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Sample records for squash leaf curl

  1. Use of Posttranscription Gene Silencing in Squash to Induce Resistance against the Egyptian Isolate of the Squash Leaf Curl Virus

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Omnia; Farouk, Inas; Abdallah, Abdelhadi

    2016-01-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV) is a bipartite begomovirus affecting squash plants. It is transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B causing severe leaf curling, vein banding, and molting ending by stunting. In this study full-length genomic clone of SqLCV Egyptian isolated and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been induced to develop virus resistance. The Noubaria SqLCV has more than 95% homology with Jordon, Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, and Cairo isolates. Two genes fragment from SqLCV introduced in sense and antisense orientations using pFGC5049 vector to be expressed as hairpin RNA. The first fragment was 348 bp from replication associated protein gene (Rep). The second fragment was 879 bp representing the full sequence of the movement protein gene (BC1). Using real-time PCR, a silencing record of 97% has been recorded to Rep/TrAP construct; as a result it has prevented the appearance of viral symptoms in most tested plants up to two months after infection, while construct containing the BC1 gene scored a reduction in the accumulation of viral genome expression as appearing in real-time PCR results 4.6-fold giving a silencing of 79%, which had a positive effect on symptoms development in most tested plants.

  2. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides. PMID:24258392

  3. Rapid detection of squash leaf curl virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Cheng-Ping; Wu, Min-Tze; Lu, Yi-Lin; Huang, Hung-Chang

    2010-10-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was employed to develop a simple and efficient system for the detection of squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in diseased plants of squash (Cucurbita pepo) and melon (Cucumis melo). Completion of LAMP assay required 30-60 min under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C by employing a set of four primers targeting SLCV. Although the sensitivity of the LAMP assay and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was comparable at high virus concentrations, the LAMP assay was by a 10-fold dilution factor more sensitive than the PCR assay for the detection of SLCV in diseased plants. No reaction was detected in the tissues of healthy plants by either the LAMP or the PCR. The LAMP products can be visualized by staining directly in the tube with SYBR Safe DNA gel stain dye. The sensitivity of the SYBR Safe DNA gel stain is similar to analysis by gel electrophoresis. Although both the LAMP and the PCR methods were capable of detecting SLCV in infected tissues of squash and melon, the LAMP method would be more useful than the PCR method for detection of SLCV infection in cucurbitaceous plants because it is more rapid, simple, accurate and sensitive. PMID:20603151

  4. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    PubMed

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV. PMID:21219130

  5. Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus: characterization and differential reassortment with closest relatives reveal adaptive virulence in the squash leaf curl virus clade and host shifting by the host-restricted bean calico mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Idris, A M; Mills-Lujan, K; Martin, K; Brown, J K

    2008-02-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at approximately 90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Biolistic inoculation of cantaloupe seedlings with the MCLCuV DNA-A and -B components resulted in the development of characteristic disease symptoms, providing definitive evidence of causality. MCLCuV experimentally infected species within the Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae. The potential for interspecific reassortment was examined for MCLCuV and its closest relatives, including the bean-restricted Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV), and three other cucurbit-infecting species, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), SLCV, and SMLCV. The cucurbit viruses have distinct but overlapping host ranges. All possible reassortants were established using heterologous combinations of the DNA-A or DNA-B components. Surprisingly, only certain reassortants arising from MCLCuV and BCaMV, or MCLCuV and CuLCrV, were viable in bean, even though it is a host of all of the "wild-type" (parent) viruses. The bean-restricted BCaMV was differentially assisted in systemically infecting the cucurbit test species by the components of the four cucurbit-adapted begomoviruses. In certain heterologous combinations, the BCaMV DNA-A or -B component was able to infect one or more cucurbit species. Generally, the reassortants were less virulent in the test hosts than the respective wild-type (parent) viruses, strongly implicating adaptive modulation of virulence. This is the first illustration of reassortment resulting in the host range expansion of a host-restricted begomovirus. PMID:18057231

  6. Melon Chlorotic Leaf Curl Virus: Characterization and Differential Reassortment with Closest Relatives Reveal Adaptive Virulence in the Squash Leaf Curl Virus Clade and Host Shifting by the Host-Restricted Bean Calico Mosaic Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Idris, A. M.; Mills-Lujan, K.; Martin, K.; Brown, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at ∼90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Biolistic inoculation of cantaloupe seedlings with the MCLCuV DNA-A and -B components resulted in the development of characteristic disease symptoms, providing definitive evidence of causality. MCLCuV experimentally infected species within the Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae. The potential for interspecific reassortment was examined for MCLCuV and its closest relatives, including the bean-restricted Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV), and three other cucurbit-infecting species, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), SLCV, and SMLCV. The cucurbit viruses have distinct but overlapping host ranges. All possible reassortants were established using heterologous combinations of the DNA-A or DNA-B components. Surprisingly, only certain reassortants arising from MCLCuV and BCaMV, or MCLCuV and CuLCrV, were viable in bean, even though it is a host of all of the “wild-type” (parent) viruses. The bean-restricted BCaMV was differentially assisted in systemically infecting the cucurbit test species by the components of the four cucurbit-adapted begomoviruses. In certain heterologous combinations, the BCaMV DNA-A or -B component was able to infect one or more cucurbit species. Generally, the reassortants were less virulent in the test hosts than the respective wild-type (parent) viruses, strongly implicating adaptive modulation of virulence. This is the first illustration of reassortment resulting in the host range expansion of a host-restricted begomovirus. PMID:18057231

  7. Raspberry leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

  8. First Report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in California and Arizona, in association with Cucurbit leaf crumple virus and Squash leaf curl virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August and September of 2006, melon plants (Cucumis melo L.) near Niland in Californias Imperial Valley and near Yuma, Arizona began exhibiting interveinal chlorosis and leaf mottling and spotting symptoms resembling those resulting from infection by viruses of the genus Crinivirus, family Clost...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus and Pepper leaf curl betasatellite Naturally Infecting Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) in India.

    PubMed

    Namrata, Jaiswal; Saritha, R K; Datta, D; Singh, M; Dubey, R S; Rai, A B; Rai, M

    2010-10-01

    Pumpkin cultivation in India is affected by severe incidence of a yellow vein mosaic disease. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and Squash leaf curl China virus are known to be associated with this disease in India. We were able to identify a third begomovirus-Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV), from pumpkin showing typical symptoms of the disease at Varanasi based on the sequence of complete DNA-A genome of the virus. The complete DNA-A sequence of the virus shared more than 99% sequence identity with other ToLCPMV isolates available in the GenBank and clustered with them in the phylogenetic analysis. This betasatellite amplified from the same infected sample has been identified as Pepper leaf curl betasatellite (PepLCB) which also infects chilli in India. There was 92% sequence identity between the two isolates. This is the first report of natural infection of ToLCPMV on pumpkin and association of PepLCB with yellow vein mosaic disease of pumpkin in India. PMID:23637491

  10. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus is Associated With Pumpkin Leaf Curl: A New Disease in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Rao, K R S S; Jain, R K; Mandal, B

    2012-06-01

    During 2006, pumpkin leaf curl-a new disease was observed in the experimental field at Indian Agricultural Research Institute. The disease was characterized by upward leaf curl with chlorotic patches and stunting of plant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with coat protein specific primers to Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) indicated association of a begomovirus with the disease. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the complete DNA genome further revealed the identity of the virus as ToLCNDV. The study provides evidence that ToLCNDV is associated with the leaf curl of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) in northern India. PMID:23730002

  11. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I; Kamal, Mohammad A; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2014-12-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA β were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2-55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  12. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA ? were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.255.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  13. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates. PMID:25772572

  14. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  15. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  16. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.

    PubMed

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2013-09-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8%) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2%). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95% sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

  17. Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

  18. Advances in diagnosing tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Noris, E; Accotto, G P; Luisoni, E

    1994-12-01

    As a result of the spread of TYLCV on tomato crops, reliable and rapid diagnostic tools to identify and isolate new sources of infection are necessary. We tested several methods, based both on antibodies and on nonradioactive DNA probes. Indirect plate-trapping ELISA was only effective in detecting the virus in purified preparations, but not in crude extracts. Dot-ELISA with chemiluminescence detection gave satisfactory results when young stems were directly squashed on membranes. A digoxigenin-labeled probe, detected with chemiluminescence, was used in leaf squashes and dot blots. Best results were obtained with dot blots of total nucleic acids prepared with a fast and safe procedure. TYLCV DNA was readily and reliably detected in spots corresponding to 15 micrograms fresh weight. When weak signals were observed, total extracts were analyzed by Southern blotting, to confirm the presence of viral DNA forms. PMID:7866878

  19. Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus: an Aphid-Transmitted Geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Granier, Martine; Bernardo, Pauline; Deshoux, Malle; Ferdinand, Romain; Galzi, Serge; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Julian, Charlotte; Abt, Isabelle; Filloux, Denis; Meslard, Franois; Varsani, Arvind; Blanc, Stphane; Martin, Darren P; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises seven genera differentiated by genome organization, sequence similarity, and insect vector. Capulavirus, an eighth genus, has been proposed to accommodate two newly discovered highly divergent geminiviruses that presently have no known vector. Alfalfa leaf curl virus, identified here as a third capulavirus, is shown to be transmitted by Aphis craccivora. This is the first report of an aphid-transmitted geminivirus. PMID:26109720

  20. A worldwide survey of tomato yellow leaf curl viruses.

    PubMed

    Czosnek, H; Laterrot, H

    1997-01-01

    The name tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) has been given to several whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses affecting tomato cultures in many tropical and subtropical regions. Hybridization tests with two DNA probes derived from a cloned isolate of TYLCV from Israel (TYLCV-ISR) were used to assess the affinities of viruses in naturally infected tomato plants with yellow leaf curl or leaf curl symptoms from 25 countries. Probe A which included most of the intergenic region was expected to detect only isolates closely related to TYLCV-ISR, especially after high stringency washes. In contrast probe B, which included the full-length genome, was expected to detect a wide range of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. Tomato samples from six countries in the Middle East, from Cuba or the Dominican Republic proved to be closely related to TYLCV-ISR and probably were infected by strains of the same virus. Samples from Senegal and Cape Verde Islands were also related to the Middle Eastern virus. Samples from nine other countries in the western Mediterranean area, Africa, or South-East Asia were more distantly related and probably represent one or more additional geminivirus species. Samples from five countries in Africa, Central or South America gave hybridization signals with the full-length viral genome, only after low stringency wash, indicating that these samples were infected by remote viruses. These results were supported by DNA and protein sequence comparison, which indicate that tomato geminiviruses fall into three main clusters representing viruses from 1) the Mediterranean/Middle East/African region, 2) India, the Far East and Australia, and 3) the Americans. Within the first cluster, two sub-clusters of viruses from the western Mediterranean or from the Middle East/Caribbean Islands were distinguished. The incidence of tomato yellow leaf curl diseases has increased considerably between 1990 and 1996. PMID:9267451

  1. Functional Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus/Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite RNA Silencing Suppressors.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W; Dalakouras, Athanasios; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically-related begomovirus species and a specific betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppression activities of the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP), C4, V2 and ?C1 proteins encoded by Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV)/CLCuMuB were assessed in Nicotiana benthamiana. A variable degree of local silencing suppression was observed for each viral protein tested, with V2 protein exhibiting the strongest suppression activity and only the C4 protein preventing the spread of systemic silencing. The CLCuKoV-encoded TrAP, C4, V2 and CLCuMuB-encoded ?C1 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. TrAP was shown to bind various small and long nucleic acids including single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA and DNA molecules. C4, V2, and ?C1 bound ssDNA and dsDNA with varying affinities. Transgenic expression of C4 under the constitutive 35S Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and ?C1 under a dexamethasone inducible promoter induced severe developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana. The results indicate that homologous proteins from even quite closely related begomoviruses may differ in their suppressor activity and mechanism of action. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:26512705

  2. Functional Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus/Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite RNA Silencing Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W.; Dalakouras, Athanasios; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically-related begomovirus species and a specific betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppression activities of the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP), C4, V2 and ?C1 proteins encoded by Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV)/CLCuMuB were assessed in Nicotiana benthamiana. A variable degree of local silencing suppression was observed for each viral protein tested, with V2 protein exhibiting the strongest suppression activity and only the C4 protein preventing the spread of systemic silencing. The CLCuKoV-encoded TrAP, C4, V2 and CLCuMuB-encoded ?C1 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. TrAP was shown to bind various small and long nucleic acids including single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA and DNA molecules. C4, V2, and ?C1 bound ssDNA and dsDNA with varying affinities. Transgenic expression of C4 under the constitutive 35S Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and ?C1 under a dexamethasone inducible promoter induced severe developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana. The results indicate that homologous proteins from even quite closely related begomoviruses may differ in their suppressor activity and mechanism of action. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:26512705

  3. Evidence of local evolution of tomato-infecting begomovirus species in West Africa: characterization of tomato leaf curl Mali virus and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus from Mali.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y-C; Noussourou, M; Kon, T; Rojas, M R; Jiang, H; Chen, L-F; Gamby, K; Foster, R; Gilbertson, R L

    2008-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) and tomato leaf curl (ToLC) diseases are serious constraints to tomato production in Mali and other countries in West Africa. In 2003 and 2004, samples of tomato showing virus-like symptoms were collected during a survey of tomato virus diseases in Mali. Three predominant symptom phenotypes were observed: (1) TYLC/ToLC (stunted upright growth and upcurled leaves with interveinal yellowing and vein purpling), (2) yellow leaf crumple and (3) broccoli or bonsai (severe stunting and distorted growth). Squash blot (SB) hybridization with a general begomovirus probe and/or SB/PCR analyses revealed begomovirus infection in plants with each of these symptom phenotypes and no evidence of phytoplasma infection. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified begomovirus fragments revealed two putative new begomovirus species associated with the TYLC/ToLC and yellow leaf crumple symptom phenotypes, respectively. Full-length clones of these begomoviruses were obtained using PCR and overlapping primers. When introduced into N. benthamiana and tomato plants, these clones induced upward leaf curling and crumpling (the TYLC/ToLC-associated begomovirus) or downward leaf curl/yellow mottle (yellow leaf crumple-associated begomovirus) symptoms. Thus, these begomoviruses were named tomato leaf curl Mali virus (ToLCMLV) and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus (ToYLCrV). The genome organization of both viruses was similar to those of other monopartite begomoviruses. ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV were most closely related to each other and to tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZV-[ZW]) and tomato curly stunt virus from South Africa (ToCSV-ZA). Thus, these likely represent tomato-infecting begomoviruses that evolved from indigenous begomoviruses on the African continent. Mixed infections of ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV in N. benthamiana and tomato plants resulted in more severe symptoms than in plants infected with either virus alone, suggesting a synergistic interaction. Agroinoculation experiments indicated that both viruses induced symptomatic infections in tomato and tobacco, whereas neither virus induced disease symptoms in pepper, common bean, small sugar pumpkin, African eggplant, or Arabidopsis. Virus-specific PCR primers were developed for detection of ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV and will be used to further investigate the distribution and host range of these viruses. PMID:18278427

  4. Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite associated with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus approaches the expected upper size limit in the evolution of alphasatellites.

    PubMed

    Fiallo-Oliv, Elvira; Hamed, Abdelmagid; Navas-Castillo, Jess; Moriones, Enrique

    2013-12-26

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) cause severe damage to tomato crops worldwide. Among them, tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD)-associated begomoviruses are a major concern for tomato production in Sudan. Here, we report the detection of unexpectedly large cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite molecules (up to 1467 nt) associated with an isolate of a novel strain of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) in tomato plants affected by ToLCD. A recombinant nature is suggested for this ToLCSDV isolate. PMID:24140627

  5. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl betasatellites.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Richa; Dalal, Sunita; Malathi, V G

    2013-03-01

    Virus encoded RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs) are the key components evolved by the viruses to counter RNA-silencing defense of plants. Whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses infecting tomato crop code for five different proteins, ORF AC4, ORF AC2 and ORF AV2 in DNA-A component, ORF BV1 in DNA-B and ORF beta C1 in satellite DNA beta which are predicted to function as silencing suppressors. In the present study suppressor function of ORF beta C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite CLCuMB-[IN:Sri:02] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite LuLDB-[IN:Lu:04] were examined. Agroinfiltration of GFP-silenced Nicotiana tabaccum cv. Xanthi with the cells expressing betaC1 protein resulted in reversal of silenced GFP expression. GFP-siRNA level was more than 50-fold lower compared to silenced plants in plants infiltrated with betaC1 gene from ToLCBB. However, in the case of 35S-beta C1 CLCuMB and 35S- beta C1 LuLDB construct, although GFP was expressed, siRNA level was not reduced, indicating that the step at which beta C1 interfere in RNA-silencing pathway is different. PMID:23385812

  6. Stachytarpheta leaf curl virus is a novel monopartite begomovirus species.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Q; Fan, S; Guo, X; Zhou, X

    2005-11-01

    Begomovirus isolates were obtained from Stachytarpheta jamaicensis plants showing leaf curl and chlorosis symptoms collected in the Hainan province of China. The complete sequences of isolates Hn5-4, Hn6-1, Hn30 and Hn34 were determined to be 2748, 2751, 2748 and 2748 nucleotides long, respectively. The complete sequences of the four isolates share more than 94.9% nucleotide sequence identity, but all of them have less than 86% nucleotide sequence identity with other reported begomoviruses. The molecular data show that Hn5-4, Hn6-1, Hn30 and Hn34 are isolates of a distinct begomovirus species, for which the name Stachytarpheta leaf curl virus (StaLCV) is proposed. PCR and Southern blot analyses demonstrate that all the collected field samples are not associated with DNAbeta or DNA-B components. An infectious clone of StaLCV isolate Hn5-4 was constructed, and could efficiently infect Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Lycopersicon esculentum and Petunia hybrida plants, inducing upward leaf roll and vein swelling symptoms. In addition, we illustrate that StaLCV can functionally interact with distinct DNAbeta molecules in plants. PMID:15986176

  7. Genetic variability of begomoviruses associated with cotton leaf curl disease originating from India.

    PubMed

    Kirthi, N; Priyadarshini, C G P; Sharma, P; Maiya, S P; Hemalatha, V; Sivaraman, P; Dhawan, P; Rishi, N; Savithri, H S

    2004-10-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) causing viruses belong to the Begomovirus genus of the family Geminiviridae. Most begomoviruses are bipartite with two molecules of circular single stranded DNA (A and B) encapsidated in icosahedral geminate particles. However, the begomoviruses associated with CLCuD have DNA-beta instead of DNA-B. In this communication we report the complete genomic sequence of DNA-A component of two CLCuD-causing begomoviruses, cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Dabawali (CLCuKV-Dab), tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus-Cotton [Fatehabad] (ToLCBV-Cotton [Fat]) and partial sequences of two other isolates cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus-Bangalore (CLCuRV-Ban) and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Ganganagar (CLCuKV-Gang). A phylogenetic analysis of these isolates along with other related begomoviruses showed that ToLCBV-Cotton [Fat] isolate was closest to the tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus-5 (ToLCBV-Ban5) where as CLCuKV-Dab isolate was close to the cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Faisalabad1 (CLCuKV-Fai1), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-72b (CLCuKV-72b) and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-806b (CLCuKV-806b) isolates from Pakistan. The phylogenetic analysis further showed that the ToLCBV-Cotton [Fat] and CLCuKV-Dab isolates along with CLCuKV-Fai1, CLCuKV-72b and CLCuKV-806b are closer to the ToLCBV, tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV), tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus-Varanasi (ToLCGV-Var) and tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ToLCSLV) isolates, where as cotton leaf curl Alabad virus-804a (CLCuAV-804a), cotton leaf curl Multhan virus (CLCuMV) cluster with the isolates from cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus (CLCuRV) and okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV). These results demonstrate the extensive variability observed in this group of viruses. The AC4 ORF is the least conserved among these viruses. In order to further asses the variability in the CLCuD-causing begomoviruses, the region showing minimum similarity in the DNA-A sequence was first determined by a comparison of segments of different lengths of the aligned sequences. The results indicated that region 2411-424 (771 nt) was the least conserved. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the sequences of all the CLCuD causing begomoviruses, corresponding to the least conserved region showed that they form two distinct clusters. PMID:15669112

  8. Molecular diversity of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tiendrbogo, Fidle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Villemot, Julie; Konat, Gnissa; Traor, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Traor, Valentin S; Reynaud, Bernard; Traor, Oumar; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  9. Molecular diversity of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus isolates and their satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production and is widespread in Africa. Using a large number of samples representative of the major growing regions in Burkina Faso (BF), we show that the disease is associated with a monopartite begomovirus and satellite DNA complexes. Twenty-three complete genomic sequences of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) isolates associated with OLCD, sharing 95 to 99% nucleotide identity, were cloned and sequenced. Six betasatellite and four alphasatellite (DNA-1) molecules were also characterized. The six isolates of betasatellite associated with CLCuGV isolates correspond to Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) (88 to 98% nucleotide identity). One isolate of alphasatellite is a variant of Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGA) (89% nucleotide identity), whereas the three others isolates appear to correspond to a new species of alphasatellite (CLCuGA most similar sequence present 52 to 60% nucleotide identity), provisionally named Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCBFA). Recombination analysis of the viruses demonstrated the interspecies recombinant origin of all CLCuGV isolates, with parents being close to Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (AY036009) and Tomato leaf curl Diana virus (AM701765). Combined with the presence of satellites DNA, these results highlight the complexity of begomoviruses associated with OLCD. PMID:20178575

  10. [Molecular detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)].

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Bao; Cui, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Ying; Li, Chuan-You

    2012-03-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is currently considered as one of the most devastating viruses in cultivated tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. We reported here the development of a PCR-based method to quickly detect TYLCV using the primer pairs (TYLCV-F: 5'-ACG CAT GCC TCT AAT CCA GTG TA-3' and TYLCV-R: 5'-CCA ATA AGG CGT AAG CGT GTA GAC-3'), which was designed based on the genome sequence of TYLCV. A TYLCV-specific band of 543 bp was amplified from infected tomato plants. This protocol provides a rapid, reliable, and sensitive tool for molecular detection and identification of TYLCV in the industrial seedling and virus resistance breeding to facilitate safe and sustainable production of tomato. PMID:22425956

  11. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. PMID:26314055

  12. Tête à tête of tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl sardinia virus in single nuclei.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Wege, Christina

    2004-10-01

    Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

  13. Infectious clones of Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus with a defective DNA B and their pseudo-recombination with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) is a bipartite begomovirus which has been reported from India and Iran but infectious clones have not been obtained. We have previously shown the association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), a potyvirus, with severe leaf curl disease of muskmelon in Pakistan. However, the severity of symptoms in the field and yield losses led us to believe that some other agent, such as a begomovirus, could be associated with the disease. Results A bipartite begomovirus associated with a severe yellow leaf curl disease on muskmelon in Pakistan has been characterized. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA A and DNA B components of the begomovirus showed that it has the highest DNA sequence identity with ToLCPMV. However, the gene encoding the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) was truncated in comparison to previously characterised isolates. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the ToLCPMV clones obtained here did not result in symptoms. However, inoculation of plants with the DNA A component of ToLCPMV and the DNA B component of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) lead to systemic infection with leaf curl symptoms. This suggested that the lack of infectivity of the ToLCPMV clones was due to the defect in DNA B. The DNA B of ToLCPMV was able to move systemically when inoculated with DNA A of the either virus. Agro-infiltration of muskmelon with the DNA A and DNA B components of ToLCPMV did not lead to symptomatic infection whereas inoculation with the DNA A with the DNA B of ToLCNDV resulted in a hypersensitive response (HR) along the veins. Additionally, agro-infiltration of muskmelon with a construct for the expression of the NSP gene of ToLCNDV under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter induced a HR, suggesting that this is the gene causing the HR. Conclusions Both ToLCPMV and ZYMV are associated with muskmelon leaf curl disease in Pakistan. However, the ToLCPMV variant identified in association with ZYMV has a defective NSP. The results suggest that a variant with a defective NSP may have been selected for in muskmelon, as this protein is an avirulence determinant in this species, and possibly that infection requires the synergistic interaction with ZYMV. PMID:21496256

  14. Genetic diversity of Sweet potato begomoviruses in the United States and identification of a natural recombinant between Sweet potato leaf curl virus and Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, two sweetpotato begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus (SPLCGV) were previously identified in Louisiana. In recent years, at least seven additional sweetpotato begomoviruses have been identified in other parts of the world....

  15. Differential pathogenicity among Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Punam; Kumar, R Vinoth; Chakraborty, S

    2013-12-01

    Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV) has been identified as one of the most destructive pathogens causing tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in India. In the tomato growing regions of Dhanbad and Ramgarh, plants bearing severe symptoms of ToLCD such as leaf curling, leaf crinkling, yellowing and leaf rolling was observed in the farmer fields. The association of begomovirus in these samples was confirmed by PCR and the causal viruses were identified as the isolates of ToLCGV. However, association of cognate DNA B component could not be ascertained from these samples. Indeed, like other Old World begomoviruses, the present ToLCGV isolates were found to be associated with a particular betasatellite, Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite (TYLCTHB). Although DNA A of both ToLCGV isolates could alone infect tomato inducing systemic symptoms, the difference in virulence was observed. Co-inoculation of TYLCTHB reduced the incubation period without influencing the accumulation of helper virus DNA and hence, differential pathogenesis among ToLCGV isolates was governed by the helper component rather than betasatellite. ToLCGV infection with DNA B increases the accumulation of DNA A component of Dhanbad isolate but not of Ramgarh isolate. Results indicated that the begomovirus identified from Ramgarh sample was a mild strain of ToLCGV. PMID:24026875

  16. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. PMID:23535770

  17. First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Chandran, S A; Packialakshmi, R M; Subhalakshmi, K; Prakash, C; Poovannan, K; Nixon Prabu, A; Gopal, P; Usha, R

    2013-06-01

    An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India. PMID:23475199

  18. Application of Phi29 DNA polymerase in identification and full-length clone inoculation of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus and tobacco leaf curl Thailand virus.

    PubMed

    Knierim, D; Maiss, E

    2007-01-01

    Tomato plants grown in greenhouses in Thailand developed typical symptoms of a tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) infection. After confirmation by ELISA, a Phi29 DNA polymerase approach was chosen for further molecular analysis of TYLCTHV. Total DNA purified from infected tomato leaves was subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA) of DNA-A and DNA-B of TYLCVTHV. In addition, a new monopartite geminivirus with a putative recombinant background was identified by RCA and tentatively named tobacco leaf curl Thailand virus (TbLCTHV). To confirm the composition of both geminiviruses, full-length clones were established and used for inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana by particle bombardment or agroinfection. When TYLCTHV DNA-A and DNA-B were applied together by particle bombardment or agroinfection, severe stunting, yellowing, and leaf curling were observed. Whereas TYLCTHV DNA-A and TbLCTHV revealed no infection after'particle bombardment, similar symptoms in N. benthamiana, like leaf upward curling and yellowing were observed following agroinfection.DNA components of TYLCTHV DNA-A and DNA-B were excised from their respective plasmids, ligated, and amplified by Phi29 DNA polymerase. The ability of viral concatamere inoculation was evaluated in particle co-bombardment experiments on N. benthamiana. Thus, particle bombardment of RCA-derived multimeric products proved to be at least as effective as inoculation with a partial repeat construct and tenfold as effective as inoculation with excised unit-lengths of DNA-A and DNA-B of TYLCVTHV when using each DNA component in an amount of 5 ng. PMID:17226067

  19. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Huanran; Zhou, Xueping

    2009-10-01

    Several tomato production regions in China were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD), and 31 tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected. The partial or full-length genomes of these isolates were sequenced and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was detected in Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu Shandong and Hebei provinces of China. The TYLCV isolates found in China share high sequence identity ([98%) and have more than 97% sequence identity with TYLCVIL[ IL:Reo] (X15656). Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that although with little genetic variability, they can form two groups and all the TYLCV isolates in China belong to the group I. An infectious clone of TYLCV-[CN:SH2] (AM282874) was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum, Petunia hybrida, Cucumis sativus, Gossypium hirsutum, S. melongena, and Capsicum annuum. TYLCV-[CN:SH2] can induce severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants except C. sativus, G. hirsutum, S. melongena and C. annuum.We verified that TYLCV can trans-replicate tomato yellow leaf curl China virus DNA-b in N. benthamiana and S. lycopersicum and induced more severe symptoms with distortion and yellow vein. PMID:19590945

  20. Whitefly transmission of Sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotato germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is among an extensive number of plant species attacked by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Because this important world food crop is vegetatively propagated, it can conveniently accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ssDNA...

  1. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  2. Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus: Virus Reservoir in Species of Wild Morning Glory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increases in populations of the Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) vector, the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), led to a dramatic increase in the disease in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). Knowledge of crop or weed species that occur in sweetpotato growing areas and can serv...

  3. Use of Insecticides to Control the Spread of Sweetpotato Leaf Curl Virus in Sweetpotato Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), which is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, can severely affect yields of commercial sweetpotato cultivars. This virus occurs every year at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. In 2010 and 2011, small plots of virus tested ‘Beauregard’ sw...

  4. Experimental Host Range and Natural Reservoir of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a sweetpotato whitefly transmitted begomovirus, could potentially cause serious yield losses to many sweetpotato cultivars. Using experimental whitefly transmission experiments in a greenhouse (choice tests) and in a growth chamber (no-choice tests), we evaluat...

  5. Evolutionary and Molecular Aspects of Indian Tomato Leaf Curl Virus Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Patel, Saumya K.; Kapopara, Ravi G.; Jasrai, Yogesh T.; Pandya, Himanshu A.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) is manifested by yellowing of leaf lamina with upward leaf curl, leaf distortion, shrinking of the leaf surface, and stunted plant growth caused by tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV). In the present study, using computational methods we explored the evolutionary and molecular prospects of viral coat protein derived from an isolate of Vadodara district, Gujarat (ToLCGV-[Vad]), India. We found that the amino acids in coat protein required for systemic infection, viral particle formation, and insect transmission to host cells were conserved amongst Indian strains. Phylogenetic studies on Indian ToLCV coat proteins showed evolutionary compatibility with other viral taxa. Modeling of coat protein revealed a topology similar to characteristic Geminate viral particle consisting of antiparallel β-barrel motif with N-terminus α-helix. The molecular interaction of coat protein with the viral DNA required for encapsidation and nuclear shuttling was investigated through sequence- and structure-based approaches. We further emphasized the role of loops in coat protein structure as molecular recognition interface. PMID:23304121

  6. A new begomovirus-betasatellite complex is associated with chilli leaf curl disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, D M J B; Jayasinghe, J E A R M; Shilpi, S; Wasala, S K; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-02-01

    Leaf curl disease of chilli (LCDC) is a major constraint in production of chilli in the Indian subcontinent. The objective of this study was to identify the begomovirus species occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka, where the LCDC was initially recorded in 1938. The virus samples were collected from the North Central Province, the major chilli growing region in Sri Lanka with a history of epidemic prevalence of LCDC. The virus could be readily transmitted by Bemisia tabaci to chilli, tomato and tobacco, where vein clearing followed by leaf curl developed. The genome analysis of two isolates obtained from two distantly located fields showing 100 % LCDC, revealed that the DNA-A genome (2754 nucleotides) shared 89.5 % sequence identity with each other and 68.80-84.40 % sequence identity with the other begomoviruses occurring in the Indian subcontinent. The closest identity (84.40 %) of the virus isolates was with Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ToLCLKV). The results support that a new begomovirus species is affecting chilli in Sri Lanka and the name Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ChiLCSLV) is proposed. Recombination analysis indicated that ChiLCSLV was a recombinant virus potentially originated from the begomoviruses prevailing in southern India and Sri Lanka. The genome of betasatellite associated with the two isolates consisted of 1366 and 1371 nucleotides and shared 95.2 % sequence identity with each other and 41.50-73.70 % sequence identity with the other betasatellite species. The results suggest that a new begomovirus betasatellite, Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka betasatellite is associated with LCDC in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates a new species of begomovirus and betasatellite complex is occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka and further shows that diverse begomovirus species are affecting chilli production in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:23090833

  7. A DNAbeta associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus is required for symptom induction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Tao, Xiaorong; Xie, Yan; Fauquet, Claude M; Zhou, Xueping

    2004-12-01

    We report here that all 25 isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) collected from tobacco, tomato, or Siegesbeckia orientalis plants in different regions of Yunnan Province, China, were associated with DNAbeta molecules. To investigate the biological role of DNAbeta, full-length infectious clones of viral DNA and DNAbeta of TYLCCNV isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana. tabacum Samsun (NN or nn), tomato, and petunia plants. We found that TYLCCNV-Y10 alone could systemically infect these plants, but no symptoms were induced. TYLCCNV-Y10 DNAbeta was required, in addition to TYLCCNV-Y10, for induction of leaf curl disease in these hosts. Similar to TYLCCNV-Y10, DNAbeta of TYLCCNV isolate Y64 was also found to be required for induction of typical leaf curl diseases in the hosts tested. When the betaC1 gene of TYLCCNV-Y10 DNAbeta was mutated, the mutants failed to induce leaf curl symptoms in N. benthamiana when coinoculated with TYLCCNV-Y10. However, Southern blot hybridization analyses showed that the mutated DNAbeta molecules were replicated. When N. benthamiana and N. tabacum plants were transformed with a construct containing the betaC1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, many transgenic plants developed leaf curl symptoms similar to those caused by a virus, the severity of which paralleled the level of betaC1 transcripts, while transgenic plants transformed with the betaC1 gene containing a stop codon after the start codon remained symptomless. Thus, expression of a betaC1 gene is adequate for induction of symptoms of viral infection in the absence of virus. PMID:15564504

  8. Study of betasatellite molecule from leaf curl disease of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Khan, Z A; Yadav, N; Sinha, V; Bhatnagar, D; Khan, J A

    2010-12-01

    Leaves of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) showing geminiviral symptoms were collected from Lucknow, India during rainy season in 2008. DNA template isolated from the symptomatic leaf tissues were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers to amplify coat protein (CP) gene of DNA-A as well as betasatellite DNA associated with the leaf curl disease. CP gene showed 97% sequence identity with that of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBwV). Further, the betasatellite DNA molecule revealed sequence similarity with previously characterized betasatellite DNA of begomoviruses affecting malvaceous crops from different regions of India and Pakistan. Maximum similarity (>90%) of betasatellite DNA under study was observed with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB-[Pak: Mul17:08) and other betasatellite DNA from Pakistan thus confirming possible infection of C. juncea with begomovirus. A complementary sense open reading frame (ORF) ?C1 is present at nucleotide position 194-550. Sequence comparison of this ORF with other members of begomoviruses further confirmed association of a begomovirus with C. juncea. The betasatellite DNA when expressed under the control of CaMV35S promoter Nicotiana tabacum, showed leaf deformities. Our results demonstrated that a malvaceous betasatellite is adapted by a nonmalvaceous host and causes similar disease symptoms. PMID:20890652

  9. Complete sequences of tomato leaf curl Palampur virus isolates infecting cucurbits in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Mozaffari, Azadeh; Massumi, Hossain; Fazeli, Roya; Gray, Alistair J A; Meredith, Sandra; Lakay, Francisco; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    Tomato leaf curl disease (TLCD) and and tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLCD) is caused by a number of begomovirus species that collectively threaten tomato production worldwide. We report here that an ongoing TLCD and TYLCD epidemic in Iran is caused by variants of tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV), a newly proposed begomovirus species previously only detected in India. Besides infecting tomatoes, we identified ToLCPMV as the causal agent of a cucurbit disease that has devastated greenhouse cucumber and melon farms in Jiroft, southeastern Iran. We found no convincing evidence that the ToLCPMV DNA-B sequences have been derived through inter-species recombination, however, all of the currently sampled ToLCPMV DNA-A sequences are descendents of a sequence that probably arose through recombination between a ToLCNDV isolate and a currently unsampled geminivirus species that falls outside the ToLCNDV-ToLCPMV cluster. The increasing incidence of ToLCPMV in different cultivated species throughout Iran may signal the emergence of a serious new threat to agricultural production throughout the Middle East. PMID:19424773

  10. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2010-02-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

  11. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Is a Dead-End Host for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Morilla, G; Janssen, D; García-Andrés, S; Moriones, E; Cuadrado, I M; Bejarano, E R

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. The disease is caused by a complex of begomovirus species, two of which, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), are responsible for epidemics in Southern Spain. TYLCV also has been reported to cause severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) crops. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants collected from commercial crops were found to be infected by isolates of two TYLCV strains: TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99], an isolate of the mild strain similar to other TYLCVs isolated from tomato crops in Spain, and TYLCV-[Alm], an isolate of the more virulent TYLCV type strain, not previously reported in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work, pepper, Nicotiana benthamiana, common bean, and tomato were tested for susceptibility to TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99]and TYLCV-[Alm] by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration, biolistic bombardment, or Bemisia tabaci inoculation. Results indicate that both strains are able to infect plants of these species, including pepper. This is the first time that infection of pepper plants with TYLCV clones has been shown. Implications of pepper infection for the epidemiology of TYLCV are discussed. PMID:18943307

  12. Replication of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) DNA in agroinoculated leaf discs from selected tomato genotypes.

    PubMed

    Czosnek, H; Kheyr-Pour, A; Gronenborn, B; Remetz, E; Zeidan, M; Altman, A; Rabinowitch, H D; Vidavsky, S; Kedar, N; Gafni, Y

    1993-09-01

    The leaf disc agroinoculation system was applied to study tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) replication in explants from susceptible and resistant tomato genotypes. This system was also evaluated as a potential selection tool in breeding programmes for TYLCV resistance. Leaf discs were incubated with a head-to-tail dimer of the TYLCV genome cloned into the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In leaf discs from susceptible cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum) TYLCV single-stranded genomic DNA and its double-stranded DNA forms appeared within 2-5 days after inoculation. Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) efficiently transmitted the TYLCV disease to tomato test plants following acquisition feeding on agroinoculated tomato leaf discs. This indicates that infective viral particles have been produced and have reached the phloem cells of the explant where they can be acquired by the insects. Plants regenerated from agroinfected leaf discs of sensitive tomato cultivars exhibited disease symptoms and contained TYLCV DNA concentrations similar to those present in field-infected tomato plants, indicating that TYLCV can move out from the leaf disc into the regenerating plant. Leaf discs from accessions of the wild tomato species immune to whitefly-mediated inoculation, L. chilense LA1969 and L. hirsutum LA1777, did not support TYLCV DNA replication. Leaf discs from plants tolerant to TYLCV issued from breeding programmes behaved like leaf discs from susceptible cultivars. PMID:8400142

  13. Complexity of begomovirus and betasatellite populations associated with chilli leaf curl disease in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Singh, Achuit Kumar; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Tribhuwan; Basu, Saumik; Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Chattopadhyay, Brotati; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2015-10-01

    Chilli, which encompasses several species in the genus Capsicum, is widely consumed throughout the world. In the Indian subcontinent, production of chilli is constrained due to chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) caused by begomoviruses. Despite the considerable economic consequences of ChiLCD on chilli cultivation in India, there have been scant studies of the genetic diversity and structure of the begomoviruses that cause this disease. Here we report on a comprehensive survey across major chilli-growing regions in India. Analysis of samples collected in the survey indicates that ChiLCD-infected plants are associated with a complex of begomoviruses (including one previously unreported species) with a diverse group of betasatellites found in crops and weeds. The associated betasatellites neither enhanced the accumulation of the begomovirus components nor reduced the incubation period in Nicotiana benthamiana. The ChiLCD-associated begomoviruses induced mild symptoms on Capsicum spp., but both the level of helper virus that accumulated and the severity of symptoms were increased in the presence of cognate betasatellites. Interestingly, most of the begomoviruses were found to be intra-species recombinants. The betasatellites possess high nucleotide variability, and recombination among them was also evident. The nucleotide substitution rates were determined for the AV1 gene of begomoviruses (2.60 × 10- 3 substitutions site- 1 year- 1) and the βC1 gene of betasatellites [chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChiLCB), 2.57 × 10- 4 substitution site- 1 year- 1; tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite (ToLCBDB), 5.22 × 10- 4 substitution site- 1 year- 1]. This study underscores the current understanding of Indian ChiLCD-associated begomoviruses and also demonstrates the crucial role of betasatellites in severe disease development in Capsicum spp. PMID:26251220

  14. Characterization and distribution of tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus, a begomovirus from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Nava, A; Londoo, A; Polston, J E

    2013-02-01

    A begomovirus causing mottling and leaf deformation in tomato from the State of Mrida was cloned and sequenced. The virus has a bipartite genome comprised of a DNA-A (2,572 nucleotides) and a DNA-B (2,543 nucleotides) with a genome organization typical of New World begomoviruses. Both components share a common region of 115 nucleotides with 98% sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that while no virus sequences were closely related, the A component was distantly related to those of two other tomato-infecting viruses, tomato leaf deformation virus and Merremia mosaic virus; and the DNA-B, to those of pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and Rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus. The DNA-A and DNA-B sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession no. AY508993 and AY508994, respectively) and later accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as the genome of a member of a unique virus species with the name Tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus (TYMLCV). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Fl. Lanai') plants inoculated with cloned TYMLCV DNA-A and DNA-B became systemically infected and showed chlorotic margins and leaf curling. The distribution of TYMLCV in tomato-producing states in Venezuela was determined by nucleic acid spot hybridization analysis of 334 tomato leaf samples collected from ten states using a TYMLCV-specific probe and confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the PCR fragment. TYMLCV was detected in samples from the states of Aragua, Gurico, and Mrida, suggesting that TYMLCV is widely distributed in Venezuela. PMID:23064695

  15. Complete nucleotide sequences of okra isolates of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger.

    PubMed

    Shih, S L; Kumar, S; Tsai, W S; Lee, L M; Green, S K

    2009-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a major crop in Niger. In the fall of 2007, okra leaf curl disease was observed in Niger and the begomovirus and DNA-beta satellite were found associated with the disease. The complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A (FJ469626 and FJ469627) and associated DNA-beta satellites (FJ469628 and FJ469629) were determined from two samples. This is the first report of molecular characterization of okra-infecting begomovirus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger. The begomovirus and DNA-beta have been identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite, respectively, which are reported to also infect okra in Egypt, Mali and Sudan. PMID:19156351

  16. First record of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) on pepper in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Comes, S; Crescenzi, A

    2008-01-01

    During a survey in summer 2007, a disease of pepper (Capsicum annuum) under plastic tunnels was observed in Policoro (Matera), on the Ionic coast of Basilicata Region, with a disease incidence in some cases of more than 50%. Affected cultivars were Eppo and Almund (S Et G). The diseased plants exhibited light mosaic or mottling, leaf distortion, interveinal and marginal leaf chlorosis, upward curling of leaf margins of older leaves. The causal pathogen was suspected to be a begomovirus due to the large population of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci observed on the crop. Detection assays for Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were used. In DAS-ELISA, positive results (178 plants resulted positive over 200 symptomatic plants assayed) were obtained using a "broad-spectrum" reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV, and other begamoviruses. A couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene of TYLCSV and TYLCV was used for PCR of ELISA positive samples in order to perform the molecular characterisation of the viral isolate responsible of the disease. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in the infected pepper plants. The same couple of primers allowed the detection of the virus also in symptomless pepper plants. To test whitefly transmission, adults of B. tabaci allowed to feed on naturally infected pepper plants were transferred on 10 healthy Eppo pepper seedlings (15 whiteflies/plant). Insects were killed 2 days later using an insecticide. Twenty days post exposition 10 plants/10 resulted positive in ELISA, and showed the same symptoms observed in natural infection. TYLCSV was not reported before on pepper in the surveyed area, but it was recorded with severe outbreaks on tomato, both in protected and in open field crops. This species was probably the primary source of infection from which subsequent diffusion by way of the vector B. tabaci followed on pepper. To our knowledge this is the first time that a natural infection of TYLCSV on pepper is recorded in Italy, with serious implications for the epidemiology of TYLCSV in our country. PMID:19226766

  17. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates. PMID:24957717

  18. Non-chemical control of leaf curling midges and sawflies in berries and currants.

    PubMed

    Wenneker, M; Helsen, H

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility of larvae of the leaf curling midge, Dasineura plicotrix, for entomopathogenic nematodes, predatory mites and rove beetles was studied in the laboratory. The results showed that the leaf curling midge larvae were unaffected by the nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsoe and S. feltiae. The predatory mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and the rove beetle (Atheta coriaria) were very effective in predating the larvae when continuously exposed. However, in a soil substrate the control of larvae was less successful. The vigorous burrowing behaviour of the larvae facilitates their escape from predators. This was enhanced by the formation of a cocoon consisting of soil and sand particles. The effects of the foliar fertilizer magnesium sulphate (bitter salt) were studied on gooseberry sawfty Nematus ribesii. The experiments showed that magnesium sulphate has a good residual action on eggs and neonate larvae. Also, an effect on the egg laying behaviour of the females was observed. The experiments showed that magnesium sulphate has a potential as a control agent for gooseberry sawflies. PMID:19226775

  19. Regional Changes in the Sequence of Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Sohail; Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Javaid, Shaista; Khan, Ali Qaiser; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan and northwestern India is caused by monopartite begomoviruses in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Following a recent upsurge in CLCuD problems in Sindh province (southern Pakistan), sequences of clones of CLCuMB were obtained from Sindh and Punjab province (central Pakistan), where CLCuD has been a problem since the mid-1980s. The sequences were compared to all sequences of CLCuMB available in the databases. Analysis of the sequences shows extensive sequence variation in CLCuMB, most likely resulting from recombination. The range of sequence variants differ between Sindh, the Punjab and northwestern India. The possible significance of the findings with respect to movement of the CLCuD between the three regions is discussed. Additionally, the lack of sequence variation within the only coding sequence of CLCuMB suggests that the betasatellite is not involved in resistance breaking which became a problem after 2001 in the Punjab and subsequently also in northwestern India. PMID:24859342

  20. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus: a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus with a single genomic component.

