Sample records for squash leaf curl

  1. Rapid detection of squash leaf curl virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Ping Kuan; Min-Tze Wu; Yi-Lin Lu; Hung-Chang Huang

    2010-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was employed to develop a simple and efficient system for the detection of squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in diseased plants of squash (Cucurbita pepo) and melon (Cucumis melo). Completion of LAMP assay required 30–60min under isothermal conditions at 65°C by employing a set of four primers targeting SLCV. Although the sensitivity of the

  2. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides. PMID:24258392

  3. Pcr-amplification of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) DNA from squashes of plants and whitefly vectors: Application to the study of TYLCV acquisition and transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil Atzmon; Hadassa van Oss; Henryk Czosnek

    1998-01-01

    DNA of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a geminivirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, was amplified from squashes of infected tomato plants and of viruliferous vectors using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Samples of infected tissues as small as 1 mm2 were squashed onto a nylon membrane. A 1 × 2 mm strip containing the squash was introduced

  4. Raspberry leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

  5. Infectivity of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and interaction with Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbing; Zulfiqar, Awais; Huang, Changjun

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the infectivity of Euphorbia leaf curl virus (EuLCV), an infectious clone was constructed and tested by agroinoculation and whitefly inoculation. EuLCV infected Nicotiana benthamiana, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum, Petunia hybrida efficiently upon agroinoculation and induced leaf curling, vein swelling and stunting in these plants but no symptoms in N. tabacum. Co-inoculation of EuLCV with a betasatellite DNA from an unrelated begomovirus enhanced symptoms in N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, N. tabacum, S. lycopersicum and P. hybrida plants but had no effect on the accumulation of EuLCV DNA. Euphorbia pulcherrima plants were only infectable by insect transmission from agro-infected P. hybrida as a source. This is the first report about a monopartite begomovirus that has been reintroduced into a plant of the genus Euphorbia. PMID:21136128

  6. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA ? were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2–55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  7. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I; Kamal, Mohammad A; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2014-12-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA ? were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2-55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  8. Soil Transmission of Scottish Raspberry Leaf-Curl Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Harrison

    1956-01-01

    LEAF-CURL, is the most important virus disease occurring in the raspberry-growing districts of eastern Scotland, where it has been known for many years1. It seems to be caused by raspberry ringspot virus, which can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation from raspberry plants with leaf-curl disease to plants of Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. and several other species2. None of the

  9. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates. PMID:25772572

  10. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  11. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  12. Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

  13. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.

    PubMed

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2013-09-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

  14. Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV): infectivity and enhanced pathogenicity with diverse betasatellites.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Neha; Padmalatha, K V; Singh, V B; Haq, Q M I; Malathi, V G

    2010-08-01

    Genomic components of a begomovirus isolated from tomato plants showing leaf curl and stunting symptoms in farmer's fields at Hessarghatta village near Bangalore, India, were cloned by rolling-circle amplification. The virus was identified as a variant of strain C of the species Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus and designated as Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus-C[India:Hessarghatta:2008], ToLCBV-C[IN:Hess:08]. The betasatellite isolated from these samples belongs to the betasatellite species Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite. ToLCBV-C[IN:Hess:08] induced severe symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana and Solanum lycopersicum plants when co-inoculated with the cognate betasatellite, Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite-[India:Hessarghatta:2008], ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08] and with two other non-cognate betasatellites, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite-[India:SriGanganagar:2002] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite-[India:Luffa:2004]. PMID:20526636

  15. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl betasatellites.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Richa; Dalal, Sunita; Malathi, V G

    2013-03-01

    Virus encoded RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs) are the key components evolved by the viruses to counter RNA-silencing defense of plants. Whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses infecting tomato crop code for five different proteins, ORF AC4, ORF AC2 and ORF AV2 in DNA-A component, ORF BV1 in DNA-B and ORF beta C1 in satellite DNA beta which are predicted to function as silencing suppressors. In the present study suppressor function of ORF beta C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite CLCuMB-[IN:Sri:02] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite LuLDB-[IN:Lu:04] were examined. Agroinfiltration of GFP-silenced Nicotiana tabaccum cv. Xanthi with the cells expressing betaC1 protein resulted in reversal of silenced GFP expression. GFP-siRNA level was more than 50-fold lower compared to silenced plants in plants infiltrated with betaC1 gene from ToLCBB. However, in the case of 35S-beta C1 CLCuMB and 35S- beta C1 LuLDB construct, although GFP was expressed, siRNA level was not reduced, indicating that the step at which beta C1 interfere in RNA-silencing pathway is different. PMID:23385812

  16. Infectious clones of Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus with a defective DNA B and their pseudo-recombination with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aamir Humayun Malik; Rob W Briddon; Shahid Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    Background  \\u000a Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) is a bipartite begomovirus which has been reported from India and Iran but infectious clones have not been obtained.\\u000a We have previously shown the association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), a potyvirus, with severe leaf curl disease of muskmelon in Pakistan. However, the severity of symptoms in the field\\u000a and yield losses

  17. [Molecular detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)].

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Bao; Cui, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Ying; Li, Chuan-You

    2012-03-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is currently considered as one of the most devastating viruses in cultivated tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. We reported here the development of a PCR-based method to quickly detect TYLCV using the primer pairs (TYLCV-F: 5'-ACG CAT GCC TCT AAT CCA GTG TA-3' and TYLCV-R: 5'-CCA ATA AGG CGT AAG CGT GTA GAC-3'), which was designed based on the genome sequence of TYLCV. A TYLCV-specific band of 543 bp was amplified from infected tomato plants. This protocol provides a rapid, reliable, and sensitive tool for molecular detection and identification of TYLCV in the industrial seedling and virus resistance breeding to facilitate safe and sustainable production of tomato. PMID:22425956

  18. Identification of DNA Components Required for Induction of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Briddon; S. Mansoor; I. D. Bedford; M. S. Pinner; K. Saunders; Y. Zafar; K. A. Malik; P. G. Markham

    2001-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a major constraint to cotton production in Pakistan. Infectious clones of the monopartite begomovirus cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), associated with diseased cotton, are unable to induce typical symptoms in host plants. We have identified and isolated a single-stranded DNA molecule approximately 1350 nucleotides in length which, when coinoculated with the begomovirus to cotton,

  19. Biomolecular relationships among isolates of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Tanzania Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boniface D. Kashina; Robert B. Mabagala; Anatolia A. Mpunami

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the biological properties of the virus causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease in Tanzania was initiated\\u000a to compare it with other known tomato yellow leaf curl viruses. Properties relating to acquisition and inoculation feeding\\u000a time, persistence, mechanical inoculation, seed transmission and host range were studied. Results obtained indicate that the\\u000a virus was transmitted persistently byBemisia tabaci Genn.,

  20. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. PMID:23535770

  1. First report of an alphasatellite associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Chandran, S A; Packialakshmi, R M; Subhalakshmi, K; Prakash, C; Poovannan, K; Nixon Prabu, A; Gopal, P; Usha, R

    2013-06-01

    An alphasatellite DNA associated with Okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV) which causes enation and leaf curling in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants was characterized. The full-length DNA comprises 1,350 nucleotides and shows typical genome organization of an alphasatellite. It shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity (79.7 %) to Hollyhock yellow vein virus-associated symptomless alphasatellite (HoYVSLA). This is the first report of the association of an alphasatellite with OELCuV from India. PMID:23475199

  2. Identification of a Novel Circular Single-Stranded DNA Associated with Cotton Leaf Curl Disease in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahid Mansoor; Sultan H. Khan; Aftab Bashir; Muhammed Saeed; Yusuf Zafar; Kauser A. Malik; Rob Briddon; John Stanley; Peter G. Markham

    1999-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), a geminivirus of the genus Begomovirus, may be responsible for cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. However, the causal agent of the disease remains unclear as CLCuV genomic components resembling begomovirus DNA A are unable to induce typical disease symptoms when reintroduced into plants. All attempts to isolate a genomic

  3. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Huanran; Zhou, Xueping

    2009-10-01

    Several tomato production regions in China were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD), and 31 tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected. The partial or full-length genomes of these isolates were sequenced and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was detected in Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu Shandong and Hebei provinces of China. The TYLCV isolates found in China share high sequence identity ([98%) and have more than 97% sequence identity with TYLCVIL[ IL:Reo] (X15656). Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that although with little genetic variability, they can form two groups and all the TYLCV isolates in China belong to the group I. An infectious clone of TYLCV-[CN:SH2] (AM282874) was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum, Petunia hybrida, Cucumis sativus, Gossypium hirsutum, S. melongena, and Capsicum annuum. TYLCV-[CN:SH2] can induce severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants except C. sativus, G. hirsutum, S. melongena and C. annuum.We verified that TYLCV can trans-replicate tomato yellow leaf curl China virus DNA-b in N. benthamiana and S. lycopersicum and induced more severe symptoms with distortion and yellow vein. PMID:19590945

  4. Inhibition of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) using whey proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf M Abdelbacki; Soad H Taha; Mahmoud Z Sitohy; Abdelgawad I Abou Dawood; Mahmoud M Abd-El Hamid; Adel A Rezk

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was studied to inhibit tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) on infected tomato plants. Whey proteins fractions and their esterified derivatives were sprayed into TYLCV-infected plants. Samples were collected from infected leaves before treatment, 7 and 15 days after treatment for DNA and molecular hybridization analysis.

  5. Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus: Virus Reservoir in Species of Wild Morning Glory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increases in populations of the Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) vector, the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), led to a dramatic increase in the disease in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). Knowledge of crop or weed species that occur in sweetpotato growing areas and can serv...

  6. Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus: Efficiency of Acquisition, Retention and Transmission by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global pest which damages plants directly by feeding on leaves. Moreover, the problem is compounded because B. tabaci also vectors numerous plant viruses, including Begomoviruses (Geminiviridae) such as the Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus (SPL...

  7. Management of sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotatoes using insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), which is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), can severely affect yields of commercial sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae). This virus occurs every year at the U.S. Vegetable Laborato...

  8. Molecular characterization of Chilli leaf curl viruses infecting new host plant Petunia hybrida in India.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Chitra; Gaur, R K

    2015-02-01

    Petunia hybrida is an important ornamental plant grown in many countries including India. It is a good model plant for the study of genetics and molecular biology. During a survey in 2013-2014, severe leaf curling was observed on most of the P. hybrida grown in the Sikar district, Rajasthan. The infected plants were analyzed for begomovirus infection by rolling circular amplification (RCA) and sequenced. Full length sequences confirmed the association of monopartite begomovirus with betasatellites. Phylogenetic analysis showed the highest percentage of identity with Chilli leaf curl virus (ChLCuV) and therefore considered to be an isolate of ChLCuV. Recombination analysis showed that ChLCuV has broadened its host range by recombination process. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report of natural occurrence of ChLCuV on P. hybrida in India. PMID:25294775

  9. A new strain of tomato severe leaf curl virus and a unique variant of tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos-Hernández, B; Mauricio-Castillo, J A; Cardenas-Conejo, Y; Guevara-González, R G; Arguello-Astorga, G R

    2012-09-01

    The complete genome sequence of a distinct variant of tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL) and the DNA-A sequence of a new strain of tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV) isolated in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, are described and analyzed. The TYLCV-IL[MX:SLP:11] variant differs from all TYLCV-IL isolates described so far by a unique 42-nt duplicated sequence comprising a part of the conserved stem-loop element of the virion-strand replication origin and adjacent regulatory sequences. TYLCV-IL[MX:SLP:11] was associated with tomato chino La Paz virus (ToChLPV-B[MX:SLP:11]) in a Solanum pimpinellifolium plant, and with pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV-[MX:SLP:11]) and ToSLCV-GT[MX:SLP:11] in a Solanum lycopersicum plant. In addition, a distinct ToSLCV exhibiting low sequence identity (<89 %) to other ToSLCV isolates from Mexico was found in a tomato plant collected in the same field. Sequence analysis of this new ToSLCV strain indicates that it is a recombinant of close relatives of ToSLCV-GT[MX:SLP:11] and ToChLPV-B[MX:SLP:11] found in mixed infections with TYLCV-IL[MX:SLP:11]. PMID:22684489

  10. A DNA  Associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Is Required for Symptom Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofeng Cui; Xiaorong Tao; Yan Xie; Claude M. Fauquet; Xueping Zhou

    2004-01-01

    We report here that all 25 isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) collected from tobacco, tomato, or Siegesbeckia orientalis plants in different regions of Yunnan Province, China, were associated with DNA molecules. To investigate the biological role of DNA, full-length infectious clones of viral DNA and DNA of TYLCCNV isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana,

  11. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2010-02-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

  12. Natural association of two different betasatellites with Sweet potato leaf curl virus in wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in India.

    PubMed

    Swapna Geetanjali, A; Shilpi, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) was observed to be affected by leaf curl and yellow vein diseases during summer-rainy season of 2009 in New Delhi, India. The virus was experimentally transmitted through whitefly, Bemisia tabaci to I. purpurea that reproduced the two distinct symptoms. Sequence analysis of multiple full-length clones obtained through rolling circle amplification from the leaf curl and yellow vein samples showed 91.8-95.3% sequence identity with Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from those reported from Brazil, China, Japan and USA. Interestingly, two different betasatellites, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite and papaya leaf curl betasatellite were found with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea, respectively. This study is the first report of occurrence of SPLCV in wild morning glory in India. SPLCV was known to infect other species of morning glory; our study revealed that I. purpurea, a new species of morning glory was a natural host of SPLCV. To date, betasatellite associated with SPLCV in Ipomoea spp. is not known. Our study provides evidence of natural association of two different betasatellites with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea. PMID:23529301

  13. Identification of a distinct strain of cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    PubMed

    Shuja, Malik Nawaz; Briddon, Rob W; Tahir, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major biotic limitation to cotton production in Pakistan and northwestern India. The disease is caused by various distinct viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) in association with a disease-specific betasatellite - cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Since 2001, when resistance to CLCuD in cotton was broken, only one virus was consistently identified in cotton exhibiting CLCuD symptoms in Punjab province (Pakistan) - cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV). An analysis of all CLCuBuV isolates available in the databases showed these to represent only a single strain, based on currently applicable criteria. Virus and betasatellite clones were obtained from a leaf sample (isolate C49) collected from a CLCuD symptomatic cotton plant in Layyah district, Punjab province, in 2012. Analysis of the sequence of the betasatellite showed this to be an isolate of CLCuMB containing the recombinant fragment typical of this satellite post-resistance-breaking. The virus was shown it to be an isolate of CLCuBuV but to be distinct from all previously characterised isolates and to represent a distinct strain. In common with previous CLCuBuV isolates, the virus from C49 is a recombinant containing sequences derived from viruses of two species that were prevalent in cotton pre-resistance-breaking but with distinct recombination break sites. As was the case with the earlier CLCuBuV, the newly identified strain of CLCuBuV lacks an intact transcriptional activator protein. PMID:24838851

  14. Characterization and distribution of tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus, a begomovirus from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Nava, A; Londoño, A; Polston, J E

    2013-02-01

    A begomovirus causing mottling and leaf deformation in tomato from the State of Mérida was cloned and sequenced. The virus has a bipartite genome comprised of a DNA-A (2,572 nucleotides) and a DNA-B (2,543 nucleotides) with a genome organization typical of New World begomoviruses. Both components share a common region of 115 nucleotides with 98 % sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that while no virus sequences were closely related, the A component was distantly related to those of two other tomato-infecting viruses, tomato leaf deformation virus and Merremia mosaic virus; and the DNA-B, to those of pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and Rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus. The DNA-A and DNA-B sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession no. AY508993 and AY508994, respectively) and later accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as the genome of a member of a unique virus species with the name Tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus (TYMLCV). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Fl. Lanai') plants inoculated with cloned TYMLCV DNA-A and DNA-B became systemically infected and showed chlorotic margins and leaf curling. The distribution of TYMLCV in tomato-producing states in Venezuela was determined by nucleic acid spot hybridization analysis of 334 tomato leaf samples collected from ten states using a TYMLCV-specific probe and confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the PCR fragment. TYMLCV was detected in samples from the states of Aragua, Guárico, and Mérida, suggesting that TYMLCV is widely distributed in Venezuela. PMID:23064695

  15. Lamium amplexicaule (Lamiaceae): a weed reservoir for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Jaedeok; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-06-01

    After the first identification of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in the southern part of Korea in 2008, TYLCV has rapidly spread to tomato farms in most regions of Korea. From 2008 to 2010, a survey of natural weed hosts that could be reservoirs of TYLCV was performed in major tomato production areas of Korea. About 530 samples were collected and identified as belonging to 25 species from 11 families. PCR and Southern hybridization were used to detect TYLCV in samples, and replicating forms of TYLCV DNA were detected in three species (Achyranthes bidentata, Lamium amplexicaule, and Veronica persica) by Southern hybridization. TYLCV transmission mediated by Bemisia tabaci from TYLCV-infected tomato plants to L. amplexicaule was confirmed, and TYLCV-infected L. amplexicaule showed symptoms such as yellowing, stunting, and leaf curling. TYLCV from infected L. amplexicaule was also transmitted to healthy tomato and L. amplexicaule plants by B. tabaci. The rate of infection of L. amplexicaule by TYLCV was similar to that of tomato. This report is the first to show that L. amplexicaule is a reservoir weed host for TYLCV. PMID:24327090

  16. Functional characterization of ?C1 gene of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Neha; Sharma, P K; Malathi, V G

    2013-02-01

    Whitefly-transmitted Begomoviruses having circular single stranded DNA genome cause severe leaf curl diseases in the tropical and subtropical region. The majority of Old World monopartite begomoviruses with DNA A component is associated with a satellite DNA of 1.3 kb length referred to as betasatellites. The presence of betasatellite is required to express typical symptoms in the primary hosts. Increased symptom expression in betasatellite's presence is attributed to a 13-15 kDa ?C1 protein encoded by the ?C1 gene on complementary sense strand. The exact mechanism by which the ?C1 protein contributes to the symptoms' severity and helper viral DNA's accumulation is not yet understood. Here, we studied the ?C1 protein of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite, associated with mono and bipartite begomoviruses. The ?C1 protein was expressed in prokaryotic system as 6XHis-?C1 fusion protein and recombinant protein showed size- and sequence-specific DNA binding activity. The host proteins which may interact with ?C1 were identified by binding ?C1 recombinant protein with heptapeptide in phage display library. The ?C1-interacting host proteins predicted belong to metabolic and defense pathways, indicating that ?C1 protein has a pivotal role in viral pathogenicity. PMID:23054431

  17. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates. PMID:24957717

  18. Regional Changes in the Sequence of Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Sohail; Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Javaid, Shaista; Khan, Ali Qaiser; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan and northwestern India is caused by monopartite begomoviruses in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Following a recent upsurge in CLCuD problems in Sindh province (southern Pakistan), sequences of clones of CLCuMB were obtained from Sindh and Punjab province (central Pakistan), where CLCuD has been a problem since the mid-1980s. The sequences were compared to all sequences of CLCuMB available in the databases. Analysis of the sequences shows extensive sequence variation in CLCuMB, most likely resulting from recombination. The range of sequence variants differ between Sindh, the Punjab and northwestern India. The possible significance of the findings with respect to movement of the CLCuD between the three regions is discussed. Additionally, the lack of sequence variation within the only coding sequence of CLCuMB suggests that the betasatellite is not involved in resistance breaking which became a problem after 2001 in the Punjab and subsequently also in northwestern India. PMID:24859342

  19. Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus, a new plant virus infecting lettuce and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Martin; Dullemans, Annette M; van Raaij, Henry M G; Verhoeven, Jacobus Th J; van der Vlugt, René A A

    2014-04-01

    A new virus was isolated from a lettuce plant grown in an open field in the Netherlands in 2011. This plant was showing conspicuous symptoms that consisted of necrosis and moderate leaf curling. The virus was mechanically transferred to indicator plants, and a total RNA extract of one of these indicator plants was used for next-generation sequencing. Analysis of the sequences that were obtained and further biological studies showed that the virus was related to, but clearly distinct from, viruses belonging to the genus Torradovirus. The name "lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus" (LNLCV) is proposed for this new torradovirus. PMID:24142269

  20. Three years survey of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus reservoir weed hosts in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Angele; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2007-01-01

    During the period from August 2004 to June 2006 a serious tomato yellow leaf curl epidemic caused by both Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCS) was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Calabria Region, in a group of greenhouses where tomato is grown hydroponically. A three years survey for reservoir weed hosts of these viruses was performed during summer period in order to identify where the viruses persist during the host-free period, interesting an area covering a ray of 500 m around the group of greenhouses. About 350 samples were collected from symptomless and symptomatic plants of the following botanic families: Graminaceae, Compositeae, Solanaceae, Portulacaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Labiatae, Plantaginaceae, Asteraceae. Any virus presence was evaluated by DAS ELISA, using a "broad-spectrum" reagent combination detecting different Begomoviruses including TYLCSV and TYLCV. A couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene was used for PCR of ELISA positive samples in order to perform the molecular characterisation of the viral isolate responsible of the disease. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in the weeds found infected and belonging to Sonchus asper, Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium and Cardaria draba species. Similarity analysis performed between the CP of each isolate and the TYLCSV isolate recovered within the greenhouse and responsible of the epidemic in mixed infection with a TYLCV isolate resulted in a value of 100% of identity, thus indicating that there was no variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. S. asper, S. nigrum, D. stramonium and C. draba, as alternative hosts of TYLCSV and nutrient plants of the virus vector, Bemisia tabaci, were found to play an important role in virus ecology and epidemiology in the studied tomato ecosystem. No weed between those investigated has been found to be infected by TYLCV so far. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. asper and C. draba as TYLCSV hosts in natural infection. PMID:18396845

  1. Molecular characterization of tomato leaf curl China virus, infecting tomato plants in China, and functional analyses of its associated betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuling; Guo, Wei; Ma, Xinying; An, Qianli; Zhou, Xueping

    2011-05-01

    A novel tomato-infecting begomovirus from Guangxi province, China, was identified and characterized, for which the name Tomato leaf curl China virus (ToLCCNV) was proposed. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses of the virus genomic sequences suggested that ToLCCNV may have arisen by recombination among Tomato leaf curl Vietnam virus (ToLCVV), Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV), and an unknown virus. A betasatellite molecule was found to be associated with ToLCCNV (ToLCCNB), and its complete nucleotide sequences were determined. Infectious clones of ToLCCNV and ToLCCNB were constructed and then used for agro-inoculation of plants; ToLCCNV alone infected Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Petunia hybrida, and Solanum lycopersicum plants, but no symptoms were induced. ToLCCNB was required for induction of leaf curl disease in these hosts. The ?C1 protein of ToLCCNB was identified as a suppressor of RNA silencing and accumulated primarily in the nucleus. Deletion mutagenesis of ?C1 showed that the central part of ?C1 (amino acids 44 to 74) was responsible for both the suppressor activity and nuclear localization. PMID:21378048

  2. Evidence for Transovarial Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by Its Vector, the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murad Ghanim; Shai Morin; Muhammad Zeidan; Henryk Czosnek

    1998-01-01

    The whiteflyBemisia tabaciis the only vector of the tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV). The insect transmits the virus in a persistent-circulative manner. TYLCV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot hybridization in progeny (eggs, first and second instars, adults) of single viruliferous whiteflies that developed on eggplant or on cotton (two TYLCV nonhost plants). Furthermore,

  3. Inhibition of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) using whey proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was studied to inhibit tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) on infected tomato plants. Whey proteins fractions and their esterified derivatives were sprayed into TYLCV-infected plants. Samples were collected from infected leaves before treatment, 7 and 15 days after treatment for DNA and molecular hybridization analysis. The most evident inhibition of virus replication was observed after 7 and 15 days using ?-lactoferrin and ?-lactalbumin, respectively. Native and esterified lactoferrin showed complete inhibition after 7 days. On the other hand, native ?-lactoglobulin showed inhibition after 7 and 15 days whereas esterified ?-lactoglobulin was comparatively more effective after 7 days. The relative amount of viral DNA was less affected by the esterified ?-lactalbumin whereas native ?-lactalbumin inhibited virus replication completely after 15 days. These results indicate that native or modified whey proteins fractions can be used for controlling the TYLCV-infected plants. PMID:20128897

  4. Yield and fibre quality associated with cotton leaf curl disease of Bt-cotton in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, Daljeet; Gill, J S; Gumber, R K; Singh, Ramandeep; Singh, Satnam

    2013-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), caused by Gemini virus and transmitted through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is a serious problem in Northern India, affecting the productivity to a great extent. Depending upon the severity of infection in susceptible varieties, the disease can cause upto 90.0 % yield losses besides this, it also causes deterioration in fibre quality. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of cotton leaf curl disease on seed cotton yield and fibre characters of two popular Bt-cotton hybrids in Punjab. The disease caused 52.7% reduction in number of bolls and 54.2 % in boll weight in Bt cotton hybrid RCH 134. Similarly, it reduced the fibre length from 29.1 to 26.2 mm (9.9%); fibre uniformity from 68.9 to 68.1% (1.1%); fibre strength from 29.1 to 26.9 g per texture (7.5%) and miconaire value from 5.2 to 5.0 g inch(-1) (3.8%). Similar results were reported in Bt cotton hybrid MRC 6304, where the disease reduced the boll number and boll weight by 46.1 and 43.4%, respectively. However, to the fibre quality was not much affected by varying level of disease severity. The studies clearly reflect the adverse impact of CLCuD on yield and fibre quality especially 2.5% span length. Thus suggesting the management of disease using integrated disease management strategies to avoid quantitative and qualitative losses. PMID:24006816

  5. Within-Host Dynamics of the Emergence of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Recombinants

    PubMed Central

    Urbino, Cica; Gutiérrez, Serafin; Antolik, Anna; Bouazza, Nabila; Doumayrou, Juliette; Granier, Martine; Martin, Darren P.; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a highly damaging begomovirus native to the Middle East. TYLCV has recently spread worldwide, recombining with other begomoviruses. Recent analysis of mixed infections between TYLCV and Tomato leaf curl Comoros begomovirus (ToLCKMV) has shown that, although natural selection preserves certain co-evolved intra-genomic interactions, numerous and diverse recombinants are produced at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi), and recombinant populations from different tomato plants are very divergent. Here, we investigate the population dynamics that lead to such patterns in tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV and ToLCKMV either by agro-inoculation or using the natural whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. We monitored the frequency of parental and recombinant genotypes independently in 35 plants between 18 and 330 dpi and identified 177 recombinants isolated at different times. Recombinants were detected from 18 dpi and their frequency increased over time to reach about 50% at 150 dpi regardless of the inoculation method. The distribution of breakpoints detected on 96 fully sequenced recombinants was consistent with a continuous generation of new recombinants as well as random and deterministic effects in their maintenance. A severe population bottleneck of around 10 genomes was estimated during early systemic infection–a phenomenon that could account partially for the heterogeneity in recombinant patterns observed among plants. The detection of the same recombinant genome in six of the thirteen plants analysed beyond 30 dpi supported the influence of selection on observed recombination patterns. Moreover, a highly virulent recombinant genotype dominating virus populations within one plant has, apparently, the potential to be maintained in the natural population according to its infectivity, within-host accumulation, and transmission efficiency - all of which were similar or intermediate to those of the parent genotypes. Our results anticipate the outcomes of natural encounters between TYLCV and ToLCKMV. PMID:23472190

  6. MicroRNA profiling of tomato leaf curl new delhi virus (tolcndv) infected tomato leaves indicates that deregulation of mir159/319 and mir172 might be linked with leaf curl disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), a constituent of the genus Begomovirus, infects tomato and other plants with a hallmark disease symptom of upward leaf curling. Since microRNAs (miRs) are known to control plants developmental processes, we evaluated the roles of miRNAs in Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) induced leaf curling. Results Microarray analyses of miRNAs, isolated from the leaves of both healthy and ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv Pusa Ruby, revealed that ToLCNDV infection significantly deregulated various miRNAs representing ~13 different conserved families (e.g., miR319, miR172, etc.). The precursors of these miRNAs showed similar deregulated patterns, indicating that the transcription regulation of respective miRNA genes was perhaps the cause of deregulation. The expression levels of the miRNA-targeted genes were antagonistic with respect to the amount of corresponding miRNA. Such deregulation was tissue-specific in nature as no analogous misexpression was found in flowers. The accumulation of miR159/319 and miR172 was observed to increase with the days post inoculation (dpi) of ToLCNDV agroinfection in tomato cv Pusa Ruby. Similarly, these miRs were also induced in ToLCNDV agroinfected tomato cv JK Asha and chilli plants, both exhibiting leaf curl symptoms. Our results indicate that miR159/319 and miR172 might be associated with leaf curl symptoms. This report raises the possibility of using miRNA(s) as potential signature molecules for ToLCNDV infection. Conclusions The expression of several host miRNAs is affected in response to viral infection. The levels of the corresponding pre-miRs and the predicted targets were also deregulated. This change in miRNA expression levels was specific to leaf tissues and observed to be associated with disease progression. Thus, certain host miRs are likely indicator of viral infection and could be potentially employed to develop viral resistance strategies. PMID:20973960

  7. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistant tomato cultivars are a major tool for management of this economically important virus. Results presented emphasize that such resistant tomatoes can serve as virus and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence virus epidemics....

