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Sample records for stability indicating rp-hplc

  1. Rapid Analysis of Glibenclamide Using an Environmentally Benign Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars Kaed; Alsarra, Ibrahim Abdullah; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally benign RP-HPLC approach for rapid analysis of glibenclamide in pure form, developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was developed and validated in present investigation. The green chromatographic identification was performed on Lichrosphere 250 X 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 ?m packing as a stationary phase using a combination of ethanol: methanol (50:50 % v/v) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 245 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, robustness, sensitivity and specificity as per international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The utility of proposed method was verified by assay of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be satisfactory in terms of selectivity, precision, accuracy, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The content of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was found to be 100.50 % and 99.15 % respectively. The proposed method successfully resoled glibenclamide peak in the presence of its all type of degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the green chromatographic method could be successfully employed for routine analysis of glibenclamide in pure drug and various commercial formulations. PMID:25276186

  2. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in binary combination.

    PubMed

    John, Peter; Azeem, Waqar; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Islam Ullah; Razzaq, Syed Naeem

    2015-09-01

    A simple and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Optimum separations of piroxicam, ofloxacin and stress-induced degradation products were achieved by use of Hypersil BDS C8 column (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile: 0.012M K2HPO4: 0.008M sodium citrate (both buffers mixed and pH adjusted to 2.8) (50:25:25 v/v/v) delivered at flow rate of 1.5 mL min⁻¹ using DAD at 254 nm. Response was linear function of concentration over the ranges of 70-130 mg mL⁻¹ for piroxicam and ofloxacin (r² ≥ 0.999). The method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products with acceptable tailing and resolution. The developed method was successfully used for concurrent analysis of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations, human serum and in vitro drug interaction studies. PMID:26408892

  3. Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Enrofloxacin and Its Degradation Products in Tablet Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, V. Ashok; Sailaja, B. B. V.; Kumar, Avvaru Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The present work was the development of a simple, efficient, and reproducible stability-indicating reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous determination enrofloxacin (EFX) and its degradation products including ethylenediamine impurity, desfluoro impurity, ciprofloxacin impurity, chloro impurity, fluoroquinolonic acid impurity, and decarboxylated impurity in tablet dosage forms. The separation of EFX and its degradation products in tablets was carried out on Kromasil C-18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using 0.1% (v/v) TEA in 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH 2.5) buffer and methanol by linear gradient program. Flow rate was 1.0 mL min−1 with a column temperature of 35°C and detection wavelength was carried out at 278 nm and 254 nm. The forced degradation studies were performed on EFX tablets under acidic, basic, oxidation, thermal, humidity, and photolytic conditions. The degraded products were well resolved from the main active drug and also from known impurities within 65 minutes. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and robustness as per ICH guidelines. The results obtained from the validation experiments prove that the developed method is a stability-indicating method and suitable for routine analysis. PMID:25705547

  4. Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Ambrisentan and Tadalafil in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jayvadan K.; Patel, Nilam K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A simple, rapid, and highly selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Ambrisentan (AMB) and Tadalafil (TADA) drug substances in the fixed dosage strength of 10 mg and 40 mg, respectively. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using a Hypersil GOLD C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm internal diameter, 5 μm particle size) with a mobile phase composed of methanol, water, and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:40:20 (by volume). The mobile phase was pumped using a gradient HPLC system at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas at 260 nm. The retention times for Ambrisentan and Tadalafil were about 2.80 and 7.10 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to system suitability, linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection, and quantification limits. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 1–20 μg/mL for Ambrisentan and 4–80 μg/mL for Tadalafil with correlation coefficients >0.990. The proposed method proved to be selective and stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from the forced degradation (hydrolysis, oxidation, and photolysis) products. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of AMB and TADA in pharmaceutical dosage form. PMID:26279975

  5. Validated stability-indicating assay method for simultaneous determination of aceclofenac and thiocolchicoside using RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Samanthula, G; Shrigod, V V; Patel, P N

    2014-08-01

    A rapid, accurate, precise, robust and specific stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of fixed dose combination of Aceclofenac (ACF) and Thiocolchicoside (THC). Combinations and marketed tablets were subjected to stress conditions such as oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and heat. Successful separation of drugs from stress degradation products was achieved on Kromasil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at 30 °C using gradient mobile phase system consisting of (A) 10 mM ammonium acetate pH 5.00 buffer and (B) acetonitrile: water (70:30 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 265 nm. The retention time of THC and ACF was 13.29 and 22.20 min respectively. Peak purity of both the drugs was passing in all degradation conditions demonstrates the specificity of assay method for their estimation in presence of degradation products. The developed HPLC method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 80-280 µg/mL for ACF and 6.4-22.4 µg/mL for THC. The utility of the procedure was verified by its application to marketed formulations. PMID:24310363

  6. Development and Validation of Stability-indicating RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of Pamabrom in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shah, U.; Kavad, M.; Raval, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study depicts the development of a validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of the pamabrom in presence of degradation products or other pharmaceutical excipients. Stress study was performed on pamabrom and it was found that it degrade sufficiently in acidic, alkali and oxidative condition but less degradation was found in thermal and photolytic condition. The separation was carried out on Enable G 120 A0 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μ) column having particle size 5 μ using methanol: water (75:25 v/v) with pH 4.0 adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the detection was 280nm. A retention time (Rt) nearly 3.9 min was observed. The calibration curve for pamabrom was linear (r2 = 0.9997) from range of 10-60 μg/ml with limit of detection and limit of quantification of 1.41 μg/ml and 4.28 μg/ml, respectively. Analytical validation parameter such as selectivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were evaluated and relative standard deviation value for all the key parameters were less than 2.0%. The recovery of the drug after standard addition was found to be 101.35%. Thus, the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be suitable for the determination of pamabrom in bulk as well as stability samples of tablets containing various excipients. PMID:25035530

  7. Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Trimethoprim and Sulfadimethoxine Sodium in Oral Liquid Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mashhour M.; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfadimethoxine sodium (SDMS) in Vetricine® oral solution product. The desired separation was achieved on an ODS column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) at room temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (700:299:1, v/v/v), adjusted to a pH of 5.7 ± 0.05 with 0.2N acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.8 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 254 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peaks USP tailing factor, column efficiency, and resolution were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing TMP, SDMS standards, and the oral solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peaks and the excipients, thus proving the reliable stability-indicating method. The method was validated as per ICH and USP guidelines (USP34/NF29) and found to be adequate for the routine quantitative estimation of TMP and SDMS in commercially available Vetricine® oral liquid dosage form. PMID:23833713

  8. A validated specific stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method for Ambrisentan and its related substances.

    PubMed

    Narayana, M B V; Chandrasekhar, K B; Rao, B M

    2014-09-01

    A validated specific stability-indicating reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of Ambrisentan as well as its related substances in bulk samples, pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of degradation products and its related impurities. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk samples of Ambrisentan as per the ICH-prescribed stress conditions using acid, base, oxidative, thermal stress and photolytic degradation to show the stability-indicating power of the LC method. Significant degradation in acidic, basic stress conditions was observed and no degradation was observed in other stress conditions. The chromatographic method was optimized using the samples generated from the forced degradation studies and the impurity-spiked solution. Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to Ambrisentan-related impurities and degradation products from the analyte were achieved on a SunFire C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate at a pH adjusted to 2.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid in water and a mixture of acetonitrile:methanol using a simple linear gradient. The detection was carried out at 225 nm. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for the Ambrisentan and its related impurities were established. The stressed test solutions were assayed against the qualified working standard of Ambrisentan and the mass balance in each case was between 98.9 and 100.3%, indicating that the developed LC method was stability indicating. Validation of the developed LC method was carried out as per the ICH requirements. The developed method was found to be suitable to check the quality of bulk samples of Ambrisentan at the time of batch release and also during its storage (long-term and accelerated stability). PMID:23926121

  9. Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Clindamycin Phosphate and Adapalene along with Preservatives in Topical Gel Formulations.

    PubMed

    Modi, Prakash B; Shah, Nehal J

    2014-12-01

    A novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of clindamycin phosphate (hydrophilic), adapalene (hydro-phobic), phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in topical gel formulations. Optimum chromatographic separation among the analytes and stress-induced degradants peaks was achieved on the XBridge C18 (50 4.6 mm, 3.5 m) column using a mobile phase consisting of a variable mixture of pH 2.50 ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran with gradient elution. Detection was performed at 210 nm for phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, and clindamycin phosphate and 321 nm for adapalene. The method was optimized with a unique diluent selection for the extraction of clindamycin phosphate and adapalene from the gel matrix. The developed method was validated for method precision, specificity, LOD and LOQ, linearity, accuracy, robustness, and solution stability as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be employed for the quantification of clindamycin phosphate, adapalene, phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in commercial topical gel formulations. PMID:26171325

  10. Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Clindamycin Phosphate and Adapalene along with Preservatives in Topical Gel Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Prakash B.; Shah, Nehal J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of clindamycin phosphate (hydrophilic), adapalene (hydro-phobic), phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in topical gel formulations. Optimum chromatographic separation among the analytes and stress-induced degradants peaks was achieved on the XBridge C18 (50 4.6 mm, 3.5 m) column using a mobile phase consisting of a variable mixture of pH 2.50 ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran with gradient elution. Detection was performed at 210 nm for phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, and clindamycin phosphate and 321 nm for adapalene. The method was optimized with a unique diluent selection for the extraction of clindamycin phosphate and adapalene from the gel matrix. The developed method was validated for method precision, specificity, LOD and LOQ, linearity, accuracy, robustness, and solution stability as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be employed for the quantification of clindamycin phosphate, adapalene, phenoxyethanol, and methylparaben in commercial topical gel formulations. PMID:26171325

  11. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Sitagliptin and Simvastatin in Tablets.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, P; Bhaskar, V Udaya; Reddy, Y Padmanabha; Kumar, K Vinod

    2014-09-01

    A new stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous analysis of sitagliptin and simvastatin in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (70:30, v/v) with 0.2 % of n-heptane sulfonic acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid was used. Retentions of sitagliptin and simvastatin were 4.3 min and 30.4 min, respectively with a flow rate of 1 ml/min on C8 (Qualisil BDS, 2504.6 mm, 5 ?). Eluents were detected at 253 nm using photodiode diode array detector. The linear regression analysis data for the linearity plot showed correlation coefficient values of 0.9998 and 0.9993 for sitagliptin and simvastatin, with respective concentration ranges of 20-150 ?g/ml and 8-60 ?g/ml. The relative standard deviation for inter-day precision was lower than 2.0%. The assay of sitagliptin and simvastatin was determined in tablet dosage form was found to be within limits. Both drugs were subjected to a variety of stress conditions such as acidic, basic, oxidation, photolytic, neutral and thermal stress in order to achieve adequate degradation. Results revealed that considerable degradation was found in all stress conditions except oxidative degradations. The method has proven specificity for stability indicating assay method. PMID:25425754

  12. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Sitagliptin and Simvastatin in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, P.; Bhaskar, V. Udaya; Reddy, Y. Padmanabha; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2014-01-01

    A new stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous analysis of sitagliptin and simvastatin in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (70:30, v/v) with 0.2 % of n-heptane sulfonic acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid was used. Retentions of sitagliptin and simvastatin were 4.3 min and 30.4 min, respectively with a flow rate of 1 ml/min on C8 (Qualisil BDS, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μ). Eluents were detected at 253 nm using photodiode diode array detector. The linear regression analysis data for the linearity plot showed correlation coefficient values of 0.9998 and 0.9993 for sitagliptin and simvastatin, with respective concentration ranges of 20-150 μg/ml and 8-60 μg/ml. The relative standard deviation for inter-day precision was lower than 2.0%. The assay of sitagliptin and simvastatin was determined in tablet dosage form was found to be within limits. Both drugs were subjected to a variety of stress conditions such as acidic, basic, oxidation, photolytic, neutral and thermal stress in order to achieve adequate degradation. Results revealed that considerable degradation was found in all stress conditions except oxidative degradations. The method has proven specificity for stability indicating assay method. PMID:25425754

  13. Validated Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Azelnidipine and Olmesartan in Their Combined Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jayvadan K; Patel, Nilam K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A simple, rapid, and highly selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine (AZL) and Olmesartan (OLM) drug substances in the fixed dosage strength of 16 mg and 20 mg, respectively. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using a Hypersil GOLD C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm internal diameter, 5 µm particle size) with a mobile phase composed of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in the ratio of 40:40:20 (by volume). The mobile phase was pumped using a gradient HPLC system at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas at 260 nm. The retention times for Azelnidipine and Olmesartan were about 8.56 and 3.04 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to system suitability, linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection, and quantification limits. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 2–48 μg/mL for Azelnidipine and 2.5–60 μg/mL for Olmesartan with correlation coefficients >0.990. The proposed method proved to be selective and stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from the forced degradation (hydrolysis, oxidation, and photolysis) products. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of AZL and OLM in their combined dosage form. PMID:25853066

  14. Development of validated stability indicating assay method for simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride and vildagliptin by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, N; Pradeepkumar, M; Shanthikumar, S; Rao, V J

    2014-03-01

    A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of metformin hydrochloride (MET) and vildagliptin (VLG) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method involves use of easily available inexpensive laboratory reagents. The separation was achieved on Grace Cyano column (250?mm4.6?mm) 5?m with isocratic flow. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0?mL/min, consisted of 25?mM ammonium bicarbonate buffer and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v). The UV detection was carried out at 207?nm. A linear response was observed over the concentration range of 25-125?g/mL for MET and 50-250?g/mL for VLG respectively. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for MET were 0.36?g/mL and 1.22?g/mL, and for VLG were 0.75?g/mL and 2.51?g/mL respectively. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines acceptance criteria for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and system suitability. Individual drugs (MET and VLG) were exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic and oxidative stress conditions. The resultant stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. The method gave high resolution among the degradation products and the analytes. The peak purity of analyte peak in the stressed samples was confirmed by photo diode array detector. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of MET and VLG in tablet dosage form, which will help to improve quality control and contribute to stability studies of pharmaceutical tablets containing these drugs. PMID:24081820

  15. Development and validation of a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil and Metoprolol Succinate in pharmaceutical dosage form

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Nirmal M.; Panchal, Haresh B.; Rakholiya, Dinesh R.; Murugan, R.; Choudhari, Vishnu P.; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Backrgound: A simple, rapid, precise and isocratic RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method is aimed to develop for the simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil and Metoprolol Succinate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. Materials and Methods: The quantification is carried out using YMC-Pack CN (250 4.6 mm, 5.0 ?m) column and the mobile phase comprises of 0.05% Trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) and Acetonitrile (ACN) (70:30 v/v). The flow rate is 1.0 ml/min. The eluent is monitored at 220 nm. The retention times of Olmesartan Medoxomil and Metoprolol Succinate are 7.9 min and 4.1 min respectively. The method is validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Results: Linearity and percentage recoveries of both Olmesartan Medoxomil and Metoprolol Succinate are in the range of 5-35 ?g/ml and 100 2%, respectively. The stress testing of both the drugs individually and their mixture is carried out under acidic, alkaline, oxidation, photo-stability and thermal degradation (dry heat and wet heat) conditions and its degradation products are well resolved from the analyte peaks. Conclusion: This method was successfully validated for accuracy, precision, and linearity. PMID:23781484

  16. New Validated Stability-Indicating Rp-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvastatin and Ezetimibe in Human Plasma by Using PDA Detector

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Ashutosh; Debnath, Manidipa; Rao, J.V.L.N. Seshagiri; Sankar, D. Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in plasma. Methods: The chromatographic separation of the drugs were performed on an X-Terra C8 (4.6 x 150 mm, 3.5 mm), with phosphate buffer [pH 3.5 with Ortho Phosphoric Acid] – acetonitrile 40:60 (v/v) as mobile phase. The detection was performed at 235 nm. The flow rate was maintained at 1.2 mL/min. The run time was 8.0 min. Results: The accuracy and reliability of the method was assessed by evaluation of linearity (5-25 µg/mL for both atorvastatin calcium and ezetimibe), precision (intra-day RSD 0.57 % and inter-day RSD 0.02 % for atorvastatin calcium and intra-day RSD 0.56 % and inter-day RSD 0.1 % for ezetimibe), accuracy (100.08- 100.84 % for atorvastatin calcium and 100.56- 101.00 % for ezetimibe), and specificity, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The LLOQ obtained by the proposed method were 1.294 and 1.384 µg/mL for atorvastatin and ezetimibe respectively. Conclusion: Overall the proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for the quantitative determination in plasma. The method was effectively separated the drug from plasma. PMID:26504761

  17. An RP-HPLC Method for the Stability-Indicating Analysis of Impurities of Both Fusidic Acid and Betamethasone-17-Valerate in a Semi-Solid Pharmaceutical Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jonathan; Velasco-Torrijos, Trinidad; Reinhardt, Robert

    2015-10-01

    A topical pharmaceutical cream containing the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) betamethasone-17-valerate and fusidic acid has been developed for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions and associated secondary infections. In this work, a novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitation of impurities of both APIs present in this cream. The HPLC column was a 150 mm × 4.6 mm I.D. YMC-Pack Pro C18 column with 3 µm particles. The column-oven temperature was maintained at 40°C and UV detection at 235 nm was used. A gradient programme was employed at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. Mobile phase A comprised of a 16:21:21:42 (v/v/v/v) mixture of methanol, 10 g/L phosphoric acid, HPLC grade water and acetonitrile. Mobile phase B comprised of a 24:5:5:66 (v/v/v/v) mixture of methanol, 10 g/L phosphoric acid, HPLC grade water and acetonitrile. The method has been validated according to current International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and applied during formulation development and stability studies. The procedure has been shown to be stability-indicating for the topical cream. PMID:25896658

  18. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Mometasone Furoate, and Tazarotene in Topical Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2013-01-01

    A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenoxyethanol (PE), methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), mometasone furoate (MF), and tazarotene (TA) in topical pharmaceutical dosage formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Waters X-Bridge C18 (504.6mm, 3.5?) column using gradient elution at 256 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 0.1%v/v orthophosphoric acid in water as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The method showed linearity over the range of 5.8861.76 ?g/mL, 0.1862.36 ?g/mL, 0.176.26 ?g/mL, 0.4731.22 ?g/mL, and 0.4430.45 ?g/mL for PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA, respectively. The recovery for all of the components was in the range of 98102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples, in which the spectral purity of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA along with the separation of degradation products from the analyte peaks was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of PE, MP, PP, MF, and TA in a cream sample. PMID:24482766

  19. Identification of Degradation Products and a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Flupirtine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Peraman, Ramalingam; Lalitha, K. V.; Raja, Naga Mallikarjuna; Routhu, Hari Babu

    2014-01-01

    In this stability-indicating, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for flupiritine maleate, forced degradation has been employed and the formed degradants were separated on a C18 column with a 80:20% v/v mixture of methanol-water containing 0.2% (v/v) triethylamine; the pH was adjusted to 3.1. The flow rate was 1 mLmin?1 and the photodiode array detection wavelength was 254 nm. Forced degradation of the drug was carried out under acidic, basic, thermal, photolytic, peroxide, and neutral conditions. Chromatographic peak purity data indicated no co-eluting peaks with the main peaks. This method resulted in the detection of seven degradation products (D1D7). Among these, three major degradation products from acidic and basic hydrolysis were identified and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines (Q2). The linearity of the method was in the concentration range of 20120 ?gmL?1. The relative standard deviations for intra- and interday precision were below 1.5%. The specificity of the method is suitable for the stability-indicating assay. PMID:24959399

  20. Validated Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Degradation Behaviour of Organic Peroxide and Third-Generation Synthetic Retinoids in Topical Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chinmoy; Panigrahi, Lalatendu; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to establish a validated stability-indicating, high-performance liquid chromatographic method to determine the purity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and adapalene (ADP) in the presence of its impurities, forced degradation products, and placebo in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the Kinetex™ C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using gradient elution at 272 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of solvent A (mixture of 0.1% v/v glacial acetic acid in water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 80:20 v/v, respectively) and solvent B (mixture of acetonitrile: tetrahydrofuran: methanol in the ratio of 50:30:20 v/v/v, respectively). The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing forced degradation samples in which the spectral purity of BPO and ADP along with separation of all degradation products from the analyte peaks was achieved. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, and robustness. PMID:26839821

  1. Method Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Dabhi, Batuk; Jadeja, Yashwantsinh; Patel, Madhavi; Jebaliya, Hetal; Karia, Denish; Shah, Anamik

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, and accurate HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in tablet form. An isocratic separation was achieved using a Waters Symmetry C8 (100 × 4.6 mm), 5 μm particle size column with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detector at 290 nm. The mobile phase consisted of buffer: methanol (40:60 v/v) (buffer: 50 mM KH2PO4 + 1 ml triethylamine in 1 liter water, pH=2.5 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid). The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, and solution stability. The specificity of the method was determined by assessing interference from the placebo and by stress testing the drug (forced degradation). The method was linear over the concentration range 20–80 μg/ml (r2 = 0.999) with a Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 and 0.3 μg/ml respectively. The accuracy of the method was between 99.2–100.5%. The method was found to be robust and suitable for the quantitative analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in a tablet formulation. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of Dronedarone Hydrochloride so the assay is thus stability-indicating. PMID:23641332

  2. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of aminexil and minoxidil in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Siddiraju, S; Sahithi, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of aminexil and minoxidil in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved with BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5 μ) as stationary phase and phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (78:22) as mobile phase. The method was employed by using a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min kept at 30°C. The detection wavelength was kept at 238 nm by using photo-diode array detector. The retention times of the aminexil and minoxidil were found to be 2.3 min and 3.9 min, respectively. The method developed was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to the stability indicating capacity of the method including system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The linearity responses of aminexil and minoxidil were found to be in the concentration ranges of 18.75-112.5 μg/mL and 25-150 μg/mL, respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for aminexil were found to be 0.31 and 0.92 μg/mL and minoxidil were found to be 0.03 and 0.10 μg/mL respectively. The percentage recoveries for both the drugs were found in the range of 98-101%. This method is accurate, precise and sensitive; hence, it can be employed for routine quality control of aminexil and minoxidil in pharmaceutical industries and drug testing laboratories. PMID:25542653

  3. Validated stability indicating RP-HPLC for quantitation of nitazoxanide in presence of its alkaline degradation products and their characterization by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Maha; Kessiba, Amira; El Gindy, Ahmed Emad; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    A simple and sensitive stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Nitazoxanide (NTZ), a new antiprotozoal drug, in presence of degradation products generated under forced alkaline hydrolysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Inertsil C8-3 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer (50:50, v/v, pH 5.0 adjusted with acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Quantification was achieved with UV detection at 298 nm based on relative peak area. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.8-50 µg/mL (r = 0.9999) with a limit of detection and quantification 0.0410 and 0.1242 µg/mL, respectively. The developed method has the requisite accuracy, selectivity, sensitivity and precision to assay NTZ in presence of its degradation products either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulations. The degradation products were then identified by HPLC-MS/MS analysis using an electrospray ionization source and an ion trap analyzer. PMID:24248557

  4. Development and Validation of Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Metformin HCl and Glimepiride in Fixed-Dose Combination

    PubMed Central

    Vaingankar, Pradnya N.; Amin, Purnima D.

