Science.gov

Sample records for springs-upper coachella valley

  1. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  3. 78 FR 34127 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coachella Valley History Museum has completed... funerary objects should submit a written request to the Coachella Valley History Museum. If no...

  4. Short-term reproductive diapause by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Smith, P T; Lothrop, H D

    1995-09-01

    Culex tarsalis Coquillett from the Coachella Valley in southeastern California enter a short-term reproductive diapause that is terminated by changes in photoperiod at or shortly after the winter solstice. Reproductively active and unfed resting females exhibited respective increases and decreases in parity rates during December that were characteristic of diapause induction, although reproductively active females, larvae, and males were collected during every month throughout winter. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that females from Coachella Valley enter and maintain a facultative reproductive diapause similar to females from the more northern San Joaquin Valley when exposed to simulated winter conditions. In environmental chambers, diapause termination was not related to temperature accrual because females terminated diapause at approximately the same time regardless of temperature regimens. A field experiment showed that female cohorts emerging in the Coachella Valley from late October through December entered a reproductive diapause that was terminated synchronously by changing photoperiod in late December. PMID:7473621

  5. Paleoseismic displacement history, Coachella Valley segment, San Andreas fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines individual earthquake displacements and slip curves for the southern segment of the San Andreas fault. In prior work, detailed geomorphic slip evidence (features offset up to ~20 meters right-laterally) were inventoried along the southern 50 km (Bombay Beach to Thermal) of the Coachella Valley Segment (CVS). Compilation of that survey, and current work indicate that the latest 5 events produced moderate offsets, averaging 3-4 meters from Durmid Hill (adjacent to the Salton Sea) through the central Indio Hills (adjacent to Palm Desert). Streams exhibiting cumulative offset of 15 to 18 meters are interpreted to record five events, with locally higher values obtained in the southern Mecca Hills and central Indio Hills. Stream displacements of 21 to 24 and 25 to 28 meters have been documented at a small number of sites. The presence of larger values, and absence of intervening values, indicates these events likely were characterized by offsets larger than 3-4 meters. Addressing the contribution to total offset from fault creep is especially important to characterize slip-per-event on the CVS, since creep contributes up to 20 to 30% of the long-term slip rate there (Sieh and Williams 1990). While creep probably can't be discriminated from seismic offset in geomorphic study of multi-event fault offsets, the consistency of field evidence indicates that creep may be a neutral or minor factor in interpreting the offset record: i.e., the surface slip in a given earthquake cycle, while a sum of seismic + postseismic surface slip, approximates total seismogenic slip at depth. In the present open interval, for example, the strongest signal for prior event slip is ~3.5m. 1-1.5m of this is presumed to be postseismic creep (ibid). Thus the latest seismic surface slip was probably about 2-2.5m, and the latest seismogenic rupture (at depth) was probably in the range of 3-3.5 m, and 1-1.5m of this occurred as postseismic slip plus creep at the surface. Prior event

  6. Data from geothermal gradient wells near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes drillers ' logs, temperature logs, and water quality analyses from geothermal tests made at 11 sites near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California. A map shows the locations of the wells and also included is the location-numbering system for wells. (USGS)

  7. Long-term sand supply to Coachella Valley Fringe-toed Lizard Habitat in the Northern Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Kaehler, Charles A.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    The Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) is a federally listed threatened species that inhabits active sand dunes in the vicinity of Palm Springs, California. The Whitewater Floodplain and Willow Hole Reserves provide some of the primary remaining habitat for this species. The sediment-delivery system that creates these active sand dunes consists of fluvial depositional areas fed episodically by ephemeral streams. Finer fluvial sediments (typically sand size and finer) are mobilized in a largely unidirectional wind field associated with strong westerly winds through San Gorgonio Pass. The fluvial depositional areas are primarily associated with floodplains of the Whitewater?San Gorgonio Rivers and Mission Creek?Morongo Wash; other small drainages also contribute fluvial sediment to the eolian system. The eolian dunes are transitory as a result of unidirectional sand movement from the depositional areas, which are recharged with fine-grained sediment only during episodic floods that typically occur during El Ni?o years. Eolian sand moves primarily from west to east through the study area; the period of maximum eolian activity is April through June. Wind speed varies diurnally, with maximum velocities typically occurring during the afternoon. Development of alluvial fans, alteration of stream channels by channelization, in-stream gravel mining, and construction of infiltration galleries were thought to reduce the amount of fluvial sediment reaching the depositional areas upwind of Uma habitat. Also, the presence of roadways, railroads, and housing developments was thought to disrupt or redirect eolian sand movement. Most of the sediment yield to the fluvial system is generated in higher elevation areas with little or no development, and sediment yield is affected primarily by climatic fluctuations and rural land use, particularly livestock grazing and wildfire. Channelization benefits sediment delivery to the depositional plains upwind of the reserves

  8. Examining Sources of Water in Springs, Wetlands, and Oases in Coachella Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Robertson, R.; Hibbs, B.; Kelliher, M.; Andrus, R.

    2007-12-01

    The All American and Coachella Canals were constructed in the 1930's to supply irrigation to the Imperial and Coachella Valleys. The diverted Colorado River water is the only source of water in the valleys, and an extensive series of wetlands have been created by leakage from the unlined portions of these canals. Although the wetlands were natural features prior to canal construction, their extent was limited due to minimal recharge. As of December of 2006 these canals have been completely lined which is predicted to decrease the flow to the wetlands and may affect the flora and fauna they have come to support. Samples were collected prior to the lining of the canal from June to October 2006 from several springs and well locations downgradient from Coachella canal to assess their geochemical and isotopic signatures for comparison to canal and native groundwater sources. Analysis of stable isotopes identified three distinct groups of water: one group consisting of nearly pure Canal water with delta 18O ranging from -11.3 to -11.7 per mille and delta 2H ranging from -84 to - 95 per mille, a second group consisting of nearly pure native groundwater with delta 18O ranging from -7.3 to -8.7 per mille and delta 2H ranging from -59.5 to -71 per mille, and a third group consisting of various mixtures of Canal and native groundwater with delta 18O ranging from -8.7 to -11.1 per mille and delta 2H ranging from -80 to -91 per mille. Minimal isotopic change has occurred in a sampling campaign conducted June, 2007. Continued monitoring of the isotopic and hydrochemical signature of the waters will reveal how quickly they might evolve toward that of native groundwater as a direct result of decreased recharge from the now lined Coachella Canal.

  9. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  10. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Fisher, Mark; Muth, Allan

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  11. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  12. Analog model study of the ground-water basin of the Upper Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyley, Stephen J.

    1974-01-01

    An analog model of the ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley was constructed to determine the effects of imported water on ground-water levels. The model was considered verified when the ground-water levels generated by the model approximated the historical change in water levels of the ground-water basin caused by man's activities for the period 1986-67. The ground-water basin was almost unaffected by man's activities until about 1945 when ground-water development caused the water levels to begin to decline. The Palm Springs area has had the largest water-level decline, 75 feet since 1986, because of large pumpage, reduced natural inflow from the San Gorgonio Pass area, and diversions of natural inflows at Snow and Falls Creeks and Chino Canyon starting in 1945. The San Gorgonio Pass inflow had been reduced from about 18,000 acre-feet in 1986 to about 9,000 acre-feet by 1967 because of increased ground-water pumpage in the San Gorgonio Pass area, dewatering of the San Gorgonio Pass area that took place when the tunnel for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was drilled, and diversions of surface inflow at Snow and Falls Creeks. In addition, 1944-64 was a period of below-normal precipitation which, in part, contributed to the declines in water levels in the Coachella Valley. The Desert Hot Springs, Garnet Hill, and Mission Creek subbasins have had relatively little development; consequently, the water-level declines have been small, ranging from 5 to 15 feet since 1986. In the Point Happy area a decline of about 2 feet per year continued until 1949 when delivery of Colorado River water to the lower valley through the Coachella Canal was initiated. Since 1949 the water levels in the Point Happy area have been rising and by 1967 were above their 1986 levels. The Whitewater River subbasin includes the largest aquifer in the basin, having sustained ground-water pumpage of about 740,000 acre-feet from 1986 to 1967, and will probably

  13. Anomalous record of October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley, California, earthquake from Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bycroft, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    A recording obtained at the Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4 of the October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley earthquake shows a dominant 2 Hz frequency. This feature is very unusual and an attempt has been made to determine if the recording is real or spurious. As the pumping station is a small heavily constructed bunker type of structure located on material of low shear wave velocity it was considered likely that soil-structure interaction might be responsible for the 2 Hz component. However, both an experimental and theoretical investigation fail to establish this. This report describes the theoretical investigation. The experimental investigation is described in a separate open-file report.

  14. Paleomagnetic Determination of Vertical-Axis Block Rotation and Magnetostratigraphy in the Coachella Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitroff, C.; Housen, B. A.; McNabb, J. C.; Dorsey, R. J.; Burmester, R. F.; Messe, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    sites is D = 11, I = 49, k=51, a95=11. The paleomagnetic results from the Coachella Valley collectively indicate that this area has experienced modest (in most cases less than 10 degrees) CW or CCW rotation during the past 1-2 Ma. The lack of variation in amount or sense of rotation as a function of age suggest that rotation has been relatively recent (during the past ~ 1 Ma).

  15. Deposition of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide following aerial ultra-low volume applications in the Coachella Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, H D; Huang, H Z; Lothrop, B B; Gee, S; Gomsi, D E; Reisen, W K

    2007-06-01

    Data on adulticide deposition were collected during studies optimizing aerial ultra-low volume applications and droplet size in the desert environment of the Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California. Pyrenone 25-5 and BVA Spray 13 oil were applied by a single-engine, fixed wing aircraft equipped with 2 Micronair AU5000 atomizers. Data recorded by a portable weather station documented that weather conditions were suitable for application. Adulticide residue was collected using 24-cm-diameter filter papers positioned along 2-3 transects, with 3 positive controls held outside of the treated zone. The trace amounts of 2 major insecticidal components (pyrethrin I and II) and the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were detected from samples near the center of the spray zone by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); pyrethrin deposition was highest at the center, 156 microg/m2, and it was not detectable 60 m beyond the center of the transect, whereas PBO deposition was 5,000 microg/m2 at the center but was not detectable beyond 150 m. Droplet diameters on spinning Teflon slides were larger than expected for the rated output of the atomizers. For these single swath trials, the lack of swath overlap due to drift resulted in low mortality in sentinel mosquitoes. Detection of residues was limited to the centroid of droplet densities on spinning glass slides and with mortality among sentinel mosquitoes, indicating HPLC may be useful in detecting postspray residues. PMID:17847856

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  17. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Stork, Sylvia V.; Ikehara, Marti E.

    2002-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. The location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in Coachella Valley between 1998 and 2000 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements made at 15 geodetic monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that -34 to +60 millimeters ? 45 millimeters (-0.11 to +0.20 foot ? 0.15 foot) of vertical change in the land surface occurred during the 2-year period. Changes at three of the monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ? 45 millimeters (? 0.15 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, which indicates that small amounts of uplift occurred at these monuments between October 1998 and August 2000. Water-level measurements made at wells near the three uplifted monuments during this 2-year period indicate that the water levels fluctuate seasonally; water-level measurements made at these wells in September 1998 and September 2000 indicate that the water levels rose slightly near two monuments and declined slightly near the third. The relation between the seasonally fluctuating, but fairly stable, water levels between

  18. 3-D Velocity Model of the Coachella Valley, Southern California Based on Explosive Shots from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed explosive shot data from the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) across a 2-D seismic array and 5 profiles in the Coachella Valley to produce a 3-D P-wave velocity model that will be used in calculations of strong ground shaking. Accurate maps of seismicity and active faults rely both on detailed geological field mapping and a suitable velocity model to accurately locate earthquakes. Adjoint tomography of an older version of the SCEC 3-D velocity model shows that crustal heterogeneities strongly influence seismic wave propagation from moderate earthquakes (Tape et al., 2010). These authors improve the crustal model and subsequently simulate the details of ground motion at periods of 2 s and longer for hundreds of ray paths. Even with improvements such as the above, the current SCEC velocity model for the Salton Trough does not provide a match of the timing or waveforms of the horizontal S-wave motions, which Wei et al. (2013) interpret as caused by inaccuracies in the shallow velocity structure. They effectively demonstrate that the inclusion of shallow basin structure improves the fit in both travel times and waveforms. Our velocity model benefits from the inclusion of known location and times of a subset of 126 shots detonated over a 3-week period during the SSIP. This results in an improved velocity model particularly in the shallow crust. In addition, one of the main challenges in developing 3-D velocity models is an uneven stations-source distribution. To better overcome this challenge, we also include the first arrival times of the SSIP shots at the more widely spaced Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) in our inversion, since the layout of the SSIP is complementary to the SCSN. References: Tape, C., et al., 2010, Seismic tomography of the Southern California crust based on spectral-element and adjoint methods: Geophysical Journal International, v. 180, no. 1, p. 433-462. Wei, S., et al., 2013, Complementary slip distributions

  19. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, Falk

    2001-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley, resulting in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels from the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, the demand for water in the valley has exceeded the deliveries of imported surface water, again resulting in increased pumping and ground-water-level declines. The magnitude and temporal occurrence of land subsidence in the lower Coachella Valley are not well known; data are sparse and accuracy varies. Also, the area is tectonically active and has subsided during the past several million years, which further complicates interpretations of the data. Land-surface-elevation data have been collected by many agencies using various methods and different geographic scales; because of this, the -150 millimeters (-0.5 foot) of subsidence determined for the southern parts of the valley for 1930-96 may have a possible error of plus or minus (?)90 millimeters (?0.3 foot). The location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements for 14 monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that the vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 ranged from -13 to -67 millimeters ? 40 millimeters (-0.04 to -0.22 foot ?0.13 foot). Changes at seven of the monuments exceeded the measurement error of ?40 millimeters (?0.13 foot), which indicates that small amounts of land subsidence occurred at these monuments between 1996 and 1998. Some of the water levels measured

  20. Reinvestigating the Mission Creek Fault: Holocene slip rates in the northern Coachella Valley and implications for southern California earthquake hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wersan, Louis Samuel

    Near San Gorgonio Pass the San Andreas fault zone encounters a structural knot which causes strain to be distributed regionally onto the San Jacinto fault and Eastern California Shear Zone and locally onto a series of evolving fault strands. Each strand was activated and subsequently abandoned as it became locked; current interpretations show that the Mission Creek fault was the dominant strand in the early Pleistocene before being abandoned in favor of the presently active Banning fault. Recent slip rate investigations along the Mission Creek fault have challenged this interpretation, however, and motivate new studies into strain distribution through San Gorgonio Pass and mechanisms of strain transfer to the Eastern California Shear Zone. It is therefore essential to establish an accurate Holocene slip rate on the Mission Creek fault and revisit current interpretations of San Andreas fault zone kinematics. In support of this goal, detailed fault and quaternary unit mapping was conducted in two field areas along the Mission Creek fault in the northern Coachella Valley. Separated by ˜3 km, the two field areas allow for characterization of along-strike changes in Mission Creek fault behavior and interaction with regional faults. Nineteen samples were collected from dextrally offset landforms for Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) dating. TCN dating measures the total concentration of in situ produced 10Be, which is proportional to exposure age of the surface. TCN surface dates therefore provide the age constraint for accurate Holocene-Late Quaternary slip rate analysis. Dated surfaces within Big Morongo Canyon field area yield preliminary TCN ages of 8 ka and 20 ka in locations that record 88-97 m and 31-37 m of dextral displacement, respectively. Based on the calculated dates and measured offsets, local slip rates are calculated to be 11.4-14.0 mm/yr, which is significantly faster than previously estimated rates on the Mission Creek fault in the northern

  1. Geodetic constraints on vertical tectonic deformation in the Coachella and San Bernardino Valleys from InSAR and well level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, B. A.; Schmidt, D.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the relationship of InSAR observations and groundwater levels for the Coachella and San Bernardino Valleys, CA. Surface deformation in both valleys is induced by seasonal and long-term changes in groundwater levels such that tectonic signals are largely obscured. Our objective is to identify and remove any seasonal and anthropogenic signals from the InSAR data set at selected sites, thereby revealing the tectonic signal related to interseismic strain accumulation. Interferograms from 1993 to 2000 are produced from ERS1/2. We also present preliminary ENVISAT interferograms from 2003-2006. InSAR and well level data sets are compared to demonstrate where seasonal and long-term signals are induced by groundwater fluctuations. Where data sets are consistent, we invert for the elastic coefficient and vertical tectonic deformation rates at the well locations. We explore the vertical uplift rates within the basins and fault junctions based on simple elastic dislocation models. In the Coachella Valley we observe long-term residual subsidence with a stack of 23 interferograms from 1993-2000, chosen for their minimal atmospheric contamination. Near Indio, a maximum vertical subsidence rate of 9 mm/yr is observed during this seven year period. We produce an InSAR timeseries with the same set of interferograms, in which we observe a maximum annual seasonal oscillation up to 21 mm. Generally, surface elevation inferred from InSAR correlates with groundwater levels. However, we occasionally observe discrepancies in the data sets for several locations. We investigate potential causes for these discrepancies including temporary increase in artificial and natural recharge, aquifer partitioning, and tectonic events. In the San Bernardino Valley, long-term uplift on the order of 4 mm/yr from 1995-2000 is observed with a stack of 30 interferograms. The InSAR timeseries reveals a maximum annual seasonal oscillation for this period up to 10.5 mm. Our investigation of the

  2. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System Surveying and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin T.

    2007-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coachella Valley, California, since 1996. Ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley since the early 1920s. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the southern Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in the southern Coachella Valley. GPS measurements made at 13 geodetic monuments in 1996 and in 2005 in the southern Coachella Valley indicate that the elevation of the land surface had a net decline of 333 to 22 millimeters ?58 millimeters (1.1 to 0.07 foot ?0.19 foot) during the 9-year period. Changes at 10 of the 13 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?58 millimeters (?0.19 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between June 1996 and August 2005. GPS measurements made at 20 geodetic monuments in 2000 and in 2005 indicate that the elevation of the land surface changed -312 to +25 millimeters ?42 millimeters (-1.0 to +0.08 foot ?0.14 foot) during the 5-year period. Changes at 14 of the 20 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?42 millimeters (?0.14 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at

  3. The weakness of tight ties: why scientists almost destroyed the Coachella Valley multispecies habitat conservation plan in order to save it.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bruce Evan

    2010-08-01

    Two groups of biologists were responsible for an unprecedented delay in completing a endangered species habitat conservation plan in the Coachella Valley of southern California. While antagonism grew as each group relentlessly promoted their perspective on whether to add a few areas to the habitat preserve, their inability to resolve their differences was not simply a matter of mistrust or poor facilitation. I analyze how these biologists practiced science in a way that supported specific institutional and ecological relationships that in turn provided a setting in which each group's biological expertise was meaningful, credible, and useful. This tight coupling between scientific practice and society meant that something was more important to these scientists than finishing the plan. For both factions of biologists, ensuring the survival of native species in the valley rested on their ability to catalyze institutional relationships that were compatible with their scientific practice. Understanding this co-production of science and the social order is a first step toward effectively incorporating different experts in negotiation and implementation of technically complex collaborative agreements. PMID:20614119

  4. The Weakness of Tight Ties: Why Scientists Almost Destroyed the Coachella Valley Multispecies Habitat Conservation Plan in Order to Save it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Bruce Evan

    2010-08-01

    Two groups of biologists were responsible for an unprecedented delay in completing a endangered species habitat conservation plan in the Coachella Valley of southern California. While antagonism grew as each group relentlessly promoted their perspective on whether to add a few areas to the habitat preserve, their inability to resolve their differences was not simply a matter of mistrust or poor facilitation. I analyze how these biologists practiced science in a way that supported specific institutional and ecological relationships that in turn provided a setting in which each group’s biological expertise was meaningful, credible, and useful. This tight coupling between scientific practice and society meant that something was more important to these scientists than finishing the plan. For both factions of biologists, ensuring the survival of native species in the valley rested on their ability to catalyze institutional relationships that were compatible with their scientific practice. Understanding this co-production of science and the social order is a first step toward effectively incorporating different experts in negotiation and implementation of technically complex collaborative agreements.

  5. Constraints on Shallow Crustal Structure across the San Andreas Fault Zone, Coachella Valley, Southern California: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, A.; Persaud, P.; Bauer, K.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strong influence of basin structure and crustal heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation suggests that these factors should be included in calculations of strong ground shaking. Knowledge of the shallow subsurface is thus essential for an accurate seismic hazard estimate for the densely populated Coachella Valley, the region north of the potential M7.8 rupture near the Salton Sea. Using SSIP data, we analyzed first arrivals from nine 65-911 kg explosive shots recorded along a profile in the Coachella Valley in order to evaluate the interpretation of our 2D tomographic results and give added details on the structural complexity of the shallow crust. The line extends 37 km from the Peninsular Ranges to the Little San Bernardino Mountains crossing the major strands of the San Andreas Fault Zone. We fit traveltime curves to our picks with forward modeling ray tracing, and determined 1D P-wave velocity models for traveltime arrivals east and west of each shot, and a 2D model for the line. We also inferred the geometry of near-vertical faults from the pre-stack line migration method of Bauer et al. (2013). In general, the 1D models east of individual shots have deeper basement contacts and lower apparent velocities, ~5 km/s at 4 km depth, whereas the models west of individual shots have shallower basement and velocities up to 6 km/s at 2 km depth. Mismatches in basement depths (assuming 5-6 km/s) between individual 1D models indicate a shallowly dipping basement, deepening eastward towards the Banning Fault and shoaling abruptly farther east. An east-dipping structure in the 2D model also gives a better fit than horizontal layers. Based on high velocity zones derived from traveltimes at 9-20 km from the western end of the line, we included an offset from ~2 km to 4 km depth near the middle of the line, which significantly improved the 2D model fit. If fault-related, this offset could represent the Garnet Hill Fault if it continues southward in the subsurface.

  6. Geophysical and hydrogeologic investigations of two primary alluvial aquifers embedded in the southern San Andreas fault system: San Bernardino basin and upper Coachella Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, Beth Ann

    This study of alluvial aquifer basins in southern California is centered on observations of differential surface displacement and the search for the mechanisms of deformation. The San Bernardino basin and the Upper Coachella Valley aquifers are bound by range fronts and fault segments of the southern San Andreas fault system. I have worked to quantify long-term compaction in these groundwater dependent population centers with a unique synthesis of data and methodologies using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and groundwater data. My dissertation contributes to the understanding of alluvial aquifer heterogeneity and partitioning. I model hydrogeologic and tectonic interpretations of deformation where decades of overdraft conditions and ongoing aquifer development contribute to extreme rapid subsidence. I develop the Hydrogeologic InSAR Integration (HII) method for the characterization of surface deformation in aquifer basins. The method allows for the separation of superimposed hydraulic and/or tectonic processes in operation. This formalization of InSAR and groundwater level integration provides opportunities for application in other aquifer basins where overdraft conditions may be causing permanent loss of aquifer storage capacity through compaction. Sixteen years of SAR data for the Upper Coachella Valley exhibit rapid vertical surface displacement (≤ 48mm/a) in sharply bound areas of the western basin margin. Using well driller logs, I categorize a generalized facies analysis of the western basin margin, describing heterogeneity of the aquifer. This allowed for assessment of the relationships between observed surface deformation and sub-surface material properties. Providing the setting and context for the hydrogeologic evolution of California's primary aquifers, the mature San Andreas transform fault is studied extensively by a broad range of geoscientists. I present a compilation of observations of creep, line integrals across the Pacific

  7. Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Lindsay A.