  8. The Merging of Two Dynasties---Identification of an African Cotton Leaf Curl Disease-Associated Begomovirus with Cotton in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Nouman Tahir; Imran Amin; Rob W. Briddon; Shahid Mansoor; Darren P. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan\\/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However,

  9. Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus-satellite DNAs represent a divergent, geographically isolated Nile Basin lineage: predictive identification of a satDNA REP-binding motif

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Idris; Rob W. Briddon; Simon E. Bull; J. K. Brown

    2005-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), a species of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae), was recently cloned from cotton, okra, and Sida alba plants exhibiting leaf-curling and vein-thickening symptoms in Sudan. Here, we describe a previously unknown lineage of single-stranded DNA satellite (satDNA) molecules, which are associated with CLCuGV, and are required for development of characteristic disease symptoms. Co-inoculation of

  10. Molecular Cloning of Coat Protein Gene of an Indian Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV-HS2) Isolate and its Phylogenetic Relationship with others Members of Geminiviridae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Sharma; Narayan Rishi; V. G. Malathi

    2005-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl geminivirus is a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) transmitted Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae) causing a serious disease of cotton in northern India. The very typical symptoms of present isolate (CLCuV-HS2) showed thickened veins, dark green discoloration of the leaves with upward curling and leaf like structure known as enation (one in number), which develops into cup-shaped on the reverse

  11. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Australia: distribution, detection and discovery of naturally occurring defective DNA molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Van Brunschot; D. M. Persley; A. D. W. Geering; P. R. Campbell; J. E. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was detected for the first time in Australia in March 2006 in field-grown tomatoes in Brisbane, Queensland. Surveys\\u000a showed that the virus was confined to south-east Queensland. Virus transmission studies carried out using Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) verified that resistant tomato lines containing the Ty-1 or Ty-5 genes displayed tolerance to infection by TYLCV

  12. Assessment of the genetic diversity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Wan, H J; Yuan, W; Wang, R Q; Ye, Q J; Ruan, M Y; Li, Z M; Zhou, G Z; Yao, Z P; Yang, Y J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic diversity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Representative TYLCV sequences were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Comprehensive analysis of TYLCV was performed using bioinformatics by examining gene structure, sequence alignments, phylogeny, GC content, and homology. Forty-eight representative TYLCV sequences were selected from 48 regions in 29 countries. The results showed that all TYLCV sequences were 2752-2794 nucleotides in length, which encoded 6 open reading frames (AV1, AV2, AC1, AC2, AC3, and AC4). GC content ranged from 0.41-0.42. Sequence alignment showed a number of insertions and deletions within these TYLCV sequences. Phylogenetic tree results revealed that the sequences were divided into 10 classes; homology of the sequences ranged from 72.8 to 98.6%. All 48 sequences contained the typical structure of TYLCV, including open reading frames and intergenic regions. These results provide a theoretical basis for the identification and evolution of the virus in the future. PMID:25729988

  13. Female-Biased Symbionts and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Infections in Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huifang; Qu, Yufeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhong, Wanfang; Fang, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The female-biased infection of facultative symbionts has been found in Bemisia tabaci; however, whether there are any differences in tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and obligate symbiont infection rates between females and males is unknown. Determining whether such differences exist would be very important for understanding the spread of the plant virus and of the symbionts. We compared both symbiont infection types, including obligate and facultative symbionts, and the rates of TYLCV infection in both sexes in five field populations from Jiangsu Province, China. The obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum was not found in every whitefly tested. In all tested populations, more females than males were found to harbor P. aleyrodidarum; and more females than males also harbored Hamiltonella defense, the most common facultative symbiont as well as Cardinium. In addition to female-biased symbiont infections, there were also female-biased TYLCV infections, and the infection frequencies of this plant virus in females were higher than those in males. Taken together, these results suggested that both the female-biased symbiont infections and female-biased TYLCV infections promoted the rapid spread of TYLCV in China. PMID:24465416

  14. Bemisia tabaci Q carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus strongly suppresses host plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively. Only viruliferous B had higher fecundity on viruliferous Q-infested plants than on control plants. The longevity of viruliferous B showed the same phenomenon. At 1 d infestion, the jasmonic acid content in leaves noninfested and in leaves infested with nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous B and viruliferous Q was 407.000, 281.333, 301.333, 266.667 and 134.000?ng/g FW, respectively. The JA content was lowest in viruliferous Q-infested leaves. The proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of JA-related upstream gene LOX and downstream gene PI II showed the same trend. The substantial suppression of host defenses by Q carrying TYLCV probably enhances the spread of Q and TYLCV in China. PMID:24912756

  15. Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Hoon; Oh, Sung; Oh, Tae-Kyun; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sei Chang; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Sim, Sang-Yun; Park, Kwon Seo; Lee, Hwan Gu; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Chang Won

    2011-02-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons) in Korea during 2008-2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at each area and determined their nucleotides (nt) sequences and deduced the amino acids of six open reading frames in the genomes. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos genomes shared higher nt identities with four Japanese isolates -Ng, -Omu, -Mis, and -Miy. On the other hand, TYLCV-Hwas, -Jeju, and -Nons genomes shared higher nt identities with five Chinese isolates TYLCV-AH1, -ZJ3, -ZJHZ12, -SH2, -Sh10, and two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa. On the basis of a neighbor-joining tree, five Korean TYLCV isolates were separated into three clades. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos formed the first clade, clustering with four Japanese isolates TYLCV-Mis, -Omu, -Ng, and -Miy. TYLCV-Jeju and -Nons formed the second clade, clustering with two Chinese isolates -ZJHZ212 and -Sh10. TYLCV-Hwas was clustered with two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa and three Chinese isolates -AH1, -ZJ3, and -SH2. Two fragments that had a potentially recombinant origin were identified using the RDP, GENECONV, BootScan, MaxChi, Chimaera, SiScan, and 3Seq methods implemented in RDP3.41. On the basis of RDP analysis, all TYLCV isolates could originated from the interspecies recombination between TYLCV-Mld[PT] isolated from Portugal as a major parent and TYLCTHV-MM isolated from Myanmar as a minor parent. PMID:20963475

  16. Highly sensitive serological methods for detecting tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plants and whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus in the family Geminiviridae, which causes severe losses in tomato production in tropic and subtropic regions. Methods The purified TYLCV virions were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using the hybridoma technology. MAb-based dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) were developed for sensitive, simple, and rapid detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. Results Using the hybridoma technology, six murine MAbs (1C4, 8D10, 6E3, 2F2, 3F4 and 4G3) against TYLCV were prepared. Using the MAb 1C4, dot-ELISA and DTBIA were then established for detecting TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples collected from TYLCV prevalent provinces in China. The dot-ELISA could detect TYLCV in infected tissue crude extract diluted at 1:5,120 (w/v, g mL-1), and in viruliferous whitefly homogenate diluted at 1:128 (individual whitefly/?L), respectively. Field tomato samples (n=487) and whitefly samples (n=110) from TYLCV prevalent districts in China were screened for the presence of TYLCV using the two developed methods, and the results were further confirmed by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The survey revealed that TYLCV is widespread on tomato plants in Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan provinces in China. Conclusions The developed dot-ELISA is very suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in field tomato and whitefly samples, and the DTBIA is more suitable for the routine detection of TYLCV in large-scale tomato plant samples collected from TYLCV prevalent areas. PMID:23647724

  17. The Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus from the Middle East to the World

    PubMed Central

    Lefeuvre, Pierre; Martin, Darren P.; Harkins, Gordon; Lemey, Philippe; Gray, Alistair J. A.; Meredith, Sandra; Lakay, Francisco; Monjane, Adérito; Lett, Jean-Michel; Varsani, Arvind; Heydarnejad, Jahangir

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Genus Begomovirus, Family Geminiviridae) represents a serious looming threat to tomato production in all temperate parts of the world. Whereas determining where and when TYLCV movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and prevent future movements of related viruses, determining the consequences of past TYLCV movements could reveal the ecological and economic risks associated with similar viral invasions. Towards this end we applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available TYLCV sequences (including those of 15 new Iranian full TYLCV genomes) and reconstructed a plausible history of TYLCV's diversification and movements throughout the world. In agreement with historical accounts, our results suggest that the first TYLCVs most probably arose somewhere in the Middle East between the 1930s and 1950s (with 95% highest probability density intervals 1905–1972) and that the global spread of TYLCV only began in the 1980s after the evolution of the TYLCV-Mld and -IL strains. Despite the global distribution of TYLCV we found no convincing evidence anywhere other than the Middle East and the Western Mediterranean of epidemiologically relevant TYLCV variants arising through recombination. Although the region around Iran is both the center of present day TYLCV diversity and the site of the most intensive ongoing TYLCV evolution, the evidence indicates that the region is epidemiologically isolated, which suggests that novel TYLCV variants found there are probably not direct global threats. We instead identify the Mediterranean basin as the main launch-pad of global TYLCV movements. PMID:21060815

  18. The Merging of Two Dynasties—Identification of an African Cotton Leaf Curl Disease-Associated Begomovirus with Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Muhammad Nouman; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan) Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV), the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite) was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world. PMID:21637815

  19. Cercocaprus ledifolius var. intermontanus (Rosaceae), a new varietal name for the Intermountain curl-leaf mountain-mahogany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel H. Holmgren

    1987-01-01

    The curl-leaf mountain-mahogany of the Intermountain Region is given a varietal name for the first time,Cercocarpus ledifolius var.intermontanus. It is distinguished from var.ledifolius by its broader, less pubescent leaves, its often longer petioles, and its often longer hypanthium tube. The nameC. ledifolius var.intercedens C. Schneider is based on a likely hybrid betweenC. ledifolius var.intermontanus andC. intricatus. The namesC. hypoleucus andC.

  20. Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578

  1. SnRK1 Phosphorylation of AL2 Delays Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus Infection in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Dallas, Mary Beth; Goshe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geminivirus AL2/C2 proteins play key roles in establishing infection and causing disease in their plant hosts. They are involved in viral gene expression, counter host defenses by suppressing transcriptional gene silencing, and interfere with the host signaling involved in pathogen resistance. We report here that begomovirus and curtovirus AL2/C2 proteins interact strongly with host geminivirus Rep-interacting kinases (GRIKs), which are upstream activating kinases of the protein kinase SnRK1, a global regulator of energy and nutrient levels in plants. We used an in vitro kinase system to show that GRIK-activated SnRK1 phosphorylates recombinant AL2/C2 proteins from several begomoviruses and to map the SnRK1 phosphorylation site to serine-109 in the AL2 proteins of two New World begomoviruses: Cabbage Leaf Curl Virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato mottle virus. A CaLCuV AL2 S109D phosphomimic mutation did not alter viral DNA levels in protoplast replication assays. In contrast, the phosphomimic mutant was delayed for symptom development and viral DNA accumulation during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating that SnRK1 contributes to host defenses against CaLCuV. Our observation that serine-109 is not conserved in all AL2/C2 proteins that are SnRK1 substrates in vitro suggested that phosphorylation of viral proteins by plant kinases contributes to the evolution of geminivirus-host interactions. IMPORTANCE Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious diseases in many crops. Dicot-infecting geminiviruses carry genes that encode multifunctional AL2/C2 proteins that are essential for infection. However, it is not clear how AL2/C2 proteins are regulated. Here, we show that the host protein kinase SnRK1, a central regulator of energy balance and nutrient metabolism in plants, phosphorylates serine-109 in AL2 proteins of three subgroups of New World begomoviruses, resulting in a delay in viral DNA accumulation and symptom appearance. Our results support SnRK1's antiviral role and reveal a novel mechanism underlying this function. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that AL2 S109 evolved as begomoviruses migrated from the Old World to the New World and may have provided a selective advantage as begomoviruses adapted to a different environment and different plant hosts. This study provides new insights into the interaction of viral pathogens with their plant hosts at the level of viral protein modification by the host. PMID:24990996

  2. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    PubMed

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed. PMID:12696414

  3. Efficient Regeneration and Selection of Virus-free Sweetpotato Plants from Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Infected Materials and Their Effects on Yields in Field Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is an emerging virus disease in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batata) in the U.S. The incidence of SPLCV infection on sweetpotato increased dramatically in recent years due to the explosion of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations. Among several sweetpotato v...

  4. Field evaluation of yield effects on the U.S.A. heirloom sweet potato cultivars infected by sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a Begomovirus, infection of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) in South Carolina, USA has increased rapidly in recent years. This is likely due to the use of infected propagating materials and the increasing population of it...

  5. Identification of a disease complex involving a novel monopartite begomovirus with beta- and alphasatellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Oman.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Akhtar J; Singh, Achuit S; Briddon, Rob W

    2014-05-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is an important viral disease of okra in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is caused by begomovirus-satellite complexes. A begomovirus and associated betasatellite and alphasatellite were identified in symptomatic okra plants from Barka, in the Al-Batinah region of Oman. Analysis of the begomovirus sequences showed them to represent a new begomovirus most closely related to cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV), a begomovirus of African origin. The sequences showed less than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to CLCuGeV isolates. The name okra leaf curl Oman virus (OLCOMV) is proposed for the new virus. Further analysis revealed that the OLCOMV is a recombinant begomovirus that evolved by the recombination of CLCuGeV isolates with tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM). An alpha- and a betasatellite were also identified from the same plant sample, which were also unique when compared to sequences available in the databases. However, although the betasatellite appeared to be of African origin, the alphasatellite was most closely related to alphasatellites originating from South Asia. This is the first report of a begomovirus-satellite complex infecting okra in Oman. PMID:24287711

  6. Molecular dissection of Tomato leaf curl virus resistance in tomato line TY172 derived from Solanum peruvianum.

    PubMed

    Anbinder, Ilana; Reuveni, Moshe; Azari, Raviv; Paran, Ilan; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Lapidot, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2009-08-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is devastating to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops and resistant cultivars are highly effective in controlling the disease. The breeding line TY172, originating from Solanum peruvianum, is highly resistant to TYLCV. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling TYLCV resistance in TY172, appropriate segregating populations were analyzed using 69 polymorphic DNA markers spanning the entire tomato genome. Results show that TYLCV resistance in TY172 is controlled by a previously unknown major QTL, originating from the resistant line, and four additional minor QTLs. The major QTL, we term Ty-5, maps to chromosome 4 and accounts for 39.7-46.6% of the variation in symptom severity among segregating plants (LOD score 33-35). The minor QTLs, originated either from the resistant or susceptible parents, were mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, 9 and 11, and contributed 12% to the variation in symptom severity in addition to Ty-5. PMID:19455299

  7. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato. PMID:23096697

  8. Water Balance, Hormone Homeostasis, and Sugar Signaling Are All Involved in Tomato Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus.

    PubMed

    Sade, Dagan; Sade, Nir; Shriki, Oz; Lerner, Stephen; Gebremedhin, Alem; Karavani, Asaf; Brotman, Yariv; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Czosnek, Henryk; Moshelion, Menachem

    2014-07-01

    Vacuolar water movement is largely controlled by membrane channels called tonoplast-intrinsic aquaporins (TIP-AQPs). Some TIP-AQP genes, such as TIP2;2 and TIP1;1, are up-regulated upon exposure to biotic stress. Moreover, TIP1;1 transcript levels are higher in leaves of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) line resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than in those of a susceptible line with a similar genetic background. Virus-induced silencing of TIP1;1 in the tomato resistant line and the use of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tip1;1 null mutant showed that resistance to TYLCV is severely compromised in the absence of TIP1:1. Constitutive expression of tomato TIP2;2 in transgenic TYLCV-susceptible tomato and Arabidopsis plants was correlated with increased TYLCV resistance, increased transpiration, decreased abscisic acid levels, and increased salicylic acid levels at the early stages of infection. We propose that TIP-AQPs affect the induction of leaf abscisic acid, which leads to increased levels of transpiration and gas exchange, as well as better salicylic acid signaling. PMID:24989233

  9. Three-way interactions between the tomato plant, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) facilitate virus spread.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Yang, Xin; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, L Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-06-01

    Plant defense responses can greatly affect plant viruses and their herbivore vectors. The current article reports on plant defense responses involving jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proteinase inhibitor (PI) in the three-way interaction between tomato plants, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The results showed that feeding by viruliferous B. tabaci increases the longevity and fecundity of nonviruliferous B. tabaci that subsequently feed on the same plant. Feeding by nonviruliferous B. tabaci alone suppressed plant defense responses involving JA and PI but induced responses involving SA. Feeding by viruliferous B. tabaci increased the suppression of plant defenses involving JA and PI but did not increase responses involving SA. These results indicate that the interactive effects of tomato yellow leaf curl virus and B. tabaci on plants increase vector fitness and virus transmission by reducing plant defense. PMID:25026648

  10. Tomato leaf curl virus from Bangalore (ToLCV-Ban4): sequence comparison with Indian ToLCV isolates, detection in plants and insects, and vector relationships}

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Muniyappa; H. M. Venkatesh; H. K. Ramappa; R. S. Kulkarni; M. Zeidan; C.-Y. Tarba; M. Ghanim; H. Czosnek

    2000-01-01

    Summary.  ?Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) is a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted geminivirus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) causing a destructive disease of tomato in many regions of India, East Asia and Australia. While ToLCV isolates from Australia\\u000a and Taiwan have a single genomic component (designated DNA-A), those from Northern India have two components (DNA-A and DNA-B).\\u000a The ToLCV isolates from Southern

  11. Functional Characterization of a Strong Bi-directional Constitutive Plant Promoter Isolated from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zainul A.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Khan, Jawaid A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP) genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) were fused with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells. PMID:25799504

  12. Functional characterization of a bidirectional plant promoter from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2014-01-01

    The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS) in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional gene promoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant. PMID:24424501

  13. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aleem; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2014-01-01

    The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS) in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional genepromoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant. PMID:24424501

  14. Fine mapping of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance gene Ty-2 on chromosome 11 of tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Caro, Myluska; Hutton, Samuel F; Scott, John W; Guo, Yanmei; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Rashid, Md Harunur; Szinay, Dora; de Jong, Hans; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Du, Yongchen

    2014-01-01

    Resistances to begomoviruses, including bipartite tomato mottle virus and monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have been introgressed to cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from wild tomato accessions. A major gene, Ty-2 from S. habrochaites f. glabratum accession "B6013," that confers resistance to TYLCV was previously mapped to a 19-cM region on the long arm of chromosome 11. In the present study, approximately 11,000 plants were screened and nearly 157 recombination events were identified between the flanking markers C2_At1g07960 (82.5 cM, physical distance 51.387 Mb) and T0302 (89 cM, 51.878 Mb). Molecular marker analysis of recombinants and TYLCV evaluation of progeny from these recombinants localized Ty-2 to an approximately 300,000-bp interval between markers UP8 (51.344 Mb) and M1 (51.645 Mb). No recombinants were identified between TG36 and C2_At3g52090, a region of at least 115 kb, indicating severe recombination suppression in this region. Due to the small interval, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis failed to clarify whether recombination suppression is caused by chromosomal rearrangements. Candidate genes predicted based on tomato genome annotation were analyzed by RT-PCR and virus-induced gene silencing. Results indicate that the NBS gene family present in the Ty-2 region is likely not responsible for the Ty-2-conferred resistance and that two candidate genes might play a role in the Ty-2-conferred resistance. Several markers very tightly linked to the Ty-2 locus are presented and useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to introgress Ty-2 for begomovirus resistance. PMID:25076841

  15. Subcellular localization of V2 protein of Tomato leaf curl Java virus by using green fluorescent protein and yeast hybrid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Sharma; Rajarshi K. Gaur; Masato Ikegami

    2011-01-01

    Tomato leaf curl Java virus-A (ToLCJV-A[ID]) from Southeast Asia is a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses that require a betasatellite\\u000a component for symptom induction. Previously, we have elucidated the role of V1 ORF encoded by ToLCJV-A[ID] in cell-to-cell\\u000a movement. In this study, the role of V2 (PreCP) in localization was determined. Subcellular localization of ToLCJV-A[ID] V2

  16. Effects of genetic changes to the begomovirus/betasatellite complex causing cotton leaf curl disease in South Asia post-resistance breaking.

    PubMed

    Briddon, Rob W; Akbar, Fazal; Iqbal, Zafar; Amrao, Luqman; Amin, Imran; Saeed, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-06-24

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a problem for cotton production across Pakistan and north-eastern India since the early 1990s. The appearance of the disease has been attributed to the introduction, and near monoculture of highly susceptible cotton varieties. During the intervening period the genetic make-up of the virus(es) causing the disease has changed dramatically. The most prominent of these changes has been in response to the introduction of CLCuD-resistant cotton varieties in the late 1990s, which provided a brief respite from the losses due to the disease. During the 1990s the disease was shown to be caused by multiple begomoviruses and a single, disease-specific betasatellite. Post-resistance breaking the complex encompassed only a single begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), and a recombinant version of the betasatellite. Surprisingly CLCuBuV lacks an intact transcriptional-activator protein (TrAP) gene. The TrAP gene is found in all begomoviruses and encodes a product of ?134 amino acids that is important in virus-host interactions; being a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (host defence) and a transcription factor that modulates host gene expression, including microRNA genes. Recent studies have highlighted the differences between CLCuBuV and the earlier viruses that are part of on-going efforts to define the molecular basis for resistance breaking in cotton. PMID:24361351

  17. The Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and code for DFDGD-class RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Verlaan, Maarten G; Hutton, Samuel F; Ibrahem, Ragy M; Kormelink, Richard; Visser, Richard G F; Scott, John W; Edwards, Jeremy D; Bai, Yuling

    2013-03-01

    Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease incited by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) causes huge losses in tomato production worldwide and is caused by different related begomovirus species. Breeding for TYLCV resistance has been based on the introgression of multiple resistance genes originating from several wild tomato species. In this study we have fine-mapped the widely used Solanum chilense-derived Ty-1 and Ty-3 genes by screening nearly 12,000 plants for recombination events and generating recombinant inbred lines. Multiple molecular markers were developed and used in combination with disease tests to fine-map the genes to a small genomic region (approximately 70 kb). Using a Tobacco Rattle Virus-Virus Induced Gene Silencing approach, the resistance gene was identified. It is shown that Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and that they code for a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) belonging to the RDR? type, which has an atypical DFDGD motif in the catalytic domain. In contrast to the RDR? type, characterized by a catalytic DLDGD motif, no clear function has yet been described for the RDR? type, and thus the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene unveils a completely new class of resistance gene. Although speculative, the resistance mechanism of Ty-1/Ty-3 and its specificity towards TYLCV are discussed in light of the function of the related RDR? class in the amplification of the RNAi response in plants and transcriptional silencing of geminiviruses in plants. PMID:23555305

  18. Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus accumulation in the tomato wild relative Solanum habrochaites associated with the C4 viral protein.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Diego M; Cañizares, M Carmen; Abad, Jesús; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique

    2011-07-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is a severe threat to tomato crops worldwide and is caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and several other begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). Host plant resistance is the best TYLCD control method but limited sources of resistance are available. In this study, two Solanum habrochaites TYLCD-resistance sources, EELM-388 and EELM-889, were found after a wide germplasm screening and were further characterized. A consistent resistance to the widely distributed strain TYLCV-IL was observed when plants were inoculated by Bemisia tabaci or by agroinoculation using an infectious clone, with no symptoms or virus accumulation observed in inoculated plants. Moreover, the resistance was effective under field conditions with high TYLCD pressure. Two independent loci, one dominant and one recessive, were associated with EELM-889 resistance. The study shows these loci to be distinct from that of the resistance gene (Ty-1 gene) commonly deployed in commercial tomato cultivars. Therefore, both kinds of resistance could be combined to provide improved resistance to TYLCD. Four additional TYLCD-associated viruses were challenged, showing that the resistance always prevented symptom expression, although systemic infection could occur in some cases. By using chimeric and mutant expression constructs, the C4 protein was shown to be associated with the ability to result in effective systemic infection. PMID:21405986

  19. Comparative transcriptome profiling of a resistant vs. susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar in response to infection by tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianzi; Lv, Yuanda; Zhao, Tongming; Li, Nan; Yang, Yuwen; Yu, Wengui; He, Xin; Liu, Tingli; Zhang, Baolong

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) threatens tomato production worldwide by causing leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting and flower abscission. The current understanding of the host plant defense response to this virus is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to TYLCV infection in the TYLCV-resistant tomato breeding line CLN2777A (R) and TYLCV-susceptible tomato breeding line TMXA48-4-0 (S). The mixed inoculated samples from 3, 5 and 7 day post inoculation (dpi) were compared to non-inoculated samples at 0 dpi. Of the total of 34831 mapped transcripts, 209 and 809 genes were differentially expressed in the R and S tomato line, respectively. The proportion of up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the R tomato line (58.37%) was higher than that in the S line (9.17%). Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that similar GO terms existed in both DEGs of R and S lines; however, some sets of defense related genes and their expression levels were not similar between the two tomato lines. Genes encoding for WRKY transcriptional factors, R genes, protein kinases and receptor (-like) kinases which were identified as down-regulated DEGs in the S line were up-regulated or not differentially expressed in the R line. The up-regulated DEGs in the R tomato line revealed the defense response of tomato to TYLCV infection was characterized by the induction and regulation of a series of genes involved in cell wall reorganization, transcriptional regulation, defense response, ubiquitination, metabolite synthesis and so on. The present study provides insights into various reactions underlining the successful establishment of resistance to TYLCV in the R tomato line, and helps in the identification of important defense-related genes in tomato for TYLCV disease management. PMID:24260487

  20. Characterization of a New World Monopartite Begomovirus Causing Leaf Curl Disease of Tomato in Ecuador and Peru Reveals a New Direction in Geminivirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Melgarejo, Tomas A.; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R.; Paz-Carrasco, Lenin; Zerbini, F. Murilo

    2013-01-01

    All characterized whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) with origins in the New World (NW) have bipartite genomes composed of a DNA-A and DNA-B component. Recently, an NW begomovirus lacking a DNA-B component was associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in Peru, and it was named Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). Here, we show that isolates of ToLDeV associated with ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru have a single, genetically diverse genomic DNA that is most closely related to DNA-A components of NW bipartite begomoviruses. Agroinoculation of multimeric clones of the genomic DNA of three ToLDeV genotypes (two variants and a strain) resulted in the development of tomato leaf curl symptoms indistinguishable from those of ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru. Biological properties of these ToLDeV genotypes were similar to those of Old World (OW) monopartite tomato-infecting begomoviruses, including lack of sap transmissibility, phloem limitation, a resistance phenotype in tomato germplasm with the Ty-1 gene, and functional properties of the V1 (capsid protein) and C4 genes. Differences in symptom phenotypes induced by the ToLDeV genotypes in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants were associated with a highly divergent left intergenic region and C4 gene. Together, these results establish that ToLDeV is an emergent NW monopartite begomovirus that is causing ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru. This is the first report of an indigenous NW monopartite begomovirus, and evidence is presented that it emerged from the DNA-A component of a NW bipartite progenitor via convergent evolution and recombination. PMID:23468482

  1. The Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) V2 protein interacts with the host papain-like cysteine protease CYP1

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, Amalia; Levy, Yael; Hak, Hagit; Mett, Anahit; Belausov, Eduard; Citovsky, Vitaly; Gafni, Yedidya

    2012-01-01

    The V2 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is an RNA-silencing suppressor that counteracts the innate immune response of the host plant. However, this anti-host defense function of V2 may include targeting of other defensive mechanisms of the plant. Specifically, we show that V2 recognizes and directly binds the tomato CYP1 protein, a member of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases which are involved in plant defense against diverse pathogens. This binding occurred both in vitro and in vivo, within living plant cells. The V2 binding site within mCYP1 was identified in the direct proximity to the papain-like cysteine protease active site. PMID:22827939

  2. Water Balance, Hormone Homeostasis, and Sugar Signaling Are All Involved in Tomato Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Dagan; Sade, Nir; Shriki, Oz; Lerner, Stephen; Gebremedhin, Alem; Karavani, Asaf; Brotman, Yariv; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Czosnek, Henryk; Moshelion, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar water movement is largely controlled by membrane channels called tonoplast-intrinsic aquaporins (TIP-AQPs). Some TIP-AQP genes, such as TIP2;2 and TIP1;1, are up-regulated upon exposure to biotic stress. Moreover, TIP1;1 transcript levels are higher in leaves of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) line resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) than in those of a susceptible line with a similar genetic background. Virus-induced silencing of TIP1;1 in the tomato resistant line and the use of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tip1;1 null mutant showed that resistance to TYLCV is severely compromised in the absence of TIP1:1. Constitutive expression of tomato TIP2;2 in transgenic TYLCV-susceptible tomato and Arabidopsis plants was correlated with increased TYLCV resistance, increased transpiration, decreased abscisic acid levels, and increased salicylic acid levels at the early stages of infection. We propose that TIP-AQPs affect the induction of leaf abscisic acid, which leads to increased levels of transpiration and gas exchange, as well as better salicylic acid signaling. PMID:24989233

  3. Recruitment of the Host Plant Heat Shock Protein 70 by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Coat Protein Is Required for Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gorovits, Rena; Moshe, Adi; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories. PMID:23894631

  4. Making a friend from a foe: expressing a GroEL gene from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants confers resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Akad; A. Eybishtz; D. Edelbaum; R. Gorovits; O. Dar-Issa; N. Iraki; H. Czosnek

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Some (perhaps all) plant viruses transmitted in a circulative manner by their insect vectors avoid destruction in the haemolymph\\u000a by interacting with GroEL homologues, ensuring transmission. We have previously shown that the phloem-limited begomovirus\\u000a tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) interacts in vivo and in vitro with GroEL produced by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. In this study, we have

  5. A simple, rapid and inexpensive method for localization of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Potato leafroll virus in plant and insect vectors.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Murad; Brumin, Marina; Popovski, Smadar

    2009-08-01

    A simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the localization of virus transcripts in plant and insect vector tissues is reported here. The method based on fluorescent in situ hybridization using short DNA oligonucleotides complementary to an RNA segment representing a virus transcript in the infected plant or insect vector. The DNA probe harbors a fluorescent molecule at its 5' or 3' ends. The protocol: simple fixation, hybridization, minimal washing and confocal microscopy, provides a highly specific signal. The reliability of the protocol was tested by localizing two phloem-limited plant virus transcripts in infected plants and insect tissues: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Begomovirus: Geminiviridae), exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in a circulative non-propagative manner, and Potato leafroll virus (Polerovirus: Luteoviridae), similarly transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Transcripts for both viruses were localized specifically to the phloem sieve elements of infected plants, while negative controls showed no signal. TYLCV transcripts were also localized to the digestive tract of B. tabaci, confirming TYLCV route of transmission. Compared to previous methods for localizing virus transcripts in plant and insect tissues that include complex steps for in-vitro probe preparation or antibody raising, tissue fixation, block preparation, sectioning and hybridization, the method described below provides very reliable, convincing, background-free results with much less time, effort and cost. PMID:19406154

  6. Molecular cloning of Indian tomato leaf curl virus genome following a simple method of concentrating the supercoiled replicative form of viral DNA.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K M; Hallan, V; Raizada, R K; Chandra, G; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1995-02-01

    DNA-A and DNA-B components of the genome of a whitefly transmitted virus causing yellowing and leaf curl in tomato (ITLCV) were cloned following a simple procedure for isolation of the double stranded replicative form of viral DNA from infected tomato plants. The method is based on extraction of total DNA from infected plants followed by concentration of the double stranded replicative form of viral DNA by an alkaline denaturation procedure identical to that used for isolation of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli. The attempted cloning of DNA showed that 95% of the transformants contained plasmids with an insert of either DNA-A (2.75 kb) or DNA-B (2.55 kb). Cloned DNA-A and DNA-B when used as probes could detect DNA-A/DNA-B in total nucleic acid obtained from fresh diseased tissue. Both DNA-A and DNA-B are needed for infection and they have a common region of 166 bases with about 94% nucleotide sequence homology, a characteristic of all bipartite geminiviruses. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the putative coat protein product of ITLCV with some other mono- and bipartite geminiviruses revealed a maximum of 86% homology with Indian cassava mosaic virus. PMID:7738150

  7. Kinetics of interaction of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali (CLCuKV-Dab) coat protein and its mutants with ssDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Priyadarshini, C.G. Poornima [Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.i [Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2009-04-10

    Gemini viral assembly and transport of viral DNA into nucleus for replication, essentially involve DNA-coat protein interactions. The kinetics of interaction of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali recombinant coat protein (rCP) with DNA was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The rCP interacted with ssDNA with a K{sub A}, of 2.6 +- 0.29 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} in a sequence non-specific manner. The CP has a conserved C2H2 type zinc finger motif composed of residues C68, C72, H81 and H85. Mutation of these residues to alanine resulted in reduced binding to DNA probes. The H85A mutant rCP showed the least binding with approximately 756 fold loss in the association rate and a three order magnitude decrease in the binding affinity as compared to rCP. The CP-DNA interactions via the zinc finger motif could play a crucial role in virus assembly and in nuclear transport.

