  11. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P. [Heidelberger Baustofftechnik GmbH, Leimen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  12. Study of TEOS and TPOS anticorrosion coatings developed at different ranges of pyrolysis temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, Khaled M. E.

    2003-07-01

    Anticorrosion coatings were produced by spraying pure simple silane compounds, either tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or tetraphenoxysilane (TPOS), in a preheated furnace on specimens of carbon steel alloy. These specimens were thermally decomposed over various temperature ranges, covering a total temperature range of 20-1050 °C. This temperature range was divided into four sectors. The specific functions of each of these sectors were described as: hydrolysis (20-50 °C), low pyrolysis (50-250 °C), middle pyrolysis (250-750 °C), and high pyrolysis (750-1050 °C). SEM, ultrasonic vibration (USV), plane-cross polarized microscope, micro-hardness tester, XRD, and cyclic voltammography were utilized for analysis of the produced coatings. A comparison study between the anticorrosion coatings produced using TEOS or TPOS was targeted to evaluate two aspects. The first was the microstructure morphologies and corresponding variations of the chemical constituents and textural surfaces of the TEOS and TPOS coating materials at the selected pyrolysis temperature ranges. The second was the property of the TEOS and TPOS anticorrosion coating materials producing minimal decay for electrochemical protection of carbon steel alloy against corrosion under low and high acidic conditions.

  13. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of aquatic biomass using thermogravimetric analyzer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kejing; Liu, Ji; Wu, Yulong; Chen, Yu; Li, Qinghai; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Mingde

    2014-07-01

    The differences in pyrolysis process of three species of aquatic biomass (microalgae, macroalgae and duckweed) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Three stages were observed during the pyrolysis process and the main decomposition stage could be divided further into three zones. The pyrolysis characteristics of various biomasses were different at each zone, which could be attributed to the differences in their components. A stepwise procedure based on iso-conversional and master-plots methods was used for the kinetic and mechanism analysis of the main decomposition stage. The calculation results based on the kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental data of weight loss, and each biomass had an increasing activation energy of 118.35-156.13 kJ/mol, 171.85-186.46 kJ/mol and 258.51-268.71 kJ/mol in zone 1, 2 and 3, respectively. This study compares the pyrolysis behavior of various aquatic biomasses and provides basis for further applications of the biomass thermochemical conversion. PMID:24768943

  14. Fate of forms of arsenic in Yima coal during pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiqing Liu; Jianli Yang; Yong Xiao; Zhenyu Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2009-04-15

    Forms of arsenic in a Chinese bituminous coal, Yima, and their transformation behaviors during coal pyrolysis were investigated. The chemical leaching method was used to characterize the forms of arsenic in the raw coal and the chars. The effect of minerals on arsenic release was also studied. It was found that about 72% arsenic in YM coal is bound to sulfide species; 16% to sulfates, phosphates, or oxides; 10% to organic species; and 2% to aluminosilicates. The organic-bound arsenic is the most releasable, while the aluminosilicates-bound arsenic is the least releasable. Aluminosilicates inhibit arsenic release due to the formation of aluminosilicates-bound arsenic during pyrolysis. Sulfides, sulfates, phosphates, or oxides may also restrain arsenic release. Carbonates and ion exchangeable minerals in Yima coal do not show any significant influence on the release of arsenic during coal pyrolysis. Secondary reactions between arsenic and the coal matrix should exist, as evidenced by significant increase in organic-bound arsenic in chars obtained from pyrolysis in a temperature range of 300-700{sup o}C. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Physicochemical Characterization and In Vivo Evaluation of Amorphous and Partially Crystalline Calcium Phosphate Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Implants by the Plasma Spray Method

    PubMed Central

    Bonfante, Estevam A.; Witek, Lukasz; Tovar, Nick; Suzuki, Marcelo; Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the topographic and chemical properties of 2 bioceramic coated plateau root form implant surfaces and evaluate their histomorphometric differences at 6 and 12 weeks in vivo. Methods. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interferometry (IFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Implants were placed in the radius epiphysis, and the right limb of dogs provided implants that remained for 6 weeks, and the left limb provided implants that remained 12 weeks in vivo. Thin sections were prepared for bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO) measurements (evaluated by Friedman analysis P < 0.05). Results. Significantly, higher Sa (P < 0.03) and Sq (P < 0.02) were observed for ACP relative to PSHA. Chemical analysis revealed significantly higher HA, calcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate for the PSHA surface. BIC and BAFO measurements showed no differences between surfaces. Lamellar bone formation in close contact with implant surfaces and within the healing chambers was observed for both groups. Conclusion. Given topographical and chemical differences between PSHA and ACP surfaces, bone morphology and histomorphometric evaluated parameters showed that both surfaces were osseoconductive in plateau root form implants. PMID:22969806

  16. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu.

    PubMed

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Ramesh, B; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-05-01

    "Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  17. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu

    PubMed Central

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao; Ramesh, B.; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    “Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  18. Kinetic studies of overlapping pyrolysis reactions in industrial waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Zhenpeng

    2009-07-01

    A sludge pyrolytic kinetics model was established in this study. Two types of sewage sludge from different industrial wastewater treatment plant produced different DTG (Derivative Thermogravimetry) shapes with an overlapping pattern. The multi-heating rate method was conducted to evaluate the kinetics for obtaining reasonable pyrolysis mechanisms and DTG curves were divided into several peaks using the Lorentz fitting method based on the composition of the sludge and the desire for precision. The peaks formed corresponded to the pyrolysis reactions of volatile matter, microbe cells, proteins, inorganic substances and char respectively, which can be reasonably explained based on the results from the flue gas analyzer and the chemical analysis. Two types of sewage sludge were found to have similar pyrolysis mechanisms. Reasonable reasons were also given to explain the distortion and lag observed in the DTG curves and pyrolysis mechanism. PMID:19342231

  19. Study of the tribological behavior of an Ni electron brush plating layer on a base of an Arc sprayed coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianjun Liu; Binschi Xu; Shining Ma; Zigang Chen

    1997-01-01

    Toolmaking by Arc sprayed metal is a new field of Arc spraying application, a low cost, high efficiency method for producing molds for plastic products, Al- or Zn-based wires can only be used as spray materials at the present stage. In order to improve the anti-wear property of the Arc sprayed mold, the Ni layer is electron brush plated on

  20. Evaluation of coatings produced via kinetic and cold spray processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. van Steenkiste; J. R. Smith

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of physical and mechanical properties of coatings produced by kinetic and cold spray processes is presented. Adhesion, hardnesses, porosities, critical velocities, and other properties of aluminum and copper coatings from both spray methods are analyzed and discussed, including scanning electron microscopy and optical micrographs. Similarities and differences between each of the coating methods and their effects on the

  1. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuyet Phuong Dang; Gia Hy Le; Thi Thu Giang Pham; Trung Kien Nguyen; Duc Canh Dao; Thi Minh Hong Vu; Thi Thu Thuy Hoang; Thi Kim Hoa Tran; Anh Tuan Vu

    2011-01-01

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an ‘atomic implantation method’ and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous type mesoporous silica.-15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared

  2. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  3. Spray drift mitigation with spray mix adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  4. Corn and sorghum performance are affected by irrigation application method: SDI versus mid-elevation spray irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency (WUE), but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through the planting, early growth and yield developme...