    PubMed

    Navot, N; Pichersky, E; Zeidan, M; Zamir, D; Czosnek, H

    1991-11-01

    The genome of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted geminivirus, was cloned. All clones obtained were of one genomic molecule, analogous to DNA A of African cassava mosaic virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the TYLCV genome showed that it comprises 2787 nucleotides, encoding six open reading frames, two on the virion strand and four on the complementary strand. All of them have counterparts in other geminiviruses. Dimeric copies of the cloned viral genome were introduced into tomato plants by agroinoculation. Severe yellow leaf curl disease symptoms developed in all of them. Effective whitefly-mediated transmission of the virus from agroinoculated plants to test plants demonstrated that the cloned molecule carries all the information needed for virus replication, systemic infection, and transfer by whiteflies. Restriction and hybridization analyses of viral DNA forms in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies did not support the presupposed existence of a second genomic component. This is the first report of a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus that possesses a single genomic molecule. PMID:1926771

  1. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Sardinia is a whitefly-transmitted monopartite geminivirus.

    PubMed Central

    Kheyr-Pour, A; Bendahmane, M; Matzeit, V; Accotto, G P; Crespi, S; Gronenborn, B

    1991-01-01

    The genome of an isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Sardinia, Italy (TYLCV-S), a geminivirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, has been cloned and sequenced. The single circular DNA molecule comprises 2770 nucleotides. Genome organisation closely resembles that of the DNA A component of the whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses with a bipartite genome. A 1.8 mer of the TYLCV-S genome in a binary vector of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is infectious upon agroinoculation of tomato plants. Typical tomato yellow leaf curl disease symptoms developed about three weeks after inoculation. The disease was transmitted by the natural vector B.tabaci from agroinfected plants to test plants, reproducing in this way the full biological cycle and proving that the genome of TYLCV-S consists of only one circular single-stranded DNA molecule. Contrary to the other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses described so far, there is no evidence for the existence nor the necessity of a second component (B DNA) in the TYLCV-S genome. Images PMID:1840676

  2. Lamium amplexicaule (Lamiaceae): a weed reservoir for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Jaedeok; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-06-01

    After the first identification of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in the southern part of Korea in 2008, TYLCV has rapidly spread to tomato farms in most regions of Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a survey of natural weed hosts that could be reservoirs of TYLCV was performed in major tomato production areas of Korea. About 530 samples were collected and identified as belonging to 25 species from 11 families. PCR and Southern hybridization were used to detect TYLCV in samples, and replicating forms of TYLCV DNA were detected in three species (Achyranthes bidentata, Lamium amplexicaule, and Veronica persica) by Southern hybridization. TYLCV transmission mediated by Bemisia tabaci from TYLCV-infected tomato plants to L. amplexicaule was confirmed, and TYLCV-infected L. amplexicaule showed symptoms such as yellowing, stunting, and leaf curling. TYLCV from infected L. amplexicaule was also transmitted to healthy tomato and L. amplexicaule plants by B. tabaci. The rate of infection of L. amplexicaule by TYLCV was similar to that of tomato. This report is the first to show that L. amplexicaule is a reservoir weed host for TYLCV. PMID:24327090

  3. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  4. Severe outbreaks of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Calabria, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, A; Comes, S; Napoli, C; Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Accotto, G P

    2004-01-01

    During the winter 2003--2004 a serious disease was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Reggio Calabria province, Southern Italy. Symptoms consisted in marginal leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting, flower abortion. The disease was detected in a group of greenhouses (about 10ha) where several tomato cultivars were grown hydroponically. The highest incidence of infection (60-100%) was observed in tomatoes grafted on Beaufort DRS tomato rootstock. Since the symptoms were similar to those described for Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), detection assays for these viruses were used. In DAS-ELISA positive results were obtained with a abroad-spectrums reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV, and other begomoviruses. When DNA probes were used in tissue print assays, positive reactions were obtained for TYLCSV, but not for TYLCV. The two probes consisted of digoxigenin-labelled DNAs representing the coat protein gene of either TYLCSV or TYLCV. Attempts to isolate the viral agent by mechanical inoculation failed, except in few cases where Potato virus Y and Tobacco mosaic virus were identified following transmission from symptomatic plants to herbaceous indicatorpplants. By contrast, grafting onto tomato seedlings always successfully transmitted the disease. In the Castrovillari area TYLCSV was not reported before. The rootstocks that nurseries used for grafting were obtained from Sicily, where the disease is endemic and both TYLCSV and TYLCV are widespread. Probably the grafted plantlets represented the primary source of infection from which subsequent diffusion by way of the vector Bemisia tabaci followed. In fact the vector had previously been detected in both the glasshouse-grown and open field tomato crops in Calabria region. TYLCV was previously reported in a different area of Calabria in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Since in the Castrovillari area surveyed in the present study tomato is grown throughtout the year in protected crops, the whitefly vector of the virus is present, and some natural hosts of the virus are found, it is feared that TYLCSV may become endemic, as already happened in Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain several years ago. In Spain and Sicily TYLCV, together with TYLCSV, was reported as the causal agent of very severe tomato crop losses. Therefore the danger exists that also TYLCV will reach this area, furthermore complicating the management of tomato crops. PMID:15756842

  5. Three years survey of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus reservoir weed hosts in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Angele; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2007-01-01

    During the period from August 2004 to June 2006 a serious tomato yellow leaf curl epidemic caused by both Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCS) was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Calabria Region, in a group of greenhouses where tomato is grown hydroponically. A three years survey for reservoir weed hosts of these viruses was performed during summer period in order to identify where the viruses persist during the host-free period, interesting an area covering a ray of 500 m around the group of greenhouses. About 350 samples were collected from symptomless and symptomatic plants of the following botanic families: Graminaceae, Compositeae, Solanaceae, Portulacaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Labiatae, Plantaginaceae, Asteraceae. Any virus presence was evaluated by DAS ELISA, using a "broad-spectrum" reagent combination detecting different Begomoviruses including TYLCSV and TYLCV. A couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene was used for PCR of ELISA positive samples in order to perform the molecular characterisation of the viral isolate responsible of the disease. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in the weeds found infected and belonging to Sonchus asper, Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium and Cardaria draba species. Similarity analysis performed between the CP of each isolate and the TYLCSV isolate recovered within the greenhouse and responsible of the epidemic in mixed infection with a TYLCV isolate resulted in a value of 100% of identity, thus indicating that there was no variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. S. asper, S. nigrum, D. stramonium and C. draba, as alternative hosts of TYLCSV and nutrient plants of the virus vector, Bemisia tabaci, were found to play an important role in virus ecology and epidemiology in the studied tomato ecosystem. No weed between those investigated has been found to be infected by TYLCV so far. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. asper and C. draba as TYLCSV hosts in natural infection. PMID:18396845

  6. Infection of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Rickettsia spp. alters its interactions with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here we report that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies...

  7. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus confronts host degradation by sheltering in small/midsized protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Fridman, Lilia; Kolot, Mikhail; Rotem, Or; Ghanim, Murad; Shriki, Oz; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to tomato and other crops. TYLCV proteins are endangered by the host defenses. We have analyzed the capacity of the tomato plant and of the whitefly insect vector to degrade the six proteins encoded by the TYLCV genome. Tomato and whitefly demonstrated the highest proteolytic activity in the fractions containing soluble proteins, less-in large protein aggregates; a significant decrease of TYLCV proteolysis was detected in the intermediate-sized aggregates. All the six TYLCV proteins were differently targeted by the cytoplasmic and nuclear degradation machineries (proteases, ubiquitin 26S proteasome, autophagy). TYLCV could confront host degradation by sheltering in small/midsized aggregates, where viral proteins are less exposed to proteolysis. Indeed, TYLCV proteins were localized in aggregates of various sizes in both host organisms. This is the first study comparing degradation machinery in plant and insect hosts targeting all TYLCV proteins. PMID:26654789

  8. Pathogenicity and stability of a truncated DNAbeta associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajuan; Zhou, Xueping

    2005-05-01

    DNAbeta molecules are single-stranded satellite DNA associated with monopartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae). DNAbeta possesses a C1 gene on the complementary strand, which has a conserved position and size. To better understand the function of C1 gene in virus infection, a C1 deletion DNAbeta associated with a Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) isolate was constructed. Co-agroinoculation with TYLCCNV showed the truncated DNAbeta was infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. glutinosa plants but not in N. tabacum Samsun, N. tabacum and Lycopersicon esculentum plants. The wild-type TYLCCNV DNAbeta co-agroinoculated with TYLCCNV caused systemic infection in all the above hosts. Results of Southern blot analysis indicate that C1 gene is not required for TYLCCNV and DNAbeta replication. However, the presence of C1 gene in DNAbeta can increase both TYLCCNV and DNAbeta accumulation in infected plants. The truncated TYLCCNV DNAbeta was stable in N. benthamiana and N. glutinosa plants. PMID:15763146

  9. MicroRNA profiling of tomato leaf curl new delhi virus (tolcndv) infected tomato leaves indicates that deregulation of mir159/319 and mir172 might be linked with leaf curl disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), a constituent of the genus Begomovirus, infects tomato and other plants with a hallmark disease symptom of upward leaf curling. Since microRNAs (miRs) are known to control plants developmental processes, we evaluated the roles of miRNAs in Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) induced leaf curling. Results Microarray analyses of miRNAs, isolated from the leaves of both healthy and ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv Pusa Ruby, revealed that ToLCNDV infection significantly deregulated various miRNAs representing ~13 different conserved families (e.g., miR319, miR172, etc.). The precursors of these miRNAs showed similar deregulated patterns, indicating that the transcription regulation of respective miRNA genes was perhaps the cause of deregulation. The expression levels of the miRNA-targeted genes were antagonistic with respect to the amount of corresponding miRNA. Such deregulation was tissue-specific in nature as no analogous misexpression was found in flowers. The accumulation of miR159/319 and miR172 was observed to increase with the days post inoculation (dpi) of ToLCNDV agroinfection in tomato cv Pusa Ruby. Similarly, these miRs were also induced in ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv JK Asha and chilli plants, both exhibiting leaf curl symptoms. Our results indicate that miR159/319 and miR172 might be associated with leaf curl symptoms. This report raises the possibility of using miRNA(s) as potential signature molecules for ToLCNDV infection. Conclusions The expression of several host miRNAs is affected in response to viral infection. The levels of the corresponding pre-miRs and the predicted targets were also deregulated. This change in miRNA expression levels was specific to leaf tissues and observed to be associated with disease progression. Thus, certain host miRs are likely indicator of viral infection and could be potentially employed to develop viral resistance strategies. PMID:20973960

  10. The role of corchorus in spreading of tomato yellow leaf curl virus on tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2016-03-01

    Corchorus (Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L.) is one of the most important fiber crops grown in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Field survey was conducted and naturally infected leaf samples were collected from corchorus and tomato plants in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The causal virus was transmitted by whiteflies to tomato plants and begomovirus infection was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction. The complete viral genome and associated betasatellites were amplified, cloned and sequenced from both corchorus and tomato samples. The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships were determined for both isolates (corchorus and tomato). The complete genome sequences showed highest (99.5% nt) similarity with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and formed closest cluster with TYLCV-Tomato reported from Jizan and Al-Qasim, Saudi Arabia and betasatellites sequences showed highest similarity (99.8% nt) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites-Jeddah followed by Tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites and formed closed cluster with TYLCV-Tomato. On the basis of results obtained from whiteflies transmission, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships; it is concluded that the identified virus could be a variant of TYLCV circulating in the Kingdom. The significance of this study demonstrated that the corchorus is serving as reservoir and alternative host and playing an important role in spreading the begomovirus associated disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:26925440

  11. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistant tomato cultivars are a major tool for management of this economically important virus. Results presented emphasize that such resistant tomatoes can serve as virus and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence virus epidemics....

  12. Molecular characterization and sequence variability of betasatellites associated with leaf curl disease of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) from different geographical locations of India.

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Roy, A; Ghosh, R; Das, S; Chaudhuri, S; Ghosh, S K

    2008-01-01

    Leaf curl disease of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) in India has been found to be associated with begomoviruses and betasatellites. Here, we report the molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationship of the nine isolates of betasatellites obtained from three geographical locations in India. The betasatellites coming from northern and eastern region of India shared 84.3% nucleotide sequence identity and formed two sub-clusters within the main cluster containing different isolates of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) isolated in Indian subcontinent. Betasatellites coming from the southern part of India were identified as the isolates of Tomato leaf curl Joydebpur betasatellite and shared 45.2 and 44.9% sequences identity with their counterparts coming from the eastern and northern India, respectively. The present study represents the first report about the association of the leaf curl disease of kenaf with the betasatellites infecting both malvaceous and non-malvaceous crops in India. PMID:19143482

  13. A natural recombinant between the geminiviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus exhibits a novel pathogenic phenotype and is becoming prevalent in Spanish populations.

    PubMed

    Monci, Francisco; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique

    2002-11-25

    This work provides evidence of the significant contribution of recombination to the genetic diversification of emerging begomovirus populations. In southern Spain, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are distinct geminivirus species that coexist in the field and contribute to the tomato yellow leaf curl disease epidemic. A natural recombinant between TYLCSV and TYLCV has been detected and an infectious clone of a recombinant isolate (ES421/99) was obtained and characterized. Analysis of its genome showed that the recombination sites are located in the intergenic region in which a conserved stem-loop structure occurs and at the 3'-end of the replication enhancer protein open reading frame. ES421/99 exhibited a novel pathogenic phenotype that might provide it with a selective advantage over the parental genotypes. This agrees with results from field studies which revealed that the recombinant strain is becoming prevalent in the region in which it was detected. PMID:12490393

  14. Trapping of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other plant viruses with a GroEL homologue from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Akad, F; Dotan, N; Czosnek, H

    2004-08-01

    To avoid destruction in the haemolymph of their vector, many plant circulative viruses interact with GroEL homologues produced by insect endosymbiotic bacteria. We have exploited this phenomenon to devise tools allowing trapping of plant viruses by either GroEL purified from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or by whitefly GroEL over-expressed in E. coli. PCR tubes or 96-well plates coated with a GroEL preparation were incubated with cleared sap of virus infected plant leaves or insect vectors. GroEL-bound viruses were then identified by PCR or RT-PCR using virus-specific primers or by ELISA with virus specific antibodies. In this way Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) - a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus - was detected in plant sap, in extracts of leaf squashes and in homogenates of individual viruliferous whiteflies. Anti-GroEL antibody prevented TYLCV binding to GroEL. GroEL-bound virus was also detected by ELISA. GroEL was much more potent in binding TYLCV than commercial anti-TYLCV antibodies. In addition to several other geminiviruses, these procedures allowed detecting a variety of RNA viruses such as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Tomato spotted wilt (TSWV), but not Potato virus X and Potato virus Y (PVX and PVY), Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Predictions pertaining to viruses that do, or do not bind to GroEL, and applications in plant virus diagnosis, are presented. PMID:15290375

  15. Diversity in Betasatellites Associated with Cotton Leaf Curl Disease During Source-To-Sink Movement Through a Resistant Host.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iftikhar Ali; Akhtar, Khalid Pervaiz; Akbar, Fazal; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Amin, Imran; Saeed, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Cotton leaf curl is devastating disease of cotton characterized by leaf curling, vein darkening and enations. The disease symptoms are induced by DNA satellite known as Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB), dominant betasatellite in cotton but another betasatellite known as Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) is also found associated with the disease. Grafting experiment was performed to determine if host plant resistance is determinant of dominant population of betasatellite in cotton (several distinct strains of CLCuMuB are associated with the disease). Infected scion of Gossypium hirsutum collected from field (the source) was grafted on G. arboreum, a diploid cotton species, resistant to the disease. A healthy scion of G. hirsutum (sink) was grafted at the top of G. arboreum to determine the movement of virus/betasatellite to upper susceptible scion of G. hirsutum. Symptoms of disease appeared in the upper scion and presence of virus/betasatellite in the upper scion was confirmed via molecular techniques, showing that virus/betasatellite was able to move to upper scion through resistant G. arboreum. However, no symptoms appeared on G. arboreum. Betasatelites were cloned and sequenced from lower scion, upper scion and G. arboreum which show that the lower scion contained both CLCuMuB and ChLCB, however only ChLCB was found in G. arboreum. The upper scion contained CLCuMuB with a deletion of 78 nucleotides (nt) in the non-coding region between A-rich sequence and βC1 gene and insertion of 27 nt in the middle of βC1 ORF. This study may help in investigating molecular basis of resistance in G. arboreum. PMID:26889114

  16. Roles and interactions of begomoviruses and satellite DNAs associated with okra leaf curl disease in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R; Abdourhamane, Issoufou K; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2009-04-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production in West Africa. Two monopartite begomoviruses (okra virus-1 and okra virus-2), a betasatellite and a DNA1 satellite are associated with OLCD in Mali. Okra virus-1 is an isolate of okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV), okra virus-2 is a recombinant isolate of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV) and the betasatellite is a variant of cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB). Cloned DNA of OYCrV and CLCuGV were infectious and induced leaf curl symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but did not induce OLCD in okra. However, when these clones were individually co-inoculated with the cloned CLCuGB DNA, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in N. benthamiana plants and typical OLCD symptoms were induced in okra. The CLCuGB was also replicated by, and increased symptom severity of, three monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including two from West Africa. The sequence of the DNA1 satellite was highly divergent, indicating that it represents a distinct West African lineage. DNA1 replicated autonomously, and replication required the DNA1-encoded Rep protein. Although DNA1 reduced helper begomovirus DNA levels, symptoms were not attenuated. In the presence of CLCuGB, DNA levels of the helper begomoviruses and DNA1 were substantially increased. Together, these findings establish that OLCD in Mali is caused by a complex of monopartite begomoviruses and a promiscuous betasatellite with an associated parasitic DNA1 satellite. These findings are discussed in terms of the aetiology of OLCD and the evolution of new begomovirus/satellite DNA complexes. PMID:19264648

  17. Diversity in Betasatellites Associated with Cotton Leaf Curl Disease During Source-To-Sink Movement Through a Resistant Host

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Iftikhar Ali; Akhtar, Khalid Pervaiz; Akbar, Fazal; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Amin, Imran; Saeed, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl is devastating disease of cotton characterized by leaf curling, vein darkening and enations. The disease symptoms are induced by DNA satellite known as Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB), dominant betasatellite in cotton but another betasatellite known as Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) is also found associated with the disease. Grafting experiment was performed to determine if host plant resistance is determinant of dominant population of betasatellite in cotton (several distinct strains of CLCuMuB are associated with the disease). Infected scion of Gossypium hirsutum collected from field (the source) was grafted on G. arboreum, a diploid cotton species, resistant to the disease. A healthy scion of G. hirsutum (sink) was grafted at the top of G. arboreum to determine the movement of virus/betasatellite to upper susceptible scion of G. hirsutum. Symptoms of disease appeared in the upper scion and presence of virus/betasatellite in the upper scion was confirmed via molecular techniques, showing that virus/betasatellite was able to move to upper scion through resistant G. arboreum. However, no symptoms appeared on G. arboreum. Betasatelites were cloned and sequenced from lower scion, upper scion and G. arboreum which show that the lower scion contained both CLCuMuB and ChLCB, however only ChLCB was found in G. arboreum. The upper scion contained CLCuMuB with a deletion of 78 nucleotides (nt) in the non-coding region between A-rich sequence and βC1 gene and insertion of 27 nt in the middle of βC1 ORF. This study may help in investigating molecular basis of resistance in G. arboreum. PMID:26889114

  18. Female-Biased Symbionts and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Infections in Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huifang; Qu, Yufeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhong, Wanfang; Fang, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The female-biased infection of facultative symbionts has been found in Bemisia tabaci; however, whether there are any differences in tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and obligate symbiont infection rates between females and males is unknown. Determining whether such differences exist would be very important for understanding the spread of the plant virus and of the symbionts. We compared both symbiont infection types, including obligate and facultative symbionts, and the rates of TYLCV infection in both sexes in five field populations from Jiangsu Province, China. The obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum was not found in every whitefly tested. In all tested populations, more females than males were found to harbor P. aleyrodidarum; and more females than males also harbored Hamiltonella defense, the most common facultative symbiont as well as Cardinium. In addition to female-biased symbiont infections, there were also female-biased TYLCV infections, and the infection frequencies of this plant virus in females were higher than those in males. Taken together, these results suggested that both the female-biased symbiont infections and female-biased TYLCV infections promoted the rapid spread of TYLCV in China. PMID:24465416

  19. Bemisia tabaci Q carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus strongly suppresses host plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively. Only viruliferous B had higher fecundity on viruliferous Q-infested plants than on control plants. The longevity of viruliferous B showed the same phenomenon. At 1 d infestion, the jasmonic acid content in leaves noninfested and in leaves infested with nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous B and viruliferous Q was 407.000, 281.333, 301.333, 266.667 and 134.000 ng/g FW, respectively. The JA content was lowest in viruliferous Q-infested leaves. The proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of JA-related upstream gene LOX and downstream gene PI II showed the same trend. The substantial suppression of host defenses by Q carrying TYLCV probably enhances the spread of Q and TYLCV in China. PMID:24912756

  20. Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus by PCR without DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Ieamkhang, Supaporn; Riangwong, Lumpueng; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan

    2005-11-01

    We report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube. This method allowed PCR without the time-consuming procedures of DNA extraction from infected plant tissue. A small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. The constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit PCR activity were discarded by washing the tube with PBST buffer before adding the PCR mixture to the tube. This method was used for detection of TYLCTHV with plant sap solution diluted up to 1:20,000 and was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, this method can be used for detection of TYLCTHV in viruliferous whiteflies. The PCR tubes with captured TYLCTHV could be used for PCR, after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The method presented here was used for detection of begomoviruses in cucurbit and pepper. In addition, this method was effectively used to detect papaya ringspot virus in papaya and zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. PMID:16230773

  1. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus alters the host preferences of its vector Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yong; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Su, Qi; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci, the whitefly vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), seriously reduces tomato production and quality. Here, we report the first evidence that infection by TYLCV alters the host preferences of invasive B. tabaci B (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and Q (Mediterranean genetic group), in which TYLCV-free B. tabaci Q preferred to settle on TYLCV-infected tomato plants over healthy ones. TYLCV-free B. tabaci B, however, preferred healthy tomato plants to TYLCV-infected plants. In contrast, TYLCV-infected B. tabaci, either B or Q, did not exhibit a preference between TYLCV-infected and TYLCV-free tomato plants. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS)analysis of plant terpene volatiles, significantly more ?-myrcene, thymene, ?-phellandrene, caryophyllene, (+)-4-carene, and ?-humulene were released from the TYLCV-free tomato plants than from the TYLCV-infected ones. The results indicate TYLCV can alter the host preferences of its vector Bemisia tabaci B and Q. PMID:24096821

  2. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Kim, Sunhoo; Lee, Ye-Ji; Byun, Hee-Seong; Park, Jungho; Seo, Haneul; Kim, Chang-Seok; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2016-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most well-known tomato-infecting begomoviruses and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. Seed transmission has previously been reported for some RNA viruses, but TYLCV has not previously been described as a seed-borne virus. In 2013 and 2014, without whitefly-mediated transmission, TYLCV was detected in young tomato plants germinated from fallen fruits produced from TYLCV-infected tomato plants in the previous cultivation season. In addition, TYLCV-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was also detected in seeds and their seedlings of TYLCV-infected tomato plants that were infected by both viruliferous whitefly-mediated transmission and agro-inoculation. The seed infectivity was 20–100%, respectively, and the average transmission rate to seedlings was also 84.62% and 80.77%, respectively. TYLCV-tolerant tomatoes also produced TYLCV-infected seeds, but the amount of viral genome was less than seen in TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. When tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds, non-viruliferous whiteflies and healthy tomato plants were placed in an insect cage together, TYLCV was detected from whiteflies as well as receiver tomato plants six weeks later. Taken together, TYLCV-IL can be transmitted via seeds, and tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds can be an inoculum source of TYLCV. This is the first report about TYLCV seed transmission in tomato. PMID:26743765

  3. Capsicum Species: Symptomless Hosts and Reservoirs of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Polston, J E; Cohen, L; Sherwood, T A; Ben-Joseph, R; Lapidot, M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Five Capsicum species were tested for susceptibility to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the mild strain of TYLCV (TYLCV-Mld). TYLCV was able to infect 30 of 55 genotypes of C. annuum, one of six genotypes of C. chinense, one of two genotypes of C. baccatum, and the only genotype of C. frutescens tested but was unable to infect the one genotype of C. pubescens tested. This is the first evidence for the susceptibility of C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens to TYLCV. Unlike TYLCV isolates, TYLCV-Mld was unable to infect C. chinense. No host differences were observed between the Israeli and Florida isolates of TYLCV. None of the Capsicum species showed symptoms after infection with TYLCV or TYLCV-Mld. TYLCV was detected in fruits of C. annuum, but whiteflies were unable to transmit virus from fruits to plants. White-flies were able to transmit both TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld from infected pepper plants to tomato plants. Pepper plants in research plots were found infected with TYLCV at rates as much as 100%. These data demonstrate the ability of some genotypes of pepper to serve as reservoirs for the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. PMID:18944303

  4. Tomato Breeding Lines Resistant and Tolerant to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Issued from Lycopersicon hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Vidavsky, F; Czosnek, H

    1998-09-01

    ABSTRACT Two tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant plants from accessions LA1777 and LA386 of the wild tomato species Lycopersicon hirsutum have been crossed. The resulting resistant F1 plants were crossed with the domesticated tomato L. esculentum, and a series of selfing was performed. At each generation, individuals were selected for resistance (no symptoms and undetectable viral DNA) and tolerance (no symptoms but with detectable viral DNA) following controlled massive and repeated inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies. A stable BC1F4 line (denominated 902) that does not segregate for resistance was obtained. This line does not support virus accumulation, even upon extensive whitefly-mediated inoculation of young seedlings, and does not need protection with nets or insecticides. Another stable BC1F4 line (denominated 908) was tolerant to the virus. Both lines have good horticultural characteristics and bear 80- to 120-g red fruits. Analysis of segregation of susceptibility, tolerance, and resistance during the BC1F1 to BC1F4 crosses indicated that tolerance is controlled by a dominant major gene and resistance by two to three additive recessive genes. The resistant and tolerant lines do not need to be protected by insecticides or nets. PMID:18944868

  5. An efficient in vitro-inoculation method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus. To test the infectivity of TYLCV in tomato plants, an improved protocol for inoculation of in vitro-cultured tomato plants was developed. Results A TYLCV isolate was cloned, sequenced and used to construct a 1.8-mer infectious clone. Three weeks old microshoots of TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the infectious clone for the TYLCV isolate. After two weeks, the TYLCV symptoms started to appear on the in vitro-inoculated plants and the symptoms became more severe and pronounced eight weeks post-inoculation. The method was used efficiently to uncover the resistance mechanism against TYLCV in Solanum habrochaites accession LA 1777, a wild tomato known for its high resistance to whitefly and TYLCV. Conclusions The reported in vitro-inoculation method can be used to screen tomato genotypes for their responses to TYLCV under controlled conditions and it will be a useful tool for better understanding of the TYLCV biology in tomato plants. PMID:20429892

  6. Acquisition of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, M; Czosnek, H

    1991-11-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) genomic DNA can be detected by Southern blot analysis in nucleic acid extracted from a single whitefly. Acquisition of TYLCV by individual whiteflies in relation to the length of the access period, the virus concentration in, and the developmental stage of plant tissues was studied. The frequency of TYLCV detection increased with the length of the access-period; DNA was detected in 15% of whiteflies tested after a period of access to infected tissue of 30 min, regardless of whether it had a high or a low virus content (5 ng or 0.05 ng TYLCV DNA/micrograms plant chromosomal DNA), and in all insects tested after an 8 h period of access to all the plants. Those insects which had access to the youngest leaves of source plants, which have a high virus content, acquired detectable TYLCV DNA within 2 h. Insects which had access to a tissue for the same period acquired variable amounts of TYLCV DNA; insects feeding on plants with a low virus concentration acquired amounts of viral DNA comparable to those acquired by insects feeding on plants containing a 100-fold greater concentration of virus. Viruliferous insects retained TYLCV DNA for at least 13 days when placed on uninfected tomato plants. In these tests, whitefly could not acquire more than 600 million virus genomes (1 ng viral DNA), suggesting the existence of factors controlling the number of virions present in an insect. PMID:1940856

  7. Mapping and introgression of a tomato yellow leaf curl virus tolerance gene, TY-1.

    PubMed

    Zamir, D; Ekstein-Michelson, I; Zakay, Y; Navot, N; Zeidan, M; Sarfatti, M; Eshed, Y; Harel, E; Pleban, T; van-Oss, H; Kedar, N; Rabinowitch, H D; Czosnek, H

    1994-05-01

    The whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow-leaf curl gemini-virus (TYLCV) is a major pathogen of tomatoes. The wild tomato species Lycopersicon chilense, which is resistant to the virus, was crossed to the cultivated tomato, L. esculentum. The backcross-1 selfed (BC1S1) generation was inoculated and a symptomless plant was selected. This plant was analyzed using 61 molecular markers, which span the tomato genome, to determine which L. chilense chromosome segments were introgressed. A BC2S1 population was cage-inoculated with viroliferous whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), the natural insect vector of the virus, and subjected to RFLP analysis. Markers on chromosomes 3 and 6 were significantly associated with the level of tolerance; the association of chromosome-6 markers was further substantiated in two additional BC2S1 populations. A tolerant BC2S1 plant which was homozygous for L. chilense introgressions in chromosomes 3, 6 and 7 was crossed to generate a BC3S1 population which was planted in an infested field. A TYLCV-tolerance gene with partial dominance, TY-1, was mapped to chromosome 6; two modifier genes were mapped to chromosomes 3 and 7. Field and whitefly-mediated cage inoculations of nearly-isogenic lines in BC3S3 supported our conclusion that TY-1 is the major TYLCV-tolerance locus. PMID:24185918

  8. Genome Sequencing of the Plant Pathogen Taphrina deformans, the Causal Agent of Peach Leaf Curl

    PubMed Central

    Ciss, Ousmane H.; Almeida, Joo M. G. C. F.; Fonseca, lvaro; Kumar, Ajay Anand; Salojrvi, Jarkko; Overmyer, Kirk; Hauser, Philippe M.; Pagni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Taphrina deformans is a fungus responsible for peach leaf curl, an important plant disease. It is phylogenetically assigned to the Taphrinomycotina subphylum, which includes the fission yeast and the mammalian pathogens of the genus Pneumocystis. We describe here the genome of T.deformans in the light of its dual plant-saprophytic/plant-parasitic lifestyle. The 13.3-Mb genome contains few identifiable repeated elements (ca. 1.5%) and a relatively high GC content (49.5%). A total of 5,735 protein-coding genes were identified, among which 83% share similarities with other fungi. Adaptation to the plant host seems reflected in the genome, since the genome carries genes involved in plant cell wall degradation (e.g., cellulases and cutinases), secondary metabolism, the hallmark glyoxylate cycle, detoxification, and sterol biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormones. Genes involved in lipid metabolism may play a role in its virulence. Several locus candidates for putative MAT cassettes and sex-related genes akin to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were identified. A mating-type-switching mechanism similar to that found in ascomycetous yeasts could be in effect. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the alternate saprophytic and parasitic-pathogenic lifestyles of T.deformans. PMID:23631913

  9. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Kim, Sunhoo; Lee, Ye-Ji; Byun, Hee-Seong; Park, Jungho; Seo, Haneul; Kim, Chang-Seok; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2016-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most well-known tomato-infecting begomoviruses and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci. Seed transmission has previously been reported for some RNA viruses, but TYLCV has not previously been described as a seed-borne virus. In 2013 and 2014, without whitefly-mediated transmission, TYLCV was detected in young tomato plants germinated from fallen fruits produced from TYLCV-infected tomato plants in the previous cultivation season. In addition, TYLCV-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was also detected in seeds and their seedlings of TYLCV-infected tomato plants that were infected by both viruliferous whitefly-mediated transmission and agro-inoculation. The seed infectivity was 20-100%, respectively, and the average transmission rate to seedlings was also 84.62% and 80.77%, respectively. TYLCV-tolerant tomatoes also produced TYLCV-infected seeds, but the amount of viral genome was less than seen in TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. When tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds, non-viruliferous whiteflies and healthy tomato plants were placed in an insect cage together, TYLCV was detected from whiteflies as well as receiver tomato plants six weeks later. Taken together, TYLCV-IL can be transmitted via seeds, and tomato plants germinated from TYLCV-infected seeds can be an inoculum source of TYLCV. This is the first report about TYLCV seed transmission in tomato. PMID:26743765

  10. Pathogenicity of a naturally occurring recombinant DNA satellite associated with tomato yellow leaf curl China virus.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaorong; Zhou, Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant DNA beta molecules (RecDNA-Abeta) comprising parts of DNA A and DNA beta associated with tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) have been identified in naturally infected tobacco plants. Several examples of the recombinant DNA have been cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. All are approximately half the size of TYLCCNV genomic DNA, and all contain the betaC1 gene and the A-rich region from TYLCCNV DNA beta as well as intergenic region sequences and the 5' terminus of the AC1 gene from TYLCCNV DNA A. RecDNA-Abeta was detected by PCR in five of 25 TYLCCNV isolates. Co-inoculation of TYLCCNV DNA A and RecDNA-Abeta induced symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by TYLCCNV DNA A and DNA beta in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, and Southern blot hybridization results showed that RecDNA-Abeta could replicate stably in N. benthamiana plants. PMID:18089755

  11. Highly sensitive serological methods for detecting tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plants and whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus in the family Geminiviridae, which causes severe losses in tomato production in tropic and subtropic regions. Methods The purified TYLCV virions were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using the hybridoma technology. MAb-based dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) were developed for sensitive, simple, and rapid detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. Results Using the hybridoma technology, six murine MAbs (1C4, 8D10, 6E3, 2F2, 3F4 and 4G3) against TYLCV were prepared. Using the MAb 1C4, dot-ELISA and DTBIA were then established for detecting TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. The dot-ELISA could detect TYLCV in infected tissue crude extract diluted at 1:5,120 (w/v, g mL-1), and in viruliferous whitefly homogenate diluted at 1:128 (individual whitefly/μL), respectively. Field tomato samples (n=487) and whitefly samples (n=110) from TYLCV prevalent districts in China were screened for the presence of TYLCV using the two developed methods, and the results were further confirmed by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The survey revealed that TYLCV is widespread on tomato plants in Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan provinces in China. Conclusions The developed dot-ELISA is very suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples, and the DTBIA is more suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in large-scale tomato plant samples collected from TYLCV prevalent areas. PMID:23647724

  12. Whitefly-mediated transmission of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite: evidence for betasatellite encapsidation in coat protein of helper begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Tabein, S; Behjatnia, S A Akbar; Anabestani, A; Izadpanah, K

    2013-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease of cotton in the Indian subcontinent. CLCuMB depends on helper virus replication-associated protein for its replication and on viral coat protein (CP) for its encapsidation. However, no direct evidence of encapsidation of CLCuMB in viral CP has been available. In the present study, non-viruliferous whiteflies were placed on tomato plants that had been agroinoculated with infectious clones of an Iranian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]) and CLCuMB for an acquisition access period of 72 h and then transferred to healthy tomato seedlings at the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Typical symptoms of TYLCV-[Ab] appeared on inoculated seedlings 30-45 days post-inoculation. The presence of TYLCV-[Ab] and CLCuMB DNAs in symptomatic test plants and viruliferous whiteflies was confirmed by PCR analysis using specific primers and DIG Southern blotting. Furthermore, the possibility of CLCuMB DNA encapsidation in TYLCV-[Ab] CP within infected plants was examined by immunocapture PCR. The results showed that CLCuMB DNA was encapsidated in TYLCV-[Ab] CP. Whitefly-mediated transmission of CLCuMB in the presence of helper virus is additional evidence for encapsidation of CLCuMB by TYLCV-[Ab] CP. PMID:22923008

  13. Identification of markers tightly linked to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode resistance by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Du, J N; Hao, L N; Wang, C Y; Chen, Q; Chang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    Seven different commercial F₁ hybrids and two F₂ populations were evaluated by multiplex PCR to identify plants that are homozygous or heterozygous for Ty-1 and Mi, which confer resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode, respectively. The Ty-1 and Mi markers were amplified by PCR and identified by digestion of the amplicons with the TaqI enzyme. The hybrids E13 and 288 were found to be Ty/ty heterozygous plants with 398-, 303-, and 95-bp bands, and B08, 314, 198, and A10 were found to be ty/ty homozygous plants with a 398-bp band; whereas 098 did not give any PCR products. The hybrids E13 and 198 were found to be Mi/Mi homozygous plants with 570- and 180-bp bands, and 288 and A10 were found to be Mi/mi heterozygous plants, with 750-, 570- and 180-bp bands, and B08, 109 and 314 were found to be mi/mi homozygous plants with only a 750-bp band. We additionally developed a multiplex PCR technique for JB-1 and Mi, which confer resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode. The JB-1 marker identified the genotype of the Ty gene, and the plants that produced the 400-bp band were ty/ty homozygous plants, whereas the plants that produced 400- and 500-bp bands were resistant to tomato yellow leaf curl disease. We conclude that multiplex PCRs can be used to reproducibly and efficiently detect these resistance genes. PMID:22869069

  14. Squash leaf glandular trichome volatiles: Identification and influence on behavior of female pickleworm moth [Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll.)] (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Peterson, J K; Horvat, R J; Elsey, K D

    1994-08-01

    Fourteen volatile compounds occurring in leaf trichomes of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Early Prolific Straightneck) were identified. These compounds accounted for 83.5% of the volatile matrix. Ubiquitous constituents of the epidermis (myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids,n-tricosane, andn-pentacosane) accounted for 73.7%; these compounds were not bioassayed. The volatileso-,m-, andp-xylene, toluene, 2-heptanone, (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-limonene, and germacrene D were tested for their influence on attraction and oviposition by the pickleworm moth (Diaphania nitidalis Stoll.). No single compound, except germacrene D, was attractive. (R)-(+)-Limonene and 2-heptanone were weakly repellent. Mixtures of the highly volatile fractions were as attractive as volatiles emanating from whole, intact leaves. Oviposition levels on treated artificial sites corresponded with levels of visitation. Oviposition was significantly stimulated by "whole-leaf" volatiles, and (S)-(-)-limonene caused a slight but significant reduction. PMID:24242732

  15. SnRK1 Phosphorylation of AL2 Delays Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus Infection in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Dallas, Mary Beth; Goshe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geminivirus AL2/C2 proteins play key roles in establishing infection and causing disease in their plant hosts. They are involved in viral gene expression, counter host defenses by suppressing transcriptional gene silencing, and interfere with the host signaling involved in pathogen resistance. We report here that begomovirus and curtovirus AL2/C2 proteins interact strongly with host geminivirus Rep-interacting kinases (GRIKs), which are upstream activating kinases of the protein kinase SnRK1, a global regulator of energy and nutrient levels in plants. We used an in vitro kinase system to show that GRIK-activated SnRK1 phosphorylates recombinant AL2/C2 proteins from several begomoviruses and to map the SnRK1 phosphorylation site to serine-109 in the AL2 proteins of two New World begomoviruses: Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato mottle virus. A CaLCuV AL2 S109D phosphomimic mutation did not alter viral DNA levels in protoplast replication assays. In contrast, the phosphomimic mutant was delayed for symptom development and viral DNA accumulation during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating that SnRK1 contributes to host defenses against CaLCuV. Our observation that serine-109 is not conserved in all AL2/C2 proteins that are SnRK1 substrates in vitro suggested that phosphorylation of viral proteins by plant kinases contributes to the evolution of geminivirus-host interactions. IMPORTANCE Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious diseases in many crops. Dicot-infecting geminiviruses carry genes that encode multifunctional AL2/C2 proteins that are essential for infection. However, it is not clear how AL2/C2 proteins are regulated. Here, we show that the host protein kinase SnRK1, a central regulator of energy balance and nutrient metabolism in plants, phosphorylates serine-109 in AL2 proteins of three subgroups of New World begomoviruses, resulting in a delay in viral DNA accumulation and symptom appearance. Our results support SnRK1's antiviral role and reveal a novel mechanism underlying this function. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that AL2 S109 evolved as begomoviruses migrated from the Old World to the New World and may have provided a selective advantage as begomoviruses adapted to a different environment and different plant hosts. This study provides new insights into the interaction of viral pathogens with their plant hosts at the level of viral protein modification by the host. PMID:24990996

  16. Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578

  17. Systemic movement and symptom production following agroinoculation with a single DNA of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Rochester, D E; Kositratana, W; Beachy, R N

    1990-10-01

    Two different DNA species were cloned from purified tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus particles after annealing a specific primer to virus DNA and generating a second strand; both were approximately 2.8 kbp in length. One clone contains sequences which hybridize to the coat protein gene of tomato golden mosaic virus and most likely represents the A DNA of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Thailand). The other clone may represent the B DNA of this geminivirus. Both clones contain short sequences which share extensive homology. These sequences have some of the same features of common regions of other geminiviruses. Systemic viral infection of tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana was accomplished by agroinoculation with the proposed A DNA. The symptoms of systemically A-infected plants include stunting, lack of flower production, and mottled, yellowish leaves. At low frequency during agroinoculation of N. benthamiana with a mixture of both DNAs, replication of the second DNA is also detected. In these instances, symptoms are more pronounced than infections where only the A DNA is agroinoculated. This is the first report of a whitefly-transmitted dicot-infecting geminivirus capable of infection (via agroinoculation), symptom induction, and systemic movement using a single DNA. PMID:2219706

  18. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.; Díaz-Pendón, Juan A.; Fonseca, Maria Esther N.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Resende, Renato O.

    2015-01-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL), a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread. PMID:26008699

  19. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    PubMed

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed. PMID:12696414

  20. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C; Daz-Pendn, Juan A; Fonseca, Maria Esther N; Boiteux, Leonardo S; Fernndez-Muoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Resende, Renato O

    2015-05-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL), a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread. PMID:26008699

  1. Transcriptome analysis to identify differentially expressed genes associated with ty-5 against tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Sw-7 against tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are two of the most economically important viruses on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. Developing a cultivar with resistance would be the most effective and economical means for viral disease management. However, id...

  2. Identification of a disease complex involving a novel monopartite begomovirus with beta- and alphasatellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Oman.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Akhtar J; Singh, Achuit S; Briddon, Rob W

    2014-05-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is an important viral disease of okra in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is caused by begomovirus-satellite complexes. A begomovirus and associated betasatellite and alphasatellite were identified in symptomatic okra plants from Barka, in the Al-Batinah region of Oman. Analysis of the begomovirus sequences showed them to represent a new begomovirus most closely related to cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV), a begomovirus of African origin. The sequences showed less than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to CLCuGeV isolates. The name okra leaf curl Oman virus (OLCOMV) is proposed for the new virus. Further analysis revealed that the OLCOMV is a recombinant begomovirus that evolved by the recombination of CLCuGeV isolates with tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM). An alpha- and a betasatellite were also identified from the same plant sample, which were also unique when compared to sequences available in the databases. However, although the betasatellite appeared to be of African origin, the alphasatellite was most closely related to alphasatellites originating from South Asia. This is the first report of a begomovirus-satellite complex infecting okra in Oman. PMID:24287711

  3. Field evaluation of yield effects on the U.S.A. heirloom sweet potato cultivars infected by sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a Begomovirus, infection of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) in South Carolina, USA has increased rapidly in recent years. This is likely due to the use of infected propagating materials and the increasing population of it...

  4. Efficient Regeneration and Selection of Virus-free Sweetpotato Plants from Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Infected Materials and Their Effects on Yields in Field Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is an emerging virus disease in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batata) in the U.S. The incidence of SPLCV infection on sweetpotato increased dramatically in recent years due to the explosion of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations. Among several sweetpotato v...