  8. Sweet pepper confirmed as a reservoir host for tomato yellow leaf curl virus by both agro-inoculation and whitefly-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Byun, Hee-Seong; Kim, Sunhoo; Kim, Jaedeok; Park, Jungan; Cho, Seungchan; Yang, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, has a single-stranded DNA genome. TYLCV can induce severe disease symptoms on tomato plants, but other hosts plants such as cucurbits and peppers are asymptomatic. A full-length DNA clone of a Korean TYLCV isolate was constructed by rolling-circle amplification from TYLCV-infected tomatoes in Korea. To assess relative susceptibility of sweet pepper varieties to TYLCV, 19 cultivars were inoculated with cloned TYLCV by agro-inoculation. All TYLCV-infected sweet peppers were asymptomatic, even though Southern hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TYLCV genomic DNA accumulation in roots, stems, and newly produced shoots. Southern hybridization indicated that TYLCV replicated and moved systemically from agro-inoculated apical shoot tips to roots or newly produced shoots of sweet peppers. Whitefly-mediated inoculation experiments showed that TYLCV can be transmitted to tomatoes from TYLCV-infected sweet peppers. Taken together, these results indicate that sweet pepper can be a reservoir for TYLCV in nature. PMID:24777825

  9. Peptide Aptamers That Bind to Geminivirus Replication Proteins Confer a Resistance Phenotype to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Mottle Virus Infection in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria Ines; Nash, Tara E.; Dallas, Mary M.; Ascencio-Ibáñez, J. Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses constitute a large family of single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious losses in important crops worldwide. They often exist in disease complexes and have high recombination and mutation rates, allowing them to adapt rapidly to new hosts and environments. Thus, an effective resistance strategy must be general in character and able to target multiple viruses. The geminivirus replication protein (Rep) is a good target for broad-based disease control because it is highly conserved and required for viral replication. In an earlier study, we identified a set of peptide aptamers that bind to Rep and reduce viral replication in cultured plant cells. In this study, we selected 16 of the peptide aptamers for further analysis in yeast two-hybrid assays. The results of these experiments showed that all 16 peptide aptamers interact with all or most of the Rep proteins from nine viruses representing the three major Geminiviridae genera and identified two peptide aptamers (A22 and A64) that interact strongly with different regions in the Rep N terminus. Transgenic tomato lines expressing A22 or A64 and inoculated with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus or Tomato mottle virus exhibited delayed viral DNA accumulation and often contained lower levels of viral DNA. Strikingly, the effect on symptoms was stronger, with many of the plants showing no symptoms or strongly attenuated symptoms. Together, these results established the efficacy of using Rep-binding peptide aptamers to develop crops that are resistant to diverse geminiviruses. PMID:23824791

  10. Quantification and Localization of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Geminiviridae) in Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) with Differential Virus Transmission Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kollenberg, Mario; Winter, Stephan; Götz, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the economically most damaging insects to crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Severe damage is caused by feeding and more seriously by transmitting viruses. Those of the genus begomovirus (Geminiviridae) cause the most significant crop diseases and are transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent circulative mode, a process which is largely unknown. To analyze the translocation and to identify critical determinants for transmission, two populations of B. tabaci MEAM1 were compared for transmitting Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Insect populations were chosen because of their high and respectively low virus transmission efficiency to compare uptake and translocation of virus through insects. Both populations harbored Rickettsia, Hamiltonella and Wolbachia in comparable ratios indicating that endosymbionts might not contribute to the different transmission rates. Quantification by qPCR revealed that WmCSV uptake and virus concentrations in midguts and primary salivary glands were generally higher than TYLCV due to higher virus contents of the source plants. Both viruses accumulated higher in insects from the efficiently compared to the poorly transmitting population. In the latter, virus translocation into the hemolymph was delayed and virus passage was impeded with limited numbers of viruses translocated. FISH analysis confirmed these results with similar virus distribution found in excised organs of both populations. No virus accumulation was found in the midgut lumen of the poor transmitter because of a restrained virus translocation. Results suggest that the poorly transmitting population comprised insects that lacked transmission competence. Those were selected to develop a population that lacks virus transmission. Investigations with insects lacking transmission showed that virus concentrations in midguts were reduced and only negligible virus amounts were found at the primary salivary glands indicating for a missing or modified receptor responsible for virus attachment or translocation. PMID:25365330

  11. Evaluation of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 Progenies from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Wajad; Tipu, Abdul Latif; Ahmad, Saghir; Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Abid; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n?=?26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n?=?52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.7–2.0%), BC2 (1.8–4.0%), and BC3 (4.2–7.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)×G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutum×G. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ?BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum. PMID:25372141

  12. Silencing of a single gene in tomato plants resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus renders them susceptible to the virus.

    PubMed

    Eybishtz, Assaf; Peretz, Yuval; Sade, Dagan; Akad, Fouad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2009-09-01

    A reverse-genetics approach was applied to identify genes involved in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) resistance, taking advantage of two tomato inbred lines from the same breeding program-one susceptible (S), one resistant (R-that used Solanum habrochaites as the source of resistance. cDNA libraries from inoculated and non-inoculated R and S plants were compared, postulating that genes preferentially expressed in the R line may be part of the network sustaining resistance to TYLCV. Further, we assumed that silencing genes located at important nodes of the network would lead to collapse of resistance. Approximately 70 different cDNAs representing genes preferentially expressed in R plants were isolated and their genes identified by comparison with public databases. A Permease I-like protein gene encoding a transmembranal transporter was further studied: it was preferentially expressed in R plants and its expression was enhanced several-fold following TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of the Permease gene of R plants using Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing led to loss of resistance, expressed as development of disease symptoms typical of infected susceptible plants and accumulation of large amounts of virus. Silencing of another membrane protein gene preferentially expressed in R plants, Pectin methylesterase, previously shown to be involved in Tobacco mosaic virus translocation, did not lead to collapse of resistance of R plants. Thus, silencing of a single gene can lead to collapse of resistance, but not every gene preferentially expressed in the R line has the same effect, upon silencing, on resistance. PMID:19533378

  13. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by Ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Butterbach, Patrick; Verlaan, Maarten G.; Dullemans, Annette; Lohuis, Dick; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bai, Yuling; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and related begomoviruses are a major threat to tomato production worldwide and, to protect against these viruses, resistance genes from different wild tomato species are introgressed. Recently, the Ty-1 resistance gene was identified, shown to code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and to be allelic with Ty-3. Here we show that upon TYLCV challenging of resistant lines carrying Ty-1 or Ty-3, low virus titers were detected concomitant with the production of relatively high levels of siRNAs whereas, in contrast, susceptible tomato Moneymaker (MM) revealed higher virus titers but lower amounts of siRNAs. Comparative analysis of the spatial genomic siRNA distribution showed a consistent and subtle enrichment for siRNAs derived from the V1 and C3 genes in Ty-1 and Ty-3. In plants containing Ty-2 resistance the virus was hardly detectable, but the siRNA profile resembled the one observed in TYLCV-challenged susceptible tomato (MM). Furthermore, a relative hypermethylation of the TYLCV V1 promoter region was observed in genomic DNA collected from Ty-1 compared with that from (MM). The resistance conferred by Ty-1 was also effective against the bipartite tomato severe rugose begomovirus, where a similar genome hypermethylation of the V1 promoter region was discerned. However, a mixed infection of TYLCV with cucumber mosaic virus compromised the resistance. The results indicate that Ty-1 confers resistance to geminiviruses by increasing cytosine methylation of viral genomes, suggestive of enhanced transcriptional gene silencing. The mechanism of resistance and its durability toward geminiviruses under natural field conditions is discussed. PMID:25136118

  14. Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility? †

    PubMed Central

    Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611

  15. Global Analysis of the Transcriptional Response of Whitefly to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Reveals the Relationship of Coevolved Adaptations? †

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Li, Jun-Min; Varela, Nélia; Wang, Yong-Liang; Li, Fang-Fang; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The begomoviruses are the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative, persistent manner. The circulation of the viruses within the insect vectors involves complex interactions between virus and vector components; however, the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the transcriptional response of the invasive B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species to Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) using Illumina sequencing technology. Results showed that 1,606 genes involved in 157 biochemical pathways were differentially expressed in the viruliferous whiteflies. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that TYLCCNV can perturb the cell cycle and primary metabolism in the whitefly, which explains the negative effect of this virus on the longevity and fecundity of B. tabaci. Our data also demonstrated that TYLCCNV can activate whitefly immune responses, such as autophagy and antimicrobial peptide production, which might lead to a gradual decrease of viral particles within the body of the viruliferous whitefly. Furthermore, PCR results showed that TYLCCNV can invade the ovary and fat body tissues of the whitefly, and Lysotracker and Western blot analyses revealed that the invasion of TYLCCNV induced autophagy in both the ovary and fat body tissues. Surprisingly, TYLCCNV also suppressed the whitefly immune responses by downregulating the expression of genes involved in Toll-like signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, these results reveal the relationship of coevolved adaptations between begomoviruses and whiteflies and will provide a road map for future investigations into the complex interactions between plant viruses and their insect vectors. PMID:21270146

  16. Whitefly resistance traits derived from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium affect the preference and feeding behavior of Bemisia tabaci and reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, M J; Garzo, E; Bonani, J P; Fereres, A; Fernández-Muñoz, R; Moriones, E

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of tomato genotypes that limit whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) access and feeding might reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that is the causal agent of tomato yellow leaf curl disease. TYLCV is restricted to the phloem and is transmitted in a persistent manner by B. tabaci. The tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was developed by introgressing type IV leaf glandular trichomes and secretion of acylsucroses from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium accession TO-937 into the genetic background of the whitefly- and virus-susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker. Results of preference bioassays with ABL 14-8 versus Moneymaker indicated that presence of type IV glandular trichomes and the production of acylsucrose deterred the landing and settling of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8. Moreover, electrical penetration graph studies indicated that B. tabaci adults spent more time in nonprobing activities and showed a reduced ability to start probing. Such behavior resulted in a reduced ability to reach the phloem. The superficial type of resistance observed in ABL 14-8 against B. tabaci probing significantly reduced primary and secondary spread of TYLCV. PMID:21615206

  17. A developmentally regulated lipocalin-like gene is overexpressed in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-resistant tomato plants upon virus inoculation, and its silencing abolishes resistance.

    PubMed

    Sade, Dagan; Eybishtz, Assaf; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

    2012-10-01

    To discover genes involved in tomato resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), we previously compared cDNA libraries from susceptible (S) and resistant (R) tomato lines. Among the genes preferentially expressed in R plants and upregulated by TYLCV infection was a gene encoding a lipocalin-like protein. This gene was termed Solanum lycopersicum virus resistant/susceptible lipocalin (SlVRSLip). The SlVRSLip structural gene sequence of R and S plants was identical. SlVRSLip was expressed in leaves during a 15-day window starting about 40 days after sowing (20 days after planting). SlVRSLip was upregulated by Bemisia tabaci (the TYLCV vector) feeding on R plant leaves, and even more strongly upregulated following whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of SlVRSLip in R plants led to the collapse of resistance upon TYLCV inoculation and to a necrotic response along the stem and petioles accompanied by ROS production. Contrary to previously identified tomato lipocalin gene DQ222981, SlVRSLip was not regulated by cold, nor was it regulated by heat or salt. The expression of SlVRSLip was inhibited in R plants in which the hexose transporter gene LeHT1 was silenced. In contrast, the expression of LeHT1 was not inhibited in SlVRSLip-silenced R plants. Hence, in the hierarchy of the gene network conferring TYLCV resistance, SlVRSLip is downstream of LeHT1. Silencing of another gene involved in resistance, a Permease-I like protein, did not affect the expression of SlVRSLip and LeHT1; expression of the Permease was not affected by silencing SlVRSLip or LeHT1, suggesting that it does not belong to the same network. The triple co-silencing of SlVRSLip, LeHT1 and Permease provoked an immediate cessation of growth of R plants upon infection and the accumulation of large amounts of virus. SlVRSLip is the first lipocalin-like gene shown to be involved in resistance to a plant virus. PMID:22843056

  18. Infection of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), a bipartite begomovirus with betasatellites, results in enhanced level of helper virus components and antagonistic interaction between DNA B and betasatellites.

    PubMed

    Jyothsna, P; Haq, Q M I; Singh, Priyanka; Sumiya, K V; Praveen, Shelly; Rawat, Ramaveer; Briddon, Rob W; Malathi, V G

    2013-06-01

    Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen that severely affects tomato production. An extensive survey was carried out during 2003-2010 to study the diversity of begomoviruses found in tomato, potato, and cucurbits that showed symptoms of leaf puckering, distortion, curling, vein clearing, and yellow mosaic in various fields in different regions of India. Ten begomovirus isolates were cloned from infected samples and identified as belonging to the species ToLCNDV. A total of 44 % of the samples showed association of betasatellites, with CLCuMuB and LuLDB being the most frequent. The ToLCNDV cloned component DNA A and DNA B were agroinoculated on Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with or without betasatellites, CLCuMuB or LuLDB. The viral genome levels were then monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction at different time points of disease development. Plants co-inoculated with betasatellites showed enhanced symptom severity in both N. benthamiana and tomato, as well as increases in helper viral DNA A and DNA B levels. The DNA B and betasatellites acted antagonistically to each other, so that the level of DNA B was 16-fold greater in the presence of betasatellites, while accumulation of betasatellites, CLCuMuB and LuLDB, were reduced by 60 % in the presence of DNA B. DNA B-mediated symptoms predominated in CLCuMuB-inoculated plants, whereas betasatellite-mediated leaf abnormalities were prominent in LuLDB-co-inoculated plants. Inoculation with the cloned components will be a good biotechnological tool in resistance breeding program. PMID:23306645

  19. [Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae, causal agent of the bacterial spot of squash].

    PubMed

    Alippi, A M

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial leaf spot of squash was characterized for the first time in Argentina. Cultural, physiological, morphological and cross-infection tests on Cucurbitaceae showed that the pathogen was Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae (Bryan) Dye. The bacterium isolated from winter squash proved pathogenic for pumpkin, winter squash, cucumber and watermelon but no for muskmelon. PMID:2748850

  20. Lemony Summer Squash Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    teaspoon dried rosemary, crumbled 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice (1 lemon) Directions 1. Wash squash tender (about 4 minutes). 5. After squash is tender, cut lemon in half and squeeze juice from both sides

  1. First curl, then wrinkle.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Ana C; Canejo, João P; Teixeira, Paulo I C; Patrício, Pedro; Godinho, Maria H

    2013-10-01

    The excellent properties of elastomers are exploited to trigger wrinkling instabilities in curved shells. Micro- and nano-fibres are produced by electrospinning and UV irradiated: each fibre consists of a soft core and a stiff outer half-shell. Upon solvent de-swelling, the fibres curl because the shell and the core have different natural lengths. Wrinkling only starts after the fibre has attained a well-defined helical shape. A simple analytical model is proposed to find the curling curvature and wrinkle wavelength, as well as the transition between the "curling" and "wrinkling" regimes. This new instability resembles that found in the tendrils of climbing plants as they dry and lignify. PMID:23959824

  2. Curled up pill bug

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joaquim Alves Gaspar (Portuguese Navy; )

    2007-10-09

    This pill bug, sometimes called a woodlouse, sow bug, or roly poley, is curled into a ball to protect itself. Pill bugs often do this as a defensive measure so that anything that might attack it has a harder time getting to its underside.

  3. Curls of My Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which students draw ribbons (thin watercolor paper that, when torn, will stand up in a curling fashion). Explains in detail the assignment in which students used pencil rendering or charcoal pencil depending on the type of paper used for the assignment. (CMK)

  4. Roasted Squash Soup 1 butternut squash

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    . diced celery 5 c. vegetable broth (add more if needed to thin soup out) 1½ T. cumin, ground 2 t. chili powder 1 t. curry powder 1 t. old bay seasoning ½ t. cayenne pepper(*more or less depending upon spice and diced red peppers Preheat your oven to 400 degrees. Cut squash in half lengthwise with your chef knife

  5. Transcriptomics of the Interaction between the Monopartite Phloem-Limited Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus and Solanum lycopersicum Highlights a Role for Plant Hormones, Autophagy and Plant Immune System Fine Tuning during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  6. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus-resistant tomato plants expressing the multifunctional N-terminal domain of the replication-associated protein show transcriptional changes resembling stress-related responses.

    PubMed

    Lucioli, Alessandra; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Tavazza, Raffaela; Pizzichini, Daniele; Tavazza, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-130) of the replication-associated protein (Rep130 ) of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) retains the ability of full-length Rep to localize to the nucleus and to down-regulate C1 transcription when ectopically expressed in plants, both functions being required to inhibit homologous viral replication. In this study, we analysed the effect of Rep130 expression on virus resistance and the plant transcriptome in the natural and agronomically important host species of TYLCSV, Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants accumulating high levels of Rep130 were generated and proved to be resistant to TYLCSV. Using an in vitro assay, we showed that plant-expressed Rep130 also retains the catalytic activity of Rep, thus supporting the notion that this protein domain is fully functional. Interestingly, Rep130 -expressing tomatoes were characterized by an altered transcriptional profile resembling stress-related responses. Notably, the serine-type protease inhibitor (Ser-PI) category was over-represented among the 20 up-regulated genes. The involvement of Rep130 in the alteration of host mRNA steady-state levels was confirmed using a distinct set of virus-resistant transgenic tomato plants expressing the same TYLCSV Rep130 , but from a different, synthetic, gene. Eight genes were found to be up-regulated in both types of transgenic tomato and two encoded Ser-PIs. Four of these eight genes were also up-regulated in TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants. Implications with regard to the ability of this Rep domain to interfere with viral infections and to alter the host transcriptome are discussed. PMID:23910556

  7. Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.

    PubMed

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  8. FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Winter Squash

    E-print Network

    that are not shriveled, blackened or moist. Keep separate from meat, poultry and seafood products. Keep squash away from Follow standardized procedures recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture for home in the refrigerator. Use cut squash within a week. Canned squash is best if consumed within a year and safe as long

  9. Squash operator and symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Information Technology R and D Center, 5-1-1 Ofuna, Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa, 247-8501 Japan (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    This article begins with a simple proof of the existence of squash operators compatible with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol that suits single-mode as well as multimode threshold detectors. The proof shows that, when a given detector is symmetric under cyclic group C{sub 4}, and a certain observable associated with it has rank two as a matrix, then there always exists a corresponding squash operator. Next, we go on to investigate whether the above restriction of 'rank two' can be eliminated; i.e., is cyclic symmetry alone sufficient to guarantee the existence of a squash operator? The motivation behind this question is that, if this were true, it would imply that one could realize a device-independent and unconditionally secure quantum key distribution protocol. However, the answer turns out to be negative, and moreover, one can instead prove a no-go theorem that any symmetry is, by itself, insufficient to guarantee the existence of a squash operator.

  10. Squash operator and symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a simple proof of the existence of squash operators compatible with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol that suits single-mode as well as multimode threshold detectors. The proof shows that, when a given detector is symmetric under cyclic group C4, and a certain observable associated with it has rank two as a matrix, then there always exists a corresponding squash operator. Next, we go on to investigate whether the above restriction of “rank two” can be eliminated; i.e., is cyclic symmetry alone sufficient to guarantee the existence of a squash operator? The motivation behind this question is that, if this were true, it would imply that one could realize a device-independent and unconditionally secure quantum key distribution protocol. However, the answer turns out to be negative, and moreover, one can instead prove a no-go theorem that any symmetry is, by itself, insufficient to guarantee the existence of a squash operator.

  11. FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Summer Squash

    E-print Network

    that are firm and do not have bruises, nicks or soft spots. Bag separate from meat, poultry and seafood products procedures recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture for home canning. Handle squash gently-sized slices. Place squash in a microwave- safe baking dish. Add 3 tablespoons of water to the dish. Cover

  12. Squash and Stretch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2005-01-01

    This online activity has you order multiple images of a bouncing ball to show how, in animation, an object appears to lengthen as it falls, flatten as it hits the ground, and lengthen as it bounces up. This technique is used to produce the exaggerated look of an animated cartoon, but follows the rules of physics in that the object elongates along its axis of acceleration (stretch) and contracts when it meets resistance (squash). If images are out of place, they can be moved, rather than starting all over.

  13. Diverse Rock Named Squash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  14. Influence of Water Relations and Temperature on Leaf Movements of Rhododendron Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Erik Tallak

    1987-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. and R. Catawbiense L. are subcanopy evergreen shrubs of the eastern United States deciduous forest. Field measurements of climate factors and leaf movements of these species indicated a high correlation between leaf temperature and leaf curling; and between leaf water potential and leaf angle. Laboratory experiments were performed to isolate the influence of temperature and cellular water relations on leaf movements. Significant differences were found between the patterns of temperature induction of leaf curling in the two species. Leaves of the species which curled at higher temperatures (R. catawbiense) also froze at higher leaf temperatures. However, in both cases leaf curling occurred at leaf temperatures two to three degrees above the leaf freezing point. Pressure volume curves indicated that cellular turgor loss was associated with a maximum of 45% curling while 100% or more curling occurred in field leaves which still had positive cell turgor. Moisture release curves indicated that 70% curling requires a loss of greater than 60% of symplastic water which corresponds to leaf water potentials far below those experienced in field situations. Conversely, most laboratory induced changes in leaf angle could be related to leaf cell turgor loss. PMID:16665296

  15. Conductance Oscillations in Squashed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrez, H.; Anantram, M. P.; Svizhenko, A.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of molecular dynamics and electrical conductance calculations are used to probe the electromechanical properties of squashed metallic carbon nanotubes. We find that the conductance and bandgap of armchair nanotubes show oscillations upon squashing. The physical origin of these oscillations is attributed to interaction of carbon atoms with a fourth neighbor. Squashing of armchair and zigzag nanotubes ultimately leads to metallic behavior.

  16. Chinese tomato yelIow Ieaf curl virus— a new species of geminivirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yule Liu; Jianhe Cai; Dongling Li; Bixia Qin; Bo Tian

    1998-01-01

    Chine tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-CHI) and other geminiviruses were analysed with 20 monoclonaI antibodies. It was\\u000a shown that TYLCV-CHI is serclogicaIly close to Chinese tabacco Ieaf curl virus (TbLCV-CHI). The fragment of TYLCV-CHI DNA\\u000a including the common region (CR), N-terminal of coat protein gene and AV1 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned, and its DNA\\u000a sequence was

  17. Swept Away: Exploring the Physics of Curling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Studying the Olympic sport of curling is a fun and engaging way to learn about the concepts of friction, forces, momentum, and Newton's laws. Each winter, the author takes her eighth-grade physical science class on a field trip to experience curling firsthand. This field trip has become a favorite of the eighth graders at Capitol Hill Day School…

  18. Sauted Summer Squash with Oregano Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Sautéed Summer Squash with Oregano Ingredients: 2 teaspoons olive oil 1 onion 2 cloves garlic 2 tablespoons dried oregano 1 pound zucchini 1 pound summer squash Directions 1. Heat oil in skillet over medium on cutting board. Cut each half in half again. Cut into 1/4" slices. Add to skillet. 6. Cook vegetables until

  19. SQUASH NEWFOUNDLAND INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION 2003-2004

    E-print Network

    SQUASH NEWFOUNDLAND INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION 2003-2004 (Valid for 12 months from receipt misuse your card. Squash Newfoundland and Labrador Inc. P. O. Box 21254 St. John's, NL, A1A 5B2 #12;SQUASH NEWFOUNDLAND MEMBERSHIP WAIVER I/We agree to abide by Squash Newfoundland regulations and enclose

  20. Comparison of perimeter trap crop varieties: effects on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash.

    PubMed

    Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V

    2009-02-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators. PMID:19791616

  1. A Squashed Heliosphere - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Heliophysics' finding of the 'squashed' heliosphere when Voyager 1 and 2 crossed the bubble of solar wind at different distances from the sun. This led to a change in the way we see the shape of ou...

  2. Squash vein yellowing virus, a novel ipomovirus, isolated from squash and watermelon in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. SqVYV was ...

  3. Anti-de Sitter space, squashed and stretched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Sandin, Patrik

    2006-02-01

    We study the Lorentzian analogues of the squashed 3-sphere, namely, (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space squashed or stretched along fibres that are either spacelike or timelike. The causal structure and the property of being an Einstein Weyl space depend critically on whether we squash or stretch. We argue that squashing and stretching completely destroy the conformal boundary of the unsquashed spacetime. As a physical application we observe that the near horizon geometry of the extremal Kerr black hole, at constant Boyer Lindquist latitude, is anti-de Sitter space squashed along compactified spacelike fibres.

  4. Investigation of splat curling up in thermal spray coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Minxia; Chandra, Sanjeev; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2006-12-01

    The curling up of the edges of splats of molten metal deposited on a cold substrate was investigated both experimentally and numerically. An analytical model, based on mismatch of thermal expansion between the splat and substrate, was developed to calculate the deformation of splats after curling up. The curling-up angle was measured from both millimeter-sized splats of aluminum alloy and bismuth and plasma-sprayed nickel particles. The curling-up angles were predicted using both the analytical model and a numerical code and were found to agree reasonably well with experimental measurements.

  5. Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of squash mosaic virus infecting squash in Spain.

    PubMed

    Li, Rugang; Gao, Shan; Berendsen, Sven; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a new isolate of squash mosaic virus (SqMV) infecting squash plants in Spain was obtained using deep sequencing of small RNAs. The low nucleotide sequence identities, with only 87 to 88% for RNA1 and 84 to 86% for RNA2 to known SqMV isolates, suggested that this isolate belongs to a novel genotype. PMID:25676773

  6. Squash ball to eye ball: the likelihood of squash players incurring an eye injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G V Barrell; P J Cooper; A R Elkington; J M Macfadyen; R G Powell; P Tormey

    1981-01-01

    The records of the 118 patients treated as Southampton Eye Hospital during 1978-9 for injuries incurred while playing squash, badminton, tennis, table tennis, cricket, and football show that for squash the main cause of eye injury was the player being hit by the ball. Severe eye injuries--those requiring treatment as an inpatient--were rare but much more frequent than such injuries

  7. Post-directed weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and ...

  8. Scythe (pelargonic acid) weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  9. Computed tomography of ball pythons (Python regius) in curled recumbency.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Joanna; Eatwell, Kevin; Schwarz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia and tube restraint methods are often required for computed tomography (CT) of snakes due to their natural tendency to curl up. However, these restraint methods may cause animal stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CT appearance of the lungs differs for ball pythons in a curled position vs. tube restraint. Whole body CT was performed on ten clinically healthy ball pythons, first in curled and then in straight positions restrained in a tube. Curved multiplanar reformatted (MPR) lung images from curled position scans were compared with standard MPR lung images from straight position scans. Lung attenuation and thickness were measured at three locations for each scan. Time for positioning and scanning was 12 ± 5 min shorter for curled snakes compared to tube restraint. Lung parenchyma thickness and attenuation declined from cranial to caudal on both straight and curled position images. Mean lung parenchyma thickness was greater in curled images at locations 1 (P = 0.048) and 3 (P = 0.044). Mean lung parenchyma thickness decreased between location 1 and 2 by 86-87% (straight: curled) and between location 1 and 3 by 51-50% (straight: curled). Mean lung attenuation at location 1 was significantly greater on curled position images than tube restraint images (P = 0.043). Findings indicated that CT evaluation of the lungs is feasible for ball pythons positioned in curled recumbency if curved MPR is available. However, lung parenchyma thickness and attenuation in some locations may vary from those acquired using tube restraint. PMID:24438485

  10. Alteration of neuromuscular function in squash.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Noual, Julien; Millet, Grégoire P

    2010-01-01

    The alteration in neuromuscular function of knee extensor muscles was characterised after a squash match in 10 trained players. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and surface EMG activity of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles were measured before and immediately after a 1-h squash match. M-wave and twitch contractile properties were analysed following single stimuli. MVC declined (280.5+/-46.8 vs. 233.6+/-35.4 Nm, -16%; P<0.001) after the exercise and this was accompanied by an impairment of central activation, as attested by decline in voluntary activation (76.7+/-10.4 vs. 71.3+/-9.6%, -7%; P<0.05) and raw EMG activity of the two vastii (-17%; P<0.05), whereas RMS/M decrease was lesser (VL: -5%; NS and VM: -12%; P=0.10). In the fatigued state, no significant changes in M-wave amplitude (VL: -9%; VM: -5%) or duration were observed. Following exercise, the single twitch was characterised by lower peak torque (-20%; P<0.001) as well as shorter half-relaxation time (-13%; P<0.001) and reduced maximal rate of twitch tension development (-23%; P<0.001) and relaxation (-17%; P<0.05). A 1-h squash match play caused peripheral fatigue by impairing excitation-contraction coupling, whereas sarcolemmal excitability seems well preserved. Our results also emphasise the role of central activation failure as a possible mechanism contributing to the torque loss observed in knee extensors. Physical conditioners should consider these effects when defining their training programs for squash players. PMID:19231287

  11. Squash ball to eye ball: the likelihood of squash players incurring an eye injury.

    PubMed

    Barrell, G V; Cooper, P J; Elkington, A R; Macfadyen, J M; Powell, R G; Tormey, P

    1981-10-01

    The records of the 118 patients treated as Southampton Eye Hospital during 1978-9 for injuries incurred while playing squash, badminton, tennis, table tennis, cricket, and football show that for squash the main cause of eye injury was the player being hit by the ball. Severe eye injuries--those requiring treatment as an inpatient--were rare but much more frequent than such injuries in other sports. Less serious injuries--those requiring treatment as an outpatient--were also rare, with a frequency comparable with that of similar injuries in football and badminton. Squash players are most unlikely to incur an eye injury, but should this occur it has far-reaching consequences both in the short and the long term. Each individual player must weigh these chances and consequences against the possible inconvenience of using some form of eye protection. PMID:6793167

  12. Physical Aging, Coreset Curl, and Stress Relaxation of PETG Polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Dennis J.; O'Reilly, James M.; Perchak, Dennis R.; Gillmor, Jeffrey R.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of temperature and time on the physical aging and coreset curl of PETG polyester has been measured and analyzed.Coreset curl measurements were carried out over a temperature range of 21 to 80 C and for times extending up to one year at room temperature. The Struik analysis was successfully applied to the measured stress relaxation behavior of PETG films and combined with the coreset curl model of Greener, et al.,to predict long-term coreset curl of PETG at room temperature. For freshly quenched films, an aging rate parameter of 0.55 and a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) parameter of 0.4 fit both the stress relaxation and coreset curl data quantitatively. Higher values of beta were needed to fit the coreset behavior of films that had aged at room temperature prior to being wound on a core. Independently, enthalpy relaxation measurements were carried out on PETG and were analyzed using the physical aging model of Tool and Narayanaswamy (TN). The TN model was then combined with the coreset curl model of Greener, et al., to make predictions of the long time coreset curl response of PETG at temperatures ranging from 21 to 80 C. For freshly quenched films, the activation energy, H=210kcal/mol determined from DSC and the KWW exponent, beta=0.4 determine from stress-relaxation were used in the TN approach to fit the room temperature coreset curl data as well as to successfully predict the higher-temperature coreset curl behavior. Fitting the TN model to the coreset behavior of films that had aged at room temperature prior to being wound on a core required that both the aging rate as well as the KWW relaxation function parameter beta be changed, which indicates that not only has the aging rate lengthened with room temperature aging prior to winding, but the nature of the relaxation function has changed as well.

  13. Direct discretization of planar div-curl problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    A control volume method is proposed for planar div-curl systems. The method is independent of potential and least squares formulations, and works directly with the div-curl system. The novelty of the technique lies in its use of a single local vector field component and two control volumes rather than the other way around. A discrete vector field theory comes quite naturally from this idea and is developed. Error estimates are proved for the method, and other ramifications investigated.

  14. Genetic diversity assessment of summer squash landraces using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Mady, Emad A; Helaly, Alaa Al-Din; Abu El-Hamd, Abdel Naem; Abdou, Arafa; Shanan, Shamel A; Craker, Lyle E

    2013-07-01

    Plant identification, classification, and genotyping within a germplasm collection are essential elements for establishing a breeding program that enhances the probability of plants with desirable characteristics in the market place. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a molecular tool to assess the diversity and relationship among 20 summer squash (Curcubita pepo L.) landraces traditionally used to treat hypertension and prostate hyperplasia. A total of 10 RAPD primers produced 65 reproducible bands of which 46 (70.77 %) were polymorphic, indicating a large number of genotypes within the summer squash lines. Cluster analysis divided the summer squash germplasm into two groups, one including one landrace and a second containing 19 landraces that could be divided into five sub-groups. Results of this study indicate the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and assessment of genetic variations among squash landraces and provide a number of choices for developing a successful breeding program to improve summer squash. PMID:23666102

  15. The Sports Science of Curling: A Practical Review

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Curling is a sport played on ice in which two teams each deliver 8 granite stones towards a target, or ‘house’. It is the only sport in which the trajectory of the projectile can be influenced after it has been released by the athlete. This is achieved by sweeping the ice in front of the stone to change the stone-ice friction and thereby enable to stone to travel further, curl more or stay straight. Hard sweeping is physically demanding. Different techniques of sweeping can also have different effects on the stone. This paper will review the current research behind sweeping a curling stone, outline the physiological demands of sweeping, the associated performance effects and suggest potential strategies of sweeping that can be used by both coaches and curling teams. Key points Sweeping a curling stone can be highly physically demanding. Effective sweeping requires a combination of downward force and brush head speed, determined by the stone velocity. Sweeping on the left or right of a stone can help the stone to remain straight or curl more depending on the rotation of the stone. This can lead to the development of sweeping and playing tactics and contribute to team selection. PMID:24149588

  16. EFFECT OF LEAF EXPLANTS ORIENTATION ON ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION OF PEAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The literature on adventitious shoot regeneration is contradictory with respect to the effect of orientation of leaf explants with regard to the medium surface. Few studies have compared both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The tendency of leaf explants to expand, curl, and lose complete contact wit...

