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Sample records for spray total opening

  1. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays from Open Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Lee, D W

    1930-01-01

    The penetration and cone-angle of fuel sprays from open nozzles were recorded with the NACA Spray Photography Equipment. The results show that for injection systems in which the rate of pressure rise at the discharge orifice is high, open nozzles give spray-tip velocities and penetrations which compare favorably with those of closed nozzles. The spray cone-angle was the same for all tests, although open nozzles having different orifice diameters were used, and one nozzle was used both as an open and as a closed nozzle. In designing a fuel system using open nozzles, particular care must be taken to avoid air pockets. The check valve should be placed close to the discharge orifice.

  2. Increasing total and biologically active chromium in wheat grain and spinach by spraying with chromium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, F.A.; Ellis, B.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently, chromium has been shown to be necessary for glucose metabolism in man. But most plant species greatly restrict the uptake of Cr. This study was conducted to determine if both total and biologically active Cr could be increased in wheat grain or spinach by spraying the plants with either Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ or Cr-EDTA. Concentrations of Cr in wheat grain were about doubled in a greenhouse experiment by spraying with either Cr source. Biologically active Cr (estimated by extraction with ethanol or NH/sub 4/OH) was increased from about 40 to greater than 50% of total Cr when wheat was sprayed with Cr salts. Total Cr in spinach leaves was increased by as much as 10-fold by spraying, with the sulfate source being more effective than the EDTA.

  3. [Open total dislocation of the talus].

    PubMed

    Grabski, R S; Sosiński, R

    1992-01-01

    A case of 35 years old patient with open, total, fixed dislocation of the talus reduced with heel traction is presented. The Sudeck syndrome subsided after one year. Weight bearing was not allowed for 7 months. An examination after 2.5 years revealed minor osteoarthritis, full range of movement in the foot but limited walking capability. PMID:7555299

  4. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray. PMID:24976831

  5. Design of spray dried insulin microparticles to bypass deposition in the extrathoracic region and maximize total lung dose.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Rao, Nagaraja; Weers, Jeffry G; Huang, Daniel; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-25

    Inhaled drugs all too often deliver only a fraction of the emitted dose to the target lung site due to deposition in the extrathoracic region (i.e., mouth and throat), which can lead to increased variation in lung exposure, and in some instances increases in local and systemic side effects. For aerosol medications, improved targeting to the lungs may be achieved by tailoring the micromeritic properties of the particles (e.g., size, density, rugosity) to minimize deposition in the mouth-throat and maximize the total lung dose. This study evaluated a co-solvent spray drying approach to modulate particle morphology and dose delivery characteristics of engineered powder formulations of insulin microparticles. The binary co-solvent system studied included water as the primary solvent mixed with an organic co-solvent, e.g., ethanol. Factors such as the relative rate of evaporation of each component of a binary co-solvent mixture, and insulin solubility in each component were considered in selecting feedstock compositions. A water-ethanol co-solvent mixture with a composition range considered suitable for modulating particle shell formation during drying was selected for experimental investigation. An Alberta Idealized Throat model was used to evaluate the in vitro total lung dose of a series of spray dried insulin formulations engineered with different bulk powder properties and delivered with two prototype inhalers that fluidize and disperse powder using different principles. The in vitro total lung dose of insulin microparticles was improved and favored for powders with low bulk density and small primary particle size, with reduction of deposition in the extrathoracic region. The results demonstrated that a total lung dose >95% of the delivered dose can be achieved with engineered particles, indicating a high degree of lung targeting, almost completely bypassing deposition in the mouth-throat. PMID:27480399

  6. Nitroglycerin Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the hole, the container will no longer dispense full doses of medication. Do not try to open the container of nitroglycerin spray. This product may catch fire, so do not use near an open flame, and do not allow the container to be burned after use.

  7. Assessment of exposure to pesticides during mixing/loading and spraying of tomatoes in the open field.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Bosi, Anna; Manara, Michele; Mazzocchi, Barbara; Pompini, Alessandra; Sormani, Francesca; Lunghini, Liana; Sciarra, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    Some evidence of exposure-response of metolachlor and pendimethalin for lung cancer and an association of metribuzin with risk of glioma have been reported. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate exposure and occupational risk during mixing/loading of pesticides and during their application to tomatoes cultivated in open fields. Sixteen farmers were sampled. Respiratory exposure was estimated by personal air sampling using fiberglass filters in a IOM device. Dermal exposure was assessed using skin pads and hand washing. Absorbed doses were estimated assuming 100% lung retention, and 50% or 10% skin absorption for metribuzin, and pendimethalin and metolachlor, respectively. The three pesticides were quantified by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in all matrices. Metolachlor was used as a tracer of contamination of clothes and tractors unrelated to the exposure monitored. Respiratory exposure to metribuzin, used in granular form, was on average more than one order of magnitude higher than exposure to pendimethalin, used in the form of microencapsulated liquid. The actual doses were 0.067-8.08 µg/kg bw, 0.420-12.6 µg/kg bw, and 0.003-0.877 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. Dermal exposure was about 88% of the actual dose for metribuzin and more than 95%, for pendimethalin and metolachlor. For risk assessment, the total absorbed doses (sum of respiratory and skin absorbed doses) were compared with the AOEL for each compound. The actual and absorbed doses of the three pesticides were always lower than the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL), which are reported to be 234 µg/kg bw, 20 µg/kg bw, and 150 µg/kg bw for pendimethalin, metribuzin, and metolachlor, respectively. In any case, personal protective equipment and spraying devices should be chosen with care to minimize exposure. PMID:26853603

  8. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  9. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a pressurizer spray valve inadverted fully opening transient and recovery by natural circulation in Jose Cabrera Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, R.; Rebollo, L.

    1993-06-01

    This document presents the comparison between the simulation results and the plant measurements of a real event that took place in JOSE CABRERA nuclear power plant in August 30th, 1984. The event was originated by the total, continuous and inadverted opening of the pressurizer spray valve PCV-400A. JOSE CABRERA power plant is a single loop Westinghouse PWR belonging to UNION ELECTRICA FENOSA, S.A. (UNION FENOSA), an Spanish utility which participates in the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP) as a member of UNIDAD ELECTRICA, S.A. (UNESA). This is the second of its two contributions to the Program: the first one was an application case and this is an assessment one. The simulation has been performed using the RELAP5/MOD2 cycle 36.04 code, running on a CDC CYBER 180/830 computer under NOS 2.5 operating system. The main phenomena have been calculated correctly and some conclusions about the 3D characteristics of the condensation due to the spray and its simulation with a 1D tool have been got.

  10. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  11. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  12. A new technology of CO2 supplementary for microalgae cultivation on large scale - A spraying absorption tower coupled with an outdoor open runway pond.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Dan; Li, Wei; Shi, Yun-Hai; Li, Yuan-Guang; Huang, Jian-Ke; Li, Hong-Xia

    2016-06-01

    An effective CO2 supply system of a spraying absorption tower combined with an outdoor ORWP (open raceway pond) for microalgae photoautotrophic cultivation is developed in this paper. The microalgae yield, productivity and CO2 fixation efficiency were investigated, and compared with those of bubbling method. The maximum yield and productivity of biomass were achieved 0.927gL(-1) and 0.114gL(-1)day(-1), respectively. The fixation efficiency of CO2 by microalgae with the spraying tower reached 50%, whereas only 11.17% for bubbling method. Pure CO2 can be used in the spraying absorption tower, and the flow rate was only about one third of the bubbling cultivation. It shows that this new method of quantifiable control CO2 supply can meet the requirements of the growth of microalgae cultivation on large-scale. PMID:26998713

  13. Spray applicator for spraying coatings and other fluids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Lausten, M. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A self contained spray application is developed for one handed operation in a zero gravity vacuum environment by a free flying astronaut not attached to any spacecraft. This spray applicator eliminates contamination of the operator by back spray. This applicator includes a rigid accumulator containment of a fluid within a flexible bladder the fluid being urged out of the accumulator under pressure through a spray gun. The spray gun includes a spring loaded lockable trigger which controls a valve. When in an open position, the fluid passes through the valve into the ambient environment in the form of a spray. A spray shield is provided which directs the flow of the spray from the applicator by trapping errant particles of spray yet allowing the passage of escaping gases through its material.

  14. Open-Label Study of Craving in Smokers With Schizophrenia Using Nicotine Nasal Spray Compared to Nicotine Patch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill M.; Gandhi, Kunal K.; Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Steinberg, Marc L.; Lu, Shou-En; Foulds, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Nicotine nasal spray (NNS) may be better for relieving acute cigarette cravings than other nicotine replacement and it may help smokers with schizophrenia because of its rapid onset of action. Objectives: We tested whether NNS was more effective than a nicotine patch (NP; 21 mg) in reducing cue-induced craving during a 3-day abstinence. Methods: Twenty-five smokers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SA) were randomized to open-label NNS or NP treatment after baseline measures of craving were assessed. NNS users were instructed to dose at a minimum of 1/hour and up to a maximum of 40/day. Averages from a 4-item visual analogue scale (need, urge, want to smoke, crave a cigarette) measured craving. Results: Five subjects who smoked (4 NP, 1 NNS) were excluded, leaving 21 (11 NP, 10 NNS) for analyses. No differences were detected between groups on baseline craving. On day 3, NNS users reported significantly less craving in response to smoking cues compared to NP users (mean craving scores: NNS, 7.0; NP, 20.3; p = .014). A repeated measure ANCOVA demonstrated significantly reduced craving in the NNS group compared to the NP group from baseline to day 3 (F = 5.09; p = .037). NNS users took an average of 20 doses/day, and NNS was rated as being as easy to use as NP. Conclusions: The potential utility of NNS in smokers with schizophrenia supports the need for placebo-controlled studies. PMID:19763279

  15. 78 FR 40312 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA TOTAL (Technology Open to Approved Lenders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA TOTAL (Technology Open to... Information Collection: FHA TOTAL (Technology Open to Approved Lenders) Mortgage Scorecard. OMB Approval... real estate finance industries that are grounded in an open process to develop, promote and...

  16. Total Laparoscopic Restorative Proctocolectomy: Are There Advantages Compared with the Open and Hand-Assisted Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Sebastiaan W.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Slors, J. Frederik M.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A randomized, controlled trial comparing hand-assisted laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with open surgery did not show an advantage for the laparoscopic approach. The trial was criticized because hand-assisted laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy was not considered a true laparoscopic proctocolectomy. The objective of the present study was to assess whether total laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy has advantages over hand-assisted laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with respect to early recovery. Methods Thirty-five patients underwent total laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy and were compared to 60 patients from a previously conducted randomized, controlled trial comparing hand-assisted laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy and open restorative proctocolectomy. End points included operating time, conversion rate, reoperation rate, hospital stay, morbidity, quality of life, and costs. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index were used to evaluate general and bowel-related quality of life. Results Groups were comparable for patient characteristics, such as sex, body mass index, preoperative disease duration, and age. There were neither conversions nor intraoperative complications. Median operating time was longer in the total laparoscopic compared with the hand-assisted laparoscopic group (298 vs. 214 minutes; P < 0.001). Morbidity and reoperation rates in the total laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, and open groups were comparable (29 vs. 20 vs. 23 percent and 17 vs.10 vs. 13 percent, respectively). Median hospital-stay was 9 days in the total laparoscopic group compared with 10 days in the hand-assisted laparoscopic group and 11 days in the open group (P = not significant). There were no differences in quality of life and total costs. Conclusions There were no significant short-term benefits for total laparoscopic compared with hand-assisted laparoscopic

  17. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  18. Sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, H. D.

    1980-03-01

    Thermal spraying is shown to be an efficient means for the protection of surface areas against elevated temperature, wear, corrosion, hot gas corrosion, and erosion in structural aircraft components. Particularly in jet engines, numerous parts are coated by flame, detonation, or plasma spraying techniques. The applied methods of flame, detonation, and plasma spraying are explained, as well as electric arc spraying. Possibilities for spray coatings which meet aircraft service requirements are discussed, as well as methods for quality control, especially nondestructive test methods. In particular, coating characteristics and properties obtained by different spray methods are described, and special attention is paid to low pressure plasma spraying.

  19. Tandem Electrocyclic Ring Opening/Radical Cyclization: Application to the Total Synthesis of Cribrostatin 6

    PubMed Central

    Knueppel, Daniel; Martin, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    A concise total synthesis ofcribrostatin 6 (1), an antimicrobial and antineoplastic agent,was accomplished using a tandem electrocyclic ring opening/radical cyclization sequence. Specifically, intermediate4 underwent a 4π-electrocyclic ring opening, radical cyclization, and homolytic aromatic substitution sequence followed by an oxidation to afford the natural product1in one pot. Owing to the rapid buildup of complexity in the key step, 1 could be synthesized from commercially available starting materials in only four linear steps. Application of this chemistry to the concise syntheses of analogs of cribrostatin 6 (1) is also reported. PMID:22125344

  20. Frictional ignition suppression by the use of cutter-drum mounted sprays. Open file report Apr 79-Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Whitehead, K.L.; Mundell, R.L.; Saltsman, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The contract objective was to conduct tests with a full-scale longwall shearer drum in a simulated mine environment to determine the effectiveness of drum-mounted water sprays in controlling frictional ignitions. The tests were conducted with a drum equipped with a single bit that cuts a sandstone block enclosed in a chamber filled with a combustible methane-air mixture. Without the sprays operating no ignition occurred when only the carbide tip was impacting the stone. The likelihood of ignition increased with degree of bit wear and exposed steel contact area. Backflushing sprays, properly applied, were effective in controlling ignitions, but pick flushing and bit-cooling sprays were ineffective. Decreasing drum speed did not reduce the likelihood of ignitions until a bit peripheral speed of 200 fpm, 14 rpm for a 54-inch drum, was reached. A fully laced drum was then designed and tested. Results corroborated the findings of the single-bit tests.

  1. Is Primary Total Elbow Arthroplasty Safe for the Treatment of Open Intraarticular Distal Humerus Fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Michael S.; Gardner, Michael J.; McAndrew, Christopher M.; Gallagher, Bethany; Ricci, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a viable treatment for elderly patients with distal humerus fracture who frequently present with low grade open fractures. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a protocol of serial I&D’s followed by primary TEA for the treatment of open intraarticular distal humerus fractures. Methods Seven patients (mean 74 years (range 56 – 86 years) with open (2 Grade I, 5 Grade 2) distal humerus fractures (OTA 13C) were treated between 2001 and 2007 with a standard staged protocol that included TEA were studied. Baseline DASH scores were obtained during the initial hospitalization, 6 and 12 month follow-up visits. Elbow ROM measurements were obtained at each follow-up visit. Results Follow-up averaged 43 (range 4–138) months. There were no wound complications and no deep infections. Complications included one case of heterotopic ossification with joint contracture, one olecranon fracture unrelated to the TEA, and two loose humeral stems. Average final ROM was from 21° (range 5°–30°) to 113° flexion (range 90°–130°). DASH scores averaged 25 at pre-injury baseline and 48 at the most recent follow-up visits. Conclusions TEA has become a mainstream option for the treatment of distal humerus fractures which are on occasion open. There is hesitation in using arthroplasty in an open fracture setting due to potential increased infection risk. The absence of any infectious complications and satisfactory functional outcomes observed in the current series indicates that TEA is a viable treatment modality for complex open fractures of the distal humerus. PMID:25192866

  2. Assessment of a pressurizer spray valve faulty opening transient at Asco Nuclear Power Plant with RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Reventos, F.; Baptista, J.S.; Navas, A.P.; Moreno, P.

    1993-12-01

    The Asociacion Nuclear Asco has prepared a model of Asco NPP using RELAP5/MOD2. This model, which include thermalhydraulics, kinetics and protection and controls, has been qualified in previous calculations of several actual plant transients. One of the transients of the qualification process is a ``Pressurizer spray valve faulty opening`` presented in this report. It consists in a primary coolant depressurization that causes the reactor trip by overtemperature and later on the actuation of the safety injection. The results are in close agreement with plant data.

  3. Antistatic sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic sprays from several different manufacturers are examined. The sprays are examined for contamination potential (i.e., outgassing and nonvolatile residue), corrosiveness on an aluminum mirror surface, and electrostatic effectiveness. In addition, the chemical composition of the antistatic sprays is determined by infrared spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results show that 12 of the 17 antistatic sprays examined have a low contamination potential. Of these sprays, 7 are also noncorrosive to an aluminum surface. And of these, only 2 demonstrate good electrostatic properties with respect to reducing voltage accumulation; these sprays did not show a fast voltage dissipation rate however. The results indicate that antistatic sprays can be used on a limited basis where contamination potential, corrosiveness, and electrostatic effectiveness is not critical. Each application is different and proper evaluation of the situation is necessary. Information on some of the properties of some antistatic sprays is presented in this document to aid in the evaluation process.

  4. Comparison of pain perception between open and minimally invasive surgery in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Biagio; Vitale, Elsa; Esposito, Antonio; Colella, Antonio; Cassano, Maria; Notarnicola, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was a well-established procedure that had shown excellent long-term results in terms of reduced pain and increased mobility. Pain was one of the most important outcome measures that contributed to patient dissatisfaction after TKA. After a computerized search of the Medline and Embase databases, we considered articles from January 1st, 1997 to October 31st, 2009 that underlined the impact on patient pain perception of either standard open total knee arthroplasty or minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. We included articles that used the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) as postoperative pain indicators, and we included studies with a minimum follow-up period of two months. We excluded studies that monitored only functional postoperative knee activities. It was shown that TKA with the open technique was a better treatment for knees with a positive effect on pain and function than the minimally invasive technique. PMID:21042568

  5. No time machine construction in open 2+1 gravity with timelike total energy-momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiglio, Manuel H.

    1998-09-01

    It is shown that in (2+1)-dimensional gravity an open spacetime with timelike sources and total energy momentum cannot have a stable compactly generated Cauchy horizon. This constitutes a proof of a version of Kabat's conjecture and shows, in particular, that not only a Gott time machine cannot be formed from processes such as the decay of a single cosmic string as has been shown by Carroll et al., but that, in a precise sense, a time machine cannot be constructed at all.

  6. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Afrin® Nasal Spray ... Anefrin® Nasal Spray ... Dristan® Nasal Spray ... Mucinex® Nasal Spray ... Nostrilla® Nasal Spray ... Vicks Sinex® Nasal Spray ... Zicam® Nasal Spray ... Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It is also used to ...

  7. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4(+) CD4(+) Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4(+) CD4(+) T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus-pituitary gland-adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4(+) CD4(+) lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  8. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  9. Impact of Sea Spray on Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Mueller, James

    2013-11-01

    The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air-sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution: the number of drops formed at the ocean surface and the per-drop contribution to the fluxes. To estimate these per-droplet fluxes, we present results from a large number of drop trajectories, which are simulated with a recently developed Lagrangian Stochastic model adapted for the heavy drop transport and evaporation within the marine boundary layer. Then, using commonly accepted spray generation functions we present estimates of spray fluxes which account for the mediating feedback effects from the droplets on the atmosphere. The results suggest that common simplifications in previous sea spray models, such as the residence time in the marine boundary layer, may not be appropriate. We further show that the spray fluxes may be especially sensitive to the size distribution of the drops. The total effective air-sea fluxes lead to drag and enthalpy coefficients that increase modestly with wind speed. The rate of increase for the drag coefficient is greatest at moderate wind speeds, while the rate of increase for the enthalpy coefficient is greatest at higher wind speeds. Funded by grants OCE-0850663 and OCE-0748767 from the National Science Foundation.

  10. Nitroglycerin Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... attacks. Your doctor will probably tell you to sit down and use one dose of nitroglycerin when ... dose.To use the spray, follow these steps: Sit down if possible, and hold the container without ...

  11. Laparoscopic vs open total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jun-Jie; Nunes, Quentin M; Huang, Wei; Tan, Chun-Lu; Ke, Neng-Wen; Xie, Si-Ming; Ran, Xun; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis comparing laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) with open total gastrectomy (OTG) for the treatment of gastric cancer. METHODS: Major databases such as Medline (PubMed), Embase, Academic Search Premier (EBSCO), Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library were searched for studies comparing LTG and OTG from January 1994 to May 2013. Evaluated endpoints were operative, postoperative and oncological outcomes. Operative outcomes included operative time and intraoperative blood loss. Postoperative recovery included time to first flatus, time to first oral intake, hospital stay and analgesics use. Postoperative complications comprised morbidity, anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stenosis, ileus, bleeding, abdominal abscess, wound problems and mortality. Oncological outcomes included positive resection margins, number of retrieved lymph nodes, and proximal and distal resection margins. The pooled effect was calculated using either a fixed effects or a random effects model. RESULTS: Fifteen non-randomized comparative studies with 2022 patients were included (LTG - 811, OTG - 1211). Both groups had similar short-term oncological outcomes, analgesic use (WMD -0.09; 95%CI: -2.39-2.20; P = 0.94) and mortality (OR = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.24-2.31; P = 0.61). However, LTG was associated with a lower intraoperative blood loss (WMD -201.19 mL; 95%CI: -296.50--105.87 mL; P < 0.0001) and overall complication rate (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.57-0.92; P = 0.009); fewer wound-related complications (OR = 0.39; 95%CI: 0.21-0.72; P = 0.002); a quicker recovery of gastrointestinal motility with shorter time to first flatus (WMD -0.82; 95%CI: -1.18--0.45; P < 0.0001) and oral intake (WMD -1.30; 95%CI: -1.84--0.75; P < 0.00001); and a shorter hospital stay (WMD -3.55; 95%CI: -5.13--1.96; P < 0.0001), albeit with a longer operation time (WMD 48.25 min; 95%CI: 31.15-65.35; P < 0.00001), as compared

  12. The Role of the Total Entropy Production in the Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems in Detection of Non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, S.; Haseli, S.; Khorashad, A. S.; Adabi, F.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between system and environment is a fundamental concept in the theory of open quantum systems. As a result of the interaction, an amount of correlation (both classical and quantum) emerges between the system and the environment. In this work, we recall the quantity that will be very useful to describe the emergence of the correlation between the system and the environment, namely, the total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between the system and the environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting the non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between the total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity. We apply our criterion for the special case, where the composite system has initial correlation with environment.

  13. The Role of the Total Entropy Production in the Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems in Detection of Non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, S.; Haseli, S.; Khorashad, A. S.; Adabi, F.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction between system and environment is a fundamental concept in the theory of open quantum systems. As a result of the interaction, an amount of correlation (both classical and quantum) emerges between the system and the environment. In this work, we recall the quantity that will be very useful to describe the emergence of the correlation between the system and the environment, namely, the total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between the system and the environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting the non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between the total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity. We apply our criterion for the special case, where the composite system has initial correlation with environment.

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  15. Evaluation of Spray Drift from Tea Field during Pesticides Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikawa, Osamu; Miyama, Daisuke; Araki, Takuya

    Spray drift from tea field was measured by using water-sensitive papers(WSP). 1)Automated thresholding by "ImageJ", which is an open architecture image analysis program, was able to apply for extracting deposits on WSP. In order to analyze spot size of deposits and percent area coverage on WSP, the command of analyze particle was used. However, the stain area obtained by automated thresholding was larger than one by optimal threshold. The correction factor was 0.7411. 2)Although the spraying method and the nozzle type were different, 99% of the number of droplets was less than 200μm in the diameter and 80% was less than 125μm. 3)Among all nozzle treatments by manual spraying and by a riding type boom sprayer,bigger droplet size nozzles decreased drift, but there was no difference in droplet density on tea leaves. 4)Hydraulic application by a riding type boom sprayer was less spray drift than manual spraying, because a riding type boom sprayer can keep the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle shorter than manual spraying. 5)Although the anti-drift cover for a riding type boom sprayer reduced drift when smallerdroplet size nozzle was used, bigger droplet size nozzle was recommended to use for avoiding drift risk. 6)Since the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle can be short, the drift value (total droplet volume par unit area / sprayed volume par unit area) obtained in tea field was only 1/10 of the data reported by drift assessment in vegetable field.

  16. Development of a Canopy Opener to improve Spray Deposition and Coverage Inside Soybean Canopies -- Part 2: Opener Design with Field Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional boom sprayers usually are not effective in delivering droplets to inner parts of dense target canopies, such as soybeans at the growth stage from R3 to R5. An experimental mechanical canopy opener was developed with the assistance of a mathematical model and attached to a conventional ...

  17. Total Environment Education: An Open Design to Real Life Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Six global objectives--energy, earth resources, waste disposal, population, interdependence, and quality of life--are used as a framework in preparing this open design for environmental education, one which emphasizes behavioral change in the affective domain. To aid classroom teachers in achieving these goals, the guide is divided into five…

  18. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  19. Open focused microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid total and mercury species determination in environmental solid samples.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C M; Garraud, H; Amouroux, D; Donard, O F; de Diego, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple microwave-assisted leaching/ digestion procedures for total and mercury species determination in sediment samples and biomaterials. An open focused microwave system allowed the sample preparation time to be dramatically reduced to only 24 min when a power of 40-80 W was applied. Quantitative leaching of methylmercury from sediments by HNO(3) solution and complete dissolution of biomaterials by an alkaline solution, such as 25% TMAH solution, were obtained. Methylmercury compounds were kept intact without decomposition or losses by evaporation. Quantitative recoveries of total mercury were achieved with a two-step microwave attack using a combination of HNO(3) and H(2)0(2) solutions as extractant. The whole pretreatment procedure only takes 15 min, which can be further shortened by an automated robust operation with an open focused system. These analytical procedures were validated by the analysis of environmental certified reference materials. The results confirm that the open focused microwave technique is a promising tool for solid sample preparation in analytical and environmental chemistry. PMID:18924826

  20. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve sneezing and a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Olopatadine is ... comes as a liquid to spray in the nose. Olopatadine nasal spray is usually sprayed in each ...

  1. A Prospective, Open-Label Study of Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Kamstrup, Maria R.; Specht, Lena; Skovgaard, Gunhild L.; Gniadecki, Robert

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of low-dose (4 Gy) total skin electron beam therapy as a second-line treatment of Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides in a prospective, open-label study. Methods and Materials: Ten patients (6 men, 4 women, average age 68.7 years [range, 55-82 years]) with histopathologically confirmed mycosis fungoides T2-T4 N0-N1 M0 who did not achieve complete remission or relapsed within 4 months after treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet-A were included. Treatment consisted of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy administered at a total skin dose of 4 Gy given in 4 fractions over 4 successive days. Results: Two patients had a complete clinical response but relapsed after 3.5 months. Six patients had partial clinical responses, with a mean duration of 2.0 months. One patient had no clinical response. Median time to relapse was 2.7 months. One patient died of unrelated causes and did not complete treatment. Acute side effects included desquamation, xerosis, and erythema of the skin. No severe side effects were observed. Conclusion: Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy can induce complete and partial responses in Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides; however, the duration of remission is short. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy may find application in palliative treatment of mycosis fungoides because of limited toxicity and the possibility of repeating treatments for long-term disease control.

  2. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  3. Determination of mercury in organic solvents and gas condensates by μflow-injection — inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a modified total consumption micronebulizer fitted with single pass spray chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyssiere, Brice; Ordóñez, Yoana Nuevo; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Łobiński, Ryszard

    2006-09-01

    A high-throughput flow-injection — inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analytical method was developed for the determination of mercury in gas condensates and carbon-rich solvents. The sample (undiluted or diluted 10-fold) was introduced via a modified total consumption micronebulizer working at a flow rate of 30 μl min - 1 and fitted with a singlepass spray chamber. This low flow rate and the addition of oxygen (70 ml min - 1 ) assured the plasma stability and reduced the carbon build-up on the interface and on ion lenses. A limit of detection of 0.5 ng g - 1 (2.5 μl sample) was obtained owing to the reduction of dead volume and sample dispersion (peak-width was 3 s at half-height) in the liquid pass of the nebulizer. The elimination of the memory effect reduced the washout time down to 30 s which resulted in a throughput of ca. 60 h - 1 . The method was validated by the analysis of 3 gas condensates by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

  4. A LONG-PERIOD TOTALLY ECLIPSING BINARY STAR AT THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 DISCOVERED WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Brewer, Lauren N. E-mail: orosz@sciences.sdsu.edu; and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 days) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 M {sub Sun }) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 Degree-Sign . Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of the total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries, the low-mass secondary is not significantly inflated in radius compared to model predictions. The primary star characteristics, in combination with cluster photometry and masses from other cluster binaries, indicate a best age of 2.62 {+-} 0.25 Gyr, although stellar model physics may introduce systematic uncertainties at the {approx}10% level. We find preliminary evidence that the asteroseismic predictions for red giant masses in this cluster are systematically too high by as much as 8%.