  5. Structural, optical, electrical and photovoltaic electrochemical characterization of spray deposited NiWO 4 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant Kumar Pandey; N. S. Bhave; R. B. Kharat

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of nickel tungstate (NiWO4) thin film by spray pyrolysis (SP) with ammonical solution is presented. The phase and surface morphology characterizations have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, respectively. The study of optical absorption spectrum in the wavelength range 350–850nm shows the presence of direct as well as indirect band gaps

  6. Effect of substrate temperature on electrochromic properties of spray-deposited Ir-oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale

    2005-01-01

    Electrochromic iridium oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates, from iridium chloride solution. The substrate temperature was varied between 250 and 400°C. The as-deposited samples were amorphous. The electrochromic properties of thin films were studied in aqueous electrolyte (0.5N H2SO4) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry

  7. Characterization of spray deposited CoWO 4 thin films for photovoltaic electrochemical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Pandey; N. S. Bhave; R. B. Kharat

    2007-01-01

    Preparation of Cobalt tungstate (CoWO4) thin film by spray pyrolysis with ammonical solution as a precursor is presented. The phase and surface morphology characterizations\\u000a have been carried out by XRD and SEM analysis. The study of optical absorption spectrum in the wavelength range 350 – 850 nm\\u000a shows direct as well as indirect optical transitions in the thin film material. The

  8. Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of lanthanum selenide (La 2Se 3) thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Bagde; S. D. Sartale; C. D. Lokhande

    2003-01-01

    The versatile spray pyrolysis technique was employed to prepare thin films of lanthanum selenide (La2Se3) on glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates under optimized conditions. The deposition temperature was 250°C. The X-ray studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with single La2Se3 phase. The estimated optical band gap was found to be 2.6eV. The dielectric properties

  9. Morphology and composition of spray-flame-made yttria-stabilized zirconia nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Jossen; Roger Mueller; Sotiris E. Pratsinis; Mark Watson; M. Kamal Akhtar

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with 8-31 nm average crystallite and particle diameter containing 3-10 mol% yttria are made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) of various yttrium and zirconium precursors at production rates up to 350 g h-1. Product particles are characterized by N2 adsorption (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of

  10. Effects of oxygen ion implantation in spray-pyrolyzed ZnO thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Vijayakumar; P. M. Ratheesh Kumar; C. Sudha Kartha; K. C. Wilson; F. Singh; K. G. M. Nair; Y. Kashiwaba

    2006-01-01

    ZnO thin films, prepared using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique, were implanted using 100 keV O+ ions. Both pristine and ion-implanted samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, electrical resistivity measurements, thermally stimulated current measurements and photoluminescence. Samples retained their crystallinity even after irradiation at a fluence of 1015 ions\\/cm2. However, at a still higher fluence of 2 ×

  11. Examination of sulfur forms in coal by direct pyrolysis and flameless ozone-sulfur chemiluminescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Glinski, R.J.; Xu, Xiaoyang; McGowan, C.W. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The extremely high selectivity of the newly developed ozone-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) has been coupled with controlled-temperature pyrolysis to allow qualitative and semiquantitative determination of sulfur forms in coal. Pyrolysis products from the heating of a sulfur containing solid sample were swept directly through a high-temperature conversion tube and into the SCD to yield a strong signal. Upon heating the pyrolysis tube from room temperature to 700 degrees C, several distinct peaks were observed by the SCD, identified as being due to aliphatic sulfides and thiols, elemental sulfur, simple thiophenes, pyrite, and complex thiophenes. Standard addition of the pure inorganic substances provided semiquantitative determinations. Three coals were examined and could be quickly and easily distinguished by their sulfur forms. The results are compared with those of other pyrolysis methods.

  12. Pyrolysis-gas chromatographic analysis of alkylbenzenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Švob; D. Deur-Šiftar; CAMG Cramers

    1972-01-01

    The identification of alkylbenzenes by pyrolysis-gas chromatography was carried out through the analysis of the light pyrolysis products. In the range of C7 to C12 a number of 43 alkylbenzenes was investigated. All these compounds were unambiguously identified as well as the isomers which do not give significant differences in the mass spectra. A possible degradation mechanism is discussed.

  13. Toxicity of pyrolysis products: Influence of experimental conditions - The MSTL/UT and NASA/JSC Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.; Raje, R. R.; Singh, A. R.; Autian, J.

    1978-01-01

    Ten sample materials of various polymeric composition were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis products utilizing two significantly different experimental methods, the MSTL/UT and NASA/JSC Procedures. A comparison of the LD(50) values obtained by the two methods for these ten samples did not yield a significant correlation. However, when the samples were ranked in order of increasing toxicity by each method independently, a comparison of their rank order toxicity improved the correlation. Because of interlaboratory variations in pyrolysis/combustion test procedures, it is suggested a series of standard materials be adopted to facilitate interlaboratory comparisons of data on pyrolysis toxicity.

  14. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePLUS

    Nasacort® Allergy 24HR ... watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not be used to ... the release of certain natural substances that cause allergy symptoms.

  15. Sensors in Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and certain spray parameters (spray pattern, coating temperature…), or defining a good working area through factorial design, or using artificial intelligence based on artificial neural network (ANN) to predict particle in-flight characteristics and coating structural attributes from the knowledge of processing parameters.

  16. Variation in Miscanthus chemical composition and implications for conversion by pyrolysis and thermo-chemical bio-refining for fuels and chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Hodgson; D. J. Nowakowski; I. Shield; A. Riche; A. V. Bridgwater; J. C. Clifton-Brown; I. S. Donnison

    2011-01-01

    Different species and genotypes of Miscanthus were analysed to determine the influence of genotypic variation and harvest time on cell wall composition and the products which may be refined via pyrolysis. Wet chemical, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) methods were used to identify the main pyrolysis products and determine the extent to which genotypic differences in cell wall

  17. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Lavernia; J-P Delplanque; K. M. McHugh

    2006-01-01

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at

  18. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  19. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  20. Directed spray mast

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Siddall, Alvin A.; Cheng, William Y.; Counts, Kevin T.

    2005-05-10

    Disclosed is an elongated, tubular, compact high pressure sprayer apparatus for insertion into an access port of vessels having contaminated interior areas that require cleaning by high pressure water spray. The invention includes a spray nozzle and a camera adjacent thereto with means for rotating and raising and lowering the nozzle so that areas identified through the camera may be cleaned with a minimum production of waste water to be removed.

  1. Mass spectrometric investigation of the hydrocarbon composition of pyrolysis products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Sosulina; A. A. Polyakova; I. S. Rabinovich; O. F. Glagoleva

    1970-01-01

    1.The hydrocarbon composition of the raw material and products of pyrolysis boiling within a wide temperature range-light oil (low boiling to 195°C), green oil (195–350°C), and hydraulic resin (270–500°C)-was investigated by the methods of molecular mass spectroscopy.2.It was shown that the initial kerosene-gas oil fraction is represented chiefly by saturated hydrocarbons (44% paraffin and 38.9% naphthene), containing from one to

  2. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Nine samples of synthetic polymers were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The materials were polyoxymethylene, polyethylene (five samples), polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene. Of the five polyethylene samples, three contained known levels of chlorine. These test results were combined with earlier data to provide a comparison of 25 samples of synthetic polymers. Polyoxymethylene appeared to exhibit the greatest toxicity, and polystyrene the least toxicity, under these particular test conditions

  3. Life-cycle assessment of flash pyrolysis of wood waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. W. Zhong; B. Song; M. B. M. Zaki

    2010-01-01

    This work analyzes a process known as flash pyrolysis, which produces bio fuels using biomass for power generation. A life-cycle assessment of flash pyrolysis of wood waste was conducted to study whether a flash pyrolysis plant set up locally would be environmentally friendly. The results obtained show that the process of flash pyrolysis of wood waste is in fact environmentally