    2016-01-01

    A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Metformin hydrochloride (MET) and Glimepiride (GLM) in combination and estimation of their principal degradation products. The separation was achieved using JASCO Finepak SIL (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm) at ambient temperature. The optimized mobile phase composed of an aqueous phase (20 mM phosphate buffer, adjusted to pH 3.0) and an organic phase (methanol:acetonitrile; 62.5:37.5) in the ratio of 80:20. The flow rate was 1 mL/minute, and the analytes were detected at 230 nm. The developed method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity. The chromatographic analysis time was approximately six minutes with the complete resolution of MET (Rt = 2.75 minutes) and GLM (Rt = 5.87 minutes). The method exhibited good linearity over the range of 5–30 μg/mL for MET and 1–10 μg/mL for GLM. The drugs in combination were subjected to various stress degradation studies as per the International Conference Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results obtained from the stress degradation studies revealed that the developed method is applicable for stability studies. PMID:26997866

  5. Quality by Design-Based Development of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate, and Octinoxate in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chinmoy; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DAHHB), and octinoxate (OCT) in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the KinetexTM C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using gradient elution at 257 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a buffer : acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) as solvent A and acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (70 : 30, v/v) as solvent B. The method showed linearity over the range of 0.19–148.4 μg/mL, 0.23–15.3 μg/mL, 1.97–600.5 μg/mL, and 1.85–451.5 μg/mL for MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, respectively. Recovery for all the components was found to be in the range of 98–102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples in which the spectral purity of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, along with the separation of the degradation products from the analyte peaks, was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT in the lotion sample. The design expert with ANOVA software with the linear model was applied and a 24 full factorial design was employed to estimate the model coefficients and also to check the robustness of the method. Results of the two-level full factorial design, 24 with 20 runs including four centrepoint analysis based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that all four factors, as well as the interactions of resolution between DAHHB and OCT are statistically significant. PMID:25853065

  6. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Magda; Prez-Lozano, Pilar; Garca, Mireia; Garca-Montoya, Encarna; Miarro, Montse; Tic, Josep R; Fbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Roco; Su-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC. PMID:25857875

  7. Stability indicating methods for the determination of some anti-fungal agents using densitometric and RP-HPLC methods.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Bahia Abbas; El-Kousy, Naglaa Mahmoud; El-Bagary, Ramzia Ismail; Mohamed, Nashwah Gadalla

    2008-02-01

    Two chromatographic methods were developed for the determination of some anti-fungal drugs in the presence of either their degradation products or cortisone derivatives. The densitometric method determined mixtures of each of ketoconazole (KT), clotrimazole (CL), miconazole nitrate (MN) and econazole nitrate (EN) with the degradation products of each one. Mixtures of MN with hydrocortisone (HC) and of EN with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) were also successfully separated and determined by this technique. For KT and CL, a mixture of methanol:water:triethylamine (70:28:2 v/v) was used as a developing system and the spots were scanned at 243 nm and 220 nm for KT and CL, respectively. For MN and EN, a mixture of hexane:isopropyl alcohol:triethylamine (80:17:3 v/v) was used as a developing system and the spots were scanned at 225 nm for both drugs. The HPLC method determined mixtures of CL or EN with their degradation products which were separated and quantified on a Zorbax C8 column. Elution was carried out using methanol:phosphate buffer pH 2.5 (65:35 v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and UV detection at 220 nm for CL. For EN, a mixture of methanol:water containing 0.06 ml triethylamine pH 10 (75:25 v/v) was used as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and UV detection at 225 nm. The methods were also used to separate mixtures of CL with betamethasone dipropionate (BD) and EN with TA in a laboratory prepared mixture and in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods were sensitive, precise and applicable for determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:18239297

  8. Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Prazosin, Terazosin, and Doxazosin in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study was carried out with an attempt to separate similarly structured title drugs by liquid chromatography. Spectrophotometric techniques were generally insufficient under these conditions because of the spectral overlapping of drugs with similar functional groups. The pharmaceutical drugs prazosin, terazosin, and doxazosin contain the same parent quinazoline nucleus, thus making it especially difficult to separate the former two drugs because of their very similar structures. A simple and sensitive method for the routine determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations was attempted. We found that the mobile phase consisting of A: ACN–diethylamine (0.05 ml), B: methanol, and C: 10 mM Ammonium acetate separated these drugs effectively. Separations were carried out on a new Kromasil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) at 254 nm wavelength. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 2–500 μg/ml. The stated method was then validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. Additionally, the proposed method reduced the duration of the analysis. PMID:23008810

  9. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for estimation of Cefotaxime sodium in marketed formulations.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, N; Pai, Pn Sanjay

    2009-12-01

    A RP-HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for cefotaxime. An isocratic RP-HPLC was developed on a SS Wakosil II- C8 column (250 mm ˜4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) utilizing a mobile phase of ammonium acetate buffer (pH 6.8) and acetonitrile (85:15 v/v) with UV detection at wavelength 252 nm at the flow rate 0 .8 ml/min. The proposed method was validated for sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, robustness and solution stability. The response of the drug was linear in the concentration range of 10-70 μg/ml. Limit of detection and Limit of quantification was found to be 0.3 μg/ml and 0.6 μg/ml respectively. The % recovery ranged within 97-102 %. Method, system, interday and intraday precision was found to be within the limits of acceptance criteria. Method was found to be rugged when analysis was carried out by different analyst. The method was found to be sensitive and efficient with 2216 theoretical plates, 0.1128 mm HETP and tailing factor 1. The method was suitable for the quality control of cefotaxime in injection formulations. PMID:25206249

  10. Identification of Rhodiola species by using RP-HPLC*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Jin, Zhi-hua; Yan, Qi-chuan; Tu, Shan-jun

    2005-01-01

    An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to identify ten species of Rhodiola, R. coccinea A. Bor, R. junggarica C.Y. Yang et N.R. Cui spn., R. heterodonta A. Bor, R. linearifolia A. Bor, R. pamiro alaiucm A. Bor, R. kaschgarica A. Bor, R. litwinowii A. Bor, R. gelida schrenk, R. rosea L. and R. quadrifide Fisch et Mey collected from the Tianshan Mountains areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins, generated from these ten Rhodiola spp. were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild species only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 μm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm×3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 22%–55% solvent B with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and a run time of 67 min, the chromatography gave optimum separation of Rhodiola alcohol-soluble proteins. Chromatogram of each species was different and could be used to identify those species. Cluster analysis of genetic similarity coefficients of 37% to 60% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the species in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the ten species of Rhodiola can be divided into four clusters and yielded the general and unique biochemical markers of these species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for Rhodiola species identification and analysis of genetic diversity. PMID:15909330

  11. Structural Analysis and Quantitative Determination of Clevidipine Butyrate Impurities Using an Advanced RP-HPLC Method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuxia; Zhou, Fan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Feng; Yao, Yuxian; Zou, Qiaogen

    2016-03-01

    Eleven potential impurities, including process-related compounds and degradation products, have been analyzed by comprehensive studies on the manufacturing process of clevidipine butyrate. Possible formation mechanisms could also be devised. MS and NMR techniques have been used for the structural characterization of three previously unreported impurities (Imp-3, Imp-5 and Imp-11). To separate and quantify the potential impurities in a simultaneous fashion, an efficient and advanced RP-HPLC method has been developed. In doing so, four major degradation products (Imp-2, Imp-4, Imp-8 and Imp-10) can be observed under varying stress conditions. This analytical method has been validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability. The method described has been demonstrated to be applicable in routine quality control processes and stability evaluation studies of clevidipine butyrate. PMID:26489435

  12. Study of RP HPLC Retention Behaviours in Analysis of Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Ligor, M; Kov?ov, J; Gadza?a-Kopciuch, R M; Studzi?ska, S; Bocian, Sz; Lehotay, J; Buszewski, B

    2014-01-01

    For determination of selected carotenoids, various types of columns for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with different properties have been used. The characteristics of the laboratory-used packing material containing monomeric alkyl-bonded phases (C18, C30) and phenyl as well as phenyl-hexyl stationary phases were studied. The retention data of the examined compounds were used to determine the hydrophobicity and silanol activity of stationary phases applied in the study. The presence of the polar and carboxyl groups in the structure of the bonded ligand strongly influences the polarity of the stationary phase. Columns were compared according to methylene selectivity using a series of benzene homologues. The measurements were done using a methanol-water mobile phase. Knowledge of the properties of the applied stationary phase provided the possibility to predict the RP HPLC retention behaviours in analysis of carotenoids including lutein, lycopene and ?-carotene. The composition of the mobile phase, the addition of triethylamine and the type of stationary phase had been taken into account in designing the method of carotenoid identification. Also a monolithic column characterised by low hydrodynamic resistance, high porosity and high permeability was applied. The presented results show that the coverage density of the bonded ligands on silica gel packings and length of the linkage strongly influence the carotenoid retention behaviours. In our study, the highest retention parameters for lutein, lycopene and ?-carotene were observed for C30 and C18 stationary phase. This effect corresponds with pore size of column packing greater than 100 and carbon content higher than 11%. PMID:25089049

  13. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method to determine anti-allergic compound in Thai traditional remedy called Benjalokawichien.

    PubMed

    Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch; Juckmeta, Thana; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Benjalokawichien (BLW) or Ya-Ha-Rak (HR) is a traditional remedy in the Nationaldrug list of herbal medicinal products AD 2012 of Thailand. For traditional use, BLW is used as antipyretic agent. It also has anti-allergic effect, particularly treating allergic rash. The ethanolic extract of BLW exhibited anti-allergic activity via inhibitory effect against a release ofbeta-hexosaminidase in RBL-2H3 cell line. Pectolinarigenin has been identified as the active compound ofBLW extract. In this study, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed in order to control quality ofpreparation in three aspects such as chemical fingerprint, quantification and stability of the ethanolic extract. The RP-HPLC was performed with a gradient mobile phase composed of 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid and acetronitrile, and peaks were detected at 331 nm. Based on validation results, this analytical method is precise, accurate and stable for quantitative determination ofpectolinarigenin. The amount ofpectolinarigenin in Benjalokawichien extract determined by this method was 18.50 mg/g ofextract. Therefore, this method could be consideredfor quality control ofBLWextract. PMID:25518297

  14. Cerebral nuclei distribution study of dehydrodiisoeugenol as an anxiogenic agent determined by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Bo; Zhu, Li-Qiao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive RP-HPLC-DAD method was established to quantify dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei. The assay procedure involved one-step extraction of DDIE and daidzein, as an internal standard, from rat plasma and various cerebral nuclei with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil™ ODS C(18) column with methanol-water (81:19, v/v) as a mobile phase. The UV absorbance of the samples was measured at the wavelength of 270nm. The analysis method was proved to be precise and accurate at linearity ranges in plasma and each cerebral nucleus with correlation coefficients of ≥0.9971. The results indicated that the method established was successfully applied to cerebral nuclei distribution study of DDIE after intravenous administration at a single dose of 40mg/kg to rat. DDIE showed high concentration in all of cerebral nuclei at 8min, which indicated that DDIE could cross the blood-brain barrier rapidly and might be one of the main bioactive substances of nutmeg. The results provide fundamental data for evaluating the effects of DDIE on the central nervous system and to be developed into an effective anxiogenic agent. PMID:23059843

  15. Preparation of (+)-Trans-Isoalliin and Its Isomers by Chemical Synthesis and RP-HPLC Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jayathilaka, Lasanthi; Gupta, Shalini; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Lee, Jenny; Lee, Bao-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring (+)-trans-isoalliin, (RCRS)-(+)-trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, is a major cysteine sulfoxide in onion. The importance of producing it synthetically to support further research is very well recognized. The (+)-trans-isoalliin is prepared by chemical synthesis and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC. First, S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine (deoxyalliin) is formed from L-cysteine and allyl bromide, which is then isomerized to S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine (deoxyisoalliin) by a base-catalyzed reaction. A mixture of cis and trans forms of deoxyisoalliin is formed and separated by RP-HPLC. Oxidation of the trans form of deoxyisoalliin by H2O2 produces a mixture of (?)- and (+)-trans-isoalliin. Finally, RP-HPLC is used successfully in separating (?)- and (+)-trans-isoalliin, and hence, (+)-trans-isoalliin is synthesized for the first time in this study. In addition, the () diastereomers of cis-isoalliin are also separated and purified by RP-HPLC. PMID:25187757

  16. Rapid simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin from Aegle marmelos fruit by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Shinde, P B; Katekhaye, S D; Mulik, M B; Laddha, K S

    2014-09-01

    The surge of interest in naturally occurring phytochemicals with high therapeutic potential has led to the discovery of many molecules, out of which naturally occuring coumarins such as marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin present in Aegle marmelos (Bael) fruit shows good therapeutic potential. The aim of the present work is to develop and validate Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin in A. marmelos fruit extracts. The chromatographic separation was performed with isocratic elution of 55:45 (%, v/v) methanol-water containing 0.1% acetic acid as mobile phase. The method used to analyse the extract of A. marmelos showed good resolution with retention time within 12min. The relative concentrations of above phytoconstituent were determined in A. marmelos fruits. The method was found to give compact peaks for scopoletin, umbelliferone and marmelosin (Rt of 4.6, 6.5 and 11.3min respectively) and were linear over the range 5-30?gml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9655), 2-10?gml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9964) and 2-10?gml(-1) (R(2)?=?0.9862) respectively. The mean recoveries for marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin at three concentrations were in the range of 98.8-102.9, 98.8-101.1 and 94.2-98.3% respectively. The relative standard deviation of accuracy, precision and repeatability were within 2%, indicating the method produced highly reproducible results. Therefore this simple, precise and accurate method enables simultaneous separation of this phytoconstituent and hence can be successfully applied in analysis and routine quality control of herbal material and formulation containing A. marmelos. PMID:25190892

  17. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. ?(S1)-, ?(S2)-, ??-, and ?-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of ?-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of ?-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of ?-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and ?(S1)- and ?-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC. PMID:23122071

  18. RP-HPLC Estimation of Risperidone in Tablet Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Baldania, S. L.; Bhatt, K. K.; Mehta, R. S.; Shah, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of risperidone in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 ?m column having 2504.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: acetonitrile: 50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (80:10:10 v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.3 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 234 nm. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and clozapine were 2.5 min and 3.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and stability. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of risperidone was found to be 500 ng/ml and 990 ng/ml, respectively. Recovery of risperidone was found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of risperidone in tablet formulations. PMID:20046778

  19. HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods for simultaneous determination of Paracetamol and Pamabrom in presence of their potential impurities.

    PubMed

    Abdelaleem, Eglal A; Naguib, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Eman S; Ali, Nouruddin W

    2015-10-10

    Two chromatgraphic methods were developed for determination of Paracetamol (PCM) and Pamabrom (PAM) in presence of P-aminophenol (PAP) and Theophylline (THEO) as potential impurities of both drugs respectively. First method is HPTLC which depends on separation and quantitation of the studied drugs on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F??? as a stationary phase using chloroform:methanol:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (8:0.8:0.6:0.2, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase followed by densitometric measurement of the bands at 254 nm. Second method is RP-HPLC which comprises separation of the studied drugs on a Phenomenex C8 column by gradient elution using mobile phase consisting of sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.05 M): methanol:acetonitrile (85:10:5, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for first 7.5 min and (70:20:10, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min for the next 5 min. The proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of the potential impurities of PCM and PAM after resolving them from the pure drugs. The developed methods have been validated and proved to meet the requirements delineated by ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The validated methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation. The results were statistically compared to those obtained by the reported RP-HPLC method where no significant difference was found; indicating the ability of proposed methods to be used for routine quality control analysis of these drugs. PMID:26001162

  20. A Study of Method Development, Validation, and Forced Degradation for Simultaneous Quantification of Paracetamol and Ibuprofen in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Md. Sarowar; Islam, Md. Jahirul; Begum, Rehana; Kayesh, Ruhul; Rahman, Asma

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and stability-indicating reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paracetamol and ibuprofen in their combined dosage form especially to get some more advantages over other methods already developed for this combination. The method was validated according to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guideline with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, solution stability, robustness, sensitivity, and system suitability. Forced degradation study was validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). For this, an isocratic condition of mobile phase comprising phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and acetonitrile in a ratio of 65:35, v/v at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/minute over RP C18 (octadecylsilane (ODS), 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex Inc.) column at ambient temperature was maintained. The method showed excellent linear response with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.999 and 1.0 for paracetamol and ibuprofen respectively, which were within the limit of correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.995). The percent recoveries for two drugs were found within the acceptance limit of (97.0–103.0%). Intra-and inter-day precision studies of the new method were less than the maximum allowable limit percentage of relative standard deviation (%RSD) ≤ 2.0. Forced degradation of the drug product was carried out as per the ICH guidelines with a view to establishing the stability-indicating property of this method and providing useful information about the degradation pathways, degradation products, and how the quality of a drug substance and drug product changes with time under the influence of various stressing conditions. The degradation of ibuprofen was within the limit (5–20%, according to the guideline of ICH), while paracetamol showed <20% degradation in oxidation and basic condition. PMID:25452691

  1. Validated RP-HPLC and TLC-Densitometric Methods for Analysis of Ternary Mixture of Cetylpyridinium Chloride, Chlorocresol and Lidocaine in Oral Antiseptic Formulation.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; Ali, Nouruddin W; Abdelkawy, M; Emam, Aml A

    2016-03-01

    This work was concerned with development, optimization, application and validation of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric methods for analysis of cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorocresol and lidocaine in Canyon(®) gel. The first developed RP-HPLC method depended on chromatographic separation on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C8 column, with elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% phosphoric acid solution : acetonitrile : methanol (15 : 24 : 61, by volume), pumping the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1), with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. While in the subsequently developed method, the TLC-densitometric method, complete separation of the studied mixture was achieved using methanol : acetone : acetic acid (7 : 3 : 0.2, by volume) as a mobile phase, aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as a stationary phase and 215 nm as the scanning wavelength. Factors affecting the developed methods were studied and optimized; moreover, methods had been validated as per the International Conference of Harmonization guideline and the results indicated that the suggested methods were reproducible, reliable and applicable for rapid routine analysis. Statistical comparison of the two developed methods with the reported HPLC ones using F- and Student's t tests showed no significant difference. PMID:26363491

  2. Monitoring seasonal variation of epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of Saraca asoca using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method

    PubMed Central

    Ketkar, Pushkar M.; Nayak, Shraddha U.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde (Fabaceae) is a high valued but vulnerable medicinal plant of Western Ghats region. This plant is mainly known for its use in various gynecological disorders. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation of the polyphenolic compounds viz., epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of S. asoca by using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) method. Materials and Methods: The bark was collected in six different Ritu (season) viz. Varsha (monsoon), Sharad (autumn), hemant (early winter), Shishir (winter), Vasanta (spring), and Grishma (summer) mentioned in Ayurveda. Results: The RP-HPLC-DAD analysis indicated that levels of epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of S. asoca vary seasonally. The highest concentration of epicatechin was observed in Shishir Ritu (3315.19 ± 165.76 mg/100g) and gallic acid during Hemant Ritu (211.90 ± 10.60 mg/100 g). Conclusions: In present study, the ability to synthesize and accumulate both the compounds in bark of S. asoca varied greatly throughout the seasons. It was also observed that the compound epicatechin was present abundantly as compared to gallic acid throughout the seasons. PMID:25878461

  3. A sensitive and practical RP-HPLC-FLD for determination of the low neuroactive amino acid levels in body fluids and its application in depression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan-Li; Yu, Si-Yang; Wu, Shi-Hua; Bao, Ai-Min