    1978-01-01

    From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  9. Hydrogeochemical overview and natural arsenic occurrence in groundwater from alpine springs (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Reyes, Fredy Alexander; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations (up to 230 μg/L) have been historically observed (since 1999) in the upper Valtellina valley groundwater (UVV, central Italian Alps), and measured in samples collected during four campaigns of one full hydrological year (summer 2012-summer 2013). During these campaigns, water has been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by Ca-Mg and SO4-HCO3 main ions, with seasonal variations for the second end members; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) dominant oxidizing conditions have been observed for most of the cold and for the thermal springs; (5) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 μg/L; (6) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold ones. These conditions suggest that the latter belong to recent hydrochemical immature aquifers, where the presence of arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulfide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprising of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  10. Changes in fish communities following concrete lining of the Coachella Canal, southeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon; Bryant, Gary; Burke, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The fish community of a 3.4-km section of the concrete-lined Coachella Canal, Imperial County, California, was comprised of six species, with an absolute density of 0.039 fish/m2 and estimated biomass of 4.367 g/m2. When compared to studies conducted in the canal prior to lining, or in other unlined areas, these data suggest reductions in species diversity (-14.3 to -62.5%), density (+8.9 to =83.8%), and biomass (-30.1 to -91.2%). These data support speculations that numbers of river-adapted fish would remain relatively high in a concrete-lined canal, but lentic and cover-oriented fishes such as centrarchis would decline.

  11. Valley Fever

    MedlinePlus

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  12. Imperial Valley and Salton Sea, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's Salton Sea is a prominent visual for astronauts. This large lake supports the rich agricultural fields of the Imperial, Coachella and Mexicali Valleys in the California and Mexico desert. The Salton Sea formed by accident in 1905 when an irrigation canal ruptured, allowing the Colorado River to flood the Salton Basin. Today the Sea performs an important function as the sink for agricultural runoff; water levels are maintained by the runoff from the surrounding agricultural valleys. The Salton Sea salinity is high-nearly 1/4 saltier than ocean water-but it remains an important stopover point for migratory water birds, including several endangered species. The region also experiences several environmental problems. The recent increased demands for the limited Colorado River water threatens the amount of water allowed to flow into the Salton Sea. Increased salinity and decreased water levels could trigger several regional environmental crises. The agricultural flow into the Sea includes nutrients and agricultural by-products, increasing the productivity and likelihood of algae blooms. This image shows either a bloom, or suspended sediment (usually highly organic) in the water that has been stirred up by winds. Additional information: The Salton Sea A Brief Description of Its Current Conditions, and Potential Remediation Projects and Land Use Across the U.S.-Mexico Border Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5224 was taken by the STS-111 Space Shuttle crew that recently returned from the International Space Station. The image was taken June 12, 2002 using a digital camera. The image was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  13. Meridiani Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks and the traces of valleys that were once underneath those rocks in northwestern Sinus Meridiani.

    Location near: 4.5oN, 2.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  14. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Valley Divide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03664 Valley Divide

    These small channels join to become Sabis Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.3N, Longitude 159.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Valley polarization in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  17. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  18. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  19. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  20. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that would bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the Nation's efforts to prevent a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects are underway to increase our knowledge of Earth processes in the area and to mitigate the effects of such an event. One such project is the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), which is a collaborative venture between the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). This project will generate and record seismic waves that travel through the crust and upper mantle of the Salton Trough. With these data, we will construct seismic images of the subsurface, both reflection and tomographic images. These images will contribute to the earthquake-hazard assessment in southern California by helping to constrain fault locations, sedimentary basin thickness and geometry, and sedimentary seismic velocity distributions. Data acquisition is currently scheduled for winter and spring of 2011. The design and goals of SSIP resemble those of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) of the 1990's. LARSE focused on examining the San Andreas Fault system and associated thrust-fault systems of the Transverse Ranges. LARSE was successful in constraining the geometry of the San Andreas Fault at depth and in relating this geometry to mid-crustal, flower-structure-like decollements in the Transverse Ranges that splay upward into the network of hazardous thrust faults that caused the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1987 M 5

  1. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  2. Ariel's transecting valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This highest-resolution Voyager 2 view of Ariel's terminator shows a complex array of transecting valleys with super-imposed impact craters. Voyager obtained this clear-filter, narrow-angle view from a distance of 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) and with a resolution of about 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Particularly striking to Voyager scientists is the fact that the faults that bound the linear valleys are not visible where they transect one another across the valleys. Apparently these valleys were filled with deposits sometime after they were formed by tectonic processes, leaving them flat and smooth. Sinuous rilles (trenches) later formed, probably by some flow process. Some type of fluid flow may well have been involved in their evolution. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  3. Lily of the valley

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the valley poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  4. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  5. 76 FR 39261 - Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 18 CFR Part 1301 Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Tennessee Valley Authority is amending its regulations which...

  6. Interseismic Strain Accumulation in the Imperial Valley and Implications for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2009-12-01

    From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear strain, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed strain field to that computed using the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic strain transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear strain rate of 0.7 μstrain/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the southern Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the southern San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.

  7. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  8. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  9. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  10. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  11. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  12. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  13. Valley South of Cerberus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-413, 6 July 2003

    To date, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle system has only imaged about 3% of the martian surface. Thus, a new discovery can come at any time, as additional places are covered every day. This MOC image shows a portion of a shallow valley south of Cerberus that was just discovered in April 2003. The valley may have been cut but torrents of mud-laden water; alternatively, an extremely fluid lava was involved. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the left. North is toward the top/upper right. The picture is located near 4.6oN, 204.3oW.

  14. The Owens Valley LWA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallinan, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Owens Valley LWA is a new array of 256 dual polarization antennas at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). It hosts the LEDA correlator, which provides full cross-correlation capability and enables instantaneous snapshot imaging of most of the viewable sky, as well as a dedicated back-end for transient searching. Developed in collaboration between Caltech, JPL and the LEDA and LWA consortia, the array targets the 28-88 MHz band with primary focus on high redshift HI (Dark Ages), radio transients (particularly radio exoplanets), solar dynamic imaging spectroscopy and measurement of coronal magnetic fields, and production of a full-Stokes, low frequency, all-sky catalog. The array comprises a 230m diameter dense core and outriggers at 365m capable of imaging with a resolution of 1 degree. Over the next 12 months, 32 additional antennas will be installed, powered by solar panels and serviced by optical fiber, with the goal of delivering instantaneous all-sky images with ~10' resolution. The associated data rate for the latter array will be extremely large, at 1.5 GB per integration, corresponding to 45,000 baselines x 4 polarizations x 2000 channels (60 MHz). Our collaboration is also working towards a much larger next generation array for study of HI and transients, sited at or near the Owens Valley observatory. I will briefly discuss some of the related ongoing technical development and data processing challenges.

  15. Hudson Valley Fog Environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjaprald, David R.; Garland Lala, G.

    1989-12-01

    Observations of 14 cases of radiation fog in the Hudson River valley in New York State are presented. Our emphasis is to connect the fog prediction problem to mechanisms in the nocturnal boundary layer that influence heat and moisture balances. Surface layer and boundary layer fogs are distinguished by the difference in dominant terms in the saturation specific humidity deficit budget. Fogs that persist longer than approximately 30 minutes are most frequently thicker than 50 m. The ultimate depth to which the fog grows is shown to be determined by initial conditions at sunset and by subsequent evolution of winds in the nocturnal boundary layer, as well as by surface transports and radiative cooling. Estimates of the surface and boundary layer heat budget are presented. Two new phenomena are identified: 1) A jump in specific humidity occurring during the early evening transition that shortens the time required to reach surface layer saturation; and 2) along-valley jetlike winds with maxima near 100 m altitude are shown to be frequent and their occurrence is associated with a threshold value of the along-valley surface pressure gradient. Such jets appear to have an important influence on deep fog, increasing or decreasing its likelihood depending on the sign of heat and moisture advection they associate with.

  16. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  17. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  18. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  19. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58... Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  20. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  1. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  2. Long Valley caldera GIS Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. J.; Battaglia, M.; Hill, D.; Langbein, J.; Segall, P.

    2002-12-01

    In May of 1980, a strong earthquake swarm that included four magnitude 6 earthquakes struck the southern margin of Long Valley Caldera associated with a 25-cm, dome-shaped uplift of the caldera floor. These events marked the onset of the latest period of caldera unrest that continues to this day. This ongoing unrest includes recurring earthquake swarms and continued dome-shaped uplift of the central section of the caldera (the resurgent dome) accompanied by changes in thermal springs and gas emissions. Analysis of combined gravity and geodetic data confirms the intrusion of silicic magma beneath Long Valley caldera. In 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey under the Volcano Hazards Program began an intensive effort to monitor and study geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera. This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in Eastern California from 1975 to 2000. The database includes geological, monitoring and topographic datasets related to the Long Valley Caldera, plus a number of USGS publications on Long Valley (e.g., fact-sheets, references). Datasets are available as text files or ArcView shapefiles. Database CD-ROM Table of Contents: - Geological data (digital geologic map) - Monitoring data: Deformation (EDM, GPS, Leveling); Earthquakes; Gravity; Hydrologic; CO2 - Topographic data: DEM, DRG, Landsat 7, Rivers, Roads, Water Bodies - ArcView Project File

  3. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-03-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  4. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  5. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  6. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-09-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  7. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  8. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  9. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  10. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  11. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Redwood Valley viticultural area is located in the east central interior portion of Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the Redwood Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points...

  12. The Pioneer Valley Studies Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabeck, Bernard A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Greenfield Community College's Pioneer Valley Studies Summer Institute, which offers elementary and secondary school teachers in-depth exposure to the history, literature, science, art, and architecture of Pioneer Valley, Massachusetts. (DMM)

  13. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  14. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  15. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  16. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  17. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  18. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  19. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  20. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  1. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  2. 27 CFR 9.105 - Cumberland Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cumberland Valley. 9.105... Cumberland Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Cumberland Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Cumberland...

  3. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  4. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  5. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  6. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  7. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L; Wang, B G; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  8. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-08-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics.

  9. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  10. Integrated Modeling of Water Policy Futures in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelland, M. K.; Forster, C. B.; Grant, W. E.; Collins, K.

    2004-12-01

    Divided by an international border, the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) are linked by shared history, natural resources, culture and economy. This region is experiencing changes driven by policy makers both within and outside the IMVs. The largest external decision, the Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003, opens the door to a laboratory for studying the consequences of a massive transfer of agricultural water to municipal users. Two irrigation districts, two urban water agencies and the State of California have agreed to a 75 year of more than 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from agricultural to urban use. Although Imperial Valley farmers will be compensated for water conservation and land fallowing, the economic, environmental and social consequences are unclear. Farmers who fallow will likely cause a greater impact on local businesses and government than those choosing on-field water conservation. Reduced agricultural water use causes reduced flow of irrigation runoff, at higher salinity than before, to the Salton Sea that, in turn, impacts the population dynamics of Ichthyan and Avian species at the Salton Sea. Municipal wastewater discharged into the New River by Mexicali, Mexico is also an important source of inflow to the Salton Sea that will be reduce by plans to reclaim the wastewater for various uses, including cooling water for two new power plants in the Mexicali. A restoration program is funded to produce a Sea with much reduced surface area. But this approach may, in turn, lead to increases in windblown dust from the dry lakebed that will contribute to an air basin already designated as a federal nonattainment area for particulate emissions. Additional water will be conserved by lining the All American and Coachella canals. But, eliminating seepage from the All American canal reduces groundwater recharge to aquifers used by Mexican farmers. A complex interplay of water-related issues must be accounted for if

  11. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  12. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, and Tri-State Generation and...

  13. Morphology and downslope sediment displacement in a deep-sea valley, the Valencia Valley (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Valencia Valley is a Quaternary, 200 km long deep-sea valley in the Valencia Trough, Western Mediterranean Sea. A swathmapping survey approximately mid-way along the valley length, where the floor has an average gradient of 1:250 (0.2??), shows valley walls that rise 200 to 350 m above the valley floor, with slopes of 2 to 18??. Sediment forming the walls is undergoing retrogressive, upslope-directed slumping with increasing bedding disruption along steeper walls. The valley exhibits a winding course with steep outer and gentler inner walls around bends, and bedforms on the valley floor. Lateral migration around bends is less than 5 km and the valley is deeply entrenched into Quaternary-bedded sediments. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  15. Structure of Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    In 1976, the second oil field in Nevada - Trap Springs - was discovered in Railroad Valley. Since then, more than 100 oil wells have been drilled in Nye County, and most of these have been in Railroad Valley. This well-control helped to unravel the complex structure of Railroad Valley and enabled the construction of more accurate maps of this valley than any other. This information can be used to construct models for exploring other valleys in the Basin and Range Province of eastern Nevada. The basic stratigraphy of the valley consists of Paleozoic carbonates and shales overlain by Tertiary volcanics, overlain, in turn, by valley fill. The areal extent of Tertiary volcanics, which can be a good reservoir rock, is controlled by tensional normal faulting and paleotopography. In some areas, these volcanics can be in excess of 5000 ft thick, but absent within a few miles, owing to paleotopography and/or faulting. The Paleozoic rocks are deformed by a pre-basin and range compressional history that folded and faulted them. As a result, the structure within the Paleozoics is more complex. Thrust faulting played an important role in the deformation of these rocks. Crystalline basement rocks can be found juxtaposed between Paleozoic outcrops in the flanks of the valley, and Paleozoic rocks found in well control farther out in the valley. The geothermal history of Railroad Valley plays an important role in constructing a structural map of the valley, taking into account the Mesozoic thrust faulting and Tertiary normal faulting. Air photos, combined with good well control and published reports, assist in mapping the geologic structure in Railroad Valley.

  16. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  17. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  18. Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthes, Francois E.

    1930-01-01

    Projection of the longitudinal profiles of these hanging valleys forward to the axis of the Merced Canyon shows that they are closely accordant in height. Their profiles indicate a series of points on a former profile of the Merced with respect to which the side streams had graded their courses prior to the last uplift. This old profile can be extended upward into the glaciated part of the Merced Canyon above El Portal and even into the profoundly glaciated Yosemite Valley, accordant points being furnished by a number of hanging side valleys (due allowance being made for glacial erosion suffered by those valleys). However, not all the hanging valleys of the Yosemite region are accordant with this set. Several of them, including the upland valley of Yosemite Creek, constitute a separate set indicating another old profile of the Merced at a level 600 to 1,000 feet higher than the first. Others, including the hanging gulch of lower Bridalveil Creek, point to an old profile of the Merced about 1,200 feet lower than the first. There are thus three distinct sets of hanging valleys produced in three cycles of stream erosion. The valleys of the upper set, like those of the middle set, were left hanging as a result of rapid trenching by the Merced induced by an uplift of the range, there having been two such uplifts. Only the valleys of the lower set hang because of glacial deepening and widening of the Yosemite Valley, the cycle in which they were cut having been interrupted by the advent of the Pleistocene glaciers. They consequently indicate the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley. That depth, measured from the brow of El Capitan, was about 2,400 feet; measured from the rim at Glacier Point it was about 2,000 feet.

  19. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  20. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 27 CFR 9.153 - Redwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Redwood Valley. 9.153 Section 9.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.153 Redwood Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  2. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82 Section 9.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  3. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anderson Valley. 9.86 Section 9.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.86 Anderson Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  4. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leona Valley. 9.212...) Approved maps. The four United States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Leona Valley viticultural area are titled: (1) Ritter Ridge, Calif.,...

  5. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  6. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  7. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  8. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  9. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  10. 27 CFR 9.142 - Bennett Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bennett Valley. 9.142... Bennett Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bennett Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Bennett...

  11. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  13. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  14. The San Joaquin Valley: 20 years later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of irrigation development and the need for disposal of saline drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley was described to provide background for the drainage water disposal problem that resulted from the closure of the Kesterson Reservoir. A 5 year study developed in Valley alternatives fo...

  15. Desegregation in the South San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rodolfo G.

    Notably isolated from the large metropolitan centers by geography and predominantly agricultural in its economy, Kern County is California's third largest county in land area. About one-third of the county is situated on the flat valley floor at the extreme southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. The area relies heavily on Chicano and Black manual…

  16. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  17. Valley Vortex States in Sonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-03-01

    Valleytronics is quickly emerging as an exciting field in fundamental and applied research. In this Letter, we study the acoustic version of valley states in sonic crystals and reveal a vortex nature of such states. In addition to the selection rules established for exciting valley polarized states, a mimicked valley Hall effect of sound is proposed further. The extraordinary chirality of valley vortex states, detectable in experiments, may open a new possibility in sound manipulations. This is appealing to scalar acoustics that lacks a spin degree of freedom inherently. In addition, the valley selection enables a handy way to create vortex matter in acoustics, in which the vortex chirality can be controlled flexibly. Potential applications can be anticipated with the exotic interaction of acoustic vortices with matter, such as to trigger the rotation of the trapped microparticles without contact.

  18. The Long Valley Caldera GIS database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Williams, M.J.; Venezky, D.Y.; Hill, D.P.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Howle, J.F.; Sneed, M.; Segall, P.

    2003-01-01

    This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in eastern California from 1975 to 2001. The database includes geologic, monitoring, and topographic datasets related to Long Valley caldera. The CD-ROM contains a scan of the original geologic map of the Long Valley region by R. Bailey. Real-time data of the current activity of the caldera (including earthquakes, ground deformation and the release of volcanic gas), information about volcanic hazards and the USGS response plan are available online at the Long Valley observatory web page (http://lvo.wr.usgs.gov). If you have any comments or questions about this database, please contact the Scientist in Charge of the Long Valley observatory.

  19. Josephson π state induced by valley polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Y. H.; Chan, K. S.

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically explore possible π-state Josephson junctions made from graphene-like two-dimensional materials (G) with the honeycomb lattice structure. It is shown that the valley polarization in the G sheet could lead to a 0-π state transition of the Josephson junction because of the valley-singlet Cooper pairs acquiring a nonzero momentum. When the valley-mixing scattering exists in the interfaces of the junction due to lattice mismatch, an odd-frequency valley-triplet supercurrent flows in the system even though the G sheet is fully valley polarized, and the supercurrent is characterized by a rapid atomic-scale oscillation with a periodicity of three lattice constants.

  20. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  1. There's hope in the valley.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Elizabeth; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen

    2012-03-01

    Aboriginal women in the remote Fitzroy Valley region in Western Australia's Kimberley were concerned about high rates of alcohol use in pregnancy and its possible impact on child development. They successfully lobbied for restricted access to alcohol in 2007. In 2009 they developed a strategy for the diagnosis and prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and the support of parents and carers of affected children. Aboriginal organisations then partnered with research and clinical groups from Sydney to conduct a FASD prevalence study. This commenced in 2010 following extensive community consultation and receipt of community consent. Data from this study are still being collected and will be used by the community to advocate for improved services and new models of health care. Prevention of FASD is important to optimise health and development for future generations of Aboriginal children and to ensure the transfer of culture and language from one generation to the next. PMID:22417462

  2. 40 CFR 51.1103 - Application of classification and attainment date provisions in CAA section 181 of subpart 2 to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...—Ventura County, CA; Severe—Los Angeles-San Bernardino Counties (West Mojave Desert), Riverside County (Coachella Valley), and Sacramento Metro, CA; Extreme—Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin, and San...

  3. 40 CFR 51.1103 - Application of classification and attainment date provisions in CAA section 181 of subpart 2 to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...—Ventura County, CA; Severe—Los Angeles-San Bernardino Counties (West Mojave Desert), Riverside County (Coachella Valley), and Sacramento Metro, CA; Extreme—Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin, and San...

  4. Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.

    1992-03-24

    As was stated by the first presenter, the Long Valley Exploratory Well represents a vital linking of geothermal theory, technology and applications. The five presenters take us through that linking to the extent the current progress at the well makes that possible. The site is, of course, a geothermally rich resource, a ''recently active'' caldera. In many ways, the site has a wealth of data preceding the present work. It is a site which has excited the interest of the geothermal community for a long time. As is often the case in geothermal work, the prior data has raised as many questions as were answered. It is on this basis that the further exploration of a probable high temperature resource is being explored to great depths. The first presentation represents the cooperation and coordination maintained between similar elements of the Basic Energy Sciences programs and those in the Geothermal programs of DOE's Conservation and Renewable Energy activities. Similarly, the work exemplifies the close coordination of the DOE work with the U. S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the U. S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The first presentation also represents the theoretical and modeling portion of the session. Appropriate to geothermal technology, the central programmatic theme is geophysical and geochemical aspects of fluid flow and interaction in porous and fractured rocks. It was interesting to note that even the theoretical work and modeling addressed the applicability to earth-based energy resources, and as well their utilization in a manner such as to assure environmental acceptability. Topics addressed included: (1) fundamental properties and interactions of rocks, mineral, and fluids; (2) transport and flow of fluids in rocks; and (3) structure of geologic units. The session continued with the description of the Phase II operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well. The drilling operations were described as relatively trouble

  5. Anomalously robust valley polarization and valley coherence in bilayer WS2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bairen; Zeng, Hualing; Dai, Junfeng; Gong, Zhirui; Cui, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation of anomalously robust valley polarization and valley coherence in bilayer WS2. The polarization of the photoluminescence from bilayer WS2 follows that of the excitation source with both circular and linear polarization, and remains even at room temperature. The near-unity circular polarization of the luminescence reveals the coupling of spin, layer, and valley degree of freedom in bilayer system, and the linearly polarized photoluminescence manifests quantum coherence between the two inequivalent band extrema in momentum space, namely, the valley quantum coherence in atomically thin bilayer WS2. This observation provides insight into quantum manipulation in atomically thin semiconductors. PMID:25071178

  6. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to...

  7. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... series (topographic). (c) Boundaries. The Potter Valley viticultural area is located in Mendocino County... 36 and southwest corner of quadrant 32 (a point where Mendocino and Lake Counties border on the T....

  8. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... series (topographic). (c) Boundaries. The Potter Valley viticultural area is located in Mendocino County... 36 and southwest corner of quadrant 32 (a point where Mendocino and Lake Counties border on the T....

  9. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... series (topographic). (c) Boundaries. The Potter Valley viticultural area is located in Mendocino County... 36 and southwest corner of quadrant 32 (a point where Mendocino and Lake Counties border on the T....

  10. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... series (topographic). (c) Boundaries. The Potter Valley viticultural area is located in Mendocino County... 36 and southwest corner of quadrant 32 (a point where Mendocino and Lake Counties border on the T....

  11. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  12. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  13. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  14. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  15. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  16. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  17. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Boundaries. The Guenoc Valley viticultural area is located within Lake County, California. The... viticultural area are four USGS maps. They are titled: (1) “Middletown Quadrangle, California-Lake Co.,”...

  18. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (c) Boundaries. The Guenoc Valley viticultural area is located within Lake County, California. The... viticultural area are four USGS maps. They are titled: (1) “Middletown Quadrangle, California-Lake Co.,”...