  4. Spray pyrolytic synthesis of samarium doped ceria (Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 1.9) films for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Patil; S. H. Pawar

    2007-01-01

    Uniform, adherent, single phase samarium doped ceria films have been successfully deposited by spray pyrolysis technique for their application in solid oxide fuel cell. These films have been deposited at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate and subsequently heat treated in tube furnace. Effect of substrate temperature and annealing temperature on phase formation was studied with thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential

  5. Effects of deposition temperature on the surface roughness and the nonlinear optical susceptibility of sprayed deposited ZnO:Zr thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bahedi; M. Addou; M. El Jouad; S. Bayoud; Z. Sofiani

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 400°C, 450°C and 500°C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. The effect of zirconium dopant and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG). The best value of

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME II. APPENDICES D-J

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

  7. Spray Drying of Fruit Juice Using Proteins as Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuosi Wang; Evelyn Konkol; Tim A. G. Langrish

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of manufacturing fruit juice powders was developed by using different proteins as additives when spray drying fruit juices. In this work, protein X was found to improve the yield during the spray drying of orange juice to greater than 80% recovery with less than 5% of protein X added. Other proteins were found to be less compatible

  8. Deposition of metallic coatings on polymer surfaces using cold spray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lupoi; W. O'Neill

    2010-01-01

    Current coating technologies such as plasma spray, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) or laser cladding involve the delivery of molten materials during the deposition process. However, such techniques are not well suited to the deposition of metallic coatings on polymers and composites. Cold spray (CS) has attracted much industrial interest over the past two decades. In this method, a material

  9. VR Spray Painting for Training and Design Jonathan Konieczny

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Gary

    paint including the effects of viscosity, air pressure, and paint pressure. The simulation pro- vides al. uses a spray paint simu- lation that employs ray casting and a flood fill algorithm to fill the e method to simulate spray painting is ray casting, as cast- ing a ray toward a virtual surface is very

  10. Flash flow pyrolysis: mimicking flash vacuum pyrolysis in a high-temperature/high-pressure liquid-phase microreactor environment.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, David; Sheibani, Hassan; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-03-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) is a gas-phase continuous-flow technique where a substrate is sublimed through a hot quartz tube under high vacuum at temperatures of 400-1100 °C. Thermal activation occurs mainly by molecule-wall collisions with contact times in the region of milliseconds. As a preparative method, FVP is used mainly to induce intramolecular high-temperature transformations leading to products that cannot easily be obtained by other methods. It is demonstrated herein that liquid-phase high-temperature/high-pressure (high-T/p) microreactor conditions (160-350 °C, 90-180 bar) employing near- or supercritical fluids as reaction media can mimic the results obtained using preparative gas-phase FVP protocols. The high-T/p liquid-phase "flash flow pyrolysis" (FFP) technique was applied to the thermolysis of Meldrum's acid derivatives, pyrrole-2,3-diones, and pyrrole-2-carboxylic esters, producing the expected target heterocycles in high yields with residence times between 10 s and 10 min. The exact control over flow rate (and thus residence time) using the liquid-phase FFP method allows a tuning of reaction selectivities not easily achievable using FVP. Since the solution-phase FFP method does not require the substrate to be volatile any more--a major limitation in classical FVP--the transformations become readily scalable, allowing higher productivities and space-time yields compared with gas-phase protocols. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and extensive DFT calculations provided essential information on pyrolysis energy barriers and the involved reaction mechanisms. A correlation between computed activation energies and experimental gas-phase FVP (molecule-wall collisions) and liquid-phase FFP (molecule-molecule collisions) pyrolysis temperatures was derived. PMID:22321044

  11. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  12. Catalysis of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Supported PdxCoy Nanoparticles Prepared by a Pyrolysis Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol

    E-print Network

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol Oxidation Reaction Hongwei Yang,a Yahui WangCoy/MWCNTs catalysts toward ethanol oxida- tion reaction (EOR) was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was revealed that the onset potential was ~90 mV lower and the peak current was about four times higher for ethanol oxidation

  13. Quantitation of sugar content in pyrolysis liquids after acid hydrolysis using high-performance liquid chromatography without neutralization.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

    2014-08-13

    A rapid method for the quantitation of total sugars in pyrolysis liquids using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The method avoids the tedious and time-consuming sample preparation required by current analytical methods. It is possible to directly analyze hydrolyzed pyrolysis liquids, bypassing the neutralization step usually required in determination of total sugars. A comparison with traditional methods was used to determine the validity of the results. The calibration curve coefficient of determination on all standard compounds was >0.999 using a refractive index detector. The relative standard deviation for the new method was 1.13%. The spiked sugar recoveries on the pyrolysis liquid samples were between 104 and 105%. The research demonstrates that it is possible to obtain excellent accuracy and efficiency using HPLC to quantitate glucose after acid hydrolysis of polymeric and oligomeric sugars found in fast pyrolysis bio-oils without neutralization. PMID:25093902

  14. An Experimental Investigation and Numerical Analysis of MultiComponent Fuel Spray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang-Jae Myong; Motoyuki Arai; Tomoyuki Tanaka; Jiro Senda; Hajime Fujimoto

    2004-01-01

    In this study, droplet atomization and vaporization characteristics with multi-component fuel were investigated by experimental and numerical simulation methods. Spray characteristics of multi-component fuel including spray cone angle, spray angle and spray tip penetration were analyzed from shadowgraph imaging. Numerical simulation to investigate spatial distribution of fuel-vapor concentration of each component within multi-component fuel was implemented in KIVA code. Vaporization

  15. Preparation, characterisation and optimisation of lithium battery anodes consisting of silicon synthesised using Laser assisted Chemical Vapour Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veliscek, Ziga; Perse, Lidija Slemenik; Dominko, Robert; Kelder, Erik; Gaberscek, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Suitability of silicon prepared using Laser assisted Chemical Vapour Pyrolysis (LaCVP) as a potential anode material in lithium batteries is systematically investigated. Its compositional, morphological, physical-chemical and electrochemical properties are compared to a current benchmark commercial silicon. Important differences in particle size and particle composition are found which, as shown, affect critically the rheological properties of the corresponding electrode slurries. In order to overcome the rheological problems of prepared nanosilicon, we introduce and optimise a spraying method instead of using the usual casting technique for slurry application. Interestingly, the optimised electrodes show similar electrochemical performance, regardless of the particle size or composition of nanosilicon. This unexpected result is explained by the unusually high resistance of electrochemical wiring in silicon-based electrodes (about 60 Ohm per 1 mg cm-2 of active material loading). Despite that, the optimised material still shows a capacity up to 1200 mA h g-1 at a relatively high loading of 1.6 mg cm-2 and after 20 cycles. On the other hand, by decreasing the loading to below ca. 0.9 mg cm-2 the wiring problems are effectively overcome and capacities close to theoretical values can be obtained.