  5. Characteristics of MCrAlY coatings sprayed by high velocity oxygen-fuel spraying system

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Y.; Saitoh, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spraying system in open air has been established for producing the coatings that are extremely clean and dense. It is thought that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY (M is Fe, Ni and/or Co) coatings can be applied to provide resistance against oxidation and corrosion to the hot parts of gas turbines. Also, it is well known that the thicker coating can be sprayed in comparison with any other thermal spraying systems due to improved residual stresses. However, thermal and mechanical properties of HVOF coatings have not been clarified. Especially, the characteristics of residual stress, that are the most important property from the view point of production technique, have not been made clear. In this paper, the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings were measured in both the case of as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings in comparison with a vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings could be improved by a diffusion heat treatment to equate the vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. Also, the residual stress characteristics were analyzed using a deflection measurement technique and a X-ray technique. The residual stress of HVOF coating was reduced by the shot-peening effect comparable to that of a plasma spray system in open air. This phenomena could be explained by the reason that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coating was built up by poorly melted particles.

  6. Photometric investigation of the totally eclipsing contact binary V12 in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 7789

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Essam, A.; Ali, G. B.; Haroon, A.-A.

    2015-02-01

    NGC 7789 is an intermediate-age open cluster with an age similar to the mean age of contact binary stars. V12 is a bright W UMa-type binary star with an orbital period of 0.3917 days. The first complete light curves of V12 in the V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney (W-D) method. The results show that V12 is an intermediate-contact binary (f=43.0(±2.2)%) with a mass ratio of 3.848, and it is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is slightly hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetry of the light curves is explained by the presence of a dark spot on the more massive component. The derived orbital inclination (i=83{sub .}{sup ∘}6) indicates that it is a totally eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. The orbital period may show a long-term increase at a rate of P-dot =+2.48(±0.17)×10{sup −6} days yr{sup −1} that reveals a rapid mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. However, more observations are needed to confirm this conclusion. The presence of an intermediate-contact binary in an intermediate-age open cluster may suggest that some contact binaries have a very short pre-contact timescale. The presence of a third body and/or stellar collision may help to shorten the pre-contact evolution.

  7. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Diether; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Radke, Ina

    1993-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme "Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment" (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on "Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants". Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. A first cruise with the RVMeteor to the eastern parts of the south and north Atlantic Ocean was successfully organized, in March and April 1990, from Cape Town (South Africa) to Funchal (Madeira, Portugal). Thirteen scientists from laboratories in Europe and North America participated with the first author as coordinator. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. Additional methods applied, interalia, were anodic stripping voltammetry for lead and cadmium and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for cadmium, using two different extraction procedures. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unaltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented.

  8. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation.

    PubMed

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E Rosenberg; Gibbs, Shawn G; Claye, Emma; He, Xin; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  9. [Mycotic Aneurysm of Distal Aortic Arch, after Total Arch Replacement with Open-stent Graft;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kotaro; Kawahara, Yu; Masaki, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Takahara, Shingo; Nakamura, Ken; Toyama, Shuji; Fukasawa, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old man, who had undergone total arch replacement with an open-stent graft due to saccular aneurysm of distal arch, 2 years before. He was admitted to a local hospital with the complaint of high fever, and was diagnosed as having pyothorax, after computed tomography (CT) scanning. After transferred to our hospital, he was treated by drainage, and antibiotic therapy. But CT scans showed the enlargement of distal arch aneurysm, and migration of the stent graft. Urgent operation was performed. We approached to the site by a full sternotomy, and left anterolateral thoracotomy. Segment 1+2 of the left lung was resected to avoid bleeding and lung injury. Graft replacement of distal arch and descending aorta was performed on cardiopulmonary bypass, with hypothermia, selective brain perfusion and systemic circulatory arrest. To protect from recurrence of infection, the omental flap was transposed to the graft site. Until now, there is no recurrence of infection. PMID:25963790

  10. Daily modelling of total electron content with ionosonde observation to the benefit of the open source users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamara, Gulyaeva; Poustovalova, Ljubov; Stanislawska, Iwona

    It is clearly beneficial if the open source databases and models are available free for the users. However a newcomer needs a guidance concerning reliability/consistency of a suitable model and database. Such guidance is provided by the International Standardization Organization which has published Technical Specification, ISO TS16457 on "The Earth's ionosphere model: international reference ionosphere (IRI) model and extensions to the plasmasphere", 2009. One of the ISO TS16457 options is IRI-IZMIRAN ionosphere-plasmasphere model. This model is applied currently to generate vertical total electron content, TEC, at the altitude range [80:20,000] km at (http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/). This approach uses solar activ-ity and geomagnetic activity driving the ionosphere-plasmasphere model, and the integration of electron density profile fitted to ionosonde observation of the F2 layer peak density and height. The paper provides validation of proposed technique and comparisons with GPS-TEC observations and topside ionospheric electron density extrapolation technique providing the ionospheric TEC.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Amato, K N; Li, S J; Tian, Y X; Cheng, X Y; Gaytan, S M; Martinez, E; Shindo, P W; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2011-10-01

    Total knee replacement implants consisting of a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy femoral component and a Ti-6Al-4V tibial component are the basis for the additive manufacturing of novel solid, mesh, and foam monoliths using electron beam melting (EBM). Ti-6Al-4V solid prototype microstructures were primarily α-phase acicular platelets while the mesh and foam structures were characterized by α(')-martensite with some residual α. The Co-29Cr-6Mo containing 0.22% C formed columnar (directional) Cr(23)C(6) carbides spaced ~2 μm in the build direction, while HIP-annealed Co-Cr alloy exhibited an intrinsic stacking fault microstructure. A log-log plot of relative stiffness versus relative density for Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo open-cellular mesh and foams resulted in a fitted line with a nearly ideal slope, n = 2.1. A stress shielding design graph constructed from these data permitted mesh and foam implant prototypes to be fabricated for compatible bone stiffness. PMID:21783150

  12. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  13. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... Ciclesonide comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually sprayed in each nostril once daily. Use ciclesonide at around the same time every day. Follow the ...

  14. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  15. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  16. An open label pilot study of supraerythemogenic excimer laser in combination with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of generalized plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ethan; Nguyen, Catherine M; Danesh, Melissa J; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Leon, Argentina; Koo, John

    2016-06-01

    A common therapeutic modality for psoriasis includes the combination of phototherapy with topical treatments. The recent development of targeted phototherapy with the excimer laser and spray formulations for topical treatments has increased the efficacy and convenience of these combinational therapies. Herein, we aim to assess the efficacy of a novel combination of therapies using the 308 nm excimer laser, clobetasol propionate spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. In this 12-week study, patients with moderate to severe psoriasis received twice weekly treatments with a 308-nm excimer laser combined with clobetasol proprionate twice daily for a month followed by calcitriol ointment twice daily for the next month. Of the 30 patients enrolled, 83% of patients (25/30) achieved PASI-75 [65-94%, 95% confidence interval (CI)] at week 12. For PGA, there was an estimated decrease of 3.6 points (3.1-4.1, 95% CI, p < 0.0005) by week 12. In conclusion, the combination of excimer laser with alternating clobetasol and calcitriol application has shown to be a promising combination of therapies for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. Further evaluation may be conducted with a larger study inclusive of control groups and head-to-head comparisons against topical steroid and UVB therapy as monotherapies. PMID:26329774

  17. A comparative cohort study of totally laparoscopic and open aortobifemoral bypass for the treatment of advanced atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazmi, Syed SH; Jørgensen, Jørgen Junkichi; Sundhagen, Jon Otto; Krog, Anne Helene; Flørenes, Tor L; Kollerøs, Dagfinn; Abdelnoor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Totally laparoscopic aortobifemoral bypass (LABF) procedure has been shown to be feasible for the treatment of advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD). This study compares the LABF with the open aortobifemoral bypass (OABF) operation. Methods In this prospective comparative cohort study, 50 consecutive patients with type D atherosclerotic lesions in the aortoiliac segment were treated with an LABF operation. The group was compared with 30 patients who were operated on with the OABF procedure for the same disease and time period. We had an explanatory strategy, and our research hypothesis was to compare the two surgical procedures based on a composite event (all-cause mortality, graft occlusion, and systemic morbidity). Stratification analysis was performed by using the Mantel–Haenszel method with the patient–time model. Cox multivariate regression method was used to adjust for confounding effect after considering the proportional hazard assumption. Cox proportional cause-specific hazard regression model was used for competing risk endpoint. Results There was a higher frequency of comorbidity in the OABF group. A significant reduction of composite event, 82% (hazard ratio 0.18; 95% CI 0.08–0.42, P=0.0001) was found in the LABF group when compared with OABF group, during a median follow-up time period of 4.12 years (range from 1 day to 9.32 years). In addition, less operative bleeding and shorter length of hospital stay were observed in the LABF group when compared with the OABF group. All components of the composite event showed the same positive effect in favor of LABF procedure. Conclusion LABF for the treatment of AIOD, Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II type D lesions, seems to result in a less composite event when compared with the OABF procedure. To conclude, our results need to be replicated by a randomized clinical trial. PMID:26425098

  18. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deluge-type water spray systems. 75.1101-1...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... fire sensor. Actuation of the control valve shall cause water to flow into the branch lines...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deluge-type water spray systems. 75.1101-1...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... fire sensor. Actuation of the control valve shall cause water to flow into the branch lines...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deluge-type water spray systems. 75.1101-1...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... fire sensor. Actuation of the control valve shall cause water to flow into the branch lines...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1101-1 - Deluge-type water spray systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deluge-type water spray systems. 75.1101-1...-type water spray systems. (a) Deluge-type spray systems shall consist of open nozzles attached to... fire sensor. Actuation of the control valve shall cause water to flow into the branch lines...

  2. Characterization of sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  3. Characterization of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  4. Effects of sea spray evaporation and dissipative heating on intensity and structure of tropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoping; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Zheng, Jing

    2012-07-01

    To examine effects of sea spray evaporation and dissipative heating on structure and intensity of a real tropical cyclone, the sea spray flux parameterization scheme was incorporated into the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Sensitivity tests were performed with varying the spray source function intensities and with and without dissipation heating. The numerical results indicate that sea spray evaporation increases the interfacial sensible heat flux, which is increased by 16% for the moderate spray and 47% for the heavy spray, but has little effect on the interfacial latent heat flux. The net effect of sea spray evaporation is to decrease the total sensible heat flux and to increase the total latent heat flux. The total enthalpy flux is increased by 1% and 12% with moderate and strong spray amounts, respectively. Consistent with these results, the intensity of the tropical cyclone is increased by 5% and 16% in maximum 10-m wind speed, respectively, due to sea spray evaporation. Sea spray evaporation and dissipative heating modify the tropical cyclone structure in important but complex ways. The effect of sea spray on the near-surface temperature and moisture depends on the spray amounts and its location within the tropical cyclone. Within the high-wind region of a tropical cyclone, the lower atmosphere becomes cooler and moister due to the evaporation of sea spray. However, the dissipative heating offsets the cooling due to sea spray evaporation, which makes the lower atmosphere warmer.

  5. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    PubMed

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations. PMID:26479195

  6. Sodium Spray Would Speed Silicon Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Production rate of solar-grade silicon in sodium/silicon tetrafluoride reactor increase by spray feed. Liquid-sodium droplet size is controlled by pressure of argon gas and by nozzle design. Baffle helps to prevent reactor opening from becoming clogged by reaction products.

  7. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  8. Effects of sea spray geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

  9. Combined open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for distal arch aneurysms: an alternative to total debranching.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Andreas; Sanchez, Luis A; Moon, Marc R

    2009-07-01

    We present herein a novel, combined, simultaneous open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for complex distal aortic arch aneurysms involving the descending aorta. In the first surgical step, the transverse arch is opened during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and a Dacron graft (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) is positioned down the descending aorta in an elephant trunk-like fashion with its proximal free margin sutured circumferentially to the aorta just distal to the left subclavian or left common carotid artery. With the graft serving as the new proximal landing zone, subsequent endovascular repair is performed antegrade during rewarming through the ascending aorta. PMID:19559261

  10. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  11. SPRAY ATOMIZATION MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop protection product labels are now being written with spray droplet spectra classification terms that have specific definitions. Some of these terms are the same as previously used for generic descriptions such as fine or coarse sprays, but these terms used on new product labels have very speci...

  12. Spray momentum measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    Technique enables accurate prediction of erosion and cavitation produced by fluid spray. Method measures high velocity sprays produced by small orifices. Originally designed to determine oxidizer-injection patterns of liquid fueled rocket engines, technique is used with other liquids, or, with appropriate modification, with gases.

  13. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P.

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  14. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  15. An overview of spray drift reduction testing of spray nozzles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of the development and testing of drift reduction technologies (DRTs) is increasing. Common spray drift reduction technologies include spray nozzles and spray adjuvants. Following draft procedures developed for a DRT program, three spray nozzles were tested under high air speed cond...

  16. Safety of spray-dried powder formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A exposure to subadult/adult unionid mussels during simulated open-water treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Waller, Diane L.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    After exposure, the mussels were consolidated into wire mesh cages and placed in the Black River for a 27-28 day postexposure period, after which time survival of mussels was assessed. Of the 1,170 mussels tested in the study, 3 were confirmed dead and 5 were not recovered and treated as mortalities in the analysis. The effect and interactions of species, SDP exposure concentration, and SDP exposure duration were analyzed and did not affect mussel survival (p > 0.98). The results from this study indicate that SDP exposure at the maximum approved open-water concentration of 100 mg/L for up to 3 times the maximum approved open-water exposure duration of 8 hours (in other words for 24 hours of exposure) is unlikely to reduce survival of subadult or adult mussels.

  17. Spray drift mitigation with spray mix adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  18. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  19. Plasma Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Computer aided, fully-automatic TRW system sprays very hot plasma onto a turbine blade. Composed of gas into which metallic and ceramic powders have been injected, the plasma forms a two-layer coating which insulates the blade. Critical part of operation is controlling the thickness of the deposit which is measured in thousandths of an inch. This is accomplished by an optical detector which illuminates spots at various locations on the blade and determines thickness by measuring the light reflections. Optical sensor monitors spraying process until precise thickness is attained, then computer halts the spraying.

  20. Measurement of spray combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. E.; Arman, E. F.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Farmer, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

  1. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  2. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... death. References Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ...

  3. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, stuffy, runny, itchy nose) caused by the common cold. Mometasone nasal spray is in a class of ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  4. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other allergies, or ... nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray ...

  5. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to relieve sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused ... treat symptoms (e.g., sneezing, stuffy, runny, itchy nose) caused by the common cold. Budesonide nasal spray ...

  6. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. It ... nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose). Mometasone nasal spray should not be used to ...

  7. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Olopatadine is in a class of ... Olopatadine nasal spray controls the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, but does not cure these condition. Continue to ...

  9. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic rhinitis symptoms , such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, or swelling of the nasal passageway Nasal ... Repeat these steps for the other nostril. Avoid sneezing or blowing your nose right after spraying.

  10. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottle in front of a tissue or paper towel. Pump the spray bottle six to eight times ... up the spill immediately with a cloth or paper towel. Avoid touching the liquid. Throw away the used ...

  11. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  12. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... prescribed by your doctor.Ciclesonide nasal spray is only for use in the nose. Do not swallow ...

  13. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  14. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  15. Spray forming of superplastic aluminum sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.; McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Ingot metallurgy (I/M) processing methods for superplastic aluminum sheet require substantial hot, warm and final cold rolling reduction steps to produce the desired fine grain size and thermally-stable microstructure necessary for superplastic forming (SPF). The rapid solidification rates associated with spray forming offer the potential for economic processing of near net-thickness SPF sheet having alloy compositions that are not possible with conventional ingot metallurgy. To evaluate the application of spray forming for SPF aluminum sheet, a modified 5083 alloy was supplied to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for processing using laboratory spray-forming equipment. Spray-formed sheet specimens were then supplied to the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory for characterization and comparison with conventional I/M-based SPF sheet. Results show that the spray formed material, when processed using appropriate homogenization and cold reduction steps (3:1 total reduction), has an equiaxed grain size of 2--4 {micro}m near the deposition substrate. However, microstructural examination indicates that grain size increases as a function of the distance from the deposition substrate. Tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 550 C and constant strain rates over a range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} to evaluate the superplastic behavior of the spray-formed samples. Results show that the spray-formed material having a 3:1 cold rolling reduction has superplastic elongation equivalent to I/M materials processed with a 60:1 reduction.

  16. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  17. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  18. Directed spray mast

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Siddall, Alvin A.; Cheng, William Y.; Counts, Kevin T.

    2005-05-10

    Disclosed is an elongated, tubular, compact high pressure sprayer apparatus for insertion into an access port of vessels having contaminated interior areas that require cleaning by high pressure water spray. The invention includes a spray nozzle and a camera adjacent thereto with means for rotating and raising and lowering the nozzle so that areas identified through the camera may be cleaned with a minimum production of waste water to be removed.

  19. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  20. Thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, D.J.; Blann, G.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Standardization of specimen preparation for microstructural evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings is considered. Metallographic specimen preparation procedures including sectioning, encapsulation, planar grinding, and power lapping of thermally sprayed coatings are described. A Co-Ni-Cr-W coating on an AISI 410 stainless steel substrate is used as a control sample. Specimen-preparation techniques have been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy for determining the percentage of apparent porosity and energy dispersive spectroscopy for determining elemental composition.

  1. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  2. Openings.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  3. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  4. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  5. Thermal spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-03-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  6. Thermal spray processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  7. Adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy (Combined Total Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Phase Advance, and Bright Light Therapy) Rapidly Improves Mood and Suicidality in Suicidal Depressed Inpatients: An Open Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B.; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Zuschlag, Zachary D.; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S.; Uhde, Thomas W.; George, Mark S.; Short, E.Baron

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N=10, Mean age=44±16.4SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33–36 hours), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-minute sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7±4.2SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4±7.3SD on day five (p=.002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5±8.5SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2±5.5SD on day five (p=.01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629

  8. Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629

  9. Hydrogen no-vent testing in a 5 cubic foot (142 liter) tank using spray nozzle and spray bar liquid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 38 hydrogen no-vent fill tests were performed in this test series using various size spray nozzles and a spray bar with different hole sizes in a 5 cubic foot receiver tank. Fill levels of 90 percent by volume or greater were achieved in 26 of the tests while maintaining a receiver tank pressure below 30 psia. Spray nozzles were mounted at the top of the tank, whereas, the spray bar was centered in the tank axially. The spray nozzle no-vent fills demonstrated tank pressure and temperature responses comparable to previous test series. Receiver tank pressure responses for the spray bar configuration were similar to the spray nozzle tests with the pressure initially rising rapidly, then leveling off as vapor condenses onto the discharging liquid streams, and finally ramping up near the end of the test due to ullage compression. Both liquid injection techniques tested were capable of filling the receiver tank to 90 percent under variable test conditions. Comparisons between the spray nozzle and spray bar configurations for well matched test conditions indicate the spray nozzle injection technique is more effective in minimizing the receiving tank pressure throughout a no-vent fill compared to the spray bar under normal gravity conditions.

  10. Hydrogen no-vent fill testing in a 5 cubic foot (142 liter) tank using spray nozzle and spray bar liquid injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 38 hydrogen no-vent fill tests were performed in this test series using various size spray nozzles and a spray bar with different hole sizes in a 5 cubic foot receiver tank. Fill levels of 90 percent by volume or greater were achieved in 26 of the tests while maintaining a receiver tank pressure below 30 psia. Spray nozzles were mounted at the top of the tank, whereas, the spray bar was centered in the tank axially. The spray nozzle no-vent fills demonstrated tank pressure and temperature responses comparable to previous test series. Receiver tank pressure responses for the spray bar configuration were similar to the spray nozzle tests with the pressure initially rising rapidly, then leveling off as vapor condenses onto the discharging liquid streams, and finally ramping up near the end of the test due to ullage compression. Both liquid injection techniques tested were capable of filling the receiver tank to 90 percent under variable test conditions. Comparisons between the spray nozzle and spray bar configurations for well matched test conditions indicate the spray nozzle injection technique is more effective in minimizing the receiving tank pressure throughout a no-vent fill compared to the spray bar under normal gravity conditions.

  11. Safe thyroidectomy with intraoperative methylene blue spraying

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to minimalize operative complications by spraying of methylene blue stain on thyroid glands and the perithyroidal area. Material and methods The intra-operative methylene blue spraying technique was used prospectively on a total of 56 patients who had undergone primary (not recurrent) thyroid surgery for a variety of thyroid diseases. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in all cases. After superior but before inferior pole ligation, 0.5ml of methylene blue was sprayed over the thyroid lobe and perilober area. Tissues, especially parathyroides, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and the inferior thyroid artery, were identified and evaluated. Results Recurrent laryngeal nerve and arteries were not stained and thus they remained white in all cases while all other tissues were stained blue. Within three minutes parathyroid glands washed out the blue stain and the original yellow color was regained. Thyroid tissue wash-out time was not less than 15 minutes; perithyroideal muscles, tendinous and lipoid structures took no less than 25 minutes. Conclusion The safety of intravascular methylene blue guidance on thyroid surgery is known. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of the spraying technique, a new technique which ensures not only identification of parathyroid glands within three minutes, but also identification of recurrent laryngeal nerves and inferior thyroid arteries. PMID:23148801

  12. Miniature spray-painting booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  13. Acoustic effects of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Maciej Z.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.

    1994-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, it has been known that realistic combustion models for liquid fuel rocket engines should contain at least a rudimentary treatment of atomization and spray physics. This is of particular importance in transient operations. It has long been recognized that spray characteristics and droplet vaporization physics play a fundamental role in determining the stability behavior of liquid fuel rocket motors. This paper gives an overview of work in progress on design of a numerical algorithm for practical studies of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket motors. For flexibility, the algorithm is composed of semi-independent solution modules, accounting for different physical processes. Current findings are report and future work is indicated. The main emphasis of this research is the development of an efficient treatment to interactions between acoustic fields and liquid fuel/oxidizer sprays.

  14. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  15. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  16. Controlled overspray spray nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, W. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A spray system for a multi-ingredient ablative material wherein a nozzle A is utilized for suppressing overspray is described. The nozzle includes a cyclindrical inlet which converges to a restricted throat. A curved juncture between the cylindrical inlet and the convergent portion affords unrestricted and uninterrupted flow of the ablative material. A divergent bell-shaped chamber and adjustable nozzle exit B is utilized which provides a highly effective spray pattern in suppressing overspray to an acceptable level and producing a homogeneous jet of material that adheres well to the substrate.

  17. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results concerning high pressure droplet gasification model, droplet turbulent dispersion model, and spray atomization model will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines.

  18. New techniques for spraying dust

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S.K.

    1984-06-01

    Two recent developments for reducing airborne dust on longwall faces are described. One flushes foam through the drums of a shearer and also sprays foam onto the cutting drum. The other modifies the spray-head to produce different water spray patterns on continuous miners.

  19. Programable Plasma-Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.; Toth, I.

    1982-01-01

    NASA-funded research led to development of automated plasma-spray system programable and reproducible. System utilizes standard plasma-spray equipment with noncoherent light-measuring system and microprocessor. System monitors and controls surface contours and coating thickness. Other advantages of system are consistant coating reproducibility, exact blending and feathering operations, ability to handle complex shapes and ease of changing spray parameters.

  20. Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

  1. Ilex paraguariensis Pellets from a Spray-Dried Extract: Development, Characterization, and Stability.

    PubMed

    Yatsu, Francini K J; Borghetti, Greice S; Magalhães, Fagner; Ferraz, Humberto G; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown the potential use of Ilex paraguariensis in developing products with the aim to protect biological systems against oxidative stress-mediated damages. In the same way, technological studies have demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining dry products, by spray-drying process, from aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis in laboratory. The present work was designed to develop pellets by extrusion/spheronization process, from an I. paraguariensis spray-dried powder. The pellets were characterized with respect to their chemical, physical, and technological properties, and the thermal and the photostability of the main polyphenol constituents were investigated. The pellets exhibited adequate size, shape, and high process yield (78.7%), as well as a good recovery of the total polyphenols (>95%) and a good dissolution in water (89.44 to 100.05%). The polyphenols were stable against light when conditioned in amber glass bottles; unstable against heat when the samples were conditioned either in open glass bottles or in hermetically sealed glass bottles and demonstrated to be hygroscopic and sensible to the temperature, especially when stored in permeable flasks. These findings pointed to the relevance of reducing the residual moisture content of pellets as well as of conditioning them in opaque humidity tight packages under low temperatures. The feasibility of obtaining pellets from an I. paraguariensis spray-dried powder using extrusion/spheronization technique was, for the first time, demonstrated. This finding represents a novelty for the herbal products in both pharmaceutical and food fields. PMID:26162976

  2. Clinical efficacy of polyherbal formulation Eezpain spray for muscular pain relief.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Allah; Sheikh, Zeeshan Ahmed; Feroz, Majid; Alam, Kamran; Nazar, Halima; Usmanghani, Khan

    2015-01-01

    The topical herbal formulation Eezpain spray consisting of natural ingredients that have been clinically proved for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The designed formulation on application knee and wrist joints, back of neck and shoulder, forearms and lower back exhibited significant efficacy. A total of 20 subjects both male and female applied Eezpain spray consisting of Gaultheria oil, Eucalyptus oil, Turpentine oil, Clove Oil, Menthol and Camphor. All the active materials are cited that these have analgesic activity in myalgia and neuralgia. The study design was prospective and opens as pilot study followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the sign and symptoms were noted at baseline and at the end of 14 days treatment performance was evaluated. The statistical analysis was done by using Microsoft Excel2007 and SPSS version 18.0. It is concluded that Eezpain spray has shown efficacy in mild to moderate cases on applying locally to the affected parts to relieve pain from different ailments. PMID:25553684

  3. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays at Low-injection Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.

  4. Samplers for evaluation and quantification of ultra-low volume space sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to investigate the suitability of sampling devices for quantification of spray deposition from ULV space sprays. Five different samplers were included in an experiment conducted in an open grassy field. Samplers included horizontally stretched stationary cotton ribbon at ...

  5. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  6. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  7. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is recommended by a doctor. Children 6 to 12 years of age should use oxymetazoline nasal spray carefully and under adult supervision. Oxymetazoline is in a class of medications called nasal decongestants. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages.

  8. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Follow the directions on your prescription or product label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ... and herbal products you are taking, or have recently taken, or ...

  9. Titanium Cold Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard; Yue, Stephen; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Wong, Wilson; Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical properties similar to a traditional bulk material. Vickers hardness testing and nanoindentation were used as micro-and nano-scale measurement techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of titanium coatings, deposited at different deposition conditions, and bulk Ti. The mechanical properties of bulk titanium and titanium coatings were measured over a range of length scales, with the indentation size effect examined with Meyer's law. Hardness measurements are shown to be affected by material porosity, microstructure and coating particle bonding mechanism. Hard-ness measurements showed that Ti coatings deposited at higher gas pressures and temperatures demonstrate an indentation load response similar to bulk Ti. Key words: titanium, cold spray, Vickers hardness, nanoindentation, indentation size effect, microstructure, mechanical properties

  10. Picosecond imaging of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Liou, Larry; Wang, L.; Liang, X.; Galland, P.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results from applying a Kerr-Fourier imaging system to a water/air spray produced by a shear coaxial element are presented. The physics behind ultrafast time-gated optical techniques is discussed briefly. A typical setup of a Kerr-Fourier time gating system is presented.

  11. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use zolmitriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or liver or ...

  12. Naloxone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms, he or she should give you your first naloxone dose and then call 911 immediately. After receiving the naloxone nasal spray, ... the person on their side (recovery position) and call for emergency medical ... after giving the first naloxone dose. If the person does not respond ...