  19. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (c) Boundaries. The Guenoc Valley viticultural area is located within Lake County, California. The... viticultural area are four USGS maps. They are titled: (1) “Middletown Quadrangle, California-Lake Co.,”...

  20. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (c) Boundaries. The Guenoc Valley viticultural area is located within Lake County, California. The... viticultural area are four USGS maps. They are titled: (1) “Middletown Quadrangle, California-Lake Co.,”...

  1. 27 CFR 9.26 - Guenoc Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (c) Boundaries. The Guenoc Valley viticultural area is located within Lake County, California. The... viticultural area are four USGS maps. They are titled: (1) “Middletown Quadrangle, California-Lake Co.,”...

  2. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  3. Small Martian valleys - Pristine and degraded morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Partridge, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This study is concerned with a more detailed investigation of the small valley networks on Mars. The dual nature of many valley systems is pointed out, taking into account a relatively fresh-appearing network portion versus an apparent larger, less distinct network system. These separate network characteristics are referred to as pristine and degraded. The valley networks included in this study are all located in the equatorial zone of heavily cratered uplands, between latitudes 30 deg N and 40 deg S. Aspects of network morphology are examined, taking into account drainage density, network dissection ratio, and valley length parameters. Age relationships are also discussed, giving attention to crater age, counting problems, a conservative method, and a crater-fraction method.

  4. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  5. Valley and electric photocurrents in 2D silicon and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, S. A.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2013-12-04

    We show that the optical excitation of multi-valley systems leads to valley currents which depend on the light polarization. The net electric current, determined by the vector sum of single-valley contributions, vanishes for some peculiar distributions of carriers in the valley and momentum spaces forming a pure valley current. We report on the study of this phenomenon, both experimental and theoretical, for graphene and 2D electron channels on the silicon surface.

  6. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  7. Oil exploration in Pine Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.H.; Chamberlain, A.K.

    1989-03-01

    Three oil fields have already been established in Pine Valley, which is located in north-central Nevada along the late Mesozoic thrust trend. The potential exists for much more future exploration because of excellent reservoir potential, favorable hydrocarbon generating system, and trapping mechanisms. The Devonian is one of the main target reservoirs of Pine Valley. Pine Valley lies near the Devonian shelf edge, and carbonate facies from that period undergo abrupt changes in the Pine Valley region. The Guilmette/Devil's Gate apparently develops into a reefal system along the Uinta-Cortez arch in this area. Fore-reef and basinal facies are found at Cortez Mountain on the west side of Pine Valley. Mississippian sandstones and Tertiary tuffs are two other reservoirs which produce oil. At Blackburn field, upper plate rocks are overmature. Produced oil has been identified as Mississippian. Regional studies show Mississippian source rocks of Pine Valley to be slightly immature to mature oil in the lower plate. Gravity of the oil is approximately 26-30/degree/ API. Oil from the Tomara Ranch and North Willow Creek fields is most probably also from the Mississippian. Its API gravity is similar to the oil produced from Blackburn field. Blackburn field is a Tertiary trap probably generated by shear faulting. Tertiary traps throughout Nevada, including Blackburn, are generally small and hydrocarbon potential is limited. Larger traps associated with the late Mesozoic compressional event have much more potential and hold hundreds of millions of barrels of oil.

  8. An evaluation of Skylab (EREP) remote sensing techniques applied to investigation of crustal structure. [Death Valley and Greenwater Valley (CA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study of Greenwater Valley indicates that the valley is bounded on the north and east by faults, on the south by a basement high, and on the west by the dip slope of the black mountains, movement of ground water from the valley is thus Movement of ground water from the valley is thus restricted, indicating the valley is a potential water reservoir.

  9. Fretted Terrain Valley in Coloe Fossae Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    The image in figure 1 shows lineated valley fill in one of a series of enclosed, intersecting troughs known as Coloe (Choloe) Fossae. Lineated valley fill consists of rows of material in valley centers that are parallel to the valley walls. It is probably made of ice-rich material and boulders that are left behind when the ice-rich material sublimates. Very distinct rows can be seen near the south (bottom) wall of the valley. Lineated valley fill is thought to result from mass wasting (downslope movement) of ice-rich material from valley walls towards their centers. It is commonly found in valleys near the crustal dichotomy that separates the two hemispheres of Mars. The valley shown here joins four other valleys with lineated fill near the top left corner of this image. Their juncture is a topographic low, suggesting that the lineated valley fill from the different valleys may be flowing or creeping towards the low area (movement towards the upper left of the image). The valley walls appear smooth at first glance but are seen to be speckled with small craters several meters in diameter at HiRISE resolution (see contrast-enhanced subimage). This indicates that at least some of the wall material has been stable to mass wasting for some period of time. Also seen on the valley wall are elongated features shaped like teardrops. These are most likely slightly older craters that have been degraded due to potentially recent downhill creep. It is unknown whether the valley walls are shedding material today. The subimage is approximately 140 x 400 m (450 x 1280 ft).

    Image PSP_001372_2160 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 11, 2006. The complete image is centered at 35.5 degrees latitude, 56.8 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 290.3 km (181

  10. Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Barrett; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the basic fitness landscape metaphor for molecular evolution, evolutionary pathways are presumed to follow uphill steps of increasing fitness. How evolution can cross fitness valleys is an open question. One possibility is that environmental changes alter the fitness landscape such that low-fitness sequences reside on a hill in alternate environments. We experimentally test this hypothesis on the antibiotic resistance gene TEM-15 β-lactamase by comparing four evolutionary strategies shaped by environmental changes. The strategy that included initial steps of selecting for low antibiotic resistance (negative selection) produced superior alleles compared with the other three strategies. We comprehensively examined possible evolutionary pathways leading to one such high-fitness allele and found that an initially deleterious mutation is key to the allele’s evolutionary history. This mutation is an initial gateway to an otherwise relatively inaccessible area of sequence space and participates in higher-order, positive epistasis with a number of neutral to slightly beneficial mutations. The ability of negative selection and environmental changes to provide access to novel fitness peaks has important implications for natural evolutionary mechanisms and applied directed evolution. PMID:26844293

  11. Environmental changes bridge evolutionary valleys.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Barrett; Ostermeier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the basic fitness landscape metaphor for molecular evolution, evolutionary pathways are presumed to follow uphill steps of increasing fitness. How evolution can cross fitness valleys is an open question. One possibility is that environmental changes alter the fitness landscape such that low-fitness sequences reside on a hill in alternate environments. We experimentally test this hypothesis on the antibiotic resistance gene TEM-15 β-lactamase by comparing four evolutionary strategies shaped by environmental changes. The strategy that included initial steps of selecting for low antibiotic resistance (negative selection) produced superior alleles compared with the other three strategies. We comprehensively examined possible evolutionary pathways leading to one such high-fitness allele and found that an initially deleterious mutation is key to the allele's evolutionary history. This mutation is an initial gateway to an otherwise relatively inaccessible area of sequence space and participates in higher-order, positive epistasis with a number of neutral to slightly beneficial mutations. The ability of negative selection and environmental changes to provide access to novel fitness peaks has important implications for natural evolutionary mechanisms and applied directed evolution. PMID:26844293

  12. 78 FR 30965 - AG Valley Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Ag Valley Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board AG Valley Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Ag Valley Holdings, LLC AG... original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35736, must be filed with the...

  13. Valley Hall Effect in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Michihisa; Shimazaki, Yuya; Borzenets, Ivan V.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2015-12-01

    Valley is a quantum number defined for energetically degenerate but nonequivalent structures in energy bands of a crystalline material. Recent discoveries of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have shed light on the potential use of this degree of freedom for information carriers because the valley can now be potentially manipulated in integrated 2D architectures. The valleys separated by a long distance in a momentum space are robust against external disturbance and the flow of the valley, the valley current, is nondissipative because it carries no net electronic current. Among the various 2D valley materials, graphene has by far the highest crystal quality, leading to an extremely long valley relaxation length in the bulk. In this review, we first describe the theoretical background of the valley Hall effect, which converts an electric field into a valley current. We then describe the first observation of the valley Hall effect in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we describe experiments on the generation and detection of the pure valley current in monolayer and bilayer graphene, achieved recently using the valley Hall effect and inverse valley Hall effect. While we show unambiguous evidence of a pure valley current flowing in graphene, we emphasize that the field of "valleytronics" is still in its infancy and that further theoretical and experimental investigations are necessary.

  14. Origin of the Valley Networks On Mars: A Hydrological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2000-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Martian valley networks is examined from a hydrological perspective for their compatibility with an origin by rainfall, globally higher heat flow, and localized hydrothermal systems. Comparison of morphology and spatial distribution of valleys on geologic surfaces with terrestrial fluvial valleys suggests that most Martian valleys are probably not indicative of a rainfall origin, nor are they indicative of formation by an early global uniformly higher heat flow. In general, valleys are not uniformly distributed within geologic surface units as are terrestrial fluvial valleys. Valleys tend to form either as isolated systems or in clusters on a geologic surface unit leaving large expanses of the unit virtually untouched by erosion. With the exception of fluvial valleys on some volcanoes, most Martian valleys exhibit a sapping morphology and do not appear to have formed along with those that exhibit a runoff morphology. In contrast, terrestrial sapping valleys form from and along with runoff valleys. The isolated or clustered distribution of valleys suggests localized water sources were important in drainage development. Persistent ground-water outflow driven by localized, but vigorous hydrothermal circulation associated with magmatism, volcanism, impacts, or tectonism is, however, consistent with valley morphology and distribution. Snowfall from sublimating ice-covered lakes or seas may have provided an atmospheric water source for the formation of some valleys in regions where the surface is easily eroded and where localized geothermal/hydrothermal activity is sufficient to melt accumulated snowpacks.

  15. The coupling of synoptic and valley winds in the Tennessee Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The interaction of winds in a valley with the winds above the valley is of interest for both practical and theoretical reasons. For example, the forecasting of conditions affecting air quality,, emergency preparedness, or aerial spraying of pesticides requires the ability to relate local valley circulations to ambient synoptic conditions. While empirically derived relationships may be useful, it is also desirable to develop an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior. In this paper we combine results from analyses of measurements and model-generated data to provide insight into factors affecting the climatology of the winds in the Tennessee Valley. We discuss four mechanisms that can determine the behavior of winds in a valley. The conditions can be illustrated in terms of the expected joint frequency distributions of the surface and geostrophic winds.

  16. Seismic responses of pipelines laid through alluvial valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J.W.; Jia, S.; Hou, Z.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, dynamic characteristics of pipelines laid through alluvial valleys are analyzed. The scattering solution of SH-waves by a shallow circular alluvial valley is used to evaluate ground motion, and pipeline-soil interaction is considered. The results show that the alluvial valley has spectacular effects on dynamic behaviors of the pipelines, and for a narrow valley, damage will appear at two interfaces between the alluvial deposit and the riverbed, and for a wider valley, the damage will appear not only at two interfaces but also in the alluvial deposit, this depends on the valley width and the wavelength of incidence seismic waves.

  17. Magnetic barrier on strained graphene: A possible valley filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Feng; Zhao, Xiaofang; Chang, Kai; Xu, H. Q.

    2010-09-01

    We put forward a two-terminal valley filter based on a bulk graphene sheet under the modulations of both a local perpendicular magnetic field and a substrate strain. When only one of the two modulations is present, no valley polarization can be generated. A combination of the two modulations leads to a different (but not opposite) shifts of the K and K' valleys, which could be utilized to generate a valley-polarized current. The degree of the valley polarization can be tuned by the strain strength and the inclusion of a scalar potential. The valley polarization changes its polarity as the local magnetic field switches its direction.

  18. Do I have an alluvial valley floor

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, G.G.

    1980-12-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 establishes specific restrictions for coal mining on or adjacent to alluvial valley floors. Alluvial valley floors are lands in the Western United States where water availability for flood irrigation or subirrigation provides enhanced agricultural productivity on stream-laid deposits located in valley bottoms. Alluvial valley floors may consist of developed land or undeveloped rangeland. Developed land, if of sufficient size to be important to a farming operation, cannot be mined whereas undeveloped rangeland can be mined provided certain performance standards are met. Developed land is important to farming when the percentage loss of production by removal of the alluvial valley floor from a farm(s) total production exceeds the equation P = 3 + 0.0014X, where P is the maximum percentage loss of productivity considered to be a negligible impact to a Wyoming farming operation and X is the number of animal units of total farm production above 100. A threshold level of 10 percent is placed on P, above which such a loss is considered to be a significant loss to any size farming operation.

  19. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  20. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  1. Valley depolarization in monolayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tengfei; Qiao, Xiaofen; Tan, Pingheng; Zhang, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    We have systematically examined the circular polarization of monolayer WSe2 at different temperature, excitation energy and exciton density. The valley depolarization in WSe2 is experimentally confirmed to be governed by the intervalley electron-hole exchange interaction. More importantly, a non-monotonic dependence of valley circular polarization on the excitation power density has been observed, providing the experimental evidence for the non-monotonic dependence of exciton intervalley scattering rate on the excited exciton density. The physical origination of our experimental observations has been proposed to be in analogy to the D′yakonov-Perel′ mechanism that is operative in conventional GaAs quantum well systems. Our experimental results are fundamentally important for well understanding the valley pseudospin relaxation in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26490157

  2. Castro Valley High School's Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, A.; Ham, S.; Shin, Y.; Yang, W.; Lam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar panels are photovoltaic cells that are designed to convert the sun's kinetic energy to generate usable energy in the form of electricity. Castro Valley High School has tried to offset the cost of electricity by installing solar panels, costing the district approximately 3.29 million dollars, but have been installed incorrectly and are not operating at peak efficency. By using trigonometry we deduced that Castro Valley High School's south facing solar panels were at an incline of 10o and that the east and west facing solar panels are at an incline of 5o. By taking the averages of the optimum angles for the months of September through May, roughly when school is in session, we found that the optimum angle for south facing solar panels should be roughly 46o. This shows that Castro Valley High School has not used it's budget to its full potential due to the fact that the solar panels were haphazardly installed.

  3. Valley depolarization in monolayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tengfei; Qiao, Xiaofen; Tan, Pingheng; Zhang, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    We have systematically examined the circular polarization of monolayer WSe2 at different temperature, excitation energy and exciton density. The valley depolarization in WSe2 is experimentally confirmed to be governed by the intervalley electron-hole exchange interaction. More importantly, a non-monotonic dependence of valley circular polarization on the excitation power density has been observed, providing the experimental evidence for the non-monotonic dependence of exciton intervalley scattering rate on the excited exciton density. The physical origination of our experimental observations has been proposed to be in analogy to the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism that is operative in conventional GaAs quantum well systems. Our experimental results are fundamentally important for well understanding the valley pseudospin relaxation in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26490157

  4. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Anning, Dave W.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrogeology of the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins of Mohave County in northwestern Arizona to develop a better understanding of groundwater storage within the basin fill aquifers. In our investigation we used geologic maps, well-log data, and geophysical surveys to delineate the sedimentary textures and lithology of the basin fill. We used gravity data to construct a basin geometry model that defines smaller subbasins within the larger basins, and airborne transient-electromagnetic modeled results along with well-log lithology data to infer the subsurface distribution of basin fill within the subbasins. Hydrogeologic units (HGUs) are delineated within the subbasins on the basis of the inferred lithology of saturated basin fill. We used the extent and size of HGUs to estimate groundwater storage to depths of 400 meters (m) below land surface (bls). The basin geometry model for the Hualapai Valley basin consists of three subbasins: the Kingman, Hualapai, and southern Gregg subbasins. In the Kingman subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,200 m deep, saturated basin fill consists of a mixture of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. The Hualapai subbasin, which is the largest of the subbasins, contains a thick halite body from about 400 m to about 4,300 m bls. Saturated basin fill overlying the salt body consists predominately of fine-grained older playa deposits. In the southern Gregg subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,400 m deep, saturated basin fill is interpreted to consist primarily of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. Groundwater storage to 400 m bls in the Hualapai Valley basin is estimated to be 14.1 cubic kilometers (km3). The basin geometry model for the Detrital Valley basin consists of three subbasins: northern Detrital, central Detrital, and southern Detrital subbasins. The northern and central Detrital subbasins are characterized by a predominance of playa evaporite and fine

  5. Scaling relations for large Martian valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Montgomery, David R.; Greenberg, Harvey M.

    2009-02-01

    The dendritic morphology of Martian valley networks, particularly in the Noachian highlands, has long been argued to imply a warmer, wetter early Martian climate, but the character and extent of this period remains controversial. We analyzed scaling relations for the 10 large valley systems incised in terrain of various ages, resolvable using the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Four of the valleys originate in point sources with negligible contributions from tributaries, three are very poorly dissected with a few large tributaries separated by long uninterrupted trunks, and three exhibit the dendritic, branching morphology typical of terrestrial channel networks. We generated width-area and slope-area relationships for each because these relations are identified as either theoretically predicted or robust terrestrial empiricisms for graded precipitation-fed, perennial channels. We also generated distance-area relationships (Hack's law) because they similarly represent robust characteristics of terrestrial channels (whether perennial or ephemeral). We find that the studied Martian valleys, even the dendritic ones, do not satisfy those empiricisms. On Mars, the width-area scaling exponent b of -0.7-4.7 contrasts with values of 0.3-0.6 typical of terrestrial channels; the slope-area scaling exponent $\\theta$ ranges from -25.6-5.5, whereas values of 0.3-0.5 are typical on Earth; the length-area, or Hack's exponent n ranges from 0.47 to 19.2, while values of 0.5-0.6 are found on Earth. None of the valleys analyzed satisfy all three relations typical of terrestrial perennial channels. As such, our analysis supports the hypotheses that ephemeral and/or immature channel morphologies provide the closest terrestrial analogs to the dendritic networks on Mars, and point source discharges provide terrestrial analogs best suited to describe the other large Martian valleys.

  6. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.

    2016-07-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  7. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  8. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  9. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. VEGETATION CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE CONTRASTING RIPARIAN SITES, WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the native riparian vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, has been replaced with agricultural crops or invasive non-native plant species. Detailed information about current Willamette Valley riparian vegetation is generally lacking. Plant species composition data...

  12. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  13. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160138.html Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever? Potentially fatal infection is found in ... often-overlooked infection, and about 160 die from it, the society says. "Valley fever is underdiagnosed in ...

  14. 79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN DISTANCE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  16. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  17. 12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING SOUTH END OF OVERHEAD WIRING TERMINATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  18. 10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  19. 11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING DETAIL OF OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. Death Valley California as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This oblique handheld Hasselblad 70mm photo shows Death Valley, near California's border with Nevada. The valley -- the central feature of Death Valley National Monument -- extends north to south for some 140 miles (225 kilometers). Hemmed in to the east by the Amargosa Range and to the west by the Panamints, its width varies from 5 to 15 miles (8 to 24 kilometers).

  1. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death Valley National Monument. 7.26 Section 7.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley...

  2. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle Rio Grande Valley... Middle Rio Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Middle Rio Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundaries of...

  3. Morning Transition Tracer Experiments in a Deep Narrow Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, C. David

    1989-07-01

    Three sulfur hexafluoride atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted during the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period in the deep, narrow Brush Creek Valley of Colorado. Experiments were conducted under clear, undisturbed weather conditions.A continuous elevated tracer plume was produced along the axis of the valley before sunrise and the behavior of the plume during the inversion breakup period was detected down-valley from the release point using an array of radio-controlled sequential bag samplers, a vertical SF6 profiling system carried on a tethered balloon, two portable gas chromatographs operated on a sidewall of the valley, and a continuous real-time SF6 monitor operated from a research aircraft. Supporting meteorological data came primarily from tethered balloon profilers. The nocturnal elevated plume was carried and diffused in down-valley flows. After sunrise, convective boundary layers grew upward from the sunlit valley surfaces, fumigating the elevated plume onto the valley floor and sidewalls. Upslope flow developed in the growing convective boundary layers, carrying fumigated SF6 up the sidewalls and causing a compensating subsidence over the valley center. High post-sunrise SF6 concentrations were experienced on the northeast-facing sidewall of the northwest-southeast oriented valley as a result of cross-valley flow, which developed due to differential solar heating of the sidewalls. Reversal of the down-valley wind system brought air with lower SF6 concentrations into the lower valley.

  4. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which...

  5. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  6. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  7. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  8. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  9. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  10. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  11. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  12. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  13. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  14. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  15. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  16. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  17. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  18. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  19. 32 CFR 644.403 - Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 644.403... Transfers to Tennessee Valley Authority. 10 U.S.C. 831f(b) authorizes the President of the United States to provide for the transfer to the Tennessee Valley Authority of the use, possession and control of such...

  20. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in the western part of Mendocino County, California. The beginning... viticultural area are three U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Navarro Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series (1961); (2) “Boonville Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series...

  1. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in the western part of Mendocino County, California. The beginning... viticultural area are three U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Navarro Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series (1961); (2) “Boonville Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series...

  2. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in the western part of Mendocino County, California. The beginning... viticultural area are three U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Navarro Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series (1961); (2) “Boonville Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series...

  3. 27 CFR 9.86 - Anderson Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in the western part of Mendocino County, California. The beginning... viticultural area are three U.S.G.S. maps. They are titled: (1) “Navarro Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series (1961); (2) “Boonville Quadrangle, California—Mendocino Co.,” 15 minute series...

  4. The Sudbury Valley School Experience. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The Sudbury Valley School was founded in 1968 by a group of Massachusetts parents who felt that a child is a person, worthy of full respect as a human being. It was intended that a nurturing environment be created in which the children themselves chose what they wished to do and scheduled their time. Democracy was a cornerstone of the school's…

  5. Student Action for the Valley Environment (SAVE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

    A multi-disciplinary approach to environmental studies for high school students, combining the areas of earth science, social science, and health education, is developed in this guide. Student Action for the Valley Environment (SAVE) is primarily a simulation program concerned with a serious problem of today--the survival of life in the cities. It…

  6. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  7. 27 CFR 9.226 - Inwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the boundary of the Inwood Valley viticultural area are titled: (1) Clough Gulch, California—Shasta County, Provisional edition 1985; (2) Inwood, California—Shasta County, Provisional edition 1985; (3) Hagaman Gulch, California—Shasta County, Provisional edition 1985; (4) Shingletown,...

  8. 27 CFR 9.226 - Inwood Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the boundary of the Inwood Valley viticultural area are titled: (1) Clough Gulch, California—Shasta County, Provisional edition 1985; (2) Inwood, California—Shasta County, Provisional edition 1985; (3) Hagaman Gulch, California—Shasta County, Provisional edition 1985; (4) Shingletown,...

  9. Remedial Reading Students at Moraine Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In an effort to assess the effectiveness of their remedial reading courses, Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in Palos Hills, Illinois, undertook a study of the retention, course completion, and graduation rates of students who completed one of three remedial reading courses: RDG-040, basic skills for students reading below the 7th grade…

  10. Registration of 'Hidden Valley' meadow fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Hidden Valley' (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI xxxxxx) meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 561 parental genotypes. The original germplasm is of unknown central or northern Europ...