  5. Infection of tomato by the tomato yellow leaf curl virus: susceptibility to infection, symptom development, and accumulation of viral DNA.

    PubMed

    Ber, R; Navot, N; Zamir, D; Antignus, Y; Cohen, S; Czosnek, H

    1990-01-01

    Symptom development in tomato plants following whitefly-mediated inoculation with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was related to the occurrence of viral DNA using a specific DNA probe. Although disease symptoms were first observed 15 days post-inoculation, viral DNA could be detected 7 days earlier. TYLCV-DNA concentrations reached an optimum 4 days before symptoms appeared. The highest concentrations of TYLCV-DNA were found in rapidly growing tissues (shoot apex, young leaves, roots) and in the stems; the lowest concentrations were found in the older leaves and cotyledons. Plants were also inoculated on specific sites. Young leaves and apices were the best targets for virus inoculation. In these tissues, the viral DNA replicated at the site of inoculation and was transported first to the roots, then to the shoot apex and to the neighboring leaves and the flowers. Inoculation through the oldest leaves was inefficient. PMID:2378566

  6. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the tomato yellow leaf curl virus capsid protein are resistant to the virus.

    PubMed

    Kunik, T; Salomon, R; Zamir, D; Navot, N; Zeidan, M; Michelson, I; Gafni, Y; Czosnek, H

    1994-05-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) gene that encodes the capsid protein (V1) was placed under transcriptional control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and cloned into an Agrobacterium Ti-derived plasmid and used to transform plants from an interspecific tomato hybrid, Lycopersicon esculentum X L. pennellii (F1), sensitive to the TYLCV disease. When transgenic F1 plants, expressing the V1 gene, were inoculated with TYLCV using whiteflies fed on TYLCV-infected plants, they responded either as untransformed tomato or showed expression of delayed disease symptoms and recovery from the disease with increasingly more resistance upon repeated inoculation. Transformed plants that were as sensitive to inoculation as untransformed controls expressed the V1 gene at the RNA level only. All the transformed plants that recovered from disease expressed the TYLCV capsid protein. PMID:7764709

  7. Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus has an ATPase activity required for viral DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Desbiez, C; David, C; Mettouchi, A; Laufs, J; Gronenborn, B

    1995-01-01

    The Rep protein of geminiviruses is the sole viral protein required for their DNA replication. The amino acid sequence of Rep protein contains an NTP binding consensus motif (P-loop). Here we show that purified Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl virus expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits an ATPase activity in vitro. Amino acid exchanges in the P-loop sequence of Rep causes a substantial decrease or loss of the ATPase activity. In vivo, mutant viruses carrying these Rep mutations do not replicate in plant cells. These results show that ATP binding by the Rep protein of geminiviruses is required for its function in viral DNA replication. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:7777563

  8. Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus-[Y72] from Yunnan is a monopartite begomovirus associated with DNAbeta.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Yang, Xiuling; Xie, Yan; Cui, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xueping

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that isolates of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) originated from Thailand are bipartite begomoviruses, while all the seven TYLCTHV isolates found in China are associated with DNAbeta molecules. In this study, infectious clones of TYLCTHV isolate Y72 (TYLCTHV-[Y72]) and its DNAbeta were constructed to verify the bipartite or monopartite nature of TYLCTHV. Agroinoculation showed that TYLCTHV-[Y72] alone was able to induce significant symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, and Solanum lycopersicum plants, but co-inoculation with its associated satellite DNAbeta produced more severe symptoms, which is similar to tobacco curly shoot virus. Southern blot results showed that TYLCTHV DNAbeta could increase the virus accumulation in systemically infected tissues. Thus, TYLCTHV-[Y72] is a monopartite begomovirus, which may represent an evolutionary intermediate between the begomoviruses requiring DNAbeta and begomoviruses dispensable of DNAbeta. PMID:19165588

  9. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato. PMID:23096697

  10. Immunity to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato is associated with accumulation of transgene small RNA.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Diana; Prakash, Shanmugam; Wolf, Dalia; Zelcer, Aaron; Anfoka, Ghandi; Haviv, Sabrina; Brumin, Marina; Gaba, Victor; Arazi, Tzahi; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Gene silencing is a natural defense response of plants against invading RNA and DNA viruses. The RNA post-transcriptional silencing system has been commonly utilized to generate transgenic crop plants that are "immune" to plant virus infection. Here, we applied this approach against the devastating DNA virus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To generate broad resistance to a number of different TYLCV viruses, three conserved sequences (the intergenic region [NCR], V1-V2 and C1-C2 genes) from the genome of the severe virus (TYLCV) were synthesized as a single insert and cloned into a hairpin configuration in a binary vector, which was used to transform TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. Eight of 28 independent transgenic tomato lines exhibited immunity to TYLCV-Is and to TYLCV-Mld, but not to tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, which shares relatively low sequence homology with the transgene. In addition, a marker-free (nptII-deleted) transgenic tomato line was generated for the first time by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation without antibiotic selection, followed by screening of 1180 regenerated shoots by whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Resistant lines showed a high level of transgene-siRNA (t-siRNA) accumulation (22% of total small RNA) with dominant sizes of 21nt (73%) and 22nt (22%). The t-siRNA displayed hot-spot distribution ("peaks") along the transgene, with different distribution patterns than the viral-siRNA peaks observed in TYLCV-infected tomato. A grafting experiment demonstrated the mobility of 0.04% of the t-siRNA from transgenic rootstock to non-transformed scion, even though scion resistance against TYLCV was not achieved. PMID:26255053

  11. Water Balance, Hormone Homeostasis, and Sugar Signaling Are All Involved in Tomato Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus.

    PubMed

    Sade, Dagan; Sade, Nir; Shriki, Oz; Lerner, Stephen; Gebremedhin, Alem; Karavani, Asaf; Brotman, Yariv; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Czosnek, Henryk; Moshelion, Menachem

    2014-07-01

    Vacuolar water movement is largely controlled by membrane channels called tonoplast-intrinsic aquaporins (TIP-AQPs). Some TIP-AQP genes, such as TIP2;2 and TIP1;1, are up-regulated upon exposure to biotic stress. Moreover, TIP1;1 transcript levels are higher in leaves of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) line resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than in those of a susceptible line with a similar genetic background. Virus-induced silencing of TIP1;1 in the tomato resistant line and the use of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tip1;1 null mutant showed that resistance to TYLCV is severely compromised in the absence of TIP1:1. Constitutive expression of tomato TIP2;2 in transgenic TYLCV-susceptible tomato and Arabidopsis plants was correlated with increased TYLCV resistance, increased transpiration, decreased abscisic acid levels, and increased salicylic acid levels at the early stages of infection. We propose that TIP-AQPs affect the induction of leaf abscisic acid, which leads to increased levels of transpiration and gas exchange, as well as better salicylic acid signaling. PMID:24989233

  12. Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus-satellite DNAs represent a divergent, geographically isolated Nile Basin lineage: predictive identification of a satDNA REP-binding motif.

    PubMed

    Idris, A M; Briddon, Rob W; Bull, Simon E; Brown, J K

    2005-04-01

    Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), a species of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae), was recently cloned from cotton, okra, and Sida alba plants exhibiting leaf-curling and vein-thickening symptoms in Sudan. Here, we describe a previously unknown lineage of single-stranded DNA satellite (satDNA) molecules, which are associated with CLCuGV, and are required for development of characteristic disease symptoms. Co-inoculation of cotton and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with satDNAs cloned from cotton, okra, and S. alba, together with CLCuGV as the 'helper virus' resulted in the development of characteristic leaf-curling and vein-thickening symptoms in both hosts. An anatomical study of symptomatic, virus-infected cotton leaves revealed that spongy parenchyma cells had developed instead of collenchyma cells at the sites of vein thickening. Phylogenetically, the CLCuGV-associated satDNAs from Sudan, together with their closest relatives from Egypt, form a new satDNA lineage comprising only satDNAs from the Upper and Lower Nile Basins. Analysis of satellites and their helper virus sequences identified a predicted REP-binding site consisting of the directly repeated sequence, 'CGGTACTCA', and an inverted repeated sequence, 'TGAGTACCG', which occur in the context of a 17-nucleotide motif. The conserved REP-binding motif identified herein, together with strict geographic isolation, and apparent host-restriction, may be the collective hallmark of these new satDNA-begomovirus lineages, extant in the Nile Basin. PMID:15826909

  13. The infective cycle of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) is affected by CRUMPLED LEAF (CRL) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Vielle-Calzada, Jean P; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F

    2009-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious crop losses worldwide. Successful infection by these pathogens depends extensively on virus-host intermolecular interactions that allow them to express their gene products, to replicate their genomes and to move to adjacent cells and throughout the plant. Results To identify host genes that show an altered regulation in response to Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection, a screening of transposant Arabidopsis thaliana lines was carried out. Several genes were identified to be virus responsive and one, Crumpled leaf (CRL) gene, was selected for further characterization. CRL was previously reported by Asano et al., (2004) to affect the morphogenesis of all plant organs and the division of plastids. We report here that CRL expression, during CaLCuV infection, shows a short but strong induction at an early stage (3-5 days post inoculation, dpi). To study the role of CRL in CaLCuV infection, CRL over-expressing and silenced transgenic plants were generated. We compared the replication, movement and infectivity of CaLCuV in transgenic and wild type plants. Conclusion Our results showed that CRL over-expressing plants showed an increased susceptibility to CaLCuV infection (as compared to wt plants) whereas CRL-silenced plants, on the contrary, presented a reduced susceptibility to viral infection. The possible role of CRL in the CaLCuV infection cycle is discussed. PMID:19840398

  14. Functional Characterization of a Strong Bi-directional Constitutive Plant Promoter Isolated from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zainul A.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Khan, Jawaid A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

  15. Efficiency of insect exclusion screens for preventing whitefly transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus of tomatoes in Israel.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, M J; Taylor, R A J; Lebiush-Mordechi, S; Shalhevet, S; Spharim, I

    2002-10-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is the most frequently occurring virus in tomatoes in the Middle East, and the most harmful one. It is transmitted solely by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Within 4-6h of inoculative feeding, a whitefly can transmit TYLCV to a healthy plant with 80% probability. The symptoms are apparent after two to three weeks whereupon fruit-set is effectively terminated. The only means of controlling TYLCV is by controlling the whitefly. Until 1990 this was exclusively by insecticides. Starting in 1990, growers of greenhouse tomatoes in Israel began adopting insect exclusion screens to prevent inoculation of TYLCV. This article reports on the methods used in the search for efficient screening materials and presents data on their relative efficiencies in excluding B. tabaci and several other greenhouse pests. Ten materials were tested, of which five were found to be effective in excluding B. tabaci under laboratory conditions. This number was reduced to three following field trials and trials in commercial tomato greenhouses. These materials are now in widespread use in Israel: by 2000 practically all table tomatoes in Israel were grown under exclusion screens. The use of exclusion screens has been shown to be an economically viable pest management method. PMID:12241562

  16. Synthesis and biological activity evaluation of novel amino acid derivatives as potential elicitors against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yufang; He, Shun; Geng, Qianqian; Duan, Yongheng; Guo, Mingcheng; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2015-12-01

    Disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) brings serious production losses of cultivated tomato worldwide. In our previous study, two novel amino acid derivatives exerted satisfactory antiviral activities against TYLCV. In this study, the variation of TYLCV, the transcriptional expression level of Ty-1 and the enzyme activities of POD and PPO in tomato were monitored after treatment with two amino acid derivatives to illustrate the antiviral mechanism. The results showed the symptom severity caused by TYLCV was reduced significantly by two compounds and was associated with the inhibition of viral DNA level at the early stage. Among three levels of concentration, the highest inhibition rate of CNBF-His was 40.66% at 1000 mg/L, for CNBF-Asn, the highest inhibition rate was 36.26% at 2000 mg/L 30 days post-inoculation. Two compounds could also enhance the activities of PPO and POD and the transcriptional expression level of Ty-1 which correlates with plant resistance in tomato. In the field test, two compounds increased the yields of tomato and the maximum increase of yield was 37.66%. This is the first report of novel amino acid derivatives inducing resistance in tomato plant against TYLCV. It is suggested that amino acid derivatives have the potential to be an effective approach against TYLCV in tomato plant. PMID:26162434

  17. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection mitigates the heat stress response of plants grown at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Anfoka; Adi, Moshe; Lilia, Fridman; Linoy, Amrani; Or, Rotem; Mikhail, Kolot; Mouhammad, Zeidan; Henryk, Czosnek; Rena, Gorovits

    2016-01-01

    Cultured tomatoes are often exposed to a combination of extreme heat and infection with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). This stress combination leads to intense disease symptoms and yield losses. The response of TYLCV-susceptible and resistant tomatoes to heat stress together with viral infection was compared. The plant heat-stress response was undermined in TYLCV infected plants. The decline correlated with the down-regulation of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) HSFA2 and HSFB1, and consequently, of HSF-regulated genes Hsp17, Apx1, Apx2 and Hsp90. We proposed that the weakened heat stress response was due to the decreased capacity of HSFA2 to translocate into the nuclei of infected cells. All the six TYLCV proteins were able to interact with tomato HSFA2 in vitro, moreover, coat protein developed complexes with HSFA2 in nuclei. Capturing of HSFA2 by viral proteins could suppress the transcriptional activation of heat stress response genes. Application of both heat and TYLCV stresses was accompanied by the development of intracellular large protein aggregates containing TYLCV proteins and DNA. The maintenance of cellular chaperones in the aggregated state, even after recovery from heat stress, prevents the circulation of free soluble chaperones, causing an additional decrease in stress response efficiency. PMID:26792235

  18. Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci as Affected by Whitefly Sex and Biotype

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Wenxi; Shi, Xiaobin; Liu, Baiming; Pan, Huipeng; Wei, Wanting; Zeng, Yang; Sun, Xinpei; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Cheng, Jiaxu; Peng, Zhengke; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide. The most damaging and predominant B. tabaci biotypes are B and Q, and both are vectors of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Previous research has shown that Q outperforms B in many respects but comparative research is lacking on the ability of B and Q to transmit viruses. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that B and Q differ in their ability to transmit TYLCV and that this difference helps explain TYLCV outbreaks. We compared the acquisition, retention, and transmission of TYLCV by B and Q females and males. We found that Q females are more efficient than Q males, B females, and B males at TYLCV acquisition and transmission. Although TYLCV acquisition and transmission tended to be greater for B females than B males, the differences were not statistically significant. Based on electrical penetration graphs determination of phloem sap ingestion parameters, females fed better than males, and Q females fed better than Q males, B females, or B males. These results are consistent with the occurrences of TYLCV outbreaks in China, which have been associated with the spread of Q rather than B. PMID:26021483

  19. Tomato plant cell death induced by inhibition of HSP90 is alleviated by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena; Liu, Yule; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    To ensure a successful long-term infection cycle, begomoviruses must restrain their destructive effect on host cells and prevent drastic plant responses, at least in the early stages of infection. The monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) does not induce a hypersensitive response and cell death on whitefly-mediated infection of virus-susceptible tomato plants until diseased tomatoes become senescent. The way in which begomoviruses evade plant defences and interfere with cell death pathways is still poorly understood. We show that the chaperone HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) and its co-chaperone SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1) are involved in the establishment of TYLCV infection. Inactivation of HSP90, as well as silencing of the Hsp90 and Sgt1 genes, leads to the accumulation of damaged ubiquitinated proteins and to a cell death phenotype. These effects are relieved under TYLCV infection. HSP90-dependent inactivation of 26S proteasome degradation and the transcriptional activation of the heat shock transcription factors HsfA2 and HsfB1 and of the downstream genes Hsp17 and Apx1/2 are suppressed in TYLCV-infected tomatoes. Following suppression of the plant stress response, TYLCV can replicate and accumulate in a permissive environment. PMID:25962748

  20. New Insecticides for Management of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl, a Virus Vectored by the Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H. A.; Giurcanu, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14?d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomatocyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflorand to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7?d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14?d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7?d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  1. Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV-Is) is transmitted among whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in a sex-related manner.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, M; Czosnek, H

    2000-05-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is the name given to a complex of geminiviruses infecting tomato cultures worldwide. TYLCV is transmitted by a single insect species, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Herein we show that a TYLCV isolate from Israel (TYLCV-Is) can be transmitted among whiteflies in a sex-dependent manner, in the absence of any other source of virus. TYLCV was transmitted from viruliferous males to females and from viruliferous females to males but not among insects of the same sex. Transmission took place when insects were caged in groups or in couples, in a feeding chamber or on cotton plants, a TYLCV nonhost. The recipient insects were able to efficiently inoculate tomato test plants. Insect-to-insect virus transmission was instrumental in increasing the number of whiteflies capable of infecting tomato test plants in a whitefly population. TYLCV was present in the hemolymph of whiteflies caged with viruliferous insects of the other sex; therefore, the virus follows, at least in part, the circulative pathway associated with acquisition from infected plants. Taken as a whole, these results imply that a plant virus can be sexually transmitted from insect to insect. PMID:10775612

  2. Nuclear import of the capsid protein of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in plant and insect cells.

    PubMed

    Kunik, T; Palanichelvam, K; Czosnek, H; Citovsky, V; Gafni, Y

    1998-02-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) found in Israel is a whitefly-transmitted monopartite geminivirus. Although geminiviruses have been found in the nuclei of phloem-associated cells, the mechanism of viral invasion is poorly understood. The possible role of the TYLCV capsid protein (CP), the only known component of the viral coat, in virus transport into the host cell nucleus was investigated by monitoring its specific nuclear accumulation in plant and insect cells. CP was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter enzyme to assay nuclear import in petunia protoplasts, and micro-injection of purified fluorescently labeled CP was used to examine its nuclear uptake in Drosophila embryos. Both assays demonstrated that TYLCV CP is transported into plant- and insect-cell nuclei by an active process of nuclear import via a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-specific pathway. Using the GUS assay and deletion analysis, the TYLCV CP NLS sequence was identified in the amino-terminus of the protein. PMID:9680988

  3. Rate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus Translocation in the Circulative Transmission Pathway of its Vector, the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, M; Morin, S; Czosnek, H

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, biotype B) were able to transmit Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) 8 h after they were caged with infected tomato plants. The spread of TYLCV during this latent period was followed in organs thought to be involved in the translocation of the virus in B. tabaci. After increasing acquisition access periods (AAPs) on infected tomato plants, the stylets, the head, the midgut, a hemolymph sample, and the salivary glands dissected from individual insects were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) without any treatment; the presence of TYLCV was assessed with virus-specific primers. TYLCV DNA was first detected in the head of B. tabaci after a 10-min AAP. The virus was present in the midgut after 40 min and was first detected in the hemolymph after 90 min. TYLCV was found in the salivary glands 5.5 h after it was first detected in the hemolymph. Subjecting the insect organs to immunocapture-PCR showed that the virus capsid protein was in the insect organs at the same time as the virus genome, suggesting that at least some TYLCV translocates as virions. Although females are more efficient as vectors than males, TYLCV was detected in the salivary glands of males and of females after approximately the same AAP. PMID:18944393

  4. Molecular variability and evolution of a natural population of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Shanghai, China*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiu-ling; Zhou, Meng-ning; Qian, Ya-juan; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, is emerging as the most destructive pathogen of tomato plants. Since the first report of TYLCV in Shanghai, China in 2006, TYLCV has spread rapidly to 13 provinces or autonomous regions of China. In this study, the molecular variability and evolution of TYLCV were monitored in Shanghai from its first upsurge in 2006 until 2010. Full-length genomic sequences of 26 isolates were obtained by rolling circle amplification. Sequence analysis showed that the intergenic region was the most variable, with a mean mutation rate of 4.8110?3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year. Genetic differentiation was found within isolates obtained from 2006, 2009, and 2010, though a linear increase in genetic diversity over time was not evident. Whilst significant parts of TYLCV genes were under negative selection, the C4 gene embedded entirely within the C1 gene had a tendency to undergo positive selection. Our results indicate that a mechanism of independent evolution of overlapping regions could apply to the natural population of TYLCV in Shanghai, China. PMID:24510706

  5. Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus (TYLCV-Is) Is Transmitted among Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in a Sex-Related Manner

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2000-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is the name given to a complex of geminiviruses infecting tomato cultures worldwide. TYLCV is transmitted by a single insect species, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Herein we show that a TYLCV isolate from Israel (TYLCV-Is) can be transmitted among whiteflies in a sex-dependent manner, in the absence of any other source of virus. TYLCV was transmitted from viruliferous males to females and from viruliferous females to males but not among insects of the same sex. Transmission took place when insects were caged in groups or in couples, in a feeding chamber or on cotton plants, a TYLCV nonhost. The recipient insects were able to efficiently inoculate tomato test plants. Insect-to-insect virus transmission was instrumental in increasing the number of whiteflies capable of infecting tomato test plants in a whitefly population. TYLCV was present in the hemolymph of whiteflies caged with viruliferous insects of the other sex; therefore, the virus follows, at least in part, the circulative pathway associated with acquisition from infected plants. Taken as a whole, these results imply that a plant virus can be sexually transmitted from insect to insect. PMID:10775612

  6. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A.; Akhtar, A.; Khalid, B.; Shamim, A.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  7. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus differentially influences plant defence responses to a vector and a non-vector herbivore.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Mescher, Mark C; Wang, Shaoli; Chen, Gong; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Wenkai; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-03-01

    Plants frequently engage in simultaneous interactions with diverse classes of biotic antagonists. Differential induction of plant defence pathways by these antagonists, and interactions between pathways, can have important ecological implications; however, these effects are currently not well understood. We explored how Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) influenced the performance of its vector (Bemisia tabaci) and a non-vector herbivore (Tetranychus urticae) occurring separately or together on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). TYLCV enhanced the performance of B.?tabaci, although this effect was statistically significant only in the absence of T.?urticae, which adversely affected B.?tabaci performance regardless of infection status. In contrast, the performance of T.?urticae was enhanced (only) by the combined presence of TYLCV and B.?tabaci. Analyses of phytohormone levels and defence gene expression in wild-type tomatoes and various plant-defence mutants indicate that the enhancement of herbivore performance (for each species) entails the disruption of downstream defences in the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. For T.?urticae, this disruption appears to involve antagonistic effects of salicylic acid (SA), which is cumulatively induced to high levels by B.?tabaci and TYLCV. In contrast, TYLCV was found to suppress JA-mediated responses to B.?tabaci via mechanisms independent of SA. PMID:26436779

  8. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection mitigates the heat stress response of plants grown at high temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Ghandi, Anfoka; Adi, Moshe; Lilia, Fridman; Linoy, Amrani; Or, Rotem; Mikhail, Kolot; Mouhammad, Zeidan; Henryk, Czosnek; Rena, Gorovits

    2016-01-01

    Cultured tomatoes are often exposed to a combination of extreme heat and infection with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). This stress combination leads to intense disease symptoms and yield losses. The response of TYLCV-susceptible and resistant tomatoes to heat stress together with viral infection was compared. The plant heat-stress response was undermined in TYLCV infected plants. The decline correlated with the down-regulation of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) HSFA2 and HSFB1, and consequently, of HSF-regulated genes Hsp17, Apx1, Apx2 and Hsp90. We proposed that the weakened heat stress response was due to the decreased capacity of HSFA2 to translocate into the nuclei of infected cells. All the six TYLCV proteins were able to interact with tomato HSFA2 in vitro, moreover, coat protein developed complexes with HSFA2 in nuclei. Capturing of HSFA2 by viral proteins could suppress the transcriptional activation of heat stress response genes. Application of both heat and TYLCV stresses was accompanied by the development of intracellular large protein aggregates containing TYLCV proteins and DNA. The maintenance of cellular chaperones in the aggregated state, even after recovery from heat stress, prevents the circulation of free soluble chaperones, causing an additional decrease in stress response efficiency. PMID:26792235

  9. Rapid accumulation and low degradation: key parameters of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus persistence in its insect vector Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nathalie; Rimbaud, Loup; Chiroleu, Frdric; Reynaud, Bernard; Thbaud, Gal; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Of worldwide economic importance, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Begomovirus) is responsible for one of the most devastating plant diseases in warm and temperate regions. The DNA begomoviruses (Geminiviridae) are transmitted by the whitefly species complex Bemisia tabaci. Although geminiviruses have long been described as circulative non-propagative viruses, observations such as long persistence of TYLCV in B. tabaci raised the question of their possible replication in the vector. We monitored two major TYLCV strains, Mild (Mld) and Israel (IL), in the invasive B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 cryptic species, during and after the viral acquisition, within two timeframes (0-144?hours or 0-20 days). TYLCV DNA was quantified using real-time PCR, and the complementary DNA strand of TYLCV involved in viral replication was specifically quantified using anchored real-time PCR. The DNA of both TYLCV strains accumulated exponentially during acquisition but remained stable after viral acquisition had stopped. Neither replication nor vertical transmission were observed. In conclusion, our quantification of the viral loads and complementary strands of both Mld and IL strains of TYLCV in B. tabaci point to an efficient accumulation and preservation mechanism, rather than to a dynamic equilibrium between replication and degradation. PMID:26625871

  10. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2014-01-01

    The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS) in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional genepromoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant. PMID:24424501

  11. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zainul A; Abdin, Malik Z; Khan, Jawaid A

    2015-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

  12. Analysis of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus mixed and pseudo-recombination infections.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) are limiting factors for cucurbit production in south and southeastern Iran. ToLCPMV infects all cucurbit crops (except watermelons) whereas WmCSV is somewhat limited to watermelon, causing detrimental effects on fruit production. In a survey, we detected WmCSV in all watermelon growing farms in Fars province (southern Iran). Given that WmCSV and ToLCPMV are present in the same geographical location in Iran, we studied the interaction of two viruses. Co-infection using agroinfectious clones of WmCSV and ToLCPMV caused severe symptoms in watermelon and zucchini in comparison to symptoms observed from individual infections. Interestingly, inoculation of zucchini with WmCSV DNA-A and ToLCPMV DNA-B agroinfectious clones or vice versa produced a viable pseudo-recombinant and induced systemic symptoms. This demonstrates that replication-associated protein of DNA-A of each virus is able to bind to cis elements of the DNA-B molecules of another virus. PMID:26433951

  13. High Genetic Stability of the Begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Southern Spain Over an 8-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campos, S; Díaz, J A; Monci, F; Bejarano, E R; Reina, J; Navas-Castillo, J; Aranda, M A; Moriones, E

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT The evolution of the plant single-stranded DNA virus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) has been monitored for 8 years after its appearance in southern Spain. Variation within three genomic regions of 166 TYLCSV isolates collected from three locations was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. According to SSCP, the intergenic region (IR) was the most variable. Low genetic diversity was found within the population and geographical or temporal differences were not evident. Nucleotide sequences of specific genomic regions of haplotypes identified by SSCP indicated close relationships among them. Therefore, the Spanish TYLCSV population appears to represent a single, undifferentiated population. The analysis of IR sequences for a subsample of 76 randomly chosen isolates confirmed the limited genetic diversity revealed by the SSCP analysis. A tendency to a lineal increase in diversity over time was observed in Málaga and Almería subpopulations; however, no accumulation of mutations in single isolates was evident. Negative selection to variation seems to operate to conserve certain regions of the genome. Thus, the low genetic diversity found in the studied TYLCSV population might be the result of a founder effect with subsequent selection against less fit variants arising by mutation. PMID:18942962

  14. Comparison of transmission of Papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Guo, Qi; Cui, Xi-Yun; Liu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs. PMID:26486606

  15. Rapid accumulation and low degradation: key parameters of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus persistence in its insect vector Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Nathalie; Rimbaud, Loup; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Thébaud, Gaël; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Of worldwide economic importance, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Begomovirus) is responsible for one of the most devastating plant diseases in warm and temperate regions. The DNA begomoviruses (Geminiviridae) are transmitted by the whitefly species complex Bemisia tabaci. Although geminiviruses have long been described as circulative non-propagative viruses, observations such as long persistence of TYLCV in B. tabaci raised the question of their possible replication in the vector. We monitored two major TYLCV strains, Mild (Mld) and Israel (IL), in the invasive B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 cryptic species, during and after the viral acquisition, within two timeframes (0–144 hours or 0–20 days). TYLCV DNA was quantified using real-time PCR, and the complementary DNA strand of TYLCV involved in viral replication was specifically quantified using anchored real-time PCR. The DNA of both TYLCV strains accumulated exponentially during acquisition but remained stable after viral acquisition had stopped. Neither replication nor vertical transmission were observed. In conclusion, our quantification of the viral loads and complementary strands of both Mld and IL strains of TYLCV in B. tabaci point to an efficient accumulation and preservation mechanism, rather than to a dynamic equilibrium between replication and degradation. PMID:26625871

  16. Evidence for transovarial transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by its vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, M; Morin, S; Zeidan, M; Czosnek, H

    1998-01-20

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is the only vector of the tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV). The insect transmits the virus in a persistent-circulative manner. TYLCV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot hybridization in progeny (eggs, first and second instars, adults) of single viruliferous whiteflies that developed on eggplant or on cotton (two TYLCV nonhost plants). Furthermore, TYLCV DNA was present in the progeny of insects that had acquired the virus through the egg. The adult progeny of the viruliferous insects and their own progeny were able to infect tomato test plants, producing typical disease symptoms. Ovaries and maturing eggs of viruliferous insects contained viral DNA, as did eggs laid by viruliferous insects maintained on an artificial diet Eggs laid by nonviruliferous whiteflies on cotton plants previously caged with viruliferous insects did not acquire viral DNA from the plant. Hence, TYLCV can be transmitted through the egg for at least two generations. In the absence of an available plant host, the whitefly may serve as a reservoir of the virus between growing seasons. PMID:9454703

  17. Displacement of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV)-Sr by TYLCV-Is in Tomato Epidemics in Spain.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campos, S; Navas-Castillo, J; Camero, R; Soria, C; Díaz, J A; Moriones, E

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT A progressive displacement of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-Sr by TYLCV-Is was observed in tomato epidemics in southern Spain based on incidence data of both virus species obtained during surveys conducted between 1996 and 1998. Ecological factors that might be involved in such a displacement, such as competition of TYLCV-Sr and TYLCV-Is in tomato, transmission by local biotypes (B and Q) of Bemisia tabaci, and presence in weeds and alternate crops, have been analyzed. No selective advantage is observed for TYLCV-Sr or TYLCV-Is in tomato plants either infected via Agrobacterium tumefaciens or via B. tabaci. However, TYLCV-Is is more efficiently vectored by local biotypes of B. tabaci; and common bean, a bridge crop between tomato crops, is a host for TYLCV-Is but not TYLCV-Sr. Therefore, common bean acts as a reservoir for TYLCV-Is. These two factors are probably responsible for the displacement of TYLCV-Sr by TYLCV-Is as the causative agent of epidemics in tomato in southern Spain. PMID:18944659

  18. DNA Helicase Activity Is Associated with the Replication Initiator Protein Rep of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus?

    PubMed Central

    Clrot, Danielle; Bernardi, Franoise

    2006-01-01

    The Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a single-stranded DNA virus of plants, is the replication initiator essential for virus replication. TYLCSV Rep has been classified among ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ ATPases), in superfamily 3 of small DNA and RNA virus replication initiators whose paradigmatic member is simian virus 40 large T antigen. Members of this family are DNA- or RNA-dependent ATPases with helicase activity necessary for viral replication. Another distinctive feature of AAA+ ATPases is their quaternary structure, often composed of hexameric rings. TYLCSV Rep has ATPase activity, but the helicase activity, which is instrumental in further characterization of the mechanism of rolling-circle replication used by geminiviruses, has been a longstanding question. We present results showing that TYLCSV Rep lacking the 121 N-terminal amino acids has helicase activity comparable to that of the other helicases: requirements for a 3? overhang and 3?-to-5? polarity of unwinding, with some distinct features and with a minimal AAA+ ATPase domain. We also show that the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric state of the protein. PMID:16943286

  19. Ultraviolet-B radiation stimulates downward leaf curling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Ana Carolina; Leroux, Olivier; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Marchal, Kathleen; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip

    2015-08-01

    Plants are very well adapted to growth in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) containing light. In Arabidopsis thaliana, many of these adaptations are mediated by the UV-B receptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Using small amounts of supplementary UV-B light, we observed changes in the shape of rosette leaf blades. Wild type plants show more pronounced epinasty of the blade edges, while this is not the case in uvr8 mutant plants. The UVR8 effect thus mimics the effect of phytochrome (phy) B in red light. In addition, a meta-analysis of transcriptome data indicates that the UVR8 and phyB signaling pathways have over 70% of gene regulation in common. Moreover, in low levels of supplementary UV-B light, mutant analysis revealed that phyB signaling is necessary for epinasty of the blade edges. Analysis of auxin levels and the auxin signal reporter DR5::GUS suggest that the epinasty relies on altered auxin distribution, keeping auxin at the leaf blade edges in the presence of UV-B. Together, our results suggest a co-action of phyB and UVR8 signaling, with auxin as a downstream factor. PMID:25542780

  20. Only minimal regions of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are required for replication, expression and movement.

    PubMed

    Gover, Ofer; Peretz, Yuval; Mozes-Koch, Rita; Maori, Eyal; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Sela, Ilan

    2014-09-01

    The IL-60 platform, consisting of a disarmed form of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and auxiliary components, was previously developed as a nontransgenic universal vector system for gene expression and silencing that can express an entire operon in plants. IL-60 does not allow rolling-circle replication; hence, production of viral single-stranded (ss) DNA progeny is prevented. We used this double-stranded (ds) DNA-restricted platform (uncoupled from the dsDNA?ssDNA replication phase of progeny viral DNA) for functional genomics studies of TYLCV. We report that the noncoding 314-bp intergenic region (IR) is the only viral element required for viral dsDNA replication. None of the viral genes are required, suggesting recruitment of host factors that recognize the IR. We further show that IR-carrying reporter genes are also capable of replication but remain confined to the cells into which they were introduced. Only two sense-oriented viral genes (V1 and V2) need to be added to the IR-carrying construct for expression and movement. Hence, any IR-dsDNA construct supplemented with V1 and V2 becomes a replication-competent, mobile and expressing plant plasmid. All viral functions (replication, expression and movement) are determined by the IR and the sense-oriented genes. The complementary-oriented viral genes have auxiliary roles in the late phase of the virus "life cycle". The previously reported involvement of some viral genes in expression and movement is therefore revised. PMID:24719195

  1. Rapid Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in China Is Aided Differentially by Two Invasive Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Liu, Baiming; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Li, Rumei; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Xu, Baoyun; Brown, Judith K.; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was introduced into China in 2006, approximately 10 years after the introduction of an invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype. Even so the distribution and prevalence of TYLCV remained limited, and the economic damage was minimal. Following the introduction of Q biotype into China in 2003, the prevalence and spread of TYLCV started to accelerate. This has lead to the hypothesis that the two biotypes might not be equally competent vectors of TYLCV. Methodology/Principal Findings The infection frequency of TYLCV in the field-collected B. tabaci populations was investigated, the acquisition and transmission capability of TYLCV by B and Q biotypes were compared under the laboratory conditions. Analysis of B. tabaci populations from 55 field sites revealed the existence of 12 B and 43 Q biotypes across 18 provinces in China. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both B and Q biotypes can acquire and transmit the virus, however, Q biotype demonstrated superior acquisition and transmission capability than its B counterparts. Specifically, Q biotype acquired significantly more viral DNA than the B biotype, and reached the maximum viral load in a substantially shorter period of time. Although TYLCV was shown to be transmitted horizontally by both biotypes, Q biotype exhibited significantly higher viral transmission frequency than B biotype. Vertical transmission result, on the other hand, indicated that TYLCV DNA can be detected in eggs and nymphs, but not in pupae and adults of the first generation progeny. Conclusions/Significance These combined results suggested that the epidemiology of TYLCV was aided differentially by the two invasive whiteflies (B and Q biotypes) through horizontal but not vertical transmission of the virus. This is consistent with the concomitant eruption of TYLCV in tomato fields following the recent rapid invasion of Q biotype whitefly in China. PMID:22514670

  2. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes. PMID:26713353

  3. Phylogenetic analysis and inflow route of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Bemisia tabaci in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyejung; Song, Woogeun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jae-Deok; Park, Jungan; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2010-11-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, members of which are characterized by closed circular single-stranded DNA genomes of 2.7-2.8 kb in length, and include viruses transmitted by the Bemisia tabaci whitefly. No reports of TYLCV in Korea are available prior to 2008, after which TYLCV spread rapidly to most regions of the southern Korean peninsula (Gyeongsang-Do, Jeolla-Do and Jeju-Do). Fifty full sequences of TYLCV were analyzed in this study, and the AC1, AV1, IR, and full sequences were analyzed via the muscle program and bayesian analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Korea TYLCVs were divided into two subgroups. The TYLCV Korea 1 group (Masan) originated from TYLCV Japan (Miyazaki) and the TYLCV Korea 2 group (Jeju/Jeonju) from TYLCV Japan (Tosa/Haruno). A B. tabaci phylogenetic tree was constructed with 16S rRNA and mitochondria cytochrome oxidase I (MtCOI) sequences using the muscle program and MEGA 4.0 in the neighbor-joining algorithm. The sequence data of 16S rRNA revealed that Korea B. tabaci was closely aligned to B. tabaci isolated in Iran and Nigeria. The Q type of B. tabaci, which was originally identified as a viruliferous insect in 2008, was initially isolated in Korea as a non-viruliferous insect in 2005. Therefore, we suggest that two TYLCV Japan isolates were introduced to Korea via different routes, and then transmitted by native B. tabaci. PMID:20981497

  4. Analysis of silencing escape of tomato leaf curl virus: an evaluation of the role of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xue-Yu; Rasheed, M Saif; Seemanpillai, Mark J; Ali Rezaian, M

    2006-06-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific mechanism regulating gene expression and has been used successfully for antiviral defense against RNA viruses. Similar strategies to develop resistance against DNA containing Tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV) and some other geminiviruses have been unsuccessful. To analyze this silencing escape, we transformed tomato plants with a hairpin construct from the TLCV C2 open reading frame (ORF). The transgenic plants showed a strong RNA silencing response, and following TLCV inoculation, their infection was delayed. However, the viral infection was not prevented and TLCV DNA accumulated to the levels found in nontransgenic plants. To determine the fate of a transgene carrying homology to the virus, we used transgenic plants carrying the TLCV C4 gene, which induces a distinct phenotype. Upon TLCV infection, the phenotype was abolished and C4 transcript disappeared. Concurrently, TLCV-specific small interfering RNAs were produced. In situ hybridization showed abundant levels of TLCV DNA in phloem cells of TLCV-infected C4 transgenic plants. However, the C4 transcripts were no longer detectable in nonvascular cells. Analysis of the transgene by methylation sequencing revealed a high level of de novo methylation of asymmetric cytosines in both the C4 ORF and its 35S promoter. A high level of methylation also was found at both symmetric and asymmetric cytosines of the complementary-sense strand of TLCV double-stranded DNA. Given the previous finding that methylated geminiviral DNA is not competent for replication, we provide a model whereby TLCV evades host defense through a population of de novo synthesized unmethylated DNA. PMID:16776295

  5. Molecular characterization and infectivity of a Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus variant associated with newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Begomoviruses have emerged as serious problem for vegetable and fiber crops in the recent past, frequently in tropical and subtropical region of the world. The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. Results The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that it shared highest 97.6% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:Udaipur:Okra:2007] and lowest 87.9% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:NewDelhi:Papaya:2005], while DNA-B showed highest 94.1% identity with ToLCNDV-IN[IN:UD:Ok:07] and lowest 76.2% identity with ToLCNDV-India[India:Lucknow]. Thus, it appears that this begomovirus is a variant of ubiquitous ToLCNDV and hence, we suggest the name ToLCNDV-India[India:Nagpur:Eggplant:2009] for this variant. The pathogenicity of ToLCNDV-IN[IN:Nag:Egg:09] isolate was confirmed by agroinfiltraion and dimeric clones of DNA-A and DNA-B induced characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms in eggplants and leaf curling in tomato plants. Conclusion This is the first report of a ToLCNDV variant moving to a new agriculturally important host, eggplant and causing yellow mosaic disease. This is also a first experimental demonstration of Koch's postulate for a begomovirus associated with eggplant yellow mosaic disease. PMID:21676270

  6. Supervirulent pseudorecombination and asymmetric synergism between genomic components of two distinct species of begomovirus associated with severe tomato leaf curl disease in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Vanitharani, R; Chattopadhyay, B; Fauquet, C M

    2008-03-01

    Isolates of two distinct begomovirus species, the severe strain of the species Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-[India:New Delhi:Severe:1992]; ToLCNDV-[IN:ND:Svr:92], bipartite) and the Varanasi strain of the species Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus-[India:Varanasi:2001]; ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01], mono/bipartite) infect tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cause severe yield losses in northern India. This study investigated the infectivity properties of genomic components of these two species. Both pseudorecombinants were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum and L. esculentum. Enhanced pathogenicity was observed when DNA-A of ToLCNDV-[IN:ND:Svr:92] was trans-complemented with ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] DNA-B, and was consistently associated with an increase in accumulation of ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] DNA-B. Mixed infection of ToLCNDV-[IN:ND:Svr:92] and ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] always showed extremely severe symptoms, suggesting a synergistic interaction between these two viruses. Southern blot analysis of viral DNAs from infected plants showed a significantly higher level of accumulation of both ToLCNDV components and DNA-B of ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] with no alteration to levels of DNA-A of ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01]. Symptom development and/or higher infectivity of the supervirulent pseudorecombinants correlated with the increased levels of DNA-B accumulation. Protoplast replication assays revealed that enhanced infectivity by the pseudorecombinant occurred at the level of replication, as DNA-A of ToLCNDV-[IN:ND:Svr:92] enhanced ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] DNA-B replication, whose accumulation was in turn increased by ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] DNA-A. This is the first report demonstrating a virulent pseudorecombinant between two distinct species of begomoviruses that infect tomato, and is the second report on synergism between begomoviruses. The results revealed that ToLCGV-[IN:Var:01] DNA-B is capable of associating with different DNA-A components, despite having different iteron sequences. PMID:18272774

  7. Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    PubMed Central

    Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission efficiency compared to an uninfected B. tabaci strain with the same genetic background. Temporal and spatial antagonistic relationships were discovered between Rickettsia and TYLCV within the whitefly. In different time course experiments, the levels of virus and Rickettsia within the insect were inversely correlated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of Rickettsia-infected midguts provided evidence for niche exclusion between Rickettsia and TYLCV. In particular, high levels of the bacterium in the midgut resulted in higher virus concentrations in the filter chamber, a favored site for virus translocation along the transmission pathway, whereas low levels of Rickettsia in the midgut resulted in an even distribution of the virus. Taken together, these results indicate that Rickettsia, by infecting the midgut, increases TYLCV transmission efficacy, adding further insights into the complex association between persistent plant viruses, their insect vectors, and microorganism tenants that reside within these insects. IMPORTANCE Interest in bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and many aspects of their host biology in agricultural and human health systems has been increasing. A recent and relevant studied example is the influence of Wolbachia on dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes. In parallel with our recently studied whitefly-Rickettsia-TYLCV system, other studies have shown that dengue virus levels in the mosquito vector are inversely correlated with bacterial load. Our work here presents evidence of unifying principles between vectors of plant and animal viruses in a role for endosymbionts in manipulating vector biology and pathogen transmission. Our results demonstrate the influence of an interesting and prominent bacterial endosymbiont in Bemisia tabaci in TYLCV transmission, a worldwide disease infecting tomatoes. Besides its agricultural importance, this system provides interesting insights into Bemisia interaction with these newly discovered endosymbionts. PMID:24600010

  8. The Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Resistance Genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 Are Allelic and Code for DFDGD-Class RNA–Dependent RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahem, Ragy M.; Kormelink, Richard; Visser, Richard G. F.; Scott, John W.; Edwards, Jeremy D.; Bai, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease incited by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) causes huge losses in tomato production worldwide and is caused by different related begomovirus species. Breeding for TYLCV resistance has been based on the introgression of multiple resistance genes originating from several wild tomato species. In this study we have fine-mapped the widely used Solanum chilense–derived Ty-1 and Ty-3 genes by screening nearly 12,000 plants for recombination events and generating recombinant inbred lines. Multiple molecular markers were developed and used in combination with disease tests to fine-map the genes to a small genomic region (approximately 70 kb). Using a Tobacco Rattle Virus–Virus Induced Gene Silencing approach, the resistance gene was identified. It is shown that Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and that they code for a RNA–dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) belonging to the RDRγ type, which has an atypical DFDGD motif in the catalytic domain. In contrast to the RDRα type, characterized by a catalytic DLDGD motif, no clear function has yet been described for the RDRγ type, and thus the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene unveils a completely new class of resistance gene. Although speculative, the resistance mechanism of Ty-1/Ty-3 and its specificity towards TYLCV are discussed in light of the function of the related RDRα class in the amplification of the RNAi response in plants and transcriptional silencing of geminiviruses in plants. PMID:23555305