  16. Spray forming of superplastic aluminum sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ingot metallurgy (I/M) processing methods for superplastic aluminum sheet require substantial hot, warm and final cold rolling reduction steps to produce the desired fine grain size and thermally-stable microstructure necessary for superplastic forming (SPF). The rapid solidification rates associated with spray forming offer the potential for economic processing of near net-thickness SPF sheet having alloy compositions that are not possible with conventional ingot metallurgy. To evaluate the application of spray forming for SPF aluminum sheet, a modified 5083 alloy was supplied to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for processing using laboratory spray-forming equipment. Spray-formed sheet specimens were then supplied to the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory for characterization and comparison with conventional I/M-based SPF sheet. Results show that the spray formed material, when processed using appropriate homogenization and cold reduction steps (3:1 total reduction), has an equiaxed grain size of 2--4 {micro}m near the deposition substrate. However, microstructural examination indicates that grain size increases as a function of the distance from the deposition substrate. Tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 550 C and constant strain rates over a range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} to evaluate the superplastic behavior of the spray-formed samples. Results show that the spray-formed material having a 3:1 cold rolling reduction has superplastic elongation equivalent to I/M materials processed with a 60:1 reduction.

  17. From Powders to Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, Pierre; Montavon, Ghislain; Bertrand, Ghislaine

    2010-01-01

    Since the early stages of thermal spray, it has been recognized that the powder composition, size distribution, shape, mass density, mechanical resistance, components distribution for composite particles play a key role in coating microstructure and thermo mechanical properties. The principal characteristics of particles are strongly linked to the manufacturing process. Coatings also depend on the process used to spray particles and spray parameters. Many papers have been devoted to the relationships existing between coating properties and structures at different scales and manufacturing processes. In many conventional spray conditions resulting in micrometric structures, among the different parameters, good powder flow ability, and dense particles are important features. Thermal plasma treatment, especially by RF plasma, of particles, prepared by different manufacturing processes, allows achieving such properties and it is now developed at an industrial scale. Advantages and drawbacks of this process will be discussed. Another point, which will be approached, is the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, depending very strongly upon the starting composite particle manufacturing. However, as everybody knows, "small is beautiful" and nano- or finely structured coatings are now extensively studied with spraying of: (i) very complex alloys containing multiple elements which exhibit a glass forming capability when cooled-down, their under-cooling temperature being below the glass transition temperature; (ii) conventional micrometer-sized particles (in the 30-90 ?m range) made of agglomerated nanometer-sized particles; (iii) sub-micrometer- or nanometer-sized particles via a suspension in which also, instead of particles, stable sol of nanometer-sized particles can be introduced; and (iv) spray solutions of final material precursor. These different processes using plasma, HVOF or sometimes flame and also cold-gas spray will be discussed together with the production of nanometer-sized particles via the chemical reaction method or by a special type of milling: the cryogenic milling process often referred to as "cryomilling."

  18. Assessment of the chemical changes during storage of phenol-formaldehyde resins pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, inverse gas chromatography and Fourier transform infra red methods.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A; Zi?ba-Palus, J; Lachowicz, T

    2014-09-12

    The chemical changes occurring in the phenol-formaldehyde resins (resol and novolac type) during their storage were investigated. In this paper the FT-IR, py-GCMS and inverse gas chromatography methods were applied for assessment of the changes occurring during storage of the phenolic resins. We have found that during storage some examined resins occurred partial curing. The results from all techniques applied are consistent. Py-GCMS is useful technique for screening the storage processes but IGC seems to be most sensitive one. PMID:25092596

  19. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and time on the cellulose fast pyrolysis products: Analytical Py-GC\\/MS study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Lu; Xiao-chu Yang; Chang-qing Dong; Zhi-fei Zhang; Xu-ming Zhang; Xi-feng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of cellulose and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on the distribution of the pyrolytic products, especially the formation characteristics of eighteen important products. During the fast pyrolysis process, the cellulose started decomposition to form organic volatile

  20. Effect of pH of spray solution on the electrical properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodlur, R. M.; Gunnagol, Raghu M.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2015-06-01

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis technique on glass at 375 °C substrate temperature. The pH of the spray solution was varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid in the spray solution. The XRD pattern showed cubic phase. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10-4 ? cm (with carrier concentration (n) = 5.1 × 1020 cm-3, mobility (µ)=12.4 cm2/Vs) is observed for pH ˜12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70 %. Thus, without any doping, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of spray solution without compromising the transparency and keeping the other deposition parameters fixed.

  1. A high?performance liquid chromatographic method to determine spreading and penetration of glyphosate spray droplets in some samplers used in forestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alam Sundaram; Kanth M. S. Sundaram

    1995-01-01

    Droplet spreading behaviour of water?based Vision (a commercial formulation of glyphosate) spray mixes was studied, using a size range from 55 to 1495 ?m in diameter. The mixes were prepared to provide a dosage rate of 0.75 kg of glyphosate in 10, 20 and 30 L per ha with and without five different adjuvants, viz., Ethomeen T\\/25 (catiohic), Triton X?45

  2. Spot-spraying Johnsongrass. 

    E-print Network

    Rea, H. E.

    1958-01-01

    of naphtha and diesel fuel oil is the oil spray most generally used. Various other oil mixtures may be used for economy, for increased contact toxicity, or for a combination of contact toxicity and residual effectiveness. Oil sprays kill on contact... Naphtha1 None. Toxicity greater than needed for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts under most conditions. Diesel fuel None. Toxicity low. Reliable oil' or for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts kerosene1 only during hot weather. Use dies e 1 and kerosene inter...

  3. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results concerning high pressure droplet gasification model, droplet turbulent dispersion model, and spray atomization model will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines.

  4. Characterisations Of Al2O3-13% Wt TiO2 Deposition On Mild Steel Via Plasma Spray Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, N. H.; Ghazali, M. J.; Isa, M. C.; Daud, A. R.; Muchtar, A.; Forghani, S.

    2011-01-01

    To date, plasma sprayed alumina titania have been widely used as wear resistance coatings in textile, machinery and printing industries. Previous studies showed that the coating microstructures and properties were strongly depended on various parameters such as ceramic composition, grain size powders and spray parameters, thus, influencing the melting degree of the alumina titania during the deposition process. The aim of this study focuses on the evolution of the micron sizes of alumina-13%wt titania at different plasma spray power, ranging from 20kW to 40kW. It was noted that the coating porosity of alumina-13%wt titania were decreased from 6.2% to 4% by increasing the plasma power from 20 to 40 kW. At lower power value, partially melted powders were deposited, generating over 6% porosity within the microstructures. Percentage of porosity about 5.6% gave the best ratio of bi-modal structures, providing the highest microhardness value. Furthermore, the effect of microstructure and porosity formation on wear resistance was also discussed. Coatings with less porosity exhibited better resistance to wear, in which the wear resistance of coated mild steel possessed only ˜5 x 10-4 cm3/Nm with 4% of porosity.

  5. SRF CAVITY STIFFENING BY THERMAL SPRAYING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bousson; M. Fouaidy; H. Gassot; T. Junquera; J. Lesrel

    In this paper, we report on the advances in the new stiffening method using a thermally sprayed copper layer onto bulk niobium cavities. This technique could be used either for replacing the actual EB welded stiffening rings in TESLA cavities, or to fabricate Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) proton cavities at low ? with reduced niobium thickness. The latest measurements performed

  6. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  7. Molar ratio S/In effect on properties of sprayed In2S3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouguila, Nourredine; Timoumi, Abdelmajid; Bouzouita, Hassen; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Bouchriha, Habib; Rezig, Bahri

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the structural, morphological and optical properties of In2S3 layers deposited on glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis method with the molar ratio S/In varies from 1 to 4. The substrate temperature was maintained at 613 K. The characteristics of these films have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption-transmission and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their structure is strongly dependent on the molar ratio. The deposit is mainly constituted by the ? phase towards (4 0 0) direction. No characteristic peaks were observed for other impurities such as In2O3, S or In2(OH)3. The best crystallinity and surface morphology are obtained at molar ratio equal to 2.5. At this ratio, the crystallites coalesce and the local roughness is of the order of 1 nm. Optical transmission of 80% has been achieved in the visible spectrum. In2S3 band gap energy reached 2.63 eV from layers with x = 2 and deposited at Ts = 613 K.