  17. Antagonistic regulation of leaf flattening by phytochrome B and phototropin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Toshiaki; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu; Nagatani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the growth and development of leaves. As the primary photosynthetic organs, leaves have a laminar structure in many dicotyledonous plants. The regulation of leaf flatness is a key mechanism for the efficient absorption of light under low light conditions. In the present study, we demonstrated that phytochrome B (phyB) promoted the development of curled leaves. Wild-type leaves gently curled downwards under white light, whereas the phyB-deficient mutant (phyB) constitutively exhibited flatter leaves. In the wild type, leaf flattening was promoted by end-of-day far-red light (EODFR) treatment, which rapidly eliminates the active Pfr phytochrome. Interestingly, the curled-leaf phenotype in a phototropin-deficient mutant was almost completely suppressed by the phyB mutation as well as by EODFR. Thus, phototropin promotes leaf flattening by suppressing the leaf-curling activity of phyB. We examined the downstream components of phyB and phototropin to assess their antagonistic regulation of leaf flatness further. Consequently, we found that a phototropin signaling transducer, NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3), was required to promote leaf flattening in phyB. The present study provides new insights into a mechanism in which leaf flatness is regulated in response to different light environmental cues. PMID:23054390

  18. Hybrid classical integrability in squashed sigma models

    E-print Network

    Io Kawaguchi; Kentaroh Yoshida

    2012-11-13

    We show that SU(2)_L Yangian and q-deformed SU(2)_R symmetries are realized in a two-dimensional sigma model defined on a three-dimensional squashed sphere. These symmetries enable us to develop the two descriptions to describe its classical dynamics, 1) rational and 2) trigonometric descriptions. The former 1) is based on the SU(2)_L symmetry and the latter 2) comes from the broken SU(2)_R symmetry. Each of the Lax pairs constructed in both ways leads to the same equations of motion. The two descriptions are related one another through a non-local map.

  19. The dynamic behavior of squash balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Gareth J.; Arnold, J. Cris; Griffiths, Iwan W.

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of a squash ball constitutes an excellent case study of the dynamic behavior of rubbery materials. It is shown that the complex viscoelastic behavior of rubber can be investigated using simple drop bounce tests and compression tests. The drop tests show that the coefficient of restitution increases as the ball temperature increases. The compression tests show that as the speed of compression increases or as the ball temperature decreases, the compressive force and the energy loss both increase. These effects are due to the viscoelastic nature of the rubber and are an excellent example of the time-temperature equivalence of polymers. Compression tests were performed on balls with small holes at the base to separate the effects of the internal air pressure from the material deformation. It was found that the internal air pressure contributed about one-third to the compressive force, but contributed little to energy loss. This behavior shows that the rubber material dominates the rebound behavior and that the normal warming up process at the start of a squash game is important to raise the temperature of the rubber rather than to increase the internal air pressure.

  20. Validity of a squash-specific test of multiple-sprint ability.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael; McCord, Andrew; Winter, Edward M

    2010-12-01

    We examined the validity and reproducibility of a squash-specific multiple-sprint test. Eight male squash and 8 male soccer players performed Baker's 8 × 40-m sprints and a squash-specific-multiple-sprint test on separate days. The sum of individual sprint times in each test was recorded. Six squash and 6 soccer players repeated the tests 7 days later to assess reproducibility using intraclass correlation. In addition, 2 England Squash coaches independently ranked the squash players using knowledge of the player and recent performances in local leagues. Performance on the squash-specific (r = 0.97 and 0.90) and Baker's test (r = 0.95 and 0.83) was reproducible in squash and soccer players, respectively, and did not differ on Baker's test (mean ± SD 72.9 ± 3.9 and 72.9 ± 2.8 seconds for squash and soccer players, p = 0.969, effect size = 0.03). Squash players (232 ± 32 seconds) outperformed soccer players (264 ± 14 seconds) on the squash-specific test (p = 0.02, effect size = 1.39). Performance on Baker's and the squash-specific test were related in squash players (r = 0.98, p < 0.001) but not in soccer players (r = -0.08, p = 0.87). Squash-player rank correlated with performance on the squash-specific (? = 0.79, p = 0.02) but not the Baker's test (? = 0.55, p = 0.16). The squash-specific test discriminated between groups with similar non-sport-specific multiple-sprint ability and in squash players. In conjunction with the relationship between test performances, the results suggest that the squash-specific test is a valid and reproducible measure of multiple-sprint ability in squash players and could be used for assessing and tracking training-induced changes in multiple-sprint ability. PMID:21068678

  1. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  2. Sequential applications of pelargonic acid for weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control can be a constant challenge, especially when dealing with the limited herbicide options available to organic vegetable producers. Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide weed control throughout the production season. Although...

  3. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  4. 75 FR 6346 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United...importation of fresh male summer squash flowers from Israel into the continental United...importation of fresh male summer squash flowers, Cucurbita pepo L. into the...

  5. ON THE \\ grad div + s curl rot" OPERATOR DANIELE BOFFI (1) AND LUCIA GASTALDI (2)

    E-print Network

    Gastaldi, Lucia

    ON THE \\ grad div + s curl rot" OPERATOR DANIELE BOFFI (1) AND LUCIA GASTALDI (2) (1) Dipartimento the term s curl rot u is understood as a penalization parameter. 1 #12; 2 DANIELE BOFFI AND LUCIA GASTALDI

  6. DIVERGENCE-FREE AND CURL-FREE WAVELETS ON THE SQUARE FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DIVERGENCE-FREE AND CURL-FREE WAVELETS ON THE SQUARE FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS SOULEYMANE KADRI Grenoble cedex 9, France August 30, 2011 Abstract We present a construction of divergence-free and curl-free and integration. We introduce new BMRAs and wavelets for the spaces of divergence-free and curl-free vector

  7. Covolume solutions of three dimensional div-curl equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.; Wu, X.

    1995-01-01

    Delaunay-Voronoi mesh systems provide a generalization of the classical rectangular staggered meshes to unstructured meshes. It is shown how such 'covolume' discretizations may be applied to div-curl systems in three dimensions. Error estimates are proved and confirmed by a numerical illustration.

  8. A New Curl-Up Test of Abdominal Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Larry

    This study evaluates a new method of administering a trunk-curl test of abdominal muscular endurance and establishes a series of norms for college students and adults. The test utilizes a piece of cardboard that is cut out so that it can be held at the level of the navel of the testee and perpendicular to the floor. The test is administered with…

  9. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of squash seedlings under high temperature and strong light stress].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu-hao; Li, Ling-ling; Chen, Na-na

    2010-11-01

    Taking squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) variety Alan as test object, this paper studied the effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the morphological and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescent parameters of squash seedlings under the cross-stress of high temperature and strong light. Under the stress, applying 5-20 mmol x L(-1) of Ca2+ increased the plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stoma conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximal PS II efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual PS II efficiency (phi(PS II)), and photochemical queching coefficient (q(P)), and decreased the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ), suggesting that this application of exogenous Ca2+ could effectively mitigate the damage of high temperature and strong light stress on the squash seedlings leaf, and make it keep more rapid photosynthetic electron transfer rate and higher PS II electron transfer activity. Among the treatments of applying Ca2+, 10 mmol Ca2+ x L(-1) had the best effect. When the Ca2+ application rate exceeded 40 mmol x L(1), no mitigation effect was observed on the high temperature and strong light stress. PMID:21361006

  10. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed. PMID:18559172

  11. Evolution of perturbations of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: Escape from instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Ishihara; Masashi Kimura; Roman A. Konoplya; Keiju Murata; Jiro Soda; Alexander Zhidenko

    2008-01-01

    The squashed Kaluza-Klien (KK) black holes differ from the Schwarzschild black holes with asymptotic flatness or the black strings even at energies for which the KK modes are not excited yet, so that squashed KK black holes open a window in higher dimensions. Another important feature is that the squashed KK black holes are apparently stable and, thereby, let us

  12. 78 FR 25620 - Importation of Female Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ...0579-AD72 Importation of Female Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United...allow the importation of female squash flowers from Israel into the continental United...As a condition of entry, female squash flowers from Israel would be subject to a...

  13. SQUASH BEETLE ON CUCURBITS Frankie Lam, Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists,

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    numbers of pest insects such as aphids. The exceptions are the squash beetle and the Mexican bean beetle. The squash beetle is an occasional pest on cucurbits, and the Mexican bean beetle is a common pest on beansSQUASH BEETLE ON CUCURBITS Frankie Lam, Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists, Dan Egel

  14. Eliminating Squashes Through Learningg q g g Cross-Thread Violations in Speculative

    E-print Network

    Torrellas, Josep

    ] = ...A[5] = ... RAW Intl. Symp. on High Performance Computer Architecture - February 2002 2 #12;Squashing are statically unpredictable False sharing may cause further squashes Intl. Symp. on High Performance Computer Intl. Symp. on High Performance Computer Architecture - February 2002 4 Squashing is very costly #12

  15. Esempio 51. In un club sportivo, 36 soci giocano a tennis,28 a squash e 18abadminton. Inoltre, 22soci giocano sia a tennis che a squash, 12sia a tennis che a badminton,

    E-print Network

    Corrado, Tanasi

    Esempio 51. In un club sportivo, 36 soci giocano a tennis,28 a squash e 18abadminton. Inoltre, 22soci giocano sia a tennis che a squash, 12sia a tennis che a badminton, 9 sia a squash che a badminton giocano a tennis, S quello dei soci chegio- cano a squash e B quello dei soci che giocano a badminton

  16. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9?±?3.5 and 9.2?±?2.9 %, respectively. PMID:25300850

  17. Cosmic shear of the microwave background: The curl diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Kamionkowski, Marc [Mail Code 130-33, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Caldwell, Robert R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Weak-lensing distortions of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) temperature and polarization patterns can reveal important clues to the intervening large-scale structure. The effect of lensing is to deflect the primary temperature and polarization signal to slightly different locations on the sky. Deflections due to density fluctuations, gradient-type for the gradient of the projected gravitational potential, give a direct measure of the mass distribution. Curl-type deflections can be induced by, for example, a primordial background of gravitational waves from inflation or by second-order effects related to lensing by density perturbations. Whereas gradient-type deflections are expected to dominate, we show that curl-type deflections can provide a useful test of systematics and serve to indicate the presence of confusing secondary and foreground non-Gaussian signals.

  18. Curling and rolling dynamics of naturally curved ribbons.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Octavio Albarrán; Massiera, Gladys; Abkarian, Manouk

    2014-05-01

    When a straight rod is bent and suddenly released on one end, a burst of dispersive flexural waves propagates down the material as predicted by linear beam theories. However, we show that for ribbons with a longitudinal natural radius of curvature a0, geometrical constraints lead to strain localization which controls the dynamics. This localized region of deformation selects a specific curling deformation front which travels down the ribbon when initially flattened and released. Performing experiments on different ribbons, in air and in water, we show that initially, on length scales on the order of a0, the curling front moves as a power law of time with an exponent ranging from 0.5 to 2 for increasing values of the ribbons' width. At longer time scales, the material wraps itself at a constant speed Vr into a roll of radius R ? a0. The relationship between Vr and R is calculated by a balance between kinetic, elastic and gravitational energy and both internal and external powers dissipated. When gravity and drag are negligible, we observe that a0/R reaches a limiting value of 0.48 that we predict by solving the Elastica on the curled ribbon considering the centrifugal forces due to rotation. The solution we propose represents a solitary traveling curvature wave which is reminiscent to propagating instabilities in mechanics. PMID:24695463

  19. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  20. Hydro-Responsive Curling of the Resurrection Plant Selaginella lepidophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Brulé, Véronique; Western, Tamara L.; Pasini, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The spirally arranged stems of the spikemoss Selaginella lepidophylla, an ancient resurrection plant, compactly curl into a nest-ball shape upon dehydration. Due to its spiral phyllotaxy, older outer stems on the plant interlace and envelope the younger inner stems forming the plant centre. Stem curling is a morphological mechanism that limits photoinhibitory and thermal damages the plant might experience in arid environments. Here, we investigate the distinct conformational changes of outer and inner stems of S. lepidophylla triggered by dehydration. Outer stems bend into circular rings in a relatively short period of desiccation, whereas inner stems curl slowly into spirals due to hydro-actuated strain gradient along their length. This arrangement eases both the tight packing of the plant during desiccation and its fast opening upon rehydration. The insights gained from this work shed light on the hydro-responsive movements in plants and might contribute to the development of deployable structures with remarkable shape transformations in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:25623361

  1. Leaf Shape

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of leaf shapes. The single Web page, which can be easily printed for use at field sites, shows five leaf shapes.

  2. Leaf Margins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the difference between entire and toothed leaf margins. The single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Both leaf margin illustrations identify the leaf blade and the petiole.

  3. Inheritance of parthenocarpy in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cícero B. de Menezes; Wilson R. Maluf; Sebastião M. de Azevedo; Marcos V. Faria; Ildon R. Nascimento; Douglas W. Nogueira; Luiz A. A. Gomes; Eduardo Bearzoti

    2005-01-01

    The inheritance of the tendency to set parthenocarpic fruit in the summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) line Whitaker was studied. Two parental lines, Whitaker (parthenocarpic) and Caserta (non- parthenocarpic), and the F1 and F2 generations and backcrosses to both parents were tested. The parthenocarpic tendency of individual plants was scored on a scale from 1 (non-parthenocarpic fruit) to 5 (partheno-

  4. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, watermelon plants of different ages were inoculated with SqVYV to characterize the physiological response to infection and provide new insights into watermelon vine decline. Physiological responses to...

  5. Post-directed application of pelargonic acid for squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and...

  6. Squash vein yellowing virus and its effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a novel whitefly-transmitted member of the Potyviridae was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline in Florida. Watermelon plants were grown under whitefly-free conditions in a greenhouse and inoculated with buffer (mock), SqVYV, or SqVYV and Papaya rin...

  7. Geodetic precession in squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Ken; Ishihara, Hideki [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the geodetic precession effect of a parallelly transported spin vector along a circular geodesic in five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole spacetime. Then we derive the higher-dimensional correction of the precession angle to general relativity. We find that the correction is proportional to the square of (size of extra dimension)/(gravitational radius of central object)

  8. Characteristics of whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a recently described ipomovirus, is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, B strain. Understanding the characteristics of transmission is essential for developing management strategies for this virus, which is the causal agent for watermelon vine ...

  9. Squash bug: Vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbits, especially watermelon and cantaloupe, are important crops in the South Central region of the U.S. and are affected by a variety of insect and disease complexes. Prominent among these are the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer) and a destructive vine decline, cucurbit yellow vine disease (...

  10. The squash-and-stretch stylization for character motions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji-yong; Lee, In-Kwon

    2012-03-01

    The squash-and-stretch describes the rigidity of the character. This effect is the most important technique in traditional cartoon animation. In this paper, we introduce a method that applies the squash-and-stretch effect to character motion. Our method exaggerates the motion by sequentially applying the spatial exaggeration technique and the temporal exaggeration technique. The spatial exaggeration technique globally deforms the pose in order to make the squashed or stretched pose by modeling it as a covariance matrix of joint positions. Then, the temporal exaggeration technique computes a time-warping function for each joint, and applies it to the position of the joint allowing the character to stretch its links appropriately. The motion stylized by our method is a sequence of squashed and stretched poses with stretching limbs. By performing a user survey, we prove that the motion created using our method is similar to that used in 2D cartoon animation and is funnier than the original motion for human observers who are familiar with 2D cartoon animation. PMID:21383407

  11. Evolution of perturbations of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: escape from instability

    E-print Network

    Hideki Ishihara; Masashi Kimura; Roman A. Konoplya; Keiju Murata; Jiro Soda; Alexander Zhidenko

    2008-03-09

    The squashed Kaluza-Klien (KK) black holes differ from the Schwarzschild black holes with asymptotic flatness or the black strings even at energies for which the KK modes are not excited yet, so that squashed KK black holes open a window in higher dimensions. Another important feature is that the squashed KK black holes are apparently stable and, thereby, let us avoid the Gregory-Laflamme instability. In the present paper, the evolution of scalar and gravitational perturbations in time and frequency domains is considered for these squashed KK black holes. The scalar field perturbations are analyzed for general rotating squashed KK black holes. Gravitational perturbations for the so called zero mode are shown to be decayed for non-rotating black holes, in concordance with the stability of the squashed KK black holes. The correlation of quasinormal frequencies with the size of extra dimension is discussed.

  12. Curling edges: a problem that has plagued scrolls for millennia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Han; Shen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hung, Sun-Hsin; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2014-01-24

    Qi-Wa refers to the up curl on the lengths of hand scrolls and hanging scrolls, which has troubled Chinese artisans and emperors for as long as the art of painting and calligraphy has existed. This warp is unwelcome not only for aesthetic reasons, but its potential damage to the fiber and ink. Although it is generally treated as a part of the cockling and curling due to moisture, consistency of paste, and defects from the mounting procedures, we demonstrate that the spontaneous extrinsic curvature incurred from the storage is in fact more essential to understanding and curing Qi-Wa. In contrast to the former factors whose effects are less predictable, the plastic deformation and strain distribution on a membrane are a well-defined mechanical problem. We study this phenomenon by experiments, theoretical models, and molecular dynamics simulation, and obtain consistent scaling relations for the Qi-Wa height. This knowledge enables us to propose modifications on the traditional mounting techniques that are tested on real mounted paper to be effective at mitigating Qi-Wa. By experimenting on polymer-based films, we demonstrate the possible relevance of our study to the modern development of flexible electronic paper. PMID:24484142

  13. Curling Edges: A Problem that Has Plagued Scrolls for Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ming-Han; Shen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hung, Sun-Hsin; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Qi-Wa refers to the up curl on the lengths of hand scrolls and hanging scrolls, which has troubled Chinese artisans and emperors for as long as the art of painting and calligraphy has existed. This warp is unwelcome not only for aesthetic reasons, but its potential damage to the fiber and ink. Although it is generally treated as a part of the cockling and curling due to moisture, consistency of paste, and defects from the mounting procedures, we demonstrate that the spontaneous extrinsic curvature incurred from the storage is in fact more essential to understanding and curing Qi-Wa. In contrast to the former factors whose effects are less predictable, the plastic deformation and strain distribution on a membrane are a well-defined mechanical problem. We study this phenomenon by experiments, theoretical models, and molecular dynamics simulation, and obtain consistent scaling relations for the Qi-Wa height. This knowledge enables us to propose modifications on the traditional mounting techniques that are tested on real mounted paper to be effective at mitigating Qi-Wa. By experimenting on polymer-based films, we demonstrate the possible relevance of our study to the modern development of flexible electronic paper.

  14. Transgenic approaches for the Control of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE E. POLSTON; Ernest Hiebert

    Management of TYLCV and other begomoviruses is very difficult and expensive. The least expensive and most practical control\\u000a of TYLCV and many other begomoviruses is the use of resistant cultivars. Begomovirus-resistant tomato cultivars would greatly\\u000a reduce the use of insecticides for whitefly control, which would reduce production costs and chemical contamination of the\\u000a environment. Conventional breeding of TYLCV-resistant tomato lines

  15. Sparsity optimized high order finite element functions for H(curl) on tetrahedra

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Sparsity optimized high order finite element functions for H(curl) on tetrahedra Sven Beuchler space H(curl) in 3 dimensions. We introduce a set of hierarchic basis functions on tetrahedra of the sparsity result on general tetrahedra defined in terms of their barycentric coordinates is carried out

  16. Preceramic adoption of peanut, squash, and cotton in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Tom D; Rossen, Jack; Andres, Thomas C; Williams, David E

    2007-06-29

    The early development of agriculture in the New World has been assumed to involve early farming in settlements in the Andes, but the record has been sparse. Peanut (Arachis sp.), squash (Cucurbita moschata), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense) macrofossils were excavated from archaeological sites on the western slopes of the northern Peruvian Andes. Direct radiocarbon dating indicated that these plants grew between 9240 and 5500 (14)C years before the present. These and other plants were recovered from multiple locations in a tropical dry forest valley, including household clusters, permanent architectural structures, garden plots, irrigation canals, hoes, and storage structures. These data provide evidence for early use of peanut and squash in the human diet and of cotton for industrial purposes and indicate that horticultural economies in parts of the Andes took root by about 10,000 years ago. PMID:17600214

  17. Hawking Radiation from Squashed Kaluza-Klein Black Holes -- A Window to Extra Dimensions --

    E-print Network

    Hideki Ishihara; Jiro Soda

    2007-02-22

    We explore the obsevability of extra dimensions through 5-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes residing in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime. With the expectation that the Hawking radiation reflects the 5-dimensional nature of the squashed horizon, we study the Hawking radiation of a scalar field in the squashed black hole background. As a result, we show that the luminosity of Hawking radiation tells us the size of the extra dimension, namely, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes open a window to extra dimensions.

  18. Hawking radiation from squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: A window to extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Hideki [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    We explore the observability of extra dimensions through five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes residing in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime. With the expectation that the Hawking radiation reflects the five-dimensional nature of the squashed horizon, we study the Hawking radiation of a scalar field in the squashed black hole background. As a result, we show that the luminosity of Hawking radiation tells us the size of the extra dimension, namely, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes open a window to extra dimensions.

  19. Methyl bromide alternatives in a bell pepper–squash rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Webster; A. S. Csinos; A. W. Johnson; C. C. Dowler; D. R. Sumner; R. L. Fery

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate potential methyl bromide alternatives against multiple pests in a bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) – squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cropping sequence. Early in the growing season, the most effective treatments in suppressing purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) emergence through the polyethylene mulch were methyl bromide, methyl iodide, and chisel-injected 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin [1,3-D+C35 (chisel)].

  20. Diagnosis of canine gastric adenocarcinoma using squash preparation cytology.

    PubMed

    Riondato, Fulvio; Miniscalco, Barbara; Berio, Enrica; Lepri, Elvio; Rossi, Silvia; Bottero, Enrico

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common gastric tumour in dogs. Clinical signs and laboratory results are often non-specific, with histopathological examination of gastric biopsies being required to reach a definitive diagnosis. Use of cytology would potentially shorten the time to diagnosis and allow early interventional measures to be implemented. However, there are relatively few studies of the cytological features of gastric samples. The present study was designed to investigate whether cytology might be useful for diagnosis of canine gastric adenocarcinomas and to evaluate the performance of squash preparation cytology for this purpose. Squash preparations of gastric biopsies from 94 dogs were reviewed to determine the presence or absence of specific cytological features associated with adenocarcinomas and to compare findings with the results of histopathological examination of gastric biopsies. The presence of signet ring cells, microvacuolation, cellular pleomorphism and single cell distribution of epithelial cells were positively associated with a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Combined evaluation (parallel testing) for the presence of signet ring cells and microvacuolation demonstrated excellent results for recognition of adenocarcinomas. Cytological examination of squash preparations from gastric biopsies and identification of signet ring cells and cytoplasmic vacuolation can allow rapid and reliable diagnosis of canine gastric adenocarcinomas. PMID:24923753

  1. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  2. FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL LEAF SPOT ON LEAFY BRASSICA GREENS CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. MACULICOLA IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As of 2001, South Carolina ranked second in the United States in acreage of turnip greens (Brassica rapa) and collard (B. oleracea) and third in acreage of mustard (B. juncea). In June 2001, a leaf disease was found on turnip greens (cv. Alamo), mustard (cv. Southern Giant Curled and Florida Broadl...

  3. Local and Systemic Changes in Squash Gene Expression in Response to Silverleaf Whitefly Feeding

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Wilhelmina T. G.; LeVesque, Cynthia S.; Perring, Thomas M.; Walling, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Squash genes (SLW1 and SLW3) induced systemically after silverleaf whitefly feeding were identified. Differences in the local and systemic expression of SLW1 and SLW3 after feeding by the closely related silverleaf and sweetpotato whiteflies were observed. Temporal and spatial studies showed that SLW1 and SLW3 were induced when second, third, and fourth nymphal instars were feeding. Although only barely detected after wounding and bacterial infection, SLW1 and SLW3 RNAs were abundant during water-deficit stress. Treatments with wound/defense signal molecules showed that SLW1 RNAs accumulated in response to methyl jasmonate and ethylene, whereas SLW3 was not regulated by known wound/defense signals, suggesting utilization of a novel mechanism for defense signal transduction. SLW1 RNAs accumulated during floral and fruit development, whereas SLW3 RNAs were not detected during vegetative or reproductive development. The potential roles of SLW1, an M20b peptidase–like protein, and SLW3, a ?-glucosidase–like protein, in defense and the leaf-silvering disorder are discussed. PMID:10948259

  4. A Putative Role for the Tomato Genes DUMPY and CURL-3 in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis and Response1

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Chala V.; Cerny, R. Eric; Gardner, Randy G.; Noguchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Clouse, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    The dumpy (dpy) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) exhibits short stature, reduced axillary branching, and altered leaf morphology. Application of brassinolide and castasterone rescued the dpy phenotype, as did C-23-hydroxylated, 6-deoxo intermediates of brassinolide biosynthesis. The brassinolide precursors campesterol, campestanol, and 6-deoxocathasterone failed to rescue, suggesting that dpy may be affected in the conversion of 6-deoxocathasterone to 6-deoxoteasterone, similar to the Arabidopsis constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd) mutant. Measurements of endogenous brassinosteroid levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were consistent with this hypothesis. To examine brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression in dpy, we performed cDNA subtractive hybridization and isolated a novel xyloglucan endotransglycosylase that is regulated by brassinosteroid treatment. The curl-3 (cu-3) mutant (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium [Jusl.] Mill.) shows extreme dwarfism, altered leaf morphology, de-etiolation, and reduced fertility, all strikingly similar to the Arabidopsis mutant brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1). Primary root elongation of wild-type L. pimpinellifolium seedlings was strongly inhibited by brassinosteroid application, while cu-3 mutant roots were able to elongate at the same brassinosteroid concentration. Moreover, cu-3 mutants retained sensitivity to indole-3-acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellin, and abscisic acid while showing hypersensitivity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the root elongation assay. The cu-3 root response to hormones, coupled with its bri1-like phenotype, suggests that cu-3 may also be brassinosteroid insensitive. PMID:10631252

  5. Leaf Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-09-12

    This straightforward tutorial on leaf identification comes from the Department of Horticulture at Penn State University. Simple diagrams, helpful photos, and clear explanations make short work of learning the basics of leaf identification. The website even includes a section on why anyone should bother learning this skill (i.e. it's not just for dedicated horticulturists and botanists). The tutorial covers leaf structure, blade shape, margins, venation, and so on. The self-testing component appears to be unavailable at this time, but this site as a whole is definitely worth a look.

  6. Development of Mass Rearing Methods, and Novel Methods For Control of the Squash Bug, Anasa Tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), a major pest of squash, pumpkin, watermelon, cucumber and cantaloupe, uses piercing-sucking mouthparts to imbibe plant fluids. The severity of plant damage resulting from squash bug feeding causes extensive damage to stems resulting in wilting, fruit discolo...

  7. 75 FR 29309 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United...United States of fresh male summer squash flowers from Israel. Based on the findings of...importation of fresh male summer squash flowers from Israel. EFFECTIVE DATE: May...

  8. Plastic Mulches and Row Covers on the grow and production of Summer Squash.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer squash [Cucurbita pepo (L) ‘Prelude II’] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in Shorter, AL. The summer squash was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (...

  9. STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WINTER SQUASH (CUCURBITA MAXIMA D.) FRUIT STARCHES AT HARVEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structures and physicochemical properties of starch isolated from fruit (pepo) of seven winter squash cultivars (Cucurbita maxima D.) were studied. Squash starches exhibited the B-type X-ray diffraction pattern and had most granules with diameters of 1.5-2.5 micrometers, 6-8 micrometers, and 11-13 ...

  10. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE® and Scythe®

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in squash production, any uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reducti...

  11. Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of squash mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of a novel genotype of Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) infecting squash plants in Spain was obtained using deep sequencing of small ribonucleic acids and assembly. The low nucleotide sequence identities, with 87-88% on RNA1 and 84-86% on RNA2 to known SqMV isolates, suggest a new...

  12. Leaf Arrangement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide to leaf arrangement shows students how leaves attached at a stem node can be in alternate, opposite, or whorled arrangements. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites.

  13. Universal squash model for optical communications using linear optics and threshold detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F. [Department of Physics and Center of Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Lo, Hoi-Kwong [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Transmission of photons through open-air or optical fibers is an important primitive in quantum-information processing. Theoretical descriptions of this process often consider single photons as information carriers and thus fail to accurately describe experimental implementations where any number of photons may enter a detector. It has been a great challenge to bridge this big gap between theory and experiments. One powerful method for achieving this goal is by conceptually squashing the received multiphoton states to single-photon states. However, until now, only a few protocols admit a squash model; furthermore, a recently proven no-go theorem appears to rule out the existence of a universal squash model. Here we show that a necessary condition presumed by all existing squash models is in fact too stringent. By relaxing this condition, we find that, rather surprisingly, a universal squash model actually exists for many protocols, including quantum key distribution, quantum state tomography, Bell's inequality testing, and entanglement verification.

  14. Universal squash model for optical communications using linear optics and threshold detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2011-08-01

    Transmission of photons through open-air or optical fibers is an important primitive in quantum-information processing. Theoretical descriptions of this process often consider single photons as information carriers and thus fail to accurately describe experimental implementations where any number of photons may enter a detector. It has been a great challenge to bridge this big gap between theory and experiments. One powerful method for achieving this goal is by conceptually squashing the received multiphoton states to single-photon states. However, until now, only a few protocols admit a squash model; furthermore, a recently proven no-go theorem appears to rule out the existence of a universal squash model. Here we show that a necessary condition presumed by all existing squash models is in fact too stringent. By relaxing this condition, we find that, rather surprisingly, a universal squash model actually exists for many protocols, including quantum key distribution, quantum state tomography, Bell's inequality testing, and entanglement verification.

  15. Labeling Pattern of Translocated Stachyose in Squash 1

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, John E.