  11. Who Benefits Most from Shad Valley?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Tom

    The founder of the Shad Valley (Ontario, Canada) summer program for gifted teenagers in 1984 suggests that the current selection process may not be adequate and fails to encourage applications from some students who would profit from the program. The program is seen to provide direct benefits to the universities that host the program, the…

  12. Trends, Fall 1993. Diablo Valley College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les

    Providing data on institutional trends up to fall 1993 at Diablo Valley College, in California, this report consists of 14 charts on enrollment and student characteristics. Following an introduction describing a general decline in enrollments due to a statewide increase in fees, the following tables are provided: (1) fall enrollment from 1984 to…

  13. Treasure Valley Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Treasure Valley area of Idaho, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  14. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  15. Red River Valley. Selected Readings. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings dating from 1854 through 1969, many of which are primary materials excerpted from dated Minnesota newspapers, are intended for fifth grade students. Five themes describe past and present conditions in the Red River Valley: 1) show the importance of fur trade and describe the wooden carts in the train that carried the trade; 2)…

  16. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  17. Indian Wells Valley FORGE Aeromagnetic Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    1994-11-01

    Aeromagnetic data was collected over the Indian Wells Valley, CA in November 1994. It consisted of 9,033 line-kilometers covering ~4,150 square kilometers, flown at a 250 meter drape with principal line spacing of 0.54 kilometers and 10% cross-lines. The principal orientation is N65E.

  18. Prediction of a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using satellite measurements to detect elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and subsequent elevated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in Africa, we predicted an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in humans and animals in the Horn of Africa during September 2006-May 2007. We det...

  19. Developmental Mathematics at Mohawk Valley Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallen, Anne

    The developmental mathematics program described in this report is offered at Mohawk Valley Community College (New York) as a self-paced, semi-programmed sequence of units covering signed numbers and beginning algebra. The paper begins by establishing the need for such a program, explaining that in Fall 1979 it became evident that the college's…

  20. Why Girls Flock to Sweet Valley High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntwork, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the appeal of romance fiction for adolescent girls, particularly the "Sweet Valley High" series, and summarizes some research in the area. Topics addressed include reading preferences of teenage girls, sales and marketing of romances, literary criticisms, what readers gain from the books, and what constitutes good pleasure reading. (14…

  1. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less

  2. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.

  3. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temecula Valley. 9.50... 1953, photorevised 1979; (4) Temecula, California, dated 1968, photorevised 1975; (5) Pechanga... South, Range 2 West). (19) The boundary follows Buck Road west to the point where it...

  4. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1973. (c) Boundary. The Temecula Valley viticultural area is located in Riverside County... the point where it converges with the Riverside County-San Diego County line. (3) The boundary follows the Riverside County-San Diego County line southwesterly, then southeasterly to the point where...

  5. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  6. Antelope Valley Bridge from Education to Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelope Valley Union High School District, Lancaster, CA.

    The Antelope Valley Union High School District's regional plan for career education and lifelong learning represents a model for educational levels/districts cooperation. The plan provides a bridge from education to careers that takes into consideration changes in the economic marketplace. The career development plan includes elementary, middle,…

  7. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  8. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  9. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mesilla Valley viticultural area is located within Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas... Paso, Texas, on the “Smeltertown, Tex.-N. Mex.” U.S.G.S. map; (5) Then it heads south on the La...

  10. WOOLFOLK CHEMICAL WORKS SITE, FORT VALLEY, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Woolfolk Chemical Works has contaminated the town of Fort Valley with lead and arsenic plus other COCs to the extent that the ATSDR has determined that life expectancy for the citizens within a mile radius around the plant has been shortened by an average of 5 - 10 years. The ci...

  11. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  12. Substance Abuse in the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavaleta, Anthony N.

    1979-01-01

    In the Mexican American barrios of Texas' Lower Rio Grande Valley, existence is complicated by the interactive forces of culture, society, and economy. These three factors act in unison to create an etiology of alcohol and drug use and abuse which is poorly understood by persons outside the barrio's grasp. (Author/NQ)

  13. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey: the ecology of Dry Valley edaphic microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles K; Barbier, Béatrice A; Bottos, Eric M; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2012-01-01

    Recent applications of molecular genetics to edaphic microbial communities of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and elsewhere have rejected a long-held belief that Antarctic soils contain extremely limited microbial diversity. The Inter-Valley Soil Comparative Survey aims to elucidate the factors shaping these unique microbial communities and their biogeography by integrating molecular genetic approaches with biogeochemical analyses. Although the microbial communities of Dry Valley soils may be complex, there is little doubt that the ecosystem's food web is relatively simple, and evidence suggests that physicochemical conditions may have the dominant role in shaping microbial communities. To examine this hypothesis, bacterial communities from representative soil samples collected in four geographically disparate Dry Valleys were analyzed using molecular genetic tools, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Results show that the four communities are structurally and phylogenetically distinct, and possess significantly different levels of diversity. Strikingly, only 2 of 214 phylotypes were found in all four valleys, challenging a widespread assumption that the microbiota of the Dry Valleys is composed of a few cosmopolitan species. Analysis of soil geochemical properties indicated that salt content, alongside altitude and Cu2+, was significantly correlated with differences in microbial communities. Our results indicate that the microbial ecology of Dry Valley soils is highly localized and that physicochemical factors potentially have major roles in shaping the microbiology of ice-free areas of Antarctica. These findings hint at links between Dry Valley glacial geomorphology and microbial ecology, and raise previously unrecognized issues related to environmental management of this unique ecosystem. PMID:22170424

  14. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic debris flows scour the rock beds of many steepland valleys. Along recent debris-flow runout paths in the western United States, we have observed evidence for bedrock lowering, primarily by the impact of large particles entrained in debris flows. This evidence may persist to the point at which debris-flow deposition occurs, commonly at slopes of less than ???0.03-0.10. We find that debris-flow-scoured valleys have a topographic signature that is fundamentally different from that predicted by bedrock river-incision models. Much of this difference results from the fact that local valley slope shows a tendency to decrease abruptly downstream of tributaries that contribute throughgoing debris flows. The degree of weathering of valley floor bedrock may also decrease abruptly downstream of such junctions. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that valley slope is adjusted to the long-term frequency of debris flows, and that valleys scoured by debris flows should not be modeled using conventional bedrock river-incision laws. We use field observations to justify one possible debris-flow incision model, whose lowering rate is proportional to the integral of solid inertial normal stresses from particle impacts along the flow and the number of upvalley debris-flow sources. The model predicts that increases in incision rate caused by increases in flow event frequency and length (as flows gain material) downvalley are balanced by rate reductions from reduced inertial normal stress at lower slopes, and stronger, less weathered bedrock. These adjustments lead to a spatially uniform lowering rate. Although the proposed expression leads to equilibrium long-profiles with the correct topographic signature, the crudeness with which the debris-flow dynamics are parameterized reveals that we are far from a validated debris-flow incision law. However, the vast extent of steepland valley networks above slopes of ???0.03-0.10 illustrates the need to understand debris

  15. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  16. Giant spin splitting, strong valley selective circular dichroism and valley-spin coupling induced in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jinfeng; Peng, Xiangyang; Xiao, Di; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Silicene is a potential candidate for valleytronics. However, in comparison with the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), silicene has a tiny energy gap and zero spin splitting at its Dirac valleys, being unfavorable for valleytronic applications. Based on first principles calculations, we find that by proximity with Bi(111) bilayer, the Dirac valleys of silicene acquire a sizable energy gap and giant spin splittings, which are even larger than the splittings of Mo S2 . Our calculations show that the silicene over Bi layer exhibits a strong valley-contrasting circular dichroism, enabling selective optical pumping of valley carriers. Due to the time reversal symmetry and the breaking of inversion symmetry, the Berry curvatures and the spin splittings are opposite at the K and K' valleys of silicene, and hence the valley and spin are locked and can be simultaneously polarized. In this way, silicene and likely other similar Dirac materials can be comparable to TMDs in valleytronics, which not only adds a new dimension to the properties of silicene but also expands the members of the valleytronic family.

  17. Nevada's Little Smoky Valley: A high potential Valley in the Paleozoic Fairway

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.W. )

    1993-08-01

    Little Smoky Valley, located in east-central Nevada between Railroad valleys, has been demonstrated to have all of the elements essential for oil production: generating source rock, fracture-porous reservoir rock, tight top and lateral seals as the trapping mechanism, and closed structure. The valley lies in the heart of a mature Chainman (Mississippian) oil-generating fairway, which is coincident with the western part of the Antler foreland basin, and runs from Pine Valley in the north to Railroad Valley in the south. A southeastern Little Smoky Valley prospect, at the point where Eureka, White Pine, and Nye counties converge, was defined by using a combination of geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods, as well as remote sensing. There was 880 ft of shows in the first of two stagecoach wells, which is now interpreted to be just below the oil-water contact within the freshwater drive zone of the carrier beds. Minor Sevier hinterland overthrusting was demonstrated to have occurred in this mostly extensional province. The immediate subthrust in the first Stagecoach well contains palynomorphs dated as earliest Tertiary, and a syntectonic conglomerate exists at the very lip of the thrust just 1500 ft to the east. Thus, neither Antier (Roberts Mountains) thrusting nor post-Sevier low-angle normal detachment faulting is indicated. Although Sevier thrusting does exist, the west-east offset is minor.

  18. Aeromagnetic survey map of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Three aeromagnetic surveys were flown to improve understanding of the geology and structure in the Sacramento Valley. The resulting data serve as a basis for geophysical interpretations, and support geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on aeromagnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals commonly mark lithologic or structural boundaries. Bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense positive magnetic anomalies (for example, in the northwest part of the map). These rock types are the inferred sources, concealed beneath weakly magnetic, valley-fill deposits, of the most prominent magnetic features in the map area, the magnetic highs that extend along the valley axis. Cenozoic volcanic rocks are also an important source of magnetic anomalies and coincide with short-wavelength anomalies that can be either positive (strong central positive anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude negative anomalies) or negative (strong central negative anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude positive anomalies), reflecting the contribution of remanent magnetization. Rocks with more felsic compositions or even some sedimentary units also can cause measurable magnetic anomalies. For example, the long, linear, narrow north-trending anomalies (with amplitudes of <50 nanoteslas [nT]) along the western margin of the valley coincide with exposures of the Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Note that isolated, short-wavelength anomalies, such as those in the city of Sacramento and along some of the major roads, are caused by manmade features.

  19. Generation of Pure Bulk Valley Current in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongjin; Low, Tony; Chang, Kai; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Guinea, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The generation of valley current is a fundamental goal in graphene valleytronics but no practical ways of its realization are known yet. We propose a workable scheme for the generation of bulk valley current in a graphene mechanical resonator through adiabatic cyclic deformations of the strains and a chemical potential in the suspended region. The accompanied strain gauge fields can break the spatial mirror symmetry of the problem within each of the two inequivalent valleys, leading to a finite valley current due to quantum pumping. An all-electrical measurement configuration is designed to detect the novel state with pure bulk valley currents.

  20. Quantum pumping of valley current in strain engineered graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Chan, K. S. E-mail: zjlin@ustc.edu.cn; Lin, Zijing E-mail: zjlin@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-01-06

    We studied the generation of valley dependent current by adiabatic quantum pumping in monolayer graphene in the presence of electric potential barriers, ferromagnetic field and strain. The pumped currents in the two valleys have same magnitudes and opposite directions; thus, a pure valley current is generated. The oscillation of the pumped pure valley current is determined by the Fabry-Perot resonances formed in the structure. In our calculation, the pumped pure valley current can be as high as 50 nA, which is measurable using present technologies. The proposed device is useful for the development of graphene valleytronic devices.

  1. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  2. Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aivazian, G.; Gong, Zhirui; Jones, Aaron M.; Chu, Rui-Lin; Yan, J.; Mandrus, D. G.; Zhang, Chuanwei; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, X.

    2015-01-26

    Local energy extrema of the bands in momentum space, or valleys, can endow electrons in solids with pseudo-spin in addition to real spin1-5. In transition metal dichalcogenides this valley pseudo-spin, like real spin, is associated with a magnetic moment1,6 which underlies the valley-dependent circular dichroism6 that allows optical generation of valley polarization7-9, intervalley quantum coherence10, and the valley Hall effect11. However, magnetic manipulation of valley pseudospin via this magnetic moment12-13, analogous to what is possible with real spin, has not been shown before. Here we report observation of the valley Zeeman splitting and magnetic tuning of polarization and coherence ofmore » the excitonic valley pseudospin, by performing polarization-resolved magneto-photoluminescence on monolayer WSe2. Our measurements reveal both the atomic orbital and lattice contributions to the valley orbital magnetic moment; demonstrate the deviation of the band edges in the valleys from an exact massive Dirac fermion model; and reveal a striking difference between the magnetic responses of neutral and charged valley excitons which is explained by renormalization of the excitonic spectrum due to strong exchange interactions.« less

  3. Valley selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, Edbert J.; McIver, James W.; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Fu, Liang; Kong, Jing; Gedik, Nuh

    2015-03-01

    Monolayer semiconductors, such as WS2, have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. Here we show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (200 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  4. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-07-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time--a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation--is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron-hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron-hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  5. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedik, Nuh

    Monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. In this talk, I will show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer TMD WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley-selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (approximately 100 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  7. Valley depolarization dynamics and valley Hall effect of excitons in monolayer and bilayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the valley depolarization dynamics and valley Hall effect of exciton due to the electron-hole exchange interaction in mono- and bilayer MoS2 by solving the kinetic spin Bloch equations. The effect of the exciton energy spectra by the electron-hole exchange interaction is explicitly considered. For the valley depolarization dynamics, in the monolayer MoS2, it is found that in the strong scattering regime, the conventional motional narrowing picture in the conventional strong scattering regime is no longer valid, and a novel valley depolarization channel is opened. For the valley Hall effect of exciton, in both the mono- and bilayer MoS2, with the exciton equally pumped in the K and K' valleys, the system can evolve into the equilibrium state where the valley polarization is parallel to the effective magnetic field due to the exchange interaction. With the drift of this equilibrium state by applied uniaxial strain, the exchange interaction can induce the momentum-dependent valley/photoluminesence polarization, which leads to the valley/photoluminesence Hall current. Specifically, the disorder strength dependence of the valley Hall conductivity is revealed. In the strong scattering regime, the valley Hall conductivity decreases with the increase of the disorder strength; whereas in the weak scattering regime, it saturates to a constant, which can be much larger than the one in Fermi system due to the absence of the Pauli blocking.

  8. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  9. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  10. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  11. Rainfall and epizootic Rift Valley fever*

    PubMed Central

    Davies, F. G.; Linthicum, K. J.; James, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Epizootic Rift Valley fever (RVF) has occurred in Kenya four times over the last 30 years. Widespread, frequent, and persistent rainfall has been a feature of these epizootic periods. A composite statistic, based upon measurements of these rainfall characteristics, is positive during periods of epizootic Rift Valley fever. The heavy rainfall raises the level of the water table in certain areas, flooding the grassland depressions (dambos) that are the habitat of the immature forms of certain ground-pool-breeding mosquitos of the genus Aedes. RVF virus is probably transmitted transovarially in these species, very large numbers of which emerge under these damp conditions. This is when clinical signs of the disease are first seen. PMID:3879206

  12. Reconnaissance geology of placer deposits containing radioactive minerals in the Bear Valley district, Valley County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackin, J. Hoover; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the Bear Valley district was undertaken to provide a geologic interpretation of placer deposits drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The placer minerals are monazite and a group of uranium bearing rare earth columbates and tantalates here referred to loosely as radioactive blacks. The monazite is an accessory mineral in the granitic country rock; the radioactive blacks occur in pegmatite dikes. The supply of these minerals to the placers was controlled (1) by the geography of their occurrence in the parent rock, and (2) by the distribution of alpine glaciers during two late Pleistocene glacial stages. By reason of a favorable combination of these factors, the richest placer deposits of the district are in Big Meadow, a valley fill formed as a result of the blocking of Bear Creek by a glacier from a tributary valley during the Illinoian (?) stage. The Big Meadow fill consists of intertonguing depositional units formed by Bear Creek and its tributaries, including both normal alluvium and glacial outwash, and ranging from rich to barren. The richest phase that has been blocked out by drilling was derived from the drainage basin of Casner Creek, an east tributary of Bear Creek. The geologic relations suggest that a neighboring stream, Howard Creek, should have supplied equally rich material, but the part of the valley fill formed by Howard Creek has not been tested. The Howard Creek deposits and shallow alluvium in the upper valleys of Casner and Howard Creeks may considerably increase the reserves of the district.

  13. Elk Valley coal implements smartcell flotation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, J.C.

    2008-06-15

    In anticipation of future raw coal containing higher fines content, Elk Valley Coal Corp.'s Greenhills Operations upgraded their fines circuit to include Wemco SmartCells in March 2007. Positive results were immediately achieved increasing the average flotation tailings ash by 16%. With this increase in yield the SmartCells project paid for itself in less than eight months. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  14. Valley-Polarized Interlayer Excitons in 2D Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Pasqual; Seyler, Kyle; Yu, Hongyi; Schaibley, John; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Xu, Xiaodong

    Vertically stacked monolayers of MoSe2 and WSe2 feature a type-II band alignment causing the formation of interlayer excitons, where the Coulomb bound hole and electron reside in different layers. This species of exciton has lifetime many orders of magnitude longer than intralayer valley excitons, providing a unique and advantageous system for investigating valley exciton physics. Here, we optically pump the MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructure with circularly polarized light, creating interlayer valley excitons with gate-tunable spin-valley polarization lifetime up to 40 ns. This long valley lifetime enables the diffusion of the interlayer valley exciton gas to be visualized. Under increasing excitation power we observe the formation of a ring in the spatial distribution of the valley polarization, a manifestation of significant valley-selective exchange interactions at high exciton densities. The combination of long valley polarization and spatial diffusion makes the interlayer exciton in semiconductor heterostructures an exciting platform for studies of valley exciton physics.

  15. A Valley in the Libya Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (A) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (B) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (C)

    This Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle image (top) shows an intermountain valley floor in the Libya Montes region of Mars. Its regional setting is seen in the wide angle color mosaic (Figure A). The Libya Montes were formed by the giant impact that created the ancient Isidis basin. The Libya Mountains and valleys--like the one shown here--were subsequently modified and eroded by other processes, including wind, impact cratering, and flow of liquid water to make the small valley that runs across the middle of the scene. Until the mission was canceled, the Libya Montes region was among the top two candidates for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. This image, illuminated by sunlight from the left, covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide and 19 kilometers (11.8 miles) long. The scene is located near 1.5oN, 278.4oW and was acquired on June 27, 1999. The high resolution color view (top) was created by combining the colors derived from Mars Orbiter Camera Wide Angle views of the region obtained in May 1999 (Figures A and B) with the high resolution view obtained in June 1999 (Figure C).

  16. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars. PMID:27019665

  17. Valleys and Lava Flows near Olympus Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been documenting a variety of landforms in the volcanic Tharsis region, including these valleys and associated lava flows on the plains southeast of Olympus Mons. Lava flows are visible in the upper left quarter of this image, but meandering valleys with streamlined 'islands' dominate the scene. The valleys might have been carved by running water, but extremely fluid lava or mud might also have flowed through the channels. The exact role of each type of fluid--water, mud, or lava--remains to be determined. Illumination is from the right. The area shown is 7.3 km (4.5 mi) wide by 12 km (7.5 mi)long.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  18. Recent landscape change in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, C. E.; Wilson, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Long term monitoring of land use and land cover in California's intensively farmed Central Valley reveals several key physical and socioeconomic factors driving landscape change. As part of the USGS Land Cover Trends Project, we analyzed modern land-use/land-cover change for the California Central Valley ecoregion between 2000 and 2010, monitoring annual change between 2005 and 2010, while creating two new change intervals (2000-2005 and 2005-2010) to update the existing 27-year, interval-based analysis. Between 2000 and 2010, agricultural lands fluctuated due to changes in water allocations and emerging drought conditions, or were lost permanently to development (240 square km). Land-use pressure from agriculture and development also led to a decline in grasslands and shrublands across the region (280 square km). Overall, 400 square km of new developed lands were added in the first decade of the 21st century. From 2007 to 2010, development only expanded by 50 square km, coinciding with defaults in the banking system, the onset of historic foreclosure crisis in California and the global economic downturn. Our annual LULC change estimates capture landscape-level change in response to regional policy changes, climate, and fluctuations (e.g., growth or decline) in the national and global economy. The resulting change data provide insights into the drivers of landscape change in the California Central Valley and the combination of two consistent mapping efforts represents the first continuous, 37-year endeavor of its kind.

  19. Victor Valley College Agreement between the Victor Valley Community College District and the Victor Valley College California Teachers Association Chapter 1170. July 1989 - June 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor Valley Community Coll. District, Victorville, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Victor Valley College Board of Trustees and the Victor Valley College California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1989 through June 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; district and…

  20. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  1. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint

  2. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  3. A model of the eastern portion of Schroeter's Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R.

    1973-01-01

    A relief model of the eastern portion of Schroter's Valley was completed using Lunar Orbiter, Apollo 15, and earth-based photography. The main results derived from this study are as follows: (1) the head of the valley is not a simple crater, but rather a slightly-widened section of the valley emanating from a shield, (2) the east side of the Cobra head is a very high peak (2.3 km above the surrounding plains) forming part of a broad shield with an average slope of 12 deg, and (3) both sides of the valley display a raised rim in the region measured. These and other observations indicate the valley was formed by fluid processes, probably lava, and that the valley may therefore be a lava drainage channel, the drained lava presumably underlying the more recent Oceanus Procellarum basalts.

  4. A model of the eastern portion of Schroeter's Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R.

    1973-01-01

    A relief model of the eastern portion of Schroeter's Valley has been completed using Lunar Orbiter, Apollo 15, and Earth-based photography. The main results derived from this study are as follows: (1) the head of the Valley (the Cobra head) is not a simple crater, but rather a slightly-widened section of the Valley emanating from a shield, (2) the east side of the Cobra head is a very high peak (2.3 km above the surrounding plains) forming part of a broad shield with an average slope of 12 deg, and (3) both sides of the Valley display a raised rim in the region measured. These and other observations indicate the Valley was formed by fluid processes, probably lava, and that the Valley may therefore be a lava drainage channel, the drained lava presumably underlying the more recent Oceanus Procellarum basalts.

  5. Controllable photo-induced spin and valley filtering in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Nia, Borhan Arghavani

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin- and valley-dependent ballistic transport in silicene, which is assumed to be modulated by local application of a gate voltage and off-resonant circularly polarized light. We show that, due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom in silicene, the current through it is spin and valley polarized. The spin (valley) polarization can be enhanced by tuning the light intensity and the value of the perpendicular electric field, leading to perfect spin (valley) filtering for certain of their values. It is also found that the spin (valley) polarization can be inverted by reversing the perpendicular electric field (by reversing the perpendicular electric field or reversing the circular polarization of the light irradiation).

  6. A valley and spin filter based on gapped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Long, Mengqiu; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Hu, Yue; Wang, Gaofeng; Chan, K. S.

    2016-07-01

    We study highly valley- and spin-polarized current in single-layer gapped graphene without spin–orbit coupling. The structure considered is a three-barrier structure with one spin-splitting barrier and two electrical potential barriers with vector potentials. The electrons in the two valleys transmit differently because of the valley-dependent reflection between two adjacent barriers, while the spin-up and spin-down electrons transmit differently because of the spin splitting. The structure is different from other structures in which spin–orbit coupling plays an important role in the observation of valley- and spin-polarized current. We can control the spin and valley polarization by changing the width of the barrier or the strength of the spin splitting. The structure proposed in this paper can be used to make valley and spin devices.