    2016-03-11

    Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generally fails as a method to determine low levels of free amino acids (AAs) in body fluids. Here we present a modified reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) protocol for the determination of AAs in body fluids and its application in mood disorder patients. We improved a previous research protocol by modifying i) sample preparation, including deproteination, ii) derivitization, including derivating agent and condition, and iii) sample separation, which is mainly determined by the pH value, the components and the additives of the mobile phases. The combination of these modifications, together with fluorescence detection (FLD), allows sensitive and practical determination of free AA levels in body fluids of depressive patients. This protocol was validated by determining the postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels of 8 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 9 bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and 19 well-matched controls, while also testing the plasma and CSF AA levels of living MDD patients. CSF Glu and GABA levels were both significantly decreased in MDD but not in BD patients. The data indicate that this RP-HPLC-FLD protocol is applicable for detection of low levels of neuroactive AAs in body fluids, as well as for routine clinical applications. PMID:26808642

  4. Screening of NOS activity and selectivity of newly synthesized acetamidines using RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Bruno, Isabella; De Filippis, Barbara; Giampietro, Letizia; Mollica, Adriano; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-02-20

    Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors could play a powerful role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, novel acetamidine derivatives of NOS were synthesized and the inhibitor activity was evalued. To screen the activity and selectivity, the l-citrulline residue, after the enzymatic NOS assay, was derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) and then evaluated by RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection. All compounds did not affect the activity of endothelial and neuronal isoforms, while nine of them possessed a percentage of iNOS activity at 10μM lower than 50%, and were selected for IC50 evaluation. Among them, a compound emerged as a very potent (IC50 of 53nM) and selective iNOS inhibitor. PMID:26689740

  5. RP-HPLC analysis of Jirakadyarishta and chemical changes during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lal, Uma Ranjan; Tripathi, Shailendra Mani; Jachak, Sanjay M; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2010-11-01

    Jirakadyarishta, an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by the fermentation of a decoction of Cuminum cyminum (seeds) is traditionally used for intestinal disorders. RP-HPLC analysis of the decoction and the final processed formulation revealed that apigenin-7-O-[galacturonide (1 --> 4)-O-glucoside] and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide) were the two major constituents of the decoction of C. cyminum. Selective hydrolysis of 7-O-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin during fermentation resulted in an increase in the amount of luteolin and apigenin. The 4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide of luteolin and galacturonide derivative of apigenin were not hydrolyzed during fermentation. Monomeric phenolics, together with 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), were also introduced into the formulation through the jaggery and other plant materials during fermentation. This communication highlights the importance of the ancient processing methods used in Ayurveda. PMID:21213976

  6. Determination of phenolic compounds derived from hydrolysable tannins in biological matrices by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Dez, Mara Teresa; Garca del Moral, Pilar; Resines, Jos Antonio; Arn, Mara Jess

    2008-08-01

    An RP-HPLC method for the determination of four phenolic compounds: gallic acid (GA), pyrogallol (PY), resorcinol (RE) and ellagic acid (EA), derived from hydrolysable tannins is reported. Separation was achieved on a SunFire C18 (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) column at 40 degrees C with gradient elution. UV detection at 280 nm was applied. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Satisfactory repeatability and between day precision were noticed with RSD values lower than 3%. Recoveries from different biological samples ranged from 91.50 to 105.25%. The LODs were estimated as 1.70 mg/L for PY, 1.68 mg/L for GA, 1.52 mg/L for RE and 0.98 mg/L for EA with a 20 microL injection volume. The method was applied for the determination of these compounds in oak leaves and in ruminal fluid and urine samples taken from beef cattle fed with oak leaves. The proposed method could be used in ruminant nutrition studies to verify the effect that a diet rich in tannins have on ruminal fermentation and to determine the toxicity of these compounds. PMID:18666172

  7. Determination of phenolic compounds derived from hydrolysable tannins in biological matrices by RP-HPLC.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Dez MT; Garca del Moral P; Resines JA; Arn MJ

    2008-08-01

    An RP-HPLC method for the determination of four phenolic compounds: gallic acid (GA), pyrogallol (PY), resorcinol (RE) and ellagic acid (EA), derived from hydrolysable tannins is reported. Separation was achieved on a SunFire C18 (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) column at 40 degrees C with gradient elution. UV detection at 280 nm was applied. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Satisfactory repeatability and between day precision were noticed with RSD values lower than 3%. Recoveries from different biological samples ranged from 91.50 to 105.25%. The LODs were estimated as 1.70 mg/L for PY, 1.68 mg/L for GA, 1.52 mg/L for RE and 0.98 mg/L for EA with a 20 microL injection volume. The method was applied for the determination of these compounds in oak leaves and in ruminal fluid and urine samples taken from beef cattle fed with oak leaves. The proposed method could be used in ruminant nutrition studies to verify the effect that a diet rich in tannins have on ruminal fermentation and to determine the toxicity of these compounds.

  8. Role of organic modifier and gradient shape in RP-HPLC separation: analysis of GCSF variants.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Varsha S; Kumar, Vijesh; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-03-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of therapeutic proteins continues to play a significant role in product characterization. This study focuses on two key aspects of HPLC method development, namely the selection of organic modifier and the gradient shape. Separation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor variants is being used as a case study to illustrate these concepts. The results demonstrate that careful selection of a binary or ternary mixture of solvents with water is an important factor to be considered for achieving the desired resolution of closely related impurities. The resolution of different types of impurities has been shown to be selective toward the choice of eluent along with the ratio in which they are mixed. In addition, this study also presents a systematic approach for selection of gradient shape based on center point solvent composition, initial solvent composition and the steepness of the gradient. The approach proposed in this study was successfully used to reduce the time of analysis from 70 min for the pertinent European Pharmacopeia method to 15 min by using a solvent system with two organic modifiers (acetonitrile and methanol) along with a sigmoidal-shaped gradient. PMID:25637134

  9. Novel identification of arsenolipids using chemical derivatizations in conjunction with RP-HPLC-ICPMS/ESMS.

    PubMed

    Amayo, Kenneth O; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Feldmann, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    The identification of molecular structures of an arsenolipid is pivotal for its toxicological assessment and in understanding the arsenic cycling in the environment. However, the analysis of these compounds in a lipid matrix is an ongoing challenge. So far, only a few arsenolipids have been reported, including arsenic fatty acids (AsFAs) and arsenic hydrocarbons (AsHCs). By means of RP-HPLC-ICPMS/ESMS, we investigated Capelin oil ( Mallotus villosus ) for possible new species of arsenolipids. Twelve arsenolipids were identified in the fish oil including three AsFAs and seven AsHCs. Among the AsHCs, four that were identified had protonotated molecular masses of 305, 331, 347, and 359 and have not been reported before. In addition, the compounds with molecular formulas C20H44AsO(+) and C24H44AsO(+) were found in low concentrations and showed chromatographic properties and MS data consistent with cationic trimethylarsenio fatty alcohols. Derivatization by acetylation and thiolation coupled with accurate mass spectrometry was successfully used to establish the occurrence of this new class of arsenolipids as cationic trimethylarsenio fatty alcohols (TMAsFOH). PMID:23984920

  10. The RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of esomeprazole and naproxen in binary combination

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepak Kumar; Jain, Nitesh; Charde, Rita; Jain, Nilesh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A simple, precise, reliable, rapid, sensitive and validated RP-HPLC method has been developed to determine esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate (ESO) and naproxen (NAP) in synthetic mixture form. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on Phenomenex, Luna C18 column (5 ?m, 150mm 4.60mm) and acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 300 nm. The retention times for NAP and ESO was found to be 2.67 0.014 and 5.65 0.09 min respectively. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the ICH guidelines. Results: The method was linear in the concentration range of 50-250 ?g/ml for NAP and 2-10 ?g/ml for ESO with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and 0.998 respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for NAP and ESO were 100.01% and 97.76 % respectively and RSD was less than 2. The correlation coefficients for all components are close to 1. Conclusions: Developed method was found to be accurate, precise, selective and rapid for simultaneous estimation of NAP and ESO. PMID:23781450

  11. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam by RP-HPLC in bulk and tablet formulation

    PubMed Central

    Attimarad, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to develop simple RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam without prior separation. Materials and Methods: In this method, Kromasil C8 (250 mm, 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column was used. The mobile phase used was methanol:phosphate buffer (60:40, v/v, pH 6.4), at flow rate of 1 ml min-1. UV detection was monitored at 302 nm. Results: Calibration graphs were established in the range of 1-150 ?g ml-1 and 0.5-100 ?g ml-1 for paracetamol and lornoxicam, respectively. The average retention time for paracetamol and lornoxicam was found to be 3.15 0.03 min and 5.25 0.06 min, respectively. The detection limit and quantitation limit for paracetamol are 0.19 ?g ml-1 and 0.59 ?g ml-1 and for lornoxicam 0.10 ?g ml-1 and 0.31 ?g mL-1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision expressed as percent relative standard deviation were below 2%. The mean recovery of paracetamol and lornoxicam was found to be in the range of 99.03-101.2%. Conclusion: The validated HPLC method was found to be rapid, precise and accurate and can be readily utilized for analysis of paracetamol and lornoxicam in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:23781432

  12. Stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cefquinome sulfate.

    PubMed

    Do?ha?, Agnieszka; Jelil?ska, Anna; Manuszewska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    A novel and sensitive stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the quantitative determination of cefquinome sulfate has been developed. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection. As the stationary phase a LiChroCART RP-18 column (5 microm particle size, 125 mm x 4 mm, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) was used. The mobile phase consisted of 10 volumes of acetonitrile and 90 volumes of an 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored by a UV-VIS detector at 268 nm. The drug was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. Significant degradation was found under basic, oxidizing stress and UV light. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. PMID:25272644

  13. Dissemination of the highly expressed Bx7 glutenin subunit (Glu-B1al allele) in wheat as revealed by novel PCR markers and RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Butow, B J; Gale, K R; Ikea, J; Juhsz, A; Bed, Z; Tams, L; Gianibelli, M C

    2004-11-01

    Increased expression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) Bx7 is associated with improved dough strength of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. Several cultivars and landraces of widely different genetic backgrounds from around the world have now been found to contain this so-called 'over-expressing' allelic form of the Bx7 subunit encoded by Glu-B1al. Using three methods of identification, SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and PCR marker analysis, as well as pedigree information, we have traced the distribution and source of this allele from a Uruguayan landrace, Americano 44D, in the mid-nineteenth century. Results are supported by knowledge of the movement of wheat lines with migrants. All cultivars possessing the Glu-B1al allele can be identified by the following attributes: (1) the elution of the By sub-unit peak before the Dx sub-unit peak by RP-HPLC, (2) high expression levels of Bx7 (>39% Mol% Bx), (3) a 43 bp insertion in the matrix-attachment region (MAR) upstream of the gene promoter relative to Bx7 and an 18 bp nucleotide duplication in the coding region of the gene. Evidence is presented indicating that these 18 and 43 bp sequence insertions are not causal for the high expression levels of Bx7 as they were also found to be present in a small number of hexaploid species, including Chinese Spring, and species expressing Glu-B1ak and Glu-B1a alleles. In addition, these sequence inserts were found in different isolates of the tetraploid wheat, T. turgidum, indicating that these insertion/deletion events occurred prior to hexaploidization. PMID:15340686

  14. Stability indicating studies on NMITLI 118RT+ (standardized extract of withania somnifera dunal)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Khandelwal, Kiran; Pachauri, Shakti Deep; Sanghwan, Rajender Singh; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha) is an Indian medicinal plant of great medicinal value; used in many clinically proven conditions. NMITLI-118RT+ is a candidate drug under a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) networking project. It is a chemotype of W. somnifera's root extract, which has been used for the present study. Objectives: The present investigation aims to develop and validate a simple isocratic reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) system for the detection and estimation of Withanolide A (marker compound) and its analytical application for stability indicating studies on NMITLI-118RT+. Material and Methods: A validated RP-HPLC method for Withanolide A was established on a Waters HPLC system and the same was used on NMITLI-118RT+ for quantification and fingerprinting purposes, and for establishing forced degradation, isothermal stress tests, and drug-excipient testing protocols as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: A validated method was established, which could detect the marker at a retention time of around 6.3 minutes, with a linearity range of 2-100 ?g/mL, by varying the amounts of the said marker, which were estimated in four different batches of NMITLI-118RT+. Photostability as per ICH guidelines suggested a slight loss of the active constituent and maximum degradation was afforded with alkali followed by acid, and then peroxide, in the forced degradation studies. In the drug-excipient studies, the maximum amount of active constituent could be detected in the samples with ethyl cellulose and the least with hydroxy propyl cellulose. Conclusion: The method developed here was simple and rapid. The various stability indicating studies carried out in the present investigation would be useful for formulation development and were suggestive of deciding the recommended storage conditions for NMITLI-118RT+. PMID:25210308

  15. An Experimental Design Approach for Impurity Profiling of Valacyclovir-Related Products by RP-HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Prakash; Dey, Baishakhi; Hwisa, Nagiat T; Assaleh, Fathi H; Chandu, Babu R; Singla, Rajeev K; Mitra, Analava

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Impurity profiling has become an important phase of pharmaceutical research where both spectroscopic and chromatographic methods find applications. The analytical methodology needs to be very sensitive, specific, and precise which will separate and determine the impurity of interest at the 0.1% level. Current research reports a validated RP-HPLC method to detect and separate valacyclovir-related impurities (Imp-E and Imp-G) using the Box-Behnken design approach of response surface methodology. A gradient mobile phase (buffer: acetonitrile as mobile phase A and acetonitrile: methanol as mobile phase B) was used. Linearity was found in the concentration range of 50150 ?g/mL. The mean recovery of impurities was 99.9% and 103.2%, respectively. The %RSD for the peak areas of Imp-E and Imp-G were 0.9 and 0.1, respectively. No blank interferences at the retention times of the impurities suggest the specificity of the method. The LOD values were 0.0024 ?g/mL for Imp-E and 0.04 ?g/mL for Imp-G and the LOQ values were obtained as 0.0082 ?g/mL and 0.136 ?g/mL, respectively, for the impurities. The S/N ratios in both cases were within the specification limits. Proper peak shapes and satisfactory resolution with good retention times suggested the suitability of the method for impurity profiling of valacyclovir-related drug substances. PMID:25853072

  16. RP-HPLC-fluorescence analysis of aliphatic aldehydes: application to aldehyde-generating enzymes HACL1 and SGPL1

    PubMed Central

    Mezzar, Serena; de Schryver, Evelyn; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain aldehydes are commonly produced in various processes, such as peroxisomal α-oxidation of long-chain 3-methyl-branched and 2-hydroxy fatty acids and microsomal breakdown of phosphorylated sphingoid bases. The enzymes involved in the aldehyde-generating steps of these processes are 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1), respectively. In the present work, nonradioactive assays for these enzymes were developed employing the Hantzsch reaction. Tridecanal (C13-al) and heptadecanal (C17-al) were selected as model compounds and cyclohexane-1,3-dione as 1,3-diketone, and the fluorescent derivatives were analyzed by reversed phase (RP)-HPLC. Assay mixture composition, as well as pH and heating, were optimized for C13-al and C17-al. Under optimized conditions, these aldehydes could be quantified in picomolar range and different long-chain aldehyde derivatives were well resolved with a linear gradient elution by RP-HPLC. Aldehydes generated by recombinant enzymes could easily be detected via this method. Moreover, the assay allowed to document activity or deficiency in tissue homogenates and fibroblast lysates without an extraction step. In conclusion, a simple, quick, and cheap assay for the study of HACL1 and SGPL1 activities was developed, without relying on expensive mass spectrometric detectors or radioactive substrates. PMID:24323699

  17. Development and validation of stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of meropenem and potassium clavulanate.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemys?aw; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A stability-indicating LC assay method was developed and validated for a simultaneous determination of meropenem and potassium clavulanate in the presence of degradation products formed during acid-base hydrolysis, oxidation and thermolysis. The isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed with a LiChrospher RP-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column and gradient elution of 12 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength 220 nm and the temperature 303 K. The method was validated with regard to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and robustness, and was applied successfully for the determination of meropenem and potassium clavulanate separately as well as jointly in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25272645

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THE STABILITY-INDICATING LC-UV METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFOZOPRAN HYDROCHLORIDE.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Garbacki, Piotr; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Bednarek-Rajewska, Katarzyna; Krause, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The stability-indicating LC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) in the presence of degradation products formed during the forced degradation studies. An isocratic, RP-HPLC method was developed with C-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column and 12 mM ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (92:8, v/v) as a mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was 260 not and temperature was 30°C. Cefozopran hydrochloride as other cephalosporins was subjected to stress conditions of degradation in aqueous solutions including hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The developed method was validated with regard to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and robustness. The method was applied successfully for identification and determination of cefozopran hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals and during kinetic studies. PMID:26642650

  19. Characterization of potential degradation products in a PEGylating reagent 20 kDa monomethoxy polyethylene glycol propionaldehyde by RP-HPLC, APCI-MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heidi; Wilson, John; Zhang, Jifeng; Luo, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Ensuring quality of PEGylating reagents is essential for the successful development and manufacturing of PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. However, little is known about how to maintain and verify the quality of PEG raw materials for PEGylated protein manufacturing. In this study, monomethoxy polyethylene glycol propionaldehyde (mPEG-aldehyde) was subjected to conditions that mimic accelerated stability conditions. Separation of trace-level degradation products in the presence of mPEG-aldehyde was achieved by derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), followed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC-UV) at 355nm. Structural characterization by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) identified formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, benzaldehyde, and tolualdehyde as major degradation products or process-related impurities. The presence of formaldehyde and acrolein was confirmed by (1)H NMR in the forced degraded mPEG-aldehyde samples without derivatization of mPEG-aldehyde. Findings from this study imply that reactive impurities could form as a result of inappropriate mPEG-aldehyde handling or storage. Further, a rapid screening method based on reversed phase HPLC was shown to be an effective screening assay used for routine screening of mPEG-aldehyde to ensure consistent PEGylated protein product quality. PMID:24316423

  20. Development and validation of a new stability indicating reversed phase liquid chromatographic method for the determination of prednisolone acetate and impurities in an ophthalmic suspension.

    PubMed

    Marley, Adrian; Stalcup, Apryll M; Connolly, Damian

    2015-01-01

    A new stability indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated under current International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) guidance for the determination of prednisolone acetate (PAC) and impurities in an ophthalmic suspension. The developed method is presented as an alternative to a modified version of the current RP-HPLC method described in the USP monograph for the assay of PAC in an ophthalmic suspension. Along with the assay of PAC, the new method is also capable of identifying and quantifying eight selected PAC impurities and degradation products in an ophthalmic suspension. Using an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 100 mm 4.6mm (dp: 2.7 ?m) column set to 60C with step gradient elution generated using mobile phase A: acetonitrile/water (10:90) (v/v) and mobile phase B: acetonitrile delivered at 1.2 mL min(-1), all peaks of interest are eluted in 33 min with resolution of 1.5 between the critical pairs. The developed method was validated for PAC and impurities to ICH recommendations for accuracy, linearity, precision (repeatability), limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and specificity. PMID:25459922

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction with water for fast extraction and simultaneous RP-HPLC determination of phenolic acids in radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Zhou, Hongying; Jiang, Xingkai; Zhu, Lixiang; Gao, Xin

    2009-07-01

    An optimized microwave-assisted extraction method using water (MAE-W) as the extractant and an efficient HPLC analysis method were first developed for the fast extraction and simultaneous determination of D(+)-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid (Dla), salvianolic acid B (SaB), and lithospermic acid (La) in radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. The key parameters of MAE-W were optimized. It was found that the degradation of SaB was inhibited when using the optimized MAE-W and the stable content of Dla, La, and SaB in danshen was obtained. Furthermore, compared to the conventional extraction methods, the proposed MAE-W is a more rapid method with higher yield and lower solvent consumption with a reproducibility (RSD <6%). In addition, using water as extractant is safe and helpful for environment protection, which could be referred to as green extraction. The separation and quantitative determination of the three compounds was carried out by a developed reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection. Highly efficient separation was obtained using gradient solvent system. The optimized HPLC analysis method was validated to have specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The results indicated that MAE-W followed by HPLC-UV determination is an appropriate alternative to previously proposed method for quality control of radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. PMID:19557815

  2. Synthesis and assessment of molecular recognizability by RP-HPLC of an N-alkyl-beta-Ala-L: -Phe-derived organic phase with self-assembling ability.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Mizanur; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2008-11-01

    An N-alky-beta-Ala-L: -Phe derivative, N'-octadecyl-N ( alpha )-[(N-acryloyl)-beta-alanyl]-L: -phenylalanineamide (1), with a polymerizable head group has been synthesized and telomerized with the silane coupling agent 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). SEM and DSC observations indicated that both 1 and its telomer (T-1) could self-assemble into fibrillar forms with highly ordered structures in organic media such as benzene through complementary hydrogen bonding between the amide moieties. T-1 was grafted onto porous silica gels through the terminal trimethoxysilyl group and then packed into a stainless steel column. RP-HPLC results for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) demonstrated that significantly higher molecular shape recognition could be achieved by silica-supported T-1 (Sil-T-1). In this paper, the mechanism of the selectivity enhancement in HPLC by Sil-T-1 is discussed on the basis of comparing with the corresponding L: -Phe derivative N'-octadecyl-N ( alpha )-(acryloyl)-L: -phenylalanineamide (2) without beta -Ala and the stationary phase (Sil-T-2) obtained from it. The HPLC column materials Sil-T-1 and Sil-T-2 were characterized by DSC, TGA, DRIFT-IR, and (13)C and (29)Si CP-MAS NMR spectroscopic measurements. PMID:18791858