    1968-01-01

    One mature blade of each squash plant was continuously labeled with 14CO2 for 15, 30, or 70 minutes in light. The ethanol soluble materials from serial sections of petioles were extracted and separated by paper chromatography. The ratios of label in the various components of this fraction were determined. Stachyose, which contained the major portion of the label of this fraction, was hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysate was separated by paper chromatography. Specific activities of the hexoses derived from stachyose were determined. It was found that the glucose and fructose moieties of stachyose became labeled at the same rates; however, the galactose moiety became labeled more rapidly. Images PMID:16656948

  16. Transport of intensity phase imaging in the presence of curl effects induced by strongly absorbing photomasks.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Aamod; Tian, Lei; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Neureuther, Andrew; Waller, Laura

    2014-12-01

    We report theoretical and experimental results for imaging of electromagnetic phase edge effects in lithography photomasks. Our method starts from the transport of intensity equation (TIE), which solves for phase from through-focus intensity images. Traditional TIE algorithms make an implicit assumption that the underlying in-plane power flow is curl-free. Motivated by our current study, we describe a practical situation in which this assumption breaks down. Strong absorption gradients in mask features interact with phase edges to contribute a curl to the in-plane Poynting vector, causing severe artifacts in the phase recovered. We derive how curl effects are coupled into intensity measurements and propose an iterative algorithm that not only corrects the artifacts, but also recovers missing curl components. PMID:25607976

  17. SHAPESET: A process to reduce sidewall curl springback in high-strength steel rails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ayres

    1984-01-01

    High-strength steel rails for structural members can reduce vehicle weight, but sidewall curl springback in these rails causes\\u000a assembly difficulties with adjacent parts. A process to greatly reduce curl springback, known as SHAPESET, was investigated\\u000a for a variety of high-strength steels, including two dual-phase steels. Gridded blanks were stamped by the two-step SHAPESET\\u000a process and by conventional methods. The SHAPESET

  18. A relationship between dry-relaxed warp-knitted fabric structure and curling distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ajeli; Sh. Minapoor

    2012-01-01

    This study provides us information about relationship between curling and knitted structure and density of two-guide bar warp-knitted fabrics. Five standard warp-knitted fabrics are produced with three densities (Tricot, Locknit, three-needle Satin, Reveres Locknit and three-needle Sharkskin). Certain cut lengths of sample fabrics in both wale and course direction are analyzed through image processing to define curling value. A mechanical

  19. A relationship between dry-relaxed warp-knitted fabric structure and curling distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ajeli; Sh. Minapoor

    2011-01-01

    This study provides us information about relationship between curling and knitted structure and density of two-guide bar warp-knitted fabrics. Five standard warp-knitted fabrics are produced with three densities (Tricot, Locknit, three-needle Satin, Reveres Locknit and three-needle Sharkskin). Certain cut lengths of sample fabrics in both wale and course direction are analyzed through image processing to define curling value. A mechanical

  20. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ?1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ?580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  1. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ruth M.; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R.; Gilbertson, Robert L.; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ?1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ?580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:25288955

  2. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  3. Squash: A Scalable Quantum Mapper Considering Ancilla Sharing

    E-print Network

    Mohammad Javad Dousti; Alireza Shafaei; Massoud Pedram

    2014-12-27

    Quantum algorithms for solving problems of interesting size often result in circuits with a very large number of qubits and quantum gates. Fortunately, these algorithms also tend to contain a small number of repetitively-used quantum kernels. Identifying the quantum logic blocks that implement such quantum kernels is critical to the complexity management for realizing the corresponding quantum circuit. Moreover, quantum computation requires some type of quantum error correction coding to combat decoherence, which in turn results in a large number of ancilla qubits in the circuit. Sharing the ancilla qubits among quantum operations (even though this sharing can increase the overall circuit latency) is important in order to curb the resource demand of the quantum algorithm. This paper presents a multi-core reconfigurable quantum processor architecture, called Requp, which supports a layered approach to mapping a quantum algorithm and ancilla sharing. More precisely, a scalable quantum mapper, called Squash, is introduced, which divides a given quantum circuit into a number of quantum kernels- each kernel comprises k parts such that each part will run on exactly one of k available cores. Experimental results demonstrate that Squash can handle large-scale quantum algorithms while providing an effective mechanism for sharing ancilla qubits.

  4. Leaf Living

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1981-01-01

    In this outdoor fall activity, learners find out what living in or under a layer of leaves is like. Learners will discover that animals that live in leaf litter use different senses to find prey, avoid predators, and to navigate through the litter. Learners role play predator and prey—the "prey" hides in a large pile of leaves, and the "predator" tries to "strike" by reaching straight into the leaf pile to grab the "prey." Learners also consider what body adaptations help organisms that spend part of their life under the leaves.

  5. Finite length and solvent analysis effects on the squash mode of single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fréin, C.; Quirke, N.; Zerulla, D.

    2013-10-01

    Nanotube diameters (d) are usually characterized using the radial breathing mode d-1; the squash mode frequency (f) however is predicted to vary as d-2. We demonstrate using the MM+ forcefield that for lengths <9 nm the symmetric squash mode (SSM) and asymmetric squash mode (ASM) ((10,0) SWNT (single wall carbon nanotubes)) are non-degenerate with ?f ? 55 cm-1. In solution, the SWNT-water interaction upshifts the ASM by 20 cm-1 and the SSM by 10 cm-1. Such asymmetries could be used to simultaneously characterize the length and diameter of short nanotubes for applications including nanoresonators and biomedical probes.

  6. Leaf Type

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide to leaf types is designed to help students understand the differences between compound and simple leaves. This single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Along with an explanation of both types, the guide includes a short description of related terms.

  7. Self reported injury patterns among competitive curlers in the United States: a preliminary investigation into the epidemiology of curling injuries

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J; Berg, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Participants at two curling championship events were asked to complete injury history questionnaires. Results: 76 curlers (39%) participated; 79% of these reported curling related musculoskeletal pain, most commonly involving the knee (54%), back (33%), and shoulder (20%). Sweeping and delivering the stone were most likely to provoke symptoms. Time loss injuries were estimated to occur at a rate of 2 per 1000 athlete exposures. Conclusions: Curling appears to be a relatively safe winter sport. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and to further define the risk factors for curling related injuries. PMID:15388573

  8. Squashed entanglement, k-extendibility, quantum Markov chains, and recovery maps

    E-print Network

    Ke Li; Andreas Winter

    2014-11-06

    Squashed entanglement [Christandl/Winter, JMP 45(3):829-840 (2004)] is a monogamous entanglement measure, which implies that highly extendible states have small value of the squashed entanglement. Here, invoking a recent inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information [Fawzi/Renner, arXiv:1410.0664], we show the converse, that a small value of squashed entanglement implies that the state is close to a highly extendible state. As a corollary, we establish an alternative proof of the faithfulness of squashed entanglement [Brandao/Christandl/Yard, CMP 306:805-830 (2011)]. We briefly discuss the pre-history of the Fawzi-Renner bound and related conjectures, and close by advertising a potentially far-reaching generalization to the monotonicity of the relative entropy.

  9. Curling during desiccation protects the foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Barták, Milos; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Vráblíková, Hana; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to assess the photoprotective potential of desiccation-induced curling in the light-susceptible old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria by using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Naturally curled thalli showed less photoinhibition-induced limitations in primary processes of photosynthesis than artificially flattened specimens during exposures to 450 micromol m-2 s-1 in the laboratory after both 12- (medium dose treatment) and 62-h duration (high dose treatment). Thallus areas shaded by curled lobes during light exposure showed unchanged values of measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (FV/FM, PhiPS II), whereas non-shaded parts of curled thalli, as well as the mean for the entire flattened thalli, showed photoinhibitory limitation after light treatments. Furthermore, the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging showed that the typical small-scale reticulated ridges on the upper side of L. pulmonaria caused a spatial, small-scale reduction in damage due to minor shading. Severe dry-state photoinhibition readily occurred in flattened and light-treated L. pulmonaria, although the mechanisms for such damage in a desiccated and inactive stage are not well known. Natural curling is one strategy to reduce the chance for serious photoinhibition in desiccated L. pulmonaria thalli during high light exposures. PMID:16804701

  10. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology). PMID:22251639

  11. Dynamic characteristics of the output light from a vibrating hole assisted fiber curl cord and its application to intrusion location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateda, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    When a hole assisted fiber (HAF) curl cord expands and contracts, the polarization direction of the light emitted from it rotates. A curl cord is divided into several sections by fixing it at several points. When the curl cord is flipped at a point within one of these sections, then vibration is observed with the characteristic frequency to the flipped section. The vibration period of a HAF curl cord can be detected by monitoring the light power emitted from the curl cord after passing through a polarizer. We confirmed theoretically and experimentally that the vibration period of the polarization change is proportional to the length of the section including the flipped point, which can be applied to intrusion location.

  12. Tree Leaf Identification and Leaf Display Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rebecca Hansing

    This activity is a tree leaf collection, identification, and display of dried and pressed leaves. It teaches students about distinguishing leaf characteristics as well as a way to display and label their collection.

  13. Global spread of wheat curl mite by the most polyphagous and pestiferous lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella, is an important pest of wheat and other cereal crops that transmits wheat streak mosaic virus and several other plant viruses. WCM has long been considered a single polyphagous species, but recent studies in Poland revealed a complex of genetically disti...

  14. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  15. Differential transmission of Triticum mosaic virus by wheat curl mite populations collected in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is an important food grain worldwide, and the primary dryland crop in the western Great Plains. A complex of three wheat curl mite (WCM)-transmitted viruses [Wheat streak mosaic, High plains, and Triticum mosaic viruses (TriMV)] is a cause of serious loss in winter wheat production in the Grea...

  16. Wind Stress Curl and ENSO Discharge\\/Recharge in the Equatorial Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan J. Clarke; Stephen Van Gorder; Giuseppe Colantuono

    2007-01-01

    Discharge and recharge of the warm water volume (WWV) above the 20°C isotherm in an equatorial Pacific Ocean box extending across the Pacific from 156°E to the eastern ocean boundary between latitudes 5°S and 5°N are key variables in ENSO dynamics. A formula linking WWV anomalies, zonally integrated wind stress curl anomalies along the northern and southern edges of the

  17. Identification of the Wheat Curl Mite as the Vector of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus found infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) and the bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. ) could transmit TriMV. Using diffe...

  18. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  19. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ?2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  20. Hawking radiation as tunneling from squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Ken [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Umetsu, Koichiro [Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    We discuss Hawking radiation from a five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole on the basis of the tunneling mechanism. A simple method, which was recently suggested by Umetsu, may be used to extend the original derivation by Parikh and Wilczek to various black holes. That is, we use the two-dimensional effective metric, which is obtained by the dimensional reduction near the horizon, as the background metric. Using the same method, we derive both the desired result of the Hawking temperature and the effect of the backreaction associated with the radiation in the squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole background.

  1. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. PMID:24692343

  2. Engineering cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease using viral truncated AC1 DNA sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamil A. HashmiYusuf; Yusuf Zafar; Muhammad Arshad; Shahid Mansoor; Shaheen Asad

    2011-01-01

    Several important biological processes are performed by distinct functional domains found on replication-associated protein\\u000a (Rep) encoded by AC1 of geminiviruses. Two truncated forms of replicase (tAC1) gene, capable of expressing only the N-terminal\\u000a 669 bp (5?AC1) and C-terminal 783 bp (3?AC1) nucleotides cloned under transcriptional control of the CaMV35S were introduced\\u000a into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using LBA4404 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  3. Curl-B technique applied to Swarm constellation for determining field-aligned currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ritter; H. Lühr

    2006-01-01

    The constellation of the Swarm satellites provides for the first time the opportunity to determine field-aligned currents in the ionosphere uniquely. This is achieved by employing the Curl-B relation of Ampere's law directly to measurements of a satellite pair flying side-by-side. The new technique is applied to a set of consistent magnetic field and current data generated by a global

  4. A parametric study on ultimate strength of single shear bolted connections with curling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Kim; H. Kuwamura; T. J. Cho

    2008-01-01

    Recommended procedures of finite element modeling for predicting the structural behaviors of single shear bolted connections in cold-formed austenitic stainless steel are presented in this paper. It was shown that predictions by FE analysis method were in a good correspondence with test results for ultimate behaviors such as failure mode, ultimate strength and out-of-plane curling. A parametric study on four-bolted

  5. Curling up two spatial dimensions with SU(1,1)\\/U(1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Gell-Mann; Barton Zwiebach

    1984-01-01

    It is seen that a nonlinear sigma model based on the noncompact coset space SU(1,1)\\/U(1) can curl up two spatial dimensions into a topologically noncompact surface of finite area with a compact U(1) isometry group. This mechanism can be used for several higher-dimensional supergravity theories. In particular, chiral N = 2, D = 10 supergravity would reduce to an N

  6. Slow expiration reduces sternocleidomastoid activity and increases transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle activity during abdominal curl-up.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Lim; Kim, Ki-Song; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quiet inspiration versus slow expiration on sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and abdominal muscle activity during abdominal curl-up in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect activity of bilateral SCM, rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) muscles. A paired t-test was used to determine significant differences in the bilateral SCM, RF, EO, and TrA/IO muscles between abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration and slow expiration. There were significantly lower EMG activity of both SCMs and greater EMG activity of both IOs during abdominal curl-up with slow expiration, compared with the EMG activity of both SCMs and IOs during abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration (p<.05). The results of this study suggest that slow expiration would be recommended during abdominal curl-up for reduced SCM activation and selective activation of TrA/IO in healthy subjects compared with those in abdominal curl up with quiet inspiration. PMID:24210796

  7. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface. The muscle activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface EMG during performance of the curl-up exercise. [Results] The EMG activity of the RA and EO was significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface during the curl-up exercise. The EMG activities of the TrA and IO were greater in combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface than during the curl-up exercise on both a stable and unstable surface. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the local trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise is more strongly affected by combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise than by performance on an unstable supporting surface. PMID:25729202

  8. Competition between curls and plectonemes near the buckling transition of stretched supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Recent single-molecule experiments have observed that formation of a plectonemically super-coiled region in a stretched, twisted DNA proceeds via abrupt formation of a small plectonemic “bubble”. A detailed mesoscopic model is presented for the formation of plectonemic domains, including their positional entropy, and the influence of small chiral loops or “curls” along the extended DNA. Curls begin to appear just before plectoneme formation, and are more numerous at low salt concentrations (< 20 mM univalent ions) and at low forces (< 0.5 pN). However, plectonemic domains quickly become far more stable slightly beyond the transition to supercoiling at moderate forces and physiological salt conditions. At the supercoiling transition, for shorter DNAs (2 kb) only one supercoiled domain appears, but for longer DNAs at lower forces (< 0.5 pN) positional entropy favors formation of more than one plectonemic domain; a similar effect occurs for low salt. Although they are not the prevalent mode of supercoiling, curls are a natural transition state for binding of DNA-loop-trapping enzymes; we show how addition of loop-trapping enzymes can modify the supercoiling transition. The behavior of DNA torque is also discussed, including the effect of the measurement apparatus torque stiffness, which can play a role in determining how large the torque “overshoot” is at the buckling transition. PMID:22400592

  9. Mechanism of kaolinite sheets curling via the intercalation and delamination process.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Liu, Qinfu; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Shuai; Frost, Ray L

    2015-04-15

    Kaolinite naturally occurs in the plate form for the interlayer hydrogen bond and the distortion and adaption of tetrahedron and octahedron. But kaolinite sheets can be exfoliated to nanoscrolls artificially in laboratory through multiple-step displacement intercalation. The driving force for kaolinite sheet to be curled nanoscroll originates from the size discrepancy of Si-O tetrahedron and Al-O octahedron. The displacement intercalation promoted the platy kaolinite sheets spontaneously to be scrolled by eliminating the interlayer hydrogen bond and atomic interaction. Kaolinite nanoscrolls are hollow tubes with outer face of tetrahedral sheet and inner face of octahedral sheet. Based on the theoretical calculation it is firstly reported that the minimum interior diameter for a single kaolinite sheet to be scrolled is about 9.08 nm, and the optimal 24.30 nm, the maximum 100 nm, which is verified by the observation of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The different adaption types and discrepancy degree between tetrahedron and octahedron generate various curling forces in different directions. The nanoscroll axes prefer the directions as [100], [11¯0], [110], [31¯0], and the relative curling force are as follows, [31¯0]>[100]=[11¯0]>[110]. PMID:25585290

  10. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  11. Detection of yellow vine disease in squash and pumpkin in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two commercial plots of summer squash in Charlemont, Franklin County, MA were devastated in 1999 by 100% incidence of a yellowing disease resembling cucurbit yellow vine. Both plots were established during the third week of May, one with transplants and the second by direct-seeding. The plots consis...

  12. Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); China Center of Advanced Science and Technology (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2008-01-15

    We explore the signature of the extra dimension in the Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. Comparing with the spherical case, we find that the rotating parameter brings richer physics. We obtain the appropriate size of the extra dimension which can enhance the Hawking radiation and may open a window to detect the extra dimensions.

  13. Morpho-Physiological Aspects of Productivity and Quality in Squash and Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brent Loy

    2004-01-01

    Squash and pumpkins are important horticultural crops worldwide, but there has been relatively little research to systematically describe yield components and improve productivity in this species. This review outlines some of the basic growth-analysis techniques for describing different aspects of productivity and attempts to summarize investigations on physiological, morphological, and ecological aspects of productivity and the relationship of these factors

  14. Obtention of haploid embryos and plants through irradiated pollen technique in squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Kurtar; N. Sar?; K. Abak

    2002-01-01

    The influence of gamma ray doses (25, 50, 75, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy) and genotypes (Eskenderany F1, Acceste F1, Sakiz, Urfa Yerli) on the induction of haploid embryos obtained by irradiated pollen technique was studied in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Different shapes and stages of embryos were derived from seeds extracted from fruits harvested 4–5 weeks after pollination.

  15. Squash vein yellowing virus infection of vining cucurbits and the vine decline response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. In this study, the responses of a diverse group of vining cucurbits to SqVYV inoculation was determined. The majority of cucurbits tested had either no symptoms of infection, or developed relatively mild symptoms. ...

  16. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  17. Weed control in yellow squash using sequential postdirected applications of pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers would benefit from appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of a naturally derived herbicide on weed control ef...

  18. Pelargonic acid formulations, application rates, and sequential applications for weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  19. Responses of various vining cucurbits to Squash vein yellowing virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) induced watermelon vine decline is a major limitation to watermelon production in Florida. The symptoms of this disease are a systemic wilt and necrosis which spreads along the vines of plants and leads to complete collapse. Fruit on affected vines also often sh...

  20. Development of ELISA and qPCR for Squash vein yellowing virus detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a new and emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. First identified in 2005, SqVYV is widely distributed in southwest and west-central Florida and has recently been found in...

  1. Tennis-Badminton-Squash Guide with Official Rules. June 1972 - June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Martha, Ed.; And Others

    Rules in tennis, badminton, and squash for girls and women from June 1972 - June 1974 are discussed. Standards in the sports are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teaching techniques, officiating techniques, and rules for tennis and badminton are presented.…

  2. 9/15/14 to 9/19/14 Rotisserie Chicken, Saut Yellow Squash, Vegetarian

    E-print Network

    Foroosh, Hassan

    9/15/14 to 9/19/14 Monday Rotisserie Chicken, Sauté Yellow Squash, Vegetarian Moroccan Stew, Sweet Potatoes. Sandwich of the Day: Meat Ball Sub Soup of the day: Chicken Noodle Tuesday Beef Steak Chicken Parmesan, Italian Cheese Balls, Whole Wheat Spaghetti, Italian Seasoned Sauté Spinach. Sandwich

  3. Comparison of Perimeter Trap Crop Varieties: Effects on Herbivory, Pollination, and Yield in Butternut Squash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Adler; R. V. Hazzard

    2009-01-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited

  4. Quasinormal modes in the background of charged Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons

    E-print Network

    Xi He; Songbai-Chen; Bin Wang; Rong-Gen Cai; Chi-Yong Lin

    2008-06-17

    We study the scalar perturbation in the background of the charged Kaluza-Klein black holes with squashed horizons. We find that the position of infinite discontinuities of the heat capacities can be reflected in quasinormal spectrum. This shows the possible non-trivial relation between the thermodynamical and dynamical properties of black holes.

  5. Leaf mines: their effect on leaf longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Pritchard; R. James

    1984-01-01

    The effects of a number of factors, notably leaf mining insects, on the longevity of beech and holm oak leaves have been studied. The regular monitoring of individually labelled leaves was complemented by analysis of leaf fall data. Both methods confirm that these mining insects have only a slight impact on their host trees. The presence of first generation Phyllonorycter

  6. Elm Leaf Beetle

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    2002-05-22

    Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

  7. Mapping leaf surface landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W L; Marshall, D B; Mechaber, R A; Jobe, R T; Chew, F S

    1996-01-01

    Leaf surfaces provide the ecologically relevant landscapes to those organisms that encounter or colonize the leaf surface. Leaf surface topography directly affects microhabitat availability for colonizing microbes, microhabitat quality and acceptability for insects, and the efficacy of agricultural spray applications. Prior detailed mechanistic studies that examined particular fungi-plant and pollinator-plant interactions have demonstrated the importance of plant surface topography or roughness in determining the outcome of the interactions. Until now, however, it has not been possible to measure accurately the topography--i.e., the three-dimensional structure--of such leaf surfaces or to record precise changes in patterns of leaf surface elevation over time. Using contact mode atomic force microscopy, we measured three-dimensional coordinates of upper leaf surfaces of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), a perennial plant, on leaves of two age classes. We then produced topographic maps of these leaf surfaces, which revealed striking differences between age classes of leaves: old leaves have much rougher surfaces than those of young leaves. Atomic force microscope measurements were analyzed by lag (1) autocorrelation estimates of leaf surfaces by age class. We suggest that the changes in topography result from removal of epicuticular lipids and that the changes in leaf surface topography influence phylloplane ecology. Visualizing and mapping leaf surfaces permit detailed investigations into leaf surface-mediated phenomena, improving our understanding of phylloplane interactions. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607676

  8. A deformation of quantum affine algebra in squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaguchi, Io; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    We proceed to study infinite-dimensional symmetries in two-dimensional squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models at the classical level. The target space is given by squashed S{sup 3} and the isometry is SU(2){sub L}?×?U(1){sub R}. It is known that SU(2){sub L} is enhanced to a couple of Yangians. We reveal here that an infinite-dimensional extension of U(1){sub R} is a deformation of quantum affine algebra, where a new deformation parameter is provided with the coefficient of the Wess-Zumino term. Then we consider the relation between the deformed quantum affine algebra and the pair of Yangians from the viewpoint of the left-right duality of monodromy matrices. The integrable structure is also discussed by computing the r/s-matrices that satisfy the extended classical Yang-Baxter equation. Finally, two degenerate limits are discussed.

  9. POLYTENE CHROMOSOME SQUASH METHODS FOR STUDYING TRANSCRIPTION AND EPIGENETIC CHROMATIN MODIFICATION IN DROSOPHILA USING ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Kristen M.; Cai, Weili; Deng, Huai; Bao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weiguo; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The giant polytene chromosomes from Drosophila third instar larval salivary glands provide an important model system for studying the architectural changes in chromatin morphology associated with the process of transcription initiation and elongation. Especially, analysis of the heat shock response has proved useful in correlating chromatin structure remodeling with transcriptional activity. An important tool for such studies is the labeling of polytene chromosome squash preparations with antibodies to the enzymes, transcription factors, or histone modifications of interest. However, in any immunohistochemical experiment there will be advantages and disadvantages to different methods of fixation and sample preparation, the relative merits of which must be balanced. Here we provide detailed protocols for polytene chromosome squash preparation and discuss their relative pros and cons in terms of suitability for reliable antibody labeling and preservation of high resolution chromatin structure. PMID:19272452

  10. Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

  11. Charged squashed black holes with negative cosmological constant in odd dimensions

    E-print Network

    Yves Brihaye; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2012-01-25

    We construct new electrically charged solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with negative cosmological constant in general odd dimensions $d=2n+3 \\geq 5$. They correspond to higher dimensional generalizations of the squashed black hole solutions, which were known so far only in five dimensions. We explore numerically the general properties of such classical solutions and, using a counterterm prescription, we compute their conserved charges and discuss their thermodynamics.

  12. Quasinormal modes of charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes in the Goedel universe

    SciTech Connect

    He Xi; Wang Bin; Chen Songbai [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 Hunan (China)

    2009-04-15

    We study the quasinormal modes of scalar perturbation in the background of five-dimensional charged Kaluza-Klein black holes with squashed horizons immersed in the Goedel universe. Besides the influence due to the compactness of the extra dimension, we disclose the cosmological rotational effect in the wave dynamics. The wave behavior affected by the Goedel parameter provides an interesting insight into the Goedel universe.

  13. Effect of nitrogen form during the flowering period on zucchini squash growth and nutrient element uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William O. Chance III; Zana C. Somda; Harry A. Mills

    1999-01-01

    Zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Green Magic) plants were grown hydroponically with nitrate (NO3):ammonium (NH4) ratio of 3:1 until the onset of flowering when the plants were assigned to four NO3:NH4 ratio (1:0, 1:1, 1:3, or 3:1) treatments. Changing the original nitrogen (N) form ratio significantly affected plant growth, fruit yield, nutrient element, and water uptake. Growth of plants

  14. Strong gravitational lensing in a squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yue; Chen Songbai; Jing Jiliang [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control (Hunan Normal University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the strong gravitational lensing in a Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. We find the size of the extra dimension imprints in the radius of the photon sphere, the deflection angle, the angular position, and magnification of the relativistic images. Supposing that the gravitational field of the supermassive central object of the Galaxy can be described by this metric, we estimated the numerical values of the coefficients and observables for gravitational lensing in the strong field limit.

  15. On Instability of Squashed Spheres in the Kaluza-Klein Theory

    E-print Network

    Kiyoshi Shiraishi

    2014-06-20

    We study in Kaluza-Klein theories stability of the extra space against "squashing", in other words, the homogeneous deformation. Quantum fluctuations of matter fields at one-loop level are taken into consideration. We calculate the effective potential in models of the type, $M^4\\times S^3$ and $M^4\\times S^7$. It is found that in the case of scalar matter fields the stability depends on the coupling to the scalar curvature.

  16. A new method for assessing squash tactics using 15 court areas for ball locations.

    PubMed

    Vu?kovi?, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Milanovi?, Zoran; Perš, Janez; Sporiš, Goran

    2014-04-01

    Tactics in squash have typically been assessed using the frequency of different shot types played at different locations on the court either without reference to other relevant information or on the basis of the preceding shot. This paper presents a new squash specific method for categorizing court locations in which the ball was played, a novel techniques for assessing the reliability of this method and presents typical shots responses in these new areas controlled for preceding shot as well as the time between shots and the handedness of the players. Twelve games were viewed using the SAGIT/Squash software and 2907 shots viewed a second time from a video image taken from behind the court with an overall agreement of 88.90% for the court location data and 99.52% for shot type. 3192 shots from 9 matches from the 2003 World Team Championships were analyzed in SAGIT/Squash. In the court areas analyzed between 2 and 7 shot responses were predominant suggesting tactical patterns were evident. This was supported by differences evident between shot responses played from the two back corners where the backhand side was characterized by a predominance of straight drives whereas straight and crosscourt drives were played on the forehand side. These results tended to confirm that tactics i.e., consistent shot types, are played although these are only apparent when factors that determine shot selection are accounted for. This paper has controlled for some of these factors but others need to be considered e.g., if individual player profiles are to be ascertained. PMID:24548850

  17. The effects of carbohydrate loading 48 hours before a simulated squash match.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaron; Macdermid, Paul W; Mündel, Toby; Mann, Michael; Stannard, Stephen R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether a high carbohydrate diet in the days before movement patterns simulating a squash match would increase carbohydrate oxidation during the match, and alter physical performance. Nine New Zealand level squash players were recruited to complete a simulated squash match on two occasions: 1) following a 48-hr high carbohydrate (11.1g·kg-1); and 2) following a calorie-matched low carbohydrate (2.1 g·kg-1) diet. The interventions were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, cross-over design. The match simulation was designed to mimic a five-game match lasting approximately 1 hr. Performance was measured as time to complete each game. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate were continuously collected throughout the trial using a portable gas analysis system. Capillary blood glucose and lactate samples were obtained during a 90 s rest period between each game. Rating of perceived exertion was also recorded after each set. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher during exercise following the high CHO diet (0.80 vs. 0.76) p < .001) and this was associated with significantly faster time to complete the games (2340 ± 189 s vs. 2416 ± 128 s, p = .036). Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were also significantly higher in the high carbohydrate condition (p = .038 and p = .021 respectively). These results suggest that ingestion of a diet high in carbohydrate (>10 g/kg body weight) preceding simulated competitive squash produces increased rates of carbohydrate oxidation and maintains higher blood glucose concentrations. These metabolic effects were associated with improved physical performance. PMID:24092769

  18. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment. PMID:19262819

  19. Leaf Pack Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Leaf Pack Network (LPN) is a network of teachers and students investigating their local stream ecosystems by participating in the leaf pack experiment, which involves creating an artificial leaf pack (dry leaves in a mesh bag), immersing it in a stream for 3-4 weeks, and examining it for signs of aquatic insects as indicators of stream health. Participating classrooms share their data through the internet. This activity highlights the connection between streamside forests and the ecology of rivers and streams.

  20. Leaf development and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2014-11-01

    The development of plant leaves follows a common basic program that is flexible and is adjusted according to species, developmental stage and environmental circumstances. Leaves initiate from the flanks of the shoot apical meristem and develop into flat structures of variable sizes and forms. This process is regulated by plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and mechanical properties of the tissue. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how these factors modulate leaf development to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms. We discuss these issues in the context of leaf initiation, the balance between morphogenesis and differentiation, and patterning of the leaf margin. PMID:25371359

  1. The MUNPA Annual General Meeting will be held on Thursday, October 16 at 2:00 pm in the large meeting room at Bally Haly Golf and Curling Club (100 Logy Bay Road). Please come

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    in the large meeting room at Bally Haly Golf and Curling Club (100 Logy Bay Road). Please come by: elect Golf and Curling Club 100 Logy Bay Road, St. John's [To be followed by lunch at Bally Haly-- including

  2. Relationships Between Angular Leaf Spot, Healthy Leaf Area, Effective Leaf Area and Yield of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Jesus Junior; F. X. R. Vale; R. R. Coelho; P. A. Paul; B. Hau; A. Bergamin Filho; L. Zambolim; R. D. Berger

    2003-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out with the bean cultivar Carioca Comum to investigate the relationships among visual and virtual severity of angular leaf spot (caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola), area under visual and virtual disease progress curves (AUDPC), healthy leaf area index on any given day (HLAI), healthy leaf area duration (HAD), healthy leaf area absorption (HAA), effective leaf area

  3. Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1 and N. Michele Holbrook2 1 Department of Botany, University of Hawai influence rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) varies more than 65. #12;Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 LEAF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCE

  4. Yellow leaf blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

  5. ASCOCHYTA LEAF SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta leaf spot is a plant disease of wheat. It is often overlooked in association with other leaf spot diseases on wheat and is generally of minor economic importance in Europe, Japan, New Zealand, and North America. However, its distribution and frequency may be greater than realized, becaus...

  6. Leaf cutter ants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-12-15

    There is much diversity between ants. Leaf cutter ants use their mandibles to cut leaf fragments and take them back to their home. They don't eat the leaves, but instead use them to grow fungus on. They then eat the fungus.

  7. LEAF MARGIN INFLORESCENCE

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    leaves · typical of smartweeds · typical of most biennials & some winter annuals · typical of many plant{ LEAF BLADE LEAF MARGIN PETIOLE INFLORESCENCE WS-27-W Guidelines for Submitting Digital Plant Assistant Professor of Weed Science Purdue University The accuracy of identifying a plant from digital

  8. Numerical investigation on strength design and curling effect of mechanically fastened joints in cold-formed austenitic stainless steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Soo Kim; Hitoshi Kuwamura

    2011-01-01

    A variety of parametric studies utilizing the finite element analysis (FEA) have been performed by Kim et al in order to predict the mechanical behavior (ultimate strength) of single shear bolted joints in cold-formed (thin-walled) stainless steel sheet. Strength equations considering the strength reduction by curling effect in bolted joint with long end distance and edge distance have been suggested.

  9. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) and dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious d...

  10. EFFECTS OF METHYL JASMONATE AND SUPERATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN LEVELS ON ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE IN LOW TEMPERATURE STORED GREEN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) AND ZUCCHINI SQUASH (CUCURBITA PEPO L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality was improved in the cold-stored green pepper and zucchini squash following treatments with methyl jasmonate and superatmospheric levels of oxygen. Green pepper and zucchini squash are sensitive to chilling temperatures. However, the severity of chilling injury in these commodities was redu...