  7. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-05-19

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene.

  8. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  9. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Scaling relationships and concavity of small valley networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penido, Julita C.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Som, Sanjoy M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley networks are widely interpreted as the preserved erosional record of water flowing across the martian surface. The manner in which valley morphometric properties scale with drainage area has been widely examined on Earth. Earlier studies assessing these properties on Mars have suggested that martian valleys are morphometrically distinct from those on Earth. However, these earlier measurements were generally made on large valley systems because of the limited topographic data available. In this study, we determine the scaling properties of valley networks at smaller scales than have been previously assessed, using digital elevation models from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). We find a Hack's law exponent of 0.74, larger than on Earth, and our measurements also reveal that individual small valleys have concave up, concave down, and quasi-linear longitudinal profiles, consistent with earlier studies of dissected terrain on Mars. However, for many valleys, widths are observed to increase downstream similarly to how they scale in terrestrial channels. The similarities and differences between valley networks on Mars and Earth are consistent with the idea that valleys on Mars are comparatively immature, and precipitation was a likely mechanism for delivering water to these networks.

  11. The effect of ambient winds on valley drainage winds

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.

    1990-02-01

    While it is often convenient to assume that the properties of katabatic winds in a deep mountain valley can be described independently of the winds above the ridgetops, such an assumption is clearly invalid in the presence of winds that are strong enough to significantly affect the inversions that may be present in the valley. This paper describes the results of a series of numerical experiments in which the ambient winds outside a valley were varied in both speed and direction. The resultant behavior of the valley drainage winds are shown, comparisons are made with observations, and a discussion of the results is given. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Electron dynamics and valley relaxation in 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    Single layer transition metal dichalcogenides are 2D semiconducting systems with unique electronic band structure. Two-valley energy bands along with strong spin-orbital coupling lead to valley dependent career spin polarization, which is the basis for recently proposed valleytronic applications. Since the durations of valley population provide the time window in which valley specific processes take place, it is an essential parameter for developing valleytronic devices. These systems also exhibit unusually strong many body affects, such as strong exciton and trion binding, due to reduced dielectric screening of Coulomb interactions. But there is not much known about the impact of strong many particle correlations on spin and valley polarization dynamics. Here we report direct measurements of ultrafast valley specific relaxation dynamics in single layer MoS2 and WS2. We found that excitonic many body interactions significantly contribute to the relaxation process. Biexciton formation reveals hole valley spin relaxation time. Our results also suggest initial fast intervalley electron scattering and electron spin relaxation leads to loss of electron valley polarization, which then facilitates hole valley relaxation via excitonic spin exchange interaction.

  13. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  14. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  15. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm "valleytronics" applications.

  16. Tunable Valley Polarization and Valley Orbital Magnetic Moment Hall Effect in Honeycomb Systems with Broken Inversion Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhigang; Quhe, Ruge; Liu, Shunquan; Li, Yan; Feng, Ji; Yang, Yingchang; Lu, Jing; Yang, Jinbo

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, a tunable valley polarization is investigated for honeycomb systems with broken inversion symmetry such as transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) monolayers through elliptical pumping. Compared to circular pumping, elliptical pumping is a more universal and effective method to create coherent valley polarization. When two valleys of MX2 monolayers are doped or polarized, a novel anomalous Hall effect (called valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect) is predicted. Valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect can generate an orbital magnetic moment current without the accompaniment of a charge current, which opens a new avenue for exploration of valleytronics and orbitronics. Valley orbital magnetic moment Hall effect is expected to overshadow spin Hall effect and is tunable under elliptical pumping. PMID:26358835

  17. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is

  18. The Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Fereira, H.; Pinheiro, A.; Falcao Flor, A. P.; Nemser, E.; Villanova, S. P.; Fonseca, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    The LTV fault and its associated historical seismic activity have been the focus of several scientific studies in Portugal. There are at least three historical earthquakes associated with the LTV fault, in 1344, 1531, and 1909. Magnitude estimates for these earthquakes range from 6.5 to 7.0. They caused widespread damage throughout the Lower Tagus Valley region with intensities ranging from VIII to X from Lisbon to Entroncamento. During the great 1755 earthquake, the LTV fault was likewise proposed to have ruptured coseismically. The Azambuja fault or the Vila Franca de Xira fault are suggested origins of the 1909 earthquake. Trenching activities together with borehole data analyses, geophysical investigations, and seismic hazard assessments were undertaken in the LTV in the recent years. Complex trench features along the excavated sections were argued to be either fault- or erosion-related phenomena. Borehole data and seismic profiles indicate subsurface structures within the Lower Tagus Valley and adjacent areas. Furthermore, recent attempts to improve seismic hazard assessment indicate that the highest values in Portugal for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years correspond with the greater Lisbon area, with the LTV fault as the most probable source. Considering the above, efforts are being made to acquire more information about the location of the LTV seismic source taking into account the presence of extensive erosion and/or deposition processes within the valley, densely populated urban areas, heavily forested regions, and flooded sections such as the Tagus estuary. Results from recent mapping along the LTV reveal surface faulting that left-laterally displaced numerous geomorphic landforms within the Lower Tagus River valley. The mapped trace shows clear evidence of left-lateral displacement and deformation within the valley transecting the river, its tributaries, and innumerable young terraces. The trace has been mapped by analyzing topographic maps

  19. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, A. S.; Bürgmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ˜1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ˜0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ˜6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ˜7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ˜0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  20. The View from Sudbury Valley. A Profile of the Sudbury Valley School, Part One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Describes Sudbury Valley School (Framingham, Massachusetts), established in 1965 as an alternative to public education. Discusses the educational philosophy of the democratic school, which stresses the importance of children being free and learning how to govern themselves; daily activities at the school; and how the school has achieved fiscal as…

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  2. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  3. Raptor ecology of Raft River Valley, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Thurow, T.L.; White, C.M.; Howard, R.P.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-09-01

    Raptor data were gathered in the 988-km/sup 2/ Raft River Valley in southcentral Idaho while conducting a tolerance study on the nesting Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) near the Department of Energy's Raft River Geothermal Site. Prior research from 1972 to 1977 on the nesting activity of the Ferruginous Hawk population provided a historical information base. These data are combined with new Ferruginous Hawk data collected between 1978 and 1980 to give a continuous 9-year breeding survey. Information on the distribution, density, and production of the other raptor species found in the study area during 1978 and 1979 is also provided.

  4. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Lee, Bonmyong

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome. PMID:26425383

  5. Environmental Assessment : Happy Valley [Substation Project].

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1982-05-01

    The proposed Happy Valley project consists of construction of a new BPA customer service 69-kV substation south of Sequim in Clallam County, Washington. A tie line, to be constructed by the customer as part of this project, will link the new BPA facility to the existing customer's transmission system in the area. This project responds to rapid load growth in the Olympic Peninsula, and will strengthen the existing BPA system and interconnected utility systems. It will reduce transmission losses presently incurred, especially on the BPA system supplying power to the Olympic Peninsula. This report describes the potential environmental impact of the proposed actions. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

  7. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County,...

  8. 78 FR 60375 - Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation (Rogue Valley),\\1\\ a Class III rail carrier... White City Terminal & Utility Co. (WCTU) and was indirectly controlled by Berkshire Hathaway...

  9. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  10. Subglacial extensional fracture development and implications for Alpine Valley evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2014-01-01

    stresses induced through exhumation and tectonic processes play a key role in the topographic evolution of alpine valleys. Using a finite difference model combining the effects of tectonics, erosion, and long-term bedrock strength, we assess the development of near-surface in situ stresses and predict bedrock behavior in response to glacial erosion in an Alpine Valley (the Matter Valley, southern Switzerland). Initial stresses are derived from the regional tectonic history, which is characterized by ongoing transtensional or extensional strain throughout exhumation of the brittle crust. We find that bedrock stresses beneath glacial ice in an initial V-shaped topography are sufficient to induce localized extensional fracturing in a zone extending laterally 600 m from the valley axis. The limit of this zone is reflected in the landscape today by a valley "shoulder," separating linear upper mountain slopes from the deep U-shaped inner valley. We propose that this extensional fracture development enhanced glacial quarrying between the valley shoulder and axis and identify a positive feedback where enhanced quarrying promoted valley incision, which in turn increased in situ stress concentrations near the valley floor, assisting erosion and further driving rapid U-shaped valley development. During interglacial periods, these stresses were relieved through brittle strain or topographic modification, and without significant erosion to reach more highly stressed bedrock, subsequent glaciation caused a reduction in differential stress and suppressed extensional fracturing. A combination of stress relief during interglacial periods, and increased ice accumulation rates in highly incised valleys, will reduce the likelihood of repeat enhanced erosion events.

  11. West Valley waste removal system study

    SciTech Connect

    Janicek, G P

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank.

  12. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  13. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  14. Lone Tree prospect area, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-02-01

    Continued exploration in the Basin and Range of Nevada has resulted in a number of small field discoveries that confirm widespread oil generation and suggest potential in local prospect settings. One such setting, the Lone Tree prospect area, lies approximately 6.5 mi (10.4 km) southwest of Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley. Discovered in 1983, this field had produced nearly 20 million bbl of oil by June 1996, mostly from two wells. Oil is entrapped in a slide block of fractured Paleozoic strata juxtaposed against Mississippian source rocks along a detachment fault of probable early Tertiary age. Subsequent exploration has focused on attempts to identify such blocks elsewhere in east-central Nevada, particularly in Railroad and Pine Valleys. Well, gravity, and two-dimensional seismic data suggested the existence of such a block in the Lone Tree area. These data were used as a basis for a three-dimensional seismic survey. Information from this survey identified a prospect at the structural culmination of the interpreted block. The resulting well, the 13-14 Timber Mountain, was commercially unsuccessful but yielded important new data, suggesting a need to revise existing stratigraphy and structural history. In addition, a second prospect, located farther updip, was indicated.

  15. Technology Finds Its Place in Silicon Valley Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Paula; Scigliano, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Technology today is poised to usher in the best of times. Exploring what other districts do highlights the common themes as well as the unique challenges. Three very different districts in Silicon Valley--Portola Valley School District, Campbell Union School District and San Jose Unified School District--explain the strategies they use to enhance…

  16. Field-induced polarization of Dirac valleys in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, Kamran; Zhu, Zengwei; Callaudin, Aurelie; Fauque, Benoit; Kang, Woun

    2012-02-01

    The principal challenge in the field of ``valleytronics'' is to lift the valley degeneracy of electrons in a controlled way. In graphene, a number of methods to generate a valley-polarized flow of electrons have been proposed, which are yet to be experimentally realized. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high-symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. We present a study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth which shows that a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. The effect is visible even at room temperature. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. At high temperature and low magnetic field, the three valleys are interchangeable and the three-fold symmetry of the underlying lattice is respected. As the temperature is decreased or the magnetic field increased, this symmetry is spontaneously lost. This loss may be an experimental manifestation of the recently proposed valley-nematic Fermi liquid state.

  17. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  18. Mid-Mon Valley Survey: Education and Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Pearley; Sandrock, Brad L.

    In May 1991, a survey was conducted of businesses and industries in the Mid-Mon Valley in Pennsylvania to develop a profile of the companies, determine their competitiveness and expansion since completion of a 1987 Business Outreach Survey, determine their use of technology, identify training needs for the Mid-Mon Valley, and examine how companies…

  19. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  20. South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes chemistry and botany departments. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 311. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 78 FR 9686 - Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 1, 2013, Valley Electric Association, Inc. filed a notice of material changes in certain of the...Support@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5:00...

  2. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....” On a label the words “Solano County” may be reduced in type size to the minimum allowed in 27 CFR 4... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  3. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....” On a label the words “Solano County” may be reduced in type size to the minimum allowed in 27 CFR 4... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  4. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....” On a label the words “Solano County” may be reduced in type size to the minimum allowed in 27 CFR 4... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  5. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....” On a label the words “Solano County” may be reduced in type size to the minimum allowed in 27 CFR 4... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  6. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....” On a label the words “Solano County” may be reduced in type size to the minimum allowed in 27 CFR 4... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  7. Water supply issues of the San Joaquin Valley in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is undoubtedly one of the most productive agricultural regions of the United States, and of the world. The valley was a Miocene epicontinental sea bounded by the Sierra Nevada igneous arc in the east and the Coast Range accretionary terrane in the west. It is now...

  8. 'BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES' FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nontechnical summary of several research activities in the Grand Valley is given. Analyses of alternative measures of reducing the salt load originating from the Valley as a result of irrigation return flows are presented. These alternatives include conveyance channel linings, ...

  9. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  10. Ultrafast Manipulation of the Valley Coherence in Monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony

    The valley degree of freedom in solids has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley polarization has been created in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using circularly polarized light and the existence of coherence in the valley exciton pseudospin has been experimentally demonstrated. The degeneracy of the valley degeneracy has recently been lifted both by the application of magnetic fields and dynamically by the optical Stark effect with circularly polarized light. Here we demonstrate the all-optical manipulation of valley exciton coherence, i.e., of the valley exciton pseudospin, by the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin on the femtosecond time scale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be optically controlled by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. In addition, by varying the time delay between the excitation and control pulses, we probe the lifetime of the intervalley coherence in monolayer WSe2.

  11. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River Valley. 9.216 Section 9.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley....

  12. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  13. 63. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, 395 AND AQUEDUCT GOING UP MIDDLE OF PICTURE SPACE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 64. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW NORTH UP OWENS VALLEY, SOUTH OF HAIWEE COMPLEX, 935 AND AQUEDUCT GOING UP MIDDLE OF PICTURE SPACE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 9, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

  18. 22. VIEW EAST TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF PIPELINE ALONG PALI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW EAST TOWARDS WAIKOLU VALLEY OF PIPELINE ALONG PALI. EYE BOLTS IN ROCK FACE AT RIGHT WERE USED BRIEFLY IN PLACE OF PIERS TO SUSPEND PIPE BY CHAIN BECAUSE THE CONCRETE PIERS WERE SUSCEPTIBLE TO HEAVY WAVE ACTION IN THIS AREA. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  19. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  20. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  1. Valley Fever: Danger Lurking in a Dust Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Larry; Gaab, Erin M.; Sanchez, Javier; Bui, Phuong Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Hoyer, Katrina K.; Peterson, Michael W.; Ojcius, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii contribute to the development of Valley Fever. The ability of these fungal pathogens to evade the host immune system creates difficulty in recognition and treatment of this debilitating infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of Valley Fever and approaches to improve prevention, detection, and treatment. PMID:25038397

  2. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  3. Magma energy exploratory well Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bender-Lamb, S.

    1991-04-01

    Intensive study of Long Valley over the past 15 years indicates evidence for magma at depths accessible to drilling. The Department of Energy's Magma Energy Extraction Program is currently drilling a 20,000 foot exploratory well into the Long Valley caldera. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of producing electrical power from magma. If the magma energy experiment is successful, the Long Valley caldera could hypothetically supply the electrical power needs of California for 100 years at present power consumption rates. The paper describes calderas, the potential of geothermal energy, Long Valley geology, the Long Valley magma energy exploratory well, the four phases of the exploratory well drilling program, and Phase 1 results.

  4. Precipitation depth-duration characteristics, Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, James C.; Nasseri, Iraj

    1995-01-01

    To document the changes in runoff characteristics of basins subject to urbanization, streamflow and precipitation data were collected at eight small basins in Antelope Valley, California, for the period 1990-93. The data collected at U.S. Geological Survey stations were supplemented by data collected at 35 long-term precipitation stations. These data will be used to calibrate and verify rainfall-runoff models for the eight basins and for estimating basin runoff characteristics throughout Antelope Valley. Annual precipitation in Antelope Valley varies from more than 50 cm in the mountains to less than 10 cm on the valley floor. Most precipitation in the valley occurs during the winter months, December through March, but cyclonic storms in the fall and convectional storms in the summer sometimes occur.

  5. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  6. Valley heat deficit as a bulk measure of wintertime particulate air pollution in the Arve River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, Charles; Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Largeron, Yann; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Paci, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Urbanized valleys are particularly vulnerable to particulate air pollution during the winter, when ground-based stable layers or cold-air pools persist over the valley floor. We examine whether the temporal variability of PM10 concentration in the section of the Arve River Valley between Cluses and Servoz in the French Alps can be explained by the temporal variability of the valley heat deficit, a bulk measure of atmospheric stability within the valley. We do this on the basis of temperature profile and ground-based PM10 concentration data collected during wintertime with a temporal resolution of 1 h or finer, as part of the Passy-2015 field campaign conducted around Passy in this section of valley. The valley heat deficit was highly correlated with PM10 concentration on a daily time scale. The hourly variability of PM10 concentrations was more complex and cannot be explained solely by the hourly variability of the valley heat deficit. The interplay of the diurnal cycles of emissions and local dynamics is demonstrated and a drainage mechanism for observed nocturnal dilution of near-surface PM10 concentrations is proposed.

  7. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Antelope Valley Community College and Antelope Valley College Faculty Association, June 13, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antelope Valley Coll., Lancaster, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Antelope Valley Community College and the Antelope Valley College Faculty Association outlines the terms of employment for all full- and part-time certificated employees of the District, covering the period from June 1988 to June 1990. The articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1)…

  8. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global

  9. Steady state, near-source models of the Parkfield, Imperial Valley, and Mexicali Valley Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, A. J.; Luco, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the gross characteristics of the rupture processes for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Imperial Valley, and 1980 Mexicali Valley earthquakes are determined by waveform inversion of near-source data employing a steady state dislocation model in a layered half-space. The forward model involves a piecewise-linear rupture front moving with a constant horizontal rupture velocity on a fault of infinite length and finite width. The inferred shapes for the rupture front and for the distribution of slip as a function of depth are consistent with previous results obtained by use of more general models. The results obtained show that a strong velocity pulse observed in the nearsource region can be modeled as the passage of the rupture front phase and that the supershear propagation of the rupture front in the sedimentary layers of the medium provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed large amplitudes.

  10. Debris-Flow Deposition, Valley Storage, and Fluvial Evacuation in Headwater Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, S. T.; Casebeer, N. E.

    2006-12-01

    Sediment from landscape disturbance often winds up in temporary storage, to be evacuated over longer time spans. In steeplands, there are few constraints on the rate at which sediment stored in valleys is released. We hypothesize that sediment in reaches characterized by debris-flow deposition and evacuation has a distribution of residence times that is distinguishable from those of sediment that is primarily released by fluvial processes. We use field surveys and extensive radiocarbon dating to assess the distribution of deposit ages in two mainstem reaches of a 2.23-km2 watershed in the Oregon Coast Range. In the downstream reach, fluvial deposits are impounded by encroaching debris fans, debris-flow, fine fluvial, and coarse fluvial deposits comprise roughly equal parts of valley storage, and deposits must be evacuated by fluvial erosion. Evacuation times are exponentially distributed with a sample mean of 1.22×103 14C yrs, a distribution indicating uniform probability of evacuation from storage. In the upstream reach, valley-spanning debris jams impound debris-flow deposits comprising >95% of valley storage, which is routinely scoured by debris flows. Evacuation times >100 14C yrs have a power law distribution with a sample mean of 4.43×102 14C yrs, a distribution indicating preferential evacuation of younger deposits and retention of older deposits. In both reaches most sediment is evacuated within short times (<500 14C yrs), but significant volumes remain for millennia. Less than half of basin-wide denudation passes through these "reservoirs," but the latter are still significant buffers between hillslope disturbance and downstream aquatic habitat.

  11. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  12. Transient Meltwater in Mullins Valley Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, R. E.; Stillman, D. E.; Kowalewski, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Mullins Glacier is a cold-based debris-covered glacier feeding into Beacon Valley, at high altitude in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Ice is exposed at the headwall in Mullins Valley but the majority of the glacier is buried beneath a sublimation till (lag deposit composed of englacial and supraglacial debris). This till is initially ~10 cm thick but gradually thickens to ~60 cm at the glacier terminus (~8 km distant). Mullins Glacier has been postulated to be one of the world's oldest alpine glaciers: tephrachronology places a minimum age of the overlying sublimation till near the terminus at 7.9 Ma. Our measurements of the complex resistivity (aka spectral induced polarization or dielectric spectroscopy) of massive Mullins Glacier ice reveal two distinct origins. The electrical properties of clean ice or ice with rock fragments are typical of meteoric polar ice (Stillman et al., JGR, 2013). However, "dirty" ice is electrically distinct, indicating soluble impurity content near lattice saturation. This behavior, which we also observed for Lake Vostok accretion ice, is consistent with freezing from saline, draining water. Therefore one hypothesis it that the dirty ice formed by infiltration in former clement environments. However, very efficient segregation is subsequently required, and not all dirty ice is at the top of the ice column. Dirty ice likely samples debris bands, which are more commonly observed in cores where Mullins Glacier has advanced onto the main (Beacon) valley floor and is nearly stagnant. If debris bands are correlated to lattice impurity saturation via the dirty ice, then they may have been transiently at or near melting. This may be a primary feature of the environment during debris accumulation or simply due to the high thermal inertia of debris. Alternatively, debris bands and associated salts may be carried below the annual thermal wave where they experience near-constant, supereutectic temperatures. Elevated temperatures may be

  13. 40 CFR 52.241 - Interim approval of enhanced inspection and maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nonattainment areas (South Coast Air Basin, San Joaquin Valley, Sacramento Metro, Coachella Valley, Ventura... requirements of sections 182(a)(2)(B) and 182(c)(3) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, and 40 CFR part... within the San Francisco Bay Area ozone nonattainment area; and emission analyzer specifications and...

  14. Valley plasmonics in transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewald, R. E.; Rösner, M.; Schönhoff, G.; Haas, S.; Wehling, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    The rich phenomenology of plasmonic excitations in the dichalcogenides is analyzed as a function of doping. The many-body polarization, the dielectric response function, and electron energy loss spectra are calculated using an ab initio based model involving material-realistic Coulomb interactions, band structure, and spin-orbit coupling. Focusing on the representative case of MoS2, a plethora of plasmon bands are observed, originating from scattering processes within and between the conduction or valence band valleys. We discuss the resulting square-root and linear collective modes, arising from long-range versus short-range screening of the Coulomb potential. We show that the multiorbital nature of the bands and spin-orbit coupling strongly affects intervalley scattering processes by gapping certain two-particle modes at large momentum transfer.

  15. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems. PMID:24671755

  16. Understanding the coupled surface energy flux-valley wind system using observations in an alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. H.; Pardyjak, E.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Mage, R.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Buoyancy-driven diurnal valley winds depend on relative partitioning of incoming solar radiation into the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Evaporation and transpiration at the surface contribute to the latent heat flux, while heating of the air near the surface results from the sensible heat flux. Thus if more moisture is available at the surface, (e.g. as soil moisture or dew) then more energy will be partitioned into the latent heat flux, and less will be available for the sensible heat flux. Presented here is an analysis of observations from surface weather stations placed throughout the La Fouly catchment (~20 km^2) in southern Switzerland during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The stations were equipped with sensors to measure atmospheric and land surface variables including: incoming solar radiation, 2 m air temperature, skin temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture, and soil temperature. Scaling analysis is used to show how the balance between sensible and latent heat fluxes influences the buoyancy-driven valley winds. A preliminary analysis indicates that increased surface soil moisture tends to decrease the strength of slope winds both during the day and at night, while decreased soil moisture has the opposite effect. While this type of relation has been previously investigated through numerical simulations of valley or slope flows, it has not (to the authors' knowledge), been previously observed in the field.