  9. Molecular detection and partial characterization of a begomovirus causing leaf curl disease of potato in sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Aniruddha; Saha, Bikram; Saha, Dipanwita

    2014-05-01

    The characteristic disease symptoms of apical leaf curl, crinkled leaves and conspicuous mosaic were observed in potato plants grown in areas of Coochbehar, one of the distinct agroclimatic zones of sub-Himalayan West Bengal. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) population was also observed in and around the infected plants. The characteristic disease symptoms and presence of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) population indicated the possibility of begomovirus infection. Total DNA was extracted from infected samples and PCR was carried out using begomovirus specific primers. PCR product of 1539 nucleotide long containing pre-coat protein, coat protein, AC5, AC3, AC2 and partial AC1 gene of DNA-Asegment and 1001 nucleotide long DNA-B containing BV1 and BC1 genes were submitted to the GenBank (accession numbers HQ597033 for DNA-A and JN390432 for DNA-B). The amplified DNA-A and DNA-B segment showed highest 98% and 99% nucleotide sequence similarity respectively with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In phylogenetic analysis also the virus sequence clustered with ToLCNDV isolates. The disease was successfully transmitted to healthy tomato plants using both whitefly vector, B. tabaci and mechanical sap inoculation using sap of infected potato leaves. It is the first record of begomovirus infection of cultivated potato in sub-Himalayan West Bengal of Eastern India. PMID:24813019

  10. Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) issued from eggs bombarded with infectious DNA clones of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Israel (TYLCV) are able to infect tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Goldman, V; Czosnek, H

    2002-04-01

    We have reported previously that Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Israel (TYLCV) penetrates the reproductive system of its vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B, and may be transmitted to progeny. In order to mimic this phenomenon and to understand how TYLCV accompanies the development of the insect, we have bombarded B. tabaci eggs with an infectious DNA clone of TYLCV. After a linear full-length genomic copy of TYLCV DNA was delivered to eggs, the DpnI-sensitive DNA became circular and DpnI resistant. When a dimeric copy of TYLCV DNA was delivered to eggs, the viral DNA was detected in all the whitefly developmental stages. Adult insects that developed from the treated eggs were able to infect tomato test plants with variable frequency. Viral DNA was detected in the progeny of whiteflies that developed from eggs bombarded with TYLCV. Similarly, when insect eggs were bombarded with a dimeric copy of an infectious clone of the genome of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Sardinia, Italy (TYLCSV), adults that eclosed from the treated eggs were able to infect tomato test plants. PMID:12038688

  11. Nucleotide sequences from tomato leaf curl viruses from different countries: evidence for three geographically separate branches in evolution of the coat protein of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y G; Harrison, B D

    1995-08-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene-containing circular DNA molecule of an isolate of tomato leaf curl geminivirus (ITmLCV; 2749 nt) obtained from southern India, and the CP genes of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus isolates from Nigeria and two regions of Saudia Arabia were sequenced. ITmLCV DNA had the same arrangement of ORFs, and the same pattern of repeats in the large intergenic region as is found in in DNA-A of other whitefly-transmitted geminivirus (WTGs) from the Old World. However, the sequence of ITmLCV DNA and the sequences of its predicted translation products differed substantially from those of other WTGs, including one isolate obtained from a tomato plant in northern India. Comparison of the four CP sequences deduced here with those of 18 WTGs previously studied indicated that their relationships can be represented by a tree with three branches that are unrelated to plant host species but which contains viruses from the Americas, Africa to the Middle East, and Asia to Australia, respectively. It is suggested that WTG CP evolution has proceeded along different paths in these three main regions, and that WTGs have adapted freely to new hosts in each region. Indeed, the virus isolates causing similar diseases of tomato plants in the different continents are, with few exceptions, not closely related and warrant recognition as separate species. PMID:7636485

  12. A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Morin, S; Ghanim, M; Zeidan, M; Czosnek, H; Verbeek, M; van den Heuvel, J F

    1999-03-30

    Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph. PMID:10087228

  13. Characterization of a New World Monopartite Begomovirus Causing Leaf Curl Disease of Tomato in Ecuador and Peru Reveals a New Direction in Geminivirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Melgarejo, Tomas A.; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R.; Paz-Carrasco, Lenin; Zerbini, F. Murilo

    2013-01-01

    All characterized whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) with origins in the New World (NW) have bipartite genomes composed of a DNA-A and DNA-B component. Recently, an NW begomovirus lacking a DNA-B component was associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in Peru, and it was named Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). Here, we show that isolates of ToLDeV associated with ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru have a single, genetically diverse genomic DNA that is most closely related to DNA-A components of NW bipartite begomoviruses. Agroinoculation of multimeric clones of the genomic DNA of three ToLDeV genotypes (two variants and a strain) resulted in the development of tomato leaf curl symptoms indistinguishable from those of ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru. Biological properties of these ToLDeV genotypes were similar to those of Old World (OW) monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including lack of sap transmissibility, phloem limitation, a resistance phenotype in tomato germplasm with the Ty-1 gene, and functional properties of the V1 (capsid protein) and C4 genes. Differences in symptom phenotypes induced by the ToLDeV genotypes in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants were associated with a highly divergent left intergenic region and C4 gene. Together, these results establish that ToLDeV is an emergent NW monopartite begomovirus that is causing ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru. This is the first report of an indigenous NW monopartite begomovirus, and evidence is presented that it emerged from the DNA-A component of a NW bipartite progenitor via convergent evolution and recombination. PMID:23468482

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of a Resistant vs. Susceptible Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cultivar in Response to Infection by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianzi; Lv, Yuanda; Zhao, Tongming; Li, Nan; Yang, Yuwen; Yu, Wengui; He, Xin; Liu, Tingli; Zhang, Baolong

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) threatens tomato production worldwide by causing leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting and flower abscission. The current understanding of the host plant defense response to this virus is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to TYLCV infection in the TYLCV-resistant tomato breeding line CLN2777A (R) and TYLCV-susceptible tomato breeding line TMXA48-4-0 (S). The mixed inoculated samples from 3, 5 and 7 day post inoculation (dpi) were compared to non-inoculated samples at 0 dpi. Of the total of 34831 mapped transcripts, 209 and 809 genes were differentially expressed in the R and S tomato line, respectively. The proportion of up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the R tomato line (58.37%) was higher than that in the S line (9.17%). Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that similar GO terms existed in both DEGs of R and S lines; however, some sets of defense related genes and their expression levels were not similar between the two tomato lines. Genes encoding for WRKY transcriptional factors, R genes, protein kinases and receptor (-like) kinases which were identified as down-regulated DEGs in the S line were up-regulated or not differentially expressed in the R line. The up-regulated DEGs in the R tomato line revealed the defense response of tomato to TYLCV infection was characterized by the induction and regulation of a series of genes involved in cell wall reorganization, transcriptional regulation, defense response, ubiquitination, metabolite synthesis and so on. The present study provides insights into various reactions underlining the successful establishment of resistance to TYLCV in the R tomato line, and helps in the identification of important defense-related genes in tomato for TYLCV disease management. PMID:24260487

  15. Mechanism of regulation of tomato TRN1 gene expression in late infection with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Arunava; Sarkar, Deepti; Kundu, Surekha; Kundu, Pallob

    2015-12-01

    Tomato leaf curl disease caused by geminiviruses is manifested by curling and puckering of leaves and thickening of veins, resembling developmental defects. This is probably due to the long-term altered regulation of expression of development related gene(s). Our results show that in the infected leaves the transcript level of TORNADO1 (SlTRN1), a gene important for cell expansion and vein formation, increased significantly. SlTRN1 is transcribed from two start sites. The preferential usage of one start site governs its expression in viral-stressed plants. To investigate the role of specific promoter elements in mediating differential expression of SlTRN1, we performed SlTRN1 promoter analysis. The promoter-regulatory sequences harbor multiple W-boxes. The SlWRKY16 transcription factor actively interacts with one of the W-boxes. WRKY proteins are commonly induced by salicylic acid (SA), and consequently SA treatment increased transcript level of SlWRKY16 and SlTRN1. Further mutational analyses confirmed the role of W-boxes in mediating SlTRN1 induction during ToLCNDV infection or SA treatment. We postulate that the activation of SA pathway during stress-response in tomato induces WRKY16, which in turn modulates transcription of SlTRN1 gene. This study unravels the mechanism of regulation of a developmental gene during stress-response, which may affect the severity of symptoms. PMID:26706073

  16. Two genetically related begomoviruses causing tomato leaf curl disease in Togo and Nigeria differ in virulence and host range but do not require a betasatellite for induction of disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tatsuya; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) has emerged as a major constraint on tomato production in some parts of West Africa. In this study, begomoviruses associated with ToLCD in Togo and Nigeria were characterized, as well as a betasatellite associated with the disease in Togo. The genome organization of both viruses is typical of Old World monopartite begomoviruses. Sequence analysis revealed that the begomovirus from Togo is a variant of tomato leaf curl Kumasi virus (ToLCKuV) from Ghana, and it is designated ToLCKuV-[Togo:Pagouda:2006] (ToLCKuV-[TG:Pag:06]). The begomovirus from Nigeria has a recombinant genome, composed of sequences of ToLCKuV (major parent) and a cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV)-like virus, and possesses an unusual non-reiterated replication-associated protein (Rep) binding site. Moreover, because the sequence has <89% identity with those of previously characterized begomoviruses, it is a new species and is designated tomato leaf curl Nigeria virus-[Nigeria:Odogbo:2006] (ToLCNGV-[NG:Odo:06]). The cloned DNAs of ToLCKuV-TG and ToLCNGV were infectious and induced leaf curl symptoms in tomato plants, but ToLCNGV was comparatively more virulent. Both viruses also induced stunted growth and leaf curl symptoms in other solanaceous species (various Nicotiana spp. and Datura stramonium), whereas ToLCNGV but not ToLCKuV-TG induced symptoms in common bean plants. The betasatellite associated with ToLCD in Togo is genetically distinct (i.e., <78% nucleotide sequence identity with previously identified betasatellites) and is designated tomato leaf curl Togo betasatellite-[Togo:Pagouda:2006] (ToLCTGB-[TG:Pag:06]). Replication and systemic spread of ToLCTGB in tomato was mediated by ToLCKuV-TG and ToLCNGV; however, the betasatellite had no effect on disease symptoms induced by either begomovirus. In contrast, ToLCTGB increased symptom severity induced by both viruses in Nicotiana spp. and D. stramonium. Thus, although ToLCTGB increased symptom severity in a host-dependent manner, it does not appear to play a role in ToLCD and may have been present with ToLCKuV-TG as a reassortant. PMID:22057578

  17. Expression of stress gene networks in tomato lines susceptible and resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Czosnek, Henryk

    2008-04-01

    The defense response to several abiotic stresses has been compared in two tomato inbred lines issued from the same breeding program, one susceptible and the other resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection. The level of oxidative burst and the amounts of key regulatory stress proteins: pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), heat shock proteins (HSPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were appraised following treatments with NaCl, H(2)O(2), and ethanol. Significant differences in the response of the two tomato genotypes to these stresses have been found for HSPs and MAPKs patterns at the level of down-regulation but not activation. The higher abundance of HSPs and MAPKs in tomatoes resistant to TYLCV could result in enhanced defense capacity against abiotic stresses. PMID:18171620

  18. Monitoring the dynamics of emergence of a non-canonical recombinant of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and displacement of its parental viruses in tomato.

    PubMed

    Belabess, Z; Dallot, S; El-Montaser, S; Granier, M; Majde, M; Tahiri, A; Blenzar, A; Urbino, C; Peterschmitt, M

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant viruses are increasingly being reported but the dynamics of their emergence is rarely documented. A new recombinant Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IS76) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Southern Morocco (Souss). An original diagnostic tool was needed to fit its unusual recombination profile. Although IS76 was detected following the appearance of Tylc symptoms on tolerant tomato plants, symptoms could not be associated to IS76 or to a synergy with criniviruses. According to infection profiles of Tylc-associated viruses determined on 879 plant samples collected between 1998 and 2014 and a Bayesian inference applied to genomic sequences of representatives of TYLCV, IS76 emerged in Southern Morocco at the end of the 1990s, replaced the parental viruses between 2004 and 2012 in Souss and is spreading towards the North of Morocco. The emergence of IS76 coincides with the increasing use of tolerant cultivars in the 2000s. PMID:26519598

  19. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in the Dominican Republic: Characterization of an Infectious Clone, Virus Monitoring in Whiteflies, and Identification of Reservoir Hosts.

    PubMed

    Salati, Raquel; Nahkla, Medhat K; Rojas, Maria R; Guzman, Pablo; Jaquez, Jose; Maxwell, Douglas P; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2002-05-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemics of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in the Dominican Republic in the early to mid-1990s resulted in catastrophic losses to processing tomato production. As part of an integrated management approach to TYLCD, the complete nucleotide sequence of a full-length infectious clone of an isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) from the Dominican Republic (TYLCV-[DO]) was determined. The TYLCV-[DO] genome was nearly identical in sequence (>97%) and genome organization to TYLCV isolates from Israel and Cuba. This established that TYLCV-[DO] is a bonafide TYLCV isolate (rather than a recombinant virus, such as isolates from Israel [Mild], Portugal, Japan, and Iran), and provided further evidence for the introduction of the virus from the eastern Mediterranean. A reduction in the incidence of TYLCV in the northern and southern processing tomato production areas of the Dominican Republic has been associated with the implementation of a mandatory 3-month whitefly host-free period (including tomato, common bean, cucurbits, eggplant, and pepper). Monitoring TYLCV levels in whiteflies, by polymerase chain reaction with TYLCV-specific primers, established that the incidence of TYLCV decreased markedly during the host-free period, and then gradually increased during the tomato-growing season. In contrast, TYLCV persisted in whiteflies and tomato plants in an area in which the host-free period was not implemented. Surveys for TYLCV reservoir hosts, conducted to identify where TYLCV persists during the host-free period, revealed symptomless infections in a number of weed species. The implications of these findings for TYLCV management in the Dominican Republic are discussed. PMID:18943022

  20. Recruitment of the Host Plant Heat Shock Protein 70 by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Coat Protein Is Required for Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gorovits, Rena; Moshe, Adi; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories. PMID:23894631

  1. Recruitment of the host plant heat shock protein 70 by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein is required for virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Moshe, Adi; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories. PMID:23894631

  2. Water Balance, Hormone Homeostasis, and Sugar Signaling Are All Involved in Tomato Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Dagan; Sade, Nir; Shriki, Oz; Lerner, Stephen; Gebremedhin, Alem; Karavani, Asaf; Brotman, Yariv; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Czosnek, Henryk; Moshelion, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar water movement is largely controlled by membrane channels called tonoplast-intrinsic aquaporins (TIP-AQPs). Some TIP-AQP genes, such as TIP2;2 and TIP1;1, are up-regulated upon exposure to biotic stress. Moreover, TIP1;1 transcript levels are higher in leaves of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) line resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than in those of a susceptible line with a similar genetic background. Virus-induced silencing of TIP1;1 in the tomato resistant line and the use of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tip1;1 null mutant showed that resistance to TYLCV is severely compromised in the absence of TIP1:1. Constitutive expression of tomato TIP2;2 in transgenic TYLCV-susceptible tomato and Arabidopsis plants was correlated with increased TYLCV resistance, increased transpiration, decreased abscisic acid levels, and increased salicylic acid levels at the early stages of infection. We propose that TIP-AQPs affect the induction of leaf abscisic acid, which leads to increased levels of transpiration and gas exchange, as well as better salicylic acid signaling. PMID:24989233

  3. First complete genomic characterization and phylogeny of a new recombinant of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Ebtisam H M; Al-Hashash, Hanadi K; Ben-Hejji, Ahmed H; Al-Shayjji, Nabella; Al-Aqeel, Hamed A

    2015-07-01

    While whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses are economically important constraints to tomato production in Kuwait, little is known about genomic features of these viruses from Kuwait. A begomovirus isolated from severely diseased tomatoes, collected over a two-year period in the main tomato-growing areas of Kuwait, was characterized at the molecular level. The complete genomic sequence of the begomovirus was determined, and phlylogeographic studies were conducted to better understand genetic diversity of the virus in the region. Based on genome properties and phylogenetic analysis, the begomovirus was found to be a strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The virus genome was monopartite, as neither DNA B nor satellite DNA molecules were detected. Two isolates characterized in this study shared 97% and 95% nucleotide sequence identity with a previously characterized Kuwaiti isolate, TYLCV-KISR. Among TYLCV isolates with known genome sequences, the Kuwaiti isolates shared highest sequence identity (95%) with TYLCV-Almeria (Spain). Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Kuwaiti isolates formed a distinct clade that was separate from those of known TYLCV sequences. One Kuwaiti isolate (KW 1-3) could be a novel variant of TYLCV. Two recombination events were detected in the genome sequence of KW 1-3, which appeared to be a recombinant derived from TYLCV parents from Oman and Kuwait. PMID:25951968

  4. Peptide Aptamers That Bind to Geminivirus Replication Proteins Confer a Resistance Phenotype to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Mottle Virus Infection in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria Ines; Nash, Tara E.; Dallas, Mary M.; Ascencio-Ibáñez, J. Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses constitute a large family of single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious losses in important crops worldwide. They often exist in disease complexes and have high recombination and mutation rates, allowing them to adapt rapidly to new hosts and environments. Thus, an effective resistance strategy must be general in character and able to target multiple viruses. The geminivirus replication protein (Rep) is a good target for broad-based disease control because it is highly conserved and required for viral replication. In an earlier study, we identified a set of peptide aptamers that bind to Rep and reduce viral replication in cultured plant cells. In this study, we selected 16 of the peptide aptamers for further analysis in yeast two-hybrid assays. The results of these experiments showed that all 16 peptide aptamers interact with all or most of the Rep proteins from nine viruses representing the three major Geminiviridae genera and identified two peptide aptamers (A22 and A64) that interact strongly with different regions in the Rep N terminus. Transgenic tomato lines expressing A22 or A64 and inoculated with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus or Tomato mottle virus exhibited delayed viral DNA accumulation and often contained lower levels of viral DNA. Strikingly, the effect on symptoms was stronger, with many of the plants showing no symptoms or strongly attenuated symptoms. Together, these results established the efficacy of using Rep-binding peptide aptamers to develop crops that are resistant to diverse geminiviruses. PMID:23824791

  5. Rapid spread of a recently introduced virus (tomato yellow leaf curl virus) and its vector Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Min; Fu, Hai-Bin; Wang, Wen-Hang; Piao, Chun-Shu; Tao, Yun-Li; Guo, Dong; Chu, Dong

    2014-02-01

    In Liaoning Province, China, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in 2009 and in only four counties. To quantify the spread of TYLCV and to identify potential factors influencing its spread in Liaoning Province, we assayed for TYLCV within 1,055 whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) complex) from 74 populations and 29 counties in 2011. The B. tabaci species of these individuals was determined based on molecular markers. TYLCV was found in 13 counties (Donggang, Liaoyang, Kazuo, Lingyuan, Heishan, Liaozhong, Kaiyuan, Taian, Dawa, Dashiqiao, Beizhen, Linghai, and Xingcheng) and was most frequently detected in the central plain. In addition, the percentage of whiteflies with TYLCV was significantly higher in B. tabaci Q than in B. tabaci B but was unrelated to the hosts (pepper, eggplant, tomato, cucumber, and kidney bean) on which the whiteflies had been collected. These results demonstrate that TYLCV has spread rapidly in Liaoning Province since its first detection and suggest that its spread is more closely associated with the introduction of B. tabaci Q than with the species of host plant. These findings also indicate that controls are now needed to reduce the further spread of TYLCV and that these controls should include the management of B. tabaci Q populations. PMID:24665690

  6. In silico prediction of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) encoded microRNAs targets in the genome of Cotton leaf curl Allahabad virus

    PubMed Central

    Shweta; Khan, Jawaid A

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Allahabad virus (CLCuAV) belongs to genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae. It has single stranded monopartite DNA genome transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to class of endogeneous small RNAs which suppress expression of genes following cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs. They are demonstrated to be involved in a number of plant processes such as, development, biotic and abiotic stresses. Employing in silico approach, high scoring miRNA-target pairs satisfying rules of minimum free energy and maximum complementarity were selected to investigate if they possess the potential to bind the genome CLCuAV. Our results revealed that miRNA species viz., ghr-miR2950 can target all the viral genes, ghr-miR408 targets overlapping transcripts of AC1 and AC2 genes; while ghr-miR394 and ghr-miR395a and miR395d could bind overlapping transcripts of AC1 and AC4 genes. This is the first report of prediction of cotton miRNAs which have the potential to target CLCuAV genes including AC1 and AC4, involved in viral replication and gene silencing suppression, respectively. PMID:24966530

  7. Kinetics of interaction of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali (CLCuKV-Dab) coat protein and its mutants with ssDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Priyadarshini, C.G. Poornima; Savithri, H.S.

    2009-04-10

    Gemini viral assembly and transport of viral DNA into nucleus for replication, essentially involve DNA-coat protein interactions. The kinetics of interaction of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali recombinant coat protein (rCP) with DNA was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The rCP interacted with ssDNA with a K{sub A}, of 2.6 +- 0.29 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} in a sequence non-specific manner. The CP has a conserved C2H2 type zinc finger motif composed of residues C68, C72, H81 and H85. Mutation of these residues to alanine resulted in reduced binding to DNA probes. The H85A mutant rCP showed the least binding with approximately 756 fold loss in the association rate and a three order magnitude decrease in the binding affinity as compared to rCP. The CP-DNA interactions via the zinc finger motif could play a crucial role in virus assembly and in nuclear transport.

  8. PCR-RFLP-based typing for differentiation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) genotypes from infected host plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung; Kim, Seongdae; Vinod, Nagarajan; Koo, Jung Mo; Jang, Kyung Min; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik

    2013-12-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers designed from published Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) genomes was developed to distinguish from the TYLCV-IL groups. The specificity of the two sets of primers was proven by testing against control TYLCV genomes and the symptomatic leaves of 34 different tomato cultivars naturally infected with TYLCV in greenhouses. One set for TYLCV-IL strain-specific primers (TYLCV-UNI-F and TYLCV-UNI-R) amplified full-length genome fragments from all the 34 tomato cultivars. Another set for TYLCV-IL group-II strain-specific primers (TYLCV-GPII-F and TYLCV-GPII-R) amplified target DNA fragments from only 9 tomato cultivars. Digestion by BglII and EcoRV of the PCR amplicons produced restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern that distinguished the TYLCV-IL group-I with two fragments from the TYLCV-IL group-II with no digested fragment. PCR coupled with BglII and EcoRV digestion confirmed that the 9 tomato cultivars were infected with the TYLCV-IL group-II and the remained 25 tomato cultivars were infected with the TYLCV-IL group-I. PMID:23884784

  9. Chilli leaf curl virus infection highlights the differential expression of genes involved in protein homeostasis and defense in resistant chilli plants.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2015-06-01

    Geminiviruses have evolved with tremendous potential of recombination and possess the ability to manipulate several cellular processes of hosts. Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV) is a monopartite Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) which has emerged as a serious threat to chilli production worldwide. To date, development of resistant chilli varieties through conventional plant breeding techniques remains the major antiviral strategy. To explore the potential resistance factors in Capsicum annuum var. Punjab Lal, we performed a transcriptome analysis in ChiLCV-infected plants by exploiting the advantage of sensitivity and efficiency of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Out of 480 clones screened, 231 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) involved in different cellular and physiological processes were identified. An interactome network of ChiLCV responsive differentially expressed genes revealed an array of proteins involved in key cellular processes including transcription, replication, photosynthesis, and defense. A comparative study of gene expression between resistant and susceptible chilli plants revealed upregulation of several defense-related genes such as nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domain containing protein, lipid transfer protein, thionin, polyphenol oxidase, and other proteins like ATP/ADP transporter in the ChiLCV-resistant variety. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the transcriptomics of ChiLCV-resistant chilli plants. PMID:25693670

  10. The Tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein forms aggregates depending on the cytoskeleton integrity and binds viral genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Adi; Belausov, Eduard; Niehl, Annette; Heinlein, Manfred; Czosnek, Henryk; Gorovits, Rena

    2015-01-01

    The spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was accompanied by the formation of coat protein (CP) aggregates of increasing size in the cytoplasm and nucleus of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cells. In order to better understand the TYLCV-host interaction, we investigated the properties and the subcellular accumulation pattern of the non-structural viral protein V2. CP and V2 are the only sense-oriented genes on the virus circular single-stranded DNA genome. Similar to CP, V2 localized to cytoplasmic aggregates of increasing size and as infection progressed was also found in nuclei, where it co-localized with CP. V2 was associated with viral genomic DNA molecules, suggesting that V2 functions as a DNA shuttling protein. The formation and the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of V2 aggregates were dependent on the integrity of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We propose that the cytoskeleton-dependent formation and growth of V2 aggregates play an important role during TYLCV infection, and that microtubules and actin filaments are important for the delivery of V2 to the 26S proteasome. PMID:25940862

  11. Progressive aggregation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein in systemically infected tomato plants, susceptible and resistant to the virus.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Moshe, Adi; Kolot, Mikhail; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) coat protein (CP) accumulated in tomato leaves during infection. The CP was immuno-detected in the phloem associated cells. At the early stages of infection, punctate signals were detected in the cytoplasm, while in the later stages aggregates of increasing size were localized in cytoplasm and nuclei. Sedimentation of protein extracts through sucrose gradients confirmed that progress of infection was accompanied by the formation of CP aggregates of increasing size. Genomic ssDNA was found in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, while the dsDNA replicative form was exclusively associated with the nucleus. CP-DNA complexes were detected by immuno-capture PCR in nuclear and cytoplasmic large aggregates. Nuclear aggregates contained infectious particles transmissible to test plants by whiteflies. In contrast to susceptible tomatoes, the formation of large CP aggregates in resistant plants was delayed. By experimentally changing the level of resistance/susceptibility of plants, we showed that maintenance of midsized CP aggregates was associated with resistance, while large aggregates where characteristic of susceptibility. We propose that sequestering of virus CP into midsized aggregates and retarding the formation of large insoluble aggregates containing infectious particles is part of the response of resistant plants to TYLCV. PMID:23099086

  12. The Tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein forms aggregates depending on the cytoskeleton integrity and binds viral genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Adi; Belausov, Eduard; Niehl, Annette; Heinlein, Manfred; Czosnek, Henryk; Gorovits, Rena

    2015-01-01

    The spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was accompanied by the formation of coat protein (CP) aggregates of increasing size in the cytoplasm and nucleus of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cells. In order to better understand the TYLCV-host interaction, we investigated the properties and the subcellular accumulation pattern of the non-structural viral protein V2. CP and V2 are the only sense-oriented genes on the virus circular single-stranded DNA genome. Similar to CP, V2 localized to cytoplasmic aggregates of increasing size and as infection progressed was also found in nuclei, where it co-localized with CP. V2 was associated with viral genomic DNA molecules, suggesting that V2 functions as a DNA shuttling protein. The formation and the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of V2 aggregates were dependent on the integrity of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We propose that the cytoskeleton-dependent formation and growth of V2 aggregates play an important role during TYLCV infection, and that microtubules and actin filaments are important for the delivery of V2 to the 26S proteasome. PMID:25940862

  13. Expression of stress-response proteins upon whitefly-mediated inoculation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in susceptible and resistant tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Akad, Fouad; Beery, Hila; Vidavsky, Favi; Mahadav, Assaf; Czosnek, Henryk

    2007-11-01

    To better understand the nature of resistance of tomato to the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, B biotype)-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), whiteflies and TYLCV were considered as particular cases of biotic stresses and virus resistance as a particular case of successful response to these stresses. Two inbred tomato lines issued from the same breeding program that used Solanum habrochaites as a TYLCV resistance source, one susceptible and the other resistant, were used to compare the expression of key proteins involved at different stages of the plant response with stresses: mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), cellular heat shock proteins (HSPs, proteases), and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The two biotic stresses-non-viruliferous whitefly feeding and virus infection with viruliferous insects--led to a slow decline in abundance of MAPKs, HSPs, and chloroplast protease FtsH (but not chloroplast protease ClpC), and induced the activities of the PR proteins, beta-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase. This decline was less pronounced in virus-resistant than in virus-susceptible lines. Contrary to whitefly infestation and virus infection, inoculation with the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induced a rapid accumulation of the stress proteins studied, followed by a decline; the virus-susceptible and -resistant tomato lines behaved similarly in response to the fungus. PMID:17977149

  14. Long-term association of tomato yellow leaf curl virus with its whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci: effect on the insect transmission capacity, longevity and fecundity.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, G; Czosnek, H

    1997-10-01

    The association between tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV, Israeli isolate) and its insect vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, was investigated. Insects that emerged during a 24 h period were caged with TYLCV-infected plants for a 48 h acquisition access period, then with egg-plants--a TYLCV non-host--for the rest of their lives. While TYLCV DNA was associated with the whiteflies during their entire adult life, the amount of capsid protein rapidly decreased and was not detectable in the insect after approximately 12 days of age. The ability of the infected whiteflies to transmit TYLCV to tomato test plants steadily decreased with age but did not disappear completely. Transmission by viruliferous insects decreased from 100% to 10-20% during their adult lifetime, compared with a decrease from 100% to 50% for non-viruliferous insects. The association of TYLCV with adult B. tabaci led to a reduction of 17-23% in their life expectancy compared with insects that had not acquired the virus, and to a 40-50% decrease in the mean number of eggs laid. These results suggest that TYLCV has some features reminiscent of an insect pathogen. PMID:9349491

  15. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis attenuates symptom severity and reduces virus concentration in tomato infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV).

    PubMed

    Maffei, Giulia; Miozzi, Laura; Fiorilli, Valentina; Novero, Mara; Lanfranco, Luisa; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is considered a natural instrument to improve plant health and productivity since mycorrhizal plants often show higher tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the impact of the AM symbiosis on infection by viral pathogens is still largely uncertain and little explored. In the present study, tomato plants were grown under controlled conditions and inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Once the mycorrhizal colonization had developed, plants were inoculated with the Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a geminivirus causing one of the most serious viral diseases of tomatoes in Mediterranean areas. Biological conditions consisted of control plants (C), TYLCSV-infected plants (V), mycorrhizal plants (M), and TYLCSV-infected mycorrhizal plants (MV). At the time of analysis, the level of mycorrhiza development and the expression profiles of mycorrhiza-responsive selected genes were not significantly modified by virus infection, thus indicating that the AM symbiosis was unaffected by the presence and spread of the virus. Viral symptoms were milder, and both shoot and root concentrations of viral DNA were lower in MV plants than in V plants. Overall F. mosseae colonization appears to exert a beneficial effect on tomato plants in attenuating the disease caused by TYLCSV. PMID:24072193

  16. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Sparks, Alton; Adkins, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are major threats to tomato production in the southeastern United States. TYLCV was introduced to Florida from the Caribbean islands and has spread to other southern states of the United States. In Georgia, in recent years, the incidence of TYLCV has been steadily increasing. Studies were conducted to monitor population dynamics of whiteflies in the vegetable production belt of Georgia, to evaluate TYLCV-resistant genotypes against whiteflies and TYLCV, and to assess the potential role of resistant genotypes in TYLCV epidemiology. Monitoring studies indicated that the peak incidence of whiteflies varied seasonally from year to year. In general, whitefly populations were not uniformly distributed. Tomato genotypes exhibited minor differences in their ability to support whitefly populations. TYLCV symptoms were visually undetectable in all but one resistant genotype. The infection rates (visually) in susceptible genotypes ranged from 40 to 87%. Greenhouse inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that up to 100% of plants of resistant genotypes were infected, although predominantly symptomless. TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies from TYLCV-infected genotypes was tested by PCR; TYLCV acquisition rates from resistant genotypes were less than from susceptible genotypes. Nevertheless, this difference did not influence TYLCV transmission rates from resistant to susceptible genotypes. Results emphasize that resistant genotypes can serve as TYLCV and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence TYLCV epidemics. PMID:22928328

  17. Sweet pepper confirmed as a reservoir host for tomato yellow leaf curl virus by both agro-inoculation and whitefly-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Byun, Hee-Seong; Kim, Sunhoo; Kim, Jaedeok; Park, Jungan; Cho, Seungchan; Yang, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, has a single-stranded DNA genome. TYLCV can induce severe disease symptoms on tomato plants, but other hosts plants such as cucurbits and peppers are asymptomatic. A full-length DNA clone of a Korean TYLCV isolate was constructed by rolling-circle amplification from TYLCV-infected tomatoes in Korea. To assess relative susceptibility of sweet pepper varieties to TYLCV, 19 cultivars were inoculated with cloned TYLCV by agro-inoculation. All TYLCV-infected sweet peppers were asymptomatic, even though Southern hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TYLCV genomic DNA accumulation in roots, stems, and newly produced shoots. Southern hybridization indicated that TYLCV replicated and moved systemically from agro-inoculated apical shoot tips to roots or newly produced shoots of sweet peppers. Whitefly-mediated inoculation experiments showed that TYLCV can be transmitted to tomatoes from TYLCV-infected sweet peppers. Taken together, these results indicate that sweet pepper can be a reservoir for TYLCV in nature. PMID:24777825

  18. Amino Acids in the Capsid Protein of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus That Are Crucial for Systemic Infection, Particle Formation, and Insect Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Noris, E.; Vaira, A. M.; Caciagli, P.; Masenga, V.; Gronenborn, B.; Accotto, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission in monopartite geminiviruses. We studied two defective genomic DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Sic and SicRcv. Sic, cloned from a field-infected tomato, was not infectious, whereas SicRcv, which spontaneously originated from Sic, was infectious but not whitefly transmissible. A single amino acid change in the CP was found to be responsible for restoring infectivity. When the amino acid sequences of the CPs of Sic and SicRcv were compared with that of a closely related wild-type virus (TYLCV-Sar), differences were found in the following positions: 129 (P in Sic and SicRcv, Q in Sar), 134 (Q in Sic and Sar, H in SicRcv) and 152 (E in Sic and SicRcv, D in Sar). We constructed TYLCV-Sar variants containing the eight possible amino acid combinations in those three positions and tested them for infectivity and transmissibility. QQD, QQE, QHD, and QHE had a wild-type phenotype, whereas PHD and PHE were infectious but nontransmissible. PQD and PQE mutants were not infectious; however, they replicated and accumulated CP, but not virions, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs. The Q129P replacement is a nonconservative change, which may drastically alter the secondary structure of the CP and affect its ability to form the capsid. The additional Q134H change, however, appeared to compensate for the structural modification. Sequence comparisons among whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in terms of the CP region studied showed that combinations other than QQD are present in several cases, but never with a P129. PMID:9811744

  19. Overwintering squash bugs harbor and transmit the causal agent of cucurbit yellow vine disease.

    PubMed

    Pair, S D; Bruton, B D; Mitchell, F; Fletcher, J; Wayadande, A; Melcher, U

    2004-02-01

    Since 1988, cucurbit crops, particularly watermelon, cantaloupe, and squash, grown in Oklahoma and Texas have experienced devastating losses from cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD), caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Serratia marcescens Bizio. Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a putative vector of the pathogen. In 2000-2001, overwintering populations of squash bug collected from DeLeon, TX, were tested for their ability to harbor and transmit the bacterium. Individual squash bugs (n = 73) were caged serially for periods of up to 7 d on at least four squash seedlings. Two studies were conducted, one with insects collected in November 2000 placed on first true leaf-stage seedlings and the second with insects from an April 2001 collection, placed on 3-5 true leaf-stage squash. Controls consisted of squash seedlings caged without insects. Squash bug transmission rates of the pathogen in studies I and II were 20 and 7.5%, respectively. Overall, 11.0% of the squash bugs harbored and successfully transmitted the bacterium to squash seedlings. All control plants tested negative for S. marcescens and did not exhibit CYVD. Female squash bugs killed a significantly greater proportion of young first leaf-stage seedlings than males. Feeding on 3-5 leaf-stage squash resulted in no plant mortality regardless of squash bug gender. This study demonstrated that the squash bug harbors S. marcescens in its overwintering state. The squash bug-S. marcescens overwintering relationship reported herein greatly elevates the pest status of squash bug and places more importance on development of integrated strategies for reducing potential overwintering and emerging squash bug populations. PMID:14998129

  20. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by Ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Butterbach, Patrick; Verlaan, Maarten G; Dullemans, Annette; Lohuis, Dick; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and related begomoviruses are a major threat to tomato production worldwide and, to protect against these viruses, resistance genes from different wild tomato species are introgressed. Recently, the Ty-1 resistance gene was identified, shown to code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and to be allelic with Ty-3. Here we show that upon TYLCV challenging of resistant lines carrying Ty-1 or Ty-3, low virus titers were detected concomitant with the production of relatively high levels of siRNAs whereas, in contrast, susceptible tomato Moneymaker (MM) revealed higher virus titers but lower amounts of siRNAs. Comparative analysis of the spatial genomic siRNA distribution showed a consistent and subtle enrichment for siRNAs derived from the V1 and C3 genes in Ty-1 and Ty-3. In plants containing Ty-2 resistance the virus was hardly detectable, but the siRNA profile resembled the one observed in TYLCV-challenged susceptible tomato (MM). Furthermore, a relative hypermethylation of the TYLCV V1 promoter region was observed in genomic DNA collected from Ty-1 compared with that from (MM). The resistance conferred by Ty-1 was also effective against the bipartite tomato severe rugose begomovirus, where a similar genome hypermethylation of the V1 promoter region was discerned. However, a mixed infection of TYLCV with cucumber mosaic virus compromised the resistance. The results indicate that Ty-1 confers resistance to geminiviruses by increasing cytosine methylation of viral genomes, suggestive of enhanced transcriptional gene silencing. The mechanism of resistance and its durability toward geminiviruses under natural field conditions is discussed. PMID:25136118

  1. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by Ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Butterbach, Patrick; Verlaan, Maarten G.; Dullemans, Annette; Lohuis, Dick; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bai, Yuling; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and related begomoviruses are a major threat to tomato production worldwide and, to protect against these viruses, resistance genes from different wild tomato species are introgressed. Recently, the Ty-1 resistance gene was identified, shown to code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and to be allelic with Ty-3. Here we show that upon TYLCV challenging of resistant lines carrying Ty-1 or Ty-3, low virus titers were detected concomitant with the production of relatively high levels of siRNAs whereas, in contrast, susceptible tomato Moneymaker (MM) revealed higher virus titers but lower amounts of siRNAs. Comparative analysis of the spatial genomic siRNA distribution showed a consistent and subtle enrichment for siRNAs derived from the V1 and C3 genes in Ty-1 and Ty-3. In plants containing Ty-2 resistance the virus was hardly detectable, but the siRNA profile resembled the one observed in TYLCV-challenged susceptible tomato (MM). Furthermore, a relative hypermethylation of the TYLCV V1 promoter region was observed in genomic DNA collected from Ty-1 compared with that from (MM). The resistance conferred by Ty-1 was also effective against the bipartite tomato severe rugose begomovirus, where a similar genome hypermethylation of the V1 promoter region was discerned. However, a mixed infection of TYLCV with cucumber mosaic virus compromised the resistance. The results indicate that Ty-1 confers resistance to geminiviruses by increasing cytosine methylation of viral genomes, suggestive of enhanced transcriptional gene silencing. The mechanism of resistance and its durability toward geminiviruses under natural field conditions is discussed. PMID:25136118

  2. Evaluation of Bt-cotton Genotypes for Resistance to Cotton Leaf Curl Disease under High Inoculum Pressure in the Field and Using Graft Inoculation in Glasshouse

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Khalid Pervaiz; Hussain, Manzoor; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan; Sarwar, Muhammad; Sarwar, Nighat

    2015-01-01

    Bt-cotton germplasm, consisting of 75 genotypes was evaluated against cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) under high inoculum pressure in the field and using graft inoculation in glasshouse by visual symptom scoring assessments. None of the tested genotype was found disease free under both evaluation tests. Under field conditions in 2011, 3 genotypes were found resistant, 4 moderately resistant, 3 tolerant, 2 moderately susceptible and one susceptible; in 2012, 3 genotypes were tolerant, 7 moderately susceptible, 5 susceptible and 38 highly susceptible; in 2013, one was moderately susceptible and 51 were highly susceptible with varying degree of percent disease index (PDI) and severity index (SI). However, through graft evaluation in glasshouse, none of the graft inoculated plant was symptomless. All tested genotypes showed disease symptoms with SI values ranging between 5.0 and 6.0, and latent period between 12 and 14 days. Of the 75 genotypes evaluated using graft inoculation, 11 were found susceptible with SI values of 5.0 to 5.4 while remaining 64 were highly susceptible with SI values of 5.5 to 6.0. Inoculated plants of all tested genotypes exhibited severe disease symptoms within 10 days after the appearance of initial symptoms. No reduction in SI value was observed until the end of the experiment i.e., 90 days after grafting. Information generated under the present study clearly demonstrates that no sources of resistance to CLCuD are available among the tested Bt-cotton genotypes. So, a breeding programme is needed to introgress the CLCuD-resistance from other resistant sources to agronomically suitable Bt-cotton genotypes. PMID:26060432

  3. Quantification and localization of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Geminiviridae) in populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) with differential virus transmission characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kollenberg, Mario; Winter, Stephan; Götz, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the economically most damaging insects to crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Severe damage is caused by feeding and more seriously by transmitting viruses. Those of the genus begomovirus (Geminiviridae) cause the most significant crop diseases and are transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent circulative mode, a process which is largely unknown. To analyze the translocation and to identify critical determinants for transmission, two populations of B. tabaci MEAM1 were compared for transmitting Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Insect populations were chosen because of their high and respectively low virus transmission efficiency to compare uptake and translocation of virus through insects. Both populations harbored Rickettsia, Hamiltonella and Wolbachia in comparable ratios indicating that endosymbionts might not contribute to the different transmission rates. Quantification by qPCR revealed that WmCSV uptake and virus concentrations in midguts and primary salivary glands were generally higher than TYLCV due to higher virus contents of the source plants. Both viruses accumulated higher in insects from the efficiently compared to the poorly transmitting population. In the latter, virus translocation into the hemolymph was delayed and virus passage was impeded with limited numbers of viruses translocated. FISH analysis confirmed these results with similar virus distribution found in excised organs of both populations. No virus accumulation was found in the midgut lumen of the poor transmitter because of a restrained virus translocation. Results suggest that the poorly transmitting population comprised insects that lacked transmission competence. Those were selected to develop a population that lacks virus transmission. Investigations with insects lacking transmission showed that virus concentrations in midguts were reduced and only negligible virus amounts were found at the primary salivary glands indicating for a missing or modified receptor responsible for virus attachment or translocation. PMID:25365330

  4. Eugenol confers resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating the expression of SlPer1 in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Lv, Wen-Jing; Li, Li-Na; Yin, Gan; Hang, Xiaofang; Xue, Yanfeng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-05-25

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most devastating plant diseases, and poses a significant agricultural concern because of the lack of an efficient control method. Eugenol is a plant-derived natural compound that has been widely used as a food additive and in medicine. In the present study, we demonstrated the potential of eugenol to enhance the resistance of tomato plants to TYLCV. The anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol was significantly higher than that of moroxydine hydrochloride (MH), a widely used commercial antiviral agent. Eugenol application stimulated the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) in tomato plants. The full-length cDNA of SlPer1, which has been suggested to be a host R gene specific to TYLCV, was isolated from tomato plants. A sequence analysis suggested that SlPer1 might be a nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) belonging to the permease family. The transcript levels of SlPer1 increased markedly in response to treatment with eugenol or TYLCV inoculation. The results of this study also showed that SlPer1 expression was strongly induced by SA, MeJA (jasmonic acid methyl ester), and NO. Thus, we propose that the increased transcription of SlPer1 contributed to the high anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol, which might involve in the generation of endogenous SA and NO. Such findings provide the basis for the development of eugenol as an environmental-friendly agricultural antiviral agent. PMID:26776605

  5. Association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus DNA-B with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus in okra showing yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, S; Krishna Reddy, M

    2015-06-01

    Okra samples showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting and bushy appearance were collected from different locations of India during the surveys conducted between years 2005-2009. The dot blot and PCR detection revealed that 75.14% of the samples were associated with monopartite begomovirus and remaining samples with bipartite virus. Whitefly transmission was established for three samples representing widely separated geographical locations which are negative to betasatellites and associated with DNA-B. Genome components of these three representative isolates were cloned and sequenced. The analysis of DNA-A-like sequence revealed that three begomovirus isolates shared more than 93% nucleotide sequence identity with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus from India (BYVMV), a monopartite begomovirus species that was reported previously as causative agent of bhendi yellow mosaic disease in association of bhendi yellow vein mosaic betasatellite. Further, the DNA-B-like sequences associated with the three virus isolates shared no more than 90% sequence identity with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). Analyses of putative iteron-binding sequence required for trans-replication suggests that begomovirus sequences shared compatible rep-binding iterons with DNA-B of ToLCNDV. Our data suggest that the monopartite begomovirus associated with okra yellow vein disease has captured DNA-B of ToLCNDV to infect okra. Widespread distribution of the complex shows the increasing trend of the capturing of DNA-B of ToLCNDV by monopartite begomoviruses in the Indian subcontinent. The recombination analysis showed that the DNA-A might have been derived from the inter-specific recombination of begomoviruses, while DNA-B was derived from the ToLCNDV infecting different hosts. PMID:26104329

  6. Virion stability is important for the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl sardinia virus by Bemisia tabaci, but virion access to salivary glands does not guarantee transmissibility.