  13. Exposure to fluoropolymers and VOCs during spray sealant product use.

    PubMed

    Rigler, Mark W; Longo, William E; Sauerhoff, Mitchell W

    2011-09-01

    Fluoropolymer based tile and fabric spray sealants were evaluated for the release of airborne fluoropolymer constituents and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during typical product use scenarios in a simulated bathroom and a simulated recreational vehicle. Fluoride was quantified after oxygen bomb digestion of airborne spray collected from personal, area, and surface samples. VOCs were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization spectrometry (GC/FID). Tile grout sealant contained approximately 1% acrylic fluoropolymer resin and 90% VOCs not including propellants. VOCs were short- and medium- chain methylated isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. When horizontally spraying a bathroom shower floor, grout spray sealant released a non-detectable amount of fluoride (<0.8 µg/m3) and 400-1400 mg/m3 total VOCs. When vertically spraying a shower wall, up to 2.0 µg/m3 of fluoride and from 1000 to 2300 mg/m3 total VOCs were detected. Fabric spray sealant contained 1% acrylic fluoropolymer resin and approximately 90% VOCs including perchloroethylene (PERC). Fabric spray released from 0.5 to 2.3 µg/m3 fluoride inside a recreational vehicle in the absence of crosswinds and less than 0.5 µg/m3 fluoride in the presence of a 10 mph crosswind. VOC release measured 240-938 mg/m3 without crosswinds and 161-522 mg/m3 with crosswinds. These studies show that fluoropolymer constituents from fluorinated spray sealants were near non-detectable levels in the breathing zone in nearly all samples while VOCs were measured at elevated levels (>400 mg/m3). The toxicological consequences of elevated VOCs during sealant spraying and the effects of certain fluoropolymer constituents are discussed. PMID:21879949

  14. Solidification Sequence of Spray-Formed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Ellendt, Nils; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-02-01

    Solidification in spray-forming is still an open discussion in the atomization and deposition area. This paper proposes a solidification model based on the equilibrium solidification path of alloys. The main assumptions of the model are that the deposition zone temperature must be above the alloy's solidus temperature and that the equilibrium liquid fraction at this temperature is reached, which involves partial remelting and/or redissolution of completely solidified droplets. When the deposition zone is cooled, solidification of the remaining liquid takes place under near equilibrium conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to analyze the microstructures of two different spray-formed steel grades: (1) boron modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) and (2) D2 tool steel. The microstructures were analyzed to determine the sequence of phase formation during solidification. In both cases, the solidification model proposed was validated.

  15. Induction plasma spraying of ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiao-Bao; Gougeon, Patrick; Gitzhofer, Francois; Boulos, Maher

    A study is carried out on the influence of in-flight particle parameters on their splatting properties during the induction plasma deposition of ceramics. Results are presented for alumina powders with mean particle diameters of 21 microns and 82 microns under soft vacuum conditions. The chamber pressure was varied between 46.6 and 66.6 kPa. Measurements are carried out on the particle surface temperature and velocity prior to impact on stainless steel substrates. The form of the splat obtained is evaluated using SEM. The results are used for the parametric optimization of the induction plasma spraying process. Thick alumina coatings with total porosities as low as 2 percent were obtained.

  16. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  17. Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

    2003-01-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm. PMID:15151329

  18. Water sprays in space retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  19. SPRAY: Single Donor Plasma Product For Room Temperature Storage

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Garrett S.; Lozier, Jay N.; Nghiem, Khanh; Clibourn, Douglas; Klein, Harvey G.; Flegel, Willy A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spray drying techniques are commonly utilized in the pharmaceutical, dairy and animal feed industries for processing liquids into powders but have not been applied to human blood products. Spray dried protein products are known to maintain stability during storage at room temperature. Study design and methods Plasma units collected at the donor facility were shipped overnight at room temperature to a processing facility where single-use spray drying occurred. After 48 hours storage at room temperature, the spray dried plasma product was split in two and rehydrated with 1.5% glycine or deionized water and assayed for chemistry analytes and coagulation factors. Matched fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was analyzed in parallel as controls. Results Reconstitution was achieved for both rehydration groups within five minutes (n=6). There was no statistically significant intergroup difference in recovery for total protein, albumin, IgG, IgA, and IgM (96% or higher). With the exception of factor VIII (58%), the recovery of clotting factors in the glycine reconstituted products ranged from 72% to 93%. Glycine reconstitution was superior to deionized water. Conclusion We documented proteins and coagulation activities were recovered in physiologic quantities in reconstituted spray dried plasma products. Further optimization of the spray drying method and reconstitution fluid may result in even better recoveries. Spray drying is a promising technique for preparing human plasma that can be easily stored at room temperature, shipped, and reconstituted. Rapid reconstitution of the microparticles results in a novel plasma product from single donors. PMID:22043873

  20. Atmospheric loss of pesticides above an artificial vineyard during air-assisted spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Yvan; Sinfort, Carole; Brunet, Yves; Polveche, Vincent; Bonicelli, Bernard

    A procedure to assess pesticide emission to the air and characterise possible air pollution sources was carried out using a tracer dye and 2 mm PVC lines during air-assisted spraying of an artificial vineyard. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the method feasibility, quantify upward movements of sprayed droplets and investigate the influence of microclimatic variables on pesticide emission. During each experiment two test series were carried out with two droplet size distributions (very fine and fine spray, according to the BCPC classification). The amount of sprayed liquid collected at 2.5 m above ground varied between 9.0% and 10.7% of the total dose applied for very fine spray and between 5.6% and 7.3% for fine spray. In stable atmospheric conditions the spray drifted along the mean wind direction over the crop whereas in unstable conditions the sprayed liquid plume was larger, with a greater amount of material sent to higher levels. A statistical model based on a simple multiple regression featuring droplet characteristics and microclimatic variables (wind speed, temperature, stability parameter and relative humidity) provided a robust estimate of spray loss just above the crop, with an acceptable determination coefficient ( R2=0.84). This method is therefore suitable for quantifying spray drift and provides a way to study the influence of several variables on the amount of pesticide released into the atmosphere by air-assisted spraying, with suitable accuracy.

  1. Production of spherical apatite powders—the first step for optimized thermal-sprayed apatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Knepper, M.; Gross, K. A.

    1992-09-01

    Regardless of the thermal spraying system, a coating can only be as good as the quality of the input powders. Powder quality in turn is dependent on the manufacturing process and conditions. Thus, it is possible to alter characteristics such as morphology, porosity, phase composition, and the mechanical strength of the individual particles. This article looks at powder agglomerations using the spray drying technique. Two different spray drying configurations were used to produce spherical apatite powders. Apatite powders could be produced with variable densities. Rotary-atomized powders possessed internal porosity as well as open porosity. More applicable for thermal spraying are the nozzle-atomized powders, which are more dense. The particle size range produced is dependent on the many parameters in the spray drying process. Hydroxyapatite is more sensitive than fluorapatite to alterations in process conditions. The powders produced were clean, free of other phases, and possessed good flowability for thermal spraying purposes.

  2. Target detection as a tool of selective spray application on trees and weeds in orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Jaeken, Peter; Holownicki, Ryszard

    1999-01-01

    A spectral detection system discriminating the targets for the non target area was tested during spray applications in apple and pear orchards. The objective of the test was to evaluate the accuracy of the system working at different application parameters and to estimate the rate of possible spray savings obtained during applications on the trees of different size and weeds of different density. The system consisted of the spray units equipped with optic sensor and a control unit which could operate up to 16 spray units. Each spray unit had an optic detector and two light sources emitting two beams of light at the wavelengths 670 and 750. The ratio between emitted and reflected light for each wavelength was the basis for discriminating between the presence or the absence of chlorophyll. The information was processed and used to control the electric solenoid valves opening or shutting off the nozzles. The target detection system worked technically properly. It enabled the selective spray application with spray savings adequate to the tree row profile. In intensive apple and pear orchards 16-25 percent reduction of spray volume was obtained. For herbicide applications the detection system discriminated weeds for the bare ground. Both sensitivity of the sensors and weed density had a significant influence on the spray savings. At medium sensitivity, a considerable spray saving amounting 23 percent was obtained only on the plots with very low weed coverage.

  3. Flame spraying of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-08-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs.

  4. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  5. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  6. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  7. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kamstrup, Maria R.; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  8. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A.

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  9. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  10. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  11. Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1934-01-01

    A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.

  12. Potential hazard of volatile organic compounds contained in household spray products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    To assess the exposure levels of hazardous volatile pollutants released from common household spray products, a total of 10 spray products consisting of six body spray and four air spray products have been investigated. The body spray products included insect repellents (two different products), medicated patch, deodorant, hair spray, and humectant, whereas the air spray products included two different insecticides (mosquito and/or cockroach), antibacterial spray, and air freshener. The main objective of this study was to measure concentrations of 15 model volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using GC/MS coupled with a thermal desorber. In addition, up to 34 ‘compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates (CLASS)' were also quantified based on the effective carbon number (ECN) theory. According to our analysis, the most common indoor pollutants like benzene, toluene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl acetate have been detected frequently in the majority of spray products with the concentration range of 5.3-125 mg L-1. If one assumes that the amount of spray products released into air reaches the 0.3 mL level for a given space size of 5 m3, the risk factor is expected to exceed the carcinogenic risk level set for benzene (10-5) by the U.S. EPA.

  13. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form. PMID:24236997

  14. Efficient transmission calculations for polydisperse water sprays using spectral scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, William F.; Desjardin, Paul E.

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are developed to scale the extinction, scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of the Sauter mean diameter for polydisperse water sprays in fire suppression systems. A scaling procedure is introduced to avoid prohibitive exact integration of the functions obtained from Mie theory resulting in several orders in magnitude of computational savings. Spectral-based and total transmission of real spray distributions using the scaling procedure are compared to exact results and experimental data. Results show the proposed scaling procedure yields significant computational savings with little loss in accuracy for predictions of spectral and total transmission.

  15. Spray-formed tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  16. Spray-formed tooling

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be de signed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  17. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Jhon; Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V.; Schlaf, Rudy

    2014-02-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin-avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin-biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin-biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  18. A New Way to Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA SBIR contract provided the funding for a new nozzle shape to be used in plasma spray techniques. The new design, a bell shape, reduces overspray. The result is a significant decrease in the cost of plasma spraying and a higher quality, more pure coating.

  19. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  20. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  1. Effects of Spray Parameters and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Coatings Formed by Warm Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti coatings deposited by warm spraying were investigated with the aim to find a set of optimum parameters for the spray process as well as for the subsequent heat treatment. Titanium powder was deposited with different nitrogen flow rates in a range from 0.5 to 1.5 m3/min. It was shown that spray parameters, which affect the temperature and velocity of in-flight particles, have significant influence on the fabricated coatings properties. Especially the increase of the warm spraying combustion pressure from 1 to 4 MPa resulted in an increase in the particle velocity to above 1100 m/s. This modification significantly increased the density and was beneficial for controlling the oxygen level in Ti coatings. Miniature tensile specimens with a total length of 9 mm were used to perform tensile tests for the Ti deposits. The optimal mechanical properties were achieved for specimens formed at a middle range of nitrogen flow rate (0.75 m3/min). Subsequently, several heat treatments were performed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of the as-sprayed coatings. It was found that the post-spray heat treatment significantly enhanced the strength and elongation of the Ti deposits determined by miniature specimen tensile test.

  2. The structure of evaporating and combusting sprays: Measurements and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to provide measurements in open sprays with no zones of recirculation, in order to provide well-defined conditions for use in evaluating spray models. Measurements were completed in a gas jet, in order to test experimental methods, and are currently in progress for nonevaporating sprays. A locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model where interphase transport rates are assumed to be infinitely fast; a separated flow (SF) model which allows for finite interphase transport rates but neglects effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion; and a stochastic SF model which considers effects of turbulent fluctuations on drop motion were evaluated using existing data on particle-laden jets. The LHF model generally overestimates rates of particle dispersion while the SF model underestimates dispersion rates. The stochastic SF flow yield satisfactory predictions except at high particle mass loadings where effects of turbulence modulation may have caused the model to overestimate turbulence levels.

  3. Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards.

    PubMed

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Strancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  4. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  5. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Monahan, C.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2013-09-01

    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head coastal station, on the west coast of Ireland, were used together with open-ocean eddy correlation flux measurements from the Eastern Atlantic (SEASAW cruise). In the overlapping size range, the data for Mace Head and SEASAW were found to be in a good agreement, which allowed deriving the new SSSF from the combined dataset spanning the dry diameter range from 15 nm to 6 μm. The sea spray production was parameterized in terms of 5 log-normal modes and the Reynolds number instead of the more commonly used wind speed, thereby encapsulating important influences of wave height and history, friction velocity and viscosity. This formulation accounts for the different flux relationships associated with rising and waning wind speeds since these are included in the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the Reynolds number incorporates the kinematic viscosity of water, thus the SSSF inherently includes a sea surface temperature dependence. The temperature dependence of the resulting SSSF is similar to that of other in-situ derived source functions and results in lower production fluxes for cold waters and enhanced fluxes from warm waters as compared with SSSF formulations that do not include temperature effects.

  6. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.-I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2014-02-01

    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head coastal station, on the west coast of Ireland, were used together with open-ocean eddy correlation flux measurements from the Eastern Atlantic Sea Spray, Gas Flux, and Whitecap (SEASAW) project cruise. In the overlapping size range, the data for Mace Head and SEASAW were found to be in a good agreement, which allowed deriving the new SSSF from the combined dataset spanning the dry diameter range from 15 nm to 6 μm. The OSSA source function has been parameterized in terms of five lognormal modes and the Reynolds number instead of the more commonly used wind speed, thereby encapsulating important influences of wave height, wind history, friction velocity, and viscosity. This formulation accounts for the different flux relationships associated with rising and waning wind speeds since these are included in the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the Reynolds number incorporates the kinematic viscosity of water, thus the SSSF inherently includes dependences on sea surface temperature and salinity. The temperature dependence of the resulting SSSF is similar to that of other in-situ derived source functions and results in lower production fluxes for cold waters and enhanced fluxes from warm waters as compared with SSSF formulations that do not include temperature effects.

  7. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  8. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  9. A fluorescent tracer method for evaluating spray transport and fate of field and laboratory spray applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory testing spray nozzles and application systems use spray collectors to assess where the spray deposits once it leaves the spray system. Tracer materials, such as oil and water soluble fluorescent dyes, can be mixed into spray solutions in small amounts with minimal impact on the...

  10. Furnace endoscope—measuring fuel spray properties in hot and corrosive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, P.; Kankkunen, A.; Järvinen, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    A furnace endoscope was developed to carry out in-furnace measurements of black liquor sprays in order to discover the initial velocity, opening angle and trajectory of the spray, and compare spray disintegration mechanisms and spray appearance with the ones measured in a spray chamber. An error analysis of the velocity measurement method was carried out, and the meaning of the optimum measurement distance from the optics to the observed object is discussed. Some details of the development process of the probe are also presented, especially the definition of the scale of the image and the cooling system of the protection tubes. The furnace endoscope can be used in difficult conditions, such as those found inside a chemical recovery boiler (~1,200°C and corrosive chemicals) with promising and accurate measurement results. The equipment has been tested in several furnaces.

  11. INEL spray-forming research

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  12. INEL Spray-forming Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  13. Ambient Air Sampling During Quantum-dot Spray Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John Timothy; Hollenbeck, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air sampling for nano-size particle emissions was performed during spot spray coating operations with a Sono-Tek Exactacoat Benchtop system (ECB). The ECB consisted of the application equipment contained within an exhaust enclosure. The enclosure contained numerous small access openings, including an exhaust hook-up. Door access comprised most of the width and height of the front. The door itself was of the swing-out type. Two types of nanomaterials, Cadmium selenide (Cd-Se) quantum-dots (QDs) and Gold (Au) QDs, nominally 3.3 and 5 nm in diameter respectively, were applied during the evaluation. Median spray drop size was in the 20 to 60 micrometer size range.1 Surface coating tests were of short duration, on the order of one-half second per spray and ten spray applications between door openings. The enclosure was ventilated by connection to a high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filtered house exhaust system. The exhaust rate was nominally 80 ft3 per minute producing about 5 air changes per minute. Real time air monitoring with a scanning mobility particle size analyzer (SMPS ) with a size detection limit of 7 nm indicated a significant increase in the ambient air concentration upon early door opening. A handheld condensation particle counter (CPC) with a lower size limit of 10 nm did not record changes in the ambient background. This increase in the ambient was not observed when door opening was delayed for 2 minutes (~10 air changes). The ventilated enclosure controlled emissions except for cases of rapid door opening before the overspray could be removed by the exhaust. A time delay sufficient to provide 10 enclosure air changes (a concentration reduction of more than 99.99 %) before door opening prevented the release of aerosol particles in any size.2 Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of agglomerates in the surfaces of the spray applied deposition. A filtered air sample of

  14. Fuel spray diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Several laser measurement methods are being studied to provide the capability to make droplet size and velocity measurements under a variety of spray conditions. The droplet sizing interferometer (DSI) promises to be a successful technique because of its capability for rapid data acquisition, compilation and analysis. Its main advantage is the ability to obtain size and velocity measurements in air-fuel mixing studies and hot flows. The existing DSI at NASA Lewis is a two-color, two-component system. Two independent orthogonal measurements of size and velocity components can be made simultaneously. It also uses an off-axis large-angle light scatter detection. The fundamental features of the system are optics, signal processing and data management system. The major component includes a transmitter unit, two receiver units, two signal processors, two data management systems, two Bragg cell systems, two printer/plotters, a laser, power supply and color monitor.

  15. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, Pattie Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Zinc primer systems are currently used across NASA and AFSPC for corrosion protection of steel. AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of Thermal Spray Coatings (TSCs) as an environmentally preferable alternative. TSCs are approved in NASA-STD-5008 and AFSPC and KSC is currently looking for additional applications in which TSC can be used. Gas Dynamic Spray (GDS, also known as Cold Spray) is being evaluated as a means of repairing TSCs and for areas such as corners and edges where TSCs do not work as well. Other applications could include spot repair/maintenance of steel on structures, facilities, and ground support equipment.

  16. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  17. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  18. No Spray Roses for the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A no spray rose trial has been conducted at the West Tennessee Research and Education Center in Jackson, TN, since 2006. In 2007, sites were added at the Plateau Research and Education Center in Crossville, TN, and the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. A total of 1...

  19. Exposure of spray-men to dieldrin in residual spraying

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, T. E.; Press, J. M.; Wilson, D. Bagster

    1959-01-01

    A study of the exposure of spray-men to dieldrin was made in a pilot scheme of residual spraying in the Taveta-Pare area of East Africa. A detailed work study was completed on the operators, and sources of contamination were enumerated. Filter paper pads were placed on the skin and outside clothing and the pick-up was estimated chemically. A spray-man, while using the daily average of 2.12 kg (4.7 pounds) of dieldrin and observing the protective measures laid down, received a dermal exposure of 1.8 mg of dieldrin per kg of body-weight per day. This was possibly reduced somewhat by washing with soap and water upon completion of each day's work. The sixteen spray-men and assistants were exposed for 180 days per year and there was an interim period of 2 months between spray cycles. No clinical symptoms of poisoning were observed. Comparison is made with certain programmes where dieldrin poisoning has occurred. Attention is drawn to the reduced time of exposure in the Taveta-Pare scheme, personal washing, the great value of protective clothing and of its daily washing in soap and water and the need to use a dilute suspension of wettable powder for spraying. Imagesp16-a PMID:13638786

  20. Interlayer spray ionization mass spectrometry for the simple direct analysis of low amounts of sample.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Tang, Fei; Guo, Cheng'an; Huo, Xinming; Zhang, Sichun; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-07-01

    Interlayer spray is proposed as a convenient ionization source for direct analysis by mass spectrometry. Two slices of non-absorbent substrate hold the liquid sample to form a sandwich structure. By applying a high voltage to the sample, spray is generated at the tip of the substrate. The sampling procedure can be operated easily in an open condition and the spray is processed in a semi-enclosed condition, which leads to a relatively stable process. An ultralow amount (<2 μL) of the liquid sample can be analyzed without dilution, which ensures that the natural concentration and properties of the target are maintained. Less influence from the substrate is achieved compared with the spray methods based on porous absorbent materials, which results in a sensitivity enhancement of large molecule samples. It is demonstrated that the interlayer spray is applicable for the analysis of various compounds, including therapeutic drugs, peptides, and proteins. Good linearity can be obtained at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL in the quantitative analysis for imatinib. We also show the ability to identify the chemical residuals on surfaces with high sensitivity by the "wipe-spray" method, which is useful for the fast screening of illicit substances. Interlayer spray working with mass spectrometry provides a promising method for direct analysis in an ambient environment. Graphical Abstract The schematic of the interlayer spray ionization source. PMID:27173393

  1. Convective Evaporation Of Sprayed Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical model developed to analyze behavior of both dense and dilute clusters of evaporating liquid drops in gas flows. Particularly useful in search for methods of controlling evaporation, ignition, and combustion of fuel sprays.

  2. Spray nozzle for fire control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavergos, Panayiotis G.

    1990-09-01

    The design of a spray nozzle for fire control is described. It produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross section and it comprises a mixing chamber with an oval transverse cross section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment the mixing chamber is toroidal. The spray nozzle produces an oval spray pattern for more efficient wetting of narrow passages and is suitable for fire control systems in vehicles or other confined spaces. Vehicles to which this invention may be applied include trains, armoured vehicles, ships, hovercraft, submarines, oil rigs, and most preferably, aircraft.

  3. Process Sprays Uniforms Plasma Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Walther, G. C.; Nakamura, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Composite-powder processing procedure developed along with plasma-spray parameters to achieve homogeneous, well-bonded, low-porosity, self-lubricating coatings. Multicomponent plasma coatings are applied without segretation of components.

  4. Removal of carbon dioxide by a spray dryer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tang, Jun-Tian; Liu, Li-Ping

    2005-03-01

    With the global warming due to greenhouse effects becoming serious, many efforts are carried out to decrease the emissions of CO2 from the combustion of carbonaceous materials. In Taiwan, there are 19 large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators running and their total emission of CO2 is about 16,950 kton y-1. Spray dryer is the most prevailing air pollution control devise for removing acid gas in waste incineration; however, the performance of spray dryer on the removal of CO2 is seldom studied. This study employs a laboratory-scale spray dryer to investigate the removal efficiency of CO2 under different operating conditions. The evaluated parameters include different absorbents mixed with CaOH2, operating temperature, the concentration of absorbent, and the inlet concentration of CO2. Experimental results show that the best removal efficiency of CO2 by a spray dryer is 48% as the absorbent is 10%NaOH+5%CaOH2 and the operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Comparing this result with previous study shows that the performance of spray dryer is better than traditional NaOH wet scrubber. For NaOH+CaOH2 spray dryer, the removal efficiency of CO2 is decreased with the inlet concentration of CO2 increased and the optimum operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Except NaOH+CaOH2, absorbents DEA+CaOH2, TEA+CaOH2, and single CaOH2 are not effective in removing CO2 by a spray dryer. PMID:15698650

  5. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  6. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  7. Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2014-04-01

    Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

  8. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... steps: Keep your head up and place the nozzle in one nostril. Press down on the pump ... position. Replace the plastic cover to keep the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon stored at room temperature ...

  9. Characterization of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Stein, K.J.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-02-01

    The ability to characterize fully the microstructure of a coating is paramount for understanding the in-service properties and eventual optimization of the coating. This article discusses sample preparation and subsequent analytical techniques (LOM, SEM, XRD, WDS, and QIA) for several cermet thermal spray coatings and provides a detailed analysis of as-sprayed microstructures in addition to processing trends for several FeCrAIY-carbide coatings. It was found that the splats produced in these high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings tended to exhibit a predominantly dendritic structure most likely retained from the gas atomization process that produced the original powder. Chemical analysis showed that the carbides tend to break down during spraying producing a complex mixture of oxides and various carbides. Finally, image analysis revealed that as the carbides in the pre-sprayed powder were increased, more carbides and oxides with less FeCrAIY and thinner coatings were found. These techniques allow the thorough characterization of thermal spray cermet coatings, which in turn should further the understanding of the thermal spray processes and help provide superior coatings in the future.

  10. Image processing system to analyze droplet distributions in sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertollini, Gary P.; Oberdier, Larry M.; Lee, Yong H.

    1987-01-01

    An image processing system was developed which automatically analyzes the size distributions in fuel spray video images. Images are generated by using pulsed laser light to freeze droplet motion in the spray sample volume under study. This coherent illumination source produces images which contain droplet diffraction patterns representing the droplets degree of focus. The analysis is performed by extracting feature data describing droplet diffraction patterns in the images. This allows the system to select droplets from image anomalies and measure only those droplets considered in focus. Unique features of the system are the totally automated analysis and droplet feature measurement from the grayscale image. The feature extraction and image restoration algorithms used in the system are described. Preliminary performance data is also given for two experiments. One experiment gives a comparison between a synthesized distribution measured manually and automatically. The second experiment compares a real spray distribution measured using current methods against the automatic system.

  11. Field bioefficacy of deltamethrin residual spraying against dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Rozilawati, H; Lee, H L; Mohd Masri, S; Mohd Noor, I; Rosman, S

    2005-12-01

    Field bioefficacy of residual-sprayed deltamethrin against Aedes vectors was evaluated in an urban residential area in Kuala Lumpur. The trial area consisted of single storey wood-brick houses and a block of flat. The houses were treated with outdoor residual spraying while the flat was used as an untreated control. Initial pre-survey using ovitrap surveillance indicated high Aedes population in the area. Deltamethrin WG was sprayed at a dosage of 25mg/m2 using a compression sprayer. The effectiveness of deltamethrin was determined by wall bioassay and ovitrap surveillance. The residual activity of 25mg/m2 deltamethrin was still effective for 6 weeks after treatment, based on biweekly bioassay results. Bioassay also indicated that both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were more susceptible on the wooden surfaces than on brick. Aedes aegypti was more susceptible than Ae. albopictus against deltamethrin. Residual spraying of deltamethrin was not very effective against Aedes in this study since the Aedes population in the study area did not reduce as indicated by the total number of larvae collected using the ovitrap (Wilcoxon Sign Test, p> 0.05). Further studies are required to improve the effectiveness of residual spraying against Aedes vectors. PMID:16883280

  12. Effects of momentum ratio and Weber number on spray half angles of liquid controlled pintle injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Koo, Jaye; Kwon, Oh Chae; Kim, Jeong Soo

    2015-02-01

    A pintle injector is advantageous for throttling a liquid rocket engine and reducing engine weight. This study explores the effects of momentum ratio and Weber number at various injection conditions on spray characteristics of the pintle injector for liquid-gas propellants. A liquid sheet is injected from a center pintle nozzle and it is broken by a gas jet from an annular gap. The pressure drops of propellants, and the pintle opening distance were considered as control variables; using 0.1 ˜1.0 as a bar for the pressure drop of the liquid injection, a 0.01˜0.2 bar for the pressure drop of gas jet and a 0.2˜ 1.0 mm for the pintle opening distance. The discharge coefficient was decreased linearly before the pintle opening distance of 0.75 mm and then, the coefficient was slightly increased. Spray images were captured by a CMOS camera with high resolution. Then, the shadow and reflected images were analyzed. Spray distributions were measured by a patternator with an axial distance of 50 mm from a pintle tip. Finally, the spray half angles had an exponentially decreasing correlation as a momentum ratio divided by the Weber number. Also, the spray half angles from the spray distribution were underestimated compared to those measured from the captured images.