  11. Leaf anatomy and morphometry in three eucalypt clones treated with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Tuffi Santos, L D; Sant'Anna-Santos, B F; Meira, R M S A; Ferreira, F A; Tiburcio, R A S; Machado, A F L

    2009-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphosate on the morphoanatomy of three eucalypt clones and to correlate the intoxication symptoms on a microscopic scale with those observed in this visual analysis. The effects of glyphosate drift were proportional to the five doses tested, with Eucalyptus urophylla being more tolerant to the herbicide than E. grandis and urograndis hybrid. The symptoms of intoxication which were similar for the different clones at 7 and 15 days after application were characterized by leaf wilting, chlorosis and curling and, at the highest rates, by necrosis, leaf senescence and death. Anatomically glyphosate doses higher than 86.4 g.ha-1 caused cellular plasmolysis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia, formation of the cicatrization tissue and dead cells on the adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma had a decrease, and the palisade parenchyma and leaf blade thickness had an increase. The increased thickness in leaf blade and palisade parenchyma may be related to the plant response to glyphosate action, as a form of recovering the photosynthetically active area reduced by necroses and leaf senescence caused by the herbicide. PMID:19347155

  12. Curling probe measurement of electron density in pulse-modulated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Anil; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo, E-mail: sugai-h@isc.chubu.ac.jp [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki [GRD Center, DOWA Thermotech Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi 467-0854 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    The electron density n{sub e} of stationary plasma can be easily obtained on the basis of the resonance frequency f of a curling probe (CP) measured by a network analyzer (NWA). However, in pulsed plasma with discharge period T, the n{sub e} and f values periodically change with time. This study extends the conventional CP technique to a time-resolved measurement of the pulse-modulated electron density. The condition necessary for the measurement is revealed to be synchronization of NWA with the pulse modulation, which is expressed as (n ? 1)T/T{sub SWP}?=?integer (1, 2, …) for a number n of data point and sweep time T{sub SWP}.

  13. The formation of wind curl in the marine atmosphere boundary layer over the East China Sea Kuroshio in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suping; Kong, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Various data are used to investigate the characteristics of the surface wind field and rainfall on the East China Sea Kuroshio (ESK) in March and April, 2011. In March, the wind speed maximum shows over the ESK front (ESKF) in the 10 meter wind field, which agrees with the thermal wind effect. A wind curl center is generated on the warm flank of the ESKF. The winds are much weaker in April, so is the wind curl. A rainband exists over the ESKF in both the months. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for further researches. The winds on the top of the marine atmosphere boundary layer (MABL) indicate that in March, a positive wind curl is generated in the whole MABL over the warm flank of the ESKF. The thermal wind effect forced by the strong SST gradient overlying the background wind leads to strong surface northeasterly winds on the ESKF, and a positive shearing vorticity is created over the warm flank of the ESKF to generate wind curl. In the smoothed sea surface temperature experiment, the presence of the ESKF is responsible for the strong northeast winds in the ESKF, and essential for the distribution of the rainfall centers in March, which confirms the mechanism above. The same simulation is made for April, 2011, and the responses from the MABL become weak. The low background wind speed weakens the effect of the thermal wind, thus no strong Ekman pumping is helpful for precipitation. There is no big difference in rainfall between the control run and the smooth SST run. Decomposition of the wind vector shows that local wind acceleration induced by the thermal wind effect along with the variations in wind direction is responsible for the pronounced wind curl/divergence over the ESKF.

  14. Estimating Near-Infrared Leaf Reflectance from Leaf Structural Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele R. Slaton; E. Raymond Hunt; William K. Smith

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm (NIRR) from leaves and characteristics of leaf structure known to affect photosynthesis was investigated in 48 species of alpine angiosperms. This wavelength was selected to discriminate the effects of leaf structure vs. chemical or water content on leaf reflectance. A quantitative model was first constructed correlating NIRR with leaf structural characteristics for

  15. Understanding the physiological and molecular mechanism of persistent organic pollutant uptake and detoxification in cucurbit species (zucchini and squash).

    PubMed

    Chhikara, Sudesh; Paulose, Bibin; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2010-10-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) roots phytoextract significant amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil, followed by effective translocation to aboveground tissues. The closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash) does not have this ability. In a DDE-contaminated field soil, zucchini roots and stems contained 3.6 and 6.6-fold greater contaminant than did squash tissues, respectively, and zucchini phytoextracted 12-times more DDE from soil than squash. In batch hydroponics, squash was significantly more sensitive to DDE (2-20 mg/L) exposure; 4 mg/L DDE significantly reduced squash biomass (14%) whereas for zucchini, biomass reductions were observed at 20 mg/L (20%). PCR select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in DDE treated zucchini relative to DDE treated squash or non-treated zucchini. After differential screening to eliminate false positives, unique cDNA clones were sequenced. Out of 40 shoot cDNA sequences, 34 cDNAs have homology to parts of phloem filament protein 1 (PP1). Out of 6 cDNAs from the root tissue, two cDNAs are similar to cytochrome P450 like proteins, and one cDNA matches a putative senescence associated protein. From the DDE exposed zucchini seedlings cDNA library, out of 22 differentially expressed genes, 14 cDNAs were found to have homology with genes involved in abiotic stresses, signaling, lipid metabolism, and photosynthesis. A large number of cDNA sequences were found to encode novel unknown proteins that may be involved in uncharacterized pathways of DDE metabolism in plants. A semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of isolated genes confirmed up-regulation in response to DDE exposure. PMID:20507062

  16. Four-Leaf Clover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Scientist-in-training Summer Praetorius has an unusual skill—she is really, really good at spotting four-leaf clovers (Trifolium repens L.). A single gene causes the normally three-leafed clover to produce a fourth, supposedly lucky, leaf. As it turns out, good science depends on both close observation—a skill Praetorius uses to spot tiny shelled animals called foraminifera—and a little bit of luck. Ari Daniel Shapiro explains. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

  17. Effects of mutations in the Arabidopsis Cold Shock Domain Protein 3 (AtCSP3) gene on leaf cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongil; Karlson, Dale

    2012-08-01

    The cold shock domain is among the most evolutionarily conserved nucleic acid binding domains from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, including plants. Although eukaryotic cold shock domain proteins have been extensively studied as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators during various developmental processes, their functional roles in plants remains poorly understood. In this study, AtCSP3 (At2g17870), which is one of four Arabidopsis thaliana c old s hock domain proteins (AtCSPs), was functionally characterized. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed high expression of AtCSP3 in reproductive and meristematic tissues. A homozygous atcsp3 loss-of-function mutant exhibits an overall reduced seedling size, stunted and orbicular rosette leaves, reduced petiole length, and curled leaf blades. Palisade mesophyll cells are smaller and more circular in atcsp3 leaves. Cell size analysis indicated that the reduced size of the circular mesophyll cells appears to be generated by a reduction of cell length along the leaf-length axis, resulting in an orbicular leaf shape. It was also determined that leaf cell expansion is impaired for lateral leaf development in the atcsp3 loss-of-function mutant, but leaf cell proliferation is not affected. AtCSP3 loss-of-function resulted in a dramatic reduction of LNG1 transcript, a gene that is involved in two-dimensional leaf polarity regulation. Transient subcellular localization of AtCSP3 in onion epidermal cells confirmed a nucleocytoplasmic localization pattern. Collectively, these data suggest that AtCSP3 is functionally linked to the regulation of leaf length by affecting LNG1 transcript accumulation during leaf development. A putative function of AtCSP3 as an RNA binding protein is also discussed in relation to leaf development. PMID:22888122

  18. Tunnelling of scalar and Dirac particles from squashed charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes

    E-print Network

    M. M. Stetsko

    2014-10-08

    Thermal radiation of scalar particles and Dirac fermions from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional black holes is considered. To obtain temperature of the black holes we use the tunnelling method. In case of scalar particles we make use of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. To consider tunnelling of fermions the Dirac equation was investigated. The examination shows that radial parts of the action for scalar particles and fermions in quasi-classical limit in the vicinity of horizon are almost the same and as a consequence it gives rise to the identical expressions for the temperature in both cases.

  19. Electronic structure of trypsin inhibitor from squash seeds in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haoping

    2000-10-01

    The electronic structure of the trypsin inhibitor from seeds of the squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I) in aqueous solution is obtained by ab initio, all-electron, full-potential calculations using the self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) method. The reactive site of the inhibitor is explained theoretically, which is in agreement with the experimental results. It is shown that the coordinates of oxygen atoms in the inhibitor, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and combination of distance geometry and dynamical simulated annealing, are systematically less accurate than that of other kinds of heavy atoms.

  20. Integrable $\\lambda$-deformations: Squashing Coset CFTs and $AdS_5\\times S^5$

    E-print Network

    Demulder, Saskia; Thompson, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    We examine integrable $\\lambda$-deformations of $SO(n+1)/SO(n)$ coset CFTs and their analytic continuations. We provide an interpretation of the deformation as a squashing of the corresponding coset $\\sigma$-model's target space. We realise the $\\lambda$-deformation for $n=5$ case as a solution to supergravity supported by non-vanishing five-form and dilaton. This interpolates between the coset CFT $SO(4,2)/SO(4,1)\\times SO(6)/SO(5)$ constructed as a gauged WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the $AdS_5\\times S^5$ spacetime.

  1. Electronic Leaf Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn Houston

    2000-05-01

    This article demonstrates the benefits of a direct application of technology into a science classroom by transferring a traditional activity, such as leaf identification, into an electronic format. The new dynamic medium possesses attributes that can enha

  2. Leaf to Landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley D. Smith; Elke Naumburg; ÜLo Niinemets; Matthew J. Germino

    \\u000a One fundamental “problem” for maximizing carbon gain at the leaf and higher organizational levels entails the link between\\u000a light capture and leaf energy budgets. The balance between the two processes, however, depends on the environment. For example,\\u000a shade environments limit carbon gain due to low light levels, and so we would expect plants to display traits that maximize\\u000a light interception

  3. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  4. Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties 'Dwarf Blue Curled Vates' and 'Red Winter' in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar 'Red Winter' in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, P<0.001). Concentrations required to double the specific QR activity (CD values) of I3C was calculated at 230 µM, which is considerably weaker at induction than other isothiocyanates like sulforphane. To confirm relationships between GS hydrolysis products and QR activity, a range of concentrations of MeJA sprays were applied to kale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  5. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Increases Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Quinone Reductase Activity in Kale Leaf Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties ‘Dwarf Blue Curled Vates’ and ‘Red Winter’ in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar ‘Red Winter’ in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r?=?0.800, P<0.001). Concentrations required to double the specific QR activity (CD values) of I3C was calculated at 230 µM, which is considerably weaker at induction than other isothiocyanates like sulforphane. To confirm relationships between GS hydrolysis products and QR activity, a range of concentrations of MeJA sprays were applied to kale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  6. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  7. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  8. Squash Cytology in Neurosurgical Practice: A Useful Method in Resource-Limited Setting with Lack of Frozen Section Facility

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Manish; Chandrakar, Shiv kumar; Lokwani, Dharampal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intra-operative cytology is an important diagnostic tool. It has shown to play an important role especially in the diagnosis of central nervous system tumours. The study was done to assess the feasibility of squash cytology as standalone diagnostic test in setting where frozen section facility is not available. Materials and Methods: Total 48 patients with various intracranial lesions were initially enrolled in the study. Patients were investigated by various radio-imaging techniques and routine blood investigations. Forty-one patients were operated at Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose medical college, Jabalpur. Intra-operative squash cytology diagnosis was performed and was correlated with histology diagnosis as gold standard. Results: Out of 41 patients, inflammatory lesions were diagnosed in nine patients while benign lesions [most common neurilemmoma and meningioma] were observed in 21 and malignant lesions [astrocytoma was most common] were diagnosed in 11 patients. Diagnostic accuracy of intra-operative squash cytology irrespective of lesion & site was 95%. We were able to inform about the diagnosis to neurosurgeon in 15 minutes in all cases and within 12 minutes in >85% cases Conclusion: Squash smear cytology is reliable and rapid standalone diagnostic method and it can assist for intra-operative decision-making diagnosis of intracranial lesions in resource-limited settings where frozen section facility is not available. PMID:25478346

  9. Progress and Challenges in Managing Watermelon Vine Decline caused by whitefly transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) is an emerging threat to watermelon production in south-west and west-central Florida. Losses in 2004-2005 due to WVD were estimated to be more than 60 million U.S. dollars. The disease is caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), family: Potyviridae, genus: Ip...

  10. Serratia marcescens, a phloem-colonizing, squash bug-transmitted bacterium: Causal agent of cucurbit yellow vine disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD), which can inflict heavy losses to watermelon, pumpkin, cantaloupe and squash in U. S. production areas from the mid-west to northeast, causes phloem discoloration, foliar yellowing, wilting, and plant decline. By electron microscopy, the disease had been previou...

  11. Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida, USA – reservoirs, genome characterization and mixed infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005, shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. SqVYV has been isolated from declining watermelons for the past six growing seasons in southwes...

  12. Development and evaluation of quanitative early monitoring techniques for Squash vein yellowing virus, the cause of watermelon vine decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Although the late stage symptoms of watermelon vine decline are basically diagnostic for the presence of SqV...

  13. Physiological effects induced by Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was recently shown to cause a watermelon vine decline that has had significant economic impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida during the past six years. Symptoms typically appear as a sudden decline of vines at...

  14. Geostatistical analysis of spatial virus spread overtime provides new insights into the environmental safety of commercial virus-resistant squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a review of a journal article published in 2006. The spatial and temporal patterns of aphid-vectored spread of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) were monitored over two consecutive years in plantings of nontransgenic and transgenic squash ZW-20H (commerci...

  15. Effect of reflective mulch and insecticidal treatments on development of watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines one...

  16. Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates Momordica charantia is a reservoir host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a recently described ipomovirus from cucurbits in Florida that induces the relatively unusual symptoms in watermelon of plant death and fruit rind necrosis and discoloration, commonly known in Florida as watermelon vine decline. In this report, we demonstrate ...

  17. Squashing Cubes: Automating Deformable Model Construction for Graphics Doug L. James Jernej Barbic Christopher D. Twigg (Carnegie Mellon University)

    E-print Network

    James, Doug L.

    be chosen inde- pendent of model geometry, and is typically less complex (see video). Given a fitted 3D) a flexible plastic chair; (Right) a complex swaying bridge superstructure. Introduction The vast majority (typically a surface mesh) is vox- elized into tiny elastic cubes, i.e., the squashing cubes model. Sec- ond

  18. Influence of volunteer wheat plant condition on movement of the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella , in winter wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Thomas; Gary L. Hein

    2003-01-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is the vector of wheat streak mosaic virus and high plains virus which cause significant crop loss in winter wheat\\u000a throughout the western Great Plains. Volunteer wheat emerging before harvest, as a result of severe hail, is the primary source\\u000a of mites and virus that infect fall-planted winter wheat. Wind-borne movement of

  19. Novel Spacetime Concept and Dimension Curling up Mechanism in Neon Shell

    E-print Network

    Kunming Xu

    2005-11-02

    Euclidean geometry does not characterize dynamic electronic orbitals satisfactorily for even a single electron in a hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical task with the Schrodinger equation. Here the author puts forward a new spacetime concept that regards space and time as two orthogonal, symmetric and complementary quantities. They are inherent physical quantities that cannot be divorced from physical objects themselves. In two-dimensional helium shell, space and time are instantiated by two interactive 1s electrons; in four-dimensional neon shell, space and time dimensions blend into four types of curvilinear vectors represented by 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz electronic orbitals. The description of electronic orbitals constitutes an explanation of canonical spacetime properties such as harmonic oscillation, electromagnetism, and wave propagation. Through differential and integral operations, the author formulates a precise wavefunction for every electron in an inert neon atom where spacetime, as dimensional graduated by ten electrons, is continuous, and trigonometric function is the mechanism for dimension curling up. This fresh spacetime view based on dimensional interpretation of complex functions is an extension of classical mechanics and is compatible with relativity and quantum physics. It brings sharp insight into the geometries of 2p-orbitals and has broad support from chemistry.

  20. The relation of wind stress curl and meridional transport in the Benguela upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Tim; Schmidt, Martin; Mohrholz, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Spatially high resolved wind data reveals the existence of a very pronounced and persistent cyclonic (negative) wind stress curl (WSC) along the southwest African coast. Several theoretical studies have shown that negative WSC modifies the meridional currents in eastern boundary systems significantly. Since the water mass composition on the southwest African shelf is primarily controlled by the meridional currents, understanding the relation between WSC and the meridional advection is of great importance for the Benguela ecosystem. In this study, we use a regional general circulation model that is validated with observations in order to study the effect of cyclonic WSC on the meridional transport along the southwest African coast. We show that there is a connection between the meridional transport and the WSC on a seasonal time scale in the northern Benguela upwelling system (BUS). The meridional transport follows the annual and semi-annual cycles of the WSC between 20° S and 25° S. The cyclonic WSC in the northern BUS may therefore support a southward advection of tropical waters into the upwelling system.

  1. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. D.; Wang, J.

    2014-06-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  2. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2014-06-28

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  3. Living in the Leaf Litter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from the museum's Musings newsletter for educators, provides some mind-boggling facts about leaf litter. It has an overview of what leaf litter is and how it's produced and a link for further research.

  4. A review of ipomoviruses and watermelon vine decline caused by the newly-described and whitefly-transmitted squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though few in number, ipomoviruses cause significant disease in cucurbits and other crops in various parts of the world. As the causal agent of watermelon vine decline in Florida, Squash vein yellowing virus has recently become an economically important pathogen....

  5. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  6. PLATYSPORA LEAF SPOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Platyspora leaf spot, caused by Comoclathris pentamera (P. Karst.) S. Ahmad (= Graphyllium pentamerum (P. Karst.) M.E. Barr; = Platyspora pentamera (P. Karst.) Wehm.) was first reported as a plant disease on wheat in 1971. The fungus previously was known only at high altitudes, where it persists on...

  7. Science Nation: Leaf Sensor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Who might know more about what a plant needs than a farmer or a greenhouse owner? How about the plant itself? What if plants could tell us when they are thirsty? With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), AgriHouse has developed a leaf sensor that is enabling plants to do just that.

  8. From black strings to black holes: nuttier and squashed AdS$_5$ solutions

    E-print Network

    Yves Brihaye; Jutta Kunz; Eugen Radu

    2009-04-09

    We construct new solutions of the Einstein equations with negative cosmological constant in five spacetime dimensions. They smoothly emerge as deformations of the known AdS$_5$ black strings. The first type of configurations can be viewed as the $d=4$ Taub-NUT-AdS solutions uplifted to five dimensions, in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We argue that these solutions provide the gravity dual for a ${\\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory formulated in a $d=4$ homogeneous G\\"odel-type spacetime background. A different deformation of the AdS$_5$ black strings leads to squashed AdS black holes and their topological generalizations. In this case, the conformal infinity is the product of time and a circle-fibration over a base space that is a two-dimensional Einstein space.

  9. Conservative management of a case of medial epicondylosis in a recreational squash player

    PubMed Central

    Hudes, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This case study was conducted to evaluate the treatment and management of a patient presenting with medial elbow pain diagnosed as medial epicondylosis. Case: A 35 year old male presented with medial elbow pain of 4–6 weeks duration that worsened after playing squash. Treatment: A course of fascial stripping techniques was initiated, including: cross friction massage, instrument assisted fascial stripping to the medial epicondyle area and over the belly of the pronator teres muscle, ischemic compression of a trigger point in the pronator teres, active assisted compressions to the trigger point noted in the pronator teres, and mobilizations of the carpals, specifically the scaphoid. Instructions were given to the patient regarding icing the elbow and daily eccentric exercises. At a one year follow up, the patient reported complete resolution of symptoms with no recurrence. Conclusion: Conservative management, including eccentric exercises, mobilizations, and fascial stripping appear to be beneficial in the treatment of medial epicondylosis. PMID:21403779

  10. Hybrid classical integrable structure of squashed sigma models -- a short summary

    E-print Network

    Io Kawaguchi; Kentaroh Yoshida

    2011-10-31

    We give a short summary of our recent works on the classical integrable structure of two-dimensional non-linear sigma models defined on squashed three-dimensional spheres. There are two descriptions to describe the classical dynamics, 1) the rational description and 2) the trigonometric description. It is possible to construct two different types of Lax pairs depending on the descriptions, and the classical integrability is shown by computing classical r/s-matrices satisfying the extended Yang-Baxter equation in both descriptions. In the former the system is described as an integrable system of rational type. On the other hand, in the latter it is described as trigonometric type. There exists a non-local map between the two descriptions and those are equivalent. This is a non-local generalization of the left-right duality in principal chiral models.

  11. Inoculation of plants with begomoviruses by particle bombardment without cloning: Using rolling circle amplification of total DNA from infected plants and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Guenoune-Gelbart, Dana; Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Capobianco, Heather; Gaba, Victor; Polston, Jane E; Lapidot, Moshe

    2010-09-01

    A new system for inoculation of plants with begomoviral DNA without cloning or the use insect vectors is described. Total DNA extracted from begomovirus-infected plants was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase, and inoculated to plants by particle bombardment. Infection rates of up to 100% were obtained using this technique. This technique successfully inoculated all the begomoviruses evaluated: five bipartite (Bean golden yellow mosaic virus, Cabbage leaf curl virus, Squash leaf curl virus, Tomato mottle virus, Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus) as well as one monopartite (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus). The success of the technique was not dependent upon plant species. Four species from three plant families [Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Cucurbita pepo (squash), and Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)], could all be inoculated by this technique. The success of the method was not dependent upon either the type or the age of the source of virus. Infectious DNA was obtained successfully from fresh, freeze-dried or desiccated plant material, from squashes of plant leaves on FTA cards, as well as from the insect vector. Plant material collected and dried as long as 25 years ago yielded infectious DNA by this method. In summary, this method can be used to obtain infectious DNA of single-stranded circular DNA viruses that can be activated for purposes of completing Koch's postulates, for preservation of pure virus cultures, and for many other applications where infectious DNA is required. PMID:20447420

  12. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates for each of the boundaries are necessary in this case to avoid spherical-pole-like singularities in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity-the squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes, according to Titov and coworkers-must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q1, which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines, is determined. This new quantity makes it possible to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. Thus, the value Q1 provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q1 is illustrated by comparing their distributions for two configurations, one of which is the Titov-Demoulin model of a twisted magnetic field.

  13. Ultrasonic treatment stimulates multiple shoot regeneration and explant enlargement in recalcitrant squash cotyledon explants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, G; Xia, Xiaodi; Amutha, S; Singer, Sima; Muruganantham, M; Yablonsky, Sara; Fischer, Erwin; Gaba, Victor

    2007-03-01

    Ultrasonic treatment (0.5-2 min) stimulated multiple shoot regeneration to high levels in vitro from recalcitrant cotyledon explants of commercial squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivars Ma'yan and Bareqet, on Murashige and Skoog [Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962] (regeneration) medium augmented with 4.4 microM benzyladenine. At this stage, unsonicated control explants regenerated only a few very small shoots or bud-like structures. Ultrasound also stimulated massive explant growth. Ultrasound treatment resulted in further multiple shoot production (five times greater than control) after explant transfer to elongation medium (Murashige and Skoog [Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962] medium with 0.44 microM benzyladenine and 2.9 microM gibberellic acid). Longer ultrasonic treatments (5 or 10 min) promoted multiple shoot regeneration and explant growth accompanied by hyperhydration. Scanning electron microscope observations showed that 2 min ultrasound changed the joint area between epidermal cells and removed some of the surface from the cotyledon epidermal cells, without gross surface injury to the explants. Longer periods of ultrasound (5-10 min) caused further surface erosion. Rubbing the explant contact surface with chloroform or sandpaper emulated the effect of sonication on shoot regeneration and explant growth, demonstrating that ultrasound exerts its morphogenic influence by surface removal. Sonication of explants from other batches of squash seeds (of cultivars Ma'yan and True French), that regenerated without such treatment, reduced regeneration and caused hyperhydration. This is the first report of stimulation of in vitro regeneration by ultrasound treatment. PMID:17021848

  14. Isoperimetric problems for the helicity of vector fields and the Biot-Savart and curl operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarella, Jason; DeTurck, Dennis; Gluck, Herman; Teytel, Mikhail

    2000-08-01

    The helicity of a smooth vector field defined on a domain in three-space is the standard measure of the extent to which the field lines wrap and coil around one another. It plays important roles in fluid mechanics, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics. The isoperimetric problem in this setting is to maximize helicity among all divergence-free vector fields of given energy, defined on and tangent to the boundary of all domains of given volume in three-space. The Biot-Savart operator starts with a divergence-free vector field defined on and tangent to the boundary of a domain in three-space, regards it as a distribution of electric current, and computes its magnetic field. Restricting the magnetic field to the given domain, we modify it by subtracting a gradient vector field so as to keep it divergence-free while making it tangent to the boundary of the domain. The resulting operator, when extended to the L2 completion of this family of vector fields, is compact and self-adjoint, and thus has a largest eigenvalue, whose corresponding eigenfields are smooth by elliptic regularity. The isoperimetric problem for this modified Biot-Savart operator is to maximize its largest eigenvalue among all domains of given volume in three-space. The curl operator, when restricted to the image of the modified Biot-Savart operator, is its inverse, and the isoperimetric problem for this restriction of the curl is to minimize its smallest positive eigenvalue among all domains of given volume in three-space. These three isoperimetric problems are equivalent to one another. In this paper, we will derive the first variation formulas appropriate to these problems, and use them to constrain the nature of any possible solution. For example, suppose that the vector field V, defined on the compact, smoothly bounded domain ?, maximizes helicity among all divergence-free vector fields of given nonzero energy, defined on and tangent to the boundary of all such domains of given volume. We will show that (1) |V| is a nonzero constant on the boundary of each component of ?; (2) all the components of ?? are tori; and (3) the orbits of V are geodesics on ??. Thus, among smooth simply connected domains, none are optimal in the above sense. In principal, one could have a smooth optimal domain in the shape, say, of a solid torus. However, we believe that there are no smooth optimal domains at all, regardless of topological type, and that the true optimizer looks like the singular domain presented in this paper, which we can think of either as an extreme apple, in which the north and south poles have been pressed together, or as an extreme solid torus, in which the hole has been shrunk to a point. A computational search for this singular optimal domain and the helicity-maximizing vector field on it is at present under way, guided by the first variation formulas in this paper.

  15. Functional and Neuromuscular Changes in the Hamstrings After Drop Jumps and Leg Curls

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key Points Hamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise. It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise. Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148

  16. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  17. Humidity-responsive liquid crystalline polymer actuators with an asymmetry in the molecular trigger that bend, fold, and curl.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Laurens T; Verjans, Julien M N; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2014-07-30

    We show a versatile method for the preparation of a variety of humidity-responsive actuators based on a single sheet of a hydrogen-bonded, uniaxially aligned liquid crystal polymer network. In this approach, the asymmetry in the molecular trigger in the anisotropic polymer film plays a dominant role leading to programmed deformation events. The material is locally treated with a potassium hydroxide solution to create the asymmetry in the responsiveness toward humidity, which allows to prepare actuators that bend, fold, or curl. PMID:25022765

  18. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily, clear finish...Leaf. Mature, thin, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  3. Leaf-to-leaf distances in Catalan tree graphs

    E-print Network

    Andrew M. Goldsborough; Jonathan M. Fellows; Matthew Bates; S. Alex Rautu; George Rowlands; Rudolf A. Römer

    2015-03-02

    We study the average leaf-to-leaf path lengths on ordered Catalan tree graphs with $n$ nodes and show that these are equivalent to the average length of paths starting from the root node. We give an explicit analytic formula for the average leaf-to-leaf path length as a function of separation of the leaves and study its asymptotic properties. At the heart of our method is a strategy based on an abstract graph representation of generating functions which we hope can be useful also in other contexts.

  4. Leaf development: a cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

  5. Estimating Corn Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration from Leaf and Canopy Reflectance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. T. Daughtry; C. L. Walthall; M. S. Kim; E. Brown de Colstoun; J. E. McMurtrey III

    2000-01-01

    Farmers must balance the competing goals of supplying adequate N for their crops while minimizing N losses to the environment. To characterize the spatial variability of N over large fields, traditional methods (soil testing, plant tissue analysis, and chlorophyll meters) require many point samples. Because of the close link between leaf chlorophyll and leaf N concentration, remote sensing techniques have

  6. LEAF GUI: User Manual (Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface)

    E-print Network

    Weitz, Joshua S.

    the structure of leaf veins and areoles. Citation to follow. Introduction The LEAF GUI software LEAF GUI: User Manual (Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User Interface) #12;LEAF GUI User Manual Price et al. Index How to cite the LEAF GUI

  7. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata") when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  8. Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  9. Sudden death and vigorous exercise--a study of 60 deaths associated with squash.

    PubMed Central

    Northcote, R J; Flannigan, C; Ballantyne, D

    1986-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding 60 sudden deaths (59 men, one woman) associated with squash playing are described. The mean age (SD) of those who died was 46 (10.3) years (range 22-66 years). Necropsy reports were available in 51. The certified cause of death was coronary artery disease in 51 cases, valvar heart disease in four, cardiac arrhythmia in two cases, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in one case. There were only two deaths from non-cardiac causes. Forty five of those who died had reported prodromal symptoms, the most common of which was chest pain, and 22 were known to have had at least one medical condition related to the cardiovascular system during life, the most common of which was systemic hypertension (14 subjects). Those dying from coronary artery disease had a high frequency of risk factors. Some of these deaths might have been prevented by appropriate counselling of players after prospective medical screening, which would have detected most of the patients with overt cardiovascular disease and some of those with subclinical coronary artery disease. PMID:3942653

  10. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. The...

  15. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  16. How to pattern a leaf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  17. Islands in locally-forced basin circulations The circulation response of a square basin with an island and localized surface stress curl

    E-print Network

    Lebovitz, Norman

    Islands in locally-forced basin circulations Sam Potter 1 Abstract The circulation response of a square basin with an island and localized surface stress curl is discussed. Attempts in a laboratory were experiment. Numerical simulations show that the effect of an island on the circulation of a square basin

  18. Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral profiles at three points identified in Figure

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Spread from Volunteer Wheat Figure 2. Spectral Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) (apeters@calmit.unl.edu) Background: Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is the most severe disease of winter wheat in the Great Plains. Estimates indicate WSM causes an average loss

  19. Healing the Wounds of War and More: An Integrative Approach to Peace--The Work of Adam Curle and Others with Mir i dobro in Zupanja, Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchels, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Examines practical implications of Curle's approach to psychological aspects of conflict and peacemaking as evidenced in the Mir i dobro project in Zupanja, taking into consideration some of the current debates concerning treatment of psychological trauma, including validity of the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and use of so-called…

  20. Counting Microfiche: The Utilization of the Microform Section of the ANSI Standard Z39.7-1983 "Library Statistics"; Microfiche Curl; and "Poly" or "Cell"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Wood, Naomi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of three articles describes procedures for using ANSI statistical methods for estimating the number of pieces in large homogeneous collections of microfiche. The second discusses causes of curl, its control, and measurement, and the third compares the advantages and disadvantages of cellulose acetate and polyester base for microforms.…

  1. Wheat curl mite, a global pest of cereals, is a complex of biotypes with divergent host ranges and variable pest potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. The wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) is a global pest of wheat and other cereals, causing losses by direct damage as well as transmission of plant pathogens such as wheat streak mosaic virus. This mite has long been considered to be a single, highly polyphagous species, capable of co...