  8. Spray deposited ?-Bi2O3 nanostructured films with visible photocatalytic activity for solar water treatment.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Mota, Karen; Bizarro, Monserrat; Castellino, Micaela; Tagliaferro, Alberto; Hernández, Aracely; Rodil, Sandra E

    2015-06-01

    Bismuth oxide thin films were obtained by the spray pyrolysis method using bismuth acetate as the precursor salt. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The XRD patterns indicated that the pure ? phase is obtained at 450 °C and was also confirmed by FTIR. This phase presents a nanoplate morphology which is adequate for the photocatalytic reactions. Moreover, the band gap value was 2.6 eV indicating a good capacity of visible light absorption. The photocatalytic degradation of the Methyl Orange (MO) dye was pH dependent, an acid solution being easier to degrade. However, the Bi2O3 films were easily converted into BiOCl when they were in contact with a solution containing HCl. In order to preserve the ?-Bi2O3 phase, the Acid Blue 113 dye with its natural pH of 8 was used to evaluate the stability of the photocatalytic activity after five degradation cycles. The photoactivity was practically stable indicating a good performance of the material. This encouraged us to test the films in a continuous flow solar reactor prototype for the degradation of the dye solution using sunlight radiation exclusively. The good performance of the ?-Bi2O3 films indicates that they can be used for sustainable water treatment applications. PMID:25909244

  9. Advanced manufacturing by spray forming: Aluminum strip and microelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. INEL is developing a unique spray-forming method based on de Laval (converging/diverging) nozzle designs to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Properties of the spray-formed material are tailored by controlling the characteristics of the spray plume and substrate. Two examples are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the replication of micron-scale features in micropatterned polymers during the production of microelectromechanical systems.

  10. Effect of solvent ratio on the properties of highly oriented sprayed fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of F:SnO2 have been deposited onto preheated glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique using pentahydrate stannic chloride (SnCl4·5H2O) and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as precursors and mixture of water and propane-2-ol as solvent. The concentration of SnCl4·5H2O and NH4F is kept fixed and the ratio of water and propane-2-ol solvent in the spraying solution is varied.

  11. A pyrolysis study for the thermal and kinetic characteristics of an agricultural waste with two different plastic wastes.

    PubMed

    Çepelio?ullar, Özge; Pütün, Ay?e E

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermochemical conversion of plastic wastes (PET and PVC) together with an agricultural waste (hazelnut shell) was investigated. In order to determine the thermal and kinetic behaviours, pyrolysis experiments were carried out from room temperature to 800 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C min(-1) in the presence of a N2 atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer. With the obtained thermogravimetric data, an appropriate temperature was specified for the pyrolysis of biomass-plastic wastes in a fixed-bed reactor. At the second step, pyrolysis experiments were carried out at the same conditions with the thermogravimetric analyzer, except the final temperature which was up to 500 °C in this case. After pyrolysis experiments, pyrolysis yields were calculated and characterization studies for bio-oil were investigated. Experimental results showed that co-pyrolysis has an important role in the determination of the pyrolysis mechanism and the process conditions while designing/implementing a thermochemical conversion method where biomass-plastic materials were preferred as raw materials. PMID:25062939

  12. A Spray Spree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore water pressure by conducting an experiment with a garden hose. Learners build a testing apparatus and create PVC nozzles with different sized holes. During the experiment, learners compare how the diameter of the nozzles affect how far the water sprays. The activity webpage includes a fun how-to video for learners and educators.

  13. Peat pyrolysis and the analytical semi-empirical model

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Green, A.E.S. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Clean Combustion Technology Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis of peat could convert this material into useful fuels and valuable hydrocarbons. A study of peat pyrolysis can also serve as a useful bridge between studies of coal pyrolysis and biomass pyrolysis. Using an analytical model of pyrolysis that has previously been applied to biomass and to coal, we present here the results of applications of this model to a representative peat. The analysis suggests means of organizing and processing rate and yield data that should be useful in applications of pyrolysis for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  14. Simulation of a turbulent spray flame using coupled PDF gas phase and spray flamelet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Hai-Wen [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gutheil, Eva [Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    A joint mixture fraction-enthalpy probability density function (PDF) is proposed for the simulation of turbulent spray flames. The PDF transport equation is deduced and modeled. The interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (IEM) model that has been developed for gas-phase flows is extended to describe molecular mixing in nonreactive and reactive spray flows. The joint PDF transport equation is solved by a hybrid finite-volume and Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. Standard spray and turbulence models are used to describe the gas phase and the liquid phase. A turbulent methanol/air spray flame is simulated using the present method. Detailed chemistry is implemented through the spray flamelet model. The precalculated spray flamelet library for methanol/air combustion comprises 23 species and 168 elementary reactions. Thus, the model is capable of predicting the formation of radicals and of pollutants. Different values for the model constant C{sub {phi}} in the IEM model are tested. The numerical results for the gas velocity, the gas temperature, and the mass fraction of methanol vapor are compared with experimental data in the literature. Good agreement with experiment is obtained when C{sub {phi}}=2.0. Marginal PDFs of mixture fraction, enthalpy, and gas temperature are presented. The computed PDFs of mixture fraction are compared with the presumed standard {beta} function and modified {beta} function. The results show that the standard {beta} function fails to reproduce bimodal shapes observed in transported PDF computation, while the modified {beta} function, fits the computed PDFs very well. Moreover, joint PDFs of mixture fraction and enthalpy are presented and analyzed. The enthalpy and mixture fraction are strongly correlated. The samples that deviate from the linear correlation are due to the energy consumption of local spray evaporation. (author)

  15. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  16. Thermal behaviour and kinetics of alga Polysiphonia elongata biomass during pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Selim; Topcu, Y?ld?ray; Ceylan, Zeynep

    2014-11-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of Polysiphonia elongata were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The main decomposition of samples occurred between 225 °C and 485 °C at heating rates of 5-40 °C/min; owing to release of 78-82% of total volatiles. The heating rate effected pyrolysis characteristics such as maximum devolatilization rate and decomposition temperature. However, total volatile matter yield was not significantly affected by heating rate. The activation energy of pyrolysis reaction was calculated by model free Friedman and Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose methods and mean values were 116.23 kJ/mol and 126.48 kJ/mol, respectively. A variance in the activation energy with the proceeding conversions was observed for the models applied, which shows that the pyrolysis process was composed of multi-step kinetics. The Coats-Redfern method was used to determine pre-exponential factor and reaction order. The obtained parameters were used in simulation of pyrolysis process and results were in a good agreement with experimental data. PMID:25194914

  17. Preparation and characterization of spray deposited NiMoO 4 thin films for photovoltaic electrochemical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant Kumar Pandey; N. S. Bhave; R. B. Kharat

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of nickel molybdate (NiMoO4) thin film by spray pyrolysis with ammonical solution as a precursor is presented. The phase and surface morphology characterizations have been carried out by XRD and SEM analysis. The study of optical absorption spectrum in the wavelength range 350–850nm shows direct as well as indirect optical transitions in the thin film material. The dc

  18. Mg-composition induced effects on the physical behavior of sprayed Zn 1? x Mg x O films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Ramakrishna Reddy; P. Prathap; N. Revathi; A. S. N. Reddy; R. W. Miles