  13. Total rock dissolution using ammonium bifluoride (NH4HF2) in screw-top Teflon vials: a new development in open-vessel digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Chen, Haihong; Gao, Shan; Gaschnig, Richard M

    2012-12-18

    Complete sample digestion is a prerequisite for achieving reproducible and accurate analytical results for geological samples. Open-vessel acid digestions successfully dissolve mafic samples, but this method cannot achieve complete dissolution of felsic samples, because of the presence of refractory minerals such as zircon. In this study, an efficient and simplified digestion technique using the solid compound NH(4)HF(2) in a screw-top vial has been developed for multielement analysis of different types of rock samples. NH(4)HF(2) has a higher boiling point (239.5 °C) than conventional acids such as HF, HNO(3) and HCl, which allows for an elevated digestion temperature in open vessels, enabling the decomposition of refractory phases. Similar to HF, HNO(3) and HCl, ultrapure NH(4)HF(2) can be produced using a conventional PFA sub-boiling (heating and cooling) purification system. A digestion time of 2-3 h for 200 mg NH(4)HF(2) in a Savillex Teflon vial at 230 °C is sufficient to digest 50 mg of the felsic rock GSP-2, which is ~6 times faster than using conventional closed-vessel acid digestion at 190 °C (high-pressure PTFE digestion bomb). The price of a Savillex Teflon vial is far less than the price of a high-pressure PTFE digestion bomb (consisting of a PTFE inner vessel and an outer stainless steel pressure jacket). Moreover, the NH(4)HF(2)-open-vessel acid digestion is not hampered by the formation of insoluble fluorides. We have successfully applied the NH(4)HF(2)-open-vessel acid digestion to the digestion of a series of international geological reference materials, including mafic to felsic igneous rocks and shales. This method provides an effective, simple, economical, and comparatively safe dissolution method that combines the advantages of both the open- and closed-vessel digestion methods. PMID:23176404

  14. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  15. Off-target loss in ornamental nurseries with different spray techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Derksen, R C; Krause, C R; Zondag, R H

    2009-01-01

    Information is lacking on spray techniques to reduce off-target loss on the ground and via spray drift from the treated area in nursery applications. Airborne deposits at three elevations on sampling towers and on the ground at several distances from the sprayer were investigated with the three spray treatments in an open field without crops. Tests were conducted with an air blast sprayer equipped with conventional hollow cone nozzles (HC), low drift nozzles (AI), and conventional hollow cone nozzles with a drift retardant (HCDR) in an open field without crops. To compare field test results, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to assess spray deposits on the floor beyond 0.4 m downwind distance from the nozzles and airborne deposits at 2.1 m downwind from the spray discharge point with the three spray techniques. Droplet size distributions across spray patterns were measured with a laser particle/droplet image analysis system. There was no significant difference in airborne deposits for the three elevations at both 15 and 30 m downwind from the sprayer between AI and HC methods except for 3.05 m elevation at the 15 m distance although the average airborne deposits with AI were lower than that with HC. The downwind spray deposits on the ground at 15 and 30 m from the sprayer with AI were higher than that with HC and HCDR. Compared with conventional hollow cone nozzles, drift reduction from air induction nozzles or the spray mixture with drift retardant was significant in wind tunnel tests but was not significant in field tests. PMID:20218508

  16. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  17. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  18. Clay as a matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2014-04-25

    Utilization of sugars (e.g. lactose, sucrose) as matrix formers for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions is associated with two drawbacks: (1) sugars are incapable of preventing agglomeration of drug nanoparticles (NPs) in the suspension state; and (2) the spray-dried sugars are usually amorphous and hygroscopic. This work aimed to apply a clay, montmorillonite (MMT) as an alternative matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions with fenofibrate (feno) as a model compound. Drug nanosuspensions were synthesized by liquid antisolvent precipitation with different amount of MMT followed by spray drying. It is found that MMT is able to reduce the agglomeration of drug nanoparticles in the suspension state, as observed from the gradual alleviation of the clogging with the increased clay during the spray drying. The spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders exhibited a much lower moisture sorption than spray-dried feno NPs/lactose powders as evidenced by the dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis. The dissolution within 5 min for the spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders at drug:MMT weight ratio of 1:3 was 81.4 ± 1.8% and the total dissolution within 60 min was 93.4 ± 0.9%. Our results demonstrate that MMT is a useful matrix former for preservation of the high dissolution rate of nanosized drug particles after drying. PMID:24560641

  19. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM

  20. Air and spray mixture temperature effects on atomization of agricultural sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drift associated with agrochemical operations is highly dependent upon the physical properties of the spray solution with respect to how they influence atomization. This study examined effects on spray atomization with two spray solutions across a wide range of solution temperatures for two n...

  1. Effects of Spray Adjuvants on Spray Droplet Size from a Rotary Atomizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotary atomizers are used in a number of aerial applications, such as forest pest spraying and mosquito control sprays. These types of atomizers have a rotating cage at speeds of 2,000 to 10,000 rpm through which a spray is emitted and atomized. Many applicators routinely add spray adjuvants to ch...

  2. Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Kawamura, Akinobu; Tamura, Miho; Satoh, Keisuke; Tsujimura, Misato; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level. PMID:25421399

  3. Properties of ``Sonarc`` sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, H.D.; Wilden, J.; Nassenstein, K.

    1995-12-31

    The combination of electric arc and HVOF-spraying offers a lot of opportunities to enlarge the field of application for thermal spray technology. If hard material powders are processed by HVOF and simultaneously metal wires by arc spraying, metal matrix composites (MMC) can be formed out. NiCr8020 and aluminum coatings were reinforced by applying various contents of SiC and tested by a taber abraser device. Beside the investigations of the microstructure and the determination of the volume percentage of the hard particle content bond strength tests according European standard EN 582 were carried out. Furthermore, the coatings were tested by corrosion tests. The results are compared to other coating systems and discussed in relation to the obtained microstructure.

  4. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    A ground test facility is being established at NASA Lewis Research Center to simulate the environmental and flight conditions needed to study adverse weather effects. One of the most important components is the water spray system which consists of many nozzles fitted on spray bars. Water is injected through air-assisted atomizers to generate uniform size drops to simulate icing in clouds. The primary objective is to provide experimental data on drop size distribution over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlation equations for mean drop size and initial injection parameters are being determined to assist in the design and modification of the Altitude Wind Tunnel. Special emphasis is being placed on the study of the aerodynamic structure of the air-assisted atomizer sprays. Detailed measurements of the variation of drop size distribution and velocity as a function of time and space are being made. Accurate initial and boundary conditions are being provided for computer model evaluation.

  5. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed fuel spray analyses are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel-air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. Thus, a research program is underway to demonstrate the capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments. The research activities from two contracts and one grant are described with results to data. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is also described. These experiments and data should be useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  6. Suspension Plasma Spray and Performance Characterization of Half Cells with NiO/YSZ Anode and YSZ Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Legoux, J.-G.; Neagu, R.; Hui, S.; Marple, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a liquid feedstock carrier in suspension plasma spray (SPS) permits injection of fine powders, providing the possibility of producing sprayed coatings that are both thin and dense and have fine microstructures. These characteristics make SPS an attractive process for depositing highly efficient electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. In this study, NiO-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode and YSZ electrolyte half cells were successfully deposited on porous Hastelloy X substrates by SPS. The NiO-YSZ anode deposition process was optimized by design of experiment. The YSZ electrolyte spray process was examined by changing one parameter at a time. The results from the design-of-experiment trials indicated that the porosity of the as-deposited coatings increased with an increase of suspension feed rate while it decreased with an increase of total plasma gas flow rate and standoff distance. The deposition rate increased with an increase of total plasma gas flow rate, suspension feed rate, and standoff distance. The microstructure examination by SEM showed that the NiO and YSZ phases were homogeneously distributed and that the YSZ phase had a lamellar structure. It was observed that the density of the YSZ electrolyte layer increased as input power of the plasma torch increased. Electrochemical characterization of the fabricated cells indicated that an open cell voltage of 0.989 V at 500 °C and a peak power of 0.610 W/cm2 at 750 °C were reached.

  7. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  8. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  9. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  10. Reducing Totality and Opening Residential Settings to Their Regions in the Israeli Kibbutz Artzi Educational Institutions in the 1980s and 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dror, Yuval

    1998-01-01

    Describes origins, history, and functions of Israeli Kibbutz institutions with a focus on Kibbutz Artzi, a left-wing Zionist organization which sets up junior and senior residential high schools. Recent developments have led to reducing the "total" nature of these institutions. Detailed reasons for and implications of changes are clarified in…

  11. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  12. Spray combustion models - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Due to recent theoretical and experimental advances, modeling spray combustion can be contemplated as a means of supplementing traditional cut and try combustor development methods. This review describes spray models that are currently being developed and their validation. The review is limited to steady, turbulent two- and three-dimensional systems typified by furnaces and gas turbine combustors. Both locally homogeneous flow models, where the phases are assumed to be in kinematic and thermodynamic equilibrium at each point in the flow, and more complete two-phase flow models, which allow for finite rate processes between the phases, are considered.

  13. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOEpatents

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  14. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  15. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  16. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  17. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a few times. Hold the bottle with your thumb at the bottom and the first two fingers at the top on either side of the nozzle. Tilt your head slightly forward. Gently insert the ...

  18. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  19. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  20. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Triamcinolone spray. 524.2482 Section 524.2482... Triamcinolone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.15 milligrams triamcinolone...) Amount. Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly and thoroughly wet the affected areas while...

  1. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  2. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  3. Effectiveness of spray adjuvants on reduction of spray drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  4. Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

  5. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  6. Elastic and Anelastic Behavior of TBCs Sprayed at High-Deposition Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarezo, A.; Dwivedi, G.; Sampath, S.; Musalek, R.; Matejicek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coatings sprayed at high-deposition rates often result in stiff, dense, and highly stressed coatings. The high deposition temperature at which the coatings are formed is responsible for these characteristics. In this paper, TBCs were sprayed at high-deposition rates, increasing the tensile quenching stresses beyond the threshold of crack opening during spraying. Dense structures were observed within a pass, in the presence of micro and macro defects specifically horizontal cracks within interpasses and vertical segmentation cracks. Mechanical properties, mainly the elastic and anelastic behavior of TBCs were significantly affected by the strain accommodation and friction occurring within intersplats and interpass interfaces. The strain tolerance obtained in as-sprayed conditions decreased as the microstructure and defects sintered during high-temperature heat cycles. The non-linearity degree decreased while the elastic modulus of the various coatings increased to a maximum value.

  7. Design of a new nozzle for direct current plasma guns with improved spraying parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, M.; Mostaghimi, J.; Pershin, V.

    2000-03-01

    A new design is proposed for direct current plasma spray gas-shroud attachments. It has curvilinearly shaped internal walls aimed toward elimination of the cold air entrainment, recorded for commercially available conical designs of the shrouded nozzle. The curvilinear nozzle design was tested; it proved to be capable of withstanding high plasma temperatures and enabled satisfactory particle injection. Parallel measurements with an enthalpy probe were performed on the jet emerging from two different nozzles. Also, corresponding calculations were made to predict the plasma flow parameters and the particle parameters. Adequate spray tests were performed by spraying iron-aluminum and MCrAlY coatings onto stainless steel substrates. Coating analyses were performed, and coating qualities, such as microstructure, open porosity, and adhesion strength, were determined. The results indicate that the coatings sprayed with a curvilinear nozzle exhibited lower porosity, higher adhesion strength, and an enhanced microstructure.

  8. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  9. [Effectiveness of a carbamate insecticide as a household low-volume spray for malaria control].

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Loyola, E G; Rodríguez, M H; Danis-Lozano, R; Fuentes, G; Villarreal, C

    1993-01-01

    A comparative regional-scale evaluation of the epidemiological impact of low volume (LV) spray of bendiocarb and the conventional spray of DDT against malaria in an endemic area of northern Chiapas was carried out. Three Anopheline species were found: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albinanus and An. argyritarsis. The most prevalent was An. pseudopunctipennis, a species we suspect may be involved in the transmission of most malaria cases. This species showed high levels of resistance to DDT. However, this insecticide had a long residual effect in wall bioassays, with mortalities > or = 95 per cent for up to 21 weeks in wood, sticks and plaster. Susceptibility to bendiocarb was total, and mortality to LV bendiocarb was > or = 75 per cent for up to 16 weeks in wood, sticks and straw. Very low numbers of mosquitoes were found throughout the evaluation, although malaria transmission continued in control villages (sprayed with DDT), as well as treated villages (sprayed with LV bendiocarb). No plasmodium infected mosquitoes were found, perhaps due to a very small sample size. The LV spray methodology was found to be 1.7 times more effective than conventional spraying in reducing malaria incidence. A net reduction of 1.6 times in insecticide application time was also found, which would allow spraying at the right time, especially when urgent control measures have to be applied, such as in malaria outbreaks. Finally, the new methodology costs 2.2 times more than the conventional ddt spraying, but if the potential of using spray workers in other activities is considered, costs would be comparable to those of DDT spraying. PMID:8470018

  10. Sprayer technology: reduce spray drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing environmental quality and sustaining the economic viability of food production are keys to sustainable agriculture. Modern vegetable production uses a variety of materials to manage pest problems. Selecting the proper spray nozzle for the application of liquid products is critical to red...

  11. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  12. Plasma Spraying Reclaims Compressor Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-spraying process used to build up material in worn and pitted areas. Newly applied material remachined to specified surface contours. Effective technique for addition of metal to out-of-tolerance magnesium-alloy turbine-engine compressor housings.

  13. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  14. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  15. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  16. Impact of nanocrystal spray deposition on inorganic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Troy K; Yoon, Woojun; Foos, Edward E; Tischler, Joseph G

    2014-05-28

    Solution-synthesized inorganic cadmium telluride nanocrystals (∼4 nm; 1.45 eV band gap) are attractive elements for the fabrication of thin-film-based low-cost photovoltaic (PV) devices. Their encapsulating organic ligand shell enables them to be easily dissolved in organic solvents, and the resulting solutions can be spray-cast onto indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass under ambient conditions to produce photoactive thin films of CdTe. Following annealing at 380 °C in the presence of CdCl2(s) and evaporation of metal electrode contacts (glass/ITO/CdTe/Ca/Al), Schottky-junction PV devices were tested under simulated 1 sun conditions. An improved PV performance was found to be directly tied to control over the film morphology obtained by the adjustment of spray parameters such as the solution concentration, delivery pressure, substrate distance, and surface temperature. Higher spray pressures produced thinner layers (<60 nm) with lower surface roughness (<200 nm), leading to devices with improved open-circuit voltages (Voc) due to decreased surface roughness and higher short-circuit current (Jsc) as a result of enhanced annealing conditions. After process optimization, spray-cast Schottky devices rivaled those prepared by conventional spin-coating, showing Jsc = 14.6 ± 2.7 mA cm(-2), Voc = 428 ± 11 mV, FF = 42.8 ± 1.4%, and Eff. = 2.7 ± 0.5% under 1 sun illumination. This optimized condition of CdTe spray deposition was then applied to heterojunction devices (ITO/CdTe/ZnO/Al) to reach 3.0% efficiency after light soaking under forward bias. The film thickness, surface morphology, and light absorption were examined with scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and UV/vis spectroscopy. PMID:24755091

  17. The future of thermal spray technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W. ); Fast, R.D. )

    1994-07-01

    Thermal spray technology is emerging as an important processing tool for both surface protection and advanced materials forming. Despite the technology having been in use for over 100 years, much of its advancement, driven by aerospace applications, has occurred in the past 15 years. Increased understanding of process/structure/property relationships has resulted in the growing application of thermal spray coating technology resulting in new processes; for example, low-pressure plasma spray, high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spray and reactive plasma spray. New equipment, automation and materials have been introduced. This article reviews many of the commercial thermal spray processes, borrowing from educational programs at ASM International and the Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, and reviews the applications and growth potential for emerging thermal spray processing technologies. A review of the needs in education and standardization and comparisons to programs on other countries is also presented.

  18. Magnetic-luminescent spherical particles synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Norma L.; Flores, Dora L.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2015-07-01

    The combination of magnetic and luminescent properties in a single particle system, opens-up a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this work, we performed the synthesis of magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis performed in a tubular furnace. In order to achieve the composite formation, commercial superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a luminescent Eu3+-doped Gd2O3 shell in a low-cost one-step process. The spray pyrolysis method yields deagglomerated spherical shape magneto/luminescent particles. The photoluminescence spectra under UV excitation (λExc = 265 nm) of the magnetic Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 compound showed the characteristic red emission of Eu3+ (λEm = 612 nm). This magneto/luminescent system will find applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  19. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. PMID:25367889

  20. Effectiveness of Large-Scale Chagas Disease Vector Control Program in Nicaragua by Residual Insecticide Spraying Against Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kota; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Byron; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Lenin; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the second spraying round did not demonstrate clear effectiveness. Space-time analysis revealed that reinfestation of T. dimidiata is more likely to occur in clusters where the pre-spray infestation level is high. Here we discuss how large-scale insecticide spraying is neither effective nor affordable when T. dimidiata is widely distributed at low infestation levels. Further challenges involve research on T. dimidiata reinfestation, diversification of vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance. PMID:26416118

  1. Manufacture of SOFC electrodes by wet powder spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkenhoener, R.; Mallener, W.; Buchkremer, H.P.

    1996-12-31

    The reproducible and commercial manufacturing of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance is of central importance for a successful technical realization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems. The route of electrode fabrication for the SOFC by Wet Powder Spraying (WPS) is presented. Stabilized suspensions of the powder materials for the electrodes were sprayed onto a substrate by employing a spray gun. After drying of the layers, binder removal and sintering are performed in one step. The major advantage of this process is its applicability for a large variety of materials and its flexibility with regard to layer shape and thickness. Above all, flat or curved substrates of any size can be coated, thus opening up the possibility of {open_quotes}up-scaling{close_quotes} SOFC technology. Electrodes with an enhanced electrochemical performance were developed by gradually optimizing the different process steps. For example an optimized SOFC cathode of the composition La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} with 40% 8YSZ showed a mean overpotential of about -50 mV at a current density of -0.8 A/cm{sup 2}, with a standard deviation amounting to 16 mV (950{degrees}C, air). Such optimized electrodes can be manufactured with a high degree of reproducibility, as a result of employing a computer-controlled X-Y system for moving the spray gun. Several hundred sintered composites, comprising the substrate anode and the electrolyte, of 100x 100 mm{sup 2} were coated with the cathode by WPS and used for stack integration. The largest manufactured electrodes were 240x240 mm{sup 2}, and data concerning their thickness homogeneity and electrochemical performance are given.

  2. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  3. Linewidth Uniformity: A Critical Evaluation Of Spray Geometry And Process Interactions In Ultrasonic Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBruin, David; Hannifan, M. Richard; Ha, Marie; Sautter, Kenneth

    1987-08-01

    Spatial linewidth replication is a dominant yield limiting factor for most current photolithography processes, typically consuming,/ 50% of the total linewidth variation allowance. Therefore, the reduction of across wafer variation is critical to successful process development. In this study, the primary factors affecting spatial linewidth replication were investigated. These factors include agitation uniformity, wafer rotation rate, develop temperature control, and photo-optimization. Key results are: 1. Nitrogen assisted ultrasonic spray nozzles produced a spatial linewidth standard deviation of .03 μm, compared to .05 μm for a fan spray nozzle. 2. Developer consumption for ultrasonic spray nozzles is approximately 60% less than for standard fan spray nozzles. 3. Head positioning of ultrasonic nozzles is less critical relative to fan spray nozzles for standard organic and inorganic developers. Head positioning for both ultrasonic and fan spray is critical when using high contrast MIF developers. 4. Rotation speeds of 600 - 1000 rpm were found to be optimal for both ultrasonic and fan spray. 5. Developer temperature controls parallel CD variation trends and can be minimized by use of developer temperature controllers and/or exhaust controllers. 6. Photo-optimization typically produced a 3-fold or greater improvement in linewidth uniformity across the wafer. The effect upon linewidth uniformity is demonstrated in a systematic study of the predominant variables.

  4. Styrene emissions from the spray-up and vacuum injection processes--a quantitative comparison.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Maria; Skrifvars, Mikael; Sandlund, Erik; Pettersson, Joakim

    2002-01-01

    Styrene emissions were studied during manufacturing of two identical glass-fiber reinforced plastic boats by two different manufacturing methods. The manufacturing methods were spray-up, which is an open method, and vacuum injection, which is a closed method. Changing the manufacturing process from an open method to a closed method decreased the styrene evaporation dramatically in this particular case. By using vacuum injection, the styrene emission during the laminate application was reduced by 98% compared with the styrene emission during laminate application by spray-up. Gel coat application by spraying will remain a major source for styrene emissions. The greatest environmental benefit is achieved with closed manufacturing methods when products without gel coat are made. The whole manufacturing process can then be performed in a closed system virtually free from emissions. PMID:11975655

  5. Corrosion and Wear Studies of Cr3C2NiCr-HVOF Coatings Sprayed on AA7050 T7 Under Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; Suegama, P. H.; Espallargas, N.; Fugivara, C. S.; Dosta, S.; Guilemany, J. M.; Benedetti, A. V.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, cermet coatings were prepared by high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) technique using a Diamalloy 3007 powder. The influence of the spray parameters on corrosion, friction, and abrasive wear resistance was studied. The samples were obtained using the standard conditions (253 L/min of oxygen and 375 L/min of compressed air), higher oxygen flux (341 L/min), and higher carrier gas flux (500 L/min). The coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction and SEM studies showed well-bounded coating/substrate interface, pores, metallic matrix, chromium oxides, carbides, and carbides dissolution into the matrix. In comparison with the standard condition, the sample prepared using higher oxygen flux showed the highest carbide dissolution because of the high temperature achieved in the spray process. When the carrier gas flux was increased, the sample showed denser structure because of the higher particle velocity. The friction and abrasive wear resistance of the coatings were studied using rubber wheel and ball-on-disk tests. All samples showed similar sliding and abrasive behavior, and all of them showed better performance than the aluminum alloy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using open-circuit potential ( E OC) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The coating prepared with higher carrier gas flux showed the highest corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution and probably no pitting attack to the substrate occurred even after around 26 h of test. Tests performed for longer immersion times showed that the total impedance values significantly decreased (6 and 4 times) for samples sprayed using standard and higher oxygen flux, and no great change for sample sprayed using higher carrier gas flux was observed. The last sample presents a corrosion resistance around 200 times higher than the others.

  6. Some Factors Affecting the Reproducibility of Penetration and the Cut-Off of Oil Sprays for Fuel-injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author)

  7. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  8. Evaluation of aerial spray technologies for adult mosquito control applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray droplet size has long been recognized as an important variable that applicators of vector control sprays must be aware of to make the most effective spray applications. Researchers and applicators have several different techniques available to assess spray droplet size from spray nozzles. The...

  9. High power density spray cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Donald E.; Pais, Martin R.; Chow, Louis C.

    1989-07-01

    The research reported describes experimental and theoretical investigations of high power density evaporative spray cooling. Preliminary experiments demonstrating heat fluxes greater than 1,000 W/sq cm were conducted. Extensive laser phase Doppler measurements of spray characteristics were also taken. These measurements provided valuable insight into the heat transfer process. An in-depth analysis was conducted to determine the mechanisms responsible for critical heat flux. Theoretical modeling was also conducted to determine the most desirable heat transfer conditions. After analysis of these results, an improved experimental apparatus was designed and fabricated. The new apparatus provided greater experimental control and improve accuracy. New tests were conducted in which the critical heat flux was increased, and the heat transfer efficiency was greatly improved. These results are compared to those of previous researchers, and indicated substantial improvement.

  10. Measurements of Hygroscopicity- and Size-Resolved Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Royalty, T. M.; Reed, R. E.; Petters, M.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a central role in many environmental processes by influencing the Earth's radiative balance, tropospheric chemistry, clouds, biogeochemical cycles, and visibility as well as adversely impacting human health. Based on their origin, atmospheric aerosols can be defined as anthropogenic or natural. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of uncertainty in the radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols is related to uncertainty in natural—background—aerosols. Marine aerosols are of particular interest due to the abundance of oceans covering the Earth's surface. Despite their importance, limited information is currently available for size- and composition-resolved marine aerosol emission fluxes. Our group has designed and built an instrument for measuring the size- and hygroscopicity-resolved sea spray aerosol fluxes. The instrument was first deployed during spring 2015 at the end of the 560 m pier of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. Measurements include 200 nm-sized diameter growth factor (hygroscopicity) distributions, sea spray particle flux measurements, and total sub-micron sized aerosol concentration. Ancillary ocean data includes salinity, pH, sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and relative fluorescence (proxy for [Chl-a]). Hygroscopicity distribution measurements show two broad peaks, one indicative of organics and sulfates and another suggestive of sea salt. The fraction of 200 nm-sized salt particles having hygroscopicity similar to that of sea-spray aerosol contributes up to ~24% of the distribution on days with high-speed onshore winds and up to ~3% on calm days with winds blowing from the continent. However, the total concentration of sea-spray-like particles originating from offshore versus onshore winds was relatively similar. Changes in the relative contribution of sea-salt to number concentration were caused by a concomitant changes in total aerosol concentration

  11. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  12. Clinical results of the application of a hemoglobin spray to promote healing of chronic wounds

    PubMed Central

    Arenberger, Peter; Engels, Peter; Arenbergerova, Monika; Gkalpakiotis, Spyridon; García Luna Martínez, Francisco Javier; Villarreal Anaya, Americo; Jimenez Fernandez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    A new technological approach for supplying hypoxic chronic wounds with oxygen is a moist wound treatment with aqueous solutions containing tissue compatible oxygen binders. This facilitates diffusion of oxygen, necessary for the healing process, from the surroundings (room air through an open-porous wound padding) into the ulcerous tissue. A product that is still in development is a spray which contains hemoglobin obtained from domestic pigs. Clinical investigations (a clinical trial, treatment observations and single patient uses) are presented, which were performed to create clinical data regarding efficiency and safety of this product. All data have shown that the application of the hemoglobin spray promoted wound healing in all analyzed cases. Data from a clinical study in Mexico and subsequent therapy observations revealed that in 39 out of 42 patients (93%) the treated wounds were healed. 9 patients from a series of therapy observations in Monterrey (Mexico) showed similar observations. All treated wounds were closed. Single patient uses carried out in Witten (Germany; 6 wounds from 8 (75%)) and Prague (Czech Republic; 5 wounds from 5 (100%) were healed) further support these results: The application of hemoglobin spray can promote healing of chronic wounds. Within the framework of the clinical investigation, the treatment observations, and the individual healing experiments the hemoglobin spray was applied more than 2,000 times onto chronic wounds of 82 patients. In all cases, the spray was well tolerated and there were no adverse event that might have been an adverse reaction to the hemoglobin spray. PMID:22242086

  13. Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

    2009-11-01

    An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

  14. Plasma spray processing of TBC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-10-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effectively apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by vacuum plasma spray or HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Therefore, although the plasma spray of TBCs has been largely successful, it is clear that a major step forward in terms of reliability and performance can be gained by a fundamental understanding of the TBC microstructure with respect to the processing technology and operating environment.

  15. Thermal Spraying Coatings Assisted by Laser Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fenineche, N. E.; Cherigui, M.

    2008-09-23

    Coatings produced by air plasma spraying (APS) are widely used to protect components against abrasive wear and corrosion. However, APS coatings contain porosities and the properties of these coatings may thereby be reduced. To improve these properties, various methods could be proposed, including post-laser irradiation [1-4]. Firstly, PROTAL process (thermal spraying assisted by laser) has been developed as a palliative technique to degreasing and grit-blasting prior to thermal spraying. Secondly, thermal spray coatings are densified and remelted using Laser treatment. In this study, a review of microstructure coatings prepared by laser-assisted air plasma spraying will be presented. Mechanical and magnetic properties will be evaluated in relation to changes in the coating microstructure and the properties of such coatings will be compared with those of as-sprayed APS coatings.

  16. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  17. Liquid spray cooling of a heated surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, W. M.; Wierum, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The lowest surface temperature possible for the existance of spray evaporative cooling is determined experimentally to be a linear function of the impinging spray mass flux. A conduction-controlled analytical model of droplet evaporation gives fairly good agreement with experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures droplet evaporation rates are decreased significantly such that an optimum operating pressure exists for each desired surface heat flux. The initiation of the 'Leidenfrost state' provides the upper surface temperature bound for spray evaporative cooling.

  18. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  19. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  20. Hot-water spraying is a sensitive test for signs of life before dressing and scalding in pig abattoirs with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning.

    PubMed

    Parotat, S; von Holleben, K; Arnold, S; Troeger, K; Luecker, E

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual

  1. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Castro, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  2. Thermoelectric Device Fabrication Using Thermal Spray and Laser Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Fu, Gaosheng; Hwang, David J.; Zuo, Lei; Sampath, Sanjay; Longtin, Jon P.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are used in many engineering applications such as vehicle and industrial waste-heat recovery systems to provide electrical power, improve operating efficiency and reduce costs. State-of-art TEG manufacturing is based on prefabricated materials and a labor-intensive process involving soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping for assembly. This reduces their durability and raises costs. Additive manufacturing technologies, such as thermal spray, present opportunities to overcome these challenges. In this work, TEGs have been fabricated for the first time using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The TEGs are fabricated directly onto engineering component surfaces. First, current fabrication techniques of TEGs are presented. Next, the steps required to fabricate a thermal spray-based TEG module, including the formation of the metallic interconnect layers and the thermoelectric legs are presented. A technique for bridging the air gap between two adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer using a sacrificial filler material is also demonstrated. A flat 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm TEG module is fabricated using this method and its performance is experimentally characterized and found to be in agreement with expected values of open-circuit voltage based on the materials used.

  3. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  4. Spray drift reduction evaluations of spray nozzles using a standardized testing protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and testing of drift reduction technologies has come to the forefront of application research in the past few years in the United States. Drift reduction technologies (DRTs) can be spray nozzles, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants),...

  5. Liquid rocket spray combustion stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    A computational approach to the analysis of spray combustion stability in liquid rocket combustors is proposed which is based on the unsteady quasi-two-dimensional Euler equations with interphase source terms derived from a Lagrangian treatment of the combusting spray. Based on a preliminary evaluation, the computational methodology presented here is a promising research tool and a potential design/development aid for investigating the stability characteristics of liquid rocket engines. The method is characterized by low numerical noise; the Lagrangian treatment of the spray offers improved flexibility for the direct modeling of spray combustion.