  2. Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Cartagena, J; Candela, H; Robles, P; Ponce, M R; Pérez-Pérez, J M; Piqueras, P; Micol, J L

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to identify genes involved in the control of leaf morphogenesis, we have studied 13 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with curled, involute leaves, a phenotype herein referred to as Incurvata (Icu), which were isolated by G. Röbbelen and belong to the Arabidopsis Information Service Form Mutants collection. The Icu phenotype was inherited as a single recessive trait in 10 mutants, with semidominance in 2 mutants and with complete dominance in the remaining 1. Complementation analyses indicated that the studied mutations correspond to five genes, representative alleles of which were mapped relative to polymorphic microsatellites. Although most double-mutant combinations displayed additivity of the Icu phenotypes, those of icu1 icu2 and icu3 icu4 double mutants were interpreted as synergistic, which suggests that the five genes studied represent three independent genetic operations that are at work for the leaf to acquire its final form at full expansion. We have shown that icu1 mutations are alleles of the Polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF (CLF) and that the leaf phenotype of the icu2 mutant is suppressed in an agamous background, as is known for clf mutants. In addition, we have tested by means of multiplex RT-PCR the transcription of several floral genes in Icu leaves. Ectopic expression of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 was observed in clf and icu2, but not in icu3, icu4, and icu5 mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that CLF and ICU2 play related roles, the latter being a candidate to belong to the Polycomb group of regulatory genes. We propose that, as flowers evolved, a new major class of genes, including CLF and ICU2, may have been recruited to prevent the expression of floral homeotic genes in the leaves. PMID:11063708

  3. The Gürün Curl, SE Turkey: a potential link from crustal tectonics to mantle dynamics in the Arabia-Eurasia collision-escape zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, C.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Kaymakci, N.; Meijers, M. J.; Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Reid, M. R.; Gencalioglu Kuscu, G.; Cosca, M. A.; Brocard, G. Y.; Rojay, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Anatolian plate is an active orogen in which spatial and temporal transitions between subduction, collision, and escape dynamics can be evaluated. Within the scope of the Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolian Tectonics project (CD-CAT), integrated efforts are combined to explore connections between surface and deep mantle as Anatolia transitioned from subduction to escape. In this study, we investigate a portion of this system that is situated between the Central Anatolian Fault Zone in the NW and East Anatolian Fault Zone in the SE. In this area, Paleozoic-Mesozoic platform carbonates, ophiolitic rocks and their Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary cover form a ~50 km wide belt oriented NE-SW in the west and curving toward the east and then toward the south in the east. The core of this structure comprises the Binbo?a metamorphic massif and the Göksun ophiolite, and the outer rim is delimited by the Kangal and Malatya basins which are filled with Neogene sediments and volcanics. We call this large structure the 'Gürün Curl' for its curved shape; it is ~200 km long and ~250 km wide. The origin of the Gürün Curl and its potential connection with deep processes are investigated using a multi-disciplinary approach. The main questions we would like to address are the following: what exactly defines this observed curvature? Were the belts originally curved, or were they deformed into the Curl? Was it affected by topographic, crustal and/or lithospheric processes? When and how did it form? Four main fault-zones dissect the Gürün curl: three sub-parallel NNE-SSW oriented left lateral faults (from west to east, the Sariz, Gürün, and Malatya faults) and the ~E-W oriented right lateral Sürgü fault in the south. The kinematics and evolution of these faults are investigated in connection with the development and deformation of Miocene basins throughout the curl (e.g. Gürün, Darende, Elbistan basins) as well as the spatial, temporal, and geochemical evolution of mafic volcanic activity (Miocene to Pliocene alkaline and subalkaline basaltic flows present in and to the north and west of the area). Within a large network of seismic stations deployed this year for the CD-CAT project, ten of them are positioned within the Curl and will provide the opportunity to image it at depth. In the first stage of our investigation, we are testing whether this large-scale curvature could represent an originally linear feature that rotated during collision processes (orocline). To test this hypothesis, we have sampled Eocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks at three locations within the curl (west, center and east) for paleomagnetism to track the possible rotation history of the region since the Eocene.

  4. The basis for variation in leaf longevity of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kihachiro Kikuzawa

    1995-01-01

    Any theory of leaf phenology must predict leaf longevity, leaf habit, leaf expansion and its timing among other variables. These phenological traits may be important keys to understand the response of trees to climatic change. Here I concentrate on and review two of these critical phenological traits, leaf longevity and leaf habit. Theories of leaf longevity were re-evaluated and leaf

  5. Complementarity in root architecture for nutrient uptake in ancient maize/bean and maize/bean/squash polycultures

    PubMed Central

    Postma, Johannes A.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims During their domestication, maize, bean and squash evolved in polycultures grown by small-scale farmers in the Americas. Polycultures often overyield on low-fertility soils, which are a primary production constraint in low-input agriculture. We hypothesized that root architectural differences among these crops causes niche complementarity and thereby greater nutrient acquisition than corresponding monocultures. Methods A functional–structural plant model, SimRoot, was used to simulate the first 40 d of growth of these crops in monoculture and polyculture and to determine the effects of root competition on nutrient uptake and biomass production of each plant on low-nitrogen, -phosphorus and -potassium soils. Key Results Squash, the earliest domesticated crop, was most sensitive to low soil fertility, while bean, the most recently domesticated crop, was least sensitive to low soil fertility. Nitrate uptake and biomass production were up to 7 % greater in the polycultures than in the monocultures, but only when root architecture was taken into account. Enhanced nitrogen capture in polycultures was independent of nitrogen fixation by bean. Root competition had negligible effects on phosphorus or potassium uptake or biomass production. Conclusions We conclude that spatial niche differentiation caused by differences in root architecture allows polycultures to overyield when plants are competing for mobile soil resources. However, direct competition for immobile resources might be negligible in agricultural systems. Interspecies root spacing may also be too large to allow maize to benefit from root exudates of bean or squash. Above-ground competition for light, however, may have strong feedbacks on root foraging for immobile nutrients, which may increase cereal growth more than it will decrease the growth of the other crops. We note that the order of domestication of crops correlates with increasing nutrient efficiency, rather than production potential. PMID:22523423

  6. Rate Response of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Nematode Control in Spring Squash in Deep Sand Soils

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, C.; Dickson, D. W.; Peterson, L. G.; Nance, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) formulated with chloropicrin is viewed as a likely alternative for replacing methyl bromide in Florida when the latter is phased out in 2005. Therefore, it behooves us to learn more about using 1,3-D in deep, sand soils. Two trials were conducted on spring squash to determine the most effective rate of 1,3-D for the control of Meloidogyne spp. Rates tested included 0, 56, 84, 112, and 168 liters/ha of 1,3-D applied broadcast with conventional chisels 30 cm deep. The chisel traces were sealed by disking immediately after fumigant application. Cucurbita pepo cv. Sunex 9602 was sown 7 days after fumigation. The population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil and root-knot nematode galling severity was determined at 34 and 65 days after planting (DAP), and the number of marketable fruit and yield were determined. The number of fruit and yield were higher in all plots that received 1,3-D than in untreated controls. The number of Meloidogyne spp. second-stage juveniles was lower in all fumigated plots in trial 1 at both 34 and 65 DAP, and in trial 2 at 65 DAP, than in the untreated control. The severity of root galling was decreased with all treatments in both trials, with broadcast rates of 84, 112, and 168 liters/ha providing the best control of root-knot nematodes in spring squash grown in sandy soil. Satisfactory management of root knot on squash grown in early spring months in north Florida can be achieved with low rates of 1,3-D. PMID:19271005

  7. The uptake of radionuclides by beans, squash, and corn growing in contaminated alluvial soils at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, P R; Armstrong, D R; Mullen, M A; Naranjo, L

    1998-01-01

    Pinto beans (Phaselous vulgaris), sweet corn (Zea mays), and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) were grown in a field pot study using alluvial floodplain soils contaminated with various radionuclides within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. Soils as well as washed edible (fruit) and nonedible (stems and leaves) crop tissues were analyzed for tritium (3H), cesium (137Cs), strontium (90Sr), plutonium (238Pu and 239,240Pu), americium (241Am), and total uranium (totU). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H and totU, in soil and crop tissues from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.05) than in soil or crop tissues collected from regional background locations. Significant differences in radionuclide concentrations among crop species (squash were generally higher than beans or corn) and plant parts (nonedible tissue were generally higher than edible tissue) were observed. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC were within default values in the literature commonly used in dose and risk assessment models. Overall, the maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 352 lb ([160 kg]; the maxiumum ingestion rate per person per year) of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions was 74 mrem y-1 (740 microS y-1). This upper bound dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit of 100 mrem y-1 (1000 microS y-1) from all pathways and corresponds to a risk of an excess cancer fatality of 3.7 x 10(-5) (37 in a million), which is also below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline of 10(-4). PMID:9491570

  8. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...degree of maturity, more open leaf structure in relation to the B Group...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil...Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in...

  12. Correlative study of squash smear cytology with histopathology in a rare case of anaplastic giant cell ependymoma of the pineal.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Marzia; Butorano, Marie Aimée Gloria Munezero; Cerase, Alfonso; Miracco, Clelia

    2014-08-01

    Anaplastic giant cell ependymoma (AGCE) is a very rare neoplasm. Its cytological features, helpful for the intraoperative diagnosis, have been reported only once. AGCE is characterized by giant cells with intranuclear inclusions, besides other findings, observable in ependymal neoplasms, such as intracytoplasmic vacuoles, epithelial and glial features of the tumor cells and ependymal pseudorosettes. These findings can be detected also in intraoperative squash smear. Herein we describe a pineal AGCE, highlighting the cytological and histological correlations and underlining some useful diagnostic clues of this unusual entity. PMID:24570332

  13. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-01

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements. PMID:24012489

  14. a Study of the Real Squashing Mode in Superfluid HELIUM-3-B Using Nonresonant Ultrasonic Transducers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, Peter N.

    Ultrasonic collective mode spectroscopy invites comparison to other, more routine, forms of spectroscopy. Yet ultrasound studies of superfluid ^3He are far from routine, requiring extensive cold times but generally identifying modes at only a few points in the phase space defined by pressure, frequency, temperature and magnetic field. A major difficulty is that the resonant quartz transducers used to generate and detect sound in liquid helium allow phase space to be explored only on surfaces of constant frequency. Since other variables can be changed either slowly or not at all, the spectroscopic investigation is tedious. In the present work, transducers were fashioned from piezoelectric plastic film fastened to a solid substrate. The smooth broadband response up to ~100MHz of these composite transducers allowed a systematic investigation of the real squashing (RSQ, J = 2^+) mode in superfluid ^3He-B. The zero field mode frequency was identified at seven pressures between 0 and 29 bar, over a continuum of temperature. In particular, the zero temperature limit of RSQ frequency at constant pressure transducers was easily measured by repeated frequency sweeps at constant temperatures. Since the B phase mode frequencies approach a constant as T to 0, low temperature data are nearly impossible to obtain with fixed frequency transducers. In fact, the restriction of prior experiments to regions of sizeable partial f_{rm rsq}/ partial T meant that precision was limited by thermometric uncertainties. The broadband approach overcomes this deficiency. Aside from establishing the feasibility of a useful technique, the RSQ measurements have theoretical implications. Precise constraints are placed on the values of x_sp {3}{-1} (a measure of the strength of f-wave coupling) and F_sp{2} {a} (a Fermi interaction parameter). Comparison of these determinations with those from other experiments makes clear that "non-trivial" strong-coupling corrections to collective mode theory are needed in order to explain data at high pressures.

  15. Diffuse and specular characteristics of leaf reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of current understanding of the mechanisms of leaf reflectance is reviewed. The use of measurements of polarized reflectance to separate leaf reflectance into diffuse and specular components is discussed. A section on the factors influencing leaf reflectance - leaf structure and physiological disturbances - is included along with discussion on the manner in which these influences are manifested.

  16. Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, J. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

  17. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  18. Stem-and-Leaf Plots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to stem-and-leaf plots as a graphical way to represent a data set. The lesson also reviews measures of central tendency. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to stem-and-leaf plots as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

  19. The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ranere, Anthony J.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Dickau, Ruth; Iriarte, José

    2009-01-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that the wild ancestor of maize is presently native to the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Central Balsas watershed in southwestern Mexico. We report here on archaeological investigations in a region of the Central Balsas located near the Iguala Valley in Guerrero state that show for the first time a long sequence of human occupation and plant exploitation reaching back to the early Holocene. One of the sites excavated, the Xihuatoxtla Shelter, contains well-stratified deposits and a stone tool assemblage of bifacially flaked points, simple flake tools, and numerous handstones and milling stone bases radiocarbon dated to at least 8700 calendrical years B.P. As reported in a companion paper (Piperno DR, et al., in this issue of PNAS), starch grain and phytolith residues from the ground and chipped stone tools, plus phytoliths from directly associated sediments, provide evidence for maize (Zea mays L.) and domesticated squash (Cucurbita spp.) in contexts contemporaneous with and stratigraphically below the 8700 calendrical years B.P. date. The radiocarbon determinations, stratigraphic integrity of Xihuatoxtla's deposits, and characteristics of the stone tool assemblages associated with the maize and squash remains all indicate that these plants were early Holocene domesticates. Early agriculture in this region of Mexico appears to have involved small groups of cultivators who were shifting their settlements seasonally and engaging in a variety of subsistence pursuits. PMID:19307573

  20. Movement of coat protein genes from a commercial virus-resistant transgenic squash into a wild relative.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Marc; Chirco, Ellen M; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    We monitored pollen-mediated transgene dissemination from commercial transgenic squash CZW-3 into its wild relative Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. texana (C. texana). Transgenic squash CZW-3 expresses the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the coat protein (CP) genes of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV); thereby, it is resistant to these three aphid-borne viruses. The rate of NPT II and CP transgene introgression increased with overlapping flowering patterns and a high ratio of transgenic F1 hybrids (C. texana x CZW-3) to C. texana. Transgene transfer also readily occurred from transgenic F1 hybrids into C. texana over three generations in field settings where test plants grew sympatrically and viruses were not severely limiting the growth, and fruit and seed production of C. texana. In contrast, introgression of the transgenes into C. texana was not sustained under conditions of high viral disease pressure. As expected, C. texana progeny that acquired the CP transgenes exhibited resistance to CMV, ZYMV, and WMV. This is the first report on transgene dissemination from a transgenic crop that exhibits disease resistance and hybridizes with a wild plant species without loss of fertility. PMID:15612351

  1. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M J; Aires, A; Dias, C; Almeida, J A; De Vasconcelos, M C B M; Santos, P; Rosa, E A

    2015-02-01

    The transformation of byproducts and wastes generated by agro-food companies is of high importance since only a small portion of plant material is utilized directly for human consumption. Squash pumpkin is greatly used in Portugal and as by-products of its processing are generated tons of shell and seeds. In this study we aim to evaluate the potential of these wastes as sources of beneficial and bioactive compounds (antioxidants and antimicrobials), studying the effect of different extraction solvents and drying methods. The samples (fresh and cooked) were freeze-dried and oven-dried followed by extraction with different solvents that revealed the following decreasing order of efficiency: 70 % ethanol, 70 % methanol, 70 % acetone, ultra-pure water and 100 % dichloromethane. The oven-dried samples showed higher values of antioxidant activity and phenolic content, with exception of the values of phenolics for the seeds material. The shell samples presented higher values (1.47 - 70.96 % inhibition) of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (2.00 - 10.69 mg GAE/g DW). A positive correlation was found between these two parameters on the shell samples, however the squash seeds revealed a negative correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. The results show that these industrial agro-food residues are potentially good sources of bioactive compounds with health benefits. PMID:25694712

  2. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; James M. Vose; John C. Volin; Charles GreshamWilliam; William D. Bowman

    1998-01-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, we hypothesized that variation among species in leaf\\u000a dark respiration rate (R\\u000a d) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic\\u000a capacity (A\\u000a max). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is similar among

  3. Leaf exsertion, leaf elongation, and leaf senescence in Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex Bigelowii

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, G.R.; Yandow, T.; Laundre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the common sedges of arctic vegetation show a pattern of leaf production in which the exsertion and elongation of new leaves is more or less simultaneous with the senescence of old leaves. The present study was designed to increase our understanding of the variability sequential leaf production by arctic sedges, and to determine some of the controls on that variability. We did this in two ways: first, we compared the sequential patterns of leaf growth and senescence in E. vaginatum with those of Carex Bigelowii Torr. at two tussock tundra sites near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Second, we compared the responses of leaf growth in these species in control and fertilized plots and in two microenvironments thought to differ sharply in nutrient availability and total productivity. 29 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Identification of plant reservoirs and genome characterization of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005 and shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. Only cucurbits have been determined to be hosts for SqVYV so common cucurbit weeds in south ...

  5. Identification of immune system gene silencing targets in a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: coreidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Squash bug is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. There are few effective biological control agents or cultural practices for controlling this highly destructive pest. A promising new approach for control is...

  6. Discovery of a new genotype of Squash mosaic virus through deep sequencing of small RNAs and development of a qRT-PCR for broad spectrum detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), a seed-borne virus belonging to the genus Commovirus in the family Comoviridae, could cause a serious yield loss on cucurbit crops worldwide. SqMV has a bipartite single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome (RNA-1 and RNA-2) encapsidated separately with two capsid prote...

  7. Plant reservoirs of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, and other whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005 and shown to be sufficient to induce a watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis that had been observed for several years previously. This novel virus species was shown to be whitefly-transmissible and has now ...

  8. Aluminium-induced growth inhibition is associated with impaired efflux and influx of H+ across the plasma membrane in root apices of squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Ju Ahn; Mayandi Sivaguru; Gap Chae Chung; Zdenko Rengel; Hideaki Matsumoto

    2002-01-01

    It is generally understood that the inhibition of growth of root apices is the initial effect caused by aluminium (Al) toxicity. The correlation between impaired H+-fluxes across the plasma membrane (PM) and Al-induced growth inhibition, Al accumulation and callose formation in root apices of squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Tetsukabuto) is reported here. The root inhibition was dependent on Al

  9. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  10. Localization of Boron in Cell Walls of Squash and Tobacco and Its Association with Pectin' Evidence for a Structural Role of Boron in the Cell Wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hening Hu; Patrick H. Brown

    B deficiency results in a rapid inhibition of plant growth, and yet the form and function of B in plants remains unclear. In this paper we provide evidence that B is chemically localized and strudurally important in the cell wall of plants. The localization and chemical fractionation of B was followed in squash plants (Curcurbifa pepo 1.) and cultured tobacco

  11. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  12. Presence of P1b and absence of HC-Pro in Squash vein yellowing virus suggests a general feature of the genus Ipomovirus in the family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Ipomovirus is one of six currently recognized genera in the family Potyviridae. The complete nucleotide sequence of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a putative ipomovirus recently described in Florida, has been determined. The SqVYV genomic RNA has one large open reading frame encoding...

  13. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-04-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3-4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3-4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the amplitude of the responses of coastal ocean processes to wind forcing is complex and that the responses may have significant seasonal structures.

  14. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3–4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3–4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the amplitude of the responses of coastal ocean processes to wind forcing is complex and that the responses may have significant seasonal structures.

  15. Perspectives on leaf dorsoventral polarity.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Dóra; Moschopoulos, Alexis; Byrne, Mary E

    2010-05-01

    Leaves occur in a vast array of shapes and sizes, with complex diversity contributing to optimization of the principal function of photosynthesis. The program of development from a self-renewing stem cell population to a mature leaf has been of interest to biologists for years. Many genes involved in this process have been identified, particularly in the model eudicot Arabidopsis, so that now we have a greater understanding of mechanisms of stem cell maintenance, cell differentiation and organogenesis. One aspect of leaf development that is of particular interest is the establishment of dorsoventral polarity: the distinct adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) sides of the leaf. Early studies postulated conceptual models of how establishment of polarity leads to the development of planar leaves. Studies over the past decade have defined genetic details of this model, and uncovered diverse mechanisms of gene regulation that facilitate development of leaf dorsoventral polarity, including transcriptional regulation, chromatin modification, DNA modification, regulation by short RNAs and translational and post-translational regulation. This review will discuss these regulatory mechanisms in the context of leaf dorsoventrality, and will conclude with unresolved questions and areas of future research. PMID:20369373

  16. Investigation of seasonal variability of the wind stress curl over the North Atlantic Ocean by means of empirical orthogonal function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnier, B.

    1986-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the wind stress curl over the North Atlantic is investigated by means of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The curl field is calculated from 1 year of First Global GARP Experiment wind data. It was found that 44 percent of the variability is contained in four significant eigenvectors. Their spatial patterns are characterized by basin-sized oscillations with larger amplitude to the north of 40 deg N. Their associated time series coefficients have the highest amplitude during the winter and show a tendency toward a white frequency spectrum which nevertheless exhibits noticeable peaks or gaps at certain frequencies. Physically, the first EOF is seen as the seasonal fluctuations of the mean wind stress curl pattern. Five other eigenvectors are also found to be above the noise level, but they account for only a smaller percentage of variability (19 percent). They are characterized by smaller spatial scales than the basin size. Their time series coefficients show a whiter frequency spectrum.

  17. Potential new sources of wheat curl mite resistance in wheat to prevent the spread of yield-reducing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelly; Miller, Adam D; Hoffmann, Ary A; Larkin, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae), is a major pest in cropping regions of the world and is recognised as the primary vector of several yield-reducing pathogens, primarily affecting wheat. Management of WCM is complicated due to several aspects of the mite's biology and ecology; however, commercially viable mite resistant wheat varieties may offer practical long-term management options. Unfortunately, mite populations have adapted to previously identified sources of resistance, highlighting the need for further sources of resistance and the value of stacking different resistances to give greater degrees and longevity of control. In this study we assessed the susceptibility of 42 wheat-derived genotypes to mite population growth using a new experimental method that overcomes methodological limitations of previous studies. Experimental wheat lines included a variety of wheat genotypes, related Triticeae species, wheat-alien chromosome amphiploids, and chromosome addition or substitution lines. From these we identify new promising sources of WCM resistance associated with Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. ponticum and Hordeum marinum chromosomes. More specifically we identify group 1J and 5J chromosomes of the L3 and L5 wheat-Th. intermedium addition lines as new sources of resistance that could be exploited to transfer resistance onto homoeologous wheat chromosomes. This study offers new methods for reliable in situ estimations of mite abundance on cereal plants, and new sources of WCM resistance that may assist management of WCM and associated viruses in wheat. PMID:24705793

  18. Non-Euclidean stress-free configuration of arteries accounting for curl of axial strips sectioned from vessels.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Keiichi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that arteries are subject to residual stress. In earlier studies, the residual stress in the arterial ring relieved by a radial cut was considered in stress analysis. However, it has been found that axial strips sectioned from arteries also curled into arcs, showing that the axial residual stresses were relieved from the arterial walls. The combined relief of circumferential and axial residual stresses must be considered to accurately analyze stress and strain distributions under physiological loading conditions. In the present study, a mathematical model of a stress-free configuration of artery was proposed using Riemannian geometry. Stress analysis for arterial walls under unloaded and physiologically loaded conditions was performed using exponential strain energy functions for porcine and human common carotid arteries. In the porcine artery, the circumferential stress distribution under physiological loading became uniform compared with that without axial residual strain, whereas a gradient of axial stress distribution increased through the wall thickness. This behavior showed almost the same pattern that was observed in a recent study in which approximate analysis accounting for circumferential and axial residual strains was performed, whereas the circumferential and axial stresses increased from the inner surface to the outer surface under a physiological condition in the human common carotid artery of a two-layer model based on data of other recent studies. In both analyses, Riemannian geometry was appropriate to define the stress-free configurations of the arterial walls with both circumferential and axial residual strains. PMID:24008313

  19. Life in the Leaf Litter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, Life in the Leaf Litter is a guide to the diversity of soil organisms and the crucial role that invertebrates play in woodland ecosystems. The booklet was based, in part, on a leaf litter survey conducted by the CBC's Metro Program and the Museum's Division of Invertebrate Zoology in Central Park's woodlands, which led to the discovery of a new genus and species of centipede, Nannarrup hoffmani. The booklet may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered free of charge.

  20. Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jacquemoud; S. L. Ustin; J. Verdebout; G. Schmuck; G. Andreoli; B. Hosgood

    1996-01-01

    The biophysical, biochemical, and optical properties of 63 fresh leaves and 58 dry leaves were measured to investigate the potential of remote sensing to estimate the leaf biochemistry from space. Almost 2000 hemispherical reflectance and transmittance spectra were acquired from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a laboratory spectrophotometer. The amount of chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and starch

  1. Intracranial Fungal Granulomas Mimicking High Grade Gliomas. A Decisive Role of Squash Cytology (SC): A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak K.; Khurana, Nita; Pandey, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial fungal granulomas can be misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as neoplastic lesions. They also rarely occur without any history of immunodeficiency or diabetes. We report two such cases of fungal granulomas that were unsuspected clinically and radiologically but were detected on intraoperative squash cytology (SC) and later confirmed on histopathology. Timely intervention was hence possible and patient was saved from the hazards of unnecessary removal of eloquent areas of brain and was shifted on proper medical management. SC remains an indispensible tool for the neurosurgeon to get a provisional intraoperative diagnosis and in such surprising scenarios, change the surgical management of the patient, save the resection of eloquent brain areas and begin immediate postoperative medical management. These cases are being presented for their rarity and for highlighting the importance of SC as a regular tool for intraoperative neurosurgical consultation of intracranial mass lesions. PMID:25738021

  2. Intracranial Fungal Granulomas Mimicking High Grade Gliomas. A Decisive Role of Squash Cytology (SC): A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parth A; Patel, Ronak K; Khurana, Nita; Pandey, P N

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial fungal granulomas can be misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as neoplastic lesions. They also rarely occur without any history of immunodeficiency or diabetes. We report two such cases of fungal granulomas that were unsuspected clinically and radiologically but were detected on intraoperative squash cytology (SC) and later confirmed on histopathology. Timely intervention was hence possible and patient was saved from the hazards of unnecessary removal of eloquent areas of brain and was shifted on proper medical management. SC remains an indispensible tool for the neurosurgeon to get a provisional intraoperative diagnosis and in such surprising scenarios, change the surgical management of the patient, save the resection of eloquent brain areas and begin immediate postoperative medical management. These cases are being presented for their rarity and for highlighting the importance of SC as a regular tool for intraoperative neurosurgical consultation of intracranial mass lesions. PMID:25738021

  3. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf....

  4. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  6. Leaf element concentrations of terrestrial plants across China are

    E-print Network

    Slik, Ferry

    with leaf elements responsible for cell structure and enzymes. Main conclusions Leaf element concentrationsRESEARCH PAPER Leaf element concentrations of terrestrial plants across China are influenced cycles of terrestrial eco- systems are strongly affected by leaf element concentrations. Understanding

  7. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Ripe, medium body, open leaf structure, smooth, rich in oil, clear... Mature, medium body, firm leaf structure, crepy, oily, normal...

  11. The scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    in support and structure. Some have proposed that mechanical support and dry mass investments per unit leafThe scaling of leaf area and mass: the cost of light interception increases with leaf size Rube (specific leaf area, SLA) is a key trait from physiological, ecological and biophysical perspectives

  12. Leaf respiration is differentially affected by leaf vs. stand-level night-time warming

    E-print Network

    Saleska, Scott

    to temperature with the temperature coefficient of the reaction or Q10 (change in the rate of a reaction rate with a 10 C increase in leaf temperature) was 1.7 when the leaf temperature was manipulatedLeaf respiration is differentially affected by leaf vs. stand-level night-time warming K E V I N L

  13. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  14. Leaf Photosynthesis Under Drought Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Cornic; Angelo Massacci

    The photosynthetic apparatus is resistant to drought. Net CO2 uptake of a leaf submitted to a mild desiccation decreases because of stomatal closure. As aresult, CO2 concentration in the chloroplast decreases in plants exposed to water shortage. This drop in the chloroplast CO2 concentration causes: (i) a decrease in photochemical yield of open PS II centers and, consequently, an increase

  15. XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT OF ONION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas leaf blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a common foliar disease of onion. This extension bulletin presents a review of disease symptomology, etiology, epidemiology, and management. The association of environment, host, and cultural and disease severity ...

  16. Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

  17. ZONATE LEAF SPOT (CAUSED BY CRISTULARIELLA MORICOLA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zonate leaf spot derives it name from the occurrence of large, circular leaf lesions with distinct concentric rings. Initially the leaf lesions are light tan in color and the concentric rings are symmetrical appearing as a ‘bulls eye’. Initial lesions are 5-10 mm in diameter and continue to expand...

  18. Tree Branch Angle: Maximizing Effective Leaf Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisao Honda; Jack B. Fisher

    1978-01-01

    In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature.

  19. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture...14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture...37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3035 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or...

  2. Tansley review Leaf venation: structure, function,

    E-print Network

    Sack, Lawren

    Tansley review Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications, CA 90095, USA Contents Summary 983 I. Introduction 983 II. Overall structure of the leaf venation 983,agricultureandtechnology.Wesynthesizeclassicalconceptsandtherecentliteratureona wide range of aspects of leaf venation. We describe 10 major structural features that contribute

  3. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture...23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture...Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  5. Bean leaf beetle management in soybean

    E-print Network

    Jurenka, Russell A.

    Bean leaf beetle management in soybean Erin W. Hodgson Department of Entomology Iowa State concerned about BPMV #12;Bean leaf beetle threshold for 1st generation adults (per 20 sweeps) Control $7 $8 for bivoltine or multivoltine regions · Use counts to help manage 2nd/3rd generations #12;Bean leaf beetle

  6. Bean leaf beetle biology in soybean

    E-print Network

    Jurenka, Russell A.

    Bean leaf beetle biology in soybean Erin W. Hodgson Department of Entomology Iowa State University September 2009 #12;Outline · Description · Life cycle · Biology · Damage #12;Bean leaf beetle (BLB) · Cerotoma trifurcata ­ leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) · 5 mm long, oval shape · Typically dark

  7. CORN LEAF CHLOROPHYLL STATUS FROM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf chlorophyll concentration is an indicator of plant N status. Subtle differences in canopy reflectance due to changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration are often overwhelmed by the large changes in reflectance associated with soil brightness and leaf area index (LAI). Our objective was to devel...

  8. Modeling and visualization of leaf venation patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Runions; Martin Fuhrer; Pavol Federl; Anne-Gaëlle Rolland-Lagan; Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a class of biologically-motivated algorithms for generating leaf venation patterns. These algorithms simulate the interplay between three processes: (1) development of veins towards hormone (auxin) sources embedded in the leaf blade; (2) modification of the hormone source distribution by the proximity of veins; and (3) modification of both the vein pattern and source distribution by leaf growth. These

  9. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 5 percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure...tolerance, 10 percent. B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf...

  19. Leaf area dynamics of conifer forests

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, H.; Oren, R.; Whitehead, D.; Kaufmann, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    Estimating the surface area of foliage supported by a coniferous forest canopy is critical for modeling its biological properties. Leaf area represents the surface area available for the interception of energy, the absorption of carbon dioxide, and the diffusion of water from the leaf to the atmosphere. The concept of leaf area is pertinent to the physiological and ecological dynamics of conifers at a wide range of spatial scales, from individual leaves to entire biomes. In fact, the leaf area of vegetation at a global level can be thought of as a carbon-absorbing, water-emitting membrane of variable thickness, which can have an important influence on the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth`s atmosphere over both the short and the long term. Unless otherwise specified, references to leaf area herein refer to projected leaf area, i.e., the vertical projection of needles placed on a flat plane. Total leaf surface area is generally from 2.0 to 3.14 times that of projected leaf area for conifers. It has recently been suggested that hemisurface leaf area, i.e., one-half of the total surface area of a leaf, a more useful basis for expressing leaf area than is projected area. This chapter is concerned with the dynamics of coniferous forest leaf area at different spatial and temporal scales. In the first part, we consider various hypotheses related to the control of leaf area development, ranging from simple allometric relations with tree size to more complex mechanistic models that consider the movement of water and nutrients to tree canopies. In the second part, we consider various aspects of leaf area dynamics at varying spatial and temporal scales, including responses to perturbation, seasonal dynamics, genetic variation in crown architecture, the responses to silvicultural treatments, the causes and consequences of senescence, and the direct measurement of coniferous leaf area at large spatial scales using remote sensing.