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of Zn1?xMgxO, with Mg compositions in the range, 0spray pyrolysis. The effects of altering the alloy composition on the chemical and physical properties of the layers were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman, optical and electrical measurements. The data shows systematic shifts in the properties

  19. Low cost, sprayed CuInSeâ solar cell research. First annual progress report, September 15, 1982September 15, 1983

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Turcotte; J. Lund; L. Moy; M. Squillante; G. Entine

    1983-01-01

    This program is examining a promising new spray pyrolysis technique to deposit thin films of CuInSeâ for terrestrial solar cell applications. This technique is very attractive for depositing high quality thin film CuInSeâ solar cells due to its inherent simplicity and potential low cost. The initial six months of the program focused on studying the solution chemistry and process parameters

  20. Structural, morphological, optical and compositional characterization of spray deposited Ga doped ZnO thin film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amala Rani, A.; Ernest, Suhashini

    2014-11-01

    Zinc Oxide and Gallium doped Zinc Oxide films have been deposited by the Spray Pyrolysis method onto preheated glass substrates using Zinc acetate and Gallium (III) acetyl acetonate as precursors for Zn and Ga ions, respectively. The effect of ZnO and Ga doping on the structural, morphological, optical and chemical properties of sprayed ZnO and Gallium doped ZnO thin films were investigated. XRD studies reveal that the films are crystalline with hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The average transparency in the visible range was around 75% for the thin film deposited using Gallium doping. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to view the changes in the oxidation state of ZnO and Gallium doped ZnO thin films. The ZnO and Gallium doped ZnO thin film has been deposited above the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The efficiency of the obtained DSSC measured for 0.1 M ZnO thin film by sensitizing for 12 h was, ? = 2.5%. Similarly for Gallium doped Zinc Oxide, the efficiency ? is found to be 3.9%, 4.1% and 4.3% for every increase in doping of Gallium concentrations which is utilized for the application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

  1. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling 

    E-print Network

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will examine in depth the development of roof spray cooling in this country and elsewhere, the theory and practice of roof cooling, and the limits of system application. While this relatively simple method of air conditioning has been...

  2. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling

    E-print Network

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will examine in depth the development of roof spray cooling in this country and elsewhere, the theory and practice of roof cooling, and the limits of system application. While this relatively simple method of air conditioning has been...

  3. Laser pyrolysis fabrication of ferromagnetic gamma'-Fe4N and FeC nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Qian, D.; Dickey, E. C.; Allen, J. L.; Eklund, P. C.

    2000-01-01

    Using the laser pyrolysis method, single phase gamma'-Fe4N nanoparticles were prepared by a two step method involving preparation of nanoscale iron oxide and a subsequent gas-solid nitridation reaction. Single phase Fe3C and Fe7C3 could be prepared by laser pyrolysis from Fe(CO)5 and 3C2H4 directly. Characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to measure phase structure, particle size and magnetic properties of these nanoscale nitride and carbide particles. c2000 American Journal of Physics.

  4. Well-to-wheels analysis of fast pyrolysis pathways with the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-01

    The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel natural gas and the amount of fossil natural gas used for hydrogen production is reduced; however, internal hydrogen production also reduces the potential petroleum energy savings (per unit of biomass input basis) because the fuel yield declines dramatically. Typically, a process that has a greater liquid fuel yield results in larger petroleum savings per unit of biomass input but a smaller reduction in life-cycle GHG emissions. Sequestration of the large amount of bio-char co-product (e.g., in soil applications) provides a significant carbon dioxide credit, while electricity generation from bio-char combustion provides a large energy credit. The WTW energy and GHG emissions benefits observed when a pyrolysis oil refinery was integrated with a pyrolysis reactor were small when compared with those that occur when pyrolysis oil is distributed to a distant refinery, since the activities associated with transporting the oil between the pyrolysis reactors and refineries have a smaller energy and emissions footprint than do other activities in the pyrolysis pathway.

  5. Modeling of motion and heating of powder particles in laser, plasma, and hybrid spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Yu.; Bushma, A.; Krivtsun, I.

    2006-12-01

    Mathematical models for simulation of motion and heating of fine ceramic particles in plasma and laser spraying, as well as under conditions of a new technological process, that is, hybrid laser plasma spraying, are proposed. Trajectories, velocities, and temperature fields of fine SiO2 particles being sprayed using the argon plasma jet, CO2 laser beam, and their combination have been calculated. It is shown that the space-time distribution of temperature in spray particles greatly depends on the spraying method.

  6. Selecting samples for Mars sample return: Triage by pyrolysis-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Court, Richard W.; Lewis, James M.; Wright, Miriam C.; Gordon, Peter R.

    2013-04-01

    A future Mars Sample Return mission will deliver samples of the red planet to Earth laboratories for detailed analysis. A successful mission will require selection of the best samples that can be used to address the highest priority science objectives including assessment of past habitability and evidence of life. Pyrolysis is a commonly used method for extracting organic information from rocks but is most often coupled with complex analytical steps such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a less resource demanding method that still allows sample characterisation. Here we demonstrate how pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy could be used to triage samples destined to return to Earth, thereby maximising the scientific return from future sample return missions.

  7. Chemicals and Energy from Medical Polymer Wastes III. Maleated Pyrolysis Products in IPP\\/LLDPE Processing. Morphology and Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Vasile; Rudolph D. Deanin; Mihaela Mihaies; Mihai Leanca; S. Thomas Lee

    1998-01-01

    The changes in the morphology and properties of low density polyethylene\\/polypropylene blends by incorporation of maleated pyrolysis products of disposable syringes have been studied. The following investigation methods have been employed transmission optical microscopy in polarized light, wide angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal properties determination.It has been established that the incorporation of the amorphous maleated pyrolysis products did not

  8. Evaluation of coatings produced via kinetic and cold spray processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Van Steenkiste; J. R. Smith

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of physical and mechanical properties of coatings produced by kinetic and cold spray processes is presented. Adhesion,\\u000a hardnesses, porosities, critical velocities, and other properties of aluminum and copper coatings from both spray methods\\u000a are analyzed and discussed, including scanning electron microscopy and optical micrographs. Similarities and differences between\\u000a each of the coating methods and their effects on the

  9. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality. PMID:24801125

  10. Fullerene synthesis by laser pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, X.; Herlin, N.; Voicu, I.; Cauchetier, M.

    1997-11-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of carbon soots containing fullerenes has been developed i.e. the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in gas, vapour or aerosol phase, which are heated and decomposed through the absorption of IR photons emitted by a high power CW CO2 laser. Hydrocarbons such as benzene (+ cyclopentadiene), acetylene or ethylene have been tested, pure or mixed with an oxidizer agent (nitrous oxide or oxygen) and/or a sensitizer (sulfur hexafluoride). The fullerenes were identified in the soots obtained by using as precursor the benzene/oxygen or acetylene/oxygen mixture. When these compounds are produced in significant amounts they can be detected directly in the as-formed soots by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). For small quantities, a Soxhlet extraction procedure is necessary and the extracts are characterized by FTIR and by other methods which are more sensitive, like mass spectrometry or High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The influence of the operating conditions is discussed.

  11. Production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass using catalytic pyrolysis under helium and hydrogen environments.