  6. Reactive spraying of nickel-aluminide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deevi, S. C.; Sikka, V. K.; Swindeman, C. J.; Seals, R. D.

    1997-09-01

    Reactive spraying of nickel aluminides was accomplished via reaction synthesis techniques in which nickel and aluminum powders were fed through a direct- current plasma torch onto carbon steel substrates. The as- sprayed coatings obtained by reactive spraying were characterized by x- ray diffraction and microscopic techniques. Reactive spraying of nickel and aluminum resulted in coatings consisting of Ni, Al, Ni 3Al, NiAl3, Ni5Al3, NiAl, and Al2O3, depending on the experimental conditions. Nickel aluminide phases observed in plasma spray depositions were compared with the phases obtained by combustion synthesis techniques, and the formation of phases in reactive spraying was attributed to the exothermic reaction between splats of aluminum and nickel. Primary and secondary reactions leading to the formation of nickel aluminides were also examined. The splat thickness and the reaction layer suppressed the formation of desired equilibrium phases such as Ni3Al and NiAl. As- sprayed coatings were annealed to enhance the diffusional reactions between the product phases and aluminum and nickel. Coatings obtained by reactive spraying of elemental powders were compared with as- sprayed and annealed coatings obtained with a bond coat material in which nickel was deposited onto aluminum particles.

  7. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-04-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  8. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  9. Robust hydrophobic Fe-based amorphous coating by thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Wu, Y.; Liu, L.

    2012-09-01

    Metallic surface is intrinsically hydrophilic due to its high surface energy. In this work, we present a different picture that highly hydrophobic metallic coatings could be directly fabricated by thermal spraying of Fe-based amorphous powders through the surface roughness control. These hydrophobic coatings are amorphous, exhibiting super-high hardness and excellent corrosion resistance. With low surface energy modification, the coatings become superhydrophobic and exhibit clearly self-cleaning effect. The present work opens a window for the applications of the amorphous coatings.

  10. Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite & Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.; HEY, B.E.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

  11. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Mares, J; Novotna, A; Vachova, M; Novakova, I; Notcutt, W; Ratcliffe, S

    2013-04-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name, nabiximols; Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK), to alleviate CNP. Patients who had failed to gain adequate analgesia from existing medication were treated with THC/CBD spray or placebo as an add-on treatment, in a double-blind manner, for 14 weeks to investigate the efficacy of the medication in MS-induced neuropathic pain. This parallel-group phase of the study was then followed by an 18-week randomized-withdrawal study (14-week open-label treatment period plus a double-blind 4-week randomized-withdrawal phase) to investigate time to treatment failure and show maintenance of efficacy. A total of 339 patients were randomized to phase A (167 received THC/CBD spray and 172 received placebo). Of those who completed phase A, 58 entered the randomized-withdrawal phase. The primary endpoint of responder analysis at the 30 % level at week 14 of phase A of the study was not met, with 50 % of patients on THC/CBD spray classed as responders at the 30 % level compared to 45 % of patients on placebo (p = 0.234). However, an interim analysis at week 10 showed a statistically significant treatment difference in favor of THC/CBD spray at this time point (p = 0.046). During the randomized-withdrawal phase, the primary endpoint of time to treatment failure was statistically significant in favor of THC/CBD spray, with 57 % of patients receiving placebo failing treatment versus 24 % of patients from the THC/CBD spray group (p = 0.04). The mean change from baseline in Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (p = 0.028) and sleep quality NRS (p = 0.015) scores, both secondary endpoints in phase B, were also statistically

  12. Size distribution of heavy metal aerosols in cooling and spray dryer system

    SciTech Connect

    Wey, M.Y.; Yang, J.T.; Peng, C.Y.; Chiang, B.C.

    1999-11-01

    The cooling process prior to treating flue gas and the spray dryer process that removes acid components in flue gas are believed to influence the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metal in fly ash. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metals in fly ash produced from a fluidized bed incineration and a water cooling or spray dryer flue gas treatment system. The operating parameters investigated included (1) the controlling temperature in the gas cooling system; (2) the controlling temperature in the spray dryer system; (3) the addition of organic chlorides; and (4) the addition of inorganic chloride. The experimental results indicated that the water cooling process and spray dryer process increase the amount of coarse fly ash and increase the total concentration of metal in fly ash. The amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash increase with decreasing temperature during the water cooling process. However, the amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash decrease with decreasing temperature during the spray dryer process.

  13. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared drug particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the spray dried microparticles was compared with spray-chilled microparticles, pure and recrystallized samples. Spray dried microparticles and spray chilled microparticles exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spray dried microparticle and spray chilled particles were improved compared with recrystallized and pure sample of piroxicam. Consequently, it was believed that spray drying of piroxicam is a useful tool to improve dissolution but not in case of spray chilling. This may be due to the degradation of drug or variations in the resonance structure or could be due to minor distortion of bond angles. Hence, this spray drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of piroxicam by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients. PMID:21589797

  14. Injection of household spray insecticide.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L H; Shupp, D; Weitz, H H; Zeccardi, J A

    1982-11-01

    During a three-week period, two patients who had attempted suicide by injecting themselves with commercially available household spray insecticides were seen in our emergency department. Both presented with cellulitis at and adjacent to the injection sites, and both were admitted for intravenous antibiotics, warm soaks, and elevation. In both patients abscesses subsequently developed in the areas of cellulitis. It is not clear whether the pathologic processes in these two patients were primarily due to inoculation of microorganisms or to the effects of the insecticide per se. PMID:7137672

  15. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  16. Monitoring Coating Thickness During Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution video measures thickness accurately without interfering with process. Camera views cylindrical part through filter during plasma spraying. Lamp blacklights part, creating high-contrast silhouette on video monitor. Width analyzer counts number of lines in image of part after each pass of spray gun. Layer-by-layer measurements ensure adequate coat built up without danger of exceeding required thickness.

  17. Plasma Spraying Of Dense, Rough Bond Coats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Edmonds, Brian J.; Leissler, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Simple modification of plasma torch facilitates spraying of coarse powders. Shape of nozzle changed to obtain decrease in velocity of gas and consequent increase in time particles spend in flame before impact on substrate. Increased residence time allows melting of coarser powders, spraying of which results in rougher bond surfaces.

  18. Arc spraying solderable tabs to glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Tabs suitable for electrical or mechanical connections in solar cells and integrated circuits are made by spraying technique. Solder wets copper, copper bonds to aluminum, and aluminum adheres to glass. Arc spraying is automated and integrated with encapsulation, eliminating hand tabbing, improving reliability, and reducing cost.

  19. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  20. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  1. Spray Drift Issues and Technologies for Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide-induced plant damage due to off-target spray drift has become a major problem in some regions prompting States to take regulatory action regarding drift mitigation. For example, the Arkansas Plant Board has proposed new regulations regarding spray of Glyphosate and 2, 4-D. These regulation...

  2. Simulation of preburner sprays, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under the present contract a study was made on the characteristics of the sprays of coaxial injectors with particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to the performance of rocket engines. The technical effort was performed primarily by Imperial College of Science and Technology and the details of this effort are contained in the accompanying technical report by Hardalupas and Whitelaw, which forms Vol. 2 of the report. The role of Scientific Research Associates was review of material, initial direction of the technical effort and review of all reports. The study considered characteristics of sprays under a variety of conditions. Control of these sprays is important as the spray details can control both rocket combustion stability and efficiency. Imperial College considered the following: first, measurement of the size and rate of spread of the sprays produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles with axial gaseous stream. The local size, velocity and flux characteristics for a wide range of gas and liquid flowrates were measured and the results were correlated with the conditions of the spray at the nozzle exit. Second, examination of the effect of the geometry of single coaxial airblast atomizers on spray characteristics. The gas and liquid tube diameters were varied over a range of values, the liquid tube recess was varied and the shape of the exit of the gaseous jet was varied from straight to converging. Third, quantification of the effect of swirl in the gaseous stream on the spray characteristics produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles. Fourth, quantification of the effect of reatomization by impingement of the spray on a flat disc positioned around 200 mm from the nozzle exit. This models spray impingement on the turbopump dome during the startup process of the preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Fifth, study of the interaction between multiple sprays without and with swirl in their gaseous stream. The spray characteristics of single

  3. Simulation of preburner sprays, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    Under the present contract a study was made on the characteristics of the sprays of coaxial injectors with particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to the performance of rocket engines. The technical effort was performed primarily by Imperial College of Science and Technology and the details of this effort are contained in the accompanying technical report by Hardalupas and Whitelaw, which forms Vol. 2 of the report. The role of Scientific Research Associates was review of material, initial direction of the technical effort and review of all reports. The study considered characteristics of sprays under a variety of conditions. Control of these sprays is important as the spray details can control both rocket combustion stability and efficiency. Imperial College considered the following: first, measurement of the size and rate of spread of the sprays produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles with axial gaseous stream. The local size, velocity and flux characteristics for a wide range of gas and liquid flowrates were measured and the results were correlated with the conditions of the spray at the nozzle exit. Second, examination of the effect of the geometry of single coaxial airblast atomizers on spray characteristics. The gas and liquid tube diameters were varied over a range of values, the liquid tube recess was varied and the shape of the exit of the gaseous jet was varied from straight to converging. Third, quantification of the effect of swirl in the gaseous stream on the spray characteristics produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles. Fourth, quantification of the effect of reatomization by impingement of the spray on a flat disc positioned around 200 mm from the nozzle exit. This models spray impingement on the turbopump dome during the startup process of the preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Fifth, study of the interaction between multiple sprays without and with swirl in their gaseous stream. The spray characteristics of single

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  5. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  6. Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Takeuchi, D; Challoner, K

    2000-05-01

    Pepper spray containing oleoresin capsicum is used by law enforcement and the public as a form of nonlethal deterrent. Stimulated by the identification of a case of a corneal abrasion associated with pepper spray exposure, a descriptive retrospective review of a physician-maintained log of patients presenting to a jail ward emergency area over a 3-year period was performed. The objective was to give some quantification to the frequency with which an emergency physician could expect to see corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Of 100 cases of pepper spray exposure identified, seven patients had sustained corneal abrasions. We conclude that corneal abrasions are not rare events when patients are exposed to pepper spray and that fluorescein staining and slit lamp or Wood's lamp examination should be performed on all exposed patients in whom corneal abrasions cannot be excluded on clinical grounds. PMID:10830682

  7. Combustion of liquid sprays at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The combustion of pressure atomized fuel sprays in high pressure stagnant air was studied. Measurements were made of flame and spray boundaries at pressures in the range 0.1-9 MPa for methanol and n-pentane. At the higher test pressure levels, critical phenomena are important. The experiments are compared with theoretical predictions based on a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model. The theory correctly predicted the trends of the data, but underestimates flame and spray boundaries by 30-50 percent, indicating that slip is still important for the present experiments (Sauter mean diameters of 30 microns at atmospheric pressure under cold flow conditions). Since the sprays are shorter at high pressures, slip effects are still important even though the density ratio of the phases approach one another as the droplets heat up. The model indicates the presence of a region where condensed water is present within the spray and provides a convenient means of treating supercritical phenomena.

  8. Tapered plug foam spray apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A two-component foam spray gun is readily disassembled for cleaning. It includes a body (1) with reactant (12, 14) and purge gas (16) inlet ports. A moldable valve packing (32) inside the body has a tapered conical interior surface (142), and apertures which match the reactant ports. A valve/tip (40) has a conical outer surface (48) which mates with the valve packing (32). The valve/tip (40) is held in place by a moldable packing washer (34), held at non-constant pressure by a screw (36, 38). The interior of the valve/tip (40) houses a removable mixing chamber (50). The mixing chamber (50) has direct flow orifices (60) and an auxiliary flow path (58, 60) which ameliorate pressure surges. The spray gun can be disassembled for cleaning without disturbing the seal, by removing the valve/tip (40) to the rear, thereby breaking it free of the conical packing. Rotation of the valve/tip (40) relative to the body (1) shuts off the reactant flow, and starts the purge gas flow.

  9. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  10. Microgravity Spray Cooling Research for High Powered Laser Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zivich, Chad P.

    2004-01-01

    some heat transfer calculations and picked out a heater to order for the rig. I learned QBasic programming language to change the operating code for our drops, allowing us to rapidly cycle the spray nozzle open and closed to study the effects. We have derived an equation for flow rate vs. pressure for our experiment. We have recorded several videos of drops at different pressures, some with heated test plate and some without, and have noticed substantial differences in the liquid behavior. I have also changed the computer program to write a file with temperature vs. time profiles for the test plate, and once the necessary thermocouple comes in (it was ordered last week), we will have temperature profiles to accompany the videos. Once we have these temperature profiles to go with the videos, we will be able to see how the temperature is affected by the spray at different pressures, and how the spray changes its behavior once as the plate changes from hot to cool. With quantitative temperature data, we can then mathematically model the heat transfer from the plate to the cooling spray. Finally, we can look at the differences between trials in microgravity and those in normal earth gravity.

  11. Thermal spray and cold spray analysis of density, porosity, and tensile Specimens for use with LIGA applications

    SciTech Connect

    DECKER,MERLIN K.; SMITH,MARK F.

    2000-02-01

    This analysis provides a preliminary investigation into using Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray and Cold Spray as material deposition processes for LIGA applications. These spray material processes were studied to make an initial determination of their potential as alternatives to producing mechanical parts via the electroplating process. Three materials, UltraMachinable{reg_sign} Stainless Steel, BondArc{reg_sign}, and aluminum, were sprayed using Thermal Spray. Only aluminum was sprayed using the Cold Spray process. Following the spray procedure, the test specimens were released from a copper mold and then tested. Three tests, density, tensile strength, and porosity, were performed on the specimens to determine the spray effect on material properties. Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray did not demonstrate adequate deposition properties and does not appear to be a good process candidate for LIGA. However, Cold Spray yielded better density results and warrants further investigation to analyze the minimum feature size produced by the process.

  12. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  13. Forensic aspects of the weathering and ageing of spray paints.

    PubMed

    Jost, Cédric; Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the degradation of spray paint samples, illustrated by Optical, FTIR and Raman measurements. As opposed to automotive paints which are specifically designed for improved outdoor exposure and protected using hindered amine light absorbers (HALS) and ultra-violet absorbers (UVA), the spray paints on their side are much simpler in composition and very likely to suffer more from joint effects of solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Six different spray paint were exposed to outdoor UV-radiation for a total period of three months and both FTIR and Raman measurements were taken systematically during this time. These results were later compared to an artificial degradation using a climate chamber. For infrared spectroscopy, degradation curves were plotted using the photo-oxidation index (POI), and could be successfully approximated with a logarithmic fitting (R(2)>0.8). The degradation can appear after the first few days of exposure and be important until 2 months, where it stabilizes and follow a more linear trend afterwards. One advantage is that the degradation products appeared almost exclusively at the far end (∼3000cm(-1)) of mid-infrared spectra, and that the fingerprint region of the spectra remained stable over the studied period of time. Raman results suggest that the pigments on the other side, are much more stable and have not shown any sign of degradation over the time of this study. Considering the forensic implications of this environmental degradation, care should be taken when comparing samples if weathering is an option (e.g. an exposed graffiti compared to the paint from a fresh spray paint can). Degradation issues should be kept in mind as they may induce significant differences between paint samples of common origin. PMID:26646736

  14. Spray drift reduction techniques for vineyards in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Otto, S; Loddo, D; Baldoin, C; Zanin, G

    2015-10-01

    In intensive agricultural systems spray drift is one of the major potential diffuse pollution pathways for pesticides and poses a risk to the environment. There is also increasing concern about potential exposure to bystanders and passers-by, especially in fragmented landscapes like the Italian pre-Alps, where orchards and vineyards are surrounded by residential houses. There is thus an urgent need to do field measurements of drift generated by air-blast sprayer in vineyards, and to develop measures for its reduction (mitigation). A field experiment with an "event method" was conducted in north-eastern Italy in no-wind conditions, in the hilly area famed for Prosecco wine production, using an air-blast sprayer in order to evaluate the potential spray drift from equipment and the effectiveness of some practical mitigation measures, either single or in combination. A definition of mitigation is proposed, and a method for the calculation of total effectiveness of a series of mitigation measures is applied to some what-if scenarios of interest. Results show that low-drift equipment reduced potential spray drift by 38% and that a fully developed vine curtain mitigated it by about 70%; when the last row was treated without air-assistance mitigation was about 74%; hedgerows were always very effective in providing mitigation of up to 98%. In conclusion, spray drift is not inevitable and can be markedly reduced using a few mitigation measures, most already available to farmers, that can be strongly recommended for environmental regulatory schemes and community-based participatory research. PMID:26265598

  15. Uncertainties in the determination of the organic fraction of global sea-spray emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Monique; Scannell, Claire; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Schaap, Martijn; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    Sea-spray aerosol considerably affects the climate, both directly and indirectly. The emission rate of sea-spray droplets per unit area of the sea surface is implemented in climate models through a sea-spray source function. The uncertainty between existing formulations of the sea-spray source function that is parameterized in terms of wind speed and sea surface temperature is more than a factor of 2. Organic material substantially contributes to the composition of sea-spray aerosols, especially in biological active regions. Small sea-spray particles may be mainly composed of organic carbon with a decreasing contribution as particle size increases. The sizes in which organic carbon occurs are in the active CCN range and a change in composition may thus have a substantial effect on cloud droplet formation. A first attempt to include the OC fraction of sea-spray in a sea-spray source function was presented by O'Dowd et al. (2008). These authors proposed to use remotely sensed chlorophyll concentration data as a proxy for oceanic biological activity. An organics-chlorophyll relationship was determined by correlating chlorophyll satellite data and in-situ measurements of water insoluble organic compounds. This information was used together with the sea-spray source function to determine the surface flux of the combined inorganic/organic sea-spray particles (O'Dowd et al., 2008; Vignati et al., 2009; Albert et al., 2010). By introducing this methodology one inevitably introduces uncertainties due to the choice of a certain satellite instrument to obtain the chlorophyll data and the choice of the resolution and compositing period of the data. Other uncertainties that are introduced are due to the handling of the satellite data and the fit that is used in the organics-chlorophyll correlation. The organic fraction estimate can additionally be affected by the time period that is studied and the source function that is used to calculate the total sea-spray emission. We will

  16. Practical Comparison of Cylindrical Nozzle and De Laval Nozzle for Wire Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matz, Marc-Manuel; Aumiller, Markus

    2014-12-01

    In this article, two different nozzle designs (cylindrical nozzle and de Laval nozzle) are compared for use in wire arc spraying. The choice of nozzle is of particular importance because its geometry has a significant influence on the spraying result. The materials used for spraying are steel and copper. By using the de Laval atomizing gas nozzle, the aim is to improve adhesion on the one hand while reducing cost on the other. These objectives have been achieved for the most part, indicating that continued research and development in this area would be useful. Significant potential exists to optimize the efficiency of both the free gas jet and nozzle which have considerable impact on the gas velocity and thus, ultimately, on the spraying result. The measurements carried out have shown that there is a close correlation between the velocity of the gas flow and atomization of the droplets. An explanatory model for varying spraying results with different wire materials using open nozzle systems with de Laval orifice is given and confirmed. For new burner head constructions, an interaction of the atomizing gas nozzle, the contact tips, and wire materials must be considered to achieve all benefits of a de Laval nozzle.

  17. Practical Comparison of Cylindrical Nozzle and De Laval Nozzle for Wire Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matz, Marc-Manuel; Aumiller, Markus

    2014-09-01

    In this article, two different nozzle designs (cylindrical nozzle and de Laval nozzle) are compared for use in wire arc spraying. The choice of nozzle is of particular importance because its geometry has a significant influence on the spraying result. The materials used for spraying are steel and copper. By using the de Laval atomizing gas nozzle, the aim is to improve adhesion on the one hand while reducing cost on the other. These objectives have been achieved for the most part, indicating that continued research and development in this area would be useful. Significant potential exists to optimize the efficiency of both the free gas jet and nozzle which have considerable impact on the gas velocity and thus, ultimately, on the spraying result. The measurements carried out have shown that there is a close correlation between the velocity of the gas flow and atomization of the droplets. An explanatory model for varying spraying results with different wire materials using open nozzle systems with de Laval orifice is given and confirmed. For new burner head constructions, an interaction of the atomizing gas nozzle, the contact tips, and wire materials must be considered to achieve all benefits of a de Laval nozzle.

  18. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements... spray drift data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an individual...

  19. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements... spray drift data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an individual...

  20. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements... spray drift data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an individual...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains... depress the sprayer head twice. Administer two spray actuations two to four times daily for 7 days....

  2. DRIFTSIM, A Computer Program for Estimating Spray Drift Distances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the severe problems with spraying pesticides is the spray drift. Drift is a problem if chemicals are sprayed too close to residential areas, livestock facilities, bodies of water, or sensitive crops. Complaints regarding spray drift are routinely brought to state departments of agriculture,...

  3. Correction of spray concentration and bioassay cage penetration data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted to demonstrate the need for correcting sampled spray concentration data for sampler collection efficiencies and estimated spray exposure levels in mosquito bioassays for cage interference effects. A large spray block was targeted with aerial spray treatments of etofenpro...

  4. A portable scanning system for evaluation of spray deposit distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventing over- or under–spray applications on intended targets require a system to rapidly measure spray coverage and provide spray quality feedback information. A portable scanning system was developed that could quickly evaluate spray deposit distribution and coverage area on deposit collectors ...

  5. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  6. Thermal sprayed zirconium coatings for corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bamola, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) is conducted in inert reduced pressures. This results in higher particle velocities than in atmospheric plasma spraying. Reverse arc sputter cleaning and pre-heating of the workpiece lead to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, allowing sintering of the coating and, thus, enhanced densities and bond strengths. Inert Environment Electric Arc Spraying (IEAS) is performed in inert gas chambers, utilizing wire as the feedstock. This leads to lower gas content in the coating, since the initial gas content in wire is lower than that of the powder feedstock used in VPS. Controlled atmosphere sprayed zirconium coatings had inferior mechanical and corrosion properties when compared with bulk zirconium. The VPS coatings displayed higher bond strengths and better cavitation erosion resistance than did the IEAS coatings. The IEAS coatings had lower gas content and showed better electrochemical and corrosion behavior. The lower gas content for IEAS was due to a lower initial gas level in the wire feedstock used in this process. Also, scanning electron microscopy revealed that larger particles result in the IEAS process. Thus, a smaller surface-area-to-volume ratio is available for gas-metal reactions to occur. Improvements in mechanical and corrosion properties for the IEAS coatings were due to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition. Compressive surface stresses induced by post-spray shot-peening enhanced corrosion and cavitation resistance of IEAS coatings. Coating porosity caused failure during immersion testing. Therefore, it was concluded that controlled environment thermal spraying of zirconium is not suitable for forming corrosion resistant coatings on steel. ZrN coatings were formed by electric arc spraying using a nitrogen shroud and post-spray nitriding. Two phases; ZrN and zirconium solid solution, exist in the as-sprayed coating. Nitriding increases the proportion of ZrN.

  7. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  8. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by 'equivalent' monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  9. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by equivalent monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  10. Visual characterization of heated water spray jet breakup induced by full cone spray nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Zilati, K.

    2015-03-01

    The present work with specific objectives places a greater emphasis on measurements of the breakup lengths and phenomenological analysis of a hot water jet under reduced pumping pressures in still environment. Therefore, visual and comparative studies are conducted on full cone jet disintegration of heated water for low pumping pressures. A further analysis of the grabbed images confirms the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It is also predicted that the heated liquids generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing partial evaporation of the spraying medium. The radial spray cone width and angle do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases, leading to enhanced macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity are significantly influenced by the load pressure, but less affected by the temperature. The fine scale image analysis also predicts toroidal-shaped vortex formation in the spray structure near the water boiling point.

  11. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  12. Cold-Sprayed Nanostructured Pure Cobalt Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cold-sprayed pure cobalt coatings were deposited on carbon-steel substrate. Submicrometer particles for spraying were produced via cryomilling. Deposits were produced using different processing conditions (gas temperature and pressure, nozzle-to-substrate distance) to evaluate the resulting variations in grain size dimension, microhardness, adhesion strength, and porosity. The coating mechanical properties improved greatly with higher temperature and carrying-gas pressure. The coating microstructure was analyzed as a function of spraying condition by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, revealing many different microstructural features for coatings experiencing low or high strain rates during deposition.

  13. Organophosphate residues in grasshoppers from sprayed rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; McEwen, L.C.; Lamont, T.

    1984-01-01

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were collected in pastures that had been sprayed with malathion and acephate to estimate the secondary exposure of insectivorous birds to these pesticides. Residues of malathion were below 3 ppm at 30 'and 54 hours after spraying and no malaoxon was detected. In contrast, acephate was found at 8 and 9 ppm 4 hours after spray; 3-5 ppm of the toxic metabolite methamidophos were also detected at that time. By 53 hours postspray, acephate levels declined to 2 ppm and methamidophos to less than 1 ppm. These results suggest that although malathion may not be a hazard to insectivorous species. acephate may be hazardous through metabolic transformation to methamidophos.

  14. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  15. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæderup Lindeløv, Jesper; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  16. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  17. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. Methods and analysis This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). Trial registration number 2013-004313-41; Pre

  18. Modeling of Plasma Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chong H.

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive computational model for thermal plasma processes is being developed with sufficient generality and flexibility to apply to a wide variety of present and proposed plasma processing concepts and devices. In our model for gas-particle flows, the gas is represented as a continuous multicomponent chemically reacting gas with temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. Ions and electrons are considered as separate components or species of the mixture, while ionization and dissociation reactions are treated as chemical reactions. Entrained particles interacting with the plasma are represented by a stochastic particle model in which the velocities, temperatures, sizes, and other characteristics of typical particles are computed simultaneously with the plasma flow. The model in its present form can simulate particle injection, heating, and melting, but not evaporation and condensation. This model is embodied in the LAVA computer code, which has previously been applied to simulate plasma spraying, mixing and demixing of plasma gases, and departures from chemical (ionization/dissociation), thermal, and excitation equilibrium in plasmas. A transient simulation has been performed of stainless steel particles injected into a swirling high-velocity nitrogen-hydrogen plasma jet in air under typical operating conditions for a newly developed high-velocity high-power (HVHP) torch, which produces plasma jets with peak velocities in excess of 3000 m/s. The calculational results show that strong departures from ionization and dissociation equilibrium develop in the downstream region as the chemical reactions freeze out at lower temperatures. The calculational results also show good agreement with experimental data on particle temperature, velocity, and spray pattern, together with important statistical effects associated with distributions in particle properties and injection conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S

  19. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  20. Sugar feeding by coccinellids under field conditions: the effects of sugar sprays in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose was applied weekly throughout the growing season at three U.S. locations (SD, MD, and KY), and coccinellids and aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura [Hemiptera: Aphididae]) were sampled 24 h later. Total coccinellid densities were 50-77% greater in sugar-sprayed soybean than in untreated plots. ...

  1. Spray nozzle investigation for the Improved Helicopter Icing Spray System (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Oldenburg, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A contract has been awarded by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System. Data are shown for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle. The IHISS, capable of deployment from any CH-47 helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  2. Large area impingement spray cooling from multiple normal and inclined spray nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. B.; Duan, F.; Wong, T. N.; Toh, K. C.; Choo, K. F.; Chan, P. K.; Chua, Y. S.; Lee, L. W.

    2013-07-01

    An inclined spray chamber with four multiple nozzles to cool a 1 kW 6U electronic test card has been designed and tested in this study. The multiple inclined sprays can cover the same heated surface area as that with the multiple normal sprays but halve the volume of the spray chamber. The spray cooling system used R134a as a working fluid in a modified refrigeration cycle. It is observed that increasing mass flow rate and pressure drop across the nozzles improved the heat transfer coefficient with a maximum enhancement of 117 %, and reduced the maximum temperature difference at the heated surface from 13.8 to 8.4 °C in the inclined spray chamber with a heat flux of 5.25 W/cm2, while the heat transfer coefficient of the normal spray increased with a maximum enhancement of 215 % and the maximum temperature difference decreased from 10.8 to 5.4 °C under similar operating conditions. We conclude that the multiple inclined sprays could produce a higher heat transfer coefficient but with an increase in non-uniformity of the surface temperature compared with the multiple normal sprays.