  20. Habitat Complexity of Stream Leaf Packs: Effects on Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Leaf Litter Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetz, C. R.; Vanhaitsma, D. L.; Breen, M. J.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated two attributes of leaf-pack complexity (i.e., leaf-pack mass and leaf surface area) on fish predation, colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates, and leaf breakdown rates in a coldwater Michigan stream. We manipulated three factors using a factorial design: fish (exclusion or control cage), leaf-pack mass (1, 3, or 5 g dry mass), and leaf surface area (<7, 7-10, or >10 cm leaf width). Acer leaves were fastened into leaf packs. Exclusion cages had mesh on all sides; control cages lacked mesh on two sides to provide access to fishes. Two replicate leaf packs were randomly collected after 25-31 d from two sections of the stream (n = 4). Common shredders were Gammarus, Pycnopsyche, and Lepidostoma. We did not detect a significant effect of fish predation on benthic macroinvertebrates or leaf breakdown (i.e., mass loss). Colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates appeared proportional to leaf-pack mass but was unaffected by the surface area of leaves. Leaf breakdown was more rapid among leaf packs with fewer leaves (i.e., leaves with large surface area and leaf packs with low mass) and greater numbers of shredders. We suspect that physical fragmentation is the primary mechanism for higher breakdown rates among leaf packs with fewer leaves.

  1. A Putative Role for the Tomato Genes DUMPY and CURL3 in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis and Response1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chala V. Koka; R. Eric Cerny; Randy G. Gardner; Takahiro Noguchi; Shozo Fujioka; Suguru Takatsuto; Shigeo Yoshida; Steven D. Clouse

    2000-01-01

    The dumpy (dpy) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) exhibits short stature, reduced axillary branching, and altered leaf morphology. Application of brassinolide and castasterone res- cued the dpy phenotype, as did C-23-hydroxylated, 6-deoxo inter- mediates of brassinolide biosynthesis. The brassinolide precursors campesterol, campestanol, and 6-deoxocathasterone failed to res- cue, suggesting that dpy may be affected in the conversion of 6-deoxocathasterone

  2. Production of in vitro haploid plants from in situ induced haploid embryos in winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima Duchesne ex Lam.) via irradiated pollen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ertan Sait Kurtar; Ahmet Balkaya

    2010-01-01

    The influence of pollen irradiation on the production of in vitro haploid plants from in situ induced haploid embryos was\\u000a investigated in winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne ex Lam.). Pollen were irradiated at different gamma-ray doses (50, 100, 200 and 300 Gray) and durations (9, 11,\\u000a 15, 21, and 28 July). Production of in vitro haploid plantlets was influenced by

  3. Soaking Summer Squash Seeds in Low Concentrations of Cobalt Solution Before Sowing Increased Plant Growth, Femaleness, and Fruit Yield via Increasing Plant Ethylene Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Atta-Aly

    1998-01-01

    .   Soaking summer squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Eskandarany) seeds in continuously aerated solutions of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 ppm Co2+ for 48 h before sowing strongly increased plant growth, femaleness, and fruit yield compared with those of water- (control)\\u000a or 0.5 mm AOA (aminooxyacetic acid)-soaked seeds. Following the same pattern, plants of Co2+-soaked seeds produced significantly higher ethylene levels as

  4. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm?2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm?2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  5. Leaf hydraulic conductance is coordinated with leaf morpho-anatomical traits and nitrogen status in the genus Oryza

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dongliang; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf) is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in plants. Previous work has assessed the relationships between leaf morpho-anatomical traits and K leaf with woody species, but there has been very little focus on cereal crops. The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa) and wild species (such as O. rufipogon cv. Griff), is ideal material for identifying leaf features associated with K leaf and gas exchange. Leaf morpho-anatomical traits, K leaf, leaf N content per leaf area, and CO2 diffusion efficiency were investigated in 11 Oryza cultivars. K leaf was positively correlated with leaf thickness and related traits, and therefore positively correlated with leaf mass per area and leaf N content per leaf area, and negatively with inter-veinal distance. K leaf was also positively correlated with leaf area and its related traits, and therefore negatively correlated with the proportion of minor vein length per area. In addition, coordination between K leaf and CO2 diffusion conductance in leaves was observed. We conclude that leaf morpho-anatomical traits and N content per leaf area strongly influence K leaf. Our results suggest that more detailed anatomical and structural studies are needed to elucidate the impacts of leaf feature traits on K leaf and gas exchange in grasses. PMID:25429002

  6. Leaf hydraulic conductance is coordinated with leaf morpho-anatomical traits and nitrogen status in the genus Oryza.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dongliang; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-02-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf) is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in plants. Previous work has assessed the relationships between leaf morpho-anatomical traits and K leaf with woody species, but there has been very little focus on cereal crops. The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa) and wild species (such as O. rufipogon cv. Griff), is ideal material for identifying leaf features associated with K leaf and gas exchange. Leaf morpho-anatomical traits, K leaf, leaf N content per leaf area, and CO2 diffusion efficiency were investigated in 11 Oryza cultivars. K leaf was positively correlated with leaf thickness and related traits, and therefore positively correlated with leaf mass per area and leaf N content per leaf area, and negatively with inter-veinal distance. K leaf was also positively correlated with leaf area and its related traits, and therefore negatively correlated with the proportion of minor vein length per area. In addition, coordination between K leaf and CO2 diffusion conductance in leaves was observed. We conclude that leaf morpho-anatomical traits and N content per leaf area strongly influence K leaf. Our results suggest that more detailed anatomical and structural studies are needed to elucidate the impacts of leaf feature traits on K leaf and gas exchange in grasses. PMID:25429002

  7. Salinity effects on leaf anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Longstreth; P. S. Nobel

    1979-01-01

    Increasing salinity led to substantially higher ratios of mesophyll surface area to leaf area (A\\/sup mes\\/\\/A) for Phaseolus vulgaris and Gossypium hirsutum and a smaller increase for Atriplex patula, a salt-tolerant species. The increase in internal surface for COâ absorption did not lead to higher COâ uptake rates, since the COâ resistance expressed on the basis of mesophyll cell wall

  8. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr.) Cuf Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J.; Woode, Eric; Biney, Robert P.; Addae, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. Aims: To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. Materials and Methods: ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg), fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg), desipramine (3-30 mg/kg) orally, or water (as vehicle). In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg), ?-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg), both reserpine (1 mg/kg) and AMPT (200 mg/kg) concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg) to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Statistical analysis used: Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls’ post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In both FST and TST, the extract induced a decline in immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems. PMID:25709333

  9. Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores. PMID:23774946

  10. Trends and variability in the sea surface height, sea surface temperature and wind stress curl in the South Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto da Silveira, Isabel; Ponzi Pezzi, Luciano; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Sennéchael, Nathalie; Provost, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Altimetry sea level anomalies (SLA), sea surface temperatures anomalies (SSTA) and wind stress curl (WSC) were analyzed and had their trends calculated and their variability studied for the South Atlantic ocean using the last 19 years of SALTO/DUACS altimeter data, ERSST data and ERA-INTERIM data. All data had their temporal resolution adjusted to the one of altimeter data. The trends were calculated between January, 1st 1993 and December, 31th 2011. The stronger and positive SLA trends occurred in the region of the Zapiola Ridge (14 mm/year) and in some places in the Drake Passage (10 mm/year). Negative trends were observed in the Southern part of Argentinian basin (-4 mm/year), next to the Confluence Brazil Malvinas (-8 mm/year) and to the southwest of the African coast (-6 mm/year). The SST trends were positive North of 40°S, and negative south of 60°S. They were also negative along the Argentinean continental slope along the path of the Malvinas Current. The WSC trend was also negative along the Argentine continental slope. In the Southeast Atlantic, the WSC trend had a zonal distribution with alternate signs. To understand the processes responsible for the trend patterns in the South Atlantic ocean, the high and the low frequencies were obtained applying successively a 25 week band pass filter followed by a 37 week band pass filter. The percentage of explained variance by the high frequency, low frequency and seasonal signals (hf/lf/ss) were compared for SLA, SSTA and WSC. The variance of SLA in the Southwestern Atlantic was explained by the proportion of (80%, 15%,5%), except along the Argentinean continental slope (15%, 50%, 35%), the inner part of the ZR (10%,65%,25%). The central part of the South Atlantic showed dominant low frequency variance (proportions of 15%, 80% and 5% (hf/lf/ss), respectively). The SSTA variance was dominated by the high frequency in the Uruguayan coast, around ZR, in the Drake Passage and in the Agulhas Leakage (60-80%), low frequency variability responds to 55-75% of the total variability away from the continental borders. The seasonal frequency is important in the CBM region and in the inner of ZR (25%, 40%, 35%). The WSC variance was mostly explained by high frequencies (70%), low frequencies explained between 10% and 15%, at latitudes lower than 20°S, in the Argentinean continental slope and in the Agulhas Leakage. The EOF analysis were performed on the high and low frequencies components of each variable. The results will be presented in the poster.

  11. Curling And Inertia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. Through class discussion and a fun demonstration, students will review what they know about inertia. Students will then set up collisions with marbles and a stationary cup to explore the relationship between mass and inertia.

  12. Yield and leaf blade area comparisons of extra leafy to normal leafed maize (Zea mays L.)

    E-print Network

    Rushing, Ronald Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Inadequate information is available concerning the yield performance of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with genotypes of greater than normal leaf areas. Such genotypes are called Extra-leafy or Leafy cultivars and have greater leaf production above...

  13. Root Growth Inhibition in Boron-Deficient or Aluminum-Stressed Squash May Be a Result of Impaired Ascorbate Metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lukaszewski, K. M.; Blevins, D. G.

    1996-01-01

    Although cessation of growth is the most apparent symptom of boron deficiency, the biochemical function of boron in growth processes is not well understood. We propose that the action of boron in root meristems is associated with ascorbate metabolism. Total inhibition of root growth in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) plants transferred to boron-free medium coincided with a major decrease (up to 98%) in the ascorbate concentration of root apices. Under low-boron conditions, in which root growth was partially inhibited, ascorbate concentration declined in proportion to growth rate. The decline in ascorbate concentration in boron-deficient root tips was not related to ascorbate oxidation. Ascorbate added to the medium improved root growth in plants supplied with insufficient boron. Increasing concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient medium caused progressive inhibition of root growth and a parallel reduction in ascorbate concentration of root apices. Elevated boron levels improved root growth under toxic aluminum conditions and produced root apices with higher ascorbate concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a correlation between boron nutrition, ascorbate concentration in root apices, and growth. These findings show that root growth inhibition resulting from either boron deficiency or aluminum toxicity may be a consequence of disrupted ascorbate metabolism. PMID:12226437

  14. Dual role of the pigmentation gene B in affecting carotenoid and vitamin E content in squash (Cucurbita pepo) mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Meir, Ayala; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2005-12-14

    The yellow and orange colorations of the mesocarp of pumpkins and squash of Cucurbita pepo are due to the presence of carotenoid pigments that also greatly contribute to their nutritional value. Carotenoids, as well as tocopherols (vitamin E), are isoprenoid compounds formed by branches of a common biosynthetic pathway. Photodiode array HPLC analysis was used to simultaneously determine the content and composition of fruit-flesh carotenoids and tocopherols in five pairs of near-isogenic lines differing in the allelic state of genes previously identified as having profound effects on fruit color. The dominant B allele promoted carotenoid accumulation up to 5-fold and prevented tocopherol accumulation in all genetic backgrounds. The dominant L-2 allele doubled carotenoid content and, in combination with the dominant B allele, increased carotenoid content by 10-15-fold as compared to the recessive l-2 allele. The genes D and L-1 had no significant effects on mesocarp tocopherols or carotenoids content. These results indicate that the B gene, which affects both carotenoids and tocopherols, may play a regulatory role in the flux of the isoprenoid pathway products. PMID:16332127

  15. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    PubMed

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations. PMID:24996338

  16. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:25449728

  17. Classification and quantification of leaf curvature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Liguo; Mao, Yanfei; He, Yuke

    2010-01-01

    Various mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in polarity, cell division, and auxin response are characterized by certain types of leaf curvature. However, comparison of curvature for clarification of gene function can be difficult without a quantitative measurement of curvature. Here, a novel method for classification and quantification of leaf curvature is reported. Twenty-two mutant alleles from Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic lines deficient in leaf flatness were selected. The mutants were classified according to the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature. Based on a global measure of whole leaves and a local measure of four regions in the leaves, the curvature index (CI) was proposed to quantify the leaf curvature. The CI values accounted for the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature in all of the Arabidopsis mutants grown in growth chambers. Comparison of CI values between mutants reveals the spatial and temporal variations of leaf curvature, indicating the strength of the mutant alleles and the activities of the corresponding genes. Using the curvature indices, the extent of curvature in a complicated genetic background becomes quantitative and comparable, thus providing a useful tool for defining the genetic components of leaf development and to breed new varieties with leaf curvature desirable for the efficient capture of sunlight for photosynthesis and high yields. PMID:20400533

  18. Effect of Leaf Rolling on Gas Exchange and Leaf Temperature of Andropogon gerardii and Spartina pectinata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Heckathorn; Evan H. DeLucia

    1991-01-01

    We examined the effect of leaf rolling on CO, and water vapor exchange of two C, prairie grasses with contrasting patterns of leaf rolling. Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem) is a drought-resistant species with predominantly hypostomatal leaves that fold (adaxial surface inward) in response to low leaf water potential, while leaves of Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass), a mesic species, are epistomatal

  19. Modeling individual leaf area of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) using leaf length and width

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kandiannan; Utpala Parthasarathy; K. S. Krishnamurthy; C. K. Thankamani; V. Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Leaf area estimation is an important biometrical observation one has to do for comparing plant growth in field and pot experiments. In this study, a leaf area estimation model was developed for ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), using linear measurements of leaf length (L) and maximum width (W). Leaves from five ginger varieties (Varada, Rejatha, Mahima, Maran and Himachal) were used

  20. “Breath figures” on leaf surfaces—formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    “Microscopic leaf wetness” means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 ?m, microscopic leaf wetness is about two orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the type and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g., ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past. PMID:24167510

  1. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

  2. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

  3. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

  4. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade...

  6. Psychometric properties of child- and teacher-reported curl-up scores in children ages 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P; Bennington, J; De La Rosa, T

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of child- and teacher-reported curl-up (CU) scores in children ages 10-12 years in both a norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR) framework. Eighty-four children, 36 boys and 48 girls, performed the FITNESSGRAM (Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research, 1992) CU test on 2 days separated by 48-72 hr. Two video cameras were used to record students' CU performances. Two students performed the CU at the same time, with each child's performance recorded by one camera. The test was terminated when the child stopped due to fatigue or after two form errors occurred. Teacher-reported scores were the average of two independent ratings of each video performance, while child-reported scores came from data collected and recorded by the children. Single trial norm-referenced reliability was R = .75 for girls and R = .80 for boys for teacher-reported CU and R = .69 and R = .70 for child-reported CU for girls and boys, respectively. CR reliability was examined using P, proportion of students who consistently passed or failed the test across 2 days, and km, defined as reliability with chance removed. For teacher-reported scores, P = .89 and km = .78 for boys and P = .81 and km = .62 for girls. For child-reported scores, P = .86 and km = .72 for boys, while P = .79 and km = .58 for girls. For teacher-reported data, 39% of boys passed and 50% failed the test on both days, while for girls the percentages were 27% pass and 54% fail. For child-reported data, 64% of boys passed and 22% failed on both days, while 54% of girls passed and 25% failed. NR validity was examined by correlating teacher and child-reported scores. The resultant coefficient was r = .42 (95% CI = .11-.66) for boys and r = .67 (95% CI = .58-.74) for girls. Additionally, child-reported scores were significantly higher than teacher-reported scores. CR validity was examined with a contingency coefficient, and results indicated C = .55 with 44% false master errors for boys and C = .65 with 29% false master errors for girls. The findings of this study suggest that while NR reliability estimates were moderate for teacher-reported scores, single trial estimates suggest that child-reported CU should be viewed with caution. In regard to CR reliability, both teacher-reported and child-reported reliability were moderate. However, there were marked differences between teacher- and child-reported scores, with children reporting higher percentages of students passing and lower percentage of student failing the test when compared with scores reported by teachers. Validity was rather moderate when viewed in either a NR and CR framework. It is suggested that problems with child-reported scores may be due to the need for additional practice or simplification of the testing protocol. PMID:11393874

  7. Photovoltaic Leaf Area Meter Development and Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Igathinathane; B. Chennakesavulu; K. Manohar; A. R. Womac; L. O. Pordesimo

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel was used to develop a simple and practical leaf area meter. Components of the developed PV leaf area meter include a PV panel as sensor, a wooden cabinet as enclosure, a flashlight as light source, and a commercial digital multimeter for voltage measurement. The principle of projected area measurement is the voltage generated by the PV panel

  8. Lindstr om Quantifiers and Leaf Language Definability

    E-print Network

    Vollmer, Heribert

    and examine analogies to the concept of leaf language definability. The quantifier structure in a secondLindstrË? om Quantifiers and Leaf Language Definability Hans­JË?org Burtschick Fachbereich Informatik­ order sentence defining a language and the quantifier structure in a first­order sentence characterizing

  9. Rhythmic Leaf Movements: Physiological and Molecular Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nava Moran

    Daily periodic plant leaf movements, known since antiquity, are dramatic manifestations of “osmotic motors” regulated by the endogenous biological clock and by light, perceived by phytochrome and, possibly, by phototropins. Both the reversible movements and their regulation usually occur in specialized motor leaf organs, pulvini. The movements result from opposing volume changes in two oppositely positioned parts of the pulvinus.

  10. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

  11. Very Sparse Leaf Languages Lance Fortnow

    E-print Network

    Fortnow, Lance

    -- the languages defined in terms of the pattern appearing at the leaf-level a polynomial-time nondeterministic and fully explored. Given a polynomial-time nondeterministic Turing machine M that accepts all inputs on all that NP-complete sets are not polynomial-time many-one reducible to such balanced leaf language unless

  12. EFFECTS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON BARLEY LEAF PIGMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...

  13. Genetics of leaf blight resistance in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sinha; R. M. Singh; U. P. Singh

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the genetics of leaf blight caused byAlternaria triticina using generation mean analysis revealed that additive components played a major role, but that dominance components also contributed significantly in controlling the variability for leaf blight resistance in wheat crosses. Furthermore, the additive x additive type of epistasis was predominant in the first three crosses, whereas in the fourth cross

  14. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area1

    PubMed Central

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images. PMID:25202639

  15. Inferring climate from angiosperm leaf venation networks.

    PubMed

    Blonder, Benjamin; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    Leaf venation networks provide an integrative linkage between plant form, function and climate niche, because leaf water transport underlies variation in plant performance. Here, we develop theory based on leaf physiology that uses community-mean vein density to predict growing season temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The key assumption is that leaf water supply is matched to water demand in the local environment. We test model predictions using leaves from 17 temperate and tropical sites that span broad climatic gradients. We find quantitative agreement between predicted and observed climate values. We also highlight additional leaf traits that may improve predictions. Our study provides a novel approach for understanding the functional linkages between functional traits and climate that may improve the reconstruction of paleoclimate from fossil assemblages. PMID:24725225

  16. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed. PMID:19389294

  17. Anaerobic Capacities of Leaf Litter

    PubMed Central

    Kusel, K.; Drake, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    Leaf litter displayed a capacity to spontaneously form organic acids, alcohols, phenolic compounds, H(inf2), and CO(inf2) when incubated anaerobically at 20(deg)C either as buffered suspensions or in a moistened condition in microcosms. Acetate was the predominant organic product formed regardless of the degree of litter decomposition. Initial rates of acetate formation in litter suspensions and microcosms approximated 2.6 and 0.53 (mu)mol of acetate per g (dry weight) of litter per h, respectively. Supplemental H(inf2) was directed towards the apparent acetogenic synthesis of acetate. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was induced by partially decomposed litter after extended lag phases; freshly fallen litter did not display this capacity. PMID:16535448

  18. A model for leaf initiation

    PubMed Central

    Abraham-Shrauner, Barbara; Pickard, Barbara G

    2011-01-01

    A biophysical model is proposed for how leaf primordia are positioned on the shoot apical
    meristem in both spiral and whorl phyllotaxes. Primordia are initiated by signals that propagate
    in the epidermis in both azimuthal directions away from the cotyledons or the most recently
    specified primordia. The signals are linear waves as inferred from the spatial periodicity of the
    divergence angle and a temporal periodicity. The periods of the waves, which represent actively
    transported auxin, are much smaller than the plastochron interval. Where oppositely directed
    waves meet at one or more angular positions on the periphery of the generative circle, auxin
    concentration builds and as in most models this stimulates local movement of auxin to
    underlying cells, where it promotes polarized cell division and expansion. For higher order
    spirals the wave model requires asymmetric function of auxin transport; that is, opposite wave
    speeds differ. An algorithm for determination of the angular positions of leaves in common leaf
    phyllotaxic configurations is proposed. The number of turns in a pattern repeat, number of leaves
    per level and per pattern repeat, and divergence angle are related to speed of auxin transport and
    radius of the generative circle. The rule for composition of Fibonacci or Lucas numbers
    associated with some phyllotaxes is discussed. A subcellular model suggests how the shoot
    meristem might specify either symmetric or asymmetric transport of auxin away from the
    forming primordia that produce it. Biological tests that could make or break the mathematical
    and molecular hypotheses are proposed. PMID:22212121

  19. Optimizing leaf widths for a multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weijie; Dai, Jianrong

    2009-05-01

    The multileaf collimator (MLC) is becoming a standard accessory of modern linac in shaping radiation fields. However, for a given target (projection), the radiation field shaped by an MLC has a stepwise boundary and is not identical to the desired field that exactly conforms to the target. That means there are always under-blocked and/or over-blocked areas. The total area of discrepancy depends on MLC leaf widths. The purpose of this study is to develop an optimization model for determining leaf widths so that the total area of discrepancy between MLC-shaped fields and the desired ones can be minimized. The optimization model regards leaf widths as variables, the total area of discrepancy between MLC-shaped fields and the desired fields as an objective function, and the total width of all leaves as a constraint. A problem described by the model is solved with the hybrid of a simulated annealing technique (ASA, Lester Ingber, 1993) and a gradient technique (DONLP2, P Spellucci, 2001). The performance of the optimization model was evaluated on 634 target fields continuously selected from the patient database of a treatment planning system. The lengths of these fields ranged from 3.9 to 38.7 cm and had an average of 15.3 cm. The total area of discrepancy was compared between an MLC with optimal leaf widths and a conventional MLC with the same number of leaf pairs. Optimal leaf widths were obtained for an MLC with total leaf pairs of 28, 40 and 60, respectively, which corresponded to three types of conventional MLCs. The optimal leaf width first decreases slightly and then nonlinearly increases with the distance away from the central line. Compared with the MLC with conventional leaf width arrangement, the MLCs with optimal leaf width arrangement reduced the total area of discrepancy by 11.1%, 28.6% and 25.0%, respectively. Optimizing leaf widths can either improve the conformity of MLC-shaped fields to the treatment targets when the number of leaf pairs does not change, or reduce the number of leaf pairs without sacrifice of field conformity.

  20. Deciduous leaf drop reduces insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Deciduous leaf fall is thought to be an adaptation that allows plants living in seasonal environments to reduce water loss and damage during unfavorable periods while increasing photosynthetic rates during favorable periods. Observations of natural variation in leaf shedding suggest that deciduous leaf fall may also allow plants to reduce herbivory. I tested this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating leaf retention for Quercus lobata and observing natural rates of herbivory. Quercus lobata is primarily deciduous although individuals show considerable natural variation in leaf retention. Oak saplings with no leaves through winter experienced reduced attack by cynipid gall makers the following spring. This pattern was consistent with the positive correlation between natural leaf persistence and gall numbers. These cynipids do not overwinter on the leaves that trees retain through winter, although they appear to use persistent leaves as oviposition cues. If these results are general for woody plants in continental temperate habitats, they suggest that an important and unrecognized consequence of deciduous leaf shedding may be a reduction in herbivore damage, and that this effect should be included in models of deciduous and evergreen behavior. PMID:17375327

  1. Key Proliferative Activity in the Junction between the Leaf Blade and Leaf Petiole of Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Kawade, Kensuke; Usami, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Gorou; Takahashi, Taku; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Leaves are the most important, fundamental units of organogenesis in plants. Although the basic form of a leaf is clearly divided into the leaf blade and leaf petiole, no study has yet revealed how these are differentiated from a leaf primordium. We analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of mitotic activity in leaf primordia of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in detail using molecular markers in combination with clonal analysis. We found that the proliferative zone is established after a short interval following the occurrence of a rod-shaped early leaf primordium; it is separated spatially from the shoot apical meristem and seen at the junction region between the leaf blade and leaf petiole and produces both leaf-blade and leaf-petiole cells. This proliferative region in leaf primordia is marked by activity of the ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) promoter as a whole and seems to be differentiated into several spatial compartments: activities of the CYCLIN D4;2 promoter and SPATULA enhancer mark parts of it specifically. Detailed analyses of the an3 and blade-on-petiole mutations further support the idea that organogenesis of the leaf blade and leaf petiole is critically dependent on the correct spatial regulation of the proliferative region of leaf primordia. Thus, the proliferative zone of leaf primordia is spatially differentiated and supplies both the leaf-blade and leaf-petiole cells. PMID:21880932

  2. Evaluation of Methane from Sisal Leaf Residue and Palash Leaf Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisutha, S.; Baredar, P.; Deshpande, D. M.; Suresh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate methane production from sisal leaf residue and palash leaf litter mixed with different bulky materials such as vegetable market waste, hostel kitchen waste and digested biogas slurry in a laboratory scale anaerobic reactor. The mixture was prepared with 1:1 proportion. Maximum methane content of 320 ml/day was observed in the case of sisal leaf residue mixed with vegetable market waste as the feed. Methane content was minimum (47 ml/day), when palash leaf litter was used as feed. This was due to the increased content of lignin and polyphenol in the feedstock which were of complex structure and did not get degraded directly by microorganisms. Sisal leaf residue mixtures also showed highest content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as compared to palash leaf litter mixtures. It was observed that VFA concentration in the digester first increased, reached maximum (when pH was minimum) and then decreased.

  3. Calibration of the Minolta SPAD502 leaf chlorophyll meter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Markwell; John C. Osterman; Jennifer L. Mitchell

    1995-01-01

    Use of leaf meters to provide an instantaneous assessment of leaf chlorophyll has become common, but calibration of meter output into direct units of leaf chlorophyll concentration has been difficult and an understanding of the relationship between these two parameters has remained elusive. We examined the correlation of soybean (Glycine max) and maize (Zea mays L.) leaf chlorophyll concentration, as

  4. Leaf litter ant diversity in Guyana JOHN S. LAPOLLA1,

    E-print Network

    Schultz, Ted

    -1 Leaf litter ant diversity in Guyana JOHN S. LAPOLLA1, *, TED SUMAN1 , JEFFREY SOSA-CALVO1 Shield, Leaf litter ants Abstract. Leaf litter ants are an important group of organisms for informing conservation plan- ning. This study presents the beginning of a leaf litter ant dataset for Guyana. Following

  5. Breakthrough Technologies Leaf Extraction and Analysis Framework Graphical User

    E-print Network

    Weitz, Joshua S.

    : Segmenting and Analyzing the Structure of Leaf Veins and Areoles1[W][OA] Charles A. Price*, Olga Symonova improved empirical understanding of leaf network structure. LEAF GUI takes images of leaves where veins and cleaning steps, returns a suite of statistics and information on the structure of leaf venation networks

  6. What Is a Leaf? An Online Tutorial and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A leaf is a fundamental unit in botany and understanding what constitutes a leaf is fundamental to many plant science activities. My observations and subsequent testing indicated that many students could not confidently and consistently recognise a leaf from a leaflet, or recognise basic leaf arrangements and the various types of compound or…

  7. Simulating Leaf Area of Corn Plants at Contrasting Water Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exponential decay function was fitted with literature data to describe the decrease in leaf expansion rate as leaf water potential decreases. The fitted function was then applied to modify an existing leaf area simulation module in a soil-plant-atmosphere continuum model in order to simulate leaf...

  8. Elevated COâ and leaf shape: Are dandelions getting toothier?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Thomas; F. A. Bazzaz

    1996-01-01

    Heteroblastic leaf development in Taraxacum officinale is compared between plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) vs. elevated (700 ppm) COâ levels. Leaves of elevated COâ plants exhibited more deeply incised leaf margins and relatively more slender leaf laminae than leaves of ambient COâ plants. These differences were found to be significant in allometric analyses that controlled for differences in leaf

  9. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking Leaf (H Group). 29.1163 Section...INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.1163 Smoking Leaf (H Group). This group...Tolerances H3F—Good Quality Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf...

  10. Changes in leaf mono- and sesquiterpene metabolism with nitrate availability and leaf age in Heterotheca subaxillaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Mihaliak; David E. Lincoln

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of leaf mono- and sesquiterpenes is greater in nitrate-limited than in nitrate-richHeterotheca subaxillaris plants and is highest in young leaves and declines with leaf age. To determine whether rates of volatile terpene synthesis and\\/or loss vary with nitrate availability and leaf age, incorporation of14C from photosynthetically fixed14CO2 and the subsequent loss of label was measured in plants grown

  11. Short communication Leaf optical properties and photosynthetic leaf absorptances in several Australian seagrasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Durako

    Thisstudyinvestigated within-and among-species variability intheleafoptical properties ofeightlarge-bodiedseagrasses,Posidoniaaustralis, Posidonia sinuosa, Posidonia coriacea, Posidonia angustifolia, Amphibolis antarctica, Amphibolis griffithii, Zostera tasmanica, and Zostera capricorni and the small-bodied Halophila ovalis from the east and west coasts of Australia. Leaf spectral transmittance (TL(l)), reflectance (RL(l)), and non-photosynthetic absorptance (AL(NP)) were measured in order to calculate leaf spectral absorptance (AL(l)) and photosynthetic leaf absorptance (AL(PAR)).

  12. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  13. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  14. An Outdoor Lab Exercise Using Leaf Traps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity which uses the annual process of abscission and leaf drop to illustrate all of the phases of the scientific method. Procedures, hypothesis formation, and typical results and conclusions are discussed. Alternative activities are suggested. (CW)

  15. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed from leaves, cuttings, clippings, trimmings, shorts, or...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of...

  18. Leaf Impressions: A Model for Carbonization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Greb

    In this activity students make leaf impressions on paper to illustrate how carbonization works. They use the leaf press method to demonstrate staining as a model for carbonization, when living tissue leaves a carbon film in sediment and rock. The students will discover that many plant fossils are preserved through carbonization and that soft parts of animals including skin and fur have also been preserved as fossils through the process of carbonization.

  19. Leaf dynamics and profitability in wild strawberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Jurik; Brian F. Chabot

    1986-01-01

    Leaf dynamics and carbon gain were evaluated for two species of wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and F. vesca. Five populations on sites representing a gradient of successional regrowth near Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A., were studied for two or three years each. A computer-based model of plant growth and CO2 exchange combined field studies of leaf biomass dynamics with previously-determined gas exchange

  20. Summary Leaf structure has been shown to be an important determinant of leaf photosynthetic characteristics, yet the na-

    E-print Network

    Green, Scott

    Summary Leaf structure has been shown to be an important determinant of leaf photosynthetic et al. 1997, 1999, Green 1998). However, the exact nature of this relationship between leaf structure and Hikosaka 1995, Reich et al. 1997). Recent studies indicate that the influence of leaf structure