    PubMed

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Adhikari, Sushil; Gupta, Ram B; Tu, Maobing; Taylor, Steven

    2011-06-01

    This study is focused on hydrocarbon production through changing carrier gas and using zeolite catalysts during pyrolysis. A large reduction in high molecular weight, oxygenated compounds was noticed when the carrier gas was changed from helium to hydrogen during pyrolysis. A catalytic pyrolysis was conducted using two different methods based on how the biomass and catalysts were contacted together. For both methods, there was no significant change in the carbon yield with the change in pyrolysis environment. However, the mixing-method produced higher aromatic hydrocarbons than the bed-method. In addition, two methods were also tested using two ratios of biomass to catalyst. Nonetheless, there was no significant increase in hydrocarbon yield as the catalyst loading was increased from two to five times of biomass in the catalyst-bed method. In contrast to this, a significant increase was noticed for the catalytic-mixing method when the biomass to catalyst loading was increased from 1:4 to 1:9. PMID:21530240

  12. Synthesis of advanced materials for bio-oil production from rice straw by pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Le, Gia Hy; Thu Giang Pham, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Canh Dao, Duc; Vu, Thi Minh Hong; Thu Thuy Hoang, Thi; Hoa Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2011-12-01

    Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by pyrolysis with and without solid acid catalysts. Solid acid catalysts used in rice straw pyrolysis synthesis were the diatomite acidified by an 'atomic implantation method' and nano-sized porous Al-SBA1SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous type mesoporous silica.-15. Catalysts were characterized by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), N2 adsorption/desorption, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The obtained results revealed that a similar bio-oil yield (liquid product) of 44–48% can be reached by pyrolysis in the presence of solid acid catalysts at 450?°C compared to that of pyrolysis without catalyst at 550?°C. Moreover, a low yield of gas product was observed. These results show significant potential applications of solid acid catalysts for the improvement of bio-oil yield in the pyrolysis of rice straw.

  13. Pyrolysis treatment of oil sludge and model-free kinetics analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Han, Xiangxin; Cui, Zhigang

    2009-01-30

    Pyrolysis of tank bottom oil sludge was investigated to summarize the pyrolysis characteristics through analyzing the change of mass loss, pyrolysis gas compositions in heating process. For this propose, various approaches including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), CNHS/O elemental analysis, electrically heated fixed bed quartz reactor coupled with Vario Plus emission monitoring system, and oil-gas evaluation workstation (OGE-II) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were used. The pyrolysis reaction is significant in the range of 473-773 K where multi-peak DTG curves can be gained. Higher heating rate increases the carbon (C) and sulfur (S) contents but decreases hydrogen (H) content in solid residues. The major gaseous products excluding N(2) are CHs (Hydrocarbons), CO(2), H(2), CO. The yield of CHs is significant in the range of 600-723 K. Higher heating rate causes the peak intensity of CHs evolution to increase and the CHs evolution to move towards a high-temperature region. Around 80% of total organic carbon content (TOC) in oil sludge can be converted into CHs in pyrolysis process. The CHs data were used for kinetic analysis by Vyazovkin model-free iso-conversion approach. Dependences of the activation energy on the degree of conversion obtained from different methods were compared. PMID:18514401

  14. TG/DSC-FTIR and Py-GC investigation on pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Jiang, Bo; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng; Li, Aimin

    2015-09-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were evaluated using TG/DSC-FTIR and fixed-bed reactor with GC. TGA experiments indicated that the pyrolysis of PS proceeded in three phases, and the thermographs shifted to higher temperatures with increasing heating rate. Chars FTIR showed that the absorption of O-H, C-H, CO and C-C decreased with pyrolysis temperatures increasing. Gases FTIR correspondingly showed that H2O, CO, and CH4 generated at higher temperatures. For the fixed-bed reactor tests, H2 and CO were relatively higher in the pyrolysis gases, and CH4 was negligible at 436K. The kinetic triplets of PS pyrolysis were estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and integral master-plots method. The results suggested that the most potential kinetic models for the first and second phase were the order reaction model, while the random nucleation and nuclei growth model for the third phase. PMID:26004556

  15. Flame spraying of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M. [Protech Laboratory Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kirk, S.M. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs.

  16. Tissue Paper Spray Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kohl Children's Museum

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners observe color mixing and absorbency using colored tissue paper and spray bottles. Learners create collages out of colored tissue paper shapes and then lightly mist the tissue paper with water. When the learners remove the colored tissue, a colorful print appears. Use this activity to illustrate how materials absorb water as well as how colors can mix to form new colors.

  17. Formation of perchloroaromatics during trichloroethylene pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, J.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Sosothikul, P.; Monchamp, P.A.; Lafleur, A.L.; Plummer, E.F. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, and Energy Lab., Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (US))

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on measurements of condensed-phase products of trichloroethylene (C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3}) pyrolysis in a drop-tube reactor that were obtained over a temperature range of 1100 - 1500 K. A predominance of perchloroaromatics was found, in sharp contrast to the largely unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon obtained from the pyrolysis of a mixture of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and toluene under similar conditions. A second major difference in the products of these fuels was the much lower carbon number distribution in the pure C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} pyrolysis tars (ranging from C{sub 4} to C{sub 14}), indicative of a significantly reduced rate of carbon growth in the highly chlorinated system. The perchloroaromatic-containing pyrolysis tars were not found to be active using the S. typhimurium cell mutation assay in the presence of enzymes that simulate metabolism, whereas the C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3}/toluene high-temperature pyrolysis tars were strongly mutagenic.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H(2), C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, CO(2), CO and H(2)S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale. PMID:23735607

  20. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  1. Hypergolic bipropellant spray combustion and flow modelling in rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou

    1990-01-01

    A predictive tool for hypergolic bipropellant spray combustion and flow evolution in small rocket combustion chambers is described. It encompasses a computational technique for the gas-phase governing equations, a discrete particle method for liquid bipropellant sprays, and constitutive models for combustion chemistry, interphase exchanges, and unlike impinging hypergolic spray interactions. Emphasis is placed on the phenomenological modeling of the hypergolic liquid bipropellant gasification processes. Sample computations with the N2H4-N2O4 propellant system are given in order to show some of the capabilities and inadequacies of this tool.

  2. Reactivity of the aliphatic humic moiety in analytical pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Saiz-Jimenez

    1995-01-01

    Humic acid from a podzol soil was subjected to conventional flash pyrolysis and pyrolysis\\/methylation in the presence or absence of elemental sulfur. In conventional pyrolysis, fatty and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids decarboxylate. In addition, cyclization and aromatization reactions of aliphatic chains lead to the formation of alkylbenzenes, indenes, naphthalenes, etc. These reactions are enhanced by sulfur and, in addition to the

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of tyres: influence of catalyst temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T Williams; Alexander J Brindle

    2002-01-01

    Two stage pyrolysis–catalysis of used tyres was undertaken to upgrade the derived oil to a highly aromatic oil suitable to be used as a chemical feedstock rather than a liquid fuel. The tyres were pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary fixed bed reactor containing zeolite catalyst. The pyrolysis reactor was

  4. Characterization of spray atomization of 3003 aluminum alloy during linear spray atomization and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.; Lee, S.; McDonell, V.G.; Samuelsen, S.; Lavernia, E.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kozarek, R.L. [Aluminum Co. of America, Alcoa Center, PA (United States). Fluid State Process Design Center

    1998-08-01

    Linear spray atomization and deposition is an attractive technique to produce near-net-shape deposits, such as aluminum sheet and strip. In the present study, phase Doppler interferometry (PDI) was used in a backscatter mode to characterize, in situ, the droplet size and velocity distributions during linear spray atomization and deposition of a 3003 aluminum alloy. The PDI measurements were obtained along axes corresponding to the direction parallel to the nozzle slit and to the direction perpendicular to the slit. The PDI results delineate the temporal and spatial distribution of the droplet size and velocity during the metal spray. Both point and line measurements were obtained and are reported. The line measurements resulted from the integration of measurement made along a line scan obtained in real time (i.e,, not ensemble averaged). Postrun analysis of the droplet size distribution using laser diffraction and sieving techniques is also reported. The PDI point measurements revealed that droplet size and velocity distribution were relatively invariant with time. The line measurements of droplet velocity showed that the droplet axial velocity exhibits a bimodal behavior, which becomes more apparent with increasing atomizing gas pressure, a result of droplet recirculation inside the spray chamber. Postrun characterization of the droplet size distribution of the entire metal spray using diffraction and sieving methods indicated that the mass (volume) median diameter D{sub 50} and the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) D{sub 32} decreased with increasing gas pressure in a manner consistent with PDI results.