  3. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  4. Endoscopic Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Titus D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Endoscopic neck surgery for the thyroid and parathyroid is being tested as an alternative to open thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT). Methods and Results: Twenty-two consecutive patients from January 2006 to September 2008 underwent ETTT. No conversions to open were necessary. Mean age was 49.3±12.9 years, 20 were female, and 2 were male. Mean operating time was 238 minutes±72.7. Mean blood loss was 40mL±28.3mL. Mean weight of the gland was 137.05g±129.21g. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified with no permanent injury. Six patients developed hoarseness of the voice for a mean of 15.1±8.01 days. No patient developed tetany or hypocalcemia requiring treatment. Six patients experienced transient numbness in the anterior chest wall lasting 2 weeks in 5 patients and 2 months in one. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion: ETTT requires additional operative time compared with the open approach, but is cosmetically favorable. Visualization of the nerve and parathyroid is much better. Although the learning curve is steep, with experience the operative time will decrease. ETTT is different but safe and feasible. PMID:20202393

  5. The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matějíček, J.; Kavka, T.; Bertolissi, G.; Ctibor, P.; Vilémová, M.; Mušálek, R.; Nevrlá, B.

    2013-06-01

    Tungsten-based coatings have potential application in the plasma-facing components in future nuclear fusion reactors. By the combination of refractory tungsten with highly thermal conducting copper, or steel as a construction material, functionally graded coatings can be easily obtained by plasma spraying, and may result in the development of a material with favorable properties. During plasma spraying of these materials in the open atmosphere, oxidation is an important issue, which could have adverse effects on their properties. Among the means to control it is the application of inert gas shrouding, which forms the subject of this study and represents a lower-cost alternative to vacuum or low-pressure plasma spraying, potentially applicable also for spraying of large surfaces or spacious components. It is a continuation of recent studies focused on the effects of various parameters of the hybrid water-argon torch on the in-flight behavior of copper and tungsten powders and the resultant coatings. In the current study, argon shrouding with various configurations of the shroud was applied. The effects of torch parameters, such as power and argon flow rate, and powder morphology were also investigated. Their influence on the particle in-flight behavior as well as the structure, composition and properties of the coatings were quantified. With the help of auxiliary calculations, the mass changes of the powder particles, associated with oxidation and evaporation, were assessed.

  6. Fuel thermal stability effects on spray characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H.; Nickolaus, D.

    1987-01-01

    The propensity of a heated hydrocarbon fuel toward solids deposition within a fuel injector is investigated experimentally. Fuel is arranged to flow through the injector at constant temperature, pressure, and flow rate and the pressure drop across the nozzle is monitored to provide an indication of the amount of deposition. After deposits have formed, the nozzle is removed from the test rig and its spray performance is compared with its performance before deposition. The spray characteristics measured include mean drop size, drop-size distribution, and radial and circumferential fuel distribution. It is found that small amounts of deposition can produce severe distortion of the fuel spray pattern. More extensive deposition restores spray uniformity, but the nozzle flow rate is seriously curtailed.

  7. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  8. Vacuum plasma spraying of tantalum and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Eschnauer, H.; Haeuser, B.; Jaeger, D.

    1985-11-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying is a suitable process for producing high quality coatings of reactive metals such as tantalum and niobium. Ta and Nb coatings used for corrosion protection must be extremely dense, homogeneous, and of high purity and adhesion. Hence, the process parameters have to be carefully optimized even with regard to the spraying powder, its grain size and morphology. Spraying equipment with vacuum systems which allow for a final pressure of 10/sup -3/ mbar, which have heated and evacuated powder feeder units, and heated substrates, as well as the use of powders with high purity and low gas content, are required for producing high quality Ta and Nb coatings. Corrosion tests in sulfuric acid and aqua regia at different concentrations show that Ta and Nb coatings sprayed under optimized conditions have high resistance to both general and localized corrosion.

  9. LSPRAY-II: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    LSPRAY-II is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-II, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  10. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  11. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. PMID:26705850

  12. LSPRAY-III: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    LSPRAY-III is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-III, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  13. Dynamics of flare sprays. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Martin, S. F.; Hansen, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable passband filters, multislit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronagraphs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occurred between 1969-1974 it is concluded that (1) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (2) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumable magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the materials draining back down along one or both legs of the loop.

  14. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  15. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  16. Plasma-Sprayed Coatings on Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibert, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Need for combining benefits of duplex thermal-barrier coatings with film cooling on gas-turbine vanes and blades stimulated development of improved method for plasma spraying these coatings. Method reduces blocking of holes by plasma-sprayed material and at same time reduces base-metal oxidation during coating operation. Features provide potential for increased engine efficiency and power, reduced fuel consumption, use of less costly materials or construction procedures, and extended life and durability.

  17. Plasma spray forming metals, intermetallics, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sanjay; Herman, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    Plasma spray processing is a droplet deposition method that combines the steps of melting, rapid solidification, and consolidation into a single step. The versatility of the technology enables the processing of freestanding bulk, near-net shapes of a wide range of alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and composites, while still retaining the benefits of rapid solidification processing. In particular, it is possible to produce dense forms through vacuum plasma spraying.

  18. Thermal spray applications for power plant components

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, E.R.

    2000-03-01

    Power plants usually are located near water and many are in salt water environments. Corrosion occurring in these environments is a problem often solved with thermal spray coatings. The use of thermal spray aluminum and zinc in three power plants for various components is reviewed. Special emphasis is on the cooling tower at the Seabrook, New Hampshire plant. A guide to selection of the coating and process also is given.

  19. Nanofiber spraying method using a supplementary electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2006-07-01

    Using a supplementary electrode, electrospun poly(ɛ-carprolactone) fibers were deposited on various substrates with different electrical properties. The ability to coat the substrates was independent of the surface electric resistance of the substrates. This was due to the charge reduction of the sprayed fibers, which resulted from passing through the supplementary electrode. The sprayed fibers might find applications in smart textiles, advanced coating technology, and as biomedical wound dressings.

  20. Representation of average drop sizes in sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Lee G.

    1987-06-01

    Procedures are presented for processing drop-size measurements to obtain average drop sizes that represent overall spray characteristics. These procedures are not currently in general use, but they would represent an improvement over current practice. Clear distinctions are made between processing data for spatial- and temporal-type measurements. The conversion between spatial and temporal measurements is discussed. The application of these procedures is demonstrated by processing measurements of the same spray by two different types of instruments.

  1. Laser modification of thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, A. A.; Fomin, A. D.; Naumkin, A. O.; Pekshev, P. Iu.; Smurov, I. Iu.

    1987-08-01

    Experimental results are reported on the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on steels and aluminum alloys using pulsed YAG and CW CO2 lasers. In particular, results obtained for self-fluxing Ni9CrBSi powders, ZRO2 ceramic, and titanium are examined. It is shown that the laser treatment of thermally sprayed coatings significantly improves their physicomechanical properties; it also makes it possible to obtain refractory coatings on low-melting substrates with good coating-substrate adhesion.

  2. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  3. Progress in fabrication of large magnetic sheilds by using extended YBCO thick films sprayed on stainless steel with the HVOF technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.; Bergadano, E.; Ferri, D.

    1997-06-01

    Fabricating a full box-type magnetic shield, by spraying a thick film of commercial YBCO powder on stainless steel with the oxygen-fuel high-velocity technique (HVOF, also referred to as {open_quotes}continuous detonation spray{close_quotes} (CDS)), requires the solution of several specific problems since the design stage of the project. The design problems of this type of shield are examined and the results obtained in the early stages of the realization are discussed.

  4. The use of cold sprayed alloys for metallic stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mangour, Bandar

    With the invention of the coronary stent, which is a wire metal mesh tube designed to keep the arteries open in the treatment of heart diseases, promising clinical outcomes were generated. However, the long term successes of stents have been delayed by significant in-stent restenosis (blockages) and stent fracture. In this research work, it has been proposed to use Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying (CGDS) coating material as an alternative choice to manufacture metallic stent. In CGDS, fine particles are accelerated to a high velocity and undergo solid-state plastic deformation upon impact on the substrate, which leads to particle-particle bonding. The feature of CGDS distinct from other thermal spray techniques is that the processing gas temperature is below the melting point of the feedstock. Therefore, unwanted effects of high temperatures, such as oxidation, grain growth and thermal stresses, are absent. In response to the fact that the majority of stents are made from stainless steel (316L) or Co-Cr alloy (L605), this study specifically addresses the development and characterization of 316L and 316L mixed with L605 coatings produced by the CGDS process. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction were used to investigate the microstructural changes of these coatings before and after annealing. The effect of gas type on the microstructure of 316L coatings and the role of post-heat treatment in the microstructure and properties are also studied. Of particular interest are grain refinement, heat treatment, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the cold sprayed material.

  5. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  6. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  7. Water sprays in space retrieval operations. [for despinning or detumbling disabled spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments involving liquid jets exhausting into a vacuum have led to significant conclusions regarding techniques for detumbling and despinning disabled spacecraft during retrieval operations. A fine water spray directed toward a tumbling or spinning object may quickly form ice over its surface. The added mass of water will absorb angular momentum and slow the vehicle. As this ice sublimes it carries momentum away with it. Thus, a complete detumble or despin is possible by simply spraying water at a disabled vehicle. Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  8. Ethanol (C2H5OH) spray of sub-micron droplets for laser driven negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R; Borghesi, M; Abicht, F; Nickles, P V; Stiel, H; Schnürer, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2012-08-01

    Liquid ethanol (C(2)H(5)OH) was used to generate a spray of sub-micron droplets. Sprays with different nozzle geometries have been tested and characterised using Mie scattering to find scaling properties and to generate droplets with different diameters within the spray. Nozzles having throat diameters of 470 μm and 560 μm showed generation of ethanol spray with droplet diameters of (180 ± 10) nm and (140 ± 10) nm, respectively. These investigations were motivated by the observation of copious negative ions from these target systems, e.g., negative oxygen and carbon ions measured from water and ethanol sprays irradiated with ultra-intense (5 × 10(19) W/cm(2)), ultra short (40 fs) laser pulses. It is shown that the droplet diameter and the average atomic density of the spray have a significant effect on the numbers and energies of accelerated ions, both positive and negative. These targets open new possibilities for the creation of efficient and compact sources of different negative ion species. PMID:22938287

  9. Ethanol (C2H5OH) spray of sub-micron droplets for laser driven negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Abicht, F.; Nickles, P. V.; Stiel, H.; Schnürer, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2012-08-01

    Liquid ethanol (C2H5OH) was used to generate a spray of sub-micron droplets. Sprays with different nozzle geometries have been tested and characterised using Mie scattering to find scaling properties and to generate droplets with different diameters within the spray. Nozzles having throat diameters of 470 μm and 560 μm showed generation of ethanol spray with droplet diameters of (180 ± 10) nm and (140 ± 10) nm, respectively. These investigations were motivated by the observation of copious negative ions from these target systems, e.g., negative oxygen and carbon ions measured from water and ethanol sprays irradiated with ultra-intense (5 × 1019 W/cm2), ultra short (40 fs) laser pulses. It is shown that the droplet diameter and the average atomic density of the spray have a significant effect on the numbers and energies of accelerated ions, both positive and negative. These targets open new possibilities for the creation of efficient and compact sources of different negative ion species.

  10. Effect of repeated refrigerant spray applications using various carriers on pulpal temperature change.

    PubMed

    Garza, Christopher A; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Sabey, Kent A; Hamilton, Garrett J; Chong, Chol H

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine how repeated applications of a refrigerant spray on various cotton carriers affected the change in pulpal temperature. A thermocouple was placed at the roof of the pulp chamber of a human maxillary canine and connected to a thermometer logging at one-second intervals while the root was immersed in a water bath at 37 degrees C. Four different carrier types were used: large cotton pellets, small cotton pellets, cotton-tip applicators, and cotton rolls. Each carrier was sprayed with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and placed on the crown for five seconds. Pulpal temperature change was recorded after each five second application of the same carrier to the tooth until a total of six consecutive sprays and applications of the carrier were applied. Each carrier group consisted of 10 performances of the six sets of readings (n = 10). The difference between baseline and the low temperature reading was calculated to determine the temperature change (in degrees C) in the pulp chamber per application. When the refrigerant spray was used, the large cotton pellet carrier generally produced the largest decrease in pulpal temperature at each repeated application compared to the other types of carriers. However, the same large cotton pellet should not be sprayed with the refrigerant more than two times before it is replaced. PMID:20478789

  11. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  12. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    PubMed

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  13. Development and characterisation of metformin loaded spray dried Bora rice microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemanta Kumar; Mohapatra, Jadavesh; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Bora rice, a glutinous rice, is grown in Assam (a north eastern state of India) and is used traditionally for various purposes. The rationale of this study was to prepare and to assess Metformin loaded mucoadhesive spray dried microspheres using locally grown Bora rice powder. Metformin loaded microspheres were prepared using Bora rice and sodium alginate by spray drying method. For the study of the consequence of parameters of spray drier on the properties of microspheres, parameters such as aspirator flow rate, temperature, feed flow rate and concentration of the spray solution were changed. The in-vitro release properties were also studied. Almost spherical microspheres were obtained with significant swelling and mucoadhesivity. Dissolution study was carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 7 hrs. It was also noted to possess good mucoadhesive in such a way that about 90% of microspheres remained adherent on the surface of intestinal mucosa of pig skin. The total amount of drug released from microspheres after 7 hr. was 80%. The release of drug was not affected by the changes in parameters but was affected when sodium alginate concentration was changed. It was observed that microsphere properties changed as the parameters were changed. Smaller particles were obtained when the concentration of the spray solution, aspirator flow rate, the temperature difference between inlet and outlet and feed flow rate were lower. PMID:23261723

  14. CFD modeling of water spray interaction with dense gas plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroney, Robert N.

    2012-07-01

    Numerical calculations are performed to reproduce the transport and dispersion of the continuous release of dense gases over flat homogeneous surfaces with and without the mitigating influence of a downwind water curtain. Frequently such plumes are released as a result of a chemical manufacturing, storage or gas transportation accident resulting in a ground-level hazard due to gas flammability or toxicity. A field situation in which cold carbon dioxide was released upwind of water curtains (Moodie et al., 1981) was simulated using the open-source software FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulator) a full 3-d CFD model. Only water-spray enhancement of dispersion was considered; hence, no chemical removal or reactions were present or simulated. Wind-tunnel measurements for a 1:28.9 scale replication of the Moodie experiments are also compared with the 3-d CFD results. Concentration distributions, percent dilution and forced diffusion parameters were compared in scatter diagrams. Concentration field contours with and without active spray curtains are also presented.

  15. Influence of Spray Volume on Spray Deposition and Coverage Within Nursery Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on better utilizing air blast sprayers to obtain high pesticide spray application efficiency in nursery tree production is needed. Foliar spray deposition and coverage at different heights inside crabapple tree canopies were investigated for an air blast sprayer with four different appl...

  16. EVALUATION OF CONVERGENT SPRAY TECHNOLOGYTM SPRAY PROCESS FOR ROOF COATING APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of Convergent Spray TechnologyTM for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilizing recycled materials, a CSTTM spray process portable application cart, a...

  17. External characteristics of unsteady spray atomization from a nasal spray device.

    PubMed

    Fung, Man Chiu; Inthavong, Kiao; Yang, William; Lappas, Petros; Tu, Jiyuan

    2013-03-01

    The nasal route presents an enormous opportunity to exploit the highly vascularized respiratory airway for systemic drug delivery to provide more rapid onset of therapy and reduced drug degradation compared with conventional oral routes. The dynamics of atomization at low injection pressure is less known as typical spray atomization studies have focused on industrial applications such as fuel injection that are performed at much higher pressure. An experimental test station was designed in house and an alternative method to characterize the external spray is presented. This involved the use of high-speed camera to capture the temporal development of the spray as it is atomized through actuation of the spray device. An image-processing technique based on edge detection was developed to automate processing through the large number of images captured. The results showed that there are three main phases of spray development (prestable, stable, and poststable) that can be correlated by examining the spray width. A comparison with a human nasal cavity is made to put into perspective the dimensions and geometry that the spray atomization produces. This study aimed to extend the current existing set of data to contribute toward a better understanding in nasal spray drug delivery. PMID:23303644

  18. Response of breeding birds to aerial sprays of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) in Montana forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Henny, C.J.; Floyd, R.L.; Bobal, K.A.; Schultz, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding density, food, nesting success, and mortality of 20 bird species were monitored at Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, in 1975 in conjunction with experimental applications of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) to western budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis). Bird species on nine 350- to 550-ha forested plots (three controls and three treated with each pesticide) were studied before and for 14 days after the spraying of trichlorfon at 1.1 kg in?9.4 L of Panasol AN3 per ha (1 pound active ingredient in 1.0 gallon/acre) and of carbaryl at 1.1 kg in 4.7 L of diesel oil per ha (l pound active ingredient in 0.5 gallon/acre). No significant decrease in bird numbers was detected from breeding-pair estimates or live bird counts after the spraying. Of the breeding pairs present before spraying, 92% remained on control plots, 89% on trichlorfon plots, and 92% on carbaryl plots. Counts of live birds made before and after spraying in three types of habitat supported the. results of the breeding-pair estimates. Nests with eggs or with young at the time of spraying were 74 and 97% successful, respectively, in control plots, 83 and 100% in plots sprayed with trichlorfon, and 86 and 100% in plots sprayed with carbaryl. No sick or dead birds were found after the spraying, although budworms were found in bird stomachs, and tracer-dye from the pesticide occurred on the feathers or feet of 74% of the 202 birds collected. Species dwelling in the tree canopy encountered the dye (and thus the pesticide) at a slightly higher rate (80%) than did species below the treetops (71 %) or near the ground and in open areas (70%).

  19. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  20. A laser tomographic investigation of liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yule, A. J.; Ahseng, C.; Felton, P.; Ungut, A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    A light scattering technique is combined with a tomographic transformation to convert line of sight integrated data, measured in sprays, to measurements of droplet size and concentration in volume elements within the spray. The technique is developed and assessed by systematic experiments in axisymmetric sprays generated by twin-fluid atomisers. The good agreement found shows that, provided certain conditions are satisfied by the local spray structure, the technique provides information on spray structure, similar in detail and extent to that derived by photography, but with reduced experimental time. The technique is applied to an investigation of a kerosene spray vaporizing in a hot gas stream.

  1. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  2. Experiments on the Distribution of Fuel in Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1932-01-01

    The distribution of the fuel in sprays for compression-ignition engines was investigated by taking high-speed spark photographs of fuel sprays produced under a wide variety of conditions, and also by injecting them against pieces of Plasticine. A photographic study was made of sprays injected into evacuated chambers, into the atmosphere, into compressed air, and into transparent liquids. Pairs of identical sprays were injected counter to each other and their behavior analyzed. Small high-velocity air jets were directed normally to the axes of fuel sprays, with the result that the envelope of spray which usually obscures the core was blown aside, leaving the core exposed on one side.

  3. Thermal spray: Advances in coatings technology; Proceedings of the National Thermal Spray Conference, Orlando, FL, Sept. 14-17, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on particle injection in plasma spraying, cored tube wires for arc and flame spraying, new plasma gun technology, and grit-blasting as a surface preparation before plasma spraying. Also considered are hypervelocity applications of tribological coatings, the variability in strength of thermally sprayed coatings, automated powder mass flow monitoring and control, and coated abrasive superfinishing. Other topics include wire-sprayed aluminum coating services in a SIMA corrosion-control shop, cerium oxide stabilized thermal barrier coatings, and strength enhancement of plasma sprayed coatings.

  4. Mechanised spraying device a novel technology for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion

    SciTech Connect

    R.V.K. Singh; V.K. Singh

    2004-10-15

    Spontaneous combustion in coal mines plays a vital role in occurrences of fire. Fire in coal, particularly in opencast mines, not only causes irreparable loss of national wealth but damages the surface structure and pollutes the environment. The problem of spontaneous combustion/fire in opencast coal benches is acute. Presently over 75% of the total production of coal in Indian mines is being carried out by opencast mining. Accordingly a mechanised spraying device has been developed for spraying the fire protective coating material for preventing spontaneous combustion in coal benches of opencast mines jointly by Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad and M/s Signum Fire Protection (India) Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur under Science & Technology (S&T) project funded by Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India. The objective of this paper is to describe in detail about the mechanised spraying device and its application for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion/fire.

  5. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on PCDD/F emissions from open burning of biomass.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria; Gullett, Brian K; Touati, Abderrahmane; Font, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To understand the effect of leaf-surface pesticides on emissions of PCDD/F during biomass burns, nine combustion experiments simulating the open burning of biomass were conducted. Needles and branches of Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) were sprayed with the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at 1 and 10 times the manufacturer's recommended application concentration. The biomass was then dried overnight, burned in an open burn test facility, and emission samples were collected, analyzed, and compared against emission samples from burning untreated biomass. Blank tests and analysis of PCDD/F in the raw biomass were also performed. Emission results from burning a water-sprayed control show a ~20-fold increase in PCDD/F levels above that of the raw biomass alone, implicating combustive formation versus simple volatilization. Results from burns of pine branches sprayed with pesticide showed a statistically significant increase in the PCDD/F TEQ emissions when burning biomass at ten times the recommended pesticide concentration (from 0.22 to 1.14 ng TEQ/kg carbon burned (C(b)), both ND = 0). Similarly, a 150-fold increase in the total PCDD/F congener mass (tetra- to octa-chlorinated D/F) above that of the control was observed (from 52 to 7800 ng/kg C(b)), confirming combustive formation of PCDD/F from 2,4-D. More replicate testing is needed to evaluate effects at lower pesticide concentrations. PMID:22845342

  6. Computer modelling of the meteorological and spraying parameters that influence the aerial dispersion of agrochemical sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeba, M. L.; Salt, D. W.; Lee, B. E.; Ford, M. G.

    An insight into the nature of prevailing meteorological conditions and the manner in which they interact with spraying parameters is an important prerequisite in the analysis of the dynamics of agrochemical sprays. Usually, when these sprays are projected from hydraulic nozzles, their initial velocity is greater than that of the ambient wind speed. The flowfield therefore experiences changes in speed and direction which are felt upstream as well as downstream of the spray droplets. The pattern of the droplet flow, i.e. the shape of the streamlines marking typical trajectories, will be determined by a balance of viscous forces related to wind speed, inertial forces resulting from the acceleration of the airstream and pressure forces which can be viewed in terms of the drag forces exerted on the spray droplets themselves. At a certain distance in the ensuing motion, when the initial velocity of the spray droplets has decreased sufficiently for there to be no acceleration, their trajectories will be controlled entirely by the random effects of turbulence. These two transport processes in the atmosphere can be modelled mathematically using computers. This paper presents a model that considers the velocity of spray droplets to consist of a ballistic velocity component superimposed by a random-walk velocity component. The model is used to study the influence of meteorological and spraying parameters on the three-dimensional dynamics of spray droplets projected in specified directions in neutral and unstable weather conditions. The ballistic and random-walk velocity components are scaled by factors of (1-ξ) and ξ respectively, where ξ is the ratio of the sedimentation velocity and the relative velocity between the spray droplets and the surrounding airstream. This ratio increases progressively as the initial velocity of the spray droplet decreases with air resistance and attains a maximum when the sedimentation velocity has been reached. As soon as this occurs, the

  7. Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

  8. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  9. Dense spray evaporation as a mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rivas, A.; Villermaux, E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the processes by which a dense set of small liquid droplets (a spray) evaporates in a dry, stirred gas phase. A dense spray of micron-sized liquid (water or ethanol) droplets is formed in air by a pneumatic atomizer in a closed chamber. The spray is conveyed in ambient air as a plume whose extension depends on the relative humidity of the diluting medium. Standard shear instabilities develop at the plume edge, forming the stretched lamellar structures familiar with passive scalars. Unlike passive scalars however, these lamellae vanish in a finite time, because individual droplets evaporate at their border in contact with the dry environment. Experiments demonstrate that the lifetime of an individual droplet embedded in a lamellae is much larger than expected from the usual d2 law describing the fate of a single drop evaporating in a quiescent environment. By analogy with the way mixing times are understood from the convection-diffusion equation for passive scalars, we show that the lifetime of a spray lamellae stretched at a constant rate γ is tv=1/γ ln(1/+ϕ ϕ ) , where ϕ is a parameter that incorporates the thermodynamic and diffusional properties of the vapor in the diluting phase. The case of time-dependent stretching rates is examined too. A dense spray behaves almost as a (nonconserved) passive scalar.

  10. M-52 spray booth qualification test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the M-52 spray booth qualification test are documented. The test was conducted at Thiokol Corporation, Space Operations, M-52 Inert Parts Preparation facility. The purpose of this testing sequence was to ensure the spray booth would produce flight qualified hardware. The testing sequence was conducted in two series. The first series was conducted under CTP-0142, Revision 1. The second series was conducted in accordance with CTP-0142, Revision 2. The test sequence started with CTP-0142, Revision 1. The series consisted of the contamination removal test and the performance test. The contamination removal test was used to assess the Teflon level in the spray booth. The performance test consisted of painting and Chemloking a forward dome inside the spray booth per flight procedures. During the performance test, two sets of witness panels (case/insulation and steel/epoxy/steel) were prepared and pull tested. The CTP-0142, Revision 2, series of testing consisted of re-testing the steel/epoxy/steel witness panels. The pull tests analysis indicates the results of the tensile tests were comparable to the systems tunnel witness panel database. The exposed panel set and the control panel set average tensile values were above the 1-basis lower limits established on the systems tunnel witness panel database. It is recommended that the M-52 spray booth be qualified for producing flight hardware.

  11. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  12. Behaviour of painted mirrors during exposure tests to salt spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, E.; Berger, F.; Barillon, R.; Audebert, P.; Chambaudet, A.

    1997-11-01

    The multilayer structure of commercially made mirrors can be subject to degradation under normal conditions, leading to alterations of the mirror's reflective properties. A protective coat of paint, containing an anticorrosive compound, is applied to the copper surface to reduce the oxidation of the thin metallic films. The objective of this study is to analyse the behaviour of the multilayer stack during salt spray tests (neutral salt spray and CASS-test). We followed the morphological and chemical evolution of the interfacial area (glass-silver-copper-paint) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe for micro analysis (EPMA). Studies of the surface of the coatings were performed with attenuated total reflexion infrared spectroscopy (IRTF-ATR) and SEM-EPMA. The observations revealed that a glass-silver decohesion occurs starting at the edges of the material during the tests. The EPMA analyses of the exposed edges of the mirrors indicated first that concentration of the anticorrosive pigment of the paint (lead-based compound) decreased, especially at the copper-paint interface, and second that the copper in the paint may diffuse to the surface of the coating. Finally, IRTF-ATR spectroscopy and SEM-EPMA analyses of surfaces showed that the CASS-test leads to an acid attack of some pigments and extenders of the paint (particularly CaCO 3) and leads to chemical modifications of the binder. These phenomena result in an increase in the porosity and a weakening of the paint film. The results obtained with these surface analytical technics will allow us to propose some degradation mechanisms of painted mirrors during salt spray tests.

  13. Thermal spraying of nanocrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Maggy L.

    The present research addresses the fundamental synergism between thermal spray synthesis, microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of Ni, Inconel 718 and Fe based 316-stainless steel nanocrystalline materials. Nanocrystalline Ni powders produced by mechanical milling in liquid nitrogen were investigated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Significant grain growth occurred in the case of cryomilled Ni powders even when annealing at lower temperatures (equivalent to about 0.17 Tm), indicating the poor thermal stability of these powders. The activation energy for grain growth was calculated to be 146.2 kJ/mol. The values of the time exponent, n, were very close to 4.0, implying that grain growth was controlled by grain boundary diffusion mechanism. The grain growth behavior of the nanocrystalline Ni powders under non-isothermal annealing conditions showed good correspondence between the experimental results and the theoretical simulation. The grain growth behavior of the milled Inconel 718 powders and coatings, under isothermal annealing indicated that the nanocrystalline powders and coatings exhibited thermal stability against grain growth up to 1073 K (0.67Tm). The average grain sizes of methanol milled powders after annealing at 1273 K for 1 hr, cryomilled powders, HVOF coating of the methanol milled powders and HVOF coatings of the cryomilled Inconel 718 powders were 91, 84, 137 and 102 nm, respectively. In the present study, Zener pinning of nanoscale oxides of (Cr,Fe) contributed to the stability against grain growth during thermal annealing of the nanocrystalline Inconel 718 powders and coatings. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. More About Plasma-Spraying Ceramics Onto Smooth Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Doychak, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Paper presents additional information on fabrication process described in "Plasma-Spraying Ceramics Onto Smooth Metallic Substrates" (LEW-15164). Provides additional information on specific substrate materials advantageously coated in two-stage plasma-spraying process.