    PubMed

    Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

    2009-06-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611

  7. The Transmission Efficiency of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Is Correlated with the Presence of a Specific Symbiotic Bacterium Species?

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Yuval; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Skaljac, Marisa; Brumin, Marina; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk; Vavre, Fabrice; Fleury, Frdric; Ghanim, Murad

    2010-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) is exclusively vectored by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). TYLCV transmission depends upon a 63-kDa GroEL protein produced by the vector's endosymbiotic bacteria. B. tabaci is a species complex comprising several genetically distinct biotypes that show different secondary-symbiont fauna. In Israel, the B biotype harbors Hamiltonella, and the Q biotype harbors Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. Both biotypes harbor Rickettsia and Portiera (the obligatory primary symbionts). The aim of this study was to determine which B. tabaci symbionts are involved in TYLCV transmission using B. tabaci populations collected in Israel. Virus transmission assays by B. tabaci showed that the B biotype efficiently transmits the virus, while the Q biotype scarcely transmits it. Yeast two-hybrid and protein pulldown assays showed that while the GroEL protein produced by Hamiltonella interacts with TYLCV coat protein, GroEL produced by Rickettsia and Portiera does not. To assess the role of Wolbachia and Arsenophonus GroEL proteins (GroELs), we used an immune capture PCR (IC-PCR) assay, employing in vivo- and in vitro-synthesized GroEL proteins from all symbionts and whitefly artificial feeding through membranes. Interaction between GroEL and TYLCV was found to occur in the B biotype, but not in the Q biotype. This assay further showed that release of virions protected by GroEL occurs adjacent to the primary salivary glands. Taken together, the GroEL protein produced by Hamiltonella (present in the B biotype, but absent in the Q biotype) facilitates TYLCV transmission. The other symbionts from both biotypes do not seem to be involved in transmission of this virus. PMID:20631135

  8. The transmission efficiency of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is correlated with the presence of a specific symbiotic bacterium species.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Yuval; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Skaljac, Marisa; Brumin, Marina; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk; Vavre, Fabrice; Fleury, Frdric; Ghanim, Murad

    2010-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) is exclusively vectored by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). TYLCV transmission depends upon a 63-kDa GroEL protein produced by the vector's endosymbiotic bacteria. B. tabaci is a species complex comprising several genetically distinct biotypes that show different secondary-symbiont fauna. In Israel, the B biotype harbors Hamiltonella, and the Q biotype harbors Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. Both biotypes harbor Rickettsia and Portiera (the obligatory primary symbionts). The aim of this study was to determine which B. tabaci symbionts are involved in TYLCV transmission using B. tabaci populations collected in Israel. Virus transmission assays by B. tabaci showed that the B biotype efficiently transmits the virus, while the Q biotype scarcely transmits it. Yeast two-hybrid and protein pulldown assays showed that while the GroEL protein produced by Hamiltonella interacts with TYLCV coat protein, GroEL produced by Rickettsia and Portiera does not. To assess the role of Wolbachia and Arsenophonus GroEL proteins (GroELs), we used an immune capture PCR (IC-PCR) assay, employing in vivo- and in vitro-synthesized GroEL proteins from all symbionts and whitefly artificial feeding through membranes. Interaction between GroEL and TYLCV was found to occur in the B biotype, but not in the Q biotype. This assay further showed that release of virions protected by GroEL occurs adjacent to the primary salivary glands. Taken together, the GroEL protein produced by Hamiltonella (present in the B biotype, but absent in the Q biotype) facilitates TYLCV transmission. The other symbionts from both biotypes do not seem to be involved in transmission of this virus. PMID:20631135

  9. Silencing of a single gene in tomato plants resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus renders them susceptible to the virus.

    PubMed

    Eybishtz, Assaf; Peretz, Yuval; Sade, Dagan; Akad, Fouad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2009-09-01

    A reverse-genetics approach was applied to identify genes involved in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) resistance, taking advantage of two tomato inbred lines from the same breeding program-one susceptible (S), one resistant (R-that used Solanum habrochaites as the source of resistance. cDNA libraries from inoculated and non-inoculated R and S plants were compared, postulating that genes preferentially expressed in the R line may be part of the network sustaining resistance to TYLCV. Further, we assumed that silencing genes located at important nodes of the network would lead to collapse of resistance. Approximately 70 different cDNAs representing genes preferentially expressed in R plants were isolated and their genes identified by comparison with public databases. A Permease I-like protein gene encoding a transmembranal transporter was further studied: it was preferentially expressed in R plants and its expression was enhanced several-fold following TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of the Permease gene of R plants using Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing led to loss of resistance, expressed as development of disease symptoms typical of infected susceptible plants and accumulation of large amounts of virus. Silencing of another membrane protein gene preferentially expressed in R plants, Pectin methylesterase, previously shown to be involved in Tobacco mosaic virus translocation, did not lead to collapse of resistance of R plants. Thus, silencing of a single gene can lead to collapse of resistance, but not every gene preferentially expressed in the R line has the same effect, upon silencing, on resistance. PMID:19533378

  10. The Complete Genomic Sequence of Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (PYLCV) and Its Implications for Our Understanding of Evolution Dynamics in the Genus Polerovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Glanz, Eyal; Lachman, Oded; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Antignus, Yehezkel

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV). PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV) and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (both poleroviruses). The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs), which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93%) and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%). Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV) contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP), may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2) were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5) and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3) with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s) between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s), resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range. PMID:23936244

  11. Evaluation of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 Progenies from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Wajad; Tipu, Abdul Latif; Ahmad, Saghir; Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Abid; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n?=?26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n?=?52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.72.0%), BC2 (1.84.0%), and BC3 (4.27.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutumG. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ?BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum. PMID:25372141

  12. The sex pheromones of mealy plum (Hyalopterus pruni) and leaf-curl plum (Brachycaudus helichrysi) aphids: identification and field trapping of male and gynoparous aphids in prune orchards.

    PubMed

    Symmes, Emily J; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Birkett, Michael A; Campbell, Colin A M; Chamberlain, Keith; Pickett, John A; Zalom, Frank G

    2012-05-01

    Mealy plum, Hyalopterus pruni, and leaf-curl plum, Brachycaudus helichrysi, aphids are the primary arthropod pests in orchards that produce dried plums (i.e., prunes). The sexual stage of their respective lifecycles occurs on prune trees in the fall, during which time males respond to sex pheromones produced by oviparous females. Air-entrainment collections confirmed that oviparous H. pruni and B. helichrysi emitted combinations of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol. The responses of H. pruni and B. helichrysi to these compounds in ratios of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2.6:1, 3.4:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 0:0 (no-pheromone control) using water traps were determined in field experiments conducted in prune orchards during the fall. The greatest number of male H. pruni was caught in traps releasing a 1:1 ratio of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol, while male B. helichrysi were caught in similar numbers in traps releasing any of the two-component ratios tested. There was no evidence that any of the pheromone treatments influenced trap catches of gynoparae of either species. Results suggest that addition of sex pheromone lures increases trap catches of male H. pruni and B. helichrysi, and that this approach may improve monitoring and management of these pests in prune orchards. Knowledge gained from this study contributes to the understanding of the ecology of insect pests in prune orchards. PMID:22549554

  13. Quantification and Localization of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Geminiviridae) in Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) with Differential Virus Transmission Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kollenberg, Mario; Winter, Stephan; Götz, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the economically most damaging insects to crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Severe damage is caused by feeding and more seriously by transmitting viruses. Those of the genus begomovirus (Geminiviridae) cause the most significant crop diseases and are transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent circulative mode, a process which is largely unknown. To analyze the translocation and to identify critical determinants for transmission, two populations of B. tabaci MEAM1 were compared for transmitting Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Insect populations were chosen because of their high and respectively low virus transmission efficiency to compare uptake and translocation of virus through insects. Both populations harbored Rickettsia, Hamiltonella and Wolbachia in comparable ratios indicating that endosymbionts might not contribute to the different transmission rates. Quantification by qPCR revealed that WmCSV uptake and virus concentrations in midguts and primary salivary glands were generally higher than TYLCV due to higher virus contents of the source plants. Both viruses accumulated higher in insects from the efficiently compared to the poorly transmitting population. In the latter, virus translocation into the hemolymph was delayed and virus passage was impeded with limited numbers of viruses translocated. FISH analysis confirmed these results with similar virus distribution found in excised organs of both populations. No virus accumulation was found in the midgut lumen of the poor transmitter because of a restrained virus translocation. Results suggest that the poorly transmitting population comprised insects that lacked transmission competence. Those were selected to develop a population that lacks virus transmission. Investigations with insects lacking transmission showed that virus concentrations in midguts were reduced and only negligible virus amounts were found at the primary salivary glands indicating for a missing or modified receptor responsible for virus attachment or translocation. PMID:25365330

  14. A developmentally regulated lipocalin-like gene is overexpressed in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-resistant tomato plants upon virus inoculation, and its silencing abolishes resistance.

    PubMed

    Sade, Dagan; Eybishtz, Assaf; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

    2012-10-01

    To discover genes involved in tomato resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), we previously compared cDNA libraries from susceptible (S) and resistant (R) tomato lines. Among the genes preferentially expressed in R plants and upregulated by TYLCV infection was a gene encoding a lipocalin-like protein. This gene was termed Solanum lycopersicum virus resistant/susceptible lipocalin (SlVRSLip). The SlVRSLip structural gene sequence of R and S plants was identical. SlVRSLip was expressed in leaves during a 15-day window starting about 40 days after sowing (20 days after planting). SlVRSLip was upregulated by Bemisia tabaci (the TYLCV vector) feeding on R plant leaves, and even more strongly upregulated following whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of SlVRSLip in R plants led to the collapse of resistance upon TYLCV inoculation and to a necrotic response along the stem and petioles accompanied by ROS production. Contrary to previously identified tomato lipocalin gene DQ222981, SlVRSLip was not regulated by cold, nor was it regulated by heat or salt. The expression of SlVRSLip was inhibited in R plants in which the hexose transporter gene LeHT1 was silenced. In contrast, the expression of LeHT1 was not inhibited in SlVRSLip-silenced R plants. Hence, in the hierarchy of the gene network conferring TYLCV resistance, SlVRSLip is downstream of LeHT1. Silencing of another gene involved in resistance, a Permease-I like protein, did not affect the expression of SlVRSLip and LeHT1; expression of the Permease was not affected by silencing SlVRSLip or LeHT1, suggesting that it does not belong to the same network. The triple co-silencing of SlVRSLip, LeHT1 and Permease provoked an immediate cessation of growth of R plants upon infection and the accumulation of large amounts of virus. SlVRSLip is the first lipocalin-like gene shown to be involved in resistance to a plant virus. PMID:22843056

  15. Tomato leaf curl virus from Bangalore (ToLCV-Ban4): sequence comparison with Indian ToLCV isolates, detection in plants and insects, and vector relationships.

    PubMed

    Muniyappa, V; Venkatesh, H M; Ramappa, H K; Kulkarni, R S; Zeidan, M; Tarba, C Y; Ghanim, M; Czosnek, H

    2000-01-01

    Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) is a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted geminivirus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) causing a destructive disease of tomato in many regions of India, East Asia and Australia. While ToLCV isolates from Australia and Taiwan have a single genomic component (designated DNA-A), those from Northern India have two components (DNA-A and DNA-B). The ToLCV isolates from Southern India (Bangalore) previously cloned seem to have a DNA-A-like monopartite genome. We have used degenerate DNA-A-specific PCR primers to clone the genome of a ToLCV isolate (named ToLCV-Ban4) from field-infected tomato plants growing in Bangalore, India, in 1997. Degenerate DNA-B-specific PCR primers have not allowed to amplify a putative DNA-B from infected tomato, at the time when DNA-B fragments were amplified from plants infected by known bipartite begomoviruses. The full-length 2759 nucleotide-long DNA-A-like viral genome was sequenced. Similarly to other monopartite ToLCV and TYLCV isolates, ToLCV-Ban4 contains six open reading frames, two on the virion strand and four on the complementary strand. Sequence comparisons indicated that ToLCV-Ban4 is similar to the other three isolates from Bangalore previously sequenced, and is closely related to ToLCV-Ban2 (approximately 91% nucleotide sequence identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ToLCV isolates from Bangalore constitute a group of viruses separated from those of Northern India. ToLCV-Ban4 was detected in tomato and in its whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci by one or by a combination of ELISA, Southern blot hybridization and PCR. Parameters of virus acquisition, retention and transmission by the whitefly vector were investigated in the laboratory. Single whiteflies were able to acquire ToLCV-Ban4 from infected tomato and to transmit the virus to tomato test plants, but five insects were necessary to achieve 100% transmission. Minimum acquisition access and inoculation access periods were 10 min and 20 min, respectively. A latent period of 6 h was required for B. tabaci to efficiently infect tomato test plants. Following a 24 h acquisition access period the insect retained its ability to infect tomato test plants for 12 days, but not for its entire life. In one insect/one plant inoculation tests, female whiteflies were more efficient (approximately 95%) than males (approximately 25%) in transmitting the virus. PMID:11003471

  16. Satellite DNA beta overrides the pathogenicity phenotype of the C4 gene of tomato leaf curl virus but does not compensate for loss of function of the coat protein and V2 genes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M; Mansoor, S; Rezaian, M A; Briddon, R W; Randles, J W

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of satellite DNA beta to complement mutations in the CP, V2 and C4 genes of the monopartite begomovirus, tomato leaf curl virus, which are potentially involved in movement. A mutation in the coat protein was not complemented by DNA beta. Mutations of the C4 and V2 genes attenuated and abolished symptoms, respectively. In the presence of the C4 mutant, but not the V2 mutant, DNA beta induced typical symptoms, confirming that the satellite encodes a dominant symptom determinant. In contrast to the C4 mutant, DNA beta did not enhance the viral DNA levels of the V2 mutant, suggesting that V2 is required for this phenomenon. The significance of these findings is discussed based on our present understanding of the functions of the viral genes and DNA beta. PMID:18521533

  17. The C2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus acts as a pathogenicity determinant and a 16-amino acid domain is responsible for inducing a hypersensitive response in plants.

    PubMed

    Matić, Slavica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The role of the C2 protein in the pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) was investigated. Here we report that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of TYLCSV C2 resulted in a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, with induction of plant cell death and production of H2O2. Since HR is not evident in plants infected by TYLCSV, it is expected that TYLCSV encodes a gene (or genes) that counters this response. HR was partially counteracted by co-agroinfiltration of TYLCSV V2 and Rep, leading to chlorotic reaction, with no HR development. Considering that the corresponding C2 protein of the closely related tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) did not induce HR, alignment of the C2 proteins of TYLCSV and TYLCV were carried out and a hypervariable region of 16 amino acids was identified. Its role in the induction of HR was demonstrated using TYLCSV-TYLCV C2 chimeric genes, encoding two TYLCSV C2 variants with a complete (16 aa) or a partial (10 aa only) swap of the corresponding sequence of TYLCV C2. Furthermore, using NahG transgenic N. benthamiana lines compromised in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), a key regulator of HR, only a chlorotic response occurred in TYLCSV C2-infiltrated tissue, indicating that SA participates in such plant defense process. These findings demonstrate that TYLCSV C2 acts as a pathogenicity determinant and induces host defense responses controlled by the SA pathway. PMID:26826600

  18. Ectopic Expression of BraYAB1-702, a Member of YABBY Gene Family in Chinese Cabbage, Causes Leaf Curling, Inhibition of Development of Shoot Apical Meristem and Flowering Stage Delaying in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Ling; Yang, Ze-Ping; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2013-01-01

    YABBY gene family plays an important role in the polarity development of lateral organs. We isolated the BraYAB1-702 gene, a member of the YABBY gene family, from young leaves of Chinese cabbage line 06J45. The full-length gene has a 937 bp CDNA sequence and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp. The subcellular localization analysis showed that the expression product of the gene was localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BraYAB1-702 in Arabidopsis thaliana caused leaf curling from the adaxial epidermises to abaxial epidermises; the partial abaxialization of the adaxial epidermises of leaves; leaf trichomes and stomata numbers being significantly increased; the plants being severely stunted; the flowering stage being remarkably delayed and inhibiting the development of shoot apical meristem (SAM) with the down-regulation of the expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), Brevipedicellus (BP) and KNAT2 which were related to the development of shoot apical meristem. These results from the present research help to reveal the molecular mechanism of BraYAB1-702 gene in the establishment of adaxialabaxial polarity of the lateral organs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:23863694

  19. A geminiviral amplicon (VA) derived from Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) can replicate in a wide variety of plant species and also acts as a VIGS vector

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prerna; Choudhury, Nirupam R; Mukherjee, Sunil K

    2009-01-01

    Background The Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) belongs to the genus begomoviridae of the family Geminiviridae. The 2.7 kb DNA genome of the virus encodes all the information required for viral DNA replication, transcription and transmission across the plant cells. However, all of the genome sequences are not required for viral DNA replication. We attempted to reveal the minimal essential region required for DNA replication and stable maintenance. The phenomenon of Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) has recently been observed with several geminiviruses. We investigated whether the minimal replicating region was also capable of producing siRNAs in planta and a VIGS vector could be constructed using the same minimal sequences. Results We have constructed vectors containing various truncated portions of the Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) genome and established that a segment spanning from common region (CR) to AC3 (ORF coding for a replication enhancer) was the minimal portion which could efficiently replicate in a variety of both monocot and dicot plants. A viral amplicon (VA) vector was constructed using this region that produced siRNAs from various sites of the vector, in a temporal manner in plants, and hence can be used as a VIGS vector. The tomato endogene PCNA was silenced using this vector. Introduction of a mutation in the ORF AC2 (a silencing suppressor) increased the silencing efficiency of the newly constructed vector several folds. Conclusion Our study reveals that the vector is capable of replicating in diverse plant species and is highly efficient in silencing endogenes like PCNA of the host plant, thus acting as a VIGS vector. We observed that the geminiviral ORF AC2 functioned as a silencing suppressor and a null mutation in this ORF increased the efficiency of silencing several fold. This is the first report of construction of improved VIGS vector by mutation of the resident silencing suppressor gene. The present study opens up the possibility of using such VIGS vectors in silencing the host genes in a broad range of plant hosts. PMID:19788728

  20. Making a friend from a foe: expressing a GroEL gene from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants confers resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Akad, F; Eybishtz, A; Edelbaum, D; Gorovits, R; Dar-Issa, O; Iraki, N; Czosnek, H

    2007-01-01

    Some (perhaps all) plant viruses transmitted in a circulative manner by their insect vectors avoid destruction in the haemolymph by interacting with GroEL homologues, ensuring transmission. We have previously shown that the phloem-limited begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) interacts in vivo and in vitro with GroEL produced by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. In this study, we have exploited this phenomenon to generate transgenic tomato plants expressing the whitefly GroEL in their phloem. We postulated that following inoculation, TYLCV particles will be trapped by GroEL in the plant phloem, thereby inhibiting virus replication and movement, thereby rendering the plants resistant. A whitefly GroEL gene was cloned in an Agrobacterium vector under the control of an Arabidopsis phloem-specific promoter, which was used to transform two tomato genotypes. During three consecutive generations, plants expressing GroEL exhibited mild or no disease symptoms upon whitefly-mediated inoculation of TYLCV. In vitro assays indicated that the sap of resistant plants contained GroEL-TYLCV complexes. Infected resistant plants served as virus source for whitefly-mediated transmission as effectively as infected non-transgenic tomato. Non-transgenic susceptible tomato plants grafted on resistant GroEL-transgenic scions remained susceptible, although GroEL translocated into the grafted plant and GroEL-TYLCV complexes were detected in the grafted tissues. PMID:17334947

  1. Expressing a whitefly GroEL protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants confers tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and cucumber mosaic virus, but not to grapevine virus A or tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Edelbaum, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Sasaki, Sonoko; Ikegami, Masato; Czosnek, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Transgenesis offers many ways to obtain virus-resistant plants. However, in most cases resistance is against a single virus or viral strain. We have taken a novel approach based on the ability of a whitefly endosymbiotic GroEL to bind viruses belonging to several genera, in vivo and in vitro. We have expressed the GroEL gene in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, postulating that upon virus inoculation, GroEL will bind to virions, thereby interfering with pathogenesis. The transgenic plants were inoculated with the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the cucumovirus cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), both of which interacted with GroEL in vitro, and with the trichovirus grapevine virus A (GVA) and the tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which did not. While the transgenic plants inoculated with TYLCV and CMV presented a high level of tolerance, those inoculated with GVA and TMV were susceptible. The amounts of virus in tolerant transgenic plants was lower by three orders of magnitude than those in non-transgenic plants; in comparison, the amounts of virus in susceptible transgenic plants were similar to those in non-transgenic plants. Leaf extracts of the tolerant plants contained GroEL-virus complexes. Hence, tolerance was correlated with trapping of viruses in planta. This study demonstrated that multiple resistances to viruses belonging to several different taxonomic genera could be achieved. Moreover, it might be hypothesized that plants expressing GroEL will be tolerant to those viruses that bind to GroEL in vitro, such as members of the genera Begomovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus, Luteovirus, and Tospovirus. PMID:19184338

  2. First curl, then wrinkle.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Ana C; Canejo, Joo P; Teixeira, Paulo I C; Patrcio, Pedro; Godinho, Maria H

    2013-10-01

    The excellent properties of elastomers are exploited to trigger wrinkling instabilities in curved shells. Micro- and nano-fibres are produced by electrospinning and UV irradiated: each fibre consists of a soft core and a stiff outer half-shell. Upon solvent de-swelling, the fibres curl because the shell and the core have different natural lengths. Wrinkling only starts after the fibre has attained a well-defined helical shape. A simple analytical model is proposed to find the curling curvature and wrinkle wavelength, as well as the transition between the "curling" and "wrinkling" regimes. This new instability resembles that found in the tendrils of climbing plants as they dry and lignify. PMID:23959824

  3. Curls of My Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which students draw ribbons (thin watercolor paper that, when torn, will stand up in a curling fashion). Explains in detail the assignment in which students used pencil rendering or charcoal pencil depending on the type of paper used for the assignment. (CMK)

  4. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of a resistant tomato line with a silenced sucrose transporter gene LeHT1 results in inhibition of growth, enhanced virus spread, and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Eybishtz, Assaf; Peretz, Yuval; Sade, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Czosnek, Henryk

    2010-02-01

    To identify genes involved in resistance of tomato to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), cDNA libraries from lines resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to the virus were compared. The hexose transporter LeHT1 was found to be expressed preferentially in R tomato plants. The role of LeHT1 in the establishment of TYLCV resistance was studied in R plants where LeHT1 has been silenced using Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV VIGS). Following TYLCV inoculation, LeHT1-silenced R plants showed inhibition of growth and enhanced virus accumulation and spread. In addition, a necrotic response was observed along the stem and petioles of infected LeHT1-silenced R plants, but not on infected not-silenced R plants. This response was specific of R plants since it was absent in infected LeHT1-silenced S plants. Necrosis had several characteristics of programmed cell death (PCD): DNA from necrotic tissues presented a PCD-characteristic ladder pattern, the amount of a JNK analogue increased, and production of reactive oxygen was identified by DAB staining. A similar necrotic reaction along stem and petioles was observed in LeHT1-silenced R plants infected with the DNA virus Bean dwarf mosaic virus and the RNA viruses Cucumber mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus. These results constitute the first evidence for a necrotic response backing natural resistance to TYLCV in tomato, confirming that plant defense is organized in multiple layers. They demonstrate that the hexose transporter LeHT1 is essential for the expression of natural resistance against TYLCV and its expression correlates with inhibition of virus replication and movement. PMID:19946703

  5. Transcriptomics of the Interaction between the Monopartite Phloem-Limited Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus and Solanum lycopersicum Highlights a Role for Plant Hormones, Autophagy and Plant Immune System Fine Tuning during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  6. Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611

  7. Discovering Host Genes Involved in the Infection by the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Complex and in the Establishment of Resistance to the Virus Using Tobacco Rattle Virus-based Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Czosnek, Henryk; Eybishtz, Assaf; Sade, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Bejarano, Eduardo; Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Lozano-Durán, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) complex are among the most important pathogens impairing production of agricultural crops worldwide. To understand how these geminiviruses subjugate plant defenses, and to devise counter-measures, it is essential to identify the host genes affected by infection and to determine their role in susceptible and resistant plants. We have used a reverse genetics approach based on Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS) to uncover genes involved in viral infection of susceptible plants, and to identify genes underlying virus resistance. To identify host genes with a role in geminivirus infection, we have engineered a Nicotiana benthamiana line, coined 2IRGFP, which over-expresses GFP upon virus infection. With this system, we have achieved an accurate description of the dynamics of virus replication in space and time. Upon silencing selected N. benthamiana genes previously shown to be related to host response to geminivirus infection, we have identified eighteen genes involved in a wide array of cellular processes. Plant genes involved in geminivirus resistance were studied by comparing two tomato lines: one resistant (R), the other susceptible (S) to the virus. Sixty-nine genes preferentially expressed in R tomatoes were identified by screening cDNA libraries from infected and uninfected R and S genotypes. Out of the 25 genes studied so far, the silencing of five led to the total collapse of resistance, suggesting their involvement in the resistance gene network. This review of our results indicates that TRV-VIGS is an exquisite reverse genetics tool that may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant infection and resistance to infection by begomoviruses. PMID:23524390

  8. Discovering host genes involved in the infection by the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus complex and in the establishment of resistance to the virus using Tobacco Rattle Virus-based post transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Czosnek, Henryk; Eybishtz, Assaf; Sade, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Bejarano, Eduardo; Rosas-Daz, Tbata; Lozano-Durn, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) complex are among the most important pathogens impairing production of agricultural crops worldwide. To understand how these geminiviruses subjugate plant defenses, and to devise counter-measures, it is essential to identify the host genes affected by infection and to determine their role in susceptible and resistant plants. We have used a reverse genetics approach based on Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS) to uncover genes involved in viral infection of susceptible plants, and to identify genes underlying virus resistance. To identify host genes with a role in geminivirus infection, we have engineered a Nicotiana benthamiana line, coined 2IRGFP, which over-expresses GFP upon virus infection. With this system, we have achieved an accurate description of the dynamics of virus replication in space and time. Upon silencing selected N. benthamiana genes previously shown to be related to host response to geminivirus infection, we have identified eighteen genes involved in a wide array of cellular processes. Plant genes involved in geminivirus resistance were studied by comparing two tomato lines: one resistant (R), the other susceptible (S) to the virus. Sixty-nine genes preferentially expressed in R tomatoes were identified by screening cDNA libraries from infected and uninfected R and S genotypes. Out of the 25 genes studied so far, the silencing of five led to the total collapse of resistance, suggesting their involvement in the resistance gene network. This review of our results indicates that TRV-VIGS is an exquisite reverse genetics tool that may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant infection and resistance to infection by begomoviruses. PMID:23524390

  9. Conductance Oscillations in Squashed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrez, H.; Anantram, M. P.; Svizhenko, A.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of molecular dynamics and electrical conductance calculations are used to probe the electromechanical properties of squashed metallic carbon nanotubes. We find that the conductance and bandgap of armchair nanotubes show oscillations upon squashing. The physical origin of these oscillations is attributed to interaction of carbon atoms with a fourth neighbor. Squashing of armchair and zigzag nanotubes ultimately leads to metallic behavior.

  10. Ambulatory electrocardiography in squash players.

    PubMed Central

    Northcote, R J; MacFarlane, P; Ballantyne, D

    1983-01-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiography was carried out in 21 healthy, fit, male squash players (aged 23-43 years) before, during, and after match play. Resulting electrocardiograms were analysed with respect to heart rate and changes in rhythm. The results indicate that squash increases the heart rate to 80% of an individual's predicted maximum heart rate for the duration of a game. Ventricular arrhythmias were detected in seven of the subjects during play and in seven in the immediate post-exercise period, an incidence which was not reproduced on subsequent maximal treadmill exercise testing. This study indicates that squash is a physiologically demanding sport which places a severe strain on the myocardium for considerable periods of time and is capable of generating cardiac arrhythmias. These findings are particularly important for an individual already at risk of sudden death from coronary artery disease or structural cardiovascular abnormalities. Medical advice before participation in the game will identify those at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Subjects in this study who developed arrhythmias were not, however, identified by history, examination, or exercise electrocardiography. Thus, it seems unwise to begin playing squash after the age of 40 years. Whether subjects in this age group already participating in the game should continue to play remains a matter for individual judgment. PMID:6626400

  11. Influence of Water Relations and Temperature on Leaf Movements of Rhododendron Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Erik Tallak

    1987-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. and R. Catawbiense L. are subcanopy evergreen shrubs of the eastern United States deciduous forest. Field measurements of climate factors and leaf movements of these species indicated a high correlation between leaf temperature and leaf curling; and between leaf water potential and leaf angle. Laboratory experiments were performed to isolate the influence of temperature and cellular water relations on leaf movements. Significant differences were found between the patterns of temperature induction of leaf curling in the two species. Leaves of the species which curled at higher temperatures (R. catawbiense) also froze at higher leaf temperatures. However, in both cases leaf curling occurred at leaf temperatures two to three degrees above the leaf freezing point. Pressure volume curves indicated that cellular turgor loss was associated with a maximum of 45% curling while 100% or more curling occurred in field leaves which still had positive cell turgor. Moisture release curves indicated that 70% curling requires a loss of greater than 60% of symplastic water which corresponds to leaf water potentials far below those experienced in field situations. Conversely, most laboratory induced changes in leaf angle could be related to leaf cell turgor loss. PMID:16665296

  12. Energy Requirements of Squash and Racquetball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Richard R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored in 32 male adults playing racquetball and squash. Results indicated that energy expenditure in racquetball was only slightly less than for squash, suggesting that either sport is appropriate for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. (Author/CB)

  13. Relative Entropy and Squashed Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    We are interested in the properties and relations of entanglement measures. Especially, we focus on the squashed entanglement and relative entropy of entanglement, as well as their analogues and variants. Our first result is a monogamy-like inequality involving the relative entropy of entanglement and its one-way LOCC variant. The proof is accomplished by exploring the properties of relative entropy in the context of hypothesis testing via one-way LOCC operations, and by making use of an argument resembling that by Piani on the faithfulness of regularized relative entropy of entanglement. Following this, we obtain a commensurate and faithful lower bound for squashed entanglement, in the form of one-way LOCC relative entropy of entanglement. This gives a strengthening to the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. Our result improves the trace-distance-type bound derived in Brando et al. (Commun Math Phys, 306:805-830, 2011), where faithfulness of squashed entanglement was first proved. Applying Pinsker's inequality, we are able to recover the trace-distance-type bound, even with slightly better constant factor. However, the main improvement is that our new lower bound can be much larger than the old one and it is almost a genuine entanglement measure. We evaluate exactly the relative entropy of entanglement under various restricted measurement classes, for maximally entangled states. Then, by proving asymptotic continuity, we extend the exact evaluation to their regularized versions for all pure states. Finally, we consider comparisons and separations between some important entanglement measures and obtain several new results on these, too.

  14. Swept Away: Exploring the Physics of Curling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Studying the Olympic sport of curling is a fun and engaging way to learn about the concepts of friction, forces, momentum, and Newton's laws. Each winter, the author takes her eighth-grade physical science class on a field trip to experience curling firsthand. This field trip has become a favorite of the eighth graders at Capitol Hill Day School

  15. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more. PMID:26338501

  16. Comparison of perimeter trap crop varieties: effects on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash.

    PubMed

    Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V

    2009-02-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators. PMID:19791616

  17. A Squashed Heliosphere - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Heliophysics' finding of the 'squashed' heliosphere when Voyager 1 and 2 crossed the bubble of solar wind at different distances from the sun. This led to a change in the way we see the shape of ou...

  18. Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

  19. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  20. Resistance to Cucurbit Leaf Crumple Virus in Melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) is a geminivirus common in melons (Cucumis melo L.) planted from July through September in the desert southwest U.S.A. Symptoms include chlorotic leaf spots and terminal buds, leaf curling and crumpling and interveinal yellowing, and plants may be stunted in size...

  1. Scythe (pelargonic acid) weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  2. Squash inhibitor family of serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Otlewski, J; Krowarsch, D

    1996-01-01

    Squash inhibitors of serine proteinases form an uniform family of small proteins. They are built of 27-33 amino-acid residues and cross-linked with three disulfide bridges. The reactive site peptide bond (P1-P1') is between residue 5 (Lys, Arg or Leu) and 6 (always Ile). High resolution X-ray structures are available for two squash inhibitors complexed with trypsin. NMR solution structures have also been determined for free inhibitors. The major structural motif is a distorted, triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. A similar folding motif has been recently found in a number of proteins, including: conotoxins from fish-hunting snails, carboxypeptidase inhibitor from potato, kalata B1 polypeptide, and in some growth factors (e.g. nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 2, platelet-derived growth factor). Squash inhibitors are highly stable and rigid proteins. They inhibit a number of serine proteinases: trypsin, plasmin, kallikrein, blood clotting factors: Xa and XIIa, cathepsin G. The inhibition spectrum can be much broadened if specific amino-acid substitutions are introduced, especially at residues which contact proteinase. Squash inhibitors inhibit proteinases via the standard mechanism. According to the mechanism, inhibitors are substrates which exibit at neutral pH a high kcat/K(m) index for hydrolysis and resynthesis of the reactive site, and a low value of the hydrolysis constant. PMID:8922025

  3. Stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Ishihara, Hideki; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro

    2008-03-15

    The stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes is studied. The squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole looks like a five-dimensional black hole in the vicinity of horizon and looks like a four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime with a circle at infinity. In this sense, squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes can be regarded as black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. Using the symmetry of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes, SU(2)xU(1){approx_equal}U(2), we obtain master equations for a part of the metric perturbations relevant to the stability. The analysis based on the master equations gives strong evidence for the stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes. Hence, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes deserve to be taken seriously as realistic black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime.

  4. Comparison of hamstring and gluteus muscles electromyographic activity while performing the razor curl vs. the traditional prone hamstring curl.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the muscle activation of the razor curl functional hamstring exercise (the razor curl has the total body extended and then requires the hips and knees to flex to 90 degrees simultaneously with full contraction of the hamstrings to further the knee flexion) to the traditional prone hamstring curl. Eight healthy, female intercollegiate athletes participated (mean age 20.8 +/- 3.9 y; mean height, 177.8 +/- 10.9 cm; mean weight, 67.3 +/- 9.9 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) data were collected on the following muscles: medial hamstring (semimembranosus and semitendinosus), biceps femoris, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus while participants performed the 2 exercises: razor curl and the traditional prone curl. Results revealed no significant differences between muscle activations during the 2 exercises (p curl displayed a greater total activation. The investigators were able to conclude that the prone hamstring curl does, indeed, target the musculature of the hamstrings. However, it has been shown here that the more functional position of the razor curl does, indeed, achieve activation of not only the hamstring muscle group but also the gluteus medius and maximus. Both the traditional prone hamstring and the razor curl allow for hamstring and gluteals activation. However, if one wants to fully train the hamstrings functionally, one should focus on the razor curl. Due to its functionality, the razor curl is designed to increase hamstring contractibility by placing the hip into flexion. The razor curl is easily implemented on a back extension machine, where first one should focus on the form and then on functional speed. PMID:19826301

  5. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  6. Squash inhibitors: from structural motifs to macrocyclic knottins.

    PubMed

    Chiche, Laurent; Heitz, Annie; Gelly, Jean-Christophe; Gracy, Jérôme; Chau, Pham T T; Ha, Phan T; Hernandez, Jean-François; Le-Nguyen, Dung

    2004-10-01

    In this article, we will first introduce the squash inhibitor, a well established family of highly potent canonical serine proteinase inhibitors isolated from Cucurbitaceae. The squash inhibitors were among the first discovered proteins with the typical knottin fold shared by numerous peptides extracted from plants, animals and fungi. Knottins contain three knotted disulfide bridges, two of them arranged as a Cystine-Stabilized Beta-sheet motif. In contrast to cyclotides for which no natural linear homolog is known, most squash inhibitors are linear. However, Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-I and (MCoTI-I and -II), 34-residue squash inhibitors isolated from seeds of a common Cucurbitaceae from Vietnam, were recently shown to be macrocyclic. In these circular squash inhibitors, a short peptide linker connects residues that correspond to the N- and C-termini in homologous linear squash inhibitors. In this review we present the isolation, characterization, chemical synthesis, and activity of these macrocyclic knottins. The solution structure of MCoTI-II will be compared with topologically similar cyclotides, homologous linear squash inhibitors and other knottins, and potential applications of such scaffolds will be discussed. PMID:15551519

  7. The dynamic behavior of squash balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Gareth J.; Arnold, J. Cris; Griffiths, Iwan W.

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of a squash ball constitutes an excellent case study of the dynamic behavior of rubbery materials. It is shown that the complex viscoelastic behavior of rubber can be investigated using simple drop bounce tests and compression tests. The drop tests show that the coefficient of restitution increases as the ball temperature increases. The compression tests show that as the speed of compression increases or as the ball temperature decreases, the compressive force and the energy loss both increase. These effects are due to the viscoelastic nature of the rubber and are an excellent example of the time-temperature equivalence of polymers. Compression tests were performed on balls with small holes at the base to separate the effects of the internal air pressure from the material deformation. It was found that the internal air pressure contributed about one-third to the compressive force, but contributed little to energy loss. This behavior shows that the rubber material dominates the rebound behavior and that the normal warming up process at the start of a squash game is important to raise the temperature of the rubber rather than to increase the internal air pressure.

  8. The Curl of a Vector Field: Beyond the Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kimberly Jordan; Choi, Youngna

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that there is some discrepancy in the teaching of vector calculus in mathematics courses and other applied fields. The curl of a vector field is one topic many students can calculate without understanding its significance. In this paper, we explain the origin of the curl after presenting the standard mathematical

  9. Sequential applications of pelargonic acid for weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control can be a constant challenge, especially when dealing with the limited herbicide options available to organic vegetable producers. Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide weed control throughout the production season. Although...

  10. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  11. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  12. The Sports Science of Curling: A Practical Review

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Curling is a sport played on ice in which two teams each deliver 8 granite stones towards a target, or house. It is the only sport in which the trajectory of the projectile can be influenced after it has been released by the athlete. This is achieved by sweeping the ice in front of the stone to change the stone-ice friction and thereby enable to stone to travel further, curl more or stay straight. Hard sweeping is physically demanding. Different techniques of sweeping can also have different effects on the stone. This paper will review the current research behind sweeping a curling stone, outline the physiological demands of sweeping, the associated performance effects and suggest potential strategies of sweeping that can be used by both coaches and curling teams. Key points Sweeping a curling stone can be highly physically demanding. Effective sweeping requires a combination of downward force and brush head speed, determined by the stone velocity. Sweeping on the left or right of a stone can help the stone to remain straight or curl more depending on the rotation of the stone. This can lead to the development of sweeping and playing tactics and contribute to team selection. PMID:24149588

  13. Lower Bounds on the Squashed Entanglement for Multi-Party System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei

    2009-08-01

    Squashed entanglement is a promising entanglement measure that can be generalized to multipartite case, and it has all of the desirable properties for a good entanglement measure. In this paper we present computable lower bounds to evaluate the multipartite squashed entanglement. We also derive some inequalities relating the squashed entanglement to other entanglement measures.

  14. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed. PMID:18559172

  15. Expression of Ascorbic Acid Oxidase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Shiou; Varner, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity and mRNA level were highest in the epidermis, and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, we have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall loosening. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668145

  16. [Entomophilic pollination of squash, Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Serra, Bruna D V; Campos, Lucio A de O

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the squash entomofauna in the region of Viosa, Minas Gerais state, to study their behavior on flowers and their importance for pollination, verifying the role of each pollinator. The most common species were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Apis mellifera (L.) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier). The visitation behavior of A. mellifera, M. quadrifasciata, and Bombus morio (Swederus) were similar. They visited flowers for nectar collection, positioning themselves vertically between the corolla and the sexual structures of the flowers, with the back directed toward the floral axis, which permitted the removal of pollen from the anthers of flowers with stamens and its deposition on the stigma of flowers with pistils, being considered therefore effective pollinators. Trigona spinipes and T. hyalinata foraged in groups, preventing other species from landing on the flowers which they occupied. Due to their small body size and only infrequent contact with the sexual structures of the flowers, these species are considered occasional pollinators. The number of fruits produced differed between freely visited flowers, those prevented from receiving visits and those visited only a single time by M. quadrifasciata, B. morio, A. mellifera, T. hyalinata or T. spinipes. Flowers prevented from receiving visits or visited only once by T. spinipes did not produce fruits. The remaining pollination systems led to fruitification, with open pollination or a single visit from either M. quadrifasciata or B. morio leading to most fruit production. PMID:20498949

  17. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively. PMID:25300850

  18. Characteristics of whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a recently described ipomovirus, is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, B strain. Understanding the characteristics of transmission is essential for developing management strategies for this virus, which is the causal agent for watermelon vine ...

  19. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, watermelon plants of different ages were inoculated with SqVYV to characterize the physiological response to infection and provide new insights into watermelon vine decline. Physiological responses to...

  20. Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

  1. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This guide is a collection of essays by various authors on tennis, badminton, and squash. The document is divided into three sections, one for each sport. The topics covered include general teaching methods, methods to employ for teaching specific skills such as the lob or the backhand, the use of visual aids, conditioning drills, study questions,

  2. Squash bug: Vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbits, especially watermelon and cantaloupe, are important crops in the South Central region of the U.S. and are affected by a variety of insect and disease complexes. Prominent among these are the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer) and a destructive vine decline, cucurbit yellow vine disease (...

  3. Expression of ascorbic acid oxidase in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. )

    1991-05-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zuchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, the authors have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall loosening.

  4. Covolume solutions of three dimensional div-curl equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.; Wu, X.

    1995-01-01

    Delaunay-Voronoi mesh systems provide a generalization of the classical rectangular staggered meshes to unstructured meshes. It is shown how such 'covolume' discretizations may be applied to div-curl systems in three dimensions. Error estimates are proved and confirmed by a numerical illustration.

  5. A New Curl-Up Test of Abdominal Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Larry

    This study evaluates a new method of administering a trunk-curl test of abdominal muscular endurance and establishes a series of norms for college students and adults. The test utilizes a piece of cardboard that is cut out so that it can be held at the level of the navel of the testee and perpendicular to the floor. The test is administered with

  6. Computation of Surface Integrals of Curl Vector Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chenglie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way of computing a surface integral when the vector field of the integrand is a curl field. Presented in some advanced calculus textbooks such as [1], the technique, as the author experienced, is simple and applicable. The computation is based on Stokes' theorem in 3-space calculus, and thus provides not only a means to

  7. Evolution of perturbations of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: Escape from instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Konoplya, Roman A.; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro; Zhidenko, Alexander

    2008-04-15

    The squashed Kaluza-Klien (KK) black holes differ from the Schwarzschild black holes with asymptotic flatness or the black strings even at energies for which the KK modes are not excited yet, so that squashed KK black holes open a window in higher dimensions. Another important feature is that the squashed KK black holes are apparently stable and, thereby, let us avoid the Gregory-Laflamme instability. In the present paper, the evolution of scalar and gravitational perturbations in time and frequency domains is considered for these squashed KK black holes. The scalar field perturbations are analyzed for general rotating squashed KK black holes. Gravitational perturbations for the so-called zero mode are shown to be decayed for nonrotating black holes, in concordance with the stability of the squashed KK black holes. The correlation of quasinormal frequencies with the size of extra dimension is discussed.

  8. Hawking radiation from squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: A window to extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Hideki; Soda, Jiro

    2007-09-15

    We explore the observability of extra dimensions through five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes residing in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime. With the expectation that the Hawking radiation reflects the five-dimensional nature of the squashed horizon, we study the Hawking radiation of a scalar field in the squashed black hole background. As a result, we show that the luminosity of Hawking radiation tells us the size of the extra dimension, namely, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes open a window to extra dimensions.