  17. Preliminary subsidence investigation of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.; Ireland, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Although a number of agencies have made leveling surveys in Sacramento Valley and a valleywide network of first- and second-order control exists, few areas have sufficient control for determining whether land subsidence has occurred and if so, how much, within the time span of vertical control. Available data suggest that 0.2 to 0.9 foot (0.06 to 0.3 m) of subsidence probably has occurred from 1935-42 to 1964 in an extensive agricultural area of heavy ground-water pumping between Zamora and Davis, and that as much as 2 feet (0.6 m) of subsidence has occurred in at least two areas of pumping overdraft--east of Zamora, and west of Arbuckle. A comparison of maps showing long-term water-level decline and average annual ground-water pumpage indicates several other areas of probable subsidence. In six general areas--northwest of Sacramento; northeast of Sacramento; southeast of Yuba City; 10 miles (16 km) north of Willows; 20 miles (32 km) north of Willows; and especially in the Arbuckle area,ground-water declines have quite probably produced significant subsidence. In two areas of most intensive pumping, no long-term water-level declines have occurred, and no subsidence is indicated. If problems of land subsidence are of concern in Sacramento Valley, and if estimates of historic subsidence or subsidence potential are needed, serious consideration should be given to a field program of basic-data collection. Second-order leveling along a few carefully selected lines of existing control, and the installation and operation of two or three compaction recorders in areas of continuing water-level decline, would provide helpful data for estimating .past and future subsidence.

  18. Pleistocene drainage incision in the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The deep dissection of the Wisconsin Driftless Area and topographically similar, but glaciated areas in adjacent states is generally acknowledged to have occurred during the Pleistocene, but the precise chronology has been poorly understood. The distribution of pre-Illinoian glacial outwash gravels on uplands and valley side benches near the Mississippi River, on the western margin of the Wisconsin Driftless Area, indicates that the major incision (50-60 m) of drainage had occurred during the very early Pleistocene. Deposits in cut-off valley meanders, a common feature in the lower reaches of Driftless Area rivers, provide a basis for relative dating of the valley incision. The cut-offs appear to have evolved episodically when, at various times during the Pleistocene, glacial debris blocked the drainages of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers causing massive alluviation of side valley tributaries. A radiocarbon date of 21,910 +/- 350 year B.P., representing a buried soil horizon at 22 m depth and about 9 m above the bedrock floor of a cut-off valley meander and 18 m above the bedrock floor of the adjacent present-day valley, supports stratigraphic interpretations that suggest modest valley incision into bedrock probably occurred during the Illinoian and may have also occurred during the early Wisconsinan.

  19. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    SciTech Connect

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. The warmer waters are likely to have higher concentrations of sodium and chloride, as well as sulfate, silica, and dissolved solids, than the cooler waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill deposits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Extensive areas underlain by thermal ground water occur near Crump geyser and Fisher Hot Spring.

  20. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    SciTech Connect

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

  1. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  2. Mineral deficiencies in tule elk, Owens Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather E; Bleich, Vernon C; Krausman, Paul R

    2007-01-01

    Male tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) are susceptible to high rates of antler breakage in Owens Valley, California. We hypothesized that a mineral deficiency in the diet predisposed male elk to antler breakage. We analyzed elk antler, liver, and forage samples to identify mineral imbalances. We compared the mineral content of livers and antlers from elk in Owens Valley to samples taken from tule elk at Grizzly Island Wildlife Area, a population experiencing normal rates (<5%) of antler breakage. Antler and liver samples were collected from 1989 to 1993, and in 2002, and were tested for calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Mineral levels from antler and liver samples were compared to reference values established for elk and deer. We also compared the mineral content of elk forage in Owens Valley, collected in 2002-03, to dietary reference values established for cattle. In antlers, Ca, Fe, and Mg levels were higher in Owens Valley elk than in Grizzly Island elk, although all mineral levels were lower than reference values established for deer antlers. In liver samples, Cu levels from elk in Owens Valley were lower than those from Grizzly Island and lower than minimum reference values; liver Ca and Mo levels were higher in elk from Owens Valley than in those from Grizzly Island. Compared to reference values, elk forage in Owens Valley had high levels of Ca and Mo, and low levels of Cu, P, and Zn. Mineral analyses from antlers, livers, and forage suggest that tule elk in the Owens Valley are Cu and/or P deficient. High levels of Mo and Ca may exacerbate Cu and P deficiencies, respectively. Bone fragility is a symptom of both deficiencies, and an imbalance in Cu, P, or a combination of both, may predispose male tule elk in the Owens Valley to antler breakage. PMID:17347394

  3. Holocene alluvial fills in the South Loup Valley, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, David W.

    1989-07-01

    Four Holocene alluvial fills are present in Nebraska's South Loup River valley. Fill IV, the oldest and thickest, was deposited between 10,200 and 4800 14C yr B.P.; Fill III has an age of about 3000 14C yr B.P.; Fill II is younger than 2100 and older than 900 14C yr B.P.; and Fill I is younger than 900 14C yr B.P. Regional contemporaneity of valley alluviation in the eastcentral Great Plains suggests that climate has controlled long-term sediment storage in the South Loup River valley.

  4. 7. Photocopy of map of the Agua Fria Valley and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map of the Agua Fria Valley and lands to be irrigated by the Agua Fria Water and Land Company. Photographer Mark Durben, 1987 Source: 'Map of the Agua Fria Valley and the Western Portion of the Salt River Valley Showing the System of Reservoirs and Canals of the Agua Fria Water and Land Company and the Land to be Irrigated Thereby 160,000 Acres of New Land to be Reclaimed in the Maricopa County, Arizona Territory,' (Brochure) Union Photo Engraving Company, c. 1895, Salt River Project Research Archives, Tempe, Arizona. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. "P8400564 Grand Valley Project view of GV Diversion Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "P8-400-564 Grand Valley Project - view of GV Diversion Dam on Col. River completed in 1915 by BOR to divert water to irrigate the Grand Valley Project. 7-18-58 by Stan Rasmussen." Note integration of the dam and canal headgate at center left, proximity of the river and railroad tracks at lower left, and gatekeeper's house on lower right - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  6. Meander in valley crossing a deep-ocean fan.

    PubMed

    Shepard, F P

    1966-10-21

    Seaward of most submarine canyons there are large sediment fans comparable to the fans at the base of mountain ranges. Many of the submarine fans are cut by valleys called fan-valleys which usually connect with the mouths of submarine canyons. Loop-like bends or meanders characterize the channels of rivers in their lower flood plains, but have never been found in the shallow channels that cross the alluvial fans at the base of mountain canyons. Therefore, it was surprising to find that the channel in a very deep submarine fan-valley off Monterey Bay, California, has a tight meander. PMID:17751705

  7. 76 FR 18542 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and... Application. b. Project No.: 13124-002. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley) d..., Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O. Box 45, Mile 187 Glenn Highway, Glennallen, Alaska 99588,...

  8. 77 FR 42722 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis Preparation Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley). d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e...)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O....

  9. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  10. OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF VALLEY WITH WAIKELE MAGAZINES FROM SOUTH ALONG THE VALLY WALL FROM GUARD/WATCH TOWER S82. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Dynamics of katabatic winds in Colorado's Brush Creek Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeiner, I.; Dreiseitl, E.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method is proposed to evaluate the coupled mass, momentum and thermal energy budget equations for a deep valley under two-dimensional, steady-state flow conditions. The method requires the temperature, down-valley wind and valley width fields to be approximated by simple analytical functions. The vertical velocity field is calculated using the mass continuity equation. Advection terms in the momentum and energy equations are then calculated using finite differences computed on a vertical two-dimensional grid that runs down the valley's axis. The pressure gradient term in the momentum equation is calculated from the temperature field by means of the hydrostatic equation. The friction term is then calculated as a residual in the x-momentum equation, and the diabatic cooling term is calculated as a residual in the thermal energy budget equation.

  12. Synchronized Swimming--The Training at Squaw Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Margaret M.

    1979-01-01

    The Olympic Training Center at Squaw Valley is available to individuals and groups interested in advanced skill development. It offers training in sports and sports medicine techniques. Its use by the Olympic synchronized swimming team is highlighted. (JMF)

  13. Looking southeast down the Turtle Creek Valley at the Edgar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast down the Turtle Creek Valley at the Edgar Thomson works from a bluff at North Braddock (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  15. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley.

  16. Estimating Volume of Martian Valleys Using Axelsson Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J. H.; Kim, C. J.; Heo, J.; Luo, W.

    2012-03-01

    A progressive TIN densification algorithm is adapted to estimate the volume martian valley networks (VN) based MOLA point data. This method can be used to estimate the global water inventory associated with VN.

  17. 114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley in distance, alligator back, and overlook in foreground. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. McMurdo LTER: streamflow measurements in Taylor Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, D.; House, H.; Von Guerard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Has established a stream gaging network for the three major lake basins in Taylor Valley. These data are critical for determining nutrient budgets for the lake ecosystems and for understanding physical factors controlling microbial mats in the streams.

  19. Valley triage: an approach to mass casuality care.

    PubMed

    Gierson, E D; Richman, L S

    1975-03-01

    Organizations prepared to respond to war, fire, flood, earthquake, or attack are essential for effective disaster control. "Valley Triage" the San Fernando Valley Medical Triage Team in Los Angeles, was formed to meet this need. The team is a mobile medical unit staffed by physicians and coordinated with civilian and military emergency services. It incorporates innovative means of communication, transportation, equipment, and training. The primary aim of Valley Triage is to provide on-site medical attention to disaster victims, and to coordinate their transfer to adequately staffed and equipped hospitals. Valley Triage offers a new approach to disaster management and can serve as a model for the development of other teams throughout the nation. PMID:1127742

  20. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  1. 1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on Rich Mountain Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. Domes Made the Difference At Valley R-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development from conception through construction of three domes in the Valley R-6 School District (Washington County, Missouri). Arguments for, and investigations into, building monolithic domes, funding issues, and efforts to gain voter approval are discussed. (GR)

  3. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. ANALYSIS OF LOTIC MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using multivariate and cluster analyses, we examined the relaitonships between chemical and physical characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages at sites sampled by R-EMAP in California's Central Valley. By contrasting results where community structure was summarized as met...

  5. Dichroic spin–valley photocurrent in monolayer molybdenum disulphide

    PubMed Central

    Eginligil, Mustafa; Cao, Bingchen; Wang, Zilong; Shen, Xiaonan; Cong, Chunxiao; Shang, Jingzhi; Soci, Cesare; Yu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of valleytronics is to exploit confinement of charge carriers in local valleys of the energy bands of semiconductors as an additional degree of freedom in optoelectronic devices. Thanks to strong direct excitonic transitions in spin-coupled K valleys, monolayer molybdenum disulphide is a rapidly emerging valleytronic material, with high valley polarization in photoluminescence. Here we elucidate the excitonic physics of this material by light helicity-dependent photocurrent studies of phototransistors. We demonstrate that large photocurrent dichroism (up to 60%) can also be achieved in high-quality molybdenum disulphide monolayers grown by chemical vapour deposition, due to the circular photogalvanic effect on resonant excitations. This opens up new opportunities for valleytonic applications in which selective control of spin–valley-coupled photocurrents can be used to implement polarization-sensitive light-detection schemes or integrated spintronic devices, as well as biochemical sensors operating at visible frequencies. PMID:26134143

  6. Channels and valley networks. [of planet Mars surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Carr, Michael H.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Williams, Cameron R.; Marley, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Martian channels and valley networks, since they have become a principal element of evidence to the effect that the Martian atmosphere evolved from an early volatile-rich state to its present condition. The outflow channels are relatively young, later Hesperian or Amazonian in age. They formed by immense outbursts of fluid from subsurface sources. Complexity in outflow-channel morphology was generated by varying amounts of sediment and ice in the aqueous-fluid flow systems. The overall cataclysmic-flood morphology may thus be locally transitional to morphologies generated by ice and debris flowage. Although local areas of valley networks, such as on Alba Patera, formed coevally with outflow channel activity, regionally extensive networks dominate in the heavily cratered terrains. The morphology of many valleys suggests genesis by ground-water sapping; for some valleys, surface runoff may have been more important.

  7. 15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Wyoming Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Sociocultural and Economic Dimensions of Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Geoffrey Otieno; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary; Affognon, Hippolyte

    2015-01-01

    Health researchers have advocated for a cross-disciplinary approach to the study and prevention of infectious zoonotic diseases, such as Rift Valley Fever. It is believed that this approach can help bring out the social determinants and effects of the zoonotic diseases for the design of appropriate interventions and public health policy. A comprehensive literature review using a systematic search strategy was undertaken to explore the sociocultural and economic factors that influence the transmission and spread of Rift Valley Fever. Although the findings reveal a paucity of social research on Rift Valley Fever, they suggest that livestock sacrificial rituals, food preparation and consumption practices, gender roles, and inadequate resource base for public institutions are the key factors that influence the transmission. It is concluded that there is need for cross-disciplinary studies to increase the understanding of Rift Valley Fever and facilitate appropriate and timely response and mitigation measures. PMID:25688166

  9. Pleistocene entrenched valley/canyon systems, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, G.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mississippi Submarine Canyon is the seaward extension of the late Wisconsin entrenched alluvial valley. Geophysical and geologic data provide evidence for the continuity of the Mississippi entrenched valley, the Timbalier channel, and the submarine canyon. The Mississippi entrenched valley/canyon system is one of several systems recognized in the Pleistocene section of offshore Louisiana. Most of these systems were produced by the ancestral Mississippi River. They typically exhibit a three-gradient profile with their maximum erosional relief at the preexisting shelf margin. The canyons extend onto the pre-existing shelf for 20 to 50 mi, with erosion commonly exceeding 1000 ft. All of these systems delivered large quantities of sediment to the Pleistocene slope and abyssal plain. The fan deposits are the products of sediment passing through and being removed from the entrenched valley/canyon systems.

  10. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  11. Loess stratigraphy of the Lower Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, E.M.; Guccione, M.J.; Markewich, H.W.; Wysocki, D.A.; Ward, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Loesses of the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) are world-famous. Sir Charles Lyell (1847), Hilgard (1860), Stafford (1869), Call (1891) and Mabry (1898), thought the LMV loess was a single water deposit although "double submergence" was noted by Call (1891) and Salisbury (1891). Shimek (1902) and Emerson (1918) recognized LMV loess as a wind deposit which came from the valley. Although wind-deposited loess gained wide acceptance, Russell (1944a) published his controversial theory of "loessification" which entailed weathering of backswamp deposits, downslope movement and recharge by carbonates to form loess. Wascher et al. (1947) identified three LMV loesses, mapped distributions and strongly supported eolian deposition. Leighton and Willman (1950), identified four loesses and supported eolian deposition as did Krinitzsky and Turnbull (1967) and Snowden and Priddy (1968), but Krinitzsky and Turnbull questioned the deepest loess. Daniels and Young (1968) and Touchet and Daniels (1970) studied the distribution of loesses in south-central Louisiana. West et al. (1980) and Rutledge et al. (1985) studied the source areas and wind directions which deposited the loesses on and adjoining Crowley's Ridge. B.J. Miller and co-workers (Miller et al., 1985, 1986, Miller and Alford, 1985) proposed that the Loveland Silt was Early Wisconsin rather than Illinoian age and advanced the name Sicily Island loess. They proposed the underlying loess was Illinoian and advanced the name Crowley's Ridge. We termed the loesses, from the surface downward, Peoria Loess, Roxana Silt, Loveland/Sicily Island loess, Crowley's Ridge Loess and Marianna loess. Researchers agree that the surfical Peoria Loess is Late Wisconsin and the Roxana Silt is Late to Middle Wisconsin, but little agreement exists on the age of the older loesses. Pye and Johnson (1988) proposed Early Wisconsin for the Loveland/Sicily Island. McKay and Follmer (1985) suggested this loess correlated with a loess under Illinoian till

  12. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  13. Urban air quality of Kathmandu valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley occupying about 600 sq. km. of area is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the alley, i.e. Kathmandu, Litilpur, and Bhaktapur. Out of the three the most populated is the Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has 668,000 population in an area of approximately 50 sq. km. The city population consumes energy about 1/3 of total imports of Nepal in the form of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicle has increased several fold leading in recent months to 100,000 in number in a road of about 900 kms., out of which 25% is only metalled. Most of two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission gases as well as dust particulate. SO{sub 2} has been found to go as high as 202 micro grams per cubic meter and NO{sub 2} to 126 micro gram particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10:00 AM in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m{sup 3} a day and also liquid waste directly dumping in Bagmati river to the tune of 500,000 liters per day makes city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water, and land are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals are considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50 to 60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce legal frame work for pollution control but it will take time to be effective like in other developing countries unless government is strong.

  14. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  15. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  16. Quaternary landscape evolution of the Turkey River Valley, northeastern Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkey River Valley, a major Mississippi tributary in northeastern Iowa, provides a more complete and accessible Quaternary record than the Upper Mississippi Valley. This project, using 3-dimensional reconstructions of both valley and upland deposits, revealed at least 13 important depositional, erosional, and soil-forming events. From oldest to youngest these events are: (1) deposition of pre-Illinoian till; (2) erosion of till and bedrock as the Turkey River cut down; (3) deposition of fluvial and colluvial sediments in the valley; (4) development of a Sangamon soil(s) on both the pre-Illinoian (upland) till and valley sediments; (5) truncation of the Sangamon soil(s) relatively high in the valley as bedrock entrenchment proceeded to its deepest point; (6) deposition of coarse fluvial and colluvial sediments in the valley prior to 32,000 yr. B.P.; (7) aggradation of mostly loess-derived alluvium until approximately 16,000 yr. B.P.; (8) large-scale colluviation between approximately 32,000 and 13,000 yr., B.P.; (9) major downcutting between 16,000 and 14,000 yr. B.P.; (10) aggradation of coarse to medium alluvium from approximately 14,000 to 13,000 yr. B.P.; (11) overall downcutting during several intervals of the late Wisconsinan and early Holocene; (12) aggradation of mid to late Holocene alluvium starting by 5000 yr. B.P.; (13) lateral erosion and deposition during the past 200 yr. B.P. Turkey River Valley deposits previously interpreted as pre-Illinoian are now recognized as late Wisconsinan or early Holocene, as indicated by /sup 14/C dates and molluscan fossils. The Paleozoic Plateau landform region (formerly part of the Driftless Area) is herein interpreted as a rugged, although complex, extension of the Iowan Erosion Surface.

  17. Tower details, sheet 16. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Tower details, sheet 16. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Clock and finial details; tower roof plan. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 16, job no. 692. Various scales. July 15, 1937. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, July 24, 1937. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections A through MM. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Sections. Ceiling plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. Ceiling plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 9, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Detail of proscenium opening. San bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of proscenium opening. San bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Details of corbels and soffit; lettering detail for frieze. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet W.P.A. 2, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. May 18, 1937. (no state stamp. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes miscellaneous full size details. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Basement plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 2, Job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Rose window; front windows; drinking fountain alcove; proscenium arch; stage door. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 12, job no. 692. Various scales. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 4, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  6. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  7. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes elevations and sections of chemistry department shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch t other foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. An Interpretation of Schroeters Valley and Other Lunar Sinuous Rills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Winifred S.

    1963-01-01

    Several more or less unsatisfactory theories have been proposed for the origin of lunar sinuous rills such as Schroeter's Valley. This paper presents a new explanation of the formation of these rills, namely, that they are valleys eroded by nuees ardentes. Characteristics of the rills, including form and association, are cited in support of this theory. Supporting evidence is found in the similarity of the rills to furrows eroded by nuees ardentes on the earth.

  9. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  10. Formation of Ice Eddies in Mountain Valleys of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. R.; Creyts, T. T.; Rice, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Observations show complex structures deep in ice sheets. Folds and accretion ice have been reported for both Greenland and Antarctica. Mismatched stratigraphy in the nearby GRIP and GISP2 cores in Greenland as well as overturning in the NEEM ice core suggest variable behavior within the ice sheet. Furthermore, ice penetrating radar data taken across both ice sheets shows folding at scales up to half the ice thickness. Because individual strata can be traced through the folds, it is clear that ice flow dynamics play an important role. Here we consider the possible formation of recirculation eddies in subglacial mountain valleys. Modeling the ice as a creeping homogeneous power-law shear-thinning viscous fluid, recirculation eddies are shown to form in valleys when the angle of the wall is steep enough that fluid inside the valley cannot return to the main flow. This is analogous to Moffatt eddies for a Newtonian viscous fluid. Using a no-slip boundary condition at the valley wall, ice can recirculate in these valleys indefinitely. We examine eddies in the basal ice using theory and simulations based on topography of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in central East Antarctica. The Gamburtsevs are a large mountain range (~750km×250km) with steep relief typical of an alpine glacier system. Analytic results point to a necessary critical angle, and for a power-law shear-thinning fluid such as ice, these eddies occur at lower angles than in a Newtonian viscous fluid. We further develop metrics for determining valleys that are likely to contain eddies based on flow velocity and the total relief of the valley. Our simulations show that in some valleys eddies of order one hundred meters form. We then compare our simulations to radar observations to show potential for near-bed stratigraphic disturbances.

  11. West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plan of entrance, section EE showing tiling and typical transom design, and a full size detail of a door jamb for inside concrete walls. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes physics, geology, and zoology departments shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch to the foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Plot plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium building. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 1, job no. 692. Scale 1 inch to forty feet. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Includes map drawers, surveying equipment lockers, counters, platforms, etc. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 8, job no. 312. Scales 1/2 inch to the foot (details) and 1/64 inch to the foot (plot plan). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Also includes sections AA-KK (except DD). Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 312. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Ultrafast valley relaxation dynamics in single layer semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrette, Andrew; Mai, Cong; Yu, Yifei; Semenov, Yuriy; Jin, Zhenghe; Kim, Ki Wook; Cao, Linyou; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2014-09-01

    Single layer transition metal dichalcogenides are 2D semiconducting systems with unique electronic band structure. Two-valley energy bands along with strong spin-orbital coupling lead to valley-dependent carrier spin polarization, which is the basis for recently proposed valleytronic applications. These systems also exhibit unusually strong many body effects, such as strong exciton and trion binding, due to reduced dielectric screening of Coulomb interactions. Not much is known about the impact of strong many particle correlations on spin and valley polarization dynamics. Here we report direct measurements of ultrafast valley specific relaxation dynamics in single layer MoS2 and WS2. We found that excitonic many body interactions significantly contribute to the relaxation process. Biexciton formation reveals hole valley/spin relaxation time in MoS2. Our results suggest that initial fast intervalley electron scattering and electron spin relaxation leads to loss of valley polarization for holes through an electron-hole spin exchange mechanism in both MoS2 and WS2.