  15. Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Shot far more effective against current influenza strains, ... 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray flu vaccine is ineffective and should not be used in ...

  16. A new HVOF thermal spray concept

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J.A.; Matus, R.J.; Richter, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    HVOF plays an important role in the commercial production of thermal spray coatings from powder. Initially, both the chamber and duct modes were used. Today, the best coatings are produced by high-pressure chamber guns with some manufacturers having switched their designs from the duct to the chamber mode. There has been little or no spraying of wire with HVOF equipment. A new HVOF process -- the shock-stabilized mode -- compliments chamber powder spraying by offering the user a very simple device for wire use. Calculations show that the much higher jet velocities of the chamber mode make that design the better suited for use with powder. Conversely, the greatly increased jet temperatures offered by shock-stabilized combustion give extremely high wire melt-off rates.

  17. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {{Tetralin}} , n-{{Decane}} , and n-{{Heptane}} .

  18. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  19. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  20. Paint spray tests for respirators: aerosol characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ackley, M W

    1980-05-01

    Liquid paint is sprayed from an atomizing nozzle to form an aerosol for testing paint spray respirators. The generated aerosol conditions are dependent upon liguid properties, spray-nozzle flow conditions and droplet evaporation. A technique was developed for controlling the aerosol concentrations reliably. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel have been measured. The lacquer distribution was found to be multi-modal. Aerosol concentration dradients arise when the nozzle is not properly positioned. Filter loading resistance is significantly affected by these concentration variations. With regard to selection of standard aerosol test be improved by modifying the current NIOSH criteria to include a description of the particle-size distribution, a more precise definition of the paint and paint thinner chemical compositions, and a narrower concentration range. PMID:6932174

  1. Design of a Microgravity Spray Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysinger, Kerri M.; Yerkes, Kirk L.; Michalak, Travis E.; Harris, Richard J.; McQuillen, John

    2004-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was conducted for the application of spray cooling in a microgravity and high-g environment. Experiments were carried out aboard the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft, which provided the microgravity and high-g environments. In reduced gravity, surface tension flow was observed around the spray nozzle, due to unconstrained liquid in the test chamber and flow reversal at the heat source. A transient analytical model was developed to predict the temperature and the spray heat transfer coefficient within the heated region. Comparison of the experimental transient temperature variation with analytical results showed good agreement for low heat input values. The transient analysis also verified that thermal equilibrium within the heated region could be reached during the 20-25s reduced gravity portion of the flight profile.

  2. Water jet/spray measurement analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, G. G.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide analysis of data obtained under a previous contract entitled Characterization of Drop Spectra from High Volume Flow Water Jets. Measurements of drop spectra were obtained in the spray resulting from the breakup of high volume flow water jets from a variety of nozzle types. The drop spectra measurements were obtained from two drop spectrometers covering a range from 10 microns to 12 millimeters diameter. The task addressed was to select representative spectra from the individual tests and provide analyses in both numerical and graphical formats as outlined in the proposal. The intended application of these results is an evaluation of the feasibility of fog clearing by high volume water sprays. During the tests, a fog event occurred making it possible to test the concept of fog clearing. Visual range data and fog drop spectra were analyzed, with particular emphasis placed on the modification of these parameters due to the water spray.

  3. Tomographical transformation of Malvern spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, H. M.; Sun, T. Y.; Chigier, N.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is described which directly transforms Malvern line-integral data into point measurements of the radial drop mean size distribution and liquid volume concentration distribution. The transformed results have been compared with experimental point measurements by photography and the phase/Doppler spray analyzer. The comparison reveals the relation between point measurements and line-of-sight measurements. Three kinds of nozzles were investigated. After tomographical transformation of the Malvern results the different structures of the spray are revealed. A newly derived formula simplifies the transformation procedure. This method provides a direct means to extend the applicability of the Malvern particle sizer and has the potential to be developed for use in unsymmetric sprays.

  4. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  5. Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

  6. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  7. Pollutant Formation in Monodisperse Fuel Spray Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernansky, N. P.; Sarv, H.

    1983-01-01

    The combustion of liquid sprays represents an extremely important class of combustion processes. In the transition region, encompassing droplet sizes in the range of 25-80 micron diameter, the mixing and evaporation processes are both incomplete at the flame front and burning occurs in a combined diffusive and premixed fashion. Under these conditions, the relative importance of heterogeneous and homogeneous effects in dominating the combustion process is switched and gives rise to a number of interesting phenomena. NO (sub x) formation in monodisperse spray combustion was investigated with the following specific objectives: (1) to quantitatively determine the effect of droplet size, number density, etc. on NO sub x formation in monodisperse fuel spray combustion; and (2) to isolate the important physical and chemical phenomena in NO sub x formation in these combustion systems.

  8. Stereological analysis of thermally sprayed deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Montavon, G.; Coddet, C.; Leigh, S.H.; Sampath, S.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal spray deposits can be described by several characteristics including the porosity, the fraction of unmolten particles and the microhardness. These physical and structural characteristics are general and little quantitative information is available to fully describe the microstructure of such deposits. Stereological analysis is one of the microscopic methods which provides quantitative relationships. Hence, it allows a better understanding of correlations between spray parameters and deposit microstructure. Stereology, in the most strict sense, is able to describe a 3-D space from 2-D sections through solid bodies. The aim of this paper is to review the numerical formulations of methods that can be applied on 2-D cross-sections of thermal spray deposits. A historical perspective of several approaches is given, and two methods (i.e., DeHoff`s and Cruz-Orive`s protocols) are detailed.

  9. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  10. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  11. Electrostatic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Sartor, Romain; Gasilova, Natalia; Lu, Yu; Tobolkina, Elena; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

    2012-09-01

    An electrostatic-spray ionization (ESTASI) method has been used for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of samples deposited in or on an insulating substrate. The ionization is induced by a capacitive coupling between an electrode and the sample. In practice, a metallic electrode is placed close to but not in direct contact with the sample. Upon application of a high voltage pulse to the electrode, an electrostatic charging of the sample occurs leading to a bipolar spray pulse. When the voltage is positive, the bipolar spray pulse consists first of cations and then of anions. This method has been applied to a wide range of geometries to emit ions from samples in a silica capillary, in a disposable pipet tip, in a polymer microchannel, or from samples deposited as droplets on a polymer plate. Fractions from capillary electrophoresis were collected on a polymer plate for ESTASI MS analysis. PMID:22876737

  12. Adapting of the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Technique in the Characterization of the Flow Regimes in Thermal Spraying Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Abdulgader, M.; Rademacher, H. G.; Anjami, N.; Hagen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In thermal spraying technique, the changes in the in-flight particle velocities are considered to be only a function of the drag forces caused by the dominating flow regimes in the spray jet. Therefore, the correct understanding of the aerodynamic phenomena occurred at nozzle out let and at the substrate interface is an important task in the targeted improvement in the nozzle and air-cap design as well as in the spraying process in total. The presented work deals with the adapting of an innovative technique for the flow characterization called background-oriented Schlieren. The flow regimes in twin wire arc spraying (TWAS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) were analyzed with this technique. The interfering of the atomization gas flow with the intersected wires causes in case of TWAS process a deformation of the jet shape. It leads also to areas with different aero dynamic forces. The configurations of the outlet air-caps in TWAS effect predominantly the outlet flow characteristics. The ratio between fuel and oxygen determine the dominating flow regimes in the HVOF spraying jet. Enhanced understanding of the aerodynamics at outlet and at the substrate interface could lead to a targeted improvement in thermal spraying processes.

  13. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests. PMID:26352753

  14. Modeling of gas turbine fuel nozzle spray

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, N.K.; Chin, J.S.; Razdan, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Satisfactory performance of the gas turbine combustor relies on the careful design of various components, particularly the fuel injector. It is, therefore, essential to establish a fundamental basis for fuel injection modeling that involves various atomization processes. A two-dimensional fuel injection model has been formulated to simulate the airflow within and downstream of the atomizer and address the formation and breakup of the liquid sheet formed at the atomizer exit. The sheet breakup under the effects of airblast, fuel pressure, or the combined atomization mode of the air-assist type is considered in the calculation. The model accounts for secondary breakup of drops and the stochastic Lagrangian treatment of spray. The calculation of spray evaporation addresses both droplet heat-up and steady-state mechanisms, and fuel vapor concentration is based on the partial pressure concept. An enhanced evaporation model has been developed that accounts for multicomponent, finite mass diffusivity and conductivity effects, and addresses near-critical evaporation. The present investigation involved predictions of flow and spray characteristics of two distinctively different fuel atomizers under both nonreacting and reacting conditions. The predictions of the continuous phase velocity components and the spray mean drop sizes agree well with the detailed measurements obtained for the two atomizers, which indicates the model accounts for key aspects of atomization. The model also provides insight into ligament formation and breakup at the atomizer exit and the initial drop sizes formed in the atomizer near field region where measurements are difficult to obtain. The calculations of the reacting spray show the fuel-rich region occupied most of the spray volume with two-peak radial gas temperature profiles. The results also provided local concentrations of unburned hydrocarbon and CO in atomizer flowfield.

  15. Effect of Chloroethane Spray in the Treatment of Spastic Torticollis in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine the efficacy of chloroethane spray compared to normal saline in the treatment of spastic torticollis in children and adolescents. Hypothesis. Chloroethane spray is more superior to normal saline for the treatment of spastic torticollis in children and adolescents in the pediatric emergency room. Design. Prospective randomized study. Setting. Urban inner-city hospital pediatric emergency department. Methods and Results. All children and adolescents (between the ages of 1 and 16 years) presenting to the author with the complaint of stiff neck were enrolled in the study. A total of 132 patients were enrolled. After complete evaluation to rule out cervical spine injury, a central neurological cause, patients were enrolled in the study. Sixty-six patients were treated with chloroethane spray to the neck and the other 66 were given normal saline as placebo. Sixty-three out of 66 patients treated with chloroethane spray achieved relief in 5 minutes as demonstrated by painless and free movement of the head and neck. No adverse effects were observed. The patients treated with placebo have no relief in 5 minutes. To test the null hypothesis that the percentages improved in the 2 groups equally, we calculated the Z statistic. The Z statistic of 24 corresponded to a P value of <.0001, whether the test is 1-sided or 2-sided. Chloroethane spray treatment was superior to placebo with a high statistical significance. Conclusion. For children and adolescents with spastic torticollis chloroethane spray was more superior to normal saline in the pediatric emergency room. PMID:27335966

  16. Fabrication and design of transdermal fluconazole spray.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Mukesh C; Nagori, Stavan A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate fluconazole transdermal spray for obtaining modified drug transport using eutectic mixture, ethyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide and alcohol. The formulated products were characterized. The selection of the optimized batch was done considering the results of drug transport in the first hour, the time required for 90% drug transport, viscosity and spray angle of the formulations. The inclusion of eutectic mixture, consisting of equal parts of camphor and menthol, showed improved drug transport through rat skin. The optimized batch exhibited larger mean zone of inhibition (antifungal activity), efficient in vivo activity and short term stability. PMID:19519193

  17. Porosity in plasma sprayed alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ilavsky, J.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.; Goland, A.N.; Long, G.G.; Krueger, S.; Allen, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the porosity of plasma sprayed deposits of alumina in as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. SANS results were compared with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and water immersion techniques. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering yields a volume-weighted effective pore radius (R{sub eff}), for pores with sizes between 0.08 and 10{mu}m, the pore volume in this size region, and from the Porod region, the surface area of pores of all sizes.

  18. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  19. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  20. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Characterization of a Binary Aluminum Alloy Spray - Application to the Spray Rolling Process

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Johnson; J.-P. Delplanque; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; K. M. McHugh

    2005-02-01

    A stochastic, droplet-resolved model has been developed to describe the behavior of a binary aluminum alloy spray during the spray-rolling process. In this process, a molten aluminum alloy is atomized and the resulting spray is depostied on the rolls of a twin-roll caster to produce aluminum strip. The one-way coupled spray model allows the prediction of spray characteristics such as enthalph and solid fraction, and their distribution between the nozzle and the depostion surface. This paper outlines the model development and compares the predicted spray dynamics to PDI measurements performed in a controlled configuration. Predicted and measured droplet velocity and size distributions are presented for two points along the spray centerline along with predicted spray averaged specific enthalph and solid fraction curves.

  1. VERIFYING THE PERFORMANCE OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of pesticide sprays usually results in formation of small spray droplets which can drift with air currents to nearby sensitive sites. A number of technologies offer the potential to reduce the amount of spray drift from pesticide applications. Acceptance and use of ...

  2. Effects of nozzle spray angle on droplet size and velocity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray applicators have many choices in selecting a spray nozzle to make an application of an agricultural product. They must balance flowrate, spray pressure, and nozzle type and setup to deliver their agrochemical in the right droplet size for their particular needs. Studies were conducted to det...

  3. 40 CFR 161.440 - Spray drift data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements. 161.440... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.440 Spray... determine the aerial spray drift data requirements and the substance to be tested. Kind of data required...

  4. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation...

  5. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation...

  6. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation...

  7. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table. 158.1100 Section 158.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100...

  8. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation...

  9. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table. 158.1100 Section 158.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100...

  10. 40 CFR 161.440 - Spray drift data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements. 161.440... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.440 Spray... determine the aerial spray drift data requirements and the substance to be tested. Kind of data required...

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Spray Deposition with Water-Sensitive Paper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray droplets, discharged from the lower six nozzles of an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent filter and water-sensitive papers at nine distances from sprayer. Spray deposition on filter targets were measured by fluorometry and spray distribution on WSP targets were assessed by t...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 0.57 milligram (mg) gentamicin base and betamethasone valerate equivalent...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 0.57 milligram (mg) gentamicin base and betamethasone valerate equivalent...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 0.57 milligram (mg) gentamicin base and betamethasone valerate equivalent...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 0.57 milligram (mg) gentamicin base and betamethasone valerate equivalent...

  16. Spatial distribution visualization of PWM continuous variable-rate spray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical application is a dynamic spatial distribution process, during which spray liquid covers the targets with certain thickness and uniformity. Therefore, it is important to study the 2-D and 3-D (dimensional) spray distribution to evaluate spraying quality. The curve-surface generation methods ...

  17. Heavy-Workpiece Handler For Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William N.

    1991-01-01

    Handling device manipulates heavy, hollow workpiece for plasma spraying in vacuum chamber. Rotates and tilts workpiece, keeping it approximately perpendicular to plasma-spray nozzle, so nozzle deposits uniform layer on interior surface of workpiece. Accommodates workpieces as heavy as 1,000 pounds and compatible with heat and vacuum of spraying process.

  18. Eye surface area and dosage rates for spray vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray application of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine saves both time and labor for the table egg industry. Optimization of spray application of vaccine is important in maintaining animal health and productivity. Previous work has shown that droplets produced by popular nozzles used for spray...

  19. Influence of eye surface area on spray vaccination dosage rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray application of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine saves both time and labor for the table egg industry. Optimization of spray application of vaccine is important in maintaining animal health and productivity. Previous work has shown that droplets produced by popular nozzles used for spray...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas vessel and each liquefied toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§...

  1. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  2. Supersonic Particle Impacts: Cold Spray Deposition of Polymeric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Trenton; Schmidt, David; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-11-01

    When a solid, ductile particle impacts a substrate at sufficient velocity, the resulting heat, pressure, and plastic deformation at the interface can produce bonding. The use of a supersonic gas flow to accelerate such particles is known as Cold Spray deposition. The Cold Spray process has been commercialized for some metallic materials, but further research is required to unlock the exciting material properties possible with polymeric compounds. In this work, we present a combined computational and experimental study whose aim is to define the necessary flow conditions for a convergent-divergent de Laval nozzle to produce successful bonding in a range of polymers. From our initial exploration of temperature-pressure space, we will reveal a material dependent `window of deposition' where successful deposition is possible. Furthermore, we will present our computational work on the development of an optimized nozzle profile that maximizes particle total energy (kinetic plus thermal) upon impact and thus maximizes the likelihood of successful deposition. These predictions will be confirmed by the experimental results presented.

  3. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Comparison of cooling criteria with a cryogen spray and water/air spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exley, Jonathan; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.; Charlton, Andrew; Falder, Sian; Kenealy, John

    1999-06-01

    Skin cooling using a cryogen spray (tetrafluoroethane) has been shown to dramatically reduce the skin surface temperature whilst predictions show that the underlying dermal tissue is unaffected. This technique is repeated with a chilled water spray, along with a continuous airflow to enhance evaporation. Radiometric skin surface temperature measurements are recorded during trials utilizing this technique and the results are compared with theoretical predictions in order to determine the mechanism by which the heat is removed from the skin. The optimum spray conditions are achieved when the water is chilled to around 2 degrees Celsius with a continuous airflow of 50 liters/minute. Under these conditions skin surface temperature reduction is about 8 degrees Celsius - 10 degrees Celsius. The measured radiometric skin surface temperature change indicates that the mechanism by which this process removes heat from the skin is predominantly evaporation. Predictions of skin temperature change with varying skin depth indicate that the optimum spray time is around 100 ms.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. In this project, Building Science Corporation investigated rain and built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  6. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  7. Use of Spray Adhesives for the Manufacture of 3-D Capillary Origami Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Reyes, Mithi

    2011-10-01

    The method of ``capillary origami''---using the surface tension of an evaporating water droplet to fold a flexible membrane into a 3-D polyhedron, as investigated by Py et al.---has shown promise as a way to create fully 3-D microstructures. However, the origami re-opens past a critical evaporation point, and previous attempts to prevent this re-opening have proven to be expensive and time-consuming. We therefore investigated the use of various spray adhesives in keeping these origami microstructures closed. Three characteristics were measured: efficiency, tackiness, and strength of the adhesive. Measurements of these three characteristics point to 3M Super 77 Spray Adhesive as an optimal adhesive for spraying microstructures. Furthermore, we designed a new method to measure adhesive strength by using an analytical balance to measure force applied by a micrometer to a microstructure. We also developed novel procedures to create uniformly-sized microstructures and to accelerate the folding process, all of which improve upon the original capillary origami method. These novel procedures, combined with measurements that indicate 3M Super 77 as an optimum adhesive, suggest a potential method for the mass-production of truly 3-D microstructures. Py, Charlotte, et al. ``Capillary origami: Spontaneous wrapping of a droplet with an elastic sheet.'' Physical Review Letters. 98.156103 (2007)

  8. Effect of electric field on spray deposited zinc sulphide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Dutta, Viresh

    2015-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrate using spray technique with a DC voltage (300 V) applied to the nozzle to create an electric field during the spray deposition. Spray deposition of ZnS film under an electric field, resulted in change of the surface morphology, transmission, and enhancement in crystallinity of the film. The band gap of the spray deposited ZnS film was found to be 3.62 eV. Transparent ZnS film with the benefit of large area and low cost spray technique can be suitable for solar cell window layer application.

  9. Development of the improved helicopter icing spray system (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Jenks, Mark D.; Gaitskill, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Boeing Helicopters has been awarded a contract by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System (HISS). The Improved Hiss (IHISS), capable of deployment from any CH-47D helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. Results are presented for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle and validate spray boom aerodynamic characteristics. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  10. Cyanoacrylate spray in the treatment of prolonged oral bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bessermann, M

    1977-08-01

    n-Butyl-cyanoacrylate is an effective hemostatic agent. Optimal efficiency depends on local application via a spray to achieve a thin and elastic film. Construction of a spray applicable to the oral cavity is illustrated using a plastic ampule with Histoarkryl as reservoir. This spray has been used in 27 cases of prolonged bleeding to achieve hemostasis. In 18 cases the patients suffered from different hemorrhagic diatheses and general hemostatic procedures would normally have been necessary to achieve hemostasis. In nine patients without hemorrhagic diathesis, the cyanoacrylate spraying replaced more complicated local procedures. In 24 cases the cyanoacrylate spraying was a sufficient hemostatic treatment. PMID:410747

  11. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  12. Spray drift reduction test method correlation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASTM Standard E609 Terminology Relating to Pesticides defines drift as “The physical movement of an agrochemical through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter to any non or off target site.” Since there are many commercial tank mix adjuvants designed to reduce spray drift, ASTM esta...

  13. Spray Cooling Processes for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizito, John P.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports ongoing work to develop numerical and modeling tools used to design efficient and effective spray cooling processes and to determine characteristic non-dimensional parametric dependence for practical fluids and conditions. In particular, we present data that will delineate conditions towards control of the impingement dynamics of droplets upon a heated substrate germane to practical situations.

  14. Microstructure of Kinetic Spray Coatings: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhee; Kim, Jaeick

    2015-04-01

    Kinetic spray process has been applied to various industrial fields such as automotive, aviation, and defense industries due to its availability to produce high-performing coating layer. However, since the properties of kinetic-sprayed coating layer are significantly affected by the microstructures of deposit, the microstructures of the deposit should be controlled to acquire advanced coating layer and, accordingly, deep understanding of microstructural evolution must be achieved before controlling the microstructure of the coating layer. This paper gives an overview of contents related to the microstructure of kinetic-sprayed deposition. The most powerful influencing factors in microstructural evolution of kinetic-sprayed coating layer are instant generation of thermal energy and high-strain, high-strain-rate plastic deformation at the moment of particle impact. A high-density coating layer with low porosity can be produced, although some micro-cracks are occasionally induced at the interparticle boundary or at the inner region of the particles. Also, a microstructure which is distinct from the inner particle region is created in the vicinity of the particle-particle or particle-substrate interface region. However, almost no crystal phase transformation or chemical reaction is induced since the deposited particles are not heated directly by a thermal energy source.

  15. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Joseph L.; Watson, Lloyd D.

    1990-01-01

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity.

  16. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  17. Controlling Flows Of Two Ingredients For Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Huel H.

    1995-01-01

    Closed-loop servo control subsystem incorporated, as modification, into system controlling flows of two ingredients mixed and sprayed to form thermally insulating foams on large tanks. Provides steady flows at specified rates. Foams produced smoother and of higher quality. Continued use of system results in substantial reduction in cost stemming from close control of application of foam and consequent reduced use of material.

  18. GAS-ATOMIZED SPRAY SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fine particle collection efficiency measurements of a gas-atomized spray scrubber, cleaning effluent gas from a No. 7 gray iron cupola. Tests were made at several levels of pressure drop and liquid/gas ratio. Particle size measurements on inlet and out...

  19. Polydisperse spray diffusion flames in oscillating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Jerrold Barry; Katoshevski, David

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of droplet clustering or grouping found when a spray of droplets is moving in an oscillating host flow field is investigated for the case of a polydisperse spray that fuels a laminar co-flow diffusion flame. A mathematical solution is developed for the liquid phase based on use of small Stokes numbers for size sections into which the polydisperse spray size distribution is divided. Droplet clustering in the oscillatory flow field is accounted for by constructing a special model for the sectional vaporization Damkohler numbers in accordance with droplet size. Combining this with a formal solution for a gas phase Schvab-Zel'dovich variable yields the means whereby flame dynamics can be described. Results calculated from this solution demonstrate that preferential droplet size behaviour (with smaller droplets tending to cluster to a greater extent and reduce the vaporization Damkohler number more than larger ones) can have a major impact on the flame dynamics through local droplet enrichment with attendant consequences on the production of fuel vapour. The dynamics of the sort of flame (over- or under-ventilated) and the occurrence of flame pinching leading to multiple flame sheets are altered under these circumstances. However, potential control of the actual initial spray polydispersity may reduce the intensity of such effects.

  20. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  1. Spray combustion experiments and numerical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, Edward J.; Bulzan, Daniel L.; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of commercial aircraft will include turbofan engines with performance significantly better than those in the current fleet. Control of particulate and gaseous emissions will also be an integral part of the engine design criteria. These performance and emission requirements present a technical challenge for the combustor: control of the fuel and air mixing and control of the local stoichiometry will have to be maintained much more rigorously than with combustors in current production. A better understanding of the flow physics of liquid fuel spray combustion is necessary. This paper describes recent experiments on spray combustion where detailed measurements of the spray characteristics were made, including local drop-size distributions and velocities. Also, an advanced combustor CFD code has been under development and predictions from this code are compared with experimental results. Studies such as these will provide information to the advanced combustor designer on fuel spray quality and mixing effectiveness. Validation of new fast, robust, and efficient CFD codes will also enable the combustor designer to use them as additional design tools for optimization of combustor concepts for the next generation of aircraft engines.

  2. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  3. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  4. The Selection of the Spray Deposition Rate during the Spray Rolling Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yaojun Lin; Kevin M. McHugh; Yizhang Zhou; Enrique J. Lavernia

    2004-11-01

    This article presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the selection of the maximum and minimum spray deposition rates under steady-state conditions during the spray-rolling process. The following predictions are made on the basis of the preceding theoretical analysis. First, the key factor that may control the minimum spray deposition rate is either the removal of porosity or the removal of prior droplet boundaries. With an increase in initial liquid fraction at the deposit/roll interfaces, the mechanism changes from the former to the latter. Second, the mechanism that controls the maximum spray deposition rate is related to either the drag-in angle or the distance between the nozzle and the deposited material’s surface. With an increase in roll diameter or a decrease in distance between the nozzle and the roll-axis plane, the controlling mechanism is changed from the former to the latter. Third, both the calculated maximum and minimum spray deposition rates markedly increase with an increase in roll diameter and roll rotational frequency. In addition, the present theoretical analysis suggests that spray rolling can be optimized to manufacture strips with a high production rate.

  5. Agrochemical spray drift; assessment and mitigation--a review.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Unsworth, John B; Linders, Jan B H J; Roberts, Graham; Rautman, Dirk; Harris, Caroline; Carazo, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    During application of agrochemicals spray droplets can drift beyond the intended target to non-target receptors, including water, plants and animals. Factors affecting this spray drift include mode of application, droplet size, which can be modified by the nozzle types, formulation adjuvants, wind direction, wind speed, air stability, relative humidity, temperature and height of released spray relative to the crop canopy. The rate of fall of spray droplets depends upon the size of the droplets but is modified by entrainment in a mobile air mass and is also influenced by the rate of evaporation of the liquid constituting the aerosol. The longer the aerosol remains in the air before falling to the ground (or alternatively striking an object above ground) the greater the opportunity for it to be carried away from its intended target. In general, all size classes of droplets are capable of movement off target, but the smallest are likely to move the farthest before depositing on the ground or a non-target receptor. It is not possible to avoid spray drift completely but it can be minimized by using best-management practices. These include using appropriate nozzle types, shields, spray pressure, volumes per area sprayed, tractor speed and only spraying when climatic conditions are suitable. Field layout can also influence spray drift, whilst crop-free and spray-free buffer zones and windbreak crops can also have a mitigating effect. Various models are available to estimate the environmental exposure from spray drift at the time of application. PMID:20981606

  6. Electrically Insulative Performances of Ceramic and Clay Films Deposited via Supersonic Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Jang-soo; Yang, Dae-ho; Kim, Woo-Young; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2016-04-01

    Supersonic spray coating techniques were applied to deposit ceramic and clay particles as films for use in electrical insulation. TiO2 and Al2O3 ceramics were aerosol-deposited under vacuum while kaolinite, montmorillonite, and bentonite clays were deposited by cold spraying in open air. The electrical resistivity of Al2O3 and TiO2 were ~109 and ~108 Ω cm, respectively. The resistivity of kaolinite and montmorillonite were ~1012 Ω cm. Bentonite showed the lowest electrical resistivity of ~109 Ω cm among the clays because of the high cation exchange capacity of the material. The film surface morphologies and mechanical properties in the form of hardness and scratchability were also investigated.

  7. Impacts of sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David P.; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, H. Damon

    2016-07-01

    We used an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to study the effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) by sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry. SRM slightly decreased global ocean net primary productivity (NPP) relative to the control run. The lower temperatures in the SRM run decreased NPP directly but also indirectly increased NPP in some regions due to changes in nutrient availability resulting from changes in ocean stratification and circulation. Reduced light availability had a minor effect on global total NPP but a major regional effect near the nutrient-rich upwelling region off the coast of Peru, where light availability is the main limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in our model. Unused nutrients from regions with decreased NPP also fueled NPP elsewhere. In the context of RCP4.5 simulation used here, SRM decreased ocean carbon uptake due to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, seawater chemistry, NPP, temperature, and ocean circulation.