  9. Preceramic adoption of peanut, squash, and cotton in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Tom D; Rossen, Jack; Andres, Thomas C; Williams, David E

    2007-06-29

    The early development of agriculture in the New World has been assumed to involve early farming in settlements in the Andes, but the record has been sparse. Peanut (Arachis sp.), squash (Cucurbita moschata), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense) macrofossils were excavated from archaeological sites on the western slopes of the northern Peruvian Andes. Direct radiocarbon dating indicated that these plants grew between 9240 and 5500 (14)C years before the present. These and other plants were recovered from multiple locations in a tropical dry forest valley, including household clusters, permanent architectural structures, garden plots, irrigation canals, hoes, and storage structures. These data provide evidence for early use of peanut and squash in the human diet and of cotton for industrial purposes and indicate that horticultural economies in parts of the Andes took root by about 10,000 years ago. PMID:17600214

  10. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject's hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise. PMID:26957735

  11. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject’s hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise. PMID:26957735

  12. Effect of curl-free potentials on water.

    PubMed

    Andocs, G; Vincze, G Y; Szasz, O; Szendro, P; Szasz, A

    2009-01-01

    Living objects are complex systems with various harmonized chemical, thermodynamical, and quantum-mechanical processes in aqueous electrolyte environment. We had studied the effect of curl-free magnetic vector-potential on the matrix of the living matter, on the water. The discussed theoretical considerations are in harmony with the presented simple experiments. It is shown that the vector-potential is actually an effective electro-dynamical parameter which could modify the processes in living systems. PMID:19811398

  13. Ribbon curling via stress relaxation in thin polymer films.

    PubMed

    Prior, Chris; Moussou, Julien; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Jensen, Oliver E; Juel, Anne

    2016-02-16

    The procedure of curling a ribbon by running it over a sharp blade is commonly used when wrapping presents. Despite its ubiquity, a quantitative explanation of this everyday phenomenon is still lacking. We address this using experiment and theory, examining the dependence of ribbon curvature on blade curvature, the longitudinal load imposed on the ribbon, and the speed of pulling. Experiments in which a ribbon is drawn steadily over a blade under a fixed load show that the ribbon curvature is generated over a restricted range of loads, the curvature/load relationship can be nonmonotonic, and faster pulling (under a constant imposed load) results in less tightly curled ribbons. We develop a theoretical model that captures these features, building on the concept that the ribbon under the imposed deformation undergoes differential plastic stretching across its thickness, resulting in a permanently curved shape. The model identifies factors that optimize curling and clarifies the physical mechanisms underlying the ribbon's nonlinear response to an apparently simple deformation. PMID:26831118

  14. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli.

  15. Hydro-responsive curling of the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  16. Curling and rolling dynamics of naturally curved ribbons.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Octavio Albarrán; Massiera, Gladys; Abkarian, Manouk

    2014-05-01

    When a straight rod is bent and suddenly released on one end, a burst of dispersive flexural waves propagates down the material as predicted by linear beam theories. However, we show that for ribbons with a longitudinal natural radius of curvature a0, geometrical constraints lead to strain localization which controls the dynamics. This localized region of deformation selects a specific curling deformation front which travels down the ribbon when initially flattened and released. Performing experiments on different ribbons, in air and in water, we show that initially, on length scales on the order of a0, the curling front moves as a power law of time with an exponent ranging from 0.5 to 2 for increasing values of the ribbons' width. At longer time scales, the material wraps itself at a constant speed Vr into a roll of radius R ≠ a0. The relationship between Vr and R is calculated by a balance between kinetic, elastic and gravitational energy and both internal and external powers dissipated. When gravity and drag are negligible, we observe that a0/R reaches a limiting value of 0.48 that we predict by solving the Elastica on the curled ribbon considering the centrifugal forces due to rotation. The solution we propose represents a solitary traveling curvature wave which is reminiscent to propagating instabilities in mechanics. PMID:24695463

  17. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brul, Vronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  18. Development of Mass Rearing Methods, and Novel Methods For Control of the Squash Bug, Anasa Tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), a major pest of squash, pumpkin, watermelon, cucumber and cantaloupe, uses piercing-sucking mouthparts to imbibe plant fluids. The severity of plant damage resulting from squash bug feeding causes extensive damage to stems resulting in wilting, fruit discolo...

  19. 75 FR 6346 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal... male summer squash flowers from Israel into the continental United States. Based on that analysis, we... request from the Government of Israel to allow the importation of fresh male summer squash...

  20. Local and Systemic Changes in Squash Gene Expression in Response to Silverleaf Whitefly Feeding

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Wilhelmina T. G.; LeVesque, Cynthia S.; Perring, Thomas M.; Walling, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Squash genes (SLW1 and SLW3) induced systemically after silverleaf whitefly feeding were identified. Differences in the local and systemic expression of SLW1 and SLW3 after feeding by the closely related silverleaf and sweetpotato whiteflies were observed. Temporal and spatial studies showed that SLW1 and SLW3 were induced when second, third, and fourth nymphal instars were feeding. Although only barely detected after wounding and bacterial infection, SLW1 and SLW3 RNAs were abundant during water-deficit stress. Treatments with wound/defense signal molecules showed that SLW1 RNAs accumulated in response to methyl jasmonate and ethylene, whereas SLW3 was not regulated by known wound/defense signals, suggesting utilization of a novel mechanism for defense signal transduction. SLW1 RNAs accumulated during floral and fruit development, whereas SLW3 RNAs were not detected during vegetative or reproductive development. The potential roles of SLW1, an M20b peptidaselike protein, and SLW3, a ?-glucosidaselike protein, in defense and the leaf-silvering disorder are discussed. PMID:10948259

  1. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE and Scythe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in squash production, any uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reducti...

  2. Plastic Mulches and Row Covers on the grow and production of Summer Squash.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer squash [Cucurbita pepo (L) ‘Prelude II’] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in Shorter, AL. The summer squash was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (...

  3. Overwintering squash bugs harbor and transmit the causal agent of cucurbit yellow vine disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1988, cucurbit crops, particularly watermelon, cantaloupe, and squash, grown in Oklahoma and Texas have experienced devastating losses from cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD), caused by the phloem-limited bacterium, Serratia marcescens. Squash bug [Anasa tristis (DeGeer)] is a putative vecto...

  4. Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of squash mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) infecting squash plants in Spain was obtained using deep sequencing of small ribonucleic acids and assembly. The low nucleotide sequence identities, with 87-88% on RNA1 and 84-86% on RNA2 to known SqMV isolates, suggest a new...

  5. Curl-meter of Electrical Fields In The Ground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, S. M.; Maibuk, Z.-Ju. Ja.; Nikiforova, N. N.

    A special instrument U curl-meter was designed and manufactured in the Institute of Physics of the Earth of RAS for measuring of variable electric fields during alternation of stressedly-deformed state in rock mass. The instrument consist the four-electrode unit and a circuit of analogue signal processing for separation of E U circulations or according to the StokesSs theorem, Curl E in absence of indirect sources. Four electrodes are laied out in rocks on angles of square and they are affixed by ring-type circuit to uninverting inputs of precision operational amplifiers. First input is connected to electrode N1, the second one is connected to N2 and so on. The independent inputs are grounded to a arbitrary point (the fifth electrode is SzeroT). The transmission factors of the circuit are set by resistors accurate to within 0.25 %. First and third, and also second and fourth outputs of the amplifiers are connected to the grad EX and grad EY calculation circuit (deduction circuits). So, if the vector components have different signs of both two EX values and two values EY, the gradient calculation circuit generates signal extremums. If in this case the signs inside pairs are identical , that means that the signal not- ring-type and it is absent on output (difference of the equal values with equal signs). The signals from outputs of the gradient calculations act into adding device for calculation of Curl E (circulation). Curl-meter differs by high security from clutters and from cues on any of inputs rather of "zero point" (ground) reacting only on a ring-type current, thus it is essential (on the order) the noise level and drift of operational amplifiers is moderated. Curl-meter works in a complex of measuring devices on Obninsk seismological polygon for study of behavior of superlow frequency of tectonic genesis electromagnetic emission. Through four inputs (electrode spacing 7x7 2, resistance between welding rods 0.8 - 1.1 kOm), manufactured from fine- dyspersated of a graphitic dust with connecting on the basis of paraffine confidently registers signals by 0.2 microvolts amplitude in a frequency range 0.05 - 20 Hz on a background of considerable clutters of an industrial genesis. Technique in operation in geophysical observations the three-electrode installations were not applied in these studies because of a low industrial noise immunity and low sensitivity (5 microvolts). 1 This work was carried out by finance support RFFR Grant N 01-05-64153 2

  6. Ingot butt curl control of aluminum ingots through the use of shim material

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteleather, B.S.

    1996-10-01

    Ravenswood Aluminum Corporation (RAC) has experienced a reduction in butt curl by as much as three inches through the use of shim tape. A factor that affects butt curl is how the shim material is applied. For example, the amount of butt curl is significantly less if shim tape is applied to all four faces of the molds as compared to only two faces of the mold. This paper will compare the amount of butt curl versus (1) different types of shim material and (2) application (four faces versus two faces) of the shim material.

  7. Rnyi squashed entanglement, discord, and relative entropy differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-10-01

    The squashed entanglement quantifies the amount of entanglement in a bipartite quantum state, and it satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. The quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlations that are different from those due to entanglement. What these two measures have in common is that they are both based upon the conditional quantum mutual information. In Berta et al (2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022205), we recently proposed Rnyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information of a tripartite state on ABC (with C being the conditioning system), which were shown to satisfy some properties that hold for the original quantity, such as non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on the system B (with it being left open to show that the Rnyi quantity is monotone with respect to local operations on system A). Here we define a Rnyi squashed entanglement and a Rnyi quantum discord based on a Rnyi conditional quantum mutual information and investigate these quantities in detail. Taking as a conjecture that the Rnyi conditional quantum mutual information is monotone with respect to local operations on both systems A and B, we prove that the Rnyi squashed entanglement and the Rnyi quantum discord satisfy many of the properties of the respective original von Neumann entropy based quantities. In our prior work (Berta et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 91 022333), we also detailed a procedure to obtain Rnyi generalizations of any quantum information measure that is equal to a linear combination of von Neumann entropies with coefficients chosen from the set \\{-1,0,1\\}. Here, we extend this procedure to include differences of relative entropies. Using the extended procedure and a conjectured monotonicity of the Rnyi generalizations in the Rnyi parameter, we discuss potential remainder terms for well known inequalities such as monotonicity of the relative entropy, joint convexity of the relative entropy, and the Holevo bound.

  8. New magnetized squashed black holesthermodynamics and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedkova, Petya G.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2013-04-01

    We construct a new exact solution in the 5D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity describing a magnetized squashed black hole. We calculate its physical characteristics, and derive the Smarr-like relations. The Hawking radiation of the solution is also investigated by calculating the graybody factor for the emission of massless scalar particles in the low-energy regime. In distinction to the case of asymptotically flat magnetized black holes, the thermodynamical characteristics and the Hawking radiation of the solution depend on the external magnetic field, and consequently can be tuned by its variation.

  9. Effect of the shoulder position on the biceps brachii emg in different dumbbell curls

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Liliam F.; Matta, Thiago T.; Alves, Daniel S.; Garcia, Marco A.C.; Vieira, Taian M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Incline Dumbbell Curl (IDC) and Dumbbell Preacher Curl (DPC) are two variations of the standard Dumbbell Biceps Curl (DBC), generally applied to optimize biceps brachii contribution for elbow flexion by fixing shoulder at a specific angle. The aim of this study is to identify changes in the neuromuscular activity of biceps brachii long head for IDC, DPC and DBC exercises, by taking into account the changes in load moment arm and muscle length elicited by each dumbbell curl protocol. A single cycle (concentric-eccentric) of DBC, IDC and DPC, was applied to 22 subjects using a submaximal load of 40% estimated from an isometric MVC test. The neuromuscular activity of biceps brachii long head was compared by further partitioning each contraction into three phases, according to individual elbow joint range of motion. Although all protocols elicited a considerable level of activation of the biceps brachii muscle (at least 50% of maximum RMS), the contribution of this muscle for elbow flexion/extension varied among exercises. The submaximal elbow flexion (concentric) elicited neuro muscular activity up to 95% of the maximum RMS value during the final phase of IDC and DBC and 80% for DPC at the beginning of the movement. All exercises showed significant less muscle activity for the elbow extension (eccentric). The Incline Dumbbell Curl and the classical Dumbbell Biceps Curl resulted in similar patterns of biceps brachii activation for the whole range of motion, whereas Dumbbell Preacher Curl elicited high muscle activation only for a short range of elbow joint angle. Key pointsThe Incline Dumbbell Curl and the Dumbbell Biceps Curl resulted in a considerable neuromuscular effort throughout the whole elbow range of motion.The Incline Dumbbell Curl and the Dumbbell Biceps Curl may be preferable for the improvement of biceps brachii force in training programs. PMID:24150552

  10. Physiological profiles and sport specific fitness of Asian elite squash players.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, M K; Steininger, K; So, R C; Clark, C R; Wong, A S

    1995-01-01

    There is a scarcity of descriptive data on the physiological characteristics of elite Asian squash players. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological profile and sports specific fitness of Hong Kong elite squash players. It was conducted before the selection of the Hong Kong national squash team for the 1992 Asian Squash Championship. Ten elite squash players were selected as subjects for the study. Maximum oxygen uptake was measured using a continuous treadmill running test. A sports specific field test was performed in a squash court. The following means (s.d.) were observed: height 172.6(4.3) cm; weight 67.7(6.9) kg; body fat 7.4(3.4)%; forced vital capacity (FVC) 5.13(0.26) litres; maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) 61.7(3.4) ml.kg-1.min-1; anaerobic threshold (AT) 80.2(3.3)% of VO2max; alactic power index 15.5(1.8) W.kg-1; lactic work index 323.5(29.4) J.kg-1, peak isokinetic dominant knee extensor and flexor strengths 3.11(0.29) Nm.kg-1 and 1.87(0.18) Nm.kg-1. The results show that the Hong Kong squash players have relatively high cardiorespiratory sports specific fitness and muscle strength which may be one of the key factors that contributed to the success of the Hong Kong team in the Asian Championship. PMID:8800847

  11. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  12. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: Diagnosis on squash smears.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Syed Besina; Mustafa, Farhat; Rafiq, Danish; Makhdoomi, Rumana; Chanda, Nassima

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for approximately 5-10% of soft tissue sarcomas. They occur predominantly in the extremities, followed by head and neck. Primary pulmonary sarcomas are very rare and comprise only 0.5% of all primary lung malignancies. The diagnosis is established only after sarcomas like primary lung malignancies, and metastatic sarcomas have been excluded. For synovial sarcomas that arise at unusual locations, a definitive diagnosis is challenging and requires the use of ancillary diagnostic procedures such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular genetic techniques for confirmation of diagnosis. We report a case of 29-year-old male who had right lower lobe lung mass. He underwent right lower lobectomy. Intraoperative squash smears revealed spindle cell sarcoma. Subsequent histopathology and IHC confirmed the diagnosis as synovial sarcoma. We report this case on account of its rarity and to emphasize the utility of intraoperative squash smears in the diagnosis of such cases, which has been under-utilized in clinical practice. PMID:25948950

  13. Finite length and solvent analysis effects on the squash mode of single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Frin, C.; Quirke, N.; Zerulla, D.

    2013-10-01

    Nanotube diameters (d) are usually characterized using the radial breathing mode d-1; the squash mode frequency (f) however is predicted to vary as d-2. We demonstrate using the MM+ forcefield that for lengths <9 nm the symmetric squash mode (SSM) and asymmetric squash mode (ASM) ((10,0) SWNT (single wall carbon nanotubes)) are non-degenerate with ?f ? 55 cm-1. In solution, the SWNT-water interaction upshifts the ASM by 20 cm-1 and the SSM by 10 cm-1. Such asymmetries could be used to simultaneously characterize the length and diameter of short nanotubes for applications including nanoresonators and biomedical probes.

  14. Out with the Sit-Up, in with the Curl-Up!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    Explains why physical education teachers should discourage full sit-ups and describes the Robertson Modified Curl-Up Test as a recommended alternative test of abdominal muscular strength. Curl-up test administration guidelines are included with some preliminary norms from adult groups. (SM)

  15. Edge curling that has plagued scrolls for millenniums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ming-Han; Shen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hung, Sun-Hsin; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Department of Registration and Conservation, National Palace Museum Collaboration; Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University Team

    2014-03-01

    Qi-Wa refers to the up curl on the lengths of handscrolls and hanging scrolls, which has troubled Chinese artisans and emperors for as long as the art of painting and calligraphy exists. This warp is unwelcome not only for aesthetic reasons, but its potential damage to the fiber and ink. Although it is generally treated as a part of the cockling and curling due to moisture, consistency of paste, and defects from the mounting procedures, we demonstrate that the spontaneous extrinsic curvature incurred from the storage is in fact more essential to understanding and curing Qi-Wa. In contrast to the former factors whose effects are less predictable, the plastic deformation and strain distribution on a membrane are a well-defined mechanical problem. We study this phenomenon by experiments, theoretical models, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation, and obtain consistent scaling relations for the Qi-Wa height. This knowledge enables us to propose modifications on the traditional mounting techniques, that are tested on real mounted paper to be effective at mitigating Qi-Wa. By experimenting on polymer-based films, we demonstrate possible relevance of our study to the modern development of flexible electronic paper.

  16. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, Mara R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernndez, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramrez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ?1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ?580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  17. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ruth M.; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R.; Gilbertson, Robert L.; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  18. First report of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus infecting Panax Notoginseng in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Panax notoginseng, an important medicinal herb commonly known as notoginseng, san qi or tian qi, is a species of the genus Panax in the family Araliaceae. The herb is mainly cultivated in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces of southern China for its root, which is used to treat blood disorders such as bloo...

  19. Typing of tomato yellow leaf curl viruses and their vector in Italy.

    PubMed

    Parrella, G; Scassillo, L; Crescenzi, A; Nappo, A G

    2006-01-01

    A molecular survey of TYLCV/TYLCSV and their associated vector Bemisia tabaci, was performed during 2004-2005 in five regions of Southern Italy: i.e. Sardinia (one locations), Sicily (one location), Calabria (three locations), Campania (two locations) and Basilicata (one location). A total of 71 tomato samples were checked for virus infection and for the presence of the vector. Degenerate primers allowing the amplification of the coat protein gene of both TYLCSV and TYLCV isolates were designed. PCR fragments were then digested with restriction endonuclease Ava II, which was expected to cut TYLCSV differently from TYLCV. Results clearly suggested that in all the inspected Italian regions the two viruses are widespread and present in single plant both alone and in mixed infections. The identity of the two viruses was confirmed by total or partial sequencing of field isolates. Concerning the populations of the B. tabaci associated with TYLCD epidemics, the molecular characterization of COI gene (citocrome oxidase I) indicated that Q biotype was the most prevalent biotype. This fact might be the result of the large use of some insecticides against which Q biotype populations easily develop resistances, as already confirmed in some countries of Mediterranean basin. PMID:17390884

  20. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine

  1. Anticarcinogenicity potential of spinasterol isolated from squash flowers.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, I M; Domingo, A P

    2000-01-01

    Spinasterol, an antimutagen, was isolated from squash flowers by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. Spinasterol was then tested for its anticarcinogenic potential by using the mouse skin tumor assay. There was a 90% skin tumor incidence for the positive control group (DMBA + croton oil + acetone). At a concentration of 15.0 microg/0.2 ml acetone, spinasterol decreased the incidence of skin tumors by 55.6% and decreased the number of tumors by 65.0% when applied immediately after croton oil. Hence, spinasterol showed antitumorigenic potential. It is not a co-carcinogen nor a co-tumor promoter as there was no increase in the incidence of skin tumors after spinasterol application. Teratogenesis Carcinog. Mutagen. 20:99-105, 2000. PMID:10820420

  2. Type IIB supergravity on squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; Dall'Agata, Gianguido; Faedo, Anton F.

    2010-05-01

    We provide a consistent mathcal{N} = 4 Kaluza-Klein truncation of type IIB supergravity on general 5-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifolds. Our reduction ansatz keeps all and only the supergravity modes dual to the universal gauge sector of the associated conformal theories, via the gauge/gravity correspondence. The reduced 5-dimensional model displays remarkable features: it includes both zero-modes as well as massive iterations of the Kaluza-Klein operators on the internal manifold; it contains tensor fields dual to vectors charged under a non-abelian gauge group; it has a scalar potential with a non-supersymmetric AdS vacuum in addition to the supersymmetric one.

  3. Fidelity of recovery, squashed entanglement, and measurement recoverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper defines the fidelity of recovery of a tripartite quantum state on systems A ,B , and C as a measure of how well one can recover the full state on all three systems if system A is lost and a recovery operation is performed on system C alone. The surprisal of the fidelity of recovery (its negative logarithm) is an information quantity which obeys nearly all of the properties of the conditional quantum mutual information I (A ;B |C ) , including non-negativity, monotonicity with respect to local operations, duality, invariance with respect to local isometries, a dimension bound, and continuity. We then define a (pseudo) entanglement measure based on this quantity, which we call the "geometric squashed entanglement." We prove that the geometric squashed entanglement is a 1-LOCC monotone (i.e., monotone nonincreasing with respect to local operations and classical communication from Bob to Alice), that it vanishes if and only if the state on which it is evaluated is unentangled, and that it reduces to the geometric measure of entanglement if the state is pure. We also show that it is invariant with respect to local isometries, subadditive, continuous, and normalized on maximally entangled states. We next define the surprisal of measurement recoverability, which is an information quantity in the spirit of quantum discord, characterizing how well one can recover a share of a bipartite state if it is measured. We prove that this discordlike quantity satisfies several properties, including non-negativity, faithfulness on classical-quantum states, invariance with respect to local isometries, a dimension bound, and normalization on maximally entangled states. This quantity, combined with a recent breakthrough of Fawzi and Renner, makes it possible to characterize states with discord nearly equal to zero as being approximate fixed points of entanglement-breaking channels (equivalently, they are recoverable from the state of a measuring apparatus). Finally, we discuss a multipartite fidelity of recovery and several of its properties.

  4. Exceptionally High Levels of Genetic Diversity in Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Populations from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Szyd?o, W; Hein, G; Denizhan, E; Skoracka, A

    2015-08-01

    Recent research on the wheat curl mite species complex has revealed extensive genetic diversity that has distinguished several genetic lineages infesting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereals worldwide. Turkey is the historical region of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) domestication and diversification. The close relationship between these grasses and the wheat curl mite provoked the question of the genetic diversity of the wheat curl mite in this region. The scope of the study was to investigate genetic differentiation within the wheat curl mite species complex on grasses in Turkey. Twenty-one wheat curl mite populations from 16 grass species from nine genera (Agropyron sp., Aegilops sp., Bromus sp., Elymus sp., Eremopyrum sp., Hordeum sp., Poa sp., Secale sp., and Triticum sp.) were sampled in eastern and southeastern Turkey for genetic analyses. Two molecular markers were amplified: the cytochrome oxidase subunit I coding region of mtDNA (COI) and the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high genetic variation of the wheat curl mite in Turkey, primarily on Bromus and Hordeum spp., and exceptionally high diversity of populations associated with bread wheat. Three wheat-infesting wheat curl mite lineages known to occur on other continents of the world, including North and South America, Australia and Europe, were found in Turkey, and at least two new genetic lineages were discovered. These regions of Turkey exhibit rich wheat curl mite diversity on native grass species. The possible implications for further studies on the wheat curl mite are discussed. PMID:26470350

  5. Scales of North Atlantic wind stress curl determined from the comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, Laura L.; O'Brien, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen years of wind data over the North Atlantic are used to calculate a field of wind stress curl. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is performed on this field, resulting in spatial patterns of wind stress curl and associated time series. A Monte Carlo technique is used to establish the statistical significance of each spatial pattern, and the associated time series are spectrally analyzed. The first four statistically significant EOF modes represent more than 50 percent of the curl variance, and the spatial patterns of curl associated with these modes exhibit the major elements of North Atlantic climatology. Most of the time series spectral variance is contained in annual and semiannual frequencies. The features observed include the individual annual variation of the subtropical high and the subpolar low, the annual oscillation of intensity between pressure centers, the influence of localized strong SST gradients and associated cyclogenesis regions, and the constant nature of the trades.

  6. Curling dynamics of naturally curved ribbons from high to low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarran Arriagada, Octavio; Massiera, Gladys; Abkarian, Manouk

    2012-11-01

    Curling deformation of thin elastic sheets appears in numerous structures in nature, such as membranes of red blood cells, epithelial tissues or green algae colonies to cite just a few examples. However, despite its ubiquity, the dynamics of curling propagation in a naturally curved material remains still poorly investigated. Here, we present a coupled experimental and theoretical study of the dynamical curling deformation of naturally curved ribbons. Using thermoplastic and metallic ribbons molded on cylinders of different radii, we tune separately the natural curvature and the geometry to study curling dynamics in air, water and in viscous oils, thus spanning a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Our theoretical and experimental approaches separate the role of elasticity, gravity and hydrodynamic dissipation from inertia and emphasize the fundamental differences between the curling of a naturally curved ribbon and a rod described by the classical Elastica. Our work shows evidence for the propagation of a single instability front, selected by a local buckling condition. We show that depending on gravity, and both the Reynolds and the Cauchy numbers, the curling speed and shape are modified by the large scale drag and the local lubrication forces. This work was supported by the French Ministry of Research, the CNRS Physics-Chemistry-Biology Interdisciplinary Pro- gram, the University Montpellier 2 Interdisciplinary Program and the Region Languedoc-Roussillon.

  7. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of squash venue operators relating to use of protective eyewear.

    PubMed

    Eime, Rochelle; Finch, Caroline; Owen, Neville; Gifford, Sandra; Vear, Paul

    2004-03-01

    Sports venues are in a position to potentially influence the safety practices of their patrons. This study examined the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of venue operators that could influence the use of protective eyewear by squash players. A 50% random sample of all private and public squash venues affiliated with the Victorian Squash Federation in metropolitan Melbourne was selected. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 squash venue operators during August 2001. Interviews were transcribed and content and thematic analyses were performed. The content of the interviews covered five topics: (1) overall injury risk perception, (2) eye injury occurrence, (3) knowledge, behaviors, attitudes and beliefs associated with protective eyewear, (4) compulsory protective eyewear and (5) availability of protective eyewear at venues. Venue operators were mainly concerned with the severe nature of eye injuries, rather than the relatively low incidence of these injuries. Some venue operators believed that players should wear any eyewear, rather than none at all, and believed that more players should use protective eyewear. Generally, they did not believe that players with higher levels of experience and expertise needed to wear protective eyewear when playing. Only six venues had at least one type of eyewear available for players to hire or borrow or to purchase. Operators expressed a desire to be informed about correct protective eyewear. Appropriate protective eyewear is not readily available at squash venues. Better-informed venue operators may be more likely to provide suitable protective eyewear. PMID:14977505

  8. Improvised Rhododendron squash: processing effects on antioxidant composition and organoleptic attributes.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Hare; Attri, Brij Lal; Kumar, Akhilesh

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to develop an improvised method for the preparation of Rhododendron squash, which otherwise had a narrow consumer's acceptability, despite being rich in antioxidants due to faulty preparation procedure and to compare the superiority of the new method over existing preparation method by examining various antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity. For the preparation of squashes in the present investigation, Rhododendron petals were heated with water at 80 °C for 20 min and left for 3-hour (or 180 min) followed by filtration and addition of sugar with or without ginger juice. Leaving Rhododendron petals with water for 3-hour at room temperature following heating facilitated maximum recovery of anthocyanin in water. Rhododendron squashes, prepared through improvised method, were compared with a Rhododendron squash collected from the market (control) for their physico-chemical characteristics, antioxidants and sensory quality attributes. The improvised Rhododendron squashes registered higher values for most of the parameters than the control. PMID:26396338

  9. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  10. Purification and serological analyses of tospoviral nucleocapsid proteins expressed by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Jain, Rekesh K; Huang, Ching-Wen; Lin, Chen-Hsuan; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2005-11-01

    A plant viral vector engineered from an in vivo infectious clone of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was used to express the nucleocapsid proteins (NPs) of tospoviruses in planta. The open reading frames (ORFs) of NPs of different serogroups of tospoviruses, including Tomato spotted wilt virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus, Watermelon silver mottle virus, Peanut bud necrosis virus, and Watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV), were in frame inserted in between the P1 and HC-Pro genes of the ZYMV vector. Six histidine residues and an NIa protease cleavage site were added at the C-terminal region of the inserts to facilitate purification and process of free form of the expressed NPs, respectively. Approximately 1.2-2.5 mg/NPs 100 g tissues were purified from leaf extracts of zucchini squash. The expressed WBNV NP was used as an immunogen for the production of highly specific polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies. The procedure provides a convenient and fast way for production of large quantities of pure NPs of tospoviruses in planta. The system also has a potential for production of any proteins of interest in cucurbits. PMID:15992936

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR 319.56-48.” (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes...

  17. Wilson loops and chiral correlators on squashed spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucito, F.; Morales, J. F.; Poghossian, R.

    2015-11-01

    We study chiral deformations of N=2 and N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories obtained by turning on τ J tr Φ J interactions with Φ the N=2 superfield. Using localization, we compute the deformed gauge theory partition function Z(overrightarrow{τ}|q) and the expectation value of circular Wilson loops W on a squashed four-sphere. In the case of the deformed {N}=4 theory, exact formulas for Z and W are derived in terms of an underlying U( N) interacting matrix model replacing the free Gaussian model describing the {N}=4 theory. Using the AGT correspondence, the τ J -deformations are related to the insertions of commuting integrals of motion in the four-point CFT correlator and chiral correlators are expressed as τ-derivatives of the gauge theory partition function on a finite Ω-background. In the so called Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, the entire ring of chiral relations is extracted from the ɛ-deformed Seiberg-Witten curve. As a byproduct of our analysis we show that SU(2) gauge theories on rational Ω-backgrounds are dual to CFT minimal models.

  18. The O(N) model on a squashed S3 and the Klebanov-Polyakov correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Kumar, S. Prem

    2005-06-01

    We solve the O(N) vector model at large N on a squashed three-sphere with a conformal mass term. Using the Klebanov-Polyakov version of the AdS4/CFT3 correspondence we match various aspects of the strongly coupled theory with the physics of the bulk AdS Taub-NUT and AdS Taub-Bolt geometries. Remarkably, we find that the field theory reproduces the behaviour of the bulk free energy as a function of the squashing parameter. The O(N) model is realised in a symmetric phase for all finite values of the coupling and squashing parameter, including when the boundary scalar curvature is negative.

  19. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  20. [How dangerous is squash? Results of an investigation on injury risk (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Keyl, W; Pfrringer, W; Gast, W

    1980-07-11

    Injury risk for squash lies above the international average of total sport injuries. According to a nation-wide assessment, 7 accidents occur yearly in 100 squash-players. Only half of these injuries, however, require treatment. A temporary sports- and work incapacity results relatively frequently. With the exception of eye injuries, the rate of severe injuries leading to permanent damage is low. If appropriate preventive measures are taken, particularly with respect to eye injuries, squashplaying does not entail significantly higher dangers than other racket-games. PMID:6775201

  1. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ?2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  2. Strong gravitational lensing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Banijamali, A.; Vaez, H.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the strong gravitational lensing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole. We suppose that the supermassive black hole in the galaxy center can be considered by a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole and then we study the strong gravitational lensing theory and estimate the numerical values for parameters and observables of it. We explore the effects of the scale of extra dimension ? 0 and the charge of black hole ? q on these parameters and observables.

  3. Strong gravitational lensing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gdel black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Naji, J.; Vaez, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the strong gravitational lansing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gdel black hole. The deflection angle is considered by the logarithmic term proposed by Bozza et al. Then we study the variation of deflection angle and its parameters abar and bbar. We suppose that the supermassive black hole in the galaxy center can be considered by a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole in a Gdel background. Then by the relations between lensing parameters and observables, we estimate the observables for different values of charge, extra dimension and Gdel parameters.

  4. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  5. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  6. Squash vein yellowing virus infection of vining cucurbits and the vine decline response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, the responses of a diverse group of vining cucurbits to SqVYV inoculation was determined. The majority of cucurbits tested had either no symptoms of infection, or developed relatively mild symptoms. ...

  7. Responses of various vining cucurbits to Squash vein yellowing virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) induced watermelon vine decline is a major limitation to watermelon production in Florida. The symptoms of this disease are a systemic wilt and necrosis which spreads along the vines of plants and leads to complete collapse. Fruit on affected vines also often sh...

  8. Using trap crops for control of Acalymma vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reduces insecticide use in butternut squash.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, A; Hazzard, R; Adler, L S; Boucher, J

    2009-06-01

    Striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F., is the primary insect pest of cucurbit crops in the northeastern United States. Adult beetles colonize squash crops from field borders, causing feeding damage at the seedling stage and transmitting bacterial wilt Erwinia tracheiphila Hauben et al. 1999. Conventional control methods rely on insecticide applications to the entire field, but surrounding main crops with a more attractive perimeter could reduce reliance on insecticides. A. cittatum shows a marked preference for Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) over butternut squash (C. moschata Poir). Given this preference, Blue Hubbard squash has the potential to be an effective perimeter trap crop. We evaluated this system in commercial butternut fields in 2003 and 2004, comparing fields using perimeter trap cropping with Blue Hubbard to conventionally managed fields. In 2003, we used a foliar insecticide to control beetles in the trap crop borders, and in 2004, we compared systemic and foliar insecticide treatments for the trap crop borders. We found that using a trap crop system reduced or eliminated the need to spray the main crop area, reducing insecticide use by up to 94% compared with conventional control methods, with no increase in herbivory or beetle numbers. We surveyed the growers who participated in these experiments and found a high level of satisfaction with the effectiveness and simplicity of the system. These results suggest that this method of pest control is both effective and simple enough in its implementation to have high potential for adoption among growers. PMID:19610425

  9. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide with Official Rules. June 1972 - June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Martha, Ed.; And Others

    Rules in tennis, badminton, and squash for girls and women from June 1972 - June 1974 are discussed. Standards in the sports are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teaching techniques, officiating techniques, and rules for tennis and badminton are presented.

  10. Development of ELISA and qPCR for Squash vein yellowing virus detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a new and emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. First identified in 2005, SqVYV is widely distributed in southwest and west-central Florida and has recently been found in...

  11. Weed control in yellow squash using sequential postdirected applications of pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers would benefit from appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of a naturally derived herbicide on weed control ef...

  12. Detection of yellow vine disease in squash and pumpkin in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two commercial plots of summer squash in Charlemont, Franklin County, MA were devastated in 1999 by 100% incidence of a yellowing disease resembling cucurbit yellow vine. Both plots were established during the third week of May, one with transplants and the second by direct-seeding. The plots consis...

  13. First genome analysis and molecular characterization of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus Egyptian isolate infecting squash.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Inas Farouk; Taha, Omnia; El-Ashry, Abdel Nasser

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identifying and characterizing some molecular properties of geminiviruses co-infection in squash field crop cultivated in Egypt. Squash crops observed to be heavily infected with several insect vectors, also severe chlorosis and stunting was observed. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed geminate capsid particles which indicate the infection of Geminiviruses, especially SqLCV which represent an economic problem to squash filed crop in Egypt. We have investigated possible mixed infections with different plant viruses associated with chlorotic stunt diseases and or other genus groups of geminiviruses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the recombination events, possible recombinants and variants among these genera in the same family differing in vector transmission. This is the first report of the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and putative recombination events of the full length genome of the Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Mastrevirus in Egypt. And the first report of co-infection with another begomovirus infecting squash plants. A full length clone of both viruses were isolated and characterized at the molecular level. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined (2,572bp) and submitted to the genbank under accession no. KF692356. The isolate from Egypt has about 97.8% homology with the Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) isolate from Syria DNA-A isolate FR687959, a 83.2% homology with the Sudan isolate AM933134 and a 82.7% homology with Pakistan isolate FR687960. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CpCDV that infect squash plants in Egypt and worldwide. PMID:26436119

  14. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Barbado, David; Elvira, Jose Luis L.; Moreno, Francisco J.; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD) and range (RG) of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML) were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent ? of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises. PMID:26240646

  15. Identification of the Wheat Curl Mite as the Vector of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus found infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) and the bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. ) could transmit TriMV. Using diffe...

  16. Global spread of wheat curl mite by the most polyphagous and pestiferous lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella, is an important pest of wheat and other cereal crops that transmits wheat streak mosaic virus and several other plant viruses. WCM has long been considered a single polyphagous species, but recent studies in Poland revealed a complex of genetically disti...

  17. Differential transmission of Triticum mosaic virus by wheat curl mite populations collected in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is an important food grain worldwide, and the primary dryland crop in the western Great Plains. A complex of three wheat curl mite (WCM)-transmitted viruses [Wheat streak mosaic, High plains, and Triticum mosaic viruses (TriMV)] is a cause of serious loss in winter wheat production in the Grea...

  18. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  19. Protective eyewear promotion: applying principles of behaviour change in the design of a squash injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Eime, Rochelle; Owen, Neville; Finch, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Eye injuries in squash have the potential to be severe. Although these injuries can be prevented through the use of protective eyewear, few players wear such eyewear. The aim of this paper is to outline the behavioural principles guiding the design of a squash eyewear promotion initiative, the Protective Eyewear Promotion (PEP). Ecological principles of behaviour change were used to provide a comprehensive perspective on intrapersonal factors, policies and physical environmental influences of protective eyewear use. Results of baseline player surveys and venue manager interviews were used to provide relevant and specific intervention content. At baseline, protective eyewear was not found to be readily available, and players' behaviours, knowledge and attitudes did not favour its use. The main components of PEP involved informing and educating both players and squash venue operators of the risk of eye injury and of appropriate protective eyewear, as well as assisting with the availability of the eyewear and offering incentives for players to use it. A structural strength of PEP was the strong collaborative links with the researchers of different disciplines, the squash governing body, eyewear manufacturers, squash venue personnel, as well as players. Attempts were made within the project structure to make provision for the future dissemination and sustainability of more widespread eye injury prevention measures in the sport of squash. PMID:15335240

  20. CURL: A Searchable CUrricular Resources Library of Earth and Environmental Science Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, S.; O'Connell, S.; Klassen, T.; Roy, M.; Glynn, M.

    2001-05-01

    A searchable web-based Curricular Resources Library (CURL) has been developed by earth and environmental science faculty from four New England schools (Dartmouth College, Connecticut College, Trinity College, and Wesleyan University) in conjunction with Wesleyan's Information Technology Services (ITS) and librarians. The site (http://www.wesleyan.edu/curl/) provides access to pre-selected earth and environmental science material. CURL sites are identified by faculty who provide information about the site in the following nine fields: Annotation (description), Discipline, Keywords, Origin of Site, Reason for Submission, Submitted By, URL, URL Title, URL Type. Subject Headings conform to those developed by the Library of Congress. These are determined by the Wesleyan University science librarian who enters them into the database. The Curl database can be searched three ways: 1) Browsing alphabetically by Subject Heading (e.g. remote sensing but not satellite pictures), 2) Keyword search which will look for an exact match of a term in any of the designated fields (e.g. URL type, origin of site, discipline), and 3) Advanced search, which allows you to combine terms from any of ten different fields in a single search. Results are displayed in alphabetical order and include the URL title, the URL, and a brief annotation that describes the website. There is an active link to the URL. A web link checker accesses sites to identify broken links. After several unsuccessful attempts, the submitter is contacted and asked to update or delete the site. Between 200 and 250 earth and environmental sites are presently catalogued through CURL. This format could be used by any academic discipline and future plans allow for web resources to span collections.

  1. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Koch, R.L.; Burkness, E.C.; Hutchison, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated. PMID:15861221

  2. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Koch, R L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated. PMID:15861221

  3. A deformation of quantum affine algebra in squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaguchi, Io; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-06-01

    We proceed to study infinite-dimensional symmetries in two-dimensional squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models at the classical level. The target space is given by squashed S³ and the isometry is SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub R}. It is known that SU(2){sub L} is enhanced to a couple of Yangians. We reveal here that an infinite-dimensional extension of U(1){sub R} is a deformation of quantum affine algebra, where a new deformation parameter is provided with the coefficient of the Wess-Zumino term. Then we consider the relation between the deformed quantum affine algebra and the pair of Yangians from the viewpoint of the left-right duality of monodromy matrices. The integrable structure is also discussed by computing the r/s-matrices that satisfy the extended classical Yang-Baxter equation. Finally, two degenerate limits are discussed.

  4. A new method for assessing squash tactics using 15 court areas for ball locations.

    PubMed

    Vu?kovi?, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Milanovi?, Zoran; Per, Janez; Spori, Goran

    2014-04-01

    Tactics in squash have typically been assessed using the frequency of different shot types played at different locations on the court either without reference to other relevant information or on the basis of the preceding shot. This paper presents a new squash specific method for categorizing court locations in which the ball was played, a novel techniques for assessing the reliability of this method and presents typical shots responses in these new areas controlled for preceding shot as well as the time between shots and the handedness of the players. Twelve games were viewed using the SAGIT/Squash software and 2907 shots viewed a second time from a video image taken from behind the court with an overall agreement of 88.90% for the court location data and 99.52% for shot type. 3192 shots from 9 matches from the 2003 World Team Championships were analyzed in SAGIT/Squash. In the court areas analyzed between 2 and 7 shot responses were predominant suggesting tactical patterns were evident. This was supported by differences evident between shot responses played from the two back corners where the backhand side was characterized by a predominance of straight drives whereas straight and crosscourt drives were played on the forehand side. These results tended to confirm that tactics i.e., consistent shot types, are played although these are only apparent when factors that determine shot selection are accounted for. This paper has controlled for some of these factors but others need to be considered e.g., if individual player profiles are to be ascertained. PMID:24548850

  5. Gravity Dual of Supersymmetric Gauge Theories on a Squashed Five-Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Fluder, Martin; Richmond, Paul; Sparks, James

    2014-10-01

    We present the gravity dual of large N supersymmetric gauge theories on a squashed five-sphere. The one-parameter family of solutions is constructed in Euclidean Romans F(4) gauged supergravity in six dimensions, and uplifts to massive type IIA supergravity. By renormalizing the theory with appropriate counterterms we evaluate the renormalized on-shell action for the solutions. We also evaluate the large N limit of the gauge theory partition function, and find precise agreement.

  6. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-09-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment. PMID:19262819

  7. [Effects of root exudates from cucumber and squash on fusarium wilt occurrence].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ben-Li; Xu, Yun-Dong; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shun-Qi; Chen, Xue-Hao

    2007-03-01

    With the root exudates of two cucumber varieties Jinyan 4 (susceptible variety) and Jinchun 4 (resistant variety) and of black seed squash variety as test materials, this paper studied their effects and action mechanisms on the occurrence of Fusarium wilt on Jinyan 4. The results showed that the occurrence of Fusarium wilt was earlier when treated with the root exudates of Jinyan 4, and the infection rate was significantly higher at 15 days after inoculation, but nearly the same as the control at 20 days after inoculation. On the contrary, the infection rate was significantly lower than the control when treated with the root exudates of Jinchun 4. The plant height and fresh mass of Jinyan 4 treated with its own root exudates were lower than those of the control, and the root vigor decreased but conductance increased. No significant effect was observed in the plant height and fresh mass of Jinyan 4 treated with the root exudates of Jinchun 4 and black seed squash. It could be concluded that the root exudates of susceptible cucumber variety stimulated the growth of Fusarium oxysporum pathogen, while those of resistance cucumber variety and black seed squash were in adverse. PMID:17552193

  8. Buttercup squash provides a marketable alternative to blue hubbard as a trap crop for control of striped cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Andrew F; Adler, Lynn S; Hazzard, Ruth V

    2010-12-01

    Winter squash is a vital agricultural commodity worldwide. In the Northeastern United States, the primary insect pest is the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F. Using a Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) perimeter trap crop system can reduce insecticide use by >90% in butternut squash (C. moschata Poir), the primary winter squash grown in this region. Despite the savings in insecticide costs, growers may be reluctant to give up field space for a perimeter crop of Blue Hubbard squash, which comprises only 5% of the winter squash market in New England as compared with 19% for buttercup squash. Finding a more marketable trap crop would lower the barrier for adoption of this system. We tested eight varieties of three species of cucurbits for attractiveness to beetles relative to Blue Hubbard and butternut squash, and chose buttercup squash as the most promising replacement. We compared the effect of a buttercup border, Blue Hubbard border, or control (no border) on beetle numbers, herbivory, insecticide use, pollination, and pollen limitation in the main crop. We found that buttercup squash performed equally well as Blue Hubbard as a trap crop, with 97% reduction in total insecticide use compared with control fields. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa Say) were the predominant pollinators, and border treatments did not affect visitation. Hand pollination did not increase reproduction or yield, indicating that natural pollination was sufficient for full yield. This study confirms the effectiveness of perimeter trap crop systems and offers growers a more marketable trap crop for managing cucumber beetle damage. PMID:22182562

  9. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface. The muscle activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface EMG during performance of the curl-up exercise. [Results] The EMG activity of the RA and EO was significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface during the curl-up exercise. The EMG activities of the TrA and IO were greater in combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface than during the curl-up exercise on both a stable and unstable surface. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the local trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise is more strongly affected by combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise than by performance on an unstable supporting surface. PMID:25729202

  10. A novel application of Curle's acoustic analogy to aeolian tones in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Inoue, Osamu

    2004-05-01

    A new two-dimensional formula to describe aeolian tones radiated from rigid bodies in a uniform flow at low Mach numbers is proposed as an improved approximation of Curle's dipole solution. This modified Curle's dipole is composed mainly of two simple terms; one depends on time and the other does not, which represent the acoustic propagation and the hydrodynamic mean effect, respectively. The acoustic term includes the Doppler effect by regarding the sound speed to be directional in the source-fixed frame. The formula is verified in comparison with the results by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for sounds from a circular cylinder in low Mach number flows. The results show that the modified Curle's dipole approximates well the DNS results not only for the fluctuation pressure but also for the mean pressure in the far field. The mathematical basis of the formula is also presented in relation to the exact dipole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.