  18. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  19. The Rate of Fitness-Valley Crossing in Sexual Populations

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Daniel B.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Fisher, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Biological traits result in part from interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, in which a beneficial adaptation involves a combination of individually deleterious or neutral mutations; in this case, a population must cross a “fitness valley” to adapt. Recombination can assist this process by combining mutations from different individuals or retard it by breaking up the adaptive combination. Here, we analyze the simplest fitness valley, in which an adaptation requires one mutation at each of two loci to provide a fitness benefit. We present a theoretical analysis of the effect of recombination on the valley-crossing process across the full spectrum of possible parameter regimes. We find that low recombination rates can speed up valley crossing relative to the asexual case, while higher recombination rates slow down valley crossing, with the transition between the two regimes occurring when the recombination rate between the loci is approximately equal to the selective advantage provided by the adaptation. In large populations, if the recombination rate is high and selection against single mutants is substantial, the time to cross the valley grows exponentially with population size, effectively meaning that the population cannot acquire the adaptation. Recombination at the optimal (low) rate can reduce the valley-crossing time by up to several orders of magnitude relative to that in an asexual population. PMID:20923976

  20. Late Cenozoic tectonism of the Sacramento Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.S.; Helley, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Structure contours drawn on top of the Cretaceous rocks in the Sacramento Valley define a large number of diversely oriented folds and faults that are expressed in topographic, hydrologic, and geologic features at the land surface. Although many of the structures in the valley have a protracted history of movement, some dating back to the late Mesozoic, a remarkable number of these structures show late Cenozoic deformation that can be accurately determined from folding and faulting of widespread, dated Pliocene and Pleistocene volcanic units. These time-stratigraphic units are used to define structural domains of essentially contemporaneous late Cenozoic deformation that was characterized by east-west compressive stress. The oldest structural domain is located in the southeastern part of the valley, where east-side-up reverse movement on the Willows fault ceased prior to deposition of continentally derived sediments of late Miocene and early Pliocene age. In the middle Pliocene to early Pleistocene, east-west compressive deformation progressed northward through the valley so that the youngest late Cenozoic deformation is recorded in east-northeast-trending folds and faults in the Battle Creek domain, at the northern-most part of the valley. The northward progression of east-west compressive deformation appears to be related to the northward eclipse of eastward subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate before the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the continental margin west of the valley.

  1. Flow and Plume Dispersion in a Coastal Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Physick, William L.; Abbs, Deborah J.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is carried out of summertime surface and upper-air wind and temperature data from the Latrobe Valley in southeastern Australia. An easterly sea breeze is found to regularly penetrate over 100 km up the east-west-oriented valley, meeting a sea breeze from the south coat in late afternoon. The latter enters the valley over a saddle in the Strzelecki Ranges to the south. Over a 5-day period of steady synoptic flow, winds below 1500 m fluctuated between easterly and westerly with a diurnal period, while above this height up to 3000 m, the wind direction remained westerly. The westerly winds were particularly surprising, as the synoptic pressure charts showed a northeasterly pressure gradient over the period.Power stations are located in the Latrobe Valley well inland from the coast, and findings from the wind-field analysis are used to examine the dispersion of plumes from these sources. It is concluded that the sea breezes replace polluted mixed-layer air with clean air as they penetrate up the valley, and that plume material is advected out of each end of the valley at upper levels overnight.

  2. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  4. Groundwater sapping valleys: Experimental studies, geological controls and implications to the interpretation of valley networks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach using experimental laboratory models, field studies of terrestrial analogs, and remote studies of terrestrial field sites were applied to the goals of understanding the nature and morphology of valley networks formed by groundwater sapping. In spite of problems with scaling, the experimental studies provide valuable insights into concepts relating to the initiation, development, and evolution of valleys by groundwater sapping. These investigations are also aimed at developing geomorphic criteria for distinguishing valleys formed by surface runoff from those formed by groundwater sapping processes. Channels that were field classified as sapping vs. runoff were successfully distinguished using statistical analysis of their respective morphologies; therefore, it may be possible to use similar techniques to interpret channel genesis on Mars. The terrestrial and flume studies provide the ground truth dataset which can be used (and will be during the present year) to help interpret the genesis of valley networks on Mars.

  5. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  6. Late Quaternary environments in Ruby Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Palynological data from sediment cores from the Ruby Marshes provide a record of environmental and climatic changes over the last 40,000 yr. The modern marsh waters are fresh, but no deeper than ???3 m. A shallow saline lake occupied this basin during the middle Wisconsin, followed by fresh and perhaps deep waters by 18,000 to 15,000 yr B.P. No sediments were recovered for the period between 15,000 and 11,000 yr B.P., possibly due to lake desiccation. By 10,800 yr B.P. a fresh-water lake was again present, and deeper-than-modern conditions lasted until 6800 yr B.P. The middle Holocene was characterized by very shallow water, and perhaps complete desiccation. The marsh system deepened after 4700 yr B.P., and fresh-water conditions persisted until modern times. Vegetation changes in Ruby Valley were more gradual than those seen in the paleolimno-logical record. Sagebrush steppe was more widespread than at present through the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, giving way somewhat to expanded shadscale vegetation between 8500 and 6800 yr B.P. Shadscale steppe contracted by 4000 yr B.P., but had greater than modern coverage until 1000 to 500 yr ago. Pinyon-juniper woodland was established in the southern Ruby Mountains by 4700 yr B.P. ?? 1992.

  7. Lessons from the Tennessee Valley Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchens, Carl Thomas

    This dissertation is a program evaluation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) the largest publicly owned utility in the United States. The first essay in this dissertation examines the TVA's use of eminent domain in order to acquire property for the construction of reservoirs. It develops a new model of asymmetric information and then tests the model predictions using property level data from TVA property purchases in the 1930's. The second essay of this dissertation examines the unintended consequences of reservoir development my examining changes in the malaria rate associated with TVA reservoirs. Using panel data methods, I find that the presence of a TVA reservoir leads to large increases in the malaria mortality and morbidity rate, which cost up to 30 percent of TVA federal appropriations. The final essay in this dissertation examines the impact of TVA electrification programs on economic growth. It combines archival and panel data methods to show that contrary to the historical account, TVA electric rates did not differ substantially from the rates charged by private utilities, and secondly, shows that counties that had electricity contracts with the TVA did not have differential economic growth rates for a variety of economic outcomes. In order to control for selection into contracts, I adopt an instrumental variables strategy based on the cost of electric service.

  8. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  9. Measuring quenching timescales in green valley galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini Gonçalves, Thiago; Martin, Christopher; Nogueira-Cavalcante, Joao Paulo; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-08-01

    What are the processes that halt star formation in galaxies? The clear bimodality in galaxy colors tells us that there must be a mechanism - or combination of mechanisms - responsible for the swift transformation of star-forming galaxies into passively evolving objects, but it is remarkably difficult to identify what these mechanisms might be in each case. In that sense, a measurement of quenching timescales might help identify which mechanisms are more efficient in moving galaxies from the blue cloud into the red sequence. In this talk I will discuss our spectroscopic studies of green valley galaxies (i.e. galaxies currently undergoing this transition) and our determination of quenching timescales in these cases. Comparisons between our samples at low and high redshift show that galaxies were transitioning faster at earlier times, probably due to more violent processes taking place at such epochs. We can also distinguish between different morphologies in our sample, and are able to determine that galaxies with signs of secular evolution show slower quenching timescales. Finally, I will discuss our new method which determines the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rates for individual galaxies, which allows for a precise characterization of star formation histories and its correlation with other physical properties such as AGN activity or local environment.

  10. Recursive stochastic effects in valley hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vennin, Vincent; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends because of a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in [L. P. Levasseur, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 88, 083537 (2013)], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of backreaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that the quasistationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. We find that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, we find that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an O(1) factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  11. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from the Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVS) and... states that the lease agreement between PVS and PVR will not contain any interchange commitments....

  12. Description of a primitive valley scattering unit cell to understand anisotropic inter-valley scattering in AlAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, S.; Grayson, M.

    2011-03-01

    Valley degenerate systems have an extra scattering channel not present in single valley systems, namely inter-valley scattering. To help classify anisotropic inter-valley scattering in degenerate multi-valley systems, such as AlAs quantum wells (QWs), we define a valley scattering primitive unit cell in momentum space which allows one to distinguish purely in-plane momentum scattering from scattering requiring an out-of-plane momentum component. The standard depiction of a 2D Brillouin zone of a quantum confined valley-degenerate system projects all valleys to a single plane and this depiction loses information about the momentum scattering component that was projected out. Because QW confinement potentials are inherently anisotropic, the disorder potential characteristic of quantum confinement can create anisotropic short-wavelength inter- valley scattering potentials favoring in-plane momentum scattering. We demonstrate that the valley scattering cell for AlAs QWs grown along various orientations is particularly useful in identifying relevant scattering vectors. Initial estimates will be shown of the role of strong electron-electron interactions in AlAs QWs on inter-valley scattering parameters such as inter-valley scattering time, probabilities and rates.

  13. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  14. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  15. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be <2 Ma. Instead, samples collected from bedrock outcrop at the floor of Tenaya Canyon, yield ages ranging from 35-40 Ma, while a sample from El Portal yields an age of ~74 Ma. Valley rim samples yield ages of ca. 60 Ma. To further constrain the timing of valley carving, we have conducted apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry from samples along both the valley floor and rim. By restricting the permissible thermal histories at these locations, these data constrain patterns of valley topography development through time. We also supplement these data with zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry, which is a newly developed method that provides information on continuous cooling paths through ~120-220 °C. We

  16. Latent structure of dermatoglyphs in the population of Selska Valley.

    PubMed

    Milicić, J; Vidovic, M

    2005-01-01

    The historical records of Selska Valley reveal that the eastern part of this area was first settled by Slovene agrarian colonists, the western part by German colonists and the central part by Friulians. These were later followed by Slovene and Slovenized settlers, who penetrated the valley from north to south. Because of its reproductive isolation, the population of Selska Valley is highly suitable for the study of population structures. The quantitative traits of the digital and palmar dermatoglyphs are polygenetically determined characteristics, which, due to their selective inertness to changes, may provide an insight into microevolutionary processes. The purpose of our study was to identify the possible differences between the populations of villages in the valley and the mountain villages attributable to various migration flows through history. Altogether 340 finger and palm prints of 163 males and 177 females were collected in two groups of villages: (1) the lowland villages (Praprotno, Bukovica, Sevlje, Dolenja vas, Selca, Zelezniki and Zali log), and (2) the mountain villages (Podlonk, Prtovc, Spodnje Danje, Zgornja Sorica and Spodnja Sorica). The 18 dermatoglyphic variables were analyzed. A statistical analysis using standard methods was performed and the latent structure evaluated using factor analysis. The discriminant analysis and latent structure of the quantitative properties of dermatoglyphs suggest the presence of certain differences in gene pools of two studied populations (the group of villages in the valley and the group of mountain villages). It is highly probable that these differences can be attributed to low migration in the Selska Valley and to the 'selective inertness' of quantitative dermatoglyphic traits. In a previous study, no significant biological differences between the studied populations were found in qualitative dermatoglyphic traits. This indicates that Selska Valley and its village populations represent a specific isolate, and

  17. Interactions Between the Nighttime Valley-Wind System and a Developing Cold-Air Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Chemel, Charles

    2016-06-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast numerical model is used to characterize the influence of a thermally-driven down-valley flow on a developing cold-air pool in an idealized alpine valley decoupled from the atmosphere above. Results for a three-dimensional (3D) valley, which allows for the formation of a down-valley flow, and for a two-dimensional (2D) valley, where the formation of a down-valley flow is inhibited, are analyzed and compared. A key result is that advection leads to a net cooling in the 2D valley and to a warming in the 3D valley, once the down-valley flow is fully developed. This difference stems from the suppression of the slope-flow induced upward motions over the valley centre in the 3D valley. As a result, the downslope flows develop a cross-valley circulation within the cold-air pool, the growth of the cold-air pool is reduced and the valley atmosphere is generally warmer than in the 2D valley. A quasi-steady state is reached for which the divergence of the down-valley flow along the valley is balanced by the convergence of the downslope flows at the top of the cold-air pool, with no net contribution of subsiding motions far from the slope layer. More precisely, the inflow of air at the top of the cold-air pool is found to be driven by an interplay between the return flow from the plain region and subsidence over the plateaux. Finally, the mechanisms that control the structure of the cold-air pool and its evolution are found to be independent of the valley length as soon as the quasi-steady state is reached and the down-valley flow is fully developed.

  18. Advances in Modelling of Valley Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Surendra

    For glaciological conditions typical of valley glaciers, the central idea of this research lies in understanding the effects of high-order mechanics and parameterizing these for simpler dynamical and statistical methods in glaciology. As an effective tool for this, I formulate a new brand of dynamical models that describes distinct physical processes of deformational flow. Through numerical simulations of idealized glacier domains, I calculate empirical correction factors to capture the effects of longitudinal stress gradients and lateral drag for simplified dynamical models in the plane-strain regime. To get some insights into real glacier dynamics, I simulate Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. As geometric effects overshadow dynamical effects in glacier retreat scenarios, it appears that high-order physics are not very important for Haig Glacier, particularly for evaluating its fate. Indeed, high-order and reduced models all predict that Haig Glacier ceases to exist by about AD2080 under ongoing climate warming. This finding regarding the minimal role of high-order physics may not be broadly valid, as it is not true in advance scenarios at Haig Glacier and it may not be representative of other glaciological settings. Through a 'bulk' parameterization of high-order physics, geometric and climatic settings, sliding conditions, and transient effects, I also provide new insights into the volume-area relation, a widely used statistical method for estimating glacier volume. I find a steady-state power-law exponent of 1:46, which declines systematically to 1:38 after 100 years of sustained retreat, in good accord with the observations. I recommend more accurate scaling relations through characterization of individual glacier morphology and degree of climatic disequilibrium. This motivates a revision of global glacier volume estimates, of some urgency in sea level rise assessments.

  19. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The Meads Creek valley encompasses 70 square miles of predominantly forested uplands in the upper Susquehanna River drainage basin. The valley, which was listed as a Priority Waterbody by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 2004, is prone to periodic flooding, mostly in its downstream end, where development is occurring most rapidly. Hydraulic characteristics of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifer were evaluated, and seepage rates in losing and gaining tributaries were calculated or estimated, in an effort to delineate the aquifer geometry and identify the factors that contribute to flooding. Results indicated that (1) Meads Creek gained about 61 cubic feet of flow per second (about 6.0 cubic feet per second per mile of stream channel) from ground-water discharge and inflow from tributaries in its 10.2-mile reach between the northernmost and southernmost measurement sites; (2) major tributaries in the northern part of the valley are not significant sources of recharge to the aquifer; and (3) major tributaries in the central and southern part of the valley provide recharge to the aquifer. The ground-water portion of streamflow in Meads Creek (excluding tributary inflow) was 11.3 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the central part of the valley and 17.2 ft3/s in the southern part - a total of 28.5 ft3/s. Ground-water levels were measured in 29 wells finished in unconfined deposits for construction of a potentiometric-surface map to depict directions of ground-water flow within the valley. In general, ground water flows from the edges of the valley toward Meads Creek and ultimately discharges to it. The horizontal hydraulic gradient for the entire 12-mile-long aquifer averages about 30 feet per mile, whereas the gradient in the southern fourth of the valley averages about half that - about 17 feet per mile. A water budget for the aquifer indicated that 28 percent of recharge was derived from precipitation that falls on the aquifer, 32

  20. Characterizing water flows in irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2009-12-01

    Ditch seepage and deep percolation from irrigation in agricultural valleys of semi-arid regions can have multiple hydrological benefits including aquifer recharge, temporary storage, and delayed return flow. This study aims to advance scientific understanding of surface water and groundwater interactions in semi-arid region valleys of the western USA. The study is being conducted in three different irrigated valleys of the Rio Grande basin in northern New Mexico. The first site is a floodplain valley along the main stem of the Rio Grande; the second site is an upper valley along the Rio Hondo, a tributary to the Rio Grande; and the third site is a floodplain valley along the Rio Chama, which also is a tributary to the Rio Grande. Beginning in 2002, we instrumented the first study site to measure climate variables, surface water flows, and groundwater fluctuations due to deep percolation from irrigation and ditch seepage. Currently, we are installing field equipment at the second study site, and we will start instrumentation at the third study site in the spring of 2010. A multi-modeling approach is being used to extrapolate field-based results to larger spatial scales. One and two dimensional models like the Root Zone Water Quality Model and Hydrus, respectively, are being used to simulate physical processes in the vadose zone at the field scale, and the model GSFlow will be used to integrate surface water and groundwater components at the valley scale. Results from an ongoing study aimed to quantify water budget components at the first study site showed that up to 92% of the water diverted for irrigation in this floodplain valley returns back to the river, either as surface return flow (59%) or as shallow groundwater return flow that originated as canal seepage (12%) and deep percolation from irrigation (21%). Also, simulations with a System Dynamics Model showed that the coupled surface water irrigation system and shallow aquifer act together to store water

  1. Contrasts of atmospheric circulation and associated tropical convection between Huaihe River valley and Yangtze River valley mei-yu flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.

  2. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  3. Effects of valley meteorology on forest pesticide spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this study for the Missoula Technology and Development Center of the US Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The purpose of the study was to summarize recent research on valley meteorology during the morning transition period and to qualitatively evaluate the effects of the evolution of valley temperature inversions and wind systems on the aerial spraying of pesticides in National Forest areas of the western United States. Aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides in forests of the western United States is usually accomplished in the morning hour after first light, during the period known to meteorologists as the morning transition period.'' This document describes the key physical processes that occur during the morning transition period on undisturbed days and the qualitative effects of these processes on the conduct of aerial spraying operations. Since the timing of valley meteorological events may be strongly influenced by conditions that are external to the valley, such as strong upper-level winds or the influence of clouds on the receipt of solar energy in the valley, some remarks are made on the qualitative influence of these processes. Section 4 of this report suggests ways to quantify some of the physical processes to provide useful guidance for the planning and conduct of spraying operations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  4. The Glaciation of the Yellowstone Valley North of the Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weed, Walter Harvey

    1893-01-01

    The local glaciers of Quaternary times, of which evidences abound throughout the highest portions of the Rocky mountain cordillera, attained an unusually extensive development in that broad elevated region known as the Yellowstone Park. It was indeed the center of a considerable ice sheet whose glaciers spread out and down the valleys leading from this mountain region in all directions. In the northern part of the park two streams of ice found an outlet for their united flow northward down the valley of the Yellowstone, and they have left impressive memorials of the power and size of this stream that at once attract the attention of the observant traveler on the way to the famous geyser basins of the park. The number and size of the erratic bowlders scattered so abundantly over the valley floor and perched high up on the mountain slopes, can not fail to impress the beholder, while the second canyon of the Yellowstone, known as Yankee Jim canyon, through which the river has cut its way to the broad mountain encircled lower valley, is a grand and perfect piece of ice sculpture that affords striking proof of the power and magnitude of the glacier which once filled the valley. While studying and mapping the geology of a portion of the country north of the Yellowstone Park, under the direction of Mr. Arnold Hague, and for the United States Geological Survey, I found a long desired opportunity to study the glaciation of this interesting region.

  5. Valley polarization assisted spin polarization in two dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Renard, V. T.; Piot, B. A.; Waintal, X.; Fleury, G.; Cooper, D.; Niida, Y.; Tregurtha, D.; Fujiwara, A.; Hirayama, Y.; Takashina, K.

    2015-01-01

    Valleytronics is rapidly emerging as an exciting area of basic and applied research. In two-dimensional systems, valley polarization can dramatically modify physical properties through electron–electron interactions as demonstrated by such phenomena as the fractional quantum Hall effect and the metal-insulator transition. Here, we address the electrons' spin alignment in a magnetic field in silicon-on-insulator quantum wells under valley polarization. In stark contrast to expectations from a non-interacting model, we show experimentally that less magnetic field can be required to fully spin polarize a valley-polarized system than a valley-degenerate one. Furthermore, we show that these observations are quantitatively described by parameter-free ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We interpret the results as a manifestation of the greater stability of the spin- and valley-degenerate system against ferromagnetic instability and Wigner crystalization, which in turn suggests the existence of a new strongly correlated electron liquid at low electron densities. PMID:26027889

  6. Hydrology of the Valley-fill and carbonate-rock reservoirs, Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1967-01-01

    This is the second appraisal of the water supply of Pahrump Valley, made 15 years after the first cooperative study. In the first report the average recharge was estimated to be 23,000 acre-feet per year, only 1,000 acre-feet more than the estimate made in this report. All this recharge was considered to be available for development. Because of the difficulty in salvaging the subsurface outflow from the deep carbonate-rock reservoir, this report concludes that the perennial yield may be only 25,000 acre-feet. In 1875, Bennetts and Manse Springs reportedly discharged a total of nearly 10,000 acre-feet of water from the valley-fill reservoir. After the construction of several flowing wells in 1910, the spring discharge began to decline. In the mid-1940's many irrigation wells were drilled, and large-capacity pumps were installed. During the 4-year period of this study (1959-62), the net pumping draft averaged about 25,000 acre-feet per year, or about twice the estimated yield. In 1962 Bennetts Spring was dry, and the discharge from Marse Spring was only 1,400 acre-feet. During the period February 1959-February 1962, pumping caused an estimated storage depletion of 45,000 acre-feet, or 15,000 acre-feet per year. If the overdraft is maintained, depletion of stored water will continue and pumping costs will increase. Water levels in the vicinity of the Pahrump, Manse, and Fowler Ranches declined more than ]0 feet in response to the pumping during this period, and they can be expected to continue to decline at ,the projected rate of more than 3 feet per year. The chemical quality of the pumped water has been satisfactory for irrigation and domestic use. Recycling of water pumped or irrigation, however, could result in deterioration of the water quality with time.

  7. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  8. Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal

  9. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-12-28

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents.

  10. Geophysical surveys in Parvati valley geothermal field, Kullu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakesh Kumar, S. B.; Singh, Mohan; Gupta, L.; Rao, G. V.

    1982-08-01

    Direct current resistivity surveys and shallow temperature measurements were carried out for geothermal exploration in a part of Parvati valley, goethermal field, Himachal Pradesh, India. At a few places, the Schlumberger soundings pointed to the presence of a relatively low-resistivity shallow layer, which probably represents fractured and jointed quartzite, saturated with hot/cold water. Wenner resistivity profiles indicate the presence of some possible shallow subsurface lateral hot water channels across the valley at Manikaran. Shallow temperature measurements show a good subsurface thermal anomaly near the confluence of the rivers Brahmaganga and Parvati. The results of the survey, together with other available geodata, suggest that an anomalous heat source does not lie beneath the study area. It is postulated that the meteoric water, originating at high elevations after heating as a result of circulation at depth, emerges at the surface in the Parvati valley as hot springs, after mixing in various proportions with near surface cold waters.

  11. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Resonant spin and valley polarization in ferromagnetic silicene quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu

    2014-01-20

    We propose a silicene-based lateral resonant tunneling device by placing silicene under the modulation of top nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic sandwich nanogates. Following the electric-tunable bandgap of silicene, lateral double-barrier structure is formed by imposing the flexible electrostatic modulation on top gates. By aligning the spin and valley-resolved confined states in magnetic well, remarkable spin/valley polarization can be accessed through spinor-relying resonant tunneling mechanism. Under the electrostatic, magnetic, and size manipulation, the confined well state can be efficiently engineered, and the observed spin and valley polarization can be further flexibly tuned, offering some helpful strategies to construct spinor-electronic logic atomically.