  3. RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sneha J; Karbhari, Pradnya A; Bhoir, Suvarna I; Bindu, K S; Das, Chhanda

    2010-07-01

    A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method involves the use of easily available inexpensive laboratory reagents. The separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS 3V (25cmx4.6mm) 5microm column with isocratic flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1), consisted of 0.1M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v). The UV detection was carried out at 228nm. A linear response was observed over the concentration range 2.5-50microgmL(-1) of bisoprolol fumarate and the concentration range 6.25-125microgmL(-1) of hydrochlorothiazide. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation for bisoprolol fumarate were 0.01 and 0.03microgmL(-1), respectively and for hydrochlorothiazide were 0.01 and 0.05microgmL(-1), respectively. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines acceptance criteria for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and system suitability. Individual drugs (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide), their combinations and the tablets were exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic and oxidative stress conditions. The resultant stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. The method gave high resolution among the degradation products and the analytes. The peak purity of analyte peaks in the stressed samples was confirmed by photodiode array detector. The method was used for accelerated stability study on marketed and in-house formulations. The analysis concluded that the method was selective for simultaneous estimation of bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide and was stability-indicating. PMID:19926421

  4. Quantization of Dextromethorphan and Levocetirizine in Combined Dosage form Using a Novel Validated RP-HPLC Method.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shalini; Bhatia, C; Bal, C S; Rawat, M S M

    2012-01-01

    The present study reveals a simple isocratic RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan hydrobromide and levocetirizine dihydrochloride in a cough syrup. The separation of these compounds was achieved within 10 min on a Phenomenex (USA) C(18) analytical column, 250×4.0 mm i.d., using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) - acetonitrile- tetrahydrofuran (70:25:5, v/v/v). The analysis was performed at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min and at a detection wavelength of 232 nm. Percentage recovery and RSD were 100.36% and 0.05% for levocetirizine dihydrochloride, 100.35% and 0.27% for dextromethorphan hydrobromide respectively. Quantification of the components in syrup formulation was calculated against the peak areas of freshly prepared standard solutions. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:23204629

  5. RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone dipropionate in a cream formulation.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Suryakant D; Rajput, Sadhana J

    2011-01-01

    An RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone dipropionate on an Inertsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id) using a mobile phase gradient consisting of methanol and water at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm. Retention times of betamethasone dipropionate and butenafine hydrochloride were 4.82 (+/- 0.80) and 16.18 (+/- 0.17) min, respectively. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. This method is simple, precise, and sensitive, and applicable for the simultaneous quantification of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone dipropionate in a cream formulation. PMID:21391486

  6. Quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) in honey samples of different origin by validated RP-HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Salvatore; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Natural honey has been employed as a nutraceutical agent with benefits and therapeutic promises for humans for many centuries. It has been largely used as food and medicine by all generations, traditions, and civilizations, both ancient and modern. Several chemicals having beneficial effects for human health have been reported as components of natural honey and these include sugars, organic acids, aminoacids, minerals, and vitamins. Also some important phytochemicals have been described and these comprise tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, and alkaloids. In this note it is described the successful application of a RP HPLC-UV-vis method for the separation and quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) in four honey samples of different origin. Concentration values showed a great variation between the four samples tested, being chestnut honey the one richest in GOFA (7.87 mg/g). The findings described herein represent the first example reported in the literature of the characterization of an oxyprenylated phenylpropanoid in honey. PMID:26421962

  7. Extraction and RP-HPLC determination of taxol in rat plasma, cell culture and quality control samples

    PubMed Central

    Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; D'Emanuele, Antony; Elhissi, Abdelbary; Agrawal, Ashish; Jain, Anurekha; Arafat, Basel Tawfiq; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, selective and validated reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the estimation of paclitaxel in micro-sample of rat plasma and in culture of cancer cells was performed in this study. The mobile phase consisted of an optimized mixture of methanol:water: trifluroacetic acid (80: 20: 0.1, v/v/v). Column elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute with UV detection at 225 nm at room temperature was used. The RP-HPLC method was successfully applied for the determination of paclitaxel in plasma samples and in culture of cancer cells with nano-quantity of estimation. The validation studies were performed in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The intra- and inter-day precision showed that the coefficients of variation ranged from 1.07% to 4.27% at different levels of concentrations. To the best of our knowledge, this study also reported for the first time the optimization of different solvents for effective extraction of paclitaxel wherein tert.-butyl methyl ether (TBME): diethyl ether (DEE) in 50: 50 v/v composition was found most efficient with extraction efficiency ranging between 77.99% and 91.74% and between 76.14 and 93.66% in the plasma and cell culture, respectively. This proposed method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel and the influence of verapamil and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on paclitaxel pharmacokinetics in rat models. This proposed method might emerge as a valuable aid in the laboratory monitoring of paclitaxel in a variety of in vitro as well as in vivo scenarios. PMID:24086173

  8. Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.

    PubMed

    Lus, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described. PMID:22312726

  9. Stability-Indicating Assay for the Determination of Pentobarbital Sodium in Liquid Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ajemni, Myriam; Balde, Issa-Bella; Kabiche, Sofiane; Carret, Sandra; Fontan, Jean-Eudes; Cisternino, Salvatore; Schlatter, Joël

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating assay by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of pentobarbital sodium in oral formulations: a drug used for infant sedation in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column, using isocratic elution and a detector set at 214 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a 0.01 M potassium buffer pH 3 and methanol (40 : 60, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the run time of analysis was 5 min. The linearity of the method was demonstrated in the range of 5 to 250 μg/mL pentobarbital sodium solution (r2 = 0.999). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.10 and 3.97 μg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 2.1%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 99.2 to 101.3%. Stability studies indicate that the drug is stable to sunlight and in aqueous solution. Accelerated pentobarbital sodium breakdown by strong alkaline, acidic, or oxidative stress produced noninterfering peaks. This method allows accurate and reliable determination of pentobarbital sodium for drug stability assay in pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26543481

  10. Determination of simple bromophenols in marine fishes by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vilma Mota; da Cunha Veloso, Mrcia Cristina; de Oliveira, Aline S; Santos, Gislaine Vieira; de P Pereira, Pedro A; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2005-12-15

    Brominated phenols 2- and 4-bromophenol (2-BP and 4-BP); 2,4- and 2,6-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) have been identified as key flavor compounds found in seafoods. Depending on their concentrations, they were responsible for marine or ocean flavor (shrimp/crab/fish/sea salt-like) or for phenolic/iodine/iodoform-like off-flavor. In this work a new analytical methodology was developed to determine, simultaneously, such bromophenols in fish meats, based on reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatographic separation (RP-HPLC). The separation of bromophenols was made onto a Lichrospher 100 RP-18 column using water:acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1), using absorbance detection at 286nm, were the 2-BP, 4-BP, 2,4- and 2,6-DBP show significant absorbtivity values and at 297nm for 2,4,6-TBP. They were separated in 20min with a good chromatographic resolution (Rs) for the isomeric compounds: 2- and 4-BP, Rs=1.23; 2,4- and 2,6-DBP, Rs=1.63. The calibration curves were linear in the bromophenols concentration range of 200.0-1000ngmL(-1). Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method was 127ngmL(-1) for 2-BP; 179ngmL(-1) for 4-BP; 89.0ngmL(-1) for 2,4-DBP; 269ngmL(-1) for 2,6-DBP and 232ngmL(-1) for 2,4,6-TBP. This method has been applied in determination of bromophenols, isolated by combined steam distillation-solvent extraction with 2mL of pentane/diethyl ether (6:4), from Brazilian fishes samples, collected on the Atlantic coast of Bahia (13 degrees 01'S and 38 degrees 31'W), Brazil. The concentration range determined were 0.20ngg(-1) (2-BP) to 299ngg(-1) (2,4,6-TBP). The method proposed here is rapid and suitable for simultaneous quantification of simple bromophenols in fish meat. As long as we know, it is the first analytical methodology, using RP-HPLC/UV, which was developed to determine simple bromophenols in fish meat. PMID:18970325

  11. A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Omari, Khaled W

    2009-02-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The run times are 16 and 10 min for HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 1-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.9985. The criteria considered for validation are: limit of quantitation, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, specificity, and selectivity. This study is aimed to estimate the nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples; to study the relationship between the concentration of nicotine in urine and plasma samples; and to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction of nicotine and cotinine in urine samples. In the presented study, one hundred blood and urine samples are collected from eighty smokers and twenty nonsmokers. Samples are taken from the same volunteer at the same time after each volunteer fills in a questionnaire. Results of nicotine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 181-3702 ng/mL with an average of 1263.1 ng/mL, whereas nicotine in urine samples is in the range of 1364-1972 ng/mL, with an average of 1618 ng/mL. Cotinine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 21-4420 ng/mL with an average of 379.4 ng/mL, whereas cotinine in urine is in the range of 6-3946 ng/mL with an average of 865 ng/mL. Statistical analysis indicates highly significant differences in nicotine and cotinine concentrations in smoker samples compared with nonsmoker samples (p<0.05). PMID:19222926

  12. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Granisetron and Dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Heda, A. A.; Kathiriya, J. M.; Gadade, D. D.; Puranik, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    A new simple, selective, rapid, precise and accurate reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of granisetron and dexamethasone. The method was developed using CPS Hypersil CN column (2504.6 mm I.D.) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:buffer (100 mM Triethylamine adjusted to pH 3.0 with o-phosphoric acid) in ratio of 25:75 at a flow rate of 2 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 242 nm. The developed method was evaluated for various system suitability parameters and validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ as per ICH guidelines. It was also evaluated for bench top stability and freeze/thaw stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in their combined dosage forms. PMID:23112409

  13. RP-HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds of plant extracts. investigation of their antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Proestos, C; Chorianopoulos, N; Nychas, G-J E; Komaitis, M

    2005-02-23

    Extracts of aromatic plants of Greek origin were examined as potential sources of phenolic compounds. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for the identification and quantification of the phenolic antioxidants, present in methanolic extracts. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic acid (1.1-280 mg/100 g of dry sample) and caffeic acid (1.2-60 mg/100 g of dry sample). (+)-Catechin and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids. Apigenin and luteolin were detected in high amounts in Menta pulegium and Thymus vulgaris, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined, in dried ground plants and in their methanol extracts, with the Rancimat test using sunflower oil as substrate. Both pulverized plants and extracts showed antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and ranged from 1 to 21 mg of gallic acid/100 g of dry sample. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts against selected microbes was also conducted in this study. PMID:15713039

  14. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for sildenafil citrate in rat plasma-application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A S; Sheikh, I; Dewani, A P; Shelke, P G; Bakal, R L; Chandewar, A V; Mazumder, P M

    2013-07-01

    Sildenafil citrate (SIL) is used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and other chronic disorders. For the pharmacokinetic investigation of SIL we developed a simple and sensitive method for the estimation of SIL in rat plasma by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The drug samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with 300?l of acetonitrile and 5ml of diethyl ether. Chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column using methanol:water (85:15 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at 230nm. The retention time of SIL was found to be 4.0min having a separation time less than 5min. The developed method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity and recovery. Linearity studies were found to be acceptable over the range of 0.1-6?g/ml. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of rat plasma sample for the application in pharmacokinetic study, drug interaction, bioavailability and bioequivalence. PMID:23960848

  15. A Convenient RP-HPLC Method for Assay Bioactivities of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qihe; He, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    A convenient and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides assay was described in this paper. The mobile phase consisted of 70% A (0.05% TFA and 0.05% triethylamine in water, pH = 2.9–3.3) and 30% B (100% acetonitrile) using an Isogradient program. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min. The absorb wavelength was 226.5 nm; the column temperature was controlled at 25°C. This method for angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides assay was convenient for the Iso-gradient program. The accuracy of the RT-HPLC method was verified by analyzing ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate peptides of silkworm pupae protein, and the results showed that the RT-HPLC method was available for exploring new source of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides rapidly and veraciously. PMID:25969772

  16. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-β-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan Sophia; Cai, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT) was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5.0 um). A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25°C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12 mM SBE-β-CD), methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21 : 3 : 1 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%), linearity (regression coefficients close to 1), limit of detection (0.070 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.076 µg/mL for (S)-CIT), and limit of quantitation (0.235 µg/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.254 µg/mL for (S)-CIT). PMID:26880921

  17. Enantioseparation of Citalopram by RP-HPLC, Using Sulfobutyl Ether-?-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Mobile Phase Additive.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan Sophia; Cai, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric separation of citalopram (CIT) was developed using a reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) with sulfobutylether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive. The effects of the pH value of aqueous buffer, concentration of chiral additive, composition of mobile phase, and column temperature on the enantioseparation of CIT were investigated on the Hedera ODS-2 C18 column (250?mm 4.6?mm 5.0?um). A satisfactory resolution was achieved at 25C using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of aqueous buffer (pH of 2.5, 5?mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 12?mM SBE-?-CD), methanol, and acetonitrile with a volumetric ratio of 21?:?3?:?1 and flow rate of 1.0?mL/min. This analytical method was evaluated by examining the precision (lower than 3.0%), linearity (regression coefficients close to 1), limit of detection (0.070?g/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.076?g/mL for (S)-CIT), and limit of quantitation (0.235?g/mL for (R)-CIT and 0.254?g/mL for (S)-CIT). PMID:26880921

  18. [Separation using RP-HPLC of non-human globin in the study of hemoglobin polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Manca, L; Cocco, E; Naitana, S; Masala, B

    1990-09-01

    The successful extension of the reversed-phase HPLC methodology to the study of non-human globin chains is shown. A large-pore C4 column, and simple acetonitrile in aqueous TFA gradients, were used to completely separate and quantitate globin chains from caprines, swines, rodents, and birds. Results indicate a large hemoglobin polymorphism in some species. PMID:2073384

  19. RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Nitazoxanide and Ofloxacin in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.; Choudhary, V. R.; Rajpurohit, H.; Khandelwal, P.

    2011-01-01

    A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of nitazoxanide and ofloxacin in tablet formulation. The separation and quantification was achieved by Hiq Sil C18V Size 4.6 mm Ø *250 mm column in isocratic mode, with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-methanol-0.4 M citric acid, (60:30:10, v/v/v). Citric acid used to stabilize nitazoxanide and ofloxacin in mobile phase. The mobile phase was pumped at a rate of 0.6 ml/min and the detection was carried out at 304 nm. The retention time of ofloxacin and nitazoxanide was found to be 3.122 and 5.902 min, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, and precision. Linearity for ofloxacin and nitazoxanide were in the range 2-36 μg/ml and 5-90 μg/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and selective for simultaneous estimation of ofloxacin and nitazoxanide in tablets. PMID:22131628

  20. A RP-HPLC method for quantification of diclofenac sodium released from biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Banerjee, Subham; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava

    2013-07-01

    Interpenetrating network (IPN) microbeads of sodium carboxymethyl locust bean gum (SCMLBG) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) containing diclofenac sodium (DS), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were prepared by single water-in-water (w/w) emulsion gelation process using AlCl3 as cross-linking agent in a complete aqueous environment. Pharmacokinetic study of these IPN microbeads was then carried out by a simple and feasible high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection which was developed and validated for the quantification of diclofenac sodium in rabbit plasma. The chromatographic separation was carried out in a Hypersil BDS, C18 column (250 mm 4.6 mm; 5 m). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detection was set at 276 nm. The extraction recovery of diclofenac sodium in plasma of three quality control (QC) samples was ranged from 81.52% to 95.29%. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 20-1000 ng/ml with the correlation coefficient (r(2)) above 0.9951. The method was specific and sensitive with the limit of quantification of 20 ng/ml. In stability tests, diclofenac sodium in rabbit plasma was stable during storage and assay procedure. PMID:23567284

  1. Development and validation of a novel stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid, potassium sorbate, methylparaben and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jonathan; Velasco-Torrijos, Trinidad; Reinhardt, Robert

    2014-08-01

    A novel stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous assay of betamethasone-17-valerate, fusidic acid and potassium sorbate as well as methyl- and propylparaben in a topical cream preparation has been developed. A 100mm×3.0mm ID. Ascentis Express C18 column maintained at 30°C and UV detection at 240nm were used. A gradient programme was employed at a flow-rate of 0.75ml/min. Mobile phase A comprised of an 83:17 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and methanol and mobile phase B of a 10g/l solution of 85% phosphoric acid in purified water. The method has been validated according to current International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and applied during formulation development and stability studies. The procedure has been shown to be stability-indicating for the topical cream. PMID:24731970

  2. Using UV-absorbance of intrinsic dithiothreitol (DTT) during RP-HPLC as a measure of experimental redox potential in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Angie; Jackson, Janelle L.; Schuster, Jolene V; Vardar-Ulu, Didem

    2013-01-01

    Many in vitro experiments aimed at studying the response of thiol-containing proteins to changes in environmental redox potentials use dithiothreitol (DTT) to maintain a preset redox environment throughout the experiments. However, the gradual oxidation of DTT during the course of the experiments, as well as the interaction between DTT and other components in the system, can significantly alter the initial redox potential and complicate data interpretation. Having an internal reporter for the actual redox potential of the assayed sample, facilitates the direct correlation between biochemical findings and the experimental redox status. Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) is a widely used, well-established tool for the analysis and purification of biomolecules, including proteins and peptides. Here, we describe a simple, robust, and quantitative RP-HPLC method we developed and tested to determine the experimental redox potential of an in vitro sample at the time of the experiment. It exploits the specific UV-absorbance of the oxidized intrinsic DTT in the samples and retains the high resolving power and high sensitivity of RP-HPLC with UV detection. PMID:23743664

  3. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline in ternary and quaternary mixtures by RP-HPLC, derivative and wavelet transforms of UV ratio spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vu Dang; Hue, Nguyen Thu; Tho, Nguyen Huu; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi

    2015-03-01

    The application of chemometrics-assisted UV spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC to the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline in ternary and quaternary mixtures is presented. The spectrophotometric procedure is based on the first-order derivative and wavelet transforms of ratio spectra using single, double and successive divisors. The ratio spectra were differentiated and smoothed using Savitzky-Golay filter; whereas wavelet transform realized with wavelet functions (i.e. db6, gaus5 and coif3) to obtain highest spectral recoveries. For the RP-HPLC procedure, the separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C18 (150 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) column at ambient temperature and the total run time was less than 7 min. A mixture of acetonitrile - 25 mM phosphate buffer pH 3 (27:73, v/v) was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the effluent monitored by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. Calibration graphs were established in the range 20-70 mg/L for chloramphenicol, 6-14 mg/L for dexamethasone and 3-8 mg/L for naphazoline (R2 > 0.990). The RP-HPLC and ratio spectra transformed by a combination of derivative-wavelet algorithms proved to be able to successfully determine all analytes in commercial eye drop formulations without sample matrix interference (mean percent recoveries, 97.4-104.3%).