  11. Mechanism of kaolinite sheets curling via the intercalation and delamination process.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Liu, Qinfu; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Shuai; Frost, Ray L

    2015-04-15

    Kaolinite naturally occurs in the plate form for the interlayer hydrogen bond and the distortion and adaption of tetrahedron and octahedron. But kaolinite sheets can be exfoliated to nanoscrolls artificially in laboratory through multiple-step displacement intercalation. The driving force for kaolinite sheet to be curled nanoscroll originates from the size discrepancy of Si-O tetrahedron and Al-O octahedron. The displacement intercalation promoted the platy kaolinite sheets spontaneously to be scrolled by eliminating the interlayer hydrogen bond and atomic interaction. Kaolinite nanoscrolls are hollow tubes with outer face of tetrahedral sheet and inner face of octahedral sheet. Based on the theoretical calculation it is firstly reported that the minimum interior diameter for a single kaolinite sheet to be scrolled is about 9.08 nm, and the optimal 24.30 nm, the maximum 100 nm, which is verified by the observation of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The different adaption types and discrepancy degree between tetrahedron and octahedron generate various curling forces in different directions. The nanoscroll axes prefer the directions as [100], [110], [110], [310], and the relative curling force are as follows, [310]>[100]=[110]>[110]. PMID:25585290

  12. Competition between curls and plectonemes near the buckling transition of stretched supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sbastien

    2012-01-01

    Recent single-molecule experiments have observed that formation of a plectonemically supercoiled region in a stretched, twisted DNA proceeds via abrupt formation of a small plectonemic bubble. A detailed mesoscopic model is presented for the formation of plectonemic domains, including their positional entropy, and the influence of small chiral loops or curls along the extended DNA. Curls begin to appear just before plectoneme formation, and are more numerous at low salt concentrations (<20 mM univalent ions) and at low forces (<0.5 pN). However, plectonemic domains quickly become far more stable slightly beyond the transition to supercoiling at moderate forces and physiological salt conditions. At the supercoiling transition, for shorter DNAs (2 kb) only one supercoiled domain appears, but for longer DNAs at lower forces (<0.5 pN) positional entropy favors formation of more than one plectonemic domain; a similar effect occurs for low salt. Although they are not the prevalent mode of supercoiling, curls are a natural transition state for binding of DNA-loop-trapping enzymes; we show how addition of loop-trapping enzymes can modify the supercoiling transition. The behavior of DNA torque is also discussed, including the effect of the measurement apparatus torque stiffness, which can play a role in determining how large the torque overshoot is at the buckling transition.

  13. EFFECTS OF METHYL JASMONATE AND SUPERATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN LEVELS ON ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE IN LOW TEMPERATURE STORED GREEN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) AND ZUCCHINI SQUASH (CUCURBITA PEPO L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality was improved in the cold-stored green pepper and zucchini squash following treatments with methyl jasmonate and superatmospheric levels of oxygen. Green pepper and zucchini squash are sensitive to chilling temperatures. However, the severity of chilling injury in these commodities was redu...

  14. Discovering metabolic indices for early detection of squash (Cucurbita maxima) storage quality using GC-MS-based metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Kimura, Y; Sugiyama, K; Kami, D; Nakamura, T; Oka, N

    2016-04-01

    Squash (Cucubita maxima) cultivars with good storage qualities are needed for breeding to improve poor crop supply during winter in Japan. We measured changes in squash constituents during different storage periods to identify compounds that were suitable to be used as indices of storage quality. Principal components analysis of compounds at 1-5 months after harvest showed that PC1 scores were lower for cultivars with a higher rather than lower SQ (storage quality) ranks. Partial least-squares regression analysis was performed using the peak areas of all compounds identified from the 15 cultivars at 1 month after harvest as explanation variables and SQ as the target variable. Variable influence on projection scores and rank correlation coefficients were higher for arabinose and xylose, which showed less temporal change during the storage period; hence, they were considered to be suitable indicators for storage evaluation. These data will be useful for future studies aiming to improve storage quality of squash. PMID:26593601

  15. Understanding the physiological and molecular mechanism of persistent organic pollutant uptake and detoxification in cucurbit species (zucchini and squash).

    PubMed

    Chhikara, Sudesh; Paulose, Bibin; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2010-10-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) roots phytoextract significant amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil, followed by effective translocation to aboveground tissues. The closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash) does not have this ability. In a DDE-contaminated field soil, zucchini roots and stems contained 3.6 and 6.6-fold greater contaminant than did squash tissues, respectively, and zucchini phytoextracted 12-times more DDE from soil than squash. In batch hydroponics, squash was significantly more sensitive to DDE (2-20 mg/L) exposure; 4 mg/L DDE significantly reduced squash biomass (14%) whereas for zucchini, biomass reductions were observed at 20 mg/L (20%). PCR select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in DDE treated zucchini relative to DDE treated squash or non-treated zucchini. After differential screening to eliminate false positives, unique cDNA clones were sequenced. Out of 40 shoot cDNA sequences, 34 cDNAs have homology to parts of phloem filament protein 1 (PP1). Out of 6 cDNAs from the root tissue, two cDNAs are similar to cytochrome P450 like proteins, and one cDNA matches a putative senescence associated protein. From the DDE exposed zucchini seedlings cDNA library, out of 22 differentially expressed genes, 14 cDNAs were found to have homology with genes involved in abiotic stresses, signaling, lipid metabolism, and photosynthesis. A large number of cDNA sequences were found to encode novel unknown proteins that may be involved in uncharacterized pathways of DDE metabolism in plants. A semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of isolated genes confirmed up-regulation in response to DDE exposure. PMID:20507062

  16. Squash trypsin inhibitors from Momordica cochinchinensis exhibit an atypical macrocyclic structure.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J F; Gagnon, J; Chiche, L; Nguyen, T M; Andrieu, J P; Heitz, A; Trinh Hong, T; Pham, T T; Le Nguyen, D

    2000-05-16

    Three trypsin inhibitors (TIs), from the seeds of the squash Momordica cochinchinensis (MCo), have been isolated and purified using gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. Their sequences could be determined only after proteolytic cleavages. In the case of MCoTI-I and -II, it was shown that their polypeptide backbones are cyclic, a structure that has never been described in squash TIs. They contain 34 amino acid residues with 3 disulfide bridges and measured molecular masses of 3453.0 and 3480.7, respectively. They are the largest known macrocyclic peptides containing disulfide bridges. Their sequences show strong homology to other squash TIs, suggesting a similar three-dimensional structure and an analogous mechanism of action. A model of MCoTI-II was constructed by analogy to the crystal structure of the complex between bovine trypsin and CMTI-I, indicating that the linker connecting the two termini is flexible and does not impose significant geometrical constraints. This flexibility allows an Asp-Gly peptide bond rearrangement to occur in this region, giving rise to two isoforms of MCoTI-II. Although the importance of cyclization is not clear, it might confer increased stability and resistance to proteolysis. A minor species, MCoTI-III, was also characterized as containing 30 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 3379.6. This component possesses a linear backbone with a blocked N-terminus. MCoTIs represent interesting candidates for drug design, either by changing their specificity of inhibition or by using their structure as natural scaffolds bearing new binding activities. PMID:10801322

  17. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2006-12-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates (charts) for each of the boundary are necessary in this case to avoid a spherical-pole-like singularity in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity -- squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes (Titov et al. 2002) -- must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q_\\perp which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines is determined. This new quantity makes it possible, first, to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. And, secondly, it allows us to identify those flux tubes whose squashing in a perpendicular direction is overridden by the projection effect. Thus, the value Q_\\perp provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q_\\perp is illustrated by comparing their distributions for the Titov-Demoulin (1999) model of a twisted magnetic configuration. This research is supported by NASA and the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (an NSF Science and Technology Center).

  18. Resistance to Monopartite Begomoviruses Associated with the Bean Leaf Crumple Disease in Phaseolus vulgaris Controlled by a Single Dominant Gene.

    PubMed

    Monci, Francisco; García-Andrés, Susana; Maldonado, José Antonio; Moriones, Enrique

    2005-07-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Málaga virus are monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that infect common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), causing bean leaf crumple disease (BLCD). This disease was found to be widespread in southern Spain and causes stunted growth, flower abortion, and leaf and pod deformation in common bean plants. Commercial yield losses of up to 100% occur. In the present study, we have identified and characterized a resistance trait to BLCD-associated viruses in the common bean breeding line GG12. This resistance resulted in a complete absence of BLCD symptoms under field conditions or after experimental inoculation. Our analysis showed that virus replication was not inhibited. However, a severe restriction to systemic virus accumulation occurred in resistant plants, suggesting that cell-to-cell or long-distance movement were impaired. In addition, recovery from virus infection was observed in resistant plants. The reaction of P. vulgaris lines GG12 (resistant) and GG14 (susceptible), and of F(1), F(2), and backcross populations derived from them, to TYLCV inoculation suggested that a single dominant gene conferred the BLCD resistance described here. PMID:18943015

  19. Mapping leaf surface landscapes.

    PubMed

    Mechaber, W L; Marshall, D B; Mechaber, R A; Jobe, R T; Chew, F S

    1996-05-14

    Leaf surfaces provide the ecologically relevant landscapes to those organisms that encounter or colonize the leaf surface. Leaf surface topography directly affects microhabitat availability for colonizing microbes, microhabitat quality and acceptability for insects, and the efficacy of agricultural spray applications. Prior detailed mechanistic studies that examined particular fungi-plant and pollinator-plant interactions have demonstrated the importance of plant surface topography or roughness in determining the outcome of the interactions. Until now, however, it has not been possible to measure accurately the topography--i.e., the three-dimensional structure--of such leaf surfaces or to record precise changes in patterns of leaf surface elevation over time. Using contact mode atomic force microscopy, we measured three-dimensional coordinates of upper leaf surfaces of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), a perennial plant, on leaves of two age classes. We then produced topographic maps of these leaf surfaces, which revealed striking differences between age classes of leaves: old leaves have much rougher surfaces than those of young leaves. Atomic force microscope measurements were analyzed by lag (1) autocorrelation estimates of leaf surfaces by age class. We suggest that the changes in topography result from removal of epicuticular lipids and that the changes in leaf surface topography influence phylloplane ecology. Visualizing and mapping leaf surfaces permit detailed investigations into leaf surface-mediated phenomena, improving our understanding of phylloplane interactions. PMID:11607676

  20. Self-curled coral-like γ-Al₂O₃ nanoplates for use as an adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianbiao; Zhan, Chuanliang; Kong, Biao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jin; Xu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiping; Wang, Huanting

    2015-09-01

    Biomimetic self-curled nanoplates assembled coral-like nanoporous γ-Al2O3 has been prepared by a solvothermal method using ethylene glycol (EG)H2O as the mixed solvent, followed by the annealing process. The resulting samples are composed of micro/nanostructured units (∼1.5 μm) with self-curled porous nanoplates on the surface. The volume ratio of EG to water in precursor solution is crucial for the formation of coral-like structure. The formation process is investigated to be an assembly process with self-curled nanoplates driven by adsorption of EG. Importantly, the coral-like porous γ-Al2O3 has high surface area of 64.18 m(2)/g and exhibits enhanced adsorption performance for efficient removal of heavy metal Hg(II) (49.15 mg/g). The removal capacity is higher than (∼2.5 times) those of commercial Al2O3 nanoparticles and hollow structured γ-Al2O3 prepared without EG (∼2.7 times). Further investigation shows adsorption behaviors of the coral-like γ-Al2O3 and the alumina hollow structure can be well described by Langmuir isotherm model, whereas that of commercial Al2O3 nanoparticles fits Freundlich isotherm model. This work not only provides an inspiration for high efficient biomimetic adsorbent but also presents a facile route for coral-like γ-Al2O3 preparation. PMID:25989055

  1. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. PMID:26504561

  2. Effect of floor conditions upon frictional characteristics of squash court shoes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A E; Leyland, A J; Ross, S M; Ryall, M

    1991-01-01

    Vertical (FN) and horizontal (FH) forces were recorded while four vertically-loaded court shoes were dragged horizontally across six types of floor surface. Variation in coefficient of limiting friction (FH/FN) between floor surfaces was greater than that between shoes. Squash strokes were also performed on the same surfaces during which FH/FN was calculated. Slips occurred on some surfaces either at heel contact or upon attainment of full-sole contact. It is concluded that the coefficient of limiting friction obtained during full-sole contact with the floor is a suitable means of distinguishing between tractional qualities of shoes. Alternatively, this measure is an inadequate predictor of the likelihood of slips in the game of squash racquets. Dusty floor conditions produce poor traction as does a damp sealed floor. As sweat droplets are unavoidable in the game, floors sealed with urethane represent a significant hazard. Bare, clean, wooden flooring which can absorb moisture represents a better surface than a sealed floor from the point of view of traction. PMID:1856911

  3. Method validation and dissipation dynamics of chlorfenapyr in squash and okra.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghani, Sherif B; Abdallah, Osama I

    2016-03-01

    QuEChERS method combined with GC-IT-MS was developed and validated for the determination of chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra matrices. Method accuracy, repeatability, linearity and specificity were investigated. Matrix effect was discussed. Determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.9992 and 0.9987 in both matrices. LODs were 2.4 and 2.2μg/kg, while LOQs were 8.2 and 7.3μg/kg. Method accuracy ranged from 92.76% to 106.49%. Method precision RSDs were ⩽12.59%. A field trial to assess chlorfenapyr dissipation behavior was carried out. The developed method was employed in analyzing field samples. Dissipation behavior followed first order kinetics in both crops. Half-life values (t1/2) ranged from 0.2 to 6.58days with determination coefficient (R(2)) ranged from 0.78 to 0.96. The developed method was utilized for surveying chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra samples collected from the market. Monitoring results are discussed. PMID:26471587

  4. Effects of Cucumber mosaic virus infection on vector and non-vector herbivores of squash.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2010-11-01

    Plant chemicals mediating interactions with insect herbivores seem a likely target for manipulation by insectvectored plant pathogens. Yet, little is currently known about the chemical ecology of insect-vectored diseases or their effects on the ecology of vector and nonvector insects. We recently reported that a widespread plant pathogen, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), greatly reduces the quality of host-plants (squash) for aphid vectors, but that aphids are nevertheless attracted to the odors of infected plants-which exhibit elevated emissions of a volatile blend otherwise similar to the odor of healthy plants. This finding suggests that exaggerating existing host-location cues can be a viable vector attraction strategy for pathogens that otherwise reduce host quality for vectors. Here we report additional data regarding the effects of CMV infection on plant interactions with a common nonvector herbivore, the squash bug, Anasa tristis, which is a pest in this system. We found that adult A. tristis females preferred to oviposit on healthy plants in the field, and that healthy plants supported higher populations of nymphs. Collectively, our recent findings suggest that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry influence the behavior of both vector and non-vector herbivores, with significant implications both for disease spread and for broader community-level interactions. PMID:21331245

  5. Progress and Challenges in Managing Watermelon Vine Decline caused by whitefly transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) is an emerging threat to watermelon production in south-west and west-central Florida. Losses in 2004-2005 due to WVD were estimated to be more than 60 million U.S. dollars. The disease is caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), family: Potyviridae, genus: Ip...

  6. Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

  7. Sources of Resistance in U.S. Plant Introductions to Watermelon Vine Decline Caused of Squash Vein Yellowing Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted (Bemisia tabaci) Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV; genus Ipomovirus, family: Potyviridae) has become a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Sympto...

  8. Fruit yield of virus-resistant transgenic summer squash in simulated commercial plantings under conditions of high disease pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit yield of transgenic crookneck summer squash ZW-20 resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and of a susceptible nontransgenic lineage of the same genotype was compared over two consecutive years. Field trials relied on small-scale plantings that refle...

  9. Geostatistical analysis of spatial virus spread overtime provides new insights into the environmental safety of commercial virus-resistant squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a review of a journal article published in 2006. The spatial and temporal patterns of aphid-vectored spread of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) were monitored over two consecutive years in plantings of nontransgenic and transgenic squash ZW-20H (commerci...

  10. Effect of reflective mulch and insecticidal treatments on development of watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines one...

  11. Development and evaluation of quanitative early monitoring techniques for Squash vein yellowing virus, the cause of watermelon vine decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Although the late stage symptoms of watermelon vine decline are basically diagnostic for the presence of SqV...

  12. 75 FR 29309 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Register on February 9, 2010 (75 FR 6346, Docket No. APHIS- 2010-0003) in which we announced the... Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... flowers from Israel. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the...

  13. Physiological effects induced by Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline that has had significant economic impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida during the past six years. Symptoms typically appear as a sudden decline of vines at...

  14. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  15. Squashing the Millennium Bug: A Year 2000 Compliance Guide for Elementary/Secondary Schools and School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Mark; Carlson, Robert; Dexter, David; Karinch, Samantha; Kaplan, Heather

    This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year

  16. Transcript levels of antioxidative genes and oxygen radical scavenging enzyme activities in chilled zucchini squash in response to superatmospheric oxygen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcript levels of antioxidative genes including Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn SOD, ascorbate peroxidise (APX), and catalase (CAT) do not vary significantly during storage at 5 °C with high oxygen treatment in freshly harvested zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Elite). However, ...

  17. Serratia marcescens, a phloem-colonizing, squash bug-transmitted bacterium: Causal agent of cucurbit yellow vine disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD), which can inflict heavy losses to watermelon, pumpkin, cantaloupe and squash in U. S. production areas from the mid-west to northeast, causes phloem discoloration, foliar yellowing, wilting, and plant decline. By electron microscopy, the disease had been previou...

  18. Influence of insecticides and reflective mulch on watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines a few weeks ...

  19. Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

  20. Initial investigation into the effect of an Active/Passive exoskeleton on hammer curl performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Robert Peter; Mica, Eric John; Meinhold, Waiman; Loeza, Joel Alfredo; Tomizuka, Masayoshi; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2015-08-01

    Assistive robotic devices are traditionally constrained by their power source. Entirely passive devices exist, but are limited by their fixed mechanical parameters. This work introduces a new device that can provide active and passive assistance. This device provides assistance in a passive mode, but retains the actively change this passive response. This paper examines the effect different passive parameter settings have on healthy subjects performing hammer curls. Passive parameter settings to either increase or decrease the number of curls a subject could perform were found. An average increase of 84% or a decrease of 33% in curls was produced by varying the passive parameters. These effects were seen across all six subjects. This indicates that there is potential for the Active/Passive framework to provide lightweight, energy efficient assistance. PMID:26737073

  1. Photoreceptor for Curling Behavior in Peranema trichophorum and Evolution of Eukaryotic Rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Saranak, Jureepan; Foster, Kenneth W.

    2005-01-01

    When it is gliding, the unicellular euglenoid Peranema trichophorum uses activation of the photoreceptor rhodopsin to control the probability of its curling behavior. From the curled state, the cell takes off in a new direction. In a similar manner, archaea such as Halobacterium use light activation of bacterio- and sensory rhodopsins to control the probability of reversal of the rotation direction of flagella. Each reversal causes the cell to change its direction. In neither case does the cell track light, as known for the rhodopsin-dependent eukaryotic phototaxis of fungi, green algae, cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, and animal larvae. Rhodopsin was identified in Peranema by its native action spectrum (peak at 2.43 eV or 510 nm) and by the shifted spectrum (peak at 3.73 eV or 332 nm) upon replacement of the native chromophore with the retinal analog n-hexenal. The in vivo physiological activity of n-hexenal incorporated to become a chromophore also demonstrates that charge redistribution of a short asymmetric chromophore is sufficient for receptor activation and that the following isomerization step is probably not required when the rest of the native chromophore is missing. This property seems universal among the Euglenozoa, Plant, and Fungus kingdom rhodopsins. The rhodopsins of animals have yet to be studied in this respect. The photoresponse appears to be mediated by Ca2+ influx. PMID:16215167

  2. Surgical correction of ear curling caused by scar tissue formation in a horse.

    PubMed

    Massoni, Sabrina; Vlaminck, Lieven E; Cokelaere, Stefan M; Martens, Ann M

    2005-10-01

    An 18-month-old Belgian Warmblood mare was evaluated because it had injured the outer convex aspect of the left auricle. Second intention healing of the wound area caused tissue contracture, which resulted in the tip of the ear curling backward. By use of a technique involving undermining of the skin and a flap of granulation tissue on the medial aspect of the wound area and multiple incisions of the auricular cartilage, the curling was relieved and the ear regained a more normal shape. A skin graft was applied to cover the existing wound defect in an attempt to accelerate wound healing; thermoplastic material was contoured to fit the inner concave surface of the ear for immobilization and fixation of the ear in its final shape after surgery. Thirty days after surgery, the graft had healed completely and the ear had a normal conformation. The successful outcome of this treatment suggests that correction of an ear deformity secondary to scar tissue formation by use of an adapted surgical technique and appropriate materials can be achieved with good cosmetic results in horses. PMID:16220675

  3. A review of ipomoviruses and watermelon vine decline caused by the newly-described and whitefly-transmitted squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though few in number, ipomoviruses cause significant disease in cucurbits and other crops in various parts of the world. As the causal agent of watermelon vine decline in Florida, Squash vein yellowing virus has recently become an economically important pathogen....

  4. Morbidity from excessive intake of high energy fluids: the 'squash drinking syndrome'.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J O; Rolles, C J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify children suffering morbidity from excessive intake of energy from fluids. DESIGN--Prospective enrolment of outpatients in a supervised reduction of energy rich fluid intake. SETTING--Outpatient paediatric clinic. SUBJECTS--Eight children (four boys, mean age 20.8 months, mean duration of symptoms seven months) who were referred with non-specific symptoms such as poor appetite, poor behaviour at mealtimes, poor weight gain, and loose stools. RESULTS--All children were able to reduce their intake of energy rich fluids, as prescribed. All children demonstrated an improvement in symptoms and an increase in weight. CONCLUSIONS--A careful dietary history, which includes documentation of fluid intake may identify children whose intake of high energy drinks may be excessive. The pathogenesis, symptoms, and response to treatment of these patients are consistent enough to be regarded as a distinct clinical entity: the 'squash drinking syndrome'. PMID:7702377

  5. Conservative management of a case of medial epicondylosis in a recreational squash player

    PubMed Central

    Hudes, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This case study was conducted to evaluate the treatment and management of a patient presenting with medial elbow pain diagnosed as medial epicondylosis. Case: A 35 year old male presented with medial elbow pain of 46 weeks duration that worsened after playing squash. Treatment: A course of fascial stripping techniques was initiated, including: cross friction massage, instrument assisted fascial stripping to the medial epicondyle area and over the belly of the pronator teres muscle, ischemic compression of a trigger point in the pronator teres, active assisted compressions to the trigger point noted in the pronator teres, and mobilizations of the carpals, specifically the scaphoid. Instructions were given to the patient regarding icing the elbow and daily eccentric exercises. At a one year follow up, the patient reported complete resolution of symptoms with no recurrence. Conclusion: Conservative management, including eccentric exercises, mobilizations, and fascial stripping appear to be beneficial in the treatment of medial epicondylosis. PMID:21403779

  6. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) and dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious d...

  7. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates for each of the boundaries are necessary in this case to avoid spherical-pole-like singularities in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity-the squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes, according to Titov and coworkers-must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q1, which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines, is determined. This new quantity makes it possible to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. Thus, the value Q1 provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q1 is illustrated by comparing their distributions for two configurations, one of which is the Titov-Demoulin model of a twisted magnetic field.

  8. A BDDC Algorithm with Deluxe Scaling for Three-Dimensional H (curl) Problems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dohrmann, Clark R.; Widlund, Olof B.

    2015-04-28

    In our paper, we present and analyze a BDDC algorithm for a class of elliptic problems in the three-dimensional H(curl) space. Compared with existing results, our condition number estimate requires fewer assumptions and also involves two fewer powers of log(H/h), making it consistent with optimal estimates for other elliptic problems. Here, H/his the maximum of Hi/hi over all subdomains, where Hi and hi are the diameter and the smallest element diameter for the subdomain Ωi. The analysis makes use of two recent developments. The first is our new approach to averaging across the subdomain interfaces, while the second is amore » new technical tool that allows arguments involving trace classes to be avoided. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented to confirm the theory and demonstrate the importance of the new averaging approach in certain cases.« less

  9. A BDDC Algorithm with Deluxe Scaling for Three-Dimensional H (curl) Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Clark R.; Widlund, Olof B.

    2015-04-28

    In our paper, we present and analyze a BDDC algorithm for a class of elliptic problems in the three-dimensional H(curl) space. Compared with existing results, our condition number estimate requires fewer assumptions and also involves two fewer powers of log(H/h), making it consistent with optimal estimates for other elliptic problems. Here, H/his the maximum of Hi/hi over all subdomains, where Hi and hi are the diameter and the smallest element diameter for the subdomain Ωi. The analysis makes use of two recent developments. The first is our new approach to averaging across the subdomain interfaces, while the second is a new technical tool that allows arguments involving trace classes to be avoided. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented to confirm the theory and demonstrate the importance of the new averaging approach in certain cases.

  10. Curling probe measurement of electron density in pulse-modulated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Anil; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-13

    The electron density n{sub e} of stationary plasma can be easily obtained on the basis of the resonance frequency f of a curling probe (CP) measured by a network analyzer (NWA). However, in pulsed plasma with discharge period T, the n{sub e} and f values periodically change with time. This study extends the conventional CP technique to a time-resolved measurement of the pulse-modulated electron density. The condition necessary for the measurement is revealed to be synchronization of NWA with the pulse modulation, which is expressed as (n − 1)T/T{sub SWP} = integer (1, 2, …) for a number n of data point and sweep time T{sub SWP}.

  11. Effects of mutations in the Arabidopsis Cold Shock Domain Protein 3 (AtCSP3) gene on leaf cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongil; Karlson, Dale

    2012-08-01

    The cold shock domain is among the most evolutionarily conserved nucleic acid binding domains from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, including plants. Although eukaryotic cold shock domain proteins have been extensively studied as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators during various developmental processes, their functional roles in plants remains poorly understood. In this study, AtCSP3 (At2g17870), which is one of four Arabidopsis thaliana c old s hock domain proteins (AtCSPs), was functionally characterized. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed high expression of AtCSP3 in reproductive and meristematic tissues. A homozygous atcsp3 loss-of-function mutant exhibits an overall reduced seedling size, stunted and orbicular rosette leaves, reduced petiole length, and curled leaf blades. Palisade mesophyll cells are smaller and more circular in atcsp3 leaves. Cell size analysis indicated that the reduced size of the circular mesophyll cells appears to be generated by a reduction of cell length along the leaf-length axis, resulting in an orbicular leaf shape. It was also determined that leaf cell expansion is impaired for lateral leaf development in the atcsp3 loss-of-function mutant, but leaf cell proliferation is not affected. AtCSP3 loss-of-function resulted in a dramatic reduction of LNG1 transcript, a gene that is involved in two-dimensional leaf polarity regulation. Transient subcellular localization of AtCSP3 in onion epidermal cells confirmed a nucleocytoplasmic localization pattern. Collectively, these data suggest that AtCSP3 is functionally linked to the regulation of leaf length by affecting LNG1 transcript accumulation during leaf development. A putative function of AtCSP3 as an RNA binding protein is also discussed in relation to leaf development. PMID:22888122

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch) induced by wounding with aluminum borate whiskers.

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Tsuda, Mai; Tabei, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    An efficient genetic transformation method for kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch cv. Heiankogiku) was established by wounding cotyledonary node explants with aluminum borate whiskers prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium. Adventitious shoots were induced from only the proximal regions of the cotyledonary nodes and were most efficiently induced on Murashige-Skoog agar medium with 1mg/L benzyladenine. Vortexing with 1% (w/v) aluminum borate whiskers significantly increased Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal region of the explants. Transgenic plants were screened at the T(0) generation by sGFP fluorescence, genomic PCR, and Southern blot analyses. These transgenic plants grew normally and T(1) seeds were obtained. We confirmed stable integration of the transgene and its inheritance in T(1) generation plants by sGFP fluorescence and genomic PCR analyses. The average transgenic efficiency for producing kabocha squashes with our method was about 2.7%, a value sufficient for practical use. PMID:21400224

  13. Solution structure of the squash trypsin inhibitor MCoTI-II. A new family for cyclic knottins.

    PubMed

    Heitz, A; Hernandez, J F; Gagnon, J; Hong, T T; Pham, T T; Nguyen, T M; Le-Nguyen, D; Chiche, L

    2001-07-10

    The "knottin" fold is a stable cysteine-rich scaffold, in which one disulfide crosses the macrocycle made by two other disulfides and the connecting backbone segments. This scaffold is found in several protein families with no evolutionary relationships. In the past few years, several homologous peptides from the Rubiaceae and Violaceae families were shown to define a new structural family based on macrocyclic knottin fold. We recently isolated from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds the first known macrocyclic squash trypsin inhibitors. These compounds are the first members of a new family of cyclic knottins. In this paper, we present NMR structural studies of one of them, MCoTI-II, and of a beta-Asp rearranged form, MCoTI-IIb. Both compounds display similar and well-defined conformations. These cyclic squash inhibitors share a similar conformation with noncyclic squash inhibitors such as CPTI-II, and it is postulated that the main effect of the cyclization is a reduced sensitivity to exo-proteases. On the contrary, clear differences were detected with the three-dimensional structures of other known cyclic knottins, i.e., kalata B1 or circulin A. The two-disulfide cystine-stabilized beta-sheet motif [Heitz et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 10615-10625] is conserved in the two families, whereas in the C-to-N linker, one disulfide bridge and one loop are differently located. The molecular surface of MCoTI-II is almost entirely charged in contrast to circulin A that displays a well-marked amphiphilic character. These differences might explain why the isolated macrocyclic squash inhibitors from M. cochinchinensis display no significant antibacterial activity, whereas circulins and kalata B1 do. PMID:11434766

  14. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    PubMed

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated ?-carotene and ?-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and ?-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed ?-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression. PMID:22574777

  15. Inoculation of plants with begomoviruses by particle bombardment without cloning: Using rolling circle amplification of total DNA from infected plants and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Guenoune-Gelbart, Dana; Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Capobianco, Heather; Gaba, Victor; Polston, Jane E; Lapidot, Moshe

    2010-09-01

    A new system for inoculation of plants with begomoviral DNA without cloning or the use insect vectors is described. Total DNA extracted from begomovirus-infected plants was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase, and inoculated to plants by particle bombardment. Infection rates of up to 100% were obtained using this technique. This technique successfully inoculated all the begomoviruses evaluated: five bipartite (Bean golden yellow mosaic virus, Cabbage leaf curl virus, Squash leaf curl virus, Tomato mottle virus, Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus) as well as one monopartite (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus). The success of the technique was not dependent upon plant species. Four species from three plant families [Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Cucurbita pepo (squash), and Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)], could all be inoculated by this technique. The success of the method was not dependent upon either the type or the age of the source of virus. Infectious DNA was obtained successfully from fresh, freeze-dried or desiccated plant material, from squashes of plant leaves on FTA cards, as well as from the insect vector. Plant material collected and dried as long as 25 years ago yielded infectious DNA by this method. In summary, this method can be used to obtain infectious DNA of single-stranded circular DNA viruses that can be activated for purposes of completing Koch's postulates, for preservation of pure virus cultures, and for many other applications where infectious DNA is required. PMID:20447420

  16. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  17. Applying a curl-B technique to Swarm vector data to estimate nighttime F region current intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, Roberta; Pezzopane, Michael; De Michelis, Paola; Piersanti, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    The innovative geometry of European Space Agency Swarm constellation opens the way for new investigations based on magnetic data. Since the knowledge of a vector field on two spherical surfaces allows calculating its curl, we propose a new technique to estimate the curl of the ionospheric magnetic field measured by Swarm satellites A and B, orbiting the Earth at two different altitudes from March to September 2014. Using this technique, we mapped the amplitude of the radial, meridional, and zonal components and of total intensity of the ionospheric current density at the satellite's altitudes, i.e., the F region of the ionosphere, during two local nighttime intervals: before and after midnight. Most of the obtained results are consistent with some of the known features of nighttime F region currents; others need further investigation. The proposed technique could contribute in selecting magnetic data with minimum contamination from nighttime F region electric currents for magnetic modeling purposes.

  18. Spontaneous and Deterministic Three-dimensional Curling of Pre-strained Elastomeric Strips: From Hemi-helix to Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangshui; Liu, Jia; Kroll, Benedikt; Bertoldi, Katia; Suo, Zhigang; Clarke, David

    2012-02-01

    A variety of three dimensional curls are produced by a simple generic process consisting of pre-straining one elastomeric strip, joining it to another and then releasing the bi-strip. The hemi-helix, one kind of three dimensional curls, consists of multiple, alternating helical sections of half wavelength in opposite chiralities and separated by perversions. The hemi-helix wavelength and the number of perversions are determined by the strip cross-section, the constitutive behavior of the elastomer and the value of the pre-strain. Topologically, the perversions also separate regions of the helix deforming principally by bending from those where twisting dominates. Changing the prestrain and the ratio between the thickness and the width induce a phase separation of hemi-helical structure, helical structure and hybrid structure which have similarities to coiled polymer molecules and plant tendrils.

  19. Numerical study on the curling and warping of hardened rigid pavement slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yinghong

    In-service hardened concrete pavement suffers from environmental loadings caused by curling and warping of the slab. Traditionally, these loadings are computed on the basis of treating the slab as an elastic material, and of evaluating separately the curling and warping components. This dissertation simulates temperature distribution and moisture distribution through the slabs by use of a developed numerical model that couples the heat transfer and moisture transport. The computation of environmental loadings treats the slab as an elastic-viscous material, which considers the relaxation behavior and Pickett effect of the concrete. The heat transfer model considers the impacts of solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature, pavement slab albedo, etc. on the pavement temperature distribution. This dissertation assesses the difference between documented models that aim to predict pavement temperature, highlighting their pros and cons. The moisture transport model is unique for the documented models; it mimics the wetting and drying events occurring at the slab surface. These events are estimated by a proposed statistical algorithm, which is verified by field rainfall data. Analysis of the predicted results examines on the roles of the local air RH (relative humidity), wind speed, rainy pattern in the moisture distribution through the slab. The findings reveal that seasonal air RH plays a decisive role on the slab's moisture distribution; but wind speed and its daily variation, daily RH variation, and seasonal rainfall pattern plays only a secondary role. This dissertation sheds light on the computation of environmental loadings that in-service pavement slabs suffer from. Analysis of the computed stresses centers on the stress relaxation near the surface, stress evolution after the curing ends, and the impact of construction season on the stress's magnitude. An unexpected finding is that the total environmental loadings at the cyclically-stable state divert from the thermal stresses. At such a state, the total stress at the daytime is roughly equal to the thermal stress; whereas the total stress during the nighttime is far greater than the thermal stress. An explanation for this phenomenon is that during the night hours, the decline of the slab's near-surface temperature leads to a drop of the near-surface RH. This RH drop results in contraction therein and develops additional tensile stresses. The dissertation thus argues that estimating the environmental loadings by solely computing the thermally-induced stresses may reach delusive results. It recommends that the total environmental loadings of in-service slabs should be estimated by a sophisticated model coupling both moisture component and temperature component.

  20. A high speed profiler based slab curvature index for jointed concrete pavement curling and warping analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrum, Christopher Ronald

    One of the biggest gaps of missing knowledge between accurate structural modeling of concrete pavement slab behavior and real pavement behavior is accounting for slab warping (locked-in curvature and moisture gradient effects) and curling (temperature gradient effects). Curling and warping are curvatures that can be present in a PCC slab that can cause corners and edges, or mid panel, of the slab to lift off of the ground resulting in relatively high deflection and stress in the system. The least understood type of curvature in slabs is apparent locked-in curvature, which can become excessive and control the overall behavior of the pavement system. This project is focused on quantifying slab curvatures and the effects of apparent locked-in curvature on the behavior and long-term performance of pavement systems. A high-speed profile analysis technique for detecting the amount of slab curvatures along pavement wheel paths is described. This signal processing technique can detect relatively small curvature variations in high-speed pavement elevation profiles obtained at normal highway operating speeds using special vehicles. A resulting curvature detection algorithm is applied to the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database high-speed pavement profiles for jointed concrete pavements. The range and nature of slab curvatures detected in the profiles is described. The calculated locked-in curvature at the various pavement sites is compared to LTPP database information to evaluate curvature effects on pavement deterioration rates and the relation between site parameters and locked-in curvature. The significance of slab curvature is shown through statistics and predictive models developed for various pavement distress modes. It is shown that the amount of curvature locked into concrete slabs is one of the strongest factors in the FHWA LTPP data correlated to deterioration of pavements. This study shows that preventing locked-in slab curvature should be a top priority for PCC slabs in highway applications. The profile analysis routine and distress prediction models developed will be valuable tools for pavement designers, managers, and researchers.

  1. Large-Deformation Curling Actuators Based on Carbon Nanotube Composite: Advanced-Structure Design and Biomimetic Application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luzhuo; Weng, Mingcen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-22

    In recent years, electroactive polymers have been developed as actuator materials. As an important branch of electroactive polymers, electrothermal actuators (ETAs) demonstrate potential applications in the fields of artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, robotics, and so on. Large-shape deformation, low-voltage-driven actuation, and ultrafast fabrication are critical to the development of ETA. However, a simultaneous optimization of all of these advantages has not been realized yet. Practical biomimetic applications are also rare. In this work, we introduce an ultrafast approach to fabricate a curling actuator based on a newly designed carbon nanotube and polymer composite, which completely realizes all of the above required advantages. The actuator shows an ultralarge curling actuation with a curvature greater than 1.0 cm(-1) and bending angle larger than 360, even curling into a tubular structure. The driving voltage is down to a low voltage of 5 V. The remarkable actuation is attributed not only to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion but also to the mechanical property changes of materials during temperature change. We also construct an S-shape actuator to show the possibility of building advanced-structure actuators. A weightlifting walking robot is further designed that exhibits a fast-moving motion while lifting a sample heavier than itself, demonstrating promising biomimetic applications. PMID:26512734

  2. Light-Dependent Modifications in the Metabolic Responses of Squash Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Surrey, Kenneth; Barr, Edward M.

    1966-01-01

    Light-induced modifications in lipoxidase metabolism and chlorophyll formation in the cotyledon of squash (Cucurbita moscata) seedlings were determined. The enzyme activity decreased as light intensity increased, but chlorophyll continued to accumulate long after lipoxidase activity had virtually disappeared. Considering the differences in the levels of irradiance required to manifest the optimal responses, and also from the results obtained with ultraviolet and red, far-red light treatments, any causal relationship between lipoxidase disappearance and chlorophyll synthesis was ruled out. The observed light-saturation phase in the chlorophyll synthesis, indicated that chlorophyll formation was initially controlled by the phytochrome system. No similar saturation stage for the enzyme responses was observed. The sensitivity of lipoxidase to prolonged light exposures suggested a strong correlation with the known photoreactions presumed to be controlled by the high energy reactive-phytochrome system. Lipoxidase metabolism is, therefore, suggested as a biochemical index for the photomorphogenic reactions similar to the ones induced by the high energy reaction. PMID:16656320

  3. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata") when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 3 ppb (mean s.d) for imidacloprid and 11 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  4. Functional Immunomics of the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Kent S.

    2013-01-01

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits, causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. No genomic resources to facilitate field and laboratory studies of this pest were available; therefore the first de novo exome for this destructive pest was assembled. RNA was extracted from insects challenged with bacterial and fungal immunoelicitors, insects fed on different cucurbit species, and insects from all life stages from egg to adult. All treatments and replicates were separately barcoded for subsequent analyses, then pooled for sequencing in a single lane using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Over 211 million 100-base tags generated in this manner were trimmed, filtered, and cleaned, then assembled into a de novo reference transcriptome using the Broad Institute Trinity assembly algorithm. The assembly was annotated using NCBIx NR, BLAST2GO, KEGG and other databases. Of the >130,000 total assemblies 37,327 were annotated identifying the sequences of candidate gene silencing targets from immune, endocrine, reproductive, cuticle, and other physiological systems. Expression profiling of the adult immune response was accomplished by aligning the 100-base tags from each biological replicate from each treatment and controls to the annotated reference assembly of the A. tristis transcriptome. PMID:26462532

  5. Chiral low-energy physics from squashed branes in deformed {N}=4 SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, Harold C.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the low-energy physics which arises on stacks of squashed brane solutions of SU( N ) N=4 SYM, deformed by a cubic soft SUSY breaking potential. A brane configuration is found which leads to a low-energy physics similar to the standard model in the broken phase, assuming suitable VEV's of the scalar zero modes. Due to the triple self-intersection of the branes, the matter content includes that of the MSSM with precisely 3 generations and right-handed neutrinos. No exotic quantum numbers arise, however there are extra chiral superfields with the quantum numbers of the Higgs doublets, the W, Z, e R and u R , whose fate depends on the details of the rich Higgs sector. The chiral low-energy sector is complemented by a heavy mirror sector with the opposite chiralities, as well as super-massive Kaluza-Klein towers completing the N=4 multiplets. The sectors are protected by two gauged global U(1) symmetries.

  6. Functional Immunomics of the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Shelby, Kent S

    2013-01-01

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits, causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. No genomic resources to facilitate field and laboratory studies of this pest were available; therefore the first de novo exome for this destructive pest was assembled. RNA was extracted from insects challenged with bacterial and fungal immunoelicitors, insects fed on different cucurbit species, and insects from all life stages from egg to adult. All treatments and replicates were separately barcoded for subsequent analyses, then pooled for sequencing in a single lane using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Over 211 million 100-base tags generated in this manner were trimmed, filtered, and cleaned, then assembled into a de novo reference transcriptome using the Broad Institute Trinity assembly algorithm. The assembly was annotated using NCBIx NR, BLAST2GO, KEGG and other databases. Of the >130,000 total assemblies 37,327 were annotated identifying the sequences of candidate gene silencing targets from immune, endocrine, reproductive, cuticle, and other physiological systems. Expression profiling of the adult immune response was accomplished by aligning the 100-base tags from each biological replicate from each treatment and controls to the annotated reference assembly of the A. tristis transcriptome. PMID:26462532

  7. Simple Method for Fluorescence DNA In Situ Hybridization to Squashed Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Larracuente, Amanda M.; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA in situ hybridization (DNA ISH) is a commonly used method for mapping sequences to specific chromosome regions. This approach is particularly effective at mapping highly repetitive sequences to heterochromatic regions, where computational approaches face prohibitive challenges. Here we describe a streamlined protocol for DNA ISH that circumvents formamide washes that are standard steps in other DNA ISH protocols. Our protocol is optimized for hybridization with short single strand DNA probes that carry fluorescent dyes, which effectively mark repetitive DNA sequences within heterochromatic chromosomal regions across a number of different insect tissue types. However, applications may be extended to use with larger probes and visualization of single copy (non-repetitive) DNA sequences. We demonstrate this method by mapping several different repetitive sequences to squashed chromosomes from Drosophila melanogaster neural cells and Nasonia vitripennis spermatocytes. We show hybridization patterns for both small, commercially synthesized probes and for a larger probe for comparison. This procedure uses simple laboratory supplies and reagents, and is ideal for investigators who have little experience with performing DNA ISH. PMID:25591075

  8. Partitioning yield loss on yellow squash into nematode and insect components.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Waddill, V H

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression. Yield losses in weight of small fruit to nematode and insect pests together were estimated at 23.4% and 30.4% in each of the two tests, respectively. In the first test, this loss was attributed to the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata, while in the second test, it was attributed to D. hyalinata and the nematodes Quinisulcius acutus and particularly Rotylenchulus reniforrnis. D. hyalinata accounted for further losses of 9.0% and 10.3%, respectively, from direct damage to the fruit. Despite the presence of low levels of Diabrotica balteata, Liriomyza sativae, and Myzus persicae, yields were little affected by these pests. Prediction of yield loss by multiple regression analysis was more accurate when both insect and nematode populations were present in the plots than when nematodes alone were present. PMID:19295683

  9. Supersymmetric gauge theories on squashed five-spheres and their gravity duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Fluder, Martin; Gregory, Carolina Matte; Richmond, Paul; Sparks, James

    2014-09-01

    We construct the gravity duals of large N supersymmetric gauge theories defined on squashed five-spheres with SU(3)U(1) symmetry. These five-sphere backgrounds are continuously connected to the round sphere, and we find a one-parameter family of 3/4 BPS deformations and a two-parameter family of (generically) 1/4 BPS deformations. The gravity duals are constructed in Euclidean Romans F (4) gauged supergravity in six dimensions, and uplift to massive type IIA supergravity. We holographically renormalize the Romans theory, and use our general result to compute the renormalized on-shell actions for the solutions. The results agree perfectly with the large N limit of the dual gauge theory partition function, which we compute using large N matrix model techniques. In addition we compute BPS Wilson loops in these backgrounds, both in supergravity and in the large N matrix model, again finding precise agreement. Finally, we conjecture a general formula for the partition function on any five-sphere background, which for fixed gauge theory depends only on a certain supersymmetric Killing vector.