  8. Brush Scrub Cleaning after Spraying Ozonized Water on Si Wafer Treated by Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Kounosuke; Nishimura, Eriko; Saito, Reiko; Maki, Kunisuke

    2008-09-01

    To clean the surface of 300-mm-diameter silicon wafers treated by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the following steps were performed: (1) the wafer surfaces were first terminated with hydrogen using an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid, and (2) the wafers were then spun while ozonized water was sprayed before brush scrub cleaning was performed. The number of particles more than 100 nm in diameter remaining on the wafer decreased linearly with increasing time after spraying ozonized water for approximately 5 s before brush scrub cleaning. The wafers had fewer than 10 particles after spraying ozonized water for approximately 15 s followed by brush scrub cleaning. Such a cleaning effect was not accomplished when the ozonized water was not sprayed. A model of the brush scrub cleaning process is discussed from the view point that an oxide film is first formed on the wafer surface where no particles are adhered, and then grows laterally beneath the particles. The force then applied by the brush scrubber overcomes the adhesion force between the particles and the wafer, which results in their removal when the oxide layer reaches a sufficient thickness. The growth of the oxide film was confirmed by observing the spectra obtained by attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  9. Mechanical, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Biological Properties of Plasma Sprayed Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Coating

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A.; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-01-01

    Implant related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. In order to reduce bacterial adhesion, silver (Ag) / silver oxide (Ag2O) doping was used in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt% Ag, heat treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/Dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Present results suggest that the plasma sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

  10. Mechanical, in vitro antimicrobial, and biological properties of plasma-sprayed silver-doped hydroxyapatite coating.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-03-01

    Implant-related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. To reduce bacterial adhesion, we used silver (Ag)/silver oxide (Ag(2)O) doping in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 wt % Ag, heat-treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Our results suggest that the plasma-sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag-doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

  11. Including latent and sensible heat fluxes from sea spray in global weather and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copsey, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Most standard weather and climate models calculate interfacial latent (evaporation) and sensible heat fluxes over the ocean based on parameterisations of atmospheric turbulence, using the wave state only in the calculation of surface roughness length. They ignore latent and sensible heat fluxes generated by sea spray, which is an acceptable assumption at low wind speeds. However at high wind speeds (> 15 m/s) a significant amount of sea spray is generated from the sea surface which, while airborne, cools to an equilibrium temperature, absorbs heat and releases moisture before re-impacting the sea surface. This could impact, for example, the total heat loss from the Southern Ocean (which is anomalously warm in Met Office coupled models) or the accuracy of tropical cyclone forecasts. A modified version of the Fairall sea spray parameterisation scheme has been tested in the Met Office Unified Model including the JULES surface exchange model in both climate and NWP mode. The fast part of the scheme models the temperature change of the droplets to an equilibrium temperature and the slow part of the scheme models the evaporation and heat absorption while the droplets remain airborne. Including this scheme in the model cools and moistens the near surface layers of the atmosphere during high wind events, including tropical cyclones. Sea spray goes on to increase the convection intensity and precipitation near the high wind events in the model.

  12. Efficacy and safety of cannabinoid oromucosal spray for multiple sclerosis spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Patti, F; Messina, S; Solaro, C; Amato, M P; Bergamaschi, R; Bonavita, S; Bruno Bossio, R; Brescia Morra, V; Costantino, G F; Cavalla, P; Centonze, D; Comi, G; Cottone, S; Danni, M; Francia, A; Gajofatto, A; Gasperini, C; Ghezzi, A; Iudice, A; Lus, G; Maniscalco, G T; Marrosu, M G; Matta, M; Mirabella, M; Montanari, E; Pozzilli, C; Rovaris, M; Sessa, E; Spitaleri, D; Trojano, M; Valentino, P; Zappia, M

    2016-01-01

    Background The approval of 9-δ-tetrahydocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex) for the management of treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity opened a new opportunity for many patients. The aim of our study was to describe Sativex effectiveness and adverse events profile in a large population of Italian patients with MS in the daily practice setting. Methods We collected data of all patients starting Sativex between January 2014 and February 2015 from the mandatory Italian medicines agency (AIFA) e-registry. Spasticity assessment by the 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS) scale is available at baseline, after 1 month of treatment (trial period), and at 3 and 6 months. Results A total of 1615 patients were recruited from 30 MS centres across Italy. After one treatment month (trial period), we found 70.5% of patients reaching a ≥20% improvement (initial response, IR) and 28.2% who had already reached a ≥30% improvement (clinically relevant response, CRR), with a mean NRS score reduction of 22.6% (from 7.5 to 5.8). After a multivariate analysis, we found an increased probability to reach IR at the first month among patients with primary and secondary progressive MS, (n=1169, OR 1.4 95% CI 1.04 to 1.9, p=0.025) and among patients with >8 NRS score at baseline (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.3–2.4 p<0.001). During the 6 months observation period, 631(39.5%) patients discontinued treatment. The main reasons for discontinuation were lack of effectiveness (n=375, 26.2%) and/or adverse events (n=268, 18.7%). Conclusions Sativex can be a useful and safe option for patients with MS with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to common antispastic drugs. PMID:27160523

  13. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature. PMID:25477639

  14. Spray-dried respirable powders containing bacteriophages for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Matinkhoo, Sadaf; Lynch, Karlene H; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2011-12-01

    Myoviridae bacteriophages were processed into a dry powder inhalable dosage form using a low-temperature spray-drying process. The phages were incorporated into microparticles consisting of trehalose, leucine, and optionally a third excipient (either a surfactant or casein sodium salt). The particles were designed to have high dispersibility and a respirable particle size, and to preserve the phages during processing. Bacteriophages KS4- M, KS14, and cocktails of phages ΦKZ/D3 and ΦKZ/D3/KS4-M were spray-dried with a processing loss ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 log pfu. The aerosol performance of the resulting dry powders as delivered from an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI) exceeded the performance of commercially available DPIs; the emitted mass and the in vitro total lung mass of the lead formulation were 82.7% and 69.7% of filled capsule mass, respectively. The total lung mass had a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-2.8 µm. The total in vitro lung doses of the phages, delivered from a single actuation of the inhaler, ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) pfu, levels that are expected to be efficacious in vivo. Spray drying of bacteriophages into a respirable dry powder was found to be feasible. PMID:22020816

  15. Simulation of a turbulent spray flame using coupled PDF gas phase and spray flamelet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Hai-Wen; Gutheil, Eva

    2008-04-15

    A joint mixture fraction-enthalpy probability density function (PDF) is proposed for the simulation of turbulent spray flames. The PDF transport equation is deduced and modeled. The interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (IEM) model that has been developed for gas-phase flows is extended to describe molecular mixing in nonreactive and reactive spray flows. The joint PDF transport equation is solved by a hybrid finite-volume and Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. Standard spray and turbulence models are used to describe the gas phase and the liquid phase. A turbulent methanol/air spray flame is simulated using the present method. Detailed chemistry is implemented through the spray flamelet model. The precalculated spray flamelet library for methanol/air combustion comprises 23 species and 168 elementary reactions. Thus, the model is capable of predicting the formation of radicals and of pollutants. Different values for the model constant C{sub {phi}} in the IEM model are tested. The numerical results for the gas velocity, the gas temperature, and the mass fraction of methanol vapor are compared with experimental data in the literature. Good agreement with experiment is obtained when C{sub {phi}}=2.0. Marginal PDFs of mixture fraction, enthalpy, and gas temperature are presented. The computed PDFs of mixture fraction are compared with the presumed standard {beta} function and modified {beta} function. The results show that the standard {beta} function fails to reproduce bimodal shapes observed in transported PDF computation, while the modified {beta} function, fits the computed PDFs very well. Moreover, joint PDFs of mixture fraction and enthalpy are presented and analyzed. The enthalpy and mixture fraction are strongly correlated. The samples that deviate from the linear correlation are due to the energy consumption of local spray evaporation. (author)

  16. Spatial Characteristics of Water Spray Formed by Two Impinging Jets at Several Jet Velocities in Quiescent Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Hampton H.; Heidmann, Marcus F.

    1960-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of a spray formed by two impinging water jets in quiescent air were studied over a range of nominal jet velocities of 30 to 74 feet per second. The total included angle between the 0.089-inch jets was 90 deg. The jet velocity, spray velocity, disappearance of the ligaments just before drop formation, mass distribution, and size and position of the largest drops were measured in a circumferential survey around the point of jet impingement. Photographic techniques were used in the evaluations. The distance from the point of jet impingement to ligament breakup into drops was about 4 inches on the spray axis and about 1.3 inches in the radial position +/-90 deg from the axis. The distance tended to increase slightly with increase in jet velocity. The spray velocity varied from about 99 to about 72 percent of the jet velocity for a change in circumferential position from the spray axis to the +/-80 deg positions. The percentages tended to increase slightly with an increase in jet velocity. Fifty percent of the mass was distributed about the spray axis in an included angle of slightly less than 40 deg. The effect of jet velocity was small. The largest observed drops (2260-micron or 0.090-in. diam.) were found on and about the spray axis. The size of the largest drops decreased for an increase in radial angular position, being about 1860 microns (0.074 in.) at the +/-90 deg positions. The largest drop sizes tended to decrease for an increase in jet velocity, although the velocity effect was small. A drop-size distribution analysis indicated a mass mean drop size equal to 54 percent of an extrapolated maximum drop size.

  17. Simulation of preburner sprays, volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardalupas, Y.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The present study considered characteristics of sprays under a variety of conditions. Control of these sprays is important as the spray details can control both rocket combustion stability and efficiency. Under the present study Imperial College considered the following: (1) Measurement of the size and rate of spread of the sprays produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles with axial gaseous stream. The local size, velocity, and flux characteristics for a wide range of gas and liquid flowrates were measured, and the results were correlated with the conditions of the spray at the nozzle exit. (2) Examination of the effect of the geometry of single coaxial airblast atomizers on spray characteristics. The gas and liquid tube diameters were varied over a range of values, the liquid tube recess was varied, and the shape of the exit of the gaseous jet was varied from straight to converging. (3) Quantification of the effect of swirl in the gaseous stream on the spray characteristics produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles. (4) Quantification of the effect of reatomization by impingement of the spray on a flat disc positioned around 200 mm from the nozzle exit. This models spray impingement on the turbopump dome during the startup process of the preburner of the SSME. (5) Study of the interaction between multiple sprays without and with swirl in their gaseous stream. The spray characteristics of single nozzles were compared with that of three identical nozzles with their axis at a small distance from each other. This study simulates the sprays in the preburner of the SSME, where there are around 260 elements on the faceplate of the combustion chamber. (6) Design an experimental facility to study the characteristics of sprays at high pressure conditions and at supercritical pressure and temperature for the gas but supercritical pressure and subcritical temperature for the liquid.

  18. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion

  19. Comparing Greenhouse Handgun Delivery to Poinsettias by Spray Volume and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide labels often lack specific recommendations on the spray volume and spray droplet sizes which will provide the most efficacious pest management of ornamental pest problems. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of spray volume and spray quality on the fate of spray in ...

  20. Gas detonation gun for thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, E.; Kadyrov, V.

    1995-08-01

    High-velocity oxy-fuel and gas detonation are competing spray coating processes well known for providing premium quality coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. They are favored for applications in environments of extreme wear, heat, and aggressive corrosion. Nevertheless, they both have limitations. For the HVOF process, these include excessive gas consumption, high rate of heat transfer to the sprayed substrate, and the short life of the (supersonic) Laval nozzle. On the other hand, the traditional gas detonation gun also has drawbacks, and the purpose of this article is to outline some factors that led to the design of an improved gas detonation coating process called Demeton, produced by Demeton USA Inc., Garden City Park, N.Y.

  1. Thermal Spray Formation of Polymer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coquill, Scott; Galbraith, Stephen L.; Tuss. Darren L.; Ivosevic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    This innovation forms a sprayable polymer film using powdered precursor materials and an in-process heating method. This device directly applies a powdered polymer onto a substrate to form an adherent, mechanically-sound, and thickness-regulated film. The process can be used to lay down both fully dense and porous, e.g., foam, coatings. This system is field-deployable and includes power distribution, heater controls, polymer constituent material bins, flow controls, material transportation functions, and a thermal spray apparatus. The only thing required for operation in the field is a power source. Because this method does not require solvents, it does not release the toxic, volatile organic compounds of previous methods. Also, the sprayed polymer material is not degraded because this method does not use hot combustion gas or hot plasma gas. This keeps the polymer from becoming rough, porous, or poorly bonded.

  2. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Lee, Ying-Ming

    1996-01-01

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  4. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  5. Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems

    DOEpatents

    Sibley, Howard W.

    1979-06-19

    A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

  6. Modeling of the vacuum plasma spray process

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr. ); Neiser, R.A.; Smith, M.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics in the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process for a tungsten powder. VPS coatings were examined metallographically and the results compared with the model's predictions. The plasma was numerically modeled from the cathode tip to the spray distance in the free plume for the experimental conditions of this study. This information was then used as boundary conditions to solve the particle dynamics. The predicted temperature and velocity of the powder particles at standoff were then used as initial conditions for a coating dynamics code. The code predicts the coating morphology for the specific process parameters. The predicted characteristics exhibit good correlation with the observed coating properties.

  7. Modeling of the vacuum plasma spray process

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Neiser, R.A.; Smith, M.F.

    1992-10-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics in the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process for a tungsten powder. VPS coatings were examined metallographically and the results compared with the model`s predictions. The plasma was numerically modeled from the cathode tip to the spray distance in the free plume for the experimental conditions of this study. This information was then used as boundary conditions to solve the particle dynamics. The predicted temperature and velocity of the powder particles at standoff were then used as initial conditions for a coating dynamics code. The code predicts the coating morphology for the specific process parameters. The predicted characteristics exhibit good correlation with the observed coating properties.

  8. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers.

  9. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    DOEpatents

    Byrnes, Larry Edward; Kramer, Martin Stephen; Neiser, Richard A.

    2003-08-26

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  10. TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, William R.

    The Hudson River Museum's Environmental Arts and Science Division has published this booklet describing their model educational program, "TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment," a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education utilizing existing curricula. For conducting the program model communities strategically located along the…

  11. Rugged Preheaters For Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Sander, Lewis D.; Power, Christopher A.; Sander, Heather L.; Nguyen, Dalton D.

    1994-01-01

    Electric preheater units built to ensure large workpieces to be coated with metals by vacuum plasma spraying heated uniformly to requisite high temperatures by time plasma torch arrives. Units similar to electrical-resistance ribbon heaters in toasters and in some small portable electric "space" heaters. Nichrome resistance-heating ribbons wrapped around ceramic insulating spools on rings and on plates. Round workpiece placed in middle of ring preheater. Plate preheaters stacked as needed near workpiece.

  12. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  13. Thermal spray coatings on Yankee dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, D.F. )

    1994-08-01

    Several failure investigations and recent research on thermal spray coatings on Yankee dryer surfaces show at least three modes of environmentally induced degradation. Corrosion may occur with the ingress of certain chemicals into coating pores. Erosion or corrosion is manifested by streaks at local sites of high doctor blade loading. Erosion and cracking occur due to coating parameters, thermal stress, and differential expansion. While most of the results described in this paper are from investigations of molybdenum, stainless steel coatings also are discussed.

  14. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE FIBER REINFORCED GEOPOLYMER SPRAY-APPLIED MORTAR FOR LARGE DIAMETER WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION IN HOUSTON, TX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the performance evaluation of a fiber reinforced geopolymer spray-applied mortar, which has potential as a structural alternative to traditional open cut techniques used in large-diameter sewer pipes. Geopolymer is a sustainable green material that incorpor...

  16. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. PMID:27130966

  17. High velocity pulsed plasma thermal spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Massey, D. W.; Kincaid, R. W.; Whichard, G. C.; Mozhi, T. A.

    2002-03-01

    The quality and durability of coatings produced by many thermal spray techniques could be improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the substrate. Additionally, better control of the chemical and thermal environment seen by the particles during flight is crucial to the quality of the coating. A high velocity thermal spray device is under development through a Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, which provides significantly higher impact velocity for accelerated particles than is currently available with existing thermal spray devices. This device utilizes a pulsed plasma as the accelerative medium for powders introduced into the barrel. Recent experiments using a particle imaging diagnostic system showed that the device can accelerate stainless steel and WC-Co powders to velocities ranging from 1500 to 2200 m/s. These high velocities are accomplished without the use of combustible gases and without the need of a vacuum chamber, while maintaining an inert atmosphere for the particles during acceleration. The high velocities corresponded well to modeling predictions, and these same models suggest that velocities as high as 3000 m/s or higher are possible.

  18. The lifetime of evaporating dense sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rivas, Alois; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    We study the processes by which a set of nearby liquid droplets (a spray) evaporates in a gas phase whose relative humidity (vapor concentration) is controlled at will. A dense spray of micron-sized water droplets is formed in air by a pneumatic atomizer and conveyed through a nozzle in a closed chamber whose vapor concentration has been pre-set to a controlled value. The resulting plume extension depends on the relative humidity of the diluting medium. When the spray plume is straight and laminar, droplets evaporate at its edge where the vapor is saturated, and diffuses through a boundary layer developing around the plume. We quantify the shape and length of the plume as a function of the injecting, vapor diffusion, thermodynamic and environment parameters. For higher injection Reynolds numbers, standard shear instabilities distort the plume into stretched lamellae, thus enhancing the diffusion of vapor from their boundary towards the diluting medium. These lamellae vanish in a finite time depending on the intensity of the stretching, and relative humidity of the environment, with a lifetime diverging close to the equilibrium limit, when the plume develops in an medium saturated in vapor. The dependences are described quantitatively.

  19. Oxidation in HVOF-sprayed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Neiser, R.A.; Dykhuizen, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    It is widely held that most of the oxidation in thermally sprayed coatings occurs on the surface of the droplet after it has flattened. The evidence in this paper suggests that, for the conditions studied here, oxidation of the top surface of flattened droplets is not the dominant oxidation mechanism. In this study, a mild steel wire (AISI 1025) was sprayed using a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) torch onto copper and aluminum substrates. Ion milling and Auger spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of oxides within individual splats. Conventional metallographic analysis was also used to study oxide distributions within coatings that were sprayed under the same conditions. An analytical model for oxidation of the exposed surface of a splat is presented. Based on literature data, the model assumes that diffusion of iron through a solid FeO layer is the rate limiting factor in forming the oxide on the top surface of a splat. An FeO layer only a few thousandths of a micron thick is predicted to form on the splat surface as it cools. However, the experimental evidence shows that the oxide layers are typically 100x thicker than the predicted value. These thick, oxide layers are not always observed on the top surface of a splat. Indeed, in some instances the oxide layer is on the bottom, and the metal is on the top. The observed oxide distributions are more consistently explained if most of the oxide formed before the droplets impact the substrate.

  20. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  1. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  2. Calcium phosphate coating on titanium using laser and plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mangal

    Though calcium phosphate (CaP) coated implants are commercially available, its acceptance is still not wide spread due to challenges related to weaker interfacial bonding between metal and ceramic, and low crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA). The objectives of this research are to improve interfacial strength, crystallinity, phase purity and bioactivity of CaP coated metallic implants for orthopaedic applications. The rationale is that forming a diffuse and gradient metal-ceramic interface will improve the interfacial strength. Moreover, reducing CaP particles exposure to high temperature during coating preparation, can lead to improvement in both crystallinity and phase purity of CaP. In this study, laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) was used to coat Ti metal with CaP. LENS(TM) processing enabled generation of Ti+TCP (tricalcium phosphate) composite coating with diffused interface, that also increased the coating hardness to 1049+/-112 Hv compared to a substrate hardness of 200+/-15 Hv. In vitro bone cell-material interaction studies confirmed the bioactivity of TCP coatings. Antimicrobial properties of the TCP coatings were improved by silver (Ag) electrodeposition. Along with LENS(TM), radio frequency induction plasma spray, equipped with supersonic plasma nozzle, was used to prepare HA coatings on Ti with improved crystallinity and phase purity. The coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ˜200 nm in size, which consisted of 15--20 nm HA grains. In vitro bone cell-material interaction and in vivo rat model studies confirmed the HA coatings to be bioactive. Furthermore, incorporation of Sr2+ improved bone cell of HA coatings interaction. A combination of LENS(TM) and plasma spray was used to fabricate a compositionally graded HA coatings on Ti where the microstructure varied from pure HA at the surface to pure Ti substrate with a diffused Ti+TCP composite region in between. The plasma spray system was used to synthesize spherical HA nano powder from

  3. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  4. Evaporating Spray in Supersonic Streams Including Turbulence Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Evaporating spray plays an important role in spray combustion processes. This paper describes the development of a new finite-conductivity evaporation model, based on the two-temperature film theory, for two-phase numerical simulation using Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The model is a natural extension of the T-blob/T-TAB atomization/spray model which supplies the turbulence characteristics for estimating effective thermal diffusivity within the droplet phase. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance of this model. Validation results indicate the superiority of the finite-conductivity model in low speed parallel flow evaporating sprays. High speed cross flow spray results indicate the effectiveness of the T-blob/T-TAB model and point to the needed improvements in high speed evaporating spray modeling.

  5. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  6. Spray Deposition of Multilayer Gas Barrier Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Tara; Xiang, Fangming; Grunlan, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Dip-assisted assembly is the norm for making multilayer thin films (also known as layer-by-layer [LbL] assembly). Spray-based deposition possesses several advantages over dipping, but has not been studied in great detail, especially for gas barrier layers. In this study, polyethylenimine [PEI]/poly(acylic acid) [PAA] bilayers were deposited with varying spray parameters. Spraying time was found to be the most influential parameter to control the roughness, thickness, and gas barrier of the PEI/PAA assembly. A spray-coated sample was prepared using optimized parameters and compared to a dip-coated sample using the same deposition time (5s). The sprayed sample was better in terms of thickness, roughness, and gas barrier. This study is the first report showing that a sprayed multilayer assembly has better properties than its dipped counterpart. These findings could revolutionize the multilayer deposition process, making it more commercially-friendly.

  7. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes [approximately] 5 [mu]m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  8. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes {approximately} 5 {mu}m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  9. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Base Thermal Spray Coatings Deposited by Flame Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amokrane, Bradai Mohand; Abdelhamid, Sadeddine; Youcef, Mouadji; Abderrahim, Benabbas; Nedjemeddine, Bounar; Ahmed, Mammeri

    2011-10-01

    In this work, two different Ni-base powders, namely, ProXon 21021 (P21) and ProXon 21031 (P31), were sprayed onto a steel substrate 35CrMo4 using a thermal flame spray technique. The morphology and chemical composition of the phases that are present in the powders and coatings were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The hardness and wear resistance of the coatings were investigated. The XRD analysis revealed that the phases present in the coatings are different from the initial powders. In addition, some inhomogeneities such as oxides, porosity, and unmelted particles were observed by SEM. It was found that the P31 spray-coated exhibited higher microhardness, higher wear resistance, and significantly lower friction coefficient in comparison with those of P21 coatings.

  10. Detailed investigation of a vaporising fuel spray. Part 1: Experimental investigation of time averaged spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yule, A. J.; Seng, C. A.; Boulderstone, R.; Ungut, A.; Felton, P. G.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    A laser tomographic light scattering technique provides rapid and accurate high resolution measurements of droplet sizes, concentrations, and vaporization. Measurements using a computer interfaced thermocouple are presented and it is found that the potential exists for separating gas and liquid temperature measurements and diagnosing local spray density by in situ analysis of the response characteristics of the thermocouple. The thermocouple technique provides a convenient means for measuring mean gas velocity in both hot and cold two phase flows. The experimental spray is axisymmetric and has carefully controlled initial and boundary conditions. The flow is designed to give relatively insignificant transfer of momentum and mass from spray to air flow. The effects of (1) size-dependent droplet dispersion by the turbulence, (2) the initial spatial segregation of droplet sizes during atomization, and (3) the interaction between droplets and coherent large eddies are diagnosed.

  11. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOEpatents

    Pui, David Y. H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2015-06-09

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  12. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOEpatents

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  13. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus. [for particle accelerator targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant was circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material was disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which was below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second embodiment, no inert gas was used, the bubble consisting of a vapor produced when the coolant was sprayed against the target.

  14. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOEpatents

    Pui, David Y. H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2009-03-03

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  15. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Toyotarou; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Oishi, Takumi; Kukidome, Nobuyuki; Takase, Yasuaki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin. Materials and methods The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical), and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical) build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick) perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Results Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups) showed significantly lower μTBS than control specimens (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the spray-contaminated groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Maintenance spray significantly reduces the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to dentin. PMID:23662078

  16. Plasma-Spraying Ceramics Onto Smooth Metallic Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Rouge, Carl J.; Leissler, George

    1992-01-01

    In fabrication process, plasma-sprayed ceramic coats bonded strongly to smooth metallic surfaces. Principal use of such coats in protecting metal parts in hot-gas paths of advanced gas turbine engines. Process consists of application of initial thin layer of ceramic on smooth surface by low-pressure-plasma spraying followed by application of layer of conventional, low-thermal-conductivity atmospheric-pressure plasma-sprayed ceramic.

  17. Studies of Plasma-Sprayed Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavsky, Jan

    1994-05-01

    Phase transformations and porosity of the plasma sprayed alumina deposits were examined. The dependence of the phase transformations on deposit chemistry was established. Porosity changes during heat treatment were studied and a model for the porosity is proposed. A novel technique in the field of plasma sprayed deposits--small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)--was successfully applied. Deposits were manufactured using the water-stabilized plasma spray system, PAL160, with an input of 160 kW. Phase transformations of the plasma sprayed alumina deposits were studied using XRD and DTA. The deposits were manufactured from 99.9% alumina, alumina-chromia (1.5% Cr_2O_3), gray alumina (3.7% TiO_2) and alumina -titania (17% TiO_2). The addition of chromia increases the temperature of the alpha phase formation by about 40^circ C and the addition of TiO_2 reduces this temperature by about 150^circ C for gray alumina and by about 175^ circC for alumina-titania. The amount of metastable theta phase was found to depend on the chemistry of the feedstock. Porosities of the deposits, made from alumina and gray alumina, were studied using mercury intrusion porosimetry, weighing method (Archimedean porosimetry), image analysis and SANS. Samples were studied in the as -sprayed condition and after heat treatment for 2 hours at 1300^circC and 1500 ^circC. Porosity depends on the deposit chemistry and on the heat treatment and varies from 5% to about 11%. Different porosity measurement techniques yield different results. Surface areas of 1.5 to 7.5 times 10^4 cm^2 /cm^3 (times 10^6 m^{ -1}) were measured using SANS and depend on heat treatment and on the deposit chemistry. The phase transformations can be associated with an increase in pore surface area and decrease in surface area at 1500 ^circC can be associated with sintering. The effective pore radius, R_{ rm eff}, as measured by SANS is a measure of the pore sizes in the 0.08 to 10 μm size range. The R_{rm eff} depends on deposit

  18. Simultaneous Polymerization and Polypeptide Particle Production via Reactive Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Lidija; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-09-12

    A method for producing polypeptide particles via in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides during spray-drying has been developed. This method was enabled by the development of a fast and robust synthetic pathway to polypeptides using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides. The polymerizations finished within 5 s and proved to be very tolerant toward impurities such as amino acid salts and water. The formed particles were prepared by mixing the monomer, N-carboxyanhydride of l-glutamic acid benzyl ester (NCAGlu) and the initiator (DBU) during the atomization process in the spray-dryer and were spherical with a size of ∼1 μm. This method combines two steps; making it a straightforward process that facilitates the production of polypeptide particles. Hence, it furthers the use of spray-drying and polypeptide particles in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27445061

  19. Isosorbide dinitrate spray as therapeutic strategy for treatment of chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vázquez, Rene; Briseño-Rodríguez, G; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Gálvez-Gastélum, Francisco Javier; Totsuka-Sutto, Silvia Elena; Garcia-Benavides, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    Venous ulcers are the most common form of leg ulcers, which induce lesion because of the loss of substances deposited on the damaged skin. Isosorbide dinitrate is a vasodilator with effects on both arteries and veins and induces opening of vascular layers. The objective is to study the effects of isosorbide dinitrate-spray in patients with chronic venous ulcers. Forty-five patients of both sexes with chronic venous ulcers were randomized to receive isosorbide dinitrate or placebo sprays daily for 3 months. The ulcers were measured and clinical characteristics were taken every 15 days during the treatment. Patients treated with isosorbide dinitrate showed an improvement of the ulcerated area (71.29%) compared with patients treated with placebo (54.35%). The histopathological study indicated an increment in the number of hypertrophic and hyperplasic capillaries. Macroscopically, the isosorbide dinitrate-treatment showed the best results, but it was only during the first 6 weeks of treatment. Patients with chronic venous ulcer receiving isosorbide dinitrate spray showed improvement. PMID:18319224

  20. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.