  4. Simultaneous Estimation of Withaferin A and Z-Guggulsterone in Marketed Formulation by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Poonam; Vegda, Rashmi; Laddha, Kirti

    2015-07-01

    A simple, rapid, precise and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone in a polyherbal formulation containing Withania somnifera and Commiphora wightii. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Purosphere RP-18 column (particle size 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of Solvent A (acetonitrile) and Solvent B (water) with the following gradients: 0-7 min, 50% A in B; 7-9 min, 50-80% A in B; 9-20 min, 80% A in B at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detection at 235 nm. The marker compounds were well separated on the chromatogram within 20 min. The results obtained indicate accuracy and reliability of the developed simultaneous HPLC method for the quantification of withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone. The proposed method was found to be reproducible, specific, precise and accurate for simultaneous estimation of these marker compounds in a combined dosage form. The HPLC method was appropriate and the two markers are well resolved, enabling efficient quantitative analysis of withaferin A and Z-guggulsterone. The method can be successively used for quantitative analysis of these two marker constituents in combination of marketed polyherbal formulation. PMID:25572656

  5. RP-HPLC analysis of seco-iridoid glycoside swertiamarin from different Swertia species.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Pai, Sandeep R; Nimbalkar, Mansingraj S; Gaikwad, Nikhil B

    2016-04-01

    Genus Swertia is valued for its great medicinal potential; mainly Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst. is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of diseases. Seco-iridoid glycosides like swertiamarin is referred with enormous pharmacological potentials. The aim of the study was to identify a suitable substitute to S. chirayita by quantifying seco-iridoid swertiamarin from five different Swertia species endemic to the Western Ghats. The reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector analyses were performed and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Lichrospher 100, C18e (5 µm) column (250-4.6 mm). A mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (25:75) was used for separation. Results indicated that the concentration of the marker compound has been found to vary largely between and within the species from different localities. The content of swertiamarin was the highest in S. chirayita compared to the other species studied herein, advocating the use of Swertia minor as an alternate source to S. chirayita. PMID:26299409

  6. Individual Phosphatidylcholine Species Analysis by RP-HPLC-ELSD for Determination of Polyenylphosphatidylcholine in Lecithins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Weng, Shun-Hsiang; Su, Nan-Wei

    2015-04-22

    Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC), a subgroup of the bioactive agents in phosphatidylcholine (PC), has been indicated to possess liver-protective effects. This study aimed to investigate a promising and feasible method to determine PC molecular species with a reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Chromatography was achieved using a C30 column and an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/methanol/triethylamine (40/58/2, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and ELSD detection was performed using 80 C for the drift tube and an air flow rate of 1.8 L/min. To identify individual peaks on the chromatogram, MALDI-TOF-MS was employed for initial detection, and then the results were used to investigate the relationship between the retention time and fatty acyl chains of each PC molecule. A linear correlation was observed between the retention time and theoretical carbon number (TCN) of individual PC species. The compositions of PC molecular species in soybean and sunflower lecithins were similar to each other, and the major PC molecular species were 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LLPC), 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OLPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PLPC). The contents of LLPC in soybean PC and sunflower PC were 40.6% and 64.3%, respectively. PMID:25834917

  7. The Effects of Stationary Phases on Retention and Selectivity of Oligonucleotides in IP-RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Studzi?ska, Sylwia; Pietrzak, Lidia; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the separation and identification of short nucleic acid fragments, such as oligonucleotides. There were two main goals of the present investigation, namely, evaluation of the impact of stationary phase type and the influence of various ion-pair reagents on the retention behavior of oligonucleotides in ion-pair liquid chromatography. Three types of ion-pair reagents were studied: triethylammonium acetate, dimethylbuthylammonium acetate and mixtures of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and triethylamine. Two novel types of packing materials, namely, cholesterol and alkylamide were used for this purpose for the first time. The results indicate that the mechanism of oligonucleotides retention is determined by the hydrophobicity of ion-pair reagents and polar ligands localized on the surface of stationary phases. Oligonucleotides were most effectively separated with the use of alkylamide and cholesterol packings. These two stationary phases reduce the time of analysis in comparison with the octadecyl packing material. Moreover, separation was achieved under non-denaturating conditions. PMID:25477554

  8. Simple and rapid RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of acyclovir and zidovudine in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Megha; Nautiyal, Pragya; Jain, Surendra; Jain, Deepti

    2010-01-01

    Combination therapy with acyclovir and zidovudine is used for the treatment of herpes-infected immunocompromised patients. In the view of the optimal drug concentrations (minimum effective concentrations) for viral suppression and avoidance of drug toxicity, monitoring of drug levels has been considered essential to determine drug concentrations in plasma after administration of a dose of acyclovir and zidovudine. A simple, precise, and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed for this purpose. Chromatographic separation was performed using methanol-water (50 + 50, v/v), pH 2.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid, as an isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min with an Inertsil ODS (C18) column (5 microm particle size, 250 x 4.60 mm id). Detection was carried out using a UV photo diode array detector at 258 nm. The plasma samples were prepared by a protein precipitation method. The retention time for acyclovir and zidovudine was 3.5 +/- 0.2 and 6.2 +/- 0.3 min, respectively. The method was linear in the range of 200-1800 and 400-3600 ng/mL with LOQ of 200 ng (SD = +/-1.4) and 400 ng (SD = +/-0.9) for zidovudine and acyclovir, respectively, in plasma. The mean accuracy was 98.0 and 96.4%, with average extraction recovery of 64.8 +/- 2.1 and 77.5 +/- 1.7% for lower nominal concentrations of acyclovir and zidovudine, respectively. PMID:21140658

  9. Stress degradation studies and development of a validated stability-indicating-assay-method for determination of diacerein in presence of degradation products

    PubMed Central

    Hamrapurkar, Purnima; Patil, Priti; Desai, Masti; Phale, Mitesh; Pawar, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Background: To understand the degradation behavior of diacerein and to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive, and validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of diacerein, in the presence of its degradation products. Materials and Methods: An accurate, sensitive, precise, rapid, and isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method, equipped with a photo-diode array (PDA) detector for analysis of diacerein in the bulk drug has been developed and validated. The best separation was achieved on a 250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5-?m particle, RP C18 column with 50 : 50 (v/v) of water (pH adjusted to 2.9 with orthophosphoric acid) : acetonitrile as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/minute. The detection wavelength was set at 257 nm. Results: The response was a linear function of concentration over the range of 0.50 20 ?g/ml (r = 0.999) and the limits of detection and quantitation were 0.1 ?g/ml and 0.50 ?g/ml, respectively. The method was validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The drug was subjected to oxidative, hydrolytic, photolytic, and thermal stress. The drug decomposed under alkaline hydrolytic stress conditions and also on thermal degradation and photolysis. It was stable on acid hydrolysis and oxidation. The degradation products produced as a result of this stress did not interfere with the detection of diacerein, and the assay could thus be regarded as stability-indicating. Conclusion: The method was suitable for application in the analysis of formulations of diacerein in quality-control laboratories, because it was simple and rapid, with good accuracy and precision. PMID:23781427

  10. Isolation, Characterization, Crystal Structure Elucidation of Two Flavanones and Simultaneous RP-HPLC Determination of Five Major Compounds from Syzygium campanulatum Korth.

    PubMed

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Ismail, Zhari; Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih Resq; Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Laghari, Madeeha; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Two flavanones named (2S)-7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethyl flavanone (1), (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-flavanone (2), along with known chalcone, namely, (E)-2',4'- dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (3) and two triterpenoids, namely, betulinic and ursolic acids (4 and 5), were isolated from the leaves of Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae). The structures of compounds (1 and 2) were determined on the basis of UV-visible, FTIR, NMR spectroscopies and LC-EIMS analytical techniques. Furthermore, new, simple, precise, selective, accurate, highly sensitive, efficient and reproducible RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of the compounds (1-5) from S. campanulatum plants of five different age. RP-HPLC method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity (r2 ≤ 0.999), precision (2.0% RSD), and recoveries (94.4%-105%). The LOD and LOQ of these compounds ranged from 0.13-0.38 and 0.10-2.23 μg·mL-1, OPEN ACCESS respectively. Anti-proliferative activity of isolated flavanones (1 and 2) and standardized extract of S. campanulatum was evaluated on human colon cancer (HCT 116) cell line. Compounds (1 and 2) and extract revealed potent and dose-dependent activity with IC50 67.6, 132.9 and 93.4 μg·mL-1, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on isolation, characterization, X-ray crystallographic analysis of compounds (1 and 2) and simultaneous RP-HPLC determination of five major compounds (1-5) from different age of S. campanulatum plants. PMID:26248073

  11. Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient for DDT-related compounds by RP-HPLC with a novel dual-point retention time correction.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Zhang, Yun-yang; Yang, Li-li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2011-03-01

    n-Octanol/water partition coefficients (P) for DDTs and dicofol were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a C(18) column using methanol-water mixture as mobile phase. A dual-point retention time correction (DP-RTC) was proposed to rectify chromatographic retention time (t(R)) shift resulted from stationary phase aging. Based on this correction, the relationship between logP and logk(w), the logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water, was investigated for a set of 12 benzene homologues and DDT-related compounds with reliable experimental P as model compounds. A linear regression logP=(1.100.04) logk(w) - (0.600.17) was established with correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.988, cross-validated correlation coefficient R(cv)(2) of 0.983 and standard deviation (SD) of 0.156. This model was further validated using four verification compounds, naphthalene, biphenyl, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) with similar structure to DDT. The RP-HPLC-determined P values showed good consistency with shake-flask (SFM) or slow-stirring (SSM) results, especially for highly hydrophobic compounds with logP in the range of 4-7. Then, the P values for five DDT-related compounds, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (o,p'-DDE), and 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol) and its main degradation product 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (p,p'-DBP) were evaluated by the improved RP-HPLC method for the first time. The excellent precision with SD less than 0.03 proved that the novel DP-RTC protocol can significantly increases the determination accuracy and reliability of P by RP-HPLC. PMID:21300395

  12. Validation and Uncertainty Estimation of an Ecofriendly and Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Determination of Diltiazem in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Fahimeh; Navidpour, Latifeh; Bayat, Sima; Afshar, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    A green, simple, and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of diltiazem in topical preparations. The separation was based on a C18 analytical column using a mobile phase consisted of ethanol: phosphoric acid solution (pH = 2.5) (35 : 65, v/v). Column temperature was set at 50°C and quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 240 nm. In forced degradation studies, the drug was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and heat. The method was validated for specificity, selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The applied procedure was found to be linear in diltiazem concentration range of 0.5–50 μg/mL (r2 = 0.9996). Precision was evaluated by replicate analysis in which % relative standard deviation (RSD) values for areas were found below 2.0. The recoveries obtained (99.25%–101.66%) ensured the accuracy of the developed method. The degradation products as well as the pharmaceutical excipients were well resolved from the pure drug. The expanded uncertainty (5.63%) of the method was also estimated from method validation data. Accordingly, the proposed validated and sustainable procedure was proved to be suitable for routine analyzing and stability studies of diltiazem in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:24163778

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H(1) NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm??4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2-10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  14. Validation of a RP-HPLC-DAD Method for Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) Preparations and Assessment of the Marker, Apigenin-7-glucoside, Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Cavalheiro, Amanda Henriques; Spinola, Nathália Favaretto; Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Hori, Juliana Issa; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Rocha, Bruno Alves; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Chamomile is a medicinal plant, which presents several biological effects, especially the anti-inflammatory effect. One of the compounds related to this effect is apigenin, a flavonoid that is mostly found in its glycosylated form, apigenin-7-glucoside (APG), in natural sources. However, the affectivity and safety of this glycoside have not been well explored for topical application. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-DAD) method to quantify APG in chamomile preparations. Additionally, the safety and the anti-inflammatory potential of this flavonoid were verified. The RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated with linearity at 24.0–36.0 μg/mL range (r = 0.9994). Intra- and interday precision (RSD) were 0.27–2.66% and accuracy was 98.27–101.21%. The validated method was applied in the analysis of chamomile flower heads, glycolic extract, and Kamillen cream, supporting the method application in the quality control of chamomile preparations. Furthermore, the APG safety was assessed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and mutagenic protocols and the anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed by a diminished TNF-α production showed by mice macrophages treated with APG following LPS treatment. PMID:26421053

  15. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  16. A novel ion-pair RP-HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of naproxen and esomeprazole in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Kayesh, Ruhul; Sultan, Md Zakir

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and stability indicating ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of naproxen (NPX) and esomeprazole (ESP) in pharmaceutical preparations. In our study, this new method was used to overcome the instability problem of ESP during high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis in the presence of acidic drugs such as NPX. The method was validated according to ICH, FDA and USP guidelines with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, solution stability, robustness, sensitivity and system suitability. The method was developed by using an isocratic condition of mobile phase comprising buffer [tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (0.0077 M) and n-heptane sulfonic acid-Na salt (0.002 M), pH 7.6], acetonitrile and methanol in a 60 : 20 : 20 v/v/v ratio at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min over a C-18 (Octadecyl-silica, 5 m, 250 4.6 mm) column at ambient temperature. The recovery for both drugs was found to be >99% which demonstrated the accuracy of this method. Intra- and inter-day precision studies of the new method were less than the maximum allowable limit [% relative standard deviation (RSD) ?2.0 according to FDA]. The method showed linear response with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) value of 0.999 for both drugs. More importantly, ESP was quite stable in diluting solvent and mobile phase in the presence of NPX for >3 days. Therefore, it was found to be an accurate, reproducible, sensitive and highly stability-indicating method and can be successfully applied for routine analysis of simultaneous assay of NPX and ESP in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:25182005

  17. A rapid, quantitative, non-radioactive bisulfite-SNuPE- IP RP HPLC assay for methylation analysis at specific CpG sites.

    PubMed

    El-Maarri, Osman; Herbiniaux, Ursula; Walter, Jrn; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2002-03-15

    The precise mapping and quantification of DNA methylation as an epigenetic parameter during development and in diseased tissues is of great importance for functional genomics. Here we describe a rapid, quantitative method to assess methylation levels at specific CpG sites using PCR products of bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. Using single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) assays in combination with ion pair reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP RP HPLC) separation techniques, methylated and unmethylated CpGs can be discriminated and quantified based on the different masses and hydrophobicities of the extended primer products. The assay is linear, highly reproducible and several sites can be measured simultaneously in one reaction. It can be semi-automated and eliminates the need for cloning and sequencing of individual bisulfite PCR products. PMID:11884644

  18. Comparative studies on performance of CCC and preparative RP-HPLC in separation and purification of steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liang, Jinru; Zhang, Yongmin; Liu, Jianli; Sun, Wenji; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright were separated for the first time using two chromatographic methods for comparison: counter-current chromatography (CCC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and preparative reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:2:4, v/v) was chosen as the two-phase solvent system for CCC, while the acetonitrile-water (25:75 for the first step and15:85 for the second step, v/v) was used as the mobile phase in the preparative RP-HPLC. The following five steroid saponins were purified by theses two chromatographic methods, in one-step operation by CCC and by two-step operation in preparative RP-HPLC: 1) 26-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound A), 2) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 4) 26-triol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound B), 3) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound C), 4) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]}-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound D) and 5) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosy-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound E). The purities of these five steroid saponins separated by both methods were over 95%, and structural identification of these compounds was performed by ESI-MS, and 13C NMR. Comparison of these two established approaches revealed that CCC required a longer separation time but with less solvent consumption, whereas preparative RP-HPLC gave a shorter separation time but with higher solvent consumption. These results demonstrated that either of these two methods of different separation mechanism is feasible, economical and efficient for rapid preparative isolation and purification of steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright. PMID:26726306

  19. Tocochromanols composition in kernels recovered from different apricot varieties: RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.

    PubMed

    Górnaś, Paweł; Mišina, Inga; Grāvīte, Ilze; Soliven, Arianne; Kaufmane, Edīte; Segliņa, Dalija

    2015-01-01

    Composition of tocochromanols in kernels recovered from 16 different apricot varieties (Prunus armeniaca L.) was studied. Three tocopherol (T) homologues, namely α, γ and δ, were quantified in all tested samples by an RP-HPLC/FLD method. The γ-T was the main tocopherol homologue identified in apricot kernels and constituted approximately 93% of total detected tocopherols. The RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) method detected trace amounts of two tocotrienol homologues α and γ in the apricot kernels. The concentration of individual tocopherol homologues in kernels of different apricots varieties, expressed in mg/100 g dwb, was in the following range: 1.38-4.41 (α-T), 42.48-73.27 (γ-T) and 0.77-2.09 (δ-T). Moreover, the ratio between individual tocopherol homologues α:γ:δ was nearly constant in all varieties and amounted to approximately 2:39:1. PMID:25567675

  20. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolic compounds in pomace extracts from five grape cultivars: Evaluation of their antioxidant, antiradical and antifungal activities in orange and apple juices.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Ozkan, Gulcan; Yetim, Hasan; Ekici, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2011-06-15

    Phenolic compounds, related to antioxidative and antifungal properties of ethanolic extracts from five commercial grape cultivars (three red and two white) grown in Turkey were determined. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) procedure was developed, and a total 18 different phenolic compounds were identified. Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging and phosphomolybdenum methods. All extracts exhibited strong antioxidant and antiradical activity. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the extracts were variety dependent. Antifungal activities of the pomaces and extracts were screened by both in vitro agar-well diffusion assay and antifungal activity in apple and orange juices in situ using Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Z. bailii. Antifungal activities revealed that the pomaces and extracts of Gamay and Kalecik karasi could be more effective antifungal agents than those of Emir, Narince and Okuzgozu grape cultivars. PMID:25213954

  1. Antioxidant, Biomolecule Oxidation Protective Activities of Nardostachys jatamansi DC and Its Phytochemical Analysis by RP-HPLC and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Razack, Sakina; Hemanth Kumar, Kandikattu; Nallamuthu, Ilaiyaraja; Naika, Mahadeva; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at analyzing the metabolite profile of Nardostachys jatamansi using RP-HPLC, GC-MS and also its antioxidant, biomolecule protective and cytoprotective properties. The 70% ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJE) showed the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids (gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, homovanillin, epicatechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin-3-rhamnoside) analyzed by RP-HPLC, whereas hexane extract revealed an array of metabolites (fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, alkane hydrocarbons and esters) by GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant assays showed the enhanced potency of NJE with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 222.22 ± 7.4 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 13.90 ± 0.5 μg/mL for 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 113.81 ± 4.2 μg/mL for superoxide, 948 ± 21.1 μg/mL for metal chelating and 12.3 ± 0.43 mg FeSO4 equivalent/g of extract for ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and was more potent than hexane extract. NJE effectively inhibited 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation of biomolecules analyzed by pBR322 plasmid DNA damage, protein oxidation of bovine serum albumin and lipid peroxidation assays. The observed effects might be due to the high content of polyphenols, 53.06 ± 2.2 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and flavonoids, 25.303 ± 0.9 mg catechin equivalents/g, of NJE compared to the hexane fraction. Additionally, the extract abrogated the protein, carbonyl, and ROS formation, and NJE showed cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells above 75 μg/mL. Thus, the study suggests that the herb unequivocally is a potential source of antioxidants and could aid in alleviating oxidative stress-mediated disorders. PMID:26785345

  2. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Sulfadiazine Sodium and Trimethoprim in Injectable Solution Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mashhour M.; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A.

    2013-01-01

    A direct, precise, and stability-indicating HPLC method that is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (PDA) was developed, optimized, and validated for the simultaneous determination of sulfadiazine sodium (SDZS) and Trimethoprim (TMP) in Bactizine® forte injectable solution. The separation was achieved using a C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) at room temperature, and an isocratic mobile phase that consisted of a trinary solvent mixture of water–acetonitrile–triethylamine (838:160:2, v/v) at pH 5.5 ± 0.05. The mobile phase was delivered at 1.4 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 254 nm. The effects of the operational chromatographic conditions on the peak’s USP tailing factor, column efficiency, and resolution were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing SDZS, TMP standards, and their formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The method was successfully validated in accordance to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and United States Pharmacopoeia (USP34/NF29) guidelines and found to be suitable for the quantitative determination and stability of SDZS and TMP in Bactizine® forte injectable solution. PMID:23641336

  3. Simultaneous RP-HPLC-DAD quantification of bromocriptine, haloperidol and its diazepane structural analog in rat plasma with droperidol as internal standard for application to drug-interaction pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Billups, Johnique; Jones, Cynthia; Jackson, Tanise L.; Ablordeppey, Seth Y.; Spencer, Shawn D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the dopamine antagonists haloperidol, its diazepane analog, and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine in rat plasma, to perform pharmacokinetic drug-interaction studies. Samples were prepared for analysis by acetonitrile (22.0 μg/mL) plasma protein precipitation with droperidol as an internal standard, followed by a double-step liquid-liquid extraction with hexane:chloroform (70:30) prior to C-18 separation. Isocratic elution was achieved using a 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid in deionized water, methanol and acetonitrile (45/27.5/27.5, v/v/v). Triple-wavelength diode-array detection at the λmax of 245 nm for haloperidol, 254 nm for the diazepane analog and droperidol, and 240 nm for bromocriptine was carried out. The LLOQ of DAL, HAL, and BCT were 45.0, 56.1, and 150 ng/mL, respectively. In rats, the estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (i.e., t1/2, CL, and Vss) of HAL when administered with DAL and BCT were t1/2 = 16.4 min, Vss = 0.541 L/kg for HAL, t1/2 = 28.0 min, Vss = 2.00 L/kg for DAL, and t1/2 = 24.0 min, Vss = 0.106 L/kg for BCT. The PK parameters for HAL differed significantly from those previously reported, which may be an indication of a drug-drug interaction. PMID:19908205

  4. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    PubMed

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS. PMID:25442580

  5. Evaluation of a Propolis Water Extract Using a Reliable RP-HPLC Methodology and In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy and Safety Characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Bruno Alves; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Rodrigues, Marina Rezende; Costa-Machado, Ana Rita de Mello; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Campos, Jacqueline Costa Lima; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Acésio, Nathália de Oliveira; Martins, Sabrina de Paula Lima; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of propolis research, several groups have studied its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. However, most of these studies have only employed propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) leading to little knowledge about the biological activities of propolis water extract (PWE). Based on this, in a previous study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of PWE. In order to better understand the equilibrium between effectiveness and toxicity, which is essential for a new medicine, the characteristics of PWE were analyzed. We developed and validated an RP-HPLC method to chemically characterize PWE and PEE and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant/antimicrobial activity for both extracts and the safety of PWE via determining genotoxic potential using in vitro and in vivo mammalian micronucleus assays. We have concluded that the proposed analytical methodology was reliable, and both extracts showed similar chemical composition. The extracts presented antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, while PWE demonstrated higher antioxidant activity and more efficacious for the most of the microorganisms tested than PEE. Finally, PWE was shown to be safe using micronucleus assays. PMID:23710228

  6. Determination of free and bound phenolic compounds in buckwheat spaghetti by RP-HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS: effect of thermal processing from farm to fork.

    PubMed

    Verardo, Vito; Arraez-Roman, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Marconi, Emanuele; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-07-27

    Nowadays there is considerable interest in the consumption of alternative crops as potential recipes for gluten-free products production. Therefore, the use of buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta has been investigated in the present study. RP-HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS has been applied for the separation and characterization of free and bound phenolic compounds in buckwheat flour and buckwheat spaghetti. Thus, 32 free and 24 bound phenolic compounds in buckwheat flour and spaghetti have been characterized and quantified. To the authors' knowledge, protochatechuic-4-O-glucoside acid and procyanidin A have been detected in buckwheat for the first time. The results have demonstrated a decrease of total free phenolic compounds from farm to fork (from flour to cooked spaghetti) of about 74.5%, with a range between 55.3 and 100%, for individual compounds. The decrease in bound phenols was 80.9%, with a range between 46.2 and 100%. The spaghetti-making process and the cooking caused losses of 46.1 and 49.4% of total phenolic compounds, respectively. Of the total phenolic compounds present in dried spaghetti, 11.6% were dissolved in water after cooking. PMID:21678994

  7. Development and Validation of Simple RP-HPLC Method for Intracellular Determination of Fluconazole Concentration and Its Application to the Study of Candida albicans Azole Resistance.