  10. PFB coal-fired combined-cycle development program. Test evaluation report: CURL test series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Under contract to the United States Department of Energy, the General Electric Company participated in the NCB/CURL 10 x 100 hour test at Leatherhead, England, in order to investigate corrosion and erosion of candidate gas turbine blade alloys for service in a Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) combined-cycle power plant. The tests also permitted an evaluation of hot gas cleanup equipment. The results are encouraging, indicating that it is possible to provide materials which can withstand the erosive/corrosive PFB environment. Further, it was found that the reduction of particulate efflux via cyclones was sufficient to eliminate excessive erosion of gas turbine components in the stationary cascades tested. The tests also demonstrated the great care required to obtain accurate and consistent data measurement in certain areas. In particular, effluent characterization techniques require significant sophistication. Particle size distribution data indicated a high consistency of operation. On the other hand, difficulties were encountered in obtaining accurate and reliable indication of the alkali content of the exhaust gas. This was disappointing, since this is an important factor related to the tolerance levels of conventional gas turbine materials. Future testing efforts are recommended and defined.

  11. Time-resolved curling-probe measurements of electron density in high frequency pulsed DC discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    A plasma-induced shift in the resonance frequency of a curling probe measured by using a network analyzer (NWA) yields the electron density. This technique was applied here for measuring time-varying electron density in pulsed DC glow discharges. Using the NWA in an on-sweep synchronization mode with the discharge pulse allows measuring at pulse frequencies below 0.5 kHz. For higher pulse frequencies, an on-point mode was introduced which enabled time-resolved measurements of electron density at pulse frequencies reaching 25 kHz, with the minimal time interval of 2 s, typically for nitrogen discharge at 10 Pa. In the afterglow regime, the decay time constant of electron density was measured for nitrogen and argon discharges at 40 Pa. In the case of argon, the electron density was observed to decrease in three steps. This characteristic behavior was tentatively attributed to a bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution and Ramsauer effect, supported by Langmuir probe measurements.

  12. Tropical Cyclone 10-km Wavelength Wind Stress Curl Patterns Observed in SAR Imagery During ITOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, R. C.; Patoux, J.; Wackerman, C.; Horstmann, J.; Graber, H. C.

    2012-12-01

    One objective of the ONR-Sponsored Impact of Typhoons on the Pacific (ITOP) field program was to improve methods for wind vector retrievals from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the sea-surface in typhoon conditions. We developed a method that uses sea-level pressure (SLP) patterns as a means of producing low-pass filtered wind vector fields from the standard SAR wind vector retrieval methods. An advantage of of this methodology is that we can calculate surface wind derivative fields from these SLP-filtered wind vectors. A consistent feature in all of the SAR images from ITOP, and from older images of hurricanes and typhoons, is banded surface wind convergence features that are roughly aligned with the mean surface wind. The signature is similar to what one would expect to be induced by PBL roll vortices, except the SAR wavelengths are O(10 km), which is much larger than what would be expected from PBL rolls, i.e. O(1-2 km). Such smaller-scale PBL rolls are the expected state of the tropical cyclone PBL. We present a nonlinear wave-wave upscale energy transfer mechanism that shows how the smaller-scale PBL rolls can generate O(10 km) wavelength structures consistent with the SAR results. We also show that the larger-scale rolls are most clearly evident in wind stress curl patterns calculated from the SLP-filtered SAR wind vector retrievals.

  13. The relation of wind stress curl and meridional transport in the Benguela upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Tim; Schmidt, Martin; Mohrholz, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Spatially high resolved wind data reveals the existence of a very pronounced and persistent cyclonic (negative) wind stress curl (WSC) along the southwest African coast. Several theoretical studies have shown that negative WSC modifies the meridional currents in eastern boundary systems significantly. Since the water mass composition on the southwest African shelf is primarily controlled by the meridional currents, understanding the relation between WSC and the meridional advection is of great importance for the Benguela ecosystem. In this study, we use a regional general circulation model that is validated with observations in order to study the effect of cyclonic WSC on the meridional transport along the southwest African coast. We show that there is a connection between the meridional transport and the WSC on a seasonal time scale in the northern Benguela upwelling system (BUS). The meridional transport follows the annual and semi-annual cycles of the WSC between 20 S and 25 S. The cyclonic WSC in the northern BUS may therefore support a southward advection of tropical waters into the upwelling system.

  14. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Z D; Wang, J

    2014-06-28

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules. PMID:24985680

  15. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. D.; Wang, J.

    2014-06-28

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  16. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  17. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  18. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal

  19. PLATYSPORA LEAF SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Platyspora leaf spot, caused by Comoclathris pentamera (P. Karst.) S. Ahmad (= Graphyllium pentamerum (P. Karst.) M.E. Barr; = Platyspora pentamera (P. Karst.) Wehm.) was first reported as a plant disease on wheat in 1971. The fungus previously was known only at high altitudes, where it persists on...

  20. The uptake of radionuclides by beans, squash, and corn growing in contaminated alluvial soils at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, P R; Armstrong, D R; Mullen, M A; Naranjo, L

    1998-01-01

    Pinto beans (Phaselous vulgaris), sweet corn (Zea mays), and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) were grown in a field pot study using alluvial floodplain soils contaminated with various radionuclides within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. Soils as well as washed edible (fruit) and nonedible (stems and leaves) crop tissues were analyzed for tritium (3H), cesium (137Cs), strontium (90Sr), plutonium (238Pu and 239,240Pu), americium (241Am), and total uranium (totU). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H and totU, in soil and crop tissues from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.05) than in soil or crop tissues collected from regional background locations. Significant differences in radionuclide concentrations among crop species (squash were generally higher than beans or corn) and plant parts (nonedible tissue were generally higher than edible tissue) were observed. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC were within default values in the literature commonly used in dose and risk assessment models. Overall, the maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 352 lb ([160 kg]; the maxiumum ingestion rate per person per year) of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions was 74 mrem y-1 (740 microS y-1). This upper bound dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit of 100 mrem y-1 (1000 microS y-1) from all pathways and corresponds to a risk of an excess cancer fatality of 3.7 x 10(-5) (37 in a million), which is also below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline of 10(-4). PMID:9491570

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup tot}U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p <0.01) than in soil collected from regional background (RBG) locations. Similarly, most radionuclides in edible crop portions of beans, squash, and corn were detected in significantly higher (p <0.01 and 0.05) concentrations than RBG. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues from LAC were within the default values given by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency. All heavy metals in soils, as well as edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC, were within RBG concentrations. Overall, the total maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 160 kg of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions, was 74 mrem y{sup -1}. This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y{sup -1} from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y{sup -1}, was 3.7 x 10{sup -5} (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency`s (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs.

  2. Complementarity in root architecture for nutrient uptake in ancient maize/bean and maize/bean/squash polycultures

    PubMed Central

    Postma, Johannes A.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims During their domestication, maize, bean and squash evolved in polycultures grown by small-scale farmers in the Americas. Polycultures often overyield on low-fertility soils, which are a primary production constraint in low-input agriculture. We hypothesized that root architectural differences among these crops causes niche complementarity and thereby greater nutrient acquisition than corresponding monocultures. Methods A functional–structural plant model, SimRoot, was used to simulate the first 40 d of growth of these crops in monoculture and polyculture and to determine the effects of root competition on nutrient uptake and biomass production of each plant on low-nitrogen, -phosphorus and -potassium soils. Key Results Squash, the earliest domesticated crop, was most sensitive to low soil fertility, while bean, the most recently domesticated crop, was least sensitive to low soil fertility. Nitrate uptake and biomass production were up to 7 % greater in the polycultures than in the monocultures, but only when root architecture was taken into account. Enhanced nitrogen capture in polycultures was independent of nitrogen fixation by bean. Root competition had negligible effects on phosphorus or potassium uptake or biomass production. Conclusions We conclude that spatial niche differentiation caused by differences in root architecture allows polycultures to overyield when plants are competing for mobile soil resources. However, direct competition for immobile resources might be negligible in agricultural systems. Interspecies root spacing may also be too large to allow maize to benefit from root exudates of bean or squash. Above-ground competition for light, however, may have strong feedbacks on root foraging for immobile nutrients, which may increase cereal growth more than it will decrease the growth of the other crops. We note that the order of domestication of crops correlates with increasing nutrient efficiency, rather than production potential. PMID:22523423

  3. Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  4. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval. PMID:26630007

  5. Isoperimetric problems for the helicity of vector fields and the Biot-Savart and curl operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarella, Jason; DeTurck, Dennis; Gluck, Herman; Teytel, Mikhail

    2000-08-01

    The helicity of a smooth vector field defined on a domain in three-space is the standard measure of the extent to which the field lines wrap and coil around one another. It plays important roles in fluid mechanics, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics. The isoperimetric problem in this setting is to maximize helicity among all divergence-free vector fields of given energy, defined on and tangent to the boundary of all domains of given volume in three-space. The Biot-Savart operator starts with a divergence-free vector field defined on and tangent to the boundary of a domain in three-space, regards it as a distribution of electric current, and computes its magnetic field. Restricting the magnetic field to the given domain, we modify it by subtracting a gradient vector field so as to keep it divergence-free while making it tangent to the boundary of the domain. The resulting operator, when extended to the L2 completion of this family of vector fields, is compact and self-adjoint, and thus has a largest eigenvalue, whose corresponding eigenfields are smooth by elliptic regularity. The isoperimetric problem for this modified Biot-Savart operator is to maximize its largest eigenvalue among all domains of given volume in three-space. The curl operator, when restricted to the image of the modified Biot-Savart operator, is its inverse, and the isoperimetric problem for this restriction of the curl is to minimize its smallest positive eigenvalue among all domains of given volume in three-space. These three isoperimetric problems are equivalent to one another. In this paper, we will derive the first variation formulas appropriate to these problems, and use them to constrain the nature of any possible solution. For example, suppose that the vector field V, defined on the compact, smoothly bounded domain ?, maximizes helicity among all divergence-free vector fields of given nonzero energy, defined on and tangent to the boundary of all such domains of given volume. We will show that (1) |V| is a nonzero constant on the boundary of each component of ?; (2) all the components of ?? are tori; and (3) the orbits of V are geodesics on ??. Thus, among smooth simply connected domains, none are optimal in the above sense. In principal, one could have a smooth optimal domain in the shape, say, of a solid torus. However, we believe that there are no smooth optimal domains at all, regardless of topological type, and that the true optimizer looks like the singular domain presented in this paper, which we can think of either as an extreme apple, in which the north and south poles have been pressed together, or as an extreme solid torus, in which the hole has been shrunk to a point. A computational search for this singular optimal domain and the helicity-maximizing vector field on it is at present under way, guided by the first variation formulas in this paper.

  6. Functional and neuromuscular changes in the hamstrings after drop jumps and leg curls.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key PointsHamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise.It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise.Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148

  7. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  8. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future. PMID:26546480

  9. Trypsin inhibition by macrocyclic and open-chain variants of the squash inhibitor MCoTI-II.

    PubMed

    Avrutina, Olga; Schmoldt, Hans-Ulrich; Gabrijelcic-Geiger, Dusica; Le Nguyen, Dung; Sommerhoff, Christian P; Diederichsen, Ulf; Kolmar, Harald

    2005-12-01

    MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis are inhibitors of trypsin-like proteases and the only known members of the large family of squash inhibitors that are cyclic and contain an additional loop connecting the amino- and the carboxy-terminus. To investigate the contribution of macrocycle formation to biological activity, we synthesized a set of open-chain variants of MCoTI-II that lack the cyclization loop and contain various natural and non-natural amino acid substitutions in the reactive-site loop. Upon replacement of P1 lysine residue #10 within the open-chain variant of MCoTI-II by the non-natural isosteric nucleo amino acid AlaG [beta-(guanin-9-yl)-L-alanine], a conformationally restricted arginine mimetic, residual inhibitory activity was detected, albeit reduced by four orders of magnitude. While the cyclic inhibitors MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II were found to be very potent trypsin inhibitors, with picomolar inhibition constants, the open-chain variants displayed an approximately 10-fold lower affinity. These data suggest that the formation of a circular backbone in the MCoTI squash inhibitors results in enhanced affinity and therefore is a determinant of biological activity. PMID:16336125

  10. The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ranere, Anthony J.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Dickau, Ruth; Iriarte, José

    2009-01-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that the wild ancestor of maize is presently native to the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Central Balsas watershed in southwestern Mexico. We report here on archaeological investigations in a region of the Central Balsas located near the Iguala Valley in Guerrero state that show for the first time a long sequence of human occupation and plant exploitation reaching back to the early Holocene. One of the sites excavated, the Xihuatoxtla Shelter, contains well-stratified deposits and a stone tool assemblage of bifacially flaked points, simple flake tools, and numerous handstones and milling stone bases radiocarbon dated to at least 8700 calendrical years B.P. As reported in a companion paper (Piperno DR, et al., in this issue of PNAS), starch grain and phytolith residues from the ground and chipped stone tools, plus phytoliths from directly associated sediments, provide evidence for maize (Zea mays L.) and domesticated squash (Cucurbita spp.) in contexts contemporaneous with and stratigraphically below the 8700 calendrical years B.P. date. The radiocarbon determinations, stratigraphic integrity of Xihuatoxtla's deposits, and characteristics of the stone tool assemblages associated with the maize and squash remains all indicate that these plants were early Holocene domesticates. Early agriculture in this region of Mexico appears to have involved small groups of cultivators who were shifting their settlements seasonally and engaging in a variety of subsistence pursuits. PMID:19307573

  11. Vector wind, horizontal divergence, wind stress and wind stress curl from SEASAT-SASS at one degree resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Sylvester, W. B.; Salfi, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional data obtained in 1983 are contrasted with SEASAT-A scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to show how observations at a single station can be extended to an area of about 150,000 square km by means of remotely sensed data obtained in nine minutes. Superobservations at a one degree resolution for the vector winds were estimated along with their standard deviations. From these superobservations, the horizontal divergence, vector wind stress, and the curl of the wind stress can be found. Weather forecasting theory is discussed and meteorological charts of the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Synoptic meteorology as a technique is examined.

  12. A new technique to prevent curling of guide wire in urinary bladder during J stent insertion with flexible cystoscope

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Nasir; Pasha, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of J stent is a very common procedure performed by urologists. This procedure is often performed to relieve ureteral obstruction due to stones, tumours, ureteral kink, or stricture on urgent basis. An increasing number of urologists are using a flexible cystoscope and local anaesthetic for J stent insertion. Occasionally, the guide wire curls in the bladder, making it impossible to insert the J stent. Here, we describe a simple method to overcome this problem using modified ureteral dilator, which is usually available in the cystoscopy suite.

  13. The Effect of Court Location and Available Time on the Tactical Shot Selection of Elite Squash Players

    PubMed Central

    Vu?kovi?, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Spori, Goran; Per, Janez

    2013-01-01

    No previous research in squash has considered the time between shots or the proximity of the ball to a wall, which are two important variables that influence shot outcomes. The aim of this paper was to analyse shot types to determine the extent to which they are played in different court areas and a more detailed analysis to determine whether the time available had an influence on the shot selected. Ten elite matches, contested by fifteen of the worlds top right handed squash players (age 27 3.2, height 1.81 0.06 m, weight 76.3 3.7 kg), at the mens World Team Championships were processed using the SAGIT/Squash tracking system with shot information manually added to the system. Results suggested that shot responses were dependent upon court location and the time between shots. When these factors were considered repeatable performance existed to the extent that one of two shots was typically played when there was limited time to play the shot (< 1.20s). For example, it was clear that when players did not have a lot of time to hit the ball (low time i.e. < 1.06s, and mid time i.e. 1.06 - 1.20s) in the front left corner close to the side wall, the crosscourt lob was used frequently (44.30% and 36.31% respectively) whereas when there was more time this shot was seldom used (13.64%). Consequently variant and invariant behaviour were shown to exist in elite squash although for the first time it was suggested that the availability of time to play a shot contributed to which of these behaviours was evident. This analysis could be extended by adopting a case study approach to see how individual differences in strategy and tactics affect shot selections. Key points Previous research has suggested that a playing strategy, elements decided in advance of the match, may be evident for elite players by examining court location and preceding shot type, however these parameters alone are unlikely to be sufficient predictors. At present there is no known analysis in squash, or indeed in any of the racket sports, that has quantified the time available to respond to different shot types. An understanding of the time interval between shots and the movement characteristics of the player responding to different shots according to the court positions might facilitate a better understanding of the dynamics that determine shot selection. Some elements of a general playing strategy were evident e.g. predominately hitting to the back left of the court, but tactical differences in shot selection were also evident on the basis of court location and time available to play a shot. PMID:24149727

  14. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  15. Identification of plant reservoirs and genome characterization of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005 and shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. Only cucurbits have been determined to be hosts for SqVYV so common cucurbit weeds in south ...

  16. Presence of P1b and absence of HC-Pro in Squash vein yellowing virus suggests a general feature of the genus Ipomovirus in the family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Ipomovirus is one of six currently recognized genera in the family Potyviridae. The complete nucleotide sequence of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a putative ipomovirus recently described in Florida, has been determined. The SqVYV genomic RNA has one large open reading frame encoding...

  17. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  18. Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida, USA – reservoirs, genome characterization and mixed infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005, shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. SqVYV has been isolated from declining watermelons for the past six growing seasons in southwes...

  19. Discovery of a new genotype of Squash mosaic virus through deep sequencing of small RNAs and development of a qRT-PCR for broad spectrum detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), a seed-borne virus belonging to the genus Commovirus in the family Comoviridae, could cause a serious yield loss on cucurbit crops worldwide. SqMV has a bipartite single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome (RNA-1 and RNA-2) encapsidated separately with two capsid prote...

  20. Root foraging elicits niche complementarity-dependent yield advantage in the ancient ‘three sisters’ (maize/bean/squash) polyculture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaochun; Postma, Johannes A.; York, Larry M.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Since ancient times in the Americas, maize, bean and squash have been grown together in a polyculture known as the ‘three sisters’. This polyculture and its maize/bean variant have greater yield than component monocultures on a land-equivalent basis. This study shows that below-ground niche complementarity may contribute to this yield advantage. Methods Monocultures and polycultures of maize, bean and squash were grown in two seasons in field plots differing in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. Root growth patterns of individual crops and entire polycultures were determined using a modified DNA-based technique to discriminate roots of different species. Key Results The maize/bean/squash and maize/bean polycultures had greater yield and biomass production on a land-equivalent basis than the monocultures. Increased biomass production was largely caused by a complementarity effect rather than a selection effect. The differences in root crown architecture and vertical root distribution among the components of the ‘three sisters’ suggest that these species have different, possibly complementary, nutrient foraging strategies. Maize foraged relatively shallower, common bean explored the vertical soil profile more equally, while the root placement of squash depended on P availability. The density of lateral root branching was significantly greater for all species in the polycultures than in the monocultures. Conclusions It is concluded that species differences in root foraging strategies increase total soil exploration, with consequent positive effects on the growth and yield of these ancient polycultures. PMID:25274551

  1. Identification of immune system gene silencing targets in a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: coreidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Squash bug is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. There are few effective biological control agents or cultural practices for controlling this highly destructive pest. A promising new approach for control is...

  2. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  3. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotidetargeting active gene (HFOTAG) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  4. Signal transduction in leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoshan; Zhou, Chunjiang

    2013-08-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex developmental phase that involves both degenerative and nutrient recycling processes. It is characterized by loss of chlorophyll and the degradation of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and nutrient remobilization. The onset and progression of leaf senescence are controlled by an array of environmental cues (such as drought, darkness, extreme temperatures, and pathogen attack) and endogenous factors (including age, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinin). This review discusses the major breakthroughs in signal transduction during the onset of leaf senescence, in dark- and drought-mediated leaf senescence, and in various hormones regulating leaf senescence achieved in the past several years. Various signals show different mechanisms of controlling leaf senescence, and cross-talks between different signaling pathways make it more complex. Key senescence regulatory networks still need to be elucidated, including cross-talks and the interaction mechanisms of various environmental signals and internal factors. PMID:23096425

  5. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Westoby, Mark; Ackerly, David D; Baruch, Zdravko; Bongers, Frans; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Chapin, Terry; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Diemer, Matthias; Flexas, Jaume; Garnier, Eric; Groom, Philip K; Gulias, Javier; Hikosaka, Kouki; Lamont, Byron B; Lee, Tali; Lee, William; Lusk, Christopher; Midgley, Jeremy J; Navas, Marie-Laure; Niinemets, Ulo; Oleksyn, Jacek; Osada, Noriyuki; Poorter, Hendrik; Poot, Pieter; Prior, Lynda; Pyankov, Vladimir I; Roumet, Catherine; Thomas, Sean C; Tjoelker, Mark G; Veneklaas, Erik J; Villar, Rafael

    2004-04-22

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional type or biome. Categories along the spectrum would, in general, describe leaf economic variation at the global scale better than plant functional types, because functional types overlap substantially in their leaf traits. Overall, modulation of leaf traits and trait relationships by climate is surprisingly modest, although some striking and significant patterns can be seen. Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate. PMID:15103368

  6. Leaf development: a cellular perspective.

    PubMed

    Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2014-01-01

    Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

  7. Leaf development: a cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

  8. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  10. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  11. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  12. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  16. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  17. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  20. The presence of tomato leaf curl Kerala virus AC3 protein enhances viral DNA replication and modulates virus induced gene-silencing mechanism in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses encode few viral proteins. Most of the geminiviral proteins are multifunctional and influence various host cellular processes for the successful viral infection. Though few viral proteins like AC1 and AC2 are well characterized for their multiple functions, role of AC3 in the successful viral infection has not been investigated in detail. Results We performed phage display analysis with the purified recombinant AC3 protein with Maltose Binding Protein as fusion tag (MBP-AC3). Putative AC3 interacting peptides identified through phage display were observed to be homologous to peptides of proteins from various metabolisms. We grouped these putative AC3 interacting peptides according to the known metabolic function of the homologous peptide containing proteins. In order to check if AC3 influences any of these particular metabolic pathways, we designed vectors for assaying DNA replication and virus induced gene-silencing of host gene PCNA. Investigation with these vectors indicated that AC3 enhances viral replication in the host plant tomato. In the PCNA gene-silencing experiment, we observed that the presence of functional AC3 ORF strongly manifested the stunted phenotype associated with the virus induced gene-silencing of PCNA in tomato plants. Conclusions Through the phage display analysis proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified as putative AC3 interacting proteins. By utilizing the vectors developed, we could analyze the role of AC3 in viral DNA replication and host gene-silencing. Our studies indicate that AC3 is also a multifunctional protein. PMID:21496351

  1. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer. The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world. PMID:22475039

  2. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  3. How to pattern a leaf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  4. Intracranial Fungal Granulomas Mimicking High Grade Gliomas. A Decisive Role of Squash Cytology (SC): A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parth A; Patel, Ronak K; Khurana, Nita; Pandey, P N

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial fungal granulomas can be misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as neoplastic lesions. They also rarely occur without any history of immunodeficiency or diabetes. We report two such cases of fungal granulomas that were unsuspected clinically and radiologically but were detected on intraoperative squash cytology (SC) and later confirmed on histopathology. Timely intervention was hence possible and patient was saved from the hazards of unnecessary removal of eloquent areas of brain and was shifted on proper medical management. SC remains an indispensible tool for the neurosurgeon to get a provisional intraoperative diagnosis and in such surprising scenarios, change the surgical management of the patient, save the resection of eloquent brain areas and begin immediate postoperative medical management. These cases are being presented for their rarity and for highlighting the importance of SC as a regular tool for intraoperative neurosurgical consultation of intracranial mass lesions. PMID:25738021

  5. Intracranial Fungal Granulomas Mimicking High Grade Gliomas. A Decisive Role of Squash Cytology (SC): A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak K.; Khurana, Nita; Pandey, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial fungal granulomas can be misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as neoplastic lesions. They also rarely occur without any history of immunodeficiency or diabetes. We report two such cases of fungal granulomas that were unsuspected clinically and radiologically but were detected on intraoperative squash cytology (SC) and later confirmed on histopathology. Timely intervention was hence possible and patient was saved from the hazards of unnecessary removal of eloquent areas of brain and was shifted on proper medical management. SC remains an indispensible tool for the neurosurgeon to get a provisional intraoperative diagnosis and in such surprising scenarios, change the surgical management of the patient, save the resection of eloquent brain areas and begin immediate postoperative medical management. These cases are being presented for their rarity and for highlighting the importance of SC as a regular tool for intraoperative neurosurgical consultation of intracranial mass lesions. PMID:25738021

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the glycerol-3-phosphate 1-acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    Turnbull, A P; Rafferty, J B; Sedelnikova, S E; Slabas, A R; Schierer, T P; Kroon, J T; Nishida, I; Murata, N; Simon, J W; Rice, D W

    2001-03-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate 1-acyltransferase (E.C. 2.3.1.15; G3PAT) catalyses the incorporation of an acyl group from either acyl-acyl carrier proteins (acylACPs) or acylCoAs into the sn-1 position of glycerol 3-phosphate to yield 1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate. Crystals of squash G3PAT have been obtained by the hanging-drop method of vapour diffusion using PEG 4000 as the precipitant. These crystals are most likely to belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 61.1, b = 65.1, c = 103.3 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees and a monomer in the asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data to 1.9 A resolution have been collected in-house using a MAR 345 imaging-plate system. PMID:11223529

  7. Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Cartagena, J; Candela, H; Robles, P; Ponce, M R; Pérez-Pérez, J M; Piqueras, P; Micol, J L

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to identify genes involved in the control of leaf morphogenesis, we have studied 13 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with curled, involute leaves, a phenotype herein referred to as Incurvata (Icu), which were isolated by G. Röbbelen and belong to the Arabidopsis Information Service Form Mutants collection. The Icu phenotype was inherited as a single recessive trait in 10 mutants, with semidominance in 2 mutants and with complete dominance in the remaining 1. Complementation analyses indicated that the studied mutations correspond to five genes, representative alleles of which were mapped relative to polymorphic microsatellites. Although most double-mutant combinations displayed additivity of the Icu phenotypes, those of icu1 icu2 and icu3 icu4 double mutants were interpreted as synergistic, which suggests that the five genes studied represent three independent genetic operations that are at work for the leaf to acquire its final form at full expansion. We have shown that icu1 mutations are alleles of the Polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF (CLF) and that the leaf phenotype of the icu2 mutant is suppressed in an agamous background, as is known for clf mutants. In addition, we have tested by means of multiplex RT-PCR the transcription of several floral genes in Icu leaves. Ectopic expression of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 was observed in clf and icu2, but not in icu3, icu4, and icu5 mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that CLF and ICU2 play related roles, the latter being a candidate to belong to the Polycomb group of regulatory genes. We propose that, as flowers evolved, a new major class of genes, including CLF and ICU2, may have been recruited to prevent the expression of floral homeotic genes in the leaves. PMID:11063708

  8. Amino acid substitutions of cysteine residues near the amino terminus of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro abolishes virus transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amino-terminal half of HC-Pro of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is required for semi-persistent transmission by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The amino-proximal region of WSMV HC-Pro is cysteine-rich with a zinc finger-like motif. Amino acid substitutions were made in this re...

  9. Counting Microfiche: The Utilization of the Microform Section of the ANSI Standard Z39.7-1983 "Library Statistics"; Microfiche Curl; and "Poly" or "Cell"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Wood, Naomi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of three articles describes procedures for using ANSI statistical methods for estimating the number of pieces in large homogeneous collections of microfiche. The second discusses causes of curl, its control, and measurement, and the third compares the advantages and disadvantages of cellulose acetate and polyester base for microforms.

  10. Counting Microfiche: The Utilization of the Microform Section of the ANSI Standard Z39.7-1983 "Library Statistics"; Microfiche Curl; and "Poly" or "Cell"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Wood, Naomi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of three articles describes procedures for using ANSI statistical methods for estimating the number of pieces in large homogeneous collections of microfiche. The second discusses causes of curl, its control, and measurement, and the third compares the advantages and disadvantages of cellulose acetate and polyester base for microforms.…

  11. Healing the Wounds of War and More: An Integrative Approach to Peace--The Work of Adam Curle and Others with Mir i dobro in Zupanja, Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchels, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Examines practical implications of Curle's approach to psychological aspects of conflict and peacemaking as evidenced in the Mir i dobro project in Zupanja, taking into consideration some of the current debates concerning treatment of psychological trauma, including validity of the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and use of so-called

  12. The Grn Curl, SE Turkey: a potential link from crustal tectonics to mantle dynamics in the Arabia-Eurasia collision-escape zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, C.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Kaymakci, N.; Meijers, M. J.; Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Reid, M. R.; Gencalioglu Kuscu, G.; Cosca, M. A.; Brocard, G. Y.; Rojay, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Anatolian plate is an active orogen in which spatial and temporal transitions between subduction, collision, and escape dynamics can be evaluated. Within the scope of the Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolian Tectonics project (CD-CAT), integrated efforts are combined to explore connections between surface and deep mantle as Anatolia transitioned from subduction to escape. In this study, we investigate a portion of this system that is situated between the Central Anatolian Fault Zone in the NW and East Anatolian Fault Zone in the SE. In this area, Paleozoic-Mesozoic platform carbonates, ophiolitic rocks and their Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary cover form a ~50 km wide belt oriented NE-SW in the west and curving toward the east and then toward the south in the east. The core of this structure comprises the Binbo?a metamorphic massif and the Gksun ophiolite, and the outer rim is delimited by the Kangal and Malatya basins which are filled with Neogene sediments and volcanics. We call this large structure the 'Grn Curl' for its curved shape; it is ~200 km long and ~250 km wide. The origin of the Grn Curl and its potential connection with deep processes are investigated using a multi-disciplinary approach. The main questions we would like to address are the following: what exactly defines this observed curvature? Were the belts originally curved, or were they deformed into the Curl? Was it affected by topographic, crustal and/or lithospheric processes? When and how did it form? Four main fault-zones dissect the Grn curl: three sub-parallel NNE-SSW oriented left lateral faults (from west to east, the Sariz, Grn, and Malatya faults) and the ~E-W oriented right lateral Srg fault in the south. The kinematics and evolution of these faults are investigated in connection with the development and deformation of Miocene basins throughout the curl (e.g. Grn, Darende, Elbistan basins) as well as the spatial, temporal, and geochemical evolution of mafic volcanic activity (Miocene to Pliocene alkaline and subalkaline basaltic flows present in and to the north and west of the area). Within a large network of seismic stations deployed this year for the CD-CAT project, ten of them are positioned within the Curl and will provide the opportunity to image it at depth. In the first stage of our investigation, we are testing whether this large-scale curvature could represent an originally linear feature that rotated during collision processes (orocline). To test this hypothesis, we have sampled Eocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks at three locations within the curl (west, center and east) for paleomagnetism to track the possible rotation history of the region since the Eocene.

  13. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Increases Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Quinone Reductase Activity in Kale Leaf Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties ‘Dwarf Blue Curled Vates’ and ‘Red Winter’ in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar ‘Red Winter’ in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, P<0.001). Concentrations required to double the specific QR activity (CD values) of I3C was calculated at 230 µM, which is considerably weaker at induction than other isothiocyanates like sulforphane. To confirm relationships between GS hydrolysis products and QR activity, a range of concentrations of MeJA sprays were applied to kale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  14. Peanut leaf inspired multifunctional surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Ju, Jie; Qiu, Yuchen; He, Yaxu; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2014-01-29

    Nature has long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers to design and construct multifunctional artificial materials. The lotus and the peanut are two typical plants living in the aquatic and the arid (or semiarid) habitats, respectively, which have evolved different optimized solutions to survive. For the lotus leaf, an air layer is formed between its surface and water, exhibiting a discontinuous three-phase contact line, which resulted in the low adhesive superhydrophobic self-cleaning effect to avoid the leaf decomposition. In contrast to the lotus leaf, the peanut leaf shows high-adhesive superhydrophobicity, arising from the formation of the quasi-continuous and discontinuous three-phase contact line at the microscale and nanoscale, respectively, which provides a new avenue for the fabrication of high adhesive superhydrophobic materials. Further, this high adhesive and superhydrophobic peanut leaf is proved to be efficient in fog capture. Inspired by the peanut leaf, multifunctional surfaces with structural similarity to the natural peanut leaf are prepared, exhibiting simultaneous superhydrophobicity and high adhesion towards water. PMID:23908145

  15. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenghua; Pan, Dongdong; Teichroew, Jonathan; An, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover) and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover) in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s) to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity. PMID:26765140

  16. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhenghua; Pan, Dongdong; Teichroew, Jonathan; An, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover) and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover) in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s) to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity. PMID:26765140

  17. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  1. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  2. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 20 cm and took 28 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf tie due to food limitation and interactions with other caterpillars, but this is a costly behavior. PMID:24109557

  3. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (??stem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO? concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO? concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO? on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ??stem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in ?leaf and maximize g s and CO? assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  4. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  5. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  6. Leaf exsertion, leaf elongation, and leaf senescence in Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex Bigelowii

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, G.R.; Yandow, T.; Laundre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the common sedges of arctic vegetation show a pattern of leaf production in which the exsertion and elongation of new leaves is more or less simultaneous with the senescence of old leaves. The present study was designed to increase our understanding of the variability sequential leaf production by arctic sedges, and to determine some of the controls on that variability. We did this in two ways: first, we compared the sequential patterns of leaf growth and senescence in E. vaginatum with those of Carex Bigelowii Torr. at two tussock tundra sites near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Second, we compared the responses of leaf growth in these species in control and fertilized plots and in two microenvironments thought to differ sharply in nutrient availability and total productivity. 29 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. NON-DESTRUCTIVE ASSESSMENT OF ARUNDO DONAX (POACEAE) LEAF QUALITY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf quality information (i.e., leaf C content, leaf N content, leaf C:N ratio) is especially useful for understanding plant-herbivore interactions and may be important in developing control methods for the invasive riparian plant Arundo donax L. We measured leaf C content, leaf N content, leaf C:N ...

  8. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis, and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a corn curl manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2007-01-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of corn curl manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in an effort to exclude the presence of GMOs in the final product. This is of crucial importance both from the ethics and the legislation (Regulations EC 1829/2003; EC 1830/2003; Directive EC 18/2001) point of view. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis were used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (corn curls processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and the fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimization of GMOs detection potential of FMEA. PMID:17457722

  9. How to pattern a leaf.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  10. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    PubMed

    Blanco-Daz, Mara Teresa; Del Ro-Celestino, Mercedes; Martnez-Valdivieso, Damin; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations. PMID:24996338

  11. A new div-curl result. Applications to the homogenization of elliptic systems and to the weak continuity of the Jacobian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briane, M.; Casado Díaz, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper a new div-curl result is established in an open set Ω of RN, N ≥ 2, for the product σn ṡηn of two sequences of vector-valued functions σn, ηn such that σn is bounded in Lp(Ω) N, ηn is bounded in Lq(Ω) N, with 1 / p + 1 / q = 1 + 1 / (N - 1), and such that divσn, curlηn are compact in suitable spaces. The new assumption is that the product converges weakly in W - 1 , 1 (Ω). The approach is also new in the topic, and is based on a compactness result for bounded sequences in W 1 , q (Ω) through a suitable selection of annuli on which the gradients are not too high, in the spirit of [26,32] and using the imbedding of W 1 , q into Lp‧ for the unit sphere of RN. The div-curl result is applied to the homogenization of equi-coercive systems whose coefficients are equi-bounded in Lρ (Ω) for some ρ >N-1/2 if N > 2, or in L1 (Ω) if N = 2. It also allows us to prove a weak continuity result for the Jacobian for bounded sequences in W 1 , N - 1 (Ω) satisfying an alternative assumption to the L∞-strong estimate of [8]. Two examples show the sharpness of the results.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GFP reveals ER remodeling in Mesorhizobium-treated Lotus japonicus root hairs during root hair curling and infection thread formation.

    PubMed

    Perrine-Walker, F M; Kouchi, H; Ridge, R W

    2014-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the model legume Lotus japonicus was visualized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with the KDEL sequence to investigate the changes in the root hair cortical ER in the presence or absence of Mesorhizobium loti using live fluorescence imaging. Uninoculated root hairs displayed dynamic forms of ER, ranging from a highly condensed form to an open reticulum. In the presence of M. loti, a highly dynamic condensed form of the ER linked with the nucleus was found in deformed, curled, and infected root hairs, similar to that in uninoculated and inoculated growing zone I and II root hairs. An open reticulum was primarily found in mature inoculated zone III root hairs, similar to that found in inactive deformed/curled root hairs and infected root hairs with aborted infection threads. Co-imaging of GFP-labeled ER with light transmission demonstrated a correlation between the mobility of the ER and other organelles and the directionality of the cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs in the early stages of infection thread formation and growth. ER remodeling in root hair cells is discussed in terms of possible biological significance during root hair growth, deformation/curling, and infection in the Mesorhizobium-L. japonicus symbiosis. PMID:24337802

  13. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf and air temperature is generally neglected in terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle models. This is a significant omission that could lead to an over-estimation of the heat-stress vulnerability of carbon uptake in the wet tropics. Leaf energy balance theory is well established, and should be included in the next generation of models.

  14. Planting Date and Variety Selection for Management of Viruses Transmitted by the Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    McMechan, Anthony J; Hein, Gary L

    2016-02-01

    Wheat is an important food grain worldwide, and it is the primary dryland crop in the western Great Plains. A complex of three viruses (Wheat streak mosaic, Wheat mosaic, and Triticum mosaic viruses) is a common cause of loss in winter wheat production in the Great Plains. All these viruses are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). Once these viruses are established, there are no curative actions; therefore, prevention is the key to successful management. A study was designed to evaluate preventative management tactics (planting date, resistant varieties) for reducing the impact from this virus complex. The main plot treatments were three planting dates, and split-plot treatments were three wheat varieties. Varieties were planted at three different times during the fall to simulate early, recommended, and late planting dates. The varieties evaluated in this study were Mace (virus resistant), Millennium (mild tolerance), and Tomahawk (susceptible). Measurements of virus symptomology and yield were used to determine virus impact. Results consistently showed that the resistant Mace yielded more than Millennium or Tomahawk under virus pressure. In some years, delayed planting improved the yields for all varieties, regardless of their background; however, under the most severe virus pressure the combination of both management strategies was not sufficient to provide practical control of this complex. These results illustrate the importance of using a combination of management tactics for this complex, but also reinforce the importance for producers to use additional management strategies (e.g., control preharvest volunteer wheat) to manage this complex. PMID:26516091

  15. Non-Euclidean stress-free configuration of arteries accounting for curl of axial strips sectioned from vessels.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Keiichi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that arteries are subject to residual stress. In earlier studies, the residual stress in the arterial ring relieved by a radial cut was considered in stress analysis. However, it has been found that axial strips sectioned from arteries also curled into arcs, showing that the axial residual stresses were relieved from the arterial walls. The combined relief of circumferential and axial residual stresses must be considered to accurately analyze stress and strain distributions under physiological loading conditions. In the present study, a mathematical model of a stress-free configuration of artery was proposed using Riemannian geometry. Stress analysis for arterial walls under unloaded and physiologically loaded conditions was performed using exponential strain energy functions for porcine and human common carotid arteries. In the porcine artery, the circumferential stress distribution under physiological loading became uniform compared with that without axial residual strain, whereas a gradient of axial stress distribution increased through the wall thickness. This behavior showed almost the same pattern that was observed in a recent study in which approximate analysis accounting for circumferential and axial residual strains was performed, whereas the circumferential and axial stresses increased from the inner surface to the outer surface under a physiological condition in the human common carotid artery of a two-layer model based on data of other recent studies. In both analyses, Riemannian geometry was appropriate to define the stress-free configurations of the arterial walls with both circumferential and axial residual strains. PMID:24008313

  16. Behavior of Leaf Meristems and Their Modification

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A major source of diversity in flowering plant form is the extensive variability of leaf shape and size. Leaf formation is initiated by recruitment of a handful of cells flanking the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to develop into a complex three-dimensional structure. Leaf organogenesis depends on activities of several distinct meristems that are established and spatiotemporally differentiated after the initiation of leaf primordia. Here, we review recent findings in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate leaf meristem activities in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discuss recent key studies investigating the natural variation in leaf morphology to understand how the gene regulatory networks modulate leaf meristems to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms during the course of evolution. PMID:26648955

  17. An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Anthony John Garnello, Karina Paredes, Uyen Khanh Ho Trinh, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Leaf age is an important characteristic for controlling plant functional performance and is associated with the changes of leaf physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Understanding how plant physiology changes over time will allow more accurate predictions of growth patterns, and a more comprehensive understanding of vegetative life histories. There still lacks an efficient technique in monitoring leaf age, tagging leaves is still the only way to accurately monitor leaf age. The goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric, accurate technique for better monitoring of leaf age. In order to acquire true leaf age records, 10 individual plant species were selected at the University of Arizona campus, and newly flushing leaves were tagged and monitored during the Monsoon season (from early June, 2013, to mid October, 2013). Every 2 weeks, 10 to 15 leaves in relative age order were harvested from each 1-meter branch to measure multiple key leaf metrics, including leaf thickness (via micrometer), fresh and dry weight, fresh and dry area (via ImageJ software), and leaf hyperspectral reflectance (via a handheld ASD Field Pro). Other leaf traits were also derived from our measurements, such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf density (fresh weight/leaf volume), water percentage, and shrinkage ratio (1-dry area/fresh area). The hyperspectral version of vegetation index (a ratio derived from two spectral channels) was generated for each branch sample, by randomly selecting two channels from within the spectral domain of 350 nm to 2500 nm. The preliminary result documents three types of hyperspectral vegetation index (VI) which are highly related with leaf relative age order (R2>0.9). These include the sensitive spectral domains correlated with (a) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf physical structure (750nm-1000nm), (b) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf water concentration (1400nm-2300nm), and (c) leaf physical structure (750nm-1000nm) and leaf water concentration (1400nm-2300nm). Preliminary results showed that (1) among the key leaf traits, leaf shrinkage is the only trait that showed a consistent correlation with relative age order across the samples; (2) a power function best modeled the interspecies relationship between leaf shrinkage and leaf age (R2 = 0.81, p-value < 0.01, 22 data points for 7 species); (3) a strong correlation was found between the predicted leaf age using the species specific power functions of leaf shrinkage and true leaf age (R2= 0.96, p-value < 0.01), suggesting that leaf shrinkage could be a useful trait for prediction of absolute leaf age in the future. In the next step, we will integrate leaf shrinkage based leaf age prediction with hyperspectral VI framework, aiming to derive some reliable VIs which can be universal for leaf aging prediction among all the species.

  18. LEAF: A Microcomputer Program for Constructing the Tukey Stem and Leaf Graph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Pietro J.; Smith, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a BASIC microcomputer program that constructs the Tukey (1977) stem and leaf graph. Options within the LEAF program include a modified stem and leaf where the stem is split and a parallel stem and leaf graph where two separate sets of data are displayed from a common stem. (Author)

  19. XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT OF ONION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas leaf blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a common foliar disease of onion. This extension bulletin presents a review of disease symptomology, etiology, epidemiology, and management. The association of environment, host, and cultural and disease severity ...

  20. Light reflectance of leaf constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown how various leaf constituents differ in reflecting light over the 370- to 1100-nm wavelength interval. The premise tested is that refractive index discontinuities in leaves, other than air-cell interfaces, contribute to the reflectance of near-infrared light.-

  1. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  2. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  3. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  4. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  5. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  7. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, 29.2601.)...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  9. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  10. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves....

  12. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, 29.2351.)...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, 29.2351.)...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, 29.2351.)...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, 29.2601.)...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, 29.2601.)...