  13. Magnetotransport study of valley-polarized electrons in synthetic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn; Gabrysch, Markus; Majdi, Saman; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Isberg, Jan

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the highly stable valley-polarized electron states in ultrapure single-crystalline diamond allow for investigation of charge transport, magnetoresistivity, and determination of the dominant scattering mechanism. The Hall effect gives rise to nonisotropic contributions in the mobility tensor that were measured at a temperature of 70 K in a time-of-flight setup with an added magnetic field. The observations of the magnetotransport of valley-polarized electrons in diamond are compared with both Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation. We establish that acoustic phonon scattering is the dominant electron scattering mechanism at 70 K for each of the valley polarizations in the investigated samples.

  14. The First Prediction of a Rift Valley Fever Outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Small, Jennifer; Tucker, Compton J.; Formenty, Pierre; Richardson, Jason H.; Britch, Seth C.; Schnabel, David C.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related anomalies were analyzed using a combination of satellite measurements of elevated sea surface temperatures, and subsequent elevated rainfall and satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data. A Rift Valley fever risk mapping model using these climate data predicted areas where outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa from December 2006 to May 2007. The predictions were subsequently confirmed by entomological and epidemiological field investigations of virus activity in the areas identified as at risk. Accurate spatial and temporal predictions of disease activity, as it occurred first in southern Somalia and then through much of Kenya before affecting northern Tanzania, provided a 2 to 6 week period of warning for the Horn of Africa that facilitated disease outbreak response and mitigation activities. This is the first prospective prediction of a Rift Valley fever outbreak.

  15. Seismic and geodetic studies of the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Imperial Valley exhibits perhaps the most active current tectonism in the United States; patterns of gravitational and thermal anomalies, along with geodetic measurements, strike-slip faulting, and recent volcanism suggest that the continental crust may still be spreading (Elders et al., 1972). In recent years, the United States Geological Survey and Caltech have added new seismic stations into a dense network in the Imperial Valley to study in detail the relationship between geothermal areas and earthquakes, and to understand the tectonic processes taking place there. The purposes of this study are to: (1) examine crustal structure using recently available data on P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes; (2) examine the leveling data for evidence of tectonic subsidence or uplift; and (3) study correlations between seismicity, seismic velocity, geodetic motion, geothermal activity, and local geology to provide a more consistent picture of the tectonics of the Imperial Valley.

  16. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  17. Reflection Seismic Imaging of Buried Valleys, Onshore Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykke-Andersen, H.; Jørgensen, F.; Nørmark, E.

    The steadily increasing demands for securing supplies of clean groundwater have in recent years led to the adoption of reflection seismics in the family of geophysical methods used for groundwater research in Denmark. Buried valleys- often some km wide and a few hundred metres deep - have proved to be important sites for deeply seated, well protected groundwater reservoirs. It is a well known fact that the structure of buried valleys is complicated. With their potential for generation of relatively high resolution images of depositional and tectonic structures, reflection seismics have be- come a valuable supplement to the traditional resistivity methods in the study of buried valleys. Reflection seismic is an expensive method compared to other methods in use for groundwater research; therefore, careful selection of profile locations is mandatory. A practice has developed where selection of locations are based on mapping results obtained by resistivity methods. Results obtained by dynamite and vibrator sources are presented. Experience shows that the quality of the two data types is comparable. Vertical resolution better than ca. 10 m can be obtained, but the bandwidth of data is variable. In areas where non-(water) saturated shallow sediments are present; the bandwidth may be strongly reduced. Depth penetration down to at least one km is normally obtained. The seismic data are tied to wells by means of vertical seismic profiles in exploratory wells. Results are presented to illustrate: 1) potentials and limi- tations of the method and 2) a number of valleys with different types of valley-fill and relationships with the substratum. The genesis of the valleys will be briefly discussed.

  18. Persistent valley currents and topological transport in gapped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitov, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE), arising due to Berry curvature in materials with broken inversion symmetry, results in topological currents flowing in system bulk transversely to the applied electric field. We will discuss recent work on AHE in materials with several valleys, such as e.g. graphene and transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, where these currents have been observed [Mak et al., Science 344, 1489 (2014); Gorbachev et al., Science 346, 448 (2014)]. Interestingly, these materials do not fit the paradigm of topological materials with Chern bands and associated topologically protected edge modes dominating (quantized) Hall conductivity. Here, in contrast, gapless edge states may be absent since they are not enforced by topology or symmetry. Further, even when present, these states are not protected against backscattering due to roughness on the atomic scale. Naively, this would lead one to conclude that topological currents cease to exist. If true, this would imply that the key manifestations, such as the valley Hall conductivity and orbital magnetization, vanish in the gapped state. We will argue that the opposite is true: the absence of conducting edge modes does not present an obstacle since valley currents can be transmitted by the bulk states in the filled Fermi sea beneath the gap. This leads to an interesting behavior: rather than being vanishingly small, valley currents reach maximum value in the gapped state. Such undergap currents can also occur as persistent currents in the thermodynamic ground state and dominate orbital magnetization in valley-polarized gapped systems. We will conclude with discussing requirements for dissipationless valley transport and argue that they can be met under realistic conditions. Based on the work done in collaboration with Yuri Lensky, Polnop Samutpraphoot and Justin Song.

  19. Roof and gridiron plans. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof and gridiron plans. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Also includes tower plan drawings, and a drawing of roof plan at stage. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 6, job no. 692. Scales all 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. First floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium. Also includes six small detail drawings. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 3, Job no. 692. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (main plan) and various scales for the details. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Tower details, sheet 14. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Tower details, sheet 14. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Plan and elevation of tower above sixth floor; section through stage ventilators; elevation, stage ventilators. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 14, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. West, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. West, south, east elevations, elevation of loggia, areaway railing detail. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 7, job no. 692. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 3/4 inch to the foot (detail). March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Elevations and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. North elevation; longitudinal section through entire building; north, east, and west elevations of foyer. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 8, job no. 692. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Floor plan and front elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor plan and front elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes detail of concrete grille; sections QQ and TT; and detail of bulletin board. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan, elevation), 1/2 inch to the foot (sections), and 1/4 inch to the foot (bulletin board). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Mezzanine plan and north elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mezzanine plan and north elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, library building. Also includes interior elevation of wall between windows, showing light receptacle and section through beam. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 3, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan, elevation) and 1/2 inch to the foot (interior elevation). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foyer and entrance details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section through foyer showing ticket window; detail front entrance with tiling; rear of ticket window. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 13, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Third floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Also includes one small detail drawing of ladder from fly gallery to grid iron. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 5, Job no. 692. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (main plan) and 3/4 inch to the foot for the detail. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms. PMID:2588049

  9. Valley fill in the Roswell-Artesia area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.

    1973-01-01

    Drill samples from 225 water and oil wells in an area 70 miles long and 20 miles wide in the Roswell-Artesia area, southeastern New Mexico were examined. A thickness map and a saturated thickness map of the valley-fill sediments were constructed. Maximum depth of valley fill is about 300 feet in large closed depressions near Roswell, Hagerman, and Artesia. The depressions were formed by the solution of carbonates and evaporites that underlie the fill. Maximum saturated thickness is about 250 feet in depressions near Hagerman and Artesia and about 300 feet in a depression near Roswell.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  11. North & south elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North & south elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Also includes longitudinal sections through the boiler room, plan of chimney, elevations of counter in the bookkeeping room, and detail of trusses over the oral English room. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, job no. 312. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot and 1/2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Prehistory of Silicon Valley, from 1910 to 1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmor, Stewart

    2009-03-01

    The term ``Silicon Valley'' was coined in 1971, some six decades after the emergence of the San Francisco Bay Area as a center of innovation and invention in the fields of radio and electronics. The geographical position of San Francisco with respect to continental and Pacific transportation and communication needs; the growth of West Coast universities, markets, and population; the importation of talent from the East; innovative industrial and business methods--all these provided a thriving center of instrumentation, electronics, avionics, and high energy physics when Silicon arrived in the ``Valley of the Heart's Delight.''

  13. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  14. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  17. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  18. Diversity of micro-fungi in an Antarctic dry valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baublis, J. A.; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Volz, P. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The fungal microflora of a dry valley in Southern Victoria Land near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, was investigated. Samples were collected from introduced objects such as a mummified penguin and spent chewing tobacco in addition to the sparse soil found in rock fissures, isolated moss colonies, shoreline deposit materials, CaCO3 precipitates, and microbial mat debris obtained from the frozen surface of the lake in the basin of Taylor Valley. Using conventional media and techniques, all collection sites yielded populations of yeasts and filamentous fungi. Water samples and live microbial mats from beneath the lake ice yielded species of fungi along with an abundance of bacteria.

  19. Environment and TVA: toward a regional plan for the Tennessee Valley, 1930s

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a historical survey of the Tennessee Valley Region, stressing its demographic and economic aspects, and discusses the role of the Tennessee Valley Authority in the rehabilitation and development of the region. 59 references. (ACR)

  20. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  1. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  2. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Monterey Bay Unified Air...

  3. 77 FR 26475 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution...

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  5. Giant and tunable valley degeneracy splitting in MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Qi, Jingshan; Niu, Qian; Feng, Ji

    Valleys in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides seamlessly connect two basic carriers of quantum information, namely, the electron spin and photon helicity. Lifting the valley degeneracy is an attractive route to achieve further optoelectronic manipulations. However, the magnetic field only creates a very small valley splitting. We propose a strategy to create giant valley splitting by the proximity-induced Zeeman effect. Our first principles calculations of monolayer MoTe2 on a EuO substrate show that valley splitting over 300 meV can be generated. Interband transition energies become valley dependent, leading to selective spin-photon coupling by optical frequency tuning. The valley splitting is also continuously tunable by rotating the substrate magnetization. The giant and tunable valley splitting adds a different dimension to the exploration of unique optoelectronic devices based on magneto-optical coupling and magnetoelectric coupling.

  6. 77 FR 27768 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, the Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary...

  7. 77 FR 27769 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, the Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary...

  8. 77 FR 27768 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary...

  9. Full Valley and Spin Polarizations in Strained Graphene with Rashba Spin Orbit Coupling and Magnetic Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a graphene-based full valley- and spin-polarization device based on strained graphene with Rashba spin orbit coupling and magnetic barrier. The underlying mechanism is the coexistence of the valley and single spin band gaps in a certain Fermi energy. By aligning the Fermi energy in the valley and single spin band gaps, remarkable valley- and spin-polarization currents can be accessed. PMID:26898836

  10. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  11. A seismic refraction survey of the Imperial Valley Region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, G. S.; Mooney, W. D.; Healy, J. H.; McMechan, G. A.; Lutter, W. J.

    1984-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive seismic refraction survey in the Imperial Valley region of California in 1979. The Imperial Valley is located in the Salton Trough, an active rift between the Pacific and North American plates. Forty shots fired at seven shot points were recorded by 100 portable seismic instruments at typical spacing of 0.5-1 km. More than 1300 recording locations were occupied, and more than 3000 usable seismograms were obtained. We analyzed five profiles using a standard ray-tracing program, constructed a contour map of reduced travel times from our most widely recorded shot point, and modeled an existing gravity profile across the Salton Trough. Results are itemized: (1) All models have in common a sedimentary layer (Vp = 1.8-5.0 km/s), a "transition zone" (Vp = 5.0-5.65 km/s), a basement (Vp = 5.65 km/s in the Imperial Valley, 5.9 km/s on the bordering mesas), and subbasement (Vp = 7.2 km/s). (2) The sedimentary layer ranges in thickness along the axis of the Salton Trough from 3.7 km (Salton Sea) to 4.8 km (U.S.-Mexican border). On the bordering mesas it is quite variable in thickness. (3) The "transition" zone is about 1 km thick in most places. In the Imperial Valley there are no marked velocity discontinuities in this zone between the sedimentary layer and basement. On the bordering mesas, however, there is a discontinuity at the top of this zone. (4) There are apparently two types of basement. On the bordering mesas, basement is crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks. In the Imperial Valley, basement is mostly lower-greenshist-facies sedimentary rocks, based primarily on the smooth transition in character from sediment to basement arrivals, the low value of basement velocity, and the fact that deep (4 km) wells in the valley penetrate only the upper part of the known Cenozoic stratigraphic column for the Salton Trough. (5) The subbasement, or intermediate crustal layer, ranges in depth along the axis of the Salton Trough

  12. Dry Valley streams in Antarctica: Ecosystems waiting for water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Niyogi, D.K.; Alger, A.S.; Bomblies, A.; Conovitz, P.A.; Tate, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    An axiom of ecology is: 'Where there is water, there is life.' In dry valley ecosystems of Antarctica, this axiom can be extended to: 'Where there has been and will be water, there is life.' Stream communities in the dry valleys can withstand desiccation on an annual basis and also for longer periods - as much as decades or even centuries. These intact ecosystems, consisting primarily of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae, spring back to life with the return of water. Soil organisms in the dry valleys also have remarkable survival capabilities (Virginia and Wall 1999), emerging from dormancy with the arrival of water. Streams in the dry valleys carry meltwater from a glacier or ice-field source to the lakes on the valley floors and generally flow for 4-10 weeks during the summer, depending on climatic conditions. Many of these streams contain abundant algal mats that are perennial in the sense that they are in a freeze-dried state during the winter and begin growing again within minutes of becoming wetted by the first flow of the season. The algal species present in the streams are mainly filamentous cyanobacteria (approximately 20 species of the genera Phormidium, Oscillatoria, and Nostoc), two green algal species of the genus Prasiola, and numerous diatom taxa that are characteristic of soil habitats and polar regions. Algal abundances are greatest in those streams in which periglacial processes, acting over periods of perhaps a century, have produced a stable stone pavement in the streambed. This habitat results in a less turbulent flow regime and limits sediment scour from the streambed. Because dry valley glaciers advance and retreat over periods of centuries and millennia and stream networks in the dry valleys evolve through sediment deposition and transport, some of the currently inactive stream channels may receive flow again in the future. Insights- into the process of algal persistence and reactivation will come from long-term experiments that study the

  13. Hyperinflation of surfaces in lower Beacon Valley, Dry Valleys, Antarctica: new process and new clues about fluctuations of Taylor Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.; Hagedorn, B.; Stone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Soil inflation in dry environments is a common occurrence in areas where extensive desert pavements overlie silt-size particles of eolian origin. Another type of surface inflation, which we term hyperinflation, has been documented in the Dry Valleys where fines drop into contraction cracks that annually open and close 0.5 to 1.5 cm. Particles of local or eolian origin that are smaller than the crack opening can fall into the cracks,. We have cored over 30 m into such a hyperinflated surface in lower Beacon Valley. Large clasts several cm to over 10 m are suspended on top of the finer sediments leading to the characteristic rocky surface of Beacon Valley. These processes have been active over at least several million years based on cosmogenic 10 Be and 26 Al profiles with depth. This new hyperinflation has much in common with the progressive addition of ice into the permafrost in Siberia forming the classic edoma or ice-wedge complexes. We propose that these “sand-wedge complexes” form in a similar way but are only sand because liquid water seldom forms in sufficient amounts to fill the contraction cracks in the hyperarid Beacon Valley. Furthermore, our analysis of a 10-m core collected earlier reveal historical waxing and waning of the Taylor Glacier over lower Beacon Valley in the past several million years; one of these incursions of ice may be responsible for the formation of buried glacial ice found in middle Beacon Valley. We are currently processing our 30-m core and believe that this will improve definition of the extent and chronology of Taylor Glacier advances.

  14. 27 CFR 9.232 - Big Valley District-Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Big Valley District-Lake... Areas § 9.232 Big Valley District-Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Big Valley District-Lake County”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Big...

  15. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  16. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  17. 77 FR 68783 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Rift Valley Fever Virus Utilizing Reverse Genetics,'' US Provisional Application 61/ ] 042,987, filed 4/7/2008, entitled ``Recombinant Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Viruses and Method of Use,'' PCT...

  18. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY (COMMUNITY SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was done to determine if movement of air pollutants across the U.S.-Mexico border was occurring in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (hereinafter called "the Valley") and, if so, the extent. The study w...

  19. 40 CFR 81.159 - Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.159 Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  20. 76 FR 78628 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Application and Applicant-Prepared EA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Application and...-003. c. Date filed: August 30, 2011. d. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc. e. Name of.... Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc., P.O. Box 45, Mile 187 Glenn Highway Glennallen,...

  1. 75 FR 22775 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Soliciting Scoping Comments for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Soliciting... License Application. b. Project No.: 13124-000. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association. d. Name..., Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O. Box 45, Mile 187 Glenn Highway, Glennallen, Alaska 99588,...

  2. 77 FR 74182 - Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on November 30, 2012, Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P. (Magic Valley) filed a petition for...

  3. 78 FR 55249 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Holy Cross Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Holy Cross Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc. v. Public Service.... 824, 824(e) and 825(e) 2013, Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Holy Cross Electric...

  4. 78 FR 75332 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Central Valley Angler Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...; California Central Valley Angler Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (Sacramento River winter Chinook, Central Valley spring Chinook, Central Valley steelhead). The survey is... restoration. II. Method of Collection A random sample of recreational anglers who fish on Central...

  5. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on...: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage...

  6. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel.: (401)...

  7. 77 FR 70432 - Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P. (Magic Valley) filed to revise its Statement of Operating... free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Tuesday, November 27,...

  8. 40 CFR 81.159 - Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.159 Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  9. The impact of horizontal model grid resolution on the boundary layer structure over an idealized valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Johannes; Gohm, Alexander; Rotach, Mathias; Leukauf, Daniel; Posch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The role of horizontal model grid resolution on the development of the daytime boundary layer over mountainous terrain is studied. A simple idealized valley topography with a cross-valley width of 20~km, a valley depth of 1.5~km and a constant surface heat flux forcing is used to generate upslope flows in a warming valley boundary layer. The goal of this study is to investigate differences in the upslope flow and boundary layer structure of the valley when its topography is either fully resolved, smoothed or not resolved by the numerical model. This is done by performing both large-eddy (LES) and kilometer-scale simulations with mesh sizes of 50, 1000, 2000, 4000, 5000 and 10000~m. In LES mode a valley inversion layer develops, which separates two vertically stacked circulation cells in an upper and lower boundary layer. These structures weaken with decreasing horizontal model grid resolution and change to a convective boundary layer similar to the one over an elevated flat plain when the valley is no longer resolved. Mean profiles of the LES run, which are obtained by horizontal averaging over the valley show a three-layer thermal structure and a secondary heat flux maximum at ridge height. Strong smoothing of the valley topography prevents the development of a valley inversion layer with stacked circulation cells and leads to higher valley temperatures due to smaller valley volumes. This investigation shows that a parameterization is needed in coarse resolution models to capture exchange processes over mountainous terrain.

  10. 77 FR 31344 - Grand Valley Irrigation Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Irrigation Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: March 26, 2012. d. Applicant: Grand Valley Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... on the Grand Valley Irrigation Canal where the Mainline canal splits into the Highline and the...

  11. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... available for review: Carpinteria Valley Water District Gravelly Ford Water District Hills Valley Irrigation District San Juan Water District San Luis Water District Shafter-Wasco Irrigation District Tea Pot Dome Irrigation District To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 and...

  12. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  13. 77 FR 12527 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Management District and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental... Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105-3901. Instructions: All comments will be included in the...

  14. 77 FR 70707 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley and South Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley and... Ambient Air Quality Standards in the San Joaquin Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. These technical...) in the San Joaquin Valley and South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin and included provisions of...

  15. The ValleyMorph Tool: An automated extraction tool for transverse topographic symmetry (T-) factor and valley width to valley height (Vf-) ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxberger, Heidi; Dalumpines, Ron; Scott, Darren M.; Riller, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In tectonically active regions on Earth, shallow-crustal deformation associated with seismic hazards may pose a threat to human life and property. The study of landform development, such as analysis of the valley width to valley height ratio (Vf-ratio) and the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor (T-factor), delineating drainage basin symmetry, can be used as a relative measure of tectonic activity along fault-bound mountain fronts. The fast evolution of digital elevation models (DEM) provides an ideal base for remotely-sensed tectonomorphic studies of large areas using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). However, a manual extraction of the above mentioned morphologic parameters may be tedious and very time consuming. Moreover, basic GIS software suites do not provide the necessary built-in functions. Therefore, we present a newly developed, Python based, ESRI ArcGIS compatible tool and stand-alone script, the ValleyMorph Tool. This tool facilitates an automated extraction of the Vf-ratio and the T-factor data for large regions. Using a digital elevation raster and watershed polygon files as input, the tool provides output in the form of several ArcGIS data tables and shapefiles, ideal for further data manipulation and computation. This coding enables an easy application among the ArcGIS user community and code conversion to earlier ArcGIS versions. The ValleyMorph Tool is easy to use due to a simple graphical user interface. The tool is tested for the southern Central Andes using a total of 3366 watersheds.

  16. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  17. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in Sonoma County, California. (1) Starting point Healdsburg map... miles generally north along Santa Rosa Avenue, which becomes Mendocino Avenue, to its intersection with... Mendocino Avenue, section 11, T7N, R8W, on the Santa Rosa map. (21) Proceed 2.5 miles straight...

  18. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in Sonoma County, California. (1) Starting point Healdsburg map... miles generally north along Santa Rosa Avenue, which becomes Mendocino Avenue, to its intersection with... Mendocino Avenue, section 11, T7N, R8W, on the Santa Rosa map. (21) Proceed 2.5 miles straight...

  19. 77. Rocky Knob Recreation area. View of the valley from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Rocky Knob Recreation area. View of the valley from Belcher's Curve. Notice that the scenic easement allows A the boundary of the parkway to disappear creating a park that appears bigger than it is. View to west-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. The T-REX valley wind intercomparison project

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidli, J; Billings, B J; Burton, R; Chow, F K; De Wekker, S; Doyle, J D; Grubisic, V; Holt, T R; Jiang, Q; Lundquist, K A; Ross, A N; Sheridan, P; Vosper, S; Whiteman, C D; Wyszogrodzki, A A; Zaengl, G; Zhong, S

    2008-08-07

    An accurate simulation of the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is very important, as the evolution of the boundary layer sets the stage for many weather phenomena, such as deep convection. Over mountain areas the evolution of the boundary layer is particularly complex, due to the nonlinear interaction between boundary layer turbulence and thermally-induced mesoscale wind systems, such as the slope and valley winds. As the horizontal resolution of operational forecasts progresses to finer and finer resolution, more and more of the thermally-induced mesoscale wind systems can be explicitly resolved, and it is very timely to document the current state-of-the-art of mesoscale models at simulating the coupled evolution of the mountain boundary layer and the valley wind system. In this paper we present an intercomparison of valley wind simulations for an idealized valley-plain configuration using eight state-of-the-art mesoscale models with a grid spacing of 1 km. Different sets of three-dimensional simulations are used to explore the effects of varying model dynamical cores and physical parameterizations. This intercomparison project was conducted as part of the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX; Grubisic et al., 2008).