    PubMed

    Davtyan, Tigran K; Melikyan, Levon A; Nikoyan, Nune A; Aleksanyan, Hripsime P; Grigoryan, Nairi G

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (strains NCTC-885-653 and ATCC-10231) long-term cultivated in the presence of antifungal agent fluconazole (FLC) and classical microbiological methods for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used in this study. A simple and sensitive method based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been developed for the determination of FLC intracellular concentration in C. albicans using tinidazole as an internal standard. Following extraction with dichloromethane, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Machery-Nagel EC250/2 Nucleodur-100-3 C18 column by gradient elution using the mobile phase consisting of (A) 0.01 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH = 5.00, and (B) acetonitrile. Different analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), and robustness were determined according to US DHHS FDA and EMEA guidelines. The method was linear for FLC (r = 0.9999) ranging from 100 to 10000 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were within 2.79 and 2.64%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error) was less than 2.82%. The extraction recovery ranged from 79.3 to 85.5%. The reliable method was successfully applied to C. albicans azole-resistance study and it was shown that intracellular concentration of FLC correlated with a yeast drug susceptibility profile and MIC values. PMID:26783393

  8. Development and Validation of Simple RP-HPLC Method for Intracellular Determination of Fluconazole Concentration and Its Application to the Study of Candida albicans Azole Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Davtyan, Tigran K.; Melikyan, Levon A.; Nikoyan, Nune A.; Aleksanyan, Hripsime P.; Grigoryan, Nairi G.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (strains NCTC-885-653 and ATCC-10231) long-term cultivated in the presence of antifungal agent fluconazole (FLC) and classical microbiological methods for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used in this study. A simple and sensitive method based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been developed for the determination of FLC intracellular concentration in C. albicans using tinidazole as an internal standard. Following extraction with dichloromethane, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Machery-Nagel EC250/2 Nucleodur-100-3 C18 column by gradient elution using the mobile phase consisting of (A) 0.01 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH = 5.00, and (B) acetonitrile. Different analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), and robustness were determined according to US DHHS FDA and EMEA guidelines. The method was linear for FLC (r = 0.9999) ranging from 100 to 10000 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were within 2.79 and 2.64%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error) was less than 2.82%. The extraction recovery ranged from 79.3 to 85.5%. The reliable method was successfully applied to C. albicans azole-resistance study and it was shown that intracellular concentration of FLC correlated with a yeast drug susceptibility profile and MIC values. PMID:26783393

  9. Simultaneous determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and doxylamine succinate from tablets by ion pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

    PubMed

    Argekar, A P; Sawant, J G

    1999-08-01

    A new, simple, precise, and rapid ion pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYR) and doxylamine succinate (DOX) in tablets. The stationary phase was a Microbondapak C18 column (10 mu, 300 mm x 3.9 mm i.d.). The mobile phase was water:methanol (60:40) containing 10 mM heptanesulfonic acid and 0.25% triethylamine and adjusted to pH 2.2 with orthophosphoric acid. Detection was carried out at 263 nm using an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min, and retention times were 3.65 min and 7.32 min for PYR and DOX, respectively. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range 0.5-500 micrograms/ml for PYR and DOX. Mean percentage recoveries were 100.20% and 101.20% for PYR and DOX, respectively. PMID:10434138

  10. A simple validated RP-HPLC bioanalytical method for the quantitative determination of a novel valproic acid arylamide derivative in rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Silva-Trujillo, Arianna; Correa-Basurto, Jos; Romero-Castro, Aurelio; Albores, Arnulfo; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2015-04-01

    A simple and specific bioanalytical method based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the determination of a novel valproic acid arylamide, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propylpentanamide (HO-AAVPA) in rat hepatic microsomes (a subcellular fraction containing phase I enzymes, especially cytochrome P450). The chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed-phase Zorbax SB-C18 column and a mobile phase of acetic acid in water (0.2% v/v) and acetonitrile (40:60?v/v) with a flow rate of 0.5?mL/min. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 882-7060?ng/mL (r(2) ?=?0.9987), and the lower limit of quantification and the lower limit of determination were found to be 882 and 127.99?ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated with excellent sensitivity, and intra-day accuracy and precision varied from 93.79 to 93.12%, and from 2.12 to 4.36%, respectively. The inter-day accuracy and precision ranged from 93.29 to 97.30% and from 0.68 to 3.60%, respectively. The recovery of HO-AAVPA was measured between 91.36 and 97.98%. The assay was successfully applied to the analysis of kinetic metabolism and pharmacokinetic parameters in vitro by a substrate depletion approach. PMID:25137440

  11. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Montelukast Sodium and Ebastine in Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Rana, N. S.; Rajesh, K. S.; Patel, Nikita N.; Patel, P. R.; Limbachiya, U.; Pasha, T. Y.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive RP-HPLC method with UV detection (244 nm) for routine analysis of montelukast sodium and ebastine in a pharmaceutical formulation (Ebast-M) was developed. Chromatography was performed with mobile phase containing a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile:ammonium acetate (80:10:10, % v/v/v), pH of mobile phase was adjusted 5.5 using glacial acetic acid and flow rate was 1.2 ml/min. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, robustness and intermediate precision. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 0.01?0.06 mg/ml for both drugs. The correlation coefficients (r2) for ebastine and montelukast were 0.9989 and 0.9955, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method was precise, accurate, reproducible and selective for the analysis of ebastine and montelukast drugs. The method was successfully employed for the determination of ebastine and montelukast in commercially available tablet dosage form. PMID:24403662

  12. A novel RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate in soft drinks using C18-bonded monolithic silica column.

    PubMed

    Can, Nafiz O; Arli, Goksel; Lafci, Yigit

    2011-08-01

    Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate are food additives that are generally employed for prevention of food spoilage originating from bacteria, molds or yeasts. Although these compounds were generally recognized as safe due to their low risk of acute and chronic toxicity, they have limitations of usage to protect human health. Development and validation of a novel RP-HPLC method, in which a C18-bonded monolithic silica column was used as stationary phase to assay these compounds, is described for the first time. Aliquots of 10??L of samples were injected into chromatograph and eluted using phosphate buffer (0.025?M, pH 2.0)-water-acetonitrile (50:45:5, v/v/v) solution, which was pumped at the rate of 3.0?mL/min. To sharpen the peaks, 10?mM octylamine was added to the mobile phase. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate were detected at about 12(th) and 14(th) min, respectively, and quantified at 230?nm using photodiode array detector. A total of 41 samples were prepared by simply filtering through 0.45??m filters after sonication, and injected into the system without any pre-treatment steps. Applicability of the method was demonstrated by performing total procedure on samples of different brands and types, and their compliance to official regulations was assessed. PMID:21595030

  13. Evaluation of a Propolis Water Extract Using a Reliable RP-HPLC Methodology and In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy and Safety Characterisation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruno Alves; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Ferreira, Nathlia Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Rodrigues, Marina Rezende; Costa-Machado, Ana Rita de Mello; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Campos, Jacqueline Costa Lima; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Acsio, Nathlia de Oliveira; Martins, Sabrina de Paula Lima; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of propolis research, several groups have studied its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. However, most of these studies have only employed propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) leading to little knowledge about the biological activities of propolis water extract (PWE). Based on this, in a previous study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of PWE. In order to better understand the equilibrium between effectiveness and toxicity, which is essential for a new medicine, the characteristics of PWE were analyzed. We developed and validated an RP-HPLC method to chemically characterize PWE and PEE and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant/antimicrobial activity for both extracts and the safety of PWE via determining genotoxic potential using in vitro and in vivo mammalian micronucleus assays. We have concluded that the proposed analytical methodology was reliable, and both extracts showed similar chemical composition. The extracts presented antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, while PWE demonstrated higher antioxidant activity and more efficacious for the most of the microorganisms tested than PEE. Finally, PWE was shown to be safe using micronucleus assays. PMID:23710228

  14. The salivary proteome profile in patients affected by SAPHO syndrome characterized by a top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Monica; Firinu, Davide; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Pisanu, Maria; Murgia, Giuseppe; Piras, Valentina; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; del Giacco, Stefano Renato; Cabras, Tiziana

    2015-06-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular symptoms characterized by musculoskeletal manifestations (synovitis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) associated with dermatological conditions (severe acne and pustulosis). The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva from 10 adult women affected by SAPHO syndrome and from a group of 28 healthy women was analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS with the aim of discovering salivary biomarkers of the disorder. The levels of the oral proteins and peptides were correlated with clinical data. The following proteins showed a significant decreased concentration in saliva of SAPHO subjects with respect to controls: cystatin S1 and SN, histatins, the major acidic PRPs, P-C and P-B peptides. The cystatin SN abundance lowered according to the disease duration and histatins showed positive correlations with the C reactive protein. Statistical analysis performed excluding one patient with a different pattern of salivary proteins/peptides highlighted a positive relationship between cystatin S1, histatins 3, histatin 5, and the neutrophil count. Moreover, histatin 3 correlated positively with the total white cell count and negatively with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Levels and frequency of S100A12 protein showed a trend to increase in SAPHO patients. The high expression of this pro-inflammatory protein is probably related to the inflammatory response and to the altered neutrophil responses to functional stimuli that characterize SAPHO syndrome suggesting a possible application as a salivary biomarker. PMID:25671558

  15. Simultaneous determination of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in Stephania tetrandra S. Moore by using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids as the RP-HPLC mobile phase additives.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Zhang, Yongqing

    2013-03-12

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of fangchinoline (FAN) and tetrandrine (TET) in Stephania tetrandra S. Moore was established by using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as the mobile phase additives in this paper. Four types of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were used as additives of the mobile phase to separate FAN and TET by RP-HPLC. The effects of the length of the alkyl group on the imidazolium ring and its counterion, the concentrations of IL and the pH of the mobile phase, which influenced the chromatographic behaviors of FAN and TET, were investigated in detail. The linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability of the proposed method were also investigated. The probable mechanism of the separation with ILs as the mobile phase additives was explored and discussed. PMID:23452799

  16. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Palakurthi Ashok; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Thirupathi, Dongala; Kumar, Ravindra; Shree, Jaya

    2013-01-01

    A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 μg/ml & 0.05 μg/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 μg/ml & 0.15 μg/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:23641334

  17. Optimization of Forced Degradation Using Experimental Design and Development of a Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Assay Method for Rebamipide in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Sandeep; Gide, Paraag

    2011-01-01

    A novel stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of rebamipide in bulk and tablet dosage form. Rebamipide (drug and drug product) solutions were exposed to acid and alkali hydrolysis, thermal stress, oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and photodegradation. Experimental design has been used during forced degradation to determine significant factors responsible for degradation and to obtain optimal degradation conditions. In addition, acid and alkali hydrolysis was performed using a microwave oven. The chromatographic method employed the HiQ sil C-18HS (250 4.6 mm; 5 ?m) column with mobile phase consisting of 0.02 M potassium phosphate (pH adjusted to 6.8) and methanol (40:60, v/v) and the detection was performed at 230 nm. The procedure was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. There was no interference observed of excipients and degradation products in the determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The method showed good accuracy and precision (intra and inter day) and the response was linear in a range from 0.5 to 5 ?g mL?1. The method was found to be simple and fast with less trial and error experimentation by making use of experimental design. Also, it proved that microwave energy can be used to expedite hydrolysis of rebamipide. PMID:21617774

  18. Stability-indicating high-performance column liquid chromatography and high-performance thin-layer chromatography methods for the determination of olopatadine hydrochloride in tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Susheel John; Kumar, A Manikanta; Ravi, Thengungal Kochupappy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes two simple, specific, accurate, and precise methods for estimation of olopatadine hydrochloride (OLO) in tablet dosage form. The first method is a stability-indicating isocratic RP-HPLC method. The analysis is performed on an RP-18 column using 0.1% orthophosphoric acid (adjusted to pH 4.5 with triethylamine)-acetonitrile (75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Paracetamol (PAR) was selected as the internal standard. Retention times of OLO and PAR were 11.30 +/- 0.02 and 4.70 +/- 0.03 min, respectively. For the HPTLC method, precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum sheets were used as the stationary phase; the mobile phase was methanol-chloroform-ammonia (8 + 2 + 0.1, v/v/v). The detection of the analyte band was carried out at 301 nm, and its Rf value was 0.46 +/- 0.03. The analytical methods were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 0.1-1 microg/mL and 0.1-0.9 microg/band for HPLC and HPTLC, respectively. PMID:22320089

  19. Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of 12 Active Components in Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription by RP-HPLC Coupled with Photodiode Array Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Qiu, Pengcheng; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yuanhu Zhitong prescription (YZP) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, which is officially recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the treatment of stomach pain, hypochondriac pain, headache and dysmenorrhea caused by qi-stagnancy and blood stasis. It is the first report for the simultaneous determination of 12 active components in YZP. Objective: A newly, simple, accurate and reliable method for the separation and determination of 12 active components (protopine, α-allocryptopine, coptisine, xanthotol, palmatine, dehydrocorydaline, glaucine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydroberberine, imperatorin, corydaline, isoimperatorin) in YZP was developed and validated using HPLC-PAD. Materials and Methods: The analytes were performed on a Phenomenex Luna-C18 (2) column (250×4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) with a gradient elution program using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid water solution (adjusted with triethylamine to pH 5.6) as mobile phase. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: The validated method was applied to analyze four major dosage forms of YZP coming from different manufacturers with good linearity (r2, 0.9981~0.9999), precision (RSD, 0.24~2.89%), repeatability (RSD, 0.15~3.34%), stability (RSD, 0.14~3.35%), recovery (91.13~110.81%) of the 12 components. Conclusion: The proposed method enables the separation and determination of 12 active components in a single run for the quality control of YZP. PMID:25709212

  20. Stability-indicating determination of rebamipide in the presence of its acid degradation products.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samah S; Zaazaa, Hala E; Essam, Hebat Allah M; El-Bardicy, Mohammed G

    2014-01-01

    Four sensitive and precise stability-indicating methods for the determination of rebamipide (REB) in the presence of its acid-degradation products and in a pharmaceutical formulation were developed and validated. Method A used the first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD) spectrophotometric method by measuring the peak amplitude at 249.4 nm (maximum) and at 259 nm (minimum), and at the total peak amplitude (from 249.4 to 259 nm, 1DD(249.4 + 259 nm)) in the range of 2-14 microg/mL. This method yielded mean recoveries of 99.87 +/- 0.83, 100.04 +/- 0.75, and 100.28 +/- 1.11%, respectively. Method B is a dual wavelength method, which allows the determination of REB in presence of its acid-degradation products by measuring the absorbance difference between 254 and 269 nm within a linearity range of 5-65 microg/mL; it showed a mean recovery of 99.84 +/- 1.06. Method C is a TLC-densitometric procedure in which REB was separated from its degradation products using a developing solution of methanol-chloroform-ammonia (8.5 + 1.5 + 0.5, v/v/v). The quantitative evaluation of REB at 329 nm was linear over the concentration range of 0.50-4.5 microg/band, with a mean recovery of 99.49 +/- 0.99% even in the presence of up to 90% degradation products. Method D is an RP-HPLC procedure. It provided the complete separation of REB from its degradation products on an Xterra C18 column using phosphate buffer (pH 6, 0.01 M)-methanol (1 + 1, v/v) as the mobile phase (UV detection at 254 nm). Recovery was 99.28 +/- 0.78% within the range of 10-190 microg/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of REB in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form excipients. PMID:24672862

  1. Determination of asiatic acid in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Centella asiatica extract by precolumn derivatization RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Sheng-Hao

    2009-02-15

    A novel precolumn derivatization reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV-vis detection for the quantitative determination of total concentration of asiatic acid (AA) in beagle dog plasma is described. AA was extracted with n-hexane-dichloromethane-2-propanol (20:10:1, v/v/v) from plasma, which had been hydrolyzed by acid and derivatized with p-Toluidine. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C(18) column using gradient elution in a water-methanol system. Detection was set at UV wavelength of 248nm. A calibration curve ranging from 0.01 to 1.5microg/mL was shown to be linear, and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.01microg/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions which were determined by three different concentrations (0.05, 0.2 and 0.8microg/mL) ranged from 4.4% to 13.1% and 4.6% to 14.2%, respectively. Mean extraction recoveries were no less than 65% for AA and ursolic acid (IS). Plasma samples containing asiatic acid were stable for 30 days at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs after oral administration of Centella asiatica extract, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were: T(1/2), 4.29h; T(max), 2.70h; C(max), 0.74microg/mL; AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity), 3.74 and 3.82microgh/mL, respectively. PMID:19167274

  2. Identification and optimization of parameters for the semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme from pre-consumer organic waste by green RP-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Arun, C; Sivashanmugam, P

    2015-10-01

    Reuse and management of organic solid waste, reduce the environmental impact on human health and increase the economic status by generating valuable products for current and novel applications. Garbage enzyme is one such product produced from fermentation of organic solid waste and it can be used as liquid fertilizer, antimicrobial agents, treatment of domestic wastewater, municipal and industrial sludge treatment, etc. The semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme in large quantity at minimal time period and at lesser cost is needed to cater for treatment of increasing quantities of industrial waste activated sludge. This necessitates a parameter for monitoring and control for the scaling up of current process on semi-continuous basis. In the present study a RP-HPLC (Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method is used for quantification of standard organic acid at optimized condition 30°C column oven temperature, pH 2.7, and 0.7 ml/min flow rate of the mobile phase (potassium dihydrogen phosphate in water) at 50mM concentration. The garbage enzyme solution collected in 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days were used as sample to determine the concentration of organic acid. Among these, 90th day sample showed the maximum concentration of 78.14 g/l of acetic acid in garbage enzyme, whereas other organic acids concentration got decreased when compare to the 15th day sample. This result confirms that the matured garbage enzyme contains a higher concentration of acetic acid and thus it can be used as a monitoring parameter for semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme in large scale. PMID:26205805

  3. Sensitivity of stability indices to dealerting

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-03-01

    It is reported that more than 100 former or current heads of state and civilian leaders from around the world, including ex-presidents Jimmy Carter and Mikhail Gorbachev, have signed a statement that calls for removing nuclear weapons from alert status and other measures aimed at the eventual elimination of atomic arsenals--reflecting mounting support for the cause of nuclear bolition. This note uses stability analysis derived from current US and Russian analyses to study the impact of such dealerting on stability, indicating that it could be negative. Dealerting forces removes them from first and second strikes for as long as they are dealerted. If they are dealerted for periods long compared to those involved in the evaluation of first strike stability, dealerting has the same effect as permanent arms reductions, it subtracts them from first and second strikes. Thus, it is conceptually a way of implementing such reductions on an accelerated scale. Dealerting strategic forces has been posited as a stabilizing step towards their abolition. Previous reports have shown that planned START reductions will reduce stability indices by about a factor of two. Dealerting would hasten those reductions. They would also raise the possibility that one side could realert faster than the other. If so, the remobilized forces could be used to damage limit, which would reduce his first strike cost and stability index. The impact of complete demobilization of SSBNs would be an order of magnitude reduction in the overall stability index, to a level set by alert ICBMs. Generally, it would be preferable to maintain any existing strategic forces at the highest level of alert to minimize this effect and to concentrate instead on decreasing their total number.