  5. Kinetics of pyrolysis of Moroccan oil shale by thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, D.S.; Nuttall, H.E. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of Moroccan oil shale have been studied by isothermal and nonisothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The nonisothermal weight loss data have been analyzed by using three models, while the isothermal TG data have been correlated by using the integral method of kinetic analysis. The combined use of nonisothermal and isothermal TG measurements has shown that the thermal decomposition of Moroccan oil shale involves two consecutive reactions with bitumen as an intermediate. The pyrolysis rates of Moroccan shale are compared with those of Colorado and Jordan shale.

  6. Weibull mixture model for isoconversional kinetic analysis of biomass oxidative pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J. M.; Chen, S. Y.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the possibility of applying the weighted sum of three cumulative Weibull distribution functions for the fitting of the kinetic conversion data of biomass oxidative pyrolysis has been investigated. The kinetic conversion data of the thermal decomposition of olive oil solid waste in oxygen atmosphere for different heating rates have been analyzed. The results have shown that the experimental data can be perfectly reproduced by the general fitting function. Therefore, it is possible to obtain the corresponding conversion rate values of biomass oxidative pyrolysis by differentiating directly the fitted kinetic conversion data. Additionally, the logistic mixture model has been applied to the same experimental data. It can be found that the newly proposed function can provide a better fit of the data than the logistic mixture model. Based on the fitting of Weibull mixture model, the kinetic triples (E, A and f(?)) of oxidative pyrolysis of olive solid waste were obtained by means of Friedman's differential isoconversional method.

  7. Shields to Reduce Spray Drift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HE Ozkan; A Miralles; C Sinfort; H Zhu

    1997-01-01

    The effects of several spray-boom shield designs and ‘‘low-drift ’’ nozzles on spray drift are presented. Results are based on experiments conducted in a wind tunnel. Performances of all experimental shields were evaluated under two spray pressures (0·15 and 0·3MPa), and two air velocities (2·75 and 4·80m\\/s) in the wind tunnel. The distance to the centre of mass of the

  8. Lunar oxygen production by pyrolysis of regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen represents one of the most desirable products of lunar mining and manufacturing. Among the many processes which have been proposed for oxygen production, pyrolysis stands out as one which is uncomplicated and easy to bootstrap. Pyrolysis or vapor-phase reduction involves heating regolith to temperatures sufficient to allow partial decomposition and vaporization. Some metal oxides give up oxygen upon heating, either in the gas phase to form reduced gaseous species or in the condensed phase to form a metallic phase. Based on preliminary experiments and equilibrium calculations, the temperatures needed for pyrolysis are expected to be in the range of 2000 to 2200 K, giving total gas pressures of 0.001 to 0.1 torr. Bulk regolith can be used as a feedstock without beneficiation with concentrated solar radiation supplying most of energy needed. Further, selective condensation of metal-containing species from the gas phase may yield metallic iron and silicon as byproducts.

  9. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  10. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    PubMed

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ?350 °C and ?450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft. PMID:25490209

  11. Cutaneous Effects of Cryogen Spray Cooling on In Vivo NICOLE DATRICE, JULIO RAMIREZ-SAN-JUAN, PHD,y

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Cutaneous Effects of Cryogen Spray Cooling on In Vivo Human Skin NICOLE,Ãy J. STUART NELSON, MD, PHD,ÃzJ AND KRISTEN M. KELLY, MDÃz The cryogen spray cooling method described widespread clinical use of cryogen spray cooling (CSC) in con- junction with laser dermatologic surgery

  12. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of (3H)cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time.

  13. LDRD summary report. Part 1: initiation studies of thin film explosvies used for scabbling concrete. Part 2: investigation of spray techniques for use in explosive scabbling of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Benham, R.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Brock, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a new method for the scabbling of concrete surfaces using a thin layer of explosive material sprayed onto the surfaces. We also developed a new explosive mixture that could be applied with commercial spray painting equipment. The first part of our record describes experiments that studied methods for the initiation of the sprayed explosive. We successfully initiated layers 0.36 mm thick using a commercial EBW detonator, a flying plate detonator, and by pellet impact. The second part of our report describes a survey of spray methods and tests with two commercial spray systems that we believe could be used for developing a robotic spray system.

  14. Consider Upgrading Pyrolysis Oils Into Renewale Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, J.; Marinangeli, R.; Nair, P.; Elliott, D.; Bain, R.

    2008-09-01

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. An alternate route being pursued involves using a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  15. Direct synthesis of PMN samples by spray-drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L Costa; C Galassi; E Roncari

    2002-01-01

    The processing and characterisation of Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3 (PMN) materials, obtained either by spray-drying the solution of the precursors or by the conventional “columbite” method, were investigated and the morphological and micro-structural characteristics were compared. The acid solution of ammonium-peroxo-niobium complex, magnesium and lead nitrates was spray-dried and the precursor powder obtained was calcined at different temperatures ranging from 350 to 900 °C.

  16. Computation of turbulent evaporating sprays: Eulerian versus Lagrangian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hallmann, M.; Scheurlen, M.; Wittig, S. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1995-01-01

    A new Eulerian model for turbulent evaporating sprays is presented. It comprises droplet heating and evaporation processes by solving separate transport equations for the droplet`s temperature and diameter. A Lagrangian approach, which the authors have discussed in detail on other occasions, is used in comparing the results of the new method. A comparison with experimental data shows that both approaches are successful in predicting the main features of turbulent evaporating sprays.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides. PMID:24835746

  18. Rapid evaluation of reaction conditions on coal pyrolyzates using coupled pyrolysis GC\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Miller; S. B. Hawthorne; R. C. Timpe

    1988-01-01

    The optimization of processes using coal as a carbon source for reaction with steam to produce hydrogen requires an understanding of the composition of the voltaile components released during the charring process. A coupled pyrolysis GC\\/MS method has been developed to rapidly evaluate the effect of reaction conditions, including catalysts used to accelerate the char-steam reaction on the composition of

  19. Rapid evaluation of reaction conditions on coal pyrolyzates using coupled pyrolysis GC\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Miller; S. B. Hawthorne; R. C. Timpe

    1988-01-01

    The optimization of processes using coal as a carbon source for reaction with steam to produce hydrogen requires an understanding of the composition of the volatile components released during the charring process. A coupled pyrolysis GC\\/MS method has been developed to rapidly evaluate the effect of reaction conditions, including catalysts used to accelerate the char-steam reaction on the composition of

  20. Characterization of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil distillation residues and their potential applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A typical petroleum refinery makes use of the vacuum gas oil by cracking the large molecular weight compounds into light fuel hydrocarbons. For various types of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, successful analogous methods for processing heavy fractions could expedite integration into a petroleum refinery fo...