  4. Validated stability-indicating methods for the simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, and chlorthalidone using HPTLC and HPLC with photodiode array detector.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Rasha M; Maher, Hadir M; El-Kimary, Eman I; Hassan, Ekram M; Barary, Magda H

    2013-01-01

    Two stability-indicating chromatographic methods are described for simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride (AMI), atenolol (ATE), and chlorthalidone (CHL) in combined dosage forms. The first method was based on HPTLC separation of the three drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their bands at 274 nm. The separation was carried out on Merck HPTLC silica gel 60F254 aluminum sheets using chloroform-methanol-ammonia 27%, w/w (9 + 2 + 0.3, v/v/v) mobile phase. Analysis data was used for the linear regression graph in the range of 0.1-0.5, 0.8-5.0, and 0.3-1.5 microg/band for AMI, ATE, and CHL, respectively. The second method was based on an RP-HPLC separation of the cited drugs performed on an RP stainless steel C18 analytical column (250 x 4.6 mm id) with a gradient elution system of methanol and 0.05 M aqueous phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 4 as the mobile phase, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with photodiode array detection at 275 nm for AMI and 225 nm for ATE and CHL. The calibration graphs for each drug were rectilinear in the range of 2-50, 25-150, and 2-100 microg/mL for AMI, ATE, and CHL, respectively. The proposed chromatographic methods were successfully applied for determination of the investigated drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Both methods were validated in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, and LOQ. PMID:23767356

  5. Validation of RP-HPLC method and stress degradation for the combination of metformin HCl, atorvastatin calcium and glimepiride: application to nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gite, Sandip; Patravale, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for the determination of metformin HCl (MTH), atorvastatin calcium (AC) and glimepiride (GP) in combination and their main degradation products. The separation and quantization were achieved on a 5-m Qualisil gold, C18 column (4.6 mm 250 mm). The mobile phase selected was phosphate buffer (pH 2.9)-organic phase in proportion of 70:30. Organic phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile (90:10) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detection of analytes was carried out at 230 nm. The method exhibited good linearity over the range of 10-60 g/mL for MTH, 2-20 g/mL for AC and 5-30 g/mL for GP. Square of the correlation coefficients was found to be >0.999. Various stress degradation studies were carried out in combination as per International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for 4 h. The recovery and precision were determined in terms of intraday and interday precisions and expressed as relative standard deviations. These were <1 and <2%, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the method was evaluated in nanoparticle analysis of MTH, AC and GP as well as in stability studies of nanoformulation. PMID:26071607

  6. RP-HPLC separation and ESI-MS, 1H, and 13C NMR characterization of forced degradants including process related impurities of carisbamate: method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara; Ramakrishna, Kuntamukkala; Sravan, Bompelli; Santhakumar, Kondapalli

    2013-04-15

    A stability indicating reversed phase HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of process related impurities and forced degradants of carisbamate (CRS) in bulk drugs. Carisbamate when subjected to acid/base hydrolysis, H2O2 oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress significant degradation was observed during acid/base hydrolysis and the degradants were isolated and characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR. MS/MS and 2D-NMR (COSY and HSQC) studies revealed the possible isomerization of CRS under stress conditions. The optimum separation was accomplished on Agilent XDB C18 column (150mm4.6mm; 5?m) using 0.02M KH2PO4 (pH=3.5) and CH3CN as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The eluents were monitored by PDA detector at 211nm and quantitation limits were obtained in the range of 0.1-0.3?g/mL for CRS, degradants and other impurities. The LC method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness and limits of detection and quantification as per ICH guidelines. PMID:23376724

  7. Climatology of Stability Indices for Cincinnati Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, M. A.; Durre, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three of the top five worst tornado outbreaks in U.S. history occurred between January and May 2011. Some may make the hypothesis that this is due to climate change. To explore methods for testing this theory, the changes in decadal averages of numbers of severe thunderstorm days in the metropolitan area of Cincinnati were examined. This area was chosen due to its high population and its location near the jet stream and Tornado Alley. Three stability indices were chosen from all 0Z soundings during the last 30 years: the Lifted Index, the K-Index and Convective Available Potential Energy. The decadal and 30-year averages of monthly, seasonal, and annual percentages of possible severe thunderstorm days were first derived. Afterword, an examination of the decadal averages revealed some trends. The results showed the month of July having the highest number of possible severe weather days. The frequency of possible severe thunderstorm days increased during the summer, while the winter had hardly any severe weather. The spring, summer, and fall averages for the decade of 2001-2010 were always higher than their 30-year climate normals. These findings are consistent with an increase in the frequency of severe thunderstorms over the past few decades, but more study is needed.

  8. Sensitivity of stability indices to force uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-07-01

    Additional or hidden weapons in the possession of the side with the largest fraction of vulnerable weapons can improve stability. Vulnerable weapons contribute primarily at the end of force reduction; survivable weapons contribute throughout the transition.

  9. Identification and quantification of soluble free, soluble conjugated, and insoluble bound phenolic acids in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) and derived products by RP-HPLC on a semimicro separation scale.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Isabella; Martini, Daniela; De Rossi, Antonella; Taddei, Federica; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Corradini, Danilo

    2013-12-01

    A straightforward semimicro separation scale RP-HPLC method was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids (PAs) occurring as soluble free, soluble conjugated, and insoluble bound compounds, which were independently extracted from wholemeal of durum wheat and from its derived products coarse bran, semolina, and dried pasta. A narrow bore column and a semimicro photodiode array detector (PDA) cell, in conjunction with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer, equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI-MS), were employed. The method was validated in terms of linearity of calibration graphs, limits of detection, limits of quantification, repeatability, and accuracy, which was evaluated by a recovery study. In each sample (wholemeal, coarse bran, semolina, and dried pasta), the total amounts of the three different forms of PAs were in the order bound > conjugated > free, with bound PAs accounting for 61.0-83.6% of the total PAs. Ferulic acid was the most abundant PA in both soluble free and insoluble bound forms, whereas sinapic acid predominated in the conjugated ones. The highest PA content, calculated as the sum of total PAs quantified in the three forms, was found in coarse bran, followed by wholemeal, semolina, and dried pasta. PMID:24175612

  10. Determination and identification of hydrophilic and hydrophobic arsenic species in methanol extract of fresh cod liver by RP-HPLC with simultaneous ICP-MS and ESI-Q-TOF-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Lischka, Susanne; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The present study was focused on the determination and identification of arsenic species in methanolic extracts of cod liver. Arsenic species were fractionated and the fractions analysed by RP-HPLC-ICP-MS coupled with ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The total concentration of arsenic in the fresh cod liver was analysed by ICP-MS to be 1.53±0.02 mg As kg(-1)w.w. and the extraction recovery was ca. 100% and the column recovery >93%. Besides polar inorganic and methylated arsenic species (>70%) more hydrophobic arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons occurred. Based on the mass spectrometric data proposals for molecular structures were elaborated for 20 of the organic As species included 10 arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and an arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) mentioned for the first time in fresh cod liver. Arsenobetaine was found as main water-soluble arsenic compound in cod liver followed by higher molecular mass arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons. PMID:23871064

  11. Determination of hydromorphone in human plasma by a sensitive RP-HPLC-ESI-MS method and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study in postoperative patients after low dose intravenous administration with infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luning; Pan, Yinbin; Ding, Li; Luo, Xuemei; Yan, Zhengyu; Liu, Cunming; Qian, Yanning; Chu, Yan

    2012-03-01

    A sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of hydromorphone in human plasma using naloxone as the internal standard (IS). After alkalization with saturated sodium bicarbonate, the plasma samples were extracted with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with the column temperature of 50 C and a mobile phase of 5mM ammonium acetate buffer containing 1% formic acid-methanol (88:12, v/v). Hydromorphone and the IS were detected by selected ion monitoring using the protonated molecules at m/z 286.2 for hydromorphone and m/z 328.2 for the IS. Calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.01-50 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study in postoperative patients after intravenous infusion of 1.5mg hydromorphone hydrochloride. The obtained main pharmacokinetic parameters of hydromorphone in postoperative patients were as follows: the maximum hydromorphone plasma concentration (C(max)) was (24.15 12.51)ng/mL, the time to the C(max) was (10.0 0.0)min, and the elimination half-life was (2.7 0.8)h. PMID:22169470

  12. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method with ultraviolet detection for estimation of montelukast in rabbit plasma: Application to preclinical pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Om Prakash; Nayak, Usha Y.; Reddy, Meka Sreenivasa; Dengale, Swapnil J.; Musmade, Prashant B.; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a liquidliquid extraction based reverse phase liquid chromatography method for estimation of montelukast in rabbit plasma. Methods Chromatographic separation was carried out using Phenomenex Luna C18 column (250mmנ4.6mmנ5?m) with mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate buffer (20Mm), pH 5.5 and acetonitrile in 20:80, v/v ratio. The analyte was monitored with UV detector at 345nm. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and stability. Results The peak area ratio of montelukast (MKS) to that of internal standard was used for the quantification of samples. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 202000ngmL?1. The LOD and LLOQ of present method were found out to be 10ngmL?1 and 20ngmL?1 respectively. The intra-day and inter-day %CV values for MKS were below 6.06% and 8.43%. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies were within 95.81% and 110.90%, respectively. Extraction recoveries of drug from rabbit plasma were >66.47%. Conclusion A simple, alternative, reproducible and sensitive HPLC-UV method was developed for MKS that can be used in preclinical pharmacokinetics. PMID:24563591

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction of herbacetin diglucoside from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed cakes and its quantification using an RP-HPLC-UV system.

    PubMed

    Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Ramsay, Aina; Renouard, Sullivan; Beejmohun, Vickram; Doussot, Joël; Falguières, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Roscher, Albrecht; Grand, Eric; Mesnard, François; Hano, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed) cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming. PMID:24619301

  14. Development and validation of a novel stability-indicating HPLC method for the quantitative determination of eleven related substances in ezetimibe drug substance and drug product.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Deng, Zhongqing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guopeng; Yang, Wenning; Hou, Chengbo; Tang, Minming; Yang, Ruirui; Zhou, Huaming

    2015-07-01

    Ezetimibe is a novel lipid-lowering agent that inhibits intestinal absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol. In the present work, a simple, sensitive and reproducible gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of ezetimibe was developed and validated. Eleven potential process-related impurities (starting materials, (3S,4S,3'S)-isomer, degradants and byproducts) were identified in the crude samples. Tentative structures for all the impurities were assigned primarily based on comparison of their retention time and mass spectrometric data with that of available standards and references. This method can be applied to routine analysis in quality control of both bulk drugs and commercial tablets. Separation of all these compounds was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (100mm4.6mm, 5?m) analytical column. The mobile phase-A consists of acetonitrile-water (pH adjusted to 4.0 with phosphoric acid)-methanol at 15:75:10 (v/v/v), and mobile phase-B contains acetonitrile. The eluted compounds were monitored at 210nm. Ezetimibe was subjected to hydrolytic, acid, base, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions as per ICH serves to generate degradation products that can be used as a worst case to assess the analytical method performance. The drug showed extensive degradation in thermal, acid, oxidative, base and hydrolytic stress conditions, while it was stable to photolytic degradation conditions. The main degradation product formed under thermal, acid, oxidative, base and hydrolytic stress conditions corresponding to (2R,3R,6S)-N, 6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-oxane-3-carboxamide (Ezetimibe tetrahydropyran impurity) was characterized by LC-MS/MS analysis. The degradation products were well resolved from the main peak and its impurities, thus proved the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision and robustness. PMID:25882410

  15. Quantitative and Chemical Fingerprint Analysis for the Quality Evaluation of Receptaculum Nelumbinis by RP-HPLC Coupled with Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-Bin; Zheng, Li-Jun; Yi, Jun; Wu, Jian-Guo; Chen, Ti-Qiang; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    A simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis (dried receptacle of Nelumbo nucifera) through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five flavonol glycosides, including hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside and syringetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside. In quantitative analysis, the five components showed good regression (R > 0.9998) within linear ranges, and their recoveries were in the range of 98.31%–100.32%. In the chromatographic fingerprint, twelve peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to assess the similarities of different samples collected from different origins in China according to the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) requirements. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also applied to evaluate the variation of chemical components among different sources of Receptaculum Nelumbinis in China. This study indicated that the combination of quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be readily utilized as a quality control method for Receptaculum Nelumbinis and its related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations. PMID:23337200

  16. Simultaneous determination of domperidone and Itopride in pharmaceuticals and human plasma using RP-HPLC/UV detection: Method development, validation and application of the method in in-vivo evaluation of fast dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad; Iqbal, Zafar; Khadra, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Lateef; Khan, Abad; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ullah, Zia; Ismail

    2016-03-20

    Domperidone and Itopride are pro-kinetic agents, regulating the gastric motility and are commonly prescribed as anti emetic drugs. In the present study a simple, rapid and sensitive RP-HPLC/UV method was developed for simultaneous determination of Domperidone and Itopride in pharmaceutical samples and human plasma, using Tenofavir as internal standard. Experimental conditions were optimized and method was validated according to the standard guidelines. Combination of water (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (65:35v/v) was used as mobile phase, pumped at the flow rate of 1.5ml/min. Detector wavelength was set at 210nm and column oven temperature was 40oC. Unlike conventional liquid-liquid extraction, simple precipitation technique was applied for drug extraction from human plasma using acetonitrile for deprotienation. The method showed adequate separation of both the analytes and best resolution was achieved using Hypersil BDS C8 column (150mm ×4.6mm, 5μm). The method was quite linear in the range of 20-600ng/ml. Recovery of the method was 92.31% and 89.82% for Domperidone and Itopride, respectively. Retention time of both the analytes and internal standard was below 15min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for Domperidone were 5 and 10ng/ml while for Itopride was 12 and 15ng/ml, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for in-vivo analysis of fast dispersible tablets of Domperidone in healthy human volunteer. The proposed method was a part of formulation development study and was efficiently applied for determination of the two drugs in various pharmaceutical products and human plasma. PMID:26773534

  17. Development of New Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Piracetam and Levetiracetam in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Fluids: Application in Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Sher, Nawab; Shafi, Nighat; Wafa Sial, Alisha; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjebeen

    2014-01-01

    RP-HPLC ultraviolet detection simultaneous quantification of piracetam and levetiracetam has been developed and validated. The chromatography was obtained on a Nucleosil C18 column of 25?cm 0.46?cm, 10??m, dimension. The mobile phase was a (70?:?30?v/v) mixture of 0.1?g/L of triethylamine and acetonitrile. Smooth flow of mobile phase at 1?mL/min was set and 205?nm wavelength was selected. Results were evaluated through statistical parameters which qualify the method reproducibility and selectivity for the quantification of piracetam, levetiracetam, and their impurities hence proving stability-indicating properties. The proposed method is significantly important, permitting the separation of the main constituent piracetam from levetiracetam. Linear behavior was observed between 20?ng/mL and 10000?ng/mL for both drugs. The proposed method was checked in bulk drugs, dosage formulations, physiological condition, and clinical investigations and excellent outcome was witnessed. PMID:25114921

  18. Stabilization of a recombinant human epidermal growth factor parenteral formulation through freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Santana, Hctor; Sotolongo, Jorge; Gonzlez, Yaima; Hernndez, Gerardo; Chinea, Glay; Gernimo, Hayde; Amarantes, Odalys; Beldarran, Alejandro; Pez, Rolando

    2014-11-01

    Development studies were performed to design a pharmaceutical composition that allows the stabilization of a parenteral rhEGF formulation in a lyophilized dosage form. Unannealed and annealed drying protocols were tested for excipients screening. Freeze-dry microscopy was used as criterion for excipients and formulation selection; as well as to define freeze-drying parameters. Excipients screening were evaluated through their effect on freeze-drying recovery and dried product stability at 50 C by using a comprehensive set of analytical techniques assessing the chemical stability, protein conformation and bioactivity. The highest stability of rhEGF during freeze-drying was achieved by the addition of sucrose or trehalose. After storing the dried product at 50 C, the highest stability was achieved by the addition of dextran, sucrose, trehalose or raffinose. The selected formulation mixture of sucrose and dextran could prevent protein degradation during the freeze-drying and delivery processes. The degradation rate assessed by RP-HPLC could decrease 100 times at 37 C and 70 times at 50 C in dried with respect to aqueous formulation. These results indicate that the freeze-dried formulation represents an appropriate technical solution for stabilizing rhEGF. PMID:25190208

  19. Stability Indices derived from Atmospheric Measurements on a Cable Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herma, F.; Seidel, J.; Brdossy, A.

    2012-04-01

    Stability indices are meteorological parameters to describe vertical atmospheric layering and therefore it is possible to predict convective events such as thunderstorms. Commonly, weather balloons with radiosondes are used for the analysis of vertical atmospheric layering. These weather balloons reach high altitudes and atmospheric layering can be determined for the entire troposphere. On the other hand, these balloon ascents are expensive, require the appropriate equipment and permissions and cannot be conducted several times a day on an operational basis. Due to the limitations of the application of weather balloons the unconventional idea came up to equip a cable car with meteorological instruments for vertical profile measurements. To some extent the meteorological instruments had to be customized to the particular requirements and data are transmitted via GSM. The investigated area is a small alpine catchment which is prone to flash floods and thus a reliable forecast for such floods mostly caused by convective rainfall events is important. Therefore the purpose of this contribution is to proof if a cable car can be used for measuring continuous data during the operating hours and whether it is possible to derive reliable conclusions about the stability in the lower troposphere. Several stability indices (e.g. Lifted-, Showalter-, Boyden- and Convective-Index) were investigated. Indices which are calculated on the basis of the "Lifted Parcel Theory" were tested with different approaches to determine the most unstable parcel and therefore the initial values of the required parameters. The derived indices were flagged in active (thunderstorms) and non-active (no thunderstorms) cases. The classification results from available lightning maps in this region. Threshold values were established to distinguish stable, potential indifferent and unstable atmospheric conditions. On the basis of this division pre-warnings for the occurrence of thunderstorms are declared. The verification of the quality of these predictions is done by a skill score statistic.

  20. Stability-indicating HPLC method for determination of fosamprenavir calcium.

    PubMed

    Chilukuri, Mohanareddy; Narayanareddy, Papadasu; Hussianreddy, Katreddi

    2014-09-01

    A novel stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for quantitative determination of Fosamprenavir Calcium, HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an YMC Pack ODS AQ (150 mm 4.6 mm 3.0 ?m) HPLC column in isocratic mode employing 0.05 M Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate monohydrate (pH 6.8) buffer and Acetonitrile in the ratio 60:40 (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). Detector wavelength was monitored at 265 nm and column temperature was maintained at 40 C. Fosamprenavir calcium was exposed to thermal, photolytic, humidity, water, acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. Considerable degradation of the drug substance was found to occur under acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. Peak homogeneity data of Fosamprenavir Calcium obtained by photodiode array detection demonstrated the specificity of the method in the presence of degradants. The degradation products were well resolved from the main peak of Fosamprenavir, indicating that the method is specific and stability-indicating. The HPLC method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness. Regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained for Fosamprenavir Calcium. PMID:23893948

  1. Voltage stability and controllability indices for multimachine power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vournas, C.D.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents a voltage stability index (VSI) and a voltage controllability index (VCI), related to the eigenvalues of mxm matrices in a multimachine power system made up of m synchronous generators and a number of infinite buses. System loads can have an arbitrary voltage sensitivity described by generalized voltage exponents. These nonlinear loads are linearized around an operating point and incorporated into a modified admittance matrix, which is subsequently reduced to the generator terminals using an efficient algorithm and sparsity techniques. The indices proposed are tested in a practical system and it is demonstrated that they provide a timely warning during a sequence of events leading to voltage collapse.

  2. Development of Stability-Indicating Methods for Cefquinome Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Shantier, Shaza W.; Gadkariem, Elrasheed A.; Adam, Mohamed O.; Mohamed, Magdi A.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation behavior of cefquinome sulphate in alkaline medium at different temperatures was investigated using both first derivative spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The drug degradation was found to be pH and temperature dependant. The pH-rate profile indicated a first order dependence of Kobs on [OH-] at pHs ranging between 9 and 11. Arrhenius plot obtained at pH 10 was linear between 65 and 100C. The estimated activation energy of the hydrolysis was found to be 21.1 kcal mol-1. Stability-indicating thin-layer chromatographic method for the separation of the drug and its alkaline hydrolysis product has been developed. PMID:24170991

  3. Stability-Indicating HPLC Determination of Gemcitabine in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul; Shakya, Ashok K.; Naik, Rajashri; Shalan, Naeem

    2015-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, inexpensive, and rapid stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for determination of gemcitabine in injectable dosage forms using theophylline as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C-18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5μ) with a mobile phase consisting of 90% water and 10% acetonitrile (pH 7.00 ± 0.05). The signals of gemcitabine and theophylline were recorded at 275 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5–50 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 or higher. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.1498 and 0.4541 μg/mL, respectively. The inter- and intraday precision were less than 2%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 100.2% to 100.4%. Stability studies indicate that the drug was stable to sunlight and UV light. The drug gives 6 different hydrolytic products under alkaline stress and 3 in acidic condition. Aqueous and oxidative stress conditions also degrade the drug. Degradation was higher in the alkaline condition compared to other stress conditions. The robustness of the methods was evaluated using design of experiments. Validation reveals that the proposed method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable, robust, reproducible, and suitable for the quantitative analysis. PMID:25838825

  4. Degradation Study on Sulfasalazine and a Validated HPLC-UV Method for its Stability Testing

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Balraj; Bansal, Gulshan

    2014-01-01

    Sulfasalazine (SSZ) was subjected to degradation under the conditions of hydrolysis (acid, alkali, and water), oxidation (30% H2O2), dry heat, and photolysis (UV-VIS light) in accordance with the ICH guidelines. An RP-HPLC method was developed to study the degradation behavior. No degradation was noted under any condition except alkaline hydrolysis where SSZ was degraded to a single minor product. SSZ was optimally resolved from this product on an XTerra RP18 column with a mobile phase composed of methanol and an ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.0) (48:52, v/v) delivered at a rate of 0.8 mL/min in an isocratic mode. The method was validated and found to be linear (r2=0.99945), precise (%RSD <2), robust, and accurate (94102%) in the concentration range of 0.550 ?g/mL of SSZ. The PDA analysis of the degraded sample revealed the SSZ peak purity to be 998.99 and the drug peak eluted with a resolution factor of >2 from the nearest resolving peak, indicating the method to be selectively stability-indicating for the drug analysis. The method was applied successfully for the stability testing of the commercially available SSZ tablets that were under varied ICH-prescribed conditions. An explanation for the unusual stability of the drug when exposed to acidic hydrolysis, despite the presence of the sulfonamide linkage, is also discussed. PMID:24959403

  5. Ratio manipulating spectrophotometry versus chemometry as stability indicating methods for cefquinome sulfate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia, Ali M.; Arafa, Reham M.; Abbas, Samah S.; Amer, Sawsan M.

    2016-01-01

    Spectral resolution of cefquinome sulfate (CFQ) in the presence of its degradation products was studied. Three selective, accurate and rapid spectrophotometric methods were performed for the determination of CFQ in the presence of either its hydrolytic, oxidative or photo-degradation products. The proposed ratio difference, derivative ratio and mean centering are ratio manipulating spectrophotometric methods that were satisfactorily applied for selective determination of CFQ within linear range of 5.0-40.0 μg mL- 1. Concentration Residuals Augmented Classical Least Squares was applied and evaluated for the determination of the cited drug in the presence of its all degradation products. Traditional Partial Least Squares regression was also applied and benchmarked against the proposed advanced multivariate calibration. Experimentally designed 25 synthetic mixtures of three factors at five levels were used to calibrate and validate the multivariate models. Advanced chemometrics succeeded in quantitative and qualitative analyses of CFQ along with its hydrolytic, oxidative and photo-degradation products. The proposed methods were applied successfully for different pharmaceutical formulations analyses. These developed methods were simple and cost-effective compared with the manufacturer's RP-HPLC method.

  6. Ratio manipulating spectrophotometry versus chemometry as stability indicating methods for cefquinome sulfate determination.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Ali M; Arafa, Reham M; Abbas, Samah S; Amer, Sawsan M

    2016-01-15

    Spectral resolution of cefquinome sulfate (CFQ) in the presence of its degradation products was studied. Three selective, accurate and rapid spectrophotometric methods were performed for the determination of CFQ in the presence of either its hydrolytic, oxidative or photo-degradation products. The proposed ratio difference, derivative ratio and mean centering are ratio manipulating spectrophotometric methods that were satisfactorily applied for selective determination of CFQ within linear range of 5.0-40.0 μg mL(-1). Concentration Residuals Augmented Classical Least Squares was applied and evaluated for the determination of the cited drug in the presence of its all degradation products. Traditional Partial Least Squares regression was also applied and benchmarked against the proposed advanced multivariate calibration. Experimentally designed 25 synthetic mixtures of three factors at five levels were used to calibrate and validate the multivariate models. Advanced chemometrics succeeded in quantitative and qualitative analyses of CFQ along with its hydrolytic, oxidative and photo-degradation products. The proposed methods were applied successfully for different pharmaceutical formulations analyses. These developed methods were simple and cost-effective compared with the manufacturer's RP-HPLC method. PMID:26318697

  7. Stability and variability: indicators for passive stability and active control in a rhythmic task.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kunlin; Dijkstra, Tjeerd M H; Sternad, Dagmar

    2008-06-01

    Using a rhythmic task where human subjects bounced a ball with a handheld racket, fine-grained analyses of stability and variability extricated contributions from open-loop control, noise strength, and active error compensation. Based on stability analyses of a stochastic-deterministic model of the task--a surface contacting the ball by periodic movements--open-loop or dynamic stability was assessed by the acceleration of the racket at contact. Autocovariance analyses of model and data were further used to gauge the contributions of open-loop stability and noise strength. Variability and regression analyses estimated active error compensation. Empirical results demonstrated that experienced actors exploited open-loop stability more than novices, had lower noise strength, and applied more active error compensations. By manipulating the model parameter coefficient of restitution, task stability was varied and showed that actors graded these three components as a function of task stability. It is concluded that actors tune into task stability when stability is high but use more active compensation when stability is reduced. Implications for the neural underpinnings for passive stability and active control are discussed. Further, results showed that stability and variability are not simply the inverse of each other but contain more quantitative information when combined with model analyses. PMID:18353911

  8. Control sensitivity indices for stability analysis of HVdc systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, O.B.; Gole, A.M.; Chapman, D.G.; Davies, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept called the ``Control Sensitivity Index`` of CSI, for the stability analysis of HVdc converters connected to weak ac systems. The CSI for a particular control mode can be defined as the ratio of incremental changes in the two system variables that are most relevant to that control mode. The index provides valuable information on the stability of the system and, unlike other approaches, aids in the design of the controller. It also plays an important role in defining non-linear gains for the controller. This paper offers a generalized formulation of CSI and demonstrates its application through an analysis of the CSI for three modes of HVdc control. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are confirmed by a detailed electromagnetic transients simulation of the ac/dc system. The paper concludes that the CSI can be used to improve the controller design and, for an inverter in a weak ac system, the conventional voltage control mode is more stable than the conventional {gamma} control mode.

  9. Stabilities of neutral and basic esters of bendamustine in plasma compared to the parent compound: kinetic investigations by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Huber, S; Antoni, F; Schickaneder, C; Schickaneder, H; Bernhardt, G; Buschauer, A

    2015-02-01

    Esters of the cytostatic bendamustine (1), previously demonstrated to be much more potent than the parent compound as antiproliferative agents in vitro, were investigated for stability in buffer and plasma, as well as against porcine liver esterase in the presence of different amounts of albumin using a validated RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The hydrolysis of the nitrogen mustard moiety was retarded (for 1: approximately 130 vs. 11 min) in the presence of plasma proteins. For the derivatives, both cleavage of ester and nitrogen mustard moieties were analyzed. Enzymatic hydrolysis was very fast in the case of 2-pyrrolidino-, 2-piperidino- and 2-(4-methylpiperazino)-ethyl esters, whereas methyl, ethyl, morpholinoethyl and branched 2-pyrrolidinoethyl esters were considerably more stable (half-lives between 41 and 116 min, compared to <5 min). Inhibition by physostigmine indicated unspecific cholinesterases to be involved in the rapid ester cleavage. Due to lower protein content and higher enzymatic activity in murine compared to human plasma, reduced stability of all investigated esters in mouse plasma (t½<2 min) has to be taken into account with respect to the design of animal studies. PMID:25499654

  10. Stabilized Dunes on Titan as Indicators of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, J.; Le Gall, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2011-10-01

    Dune-like landforms (DLLs) have been detected at Titan's mid-to-high latitudes (which we define as the latitude band 40-60), similar in morphology to equatorial radar-dark features generally assumed to be dunes. DLLs have radar backscatter similar to that of surrounding materials, and we propose they are dunes that were once active but are now immobilized by moisture or cementation. Orientations (from 0 N) of these features are consistent across hemispheres, 100-130 in the north and 25-70 in the south. If the landforms are stabilized dunes, they provide new values for atmospheric modelers and give evidence of changing wind or humidity conditions across Titan.

  11. Trifluoroethanol-containing RP-HPLC mobile phases for the separation of transmembrane peptides human glycophorin-A, integrin alpha-1, and p24: analysis and prevention of potential side reactions due to formic acid.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toshiaki; Huang, Yue; Ito, Akihiro; Kawakami, Toru; Hojo, Hironobu; Murata, Michio

    2015-02-01

    Reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis and purification of three hydrophobic, aggregation-prone peptides, composed mainly of the transmembrane (TM) sequence, were performed using elution systems containing 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). The addition of 10-16% TFE to a common mobile phase, such as a water/acetonitrile/propanol (PrOH) or a water/PrOH/formic acid system, markedly improved the chromatographic separation of these peptides. The superior performance of TFE-containing systems in separating peptides over water/PrOH/formic acid systems [Bollhagen R. et al., J. Chromatogr. A, 1995; 711: 181-186.] clearly demonstrated that adding TFE to the mobile phase is one of best methods for TM-peptide purification. Characterization of the potential side reactions using MALDI and ESI-LIT/Orbitrap mass spectrometry indicated that prolonged incubation of peptides in a mixture of TFE-formic acid possibly induces O-formylation of the Ser residue and N-formylation of the N-terminus of peptides. The conditions for selective removal of the formyl groups from TM peptides were also screened. We believe that these results will expand our ability to analyze and prepare hydrophobic, aggregation-prone TM peptides and proteins. PMID:25504594

  12. Interaction of native alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin and gamma-cyclodextrin and their hydroxypropyl derivatives with selected organic low molecular mass compounds at elevated and subambient temperature under RP-HPLC conditions.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P K; Ohta, H; Saito, Y; Jinno, K

    2008-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to explore the capability of native alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin and gamma-cyclodextrin and their hydroxypropyl derivatives for host-guest interaction with 7,8-dimethoxyflavone, selected steroids (estetrol, estriol, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, naphthalene, 1,8-dimethylnaphthalene, 1-acenaphthenol, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene) under reversed-phase liquid-chromatography conditions. The study revealed that native cyclodextrins interact more efficiently with the analytes investigated than do their hydroxypropyl counterparts. In the low-temperature region, enormously high ratios were observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly 1,8-dimethylnaphthalene, acenaphthene and acenaphthylene chromatographed on a beta-cyclodextrin-modified mobile phase. In such a case, the retention times of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were strongly reduced (e.g. from 127 to 1.2 min for 1,8-dimethylnaphthalene) and were close to the hold-up time of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (0.7 min). Moreover, chiral separation of 1-acenaphthenol optical isomers was observed and the elution order of the enantiomers was determined. Within the steroids group, strong interaction was observed for estradiol and testosterone. The results of cluster analysis indicate that beta-cyclodextrin as well as gamma-cyclodextrin and its hydroxypropyl derivative can be most effective mobile-phase additives under reversed-phase HPLC conditions for 3D-shape-recognition-driven separation, performed at subambient and elevated temperatures, respectively. PMID:18563397

  13. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-xing; Sylvester, Runyuzi; Yu, Ji-yu; Zhang, Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter. PMID:15495976

  14. Separation of kafirins on surface porous RP-HPLC columns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface porous HPLC columns were investigated for the separation of kafarins, storage proteins of grain sorghum. Kafirins were successfully separated using C3, C8 and C18 surface porous stationary phases in less than 17 min. Separations using a monolithic C18 stationary phase were also developed ...

  15. Sorption of benzotriazoles under the conditions of RP HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabieva, S. A.; Kurbatova, S. V.; Belousova, Z. P.

    2016-02-01

    The results of a chromatographic study of sorption of several benzotriazole derivatives on octadecyl silica gel were reported. The physicochemical and electronic parameters of benzotriazoles were calculated. The effect of the structure of analyte molecules and eluent composition on chromatographic retention of these substances was analyzed.

  16. Geometrical analysis of the LiCN vibrational dynamics: a stability geometrical indicator.

    PubMed

    Vergel, A; Benito, R M; Losada, J C; Borondo, F

    2014-02-01

    The vibrational dynamics of the LiNC/LiCN molecular system is examined making use of the Riemannian geometry. Stability and chaoticity are analyzed, in this context, by means of the Jacobi-Levi-Civita equations, derived from the Jacobi metric, and its solutions. A dynamical indicator, called stability geometrical indicator, is introduced in order to ascertain the dynamical characteristics of stability and chaos in the molecule under study. PMID:25353539

  17. Development of new method for simultaneous analysis of piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids: application in stability studies.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Sher, Nawab; Shafi, Nighat; Wafa Sial, Alisha; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjebeen; Naseem, Huma

    2014-01-01

    RP-HPLC ultraviolet detection simultaneous quantification of piracetam and levetiracetam has been developed and validated. The chromatography was obtained on a Nucleosil C18 column of 25?cm0.46?cm, 10??m, dimension. The mobile phase was a (70:30?v/v) mixture of 0.1?g/L of triethylamine and acetonitrile. Smooth flow of mobile phase at 1?mL/min was set and 205?nm wavelength was selected. Results were evaluated through statistical parameters which qualify the method reproducibility and selectivity for the quantification of piracetam, levetiracetam, and their impurities hence proving stability-indicating properties. The proposed method is significantly important, permitting the separation of the main constituent piracetam from levetiracetam. Linear behavior was observed between 20?ng/mL and 10,000?ng/mL for both drugs. The proposed method was checked in bulk drugs, dosage formulations, physiological condition, and clinical investigations and excellent outcome was witnessed. PMID:25114921

  18. Evaluation of oxygen utilization as an indicator of municipal solid-waste compost stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This research evaluated oxygen utilization parameters as indicators of MSW compost stability. Parameters evaluated were the oxygen utilization rate (OUR), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), five-day biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. In addition, other suggested indicators of stability were investigated including percent volatile solids, volatile solids reduction, nitrogen content, carbon: nitrogen ratio, and reheating potential (RP). OUR is a measure of the rate of oxygen utilization by the microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter in compost. OUR was observed to be sensitive to the degree of stabilization and decreased with increasing compost age and stability. OUR values near zero indicate that the compost microorganisms are in a state of endogenous respiration, which is characteristic of a stable compost. Therefore, OUR is an excellent indicator of stability. A number of disadvantages are associated with OUR for practical application. Therefore, other parameters were evaluated as indicators of stability based on their statistical correlation to OUR. RP exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. In combination, RP and SOUR were the two parameters which exhibited the strongest correlation to OUR. OUR, RP, and SOUR are all measures of microbial activity which reflect the degree of organic decomposition, and therefore, stability. Based on the results of this research; OUR, RP, and SOUR are useful parameters in assessing compost stability.

  19. Optimal placement of unified power flow controllers to improve dynamic voltage stability using power system variable based voltage stability indices.

    PubMed

    Albatsh, Fadi M; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches. PMID:25874560

  20. Optimal Placement of Unified Power Flow Controllers to Improve Dynamic Voltage Stability Using Power System Variable Based Voltage Stability Indices

    PubMed Central

    Albatsh, Fadi M.; Ahmad, Shameem; Mekhilef, Saad; Mokhlis, Hazlie; Hassan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a new approach to selecting the locations of unified power flow controllers (UPFCs) in power system networks based on a dynamic analysis of voltage stability. Power system voltage stability indices (VSIs) including the line stability index (LQP), the voltage collapse proximity indicator (VCPI), and the line stability index (Lmn) are employed to identify the most suitable locations in the system for UPFCs. In this study, the locations of the UPFCs are identified by dynamically varying the loads across all of the load buses to represent actual power system conditions. Simulations were conducted in a power system computer-aided design (PSCAD) software using the IEEE 14-bus and 39- bus benchmark power system models. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. When the UPFCs are placed in the locations obtained with the new approach, the voltage stability improves. A comparison of the steady-state VSIs resulting from the UPFCs placed in the locations obtained with the new approach and with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), which are static methods, is presented. In all cases, the UPFC locations given by the proposed approach result in better voltage stability than those obtained with the other approaches. PMID:25874560

  1. Subtle alternating electrocardiographic morphology as an indicator of decreased cardiac electrical stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Blue, B.; Clancy, E.; Valeri, C. R.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Observations from finite-element computer models, together with analytic developments based on percolation theory have suggested that subtle fluctuations of ECG morphology might serve as an indicator diminished cardiac electrical stability. With fixed-rate atrial pacing in canines, we have previously observed a pattern of alternation in T wave energy which correlated with cardiac electrical stability. We report here on a series of 20 canine experiments in which cardiac electrical stability (measured via Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold determination) was compared to a non-degenerate, multidimensional measurement of the degree of alternating activity present in the ECG complex morphology. The decrease in cardiac electrical stability brought on by both coronary artery occlusion and systemic hypothermia was consistently accompanied by subtle alternation in ECG morphology, with the absolute degree of alternating activity being significantly (negatively) correlated with cardiac electrical stability.

  2. Measuring geomorphic stability and mobility; Interferomteric coherence data as an indicator for aeolian (wind-blown) dune stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, D. G.; August, Y.; Rotman, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring geomorphic changes on other planets is always a puzzle while on Earth measuring geomorphological dynamics can involve field work, i.e., ground truth. Dunes, wind streaks and other aeolian morphologies have been identified on Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan. These morphologies can be subjected to rapid and continuous changes when the surface is not stabilized by vegetation or crust and the wind is sufficiently strong. Thus, these sand bodies can change rapidly responding to the wind regime, rainfall, and sand particle availability. Identifying these changes by remote sensing (or even on the ground) is not straightforward because the entire surface may change concurrently. In this paper we demonstrate how synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) can be used to identify changes in dunes using the coherence which is normally a measure of phase noise prohibiting interferometric studies. We demonstrate this for dunes along the Negev and Sinai border region. This paper will show how ERS data were used to map the stability, and loss of it, over time ranges spanning from 1 day intervals to 2 years when eventually the entire surface changed including the, so called, stable areas. This methodology has advantages as it does not show potential mobility but rather the true mobility or stability. This methodology is applicable to planetary landscapes where there is no other indication of stability. Moreover, the methodology can be used also to measure the stability of surfaces susceptible to other mechanisms of landscape changes.

  3. The Effect of Ankle Taping and Balance Exercises on Postural Stability Indices in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Asghar; Sarmadi, Alireza; Zafardanesh, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ankle taping and balance exercises on postural stability indices in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy female students were randomly assigned into two equal groups: ankle taping and balance exercise. The balance exercise group performed balance exercises for 6 weeks, with 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 40 minutes. Ankle joint taping was performed for 6 weeks and was renewed three times a week. Before and after the interventions, overall, anteroposterior, and mediolateral stability indices were measured with a Biodex Balance System in bilateral and unilateral stance positions with the eyes open and closed. [Results] In the taping group during bilateral standing with the eyes closed, the overall stability index changed from 6±1.4 to 4.8±1.3, anteroposterior stability index changed from 4.2±1.27 to 3.4±0.97, and mediolateral stability index changed from 3.2±0.75 to 2.7± 0.7. In the balance exercise group during bilateral standing with the eyes closed, the overall stability index changed from 5.7±1.69 to 4.5±1.94, anteroposterior stability index changed from 4.1±1.61 to 3±1.21, and mediolateral stability index changed from 3.5±1.4 to 2.2± 1.3. No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding any study variables. [Conclusion] The results showed that compared with the taping technique, balance training increases postural stability in the majority of the studied balance situations. PMID:24926148

  4. The effects of gait strategy on metabolic rate and indicators of stability during downhill walking.

    PubMed

    Monsch, E D; Franz, C O; Dean, J C

    2012-07-26

    When walking at a given speed, humans often appear to prefer gait patterns that minimize metabolic rate, thereby maximizing metabolic economy. However, recent experiments have demonstrated that humans do not maximize economy when walking downhill. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this non-metabolically optimal behavior is the result of a trade-off between metabolic economy and gait stability. We hypothesized that humans have the ability to modulate their gait strategy to increase either metabolic economy or stability, but that increase in one measure will be accompanied by decrease in the other. Subjects walked downhill using gait strategies ranging from risky to conservative, which were either prescribed by verbal instructions or induced by the threat of perturbations. We quantified spatiotemporal gait characteristics, metabolic rate and several indicators of stability previously associated with fall risk: stride period variability; step width variability; Lyapunov exponents; Floquet multipliers; and stride period fractal index. When subjects walked using conservative gait strategies, stride periods and lengths decreased, metabolic rate increased, and anteroposterior maximum Lyapunov exponents increased, which has previously been interpreted as an indicator of decreased stability. These results do not provide clear support for the proposed trade-off between economy and stability, particularly when stability is approximated using complex metrics. However, several gait pattern changes previously linked to increased fall risk were observed when our healthy subjects walked with a conservative strategy, suggesting that these changes may be a response to, rather than a cause of, increased fall risk. PMID:22677338

  5. Stability indicating simplified HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of resveratrol and quercetin in nanoparticles and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Lather, Viney; Pandita, Deepti

    2016-04-15

    Resveratrol and quercetin are well-known polyphenolic compounds present in common foods, which have demonstrated enormous potential in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Owing to their exciting synergistic potential and combination delivery applications, we developed a simple and rapid RP-HPLC method based on isosbestic point detection. The separation was carried out on phenomenex Synergi 4μ Hydro-RP 80A column using methanol: acetonitrile (ACN): 0.1% phosphoric acid (60:10:30) as mobile phase. The method was able to quantify nanograms of analytes simultaneously on a single wavelength (269 nm), making it highly sensitive, rapid as well as economical. Additionally, forced degradation studies of resveratrol and quercetin were established and the method's applicability was evaluated on PLGA nanoparticles and human plasma. The analytes peaks were found to be well resolved in the presence of degradation products and excipients. The simplicity of the developed method potentializes its suitability for routine in vitro and in vivo analysis of resveratrol and quercetin. PMID:26617040

  6. Development and Validation of Stability-indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Estimation of Everolimus in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sharmila, D.; Rao, A. Lakshmana; Kalyani, L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study depicts the development of a validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the everolimus in presence of degradation products or pharmaceutical excipients. Stress study was performed on everolimus and it was found that it degrade sufficiently in oxidizing and acidic conditions but less degradation was found in alkaline, neutral, thermal and photolytic conditions. The separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100×4.6 mm, 5 μ) column having particle size 5 μ using acetate buffer:acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) with pH 6.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the detection was 280 nm. A retention time (Rt) nearly 3.110 min was observed. The calibration curve for everolimus was linear (r2=0.999) from range of 25-150 μg/ml with limit of detection and limit of quantification of 0.036 μg/ml and 0.109 μg/ml, respectively. Analytical validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were evaluated and relative standard deviation value for all the key parameters were less than 2.0%. The recovery of the drug after standard addition was found to be 100.55%. Thus, the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be suitable for the determination of everolimus in tablets containing various excipients. PMID:26798176

  7. Certain Actions from the Functional Movement Screen Do Not Provide an Indication of Dynamic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Robert G.; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jordan, Corrin A.; Luczo, Tawni M.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Jalilvand, Farzad; Schultz, Adrian B.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stability is an essential physical component for team sport athletes. Certain Functional Movement Screen (FMS) exercises (deep squat; left- and right-leg hurdle step; left- and right-leg in-line lunge [ILL]; left- and right-leg active straight-leg raise; and trunk stability push-up [TSPU]) have been suggested as providing an indication of dynamic stability. No research has investigated relationships between these screens and an established test of dynamic stability such as the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT), which measures lower-limb reach distance in posteromedial, medial, and anteromedial directions, in team sport athletes. Forty-one male and female team sport athletes completed the screens and the mSEBT. Participants were split into high-, intermediate-, and low-performing groups according to the mean of the excursions when both the left and right legs were used for the mSEBT stance. Any between-group differences in the screens and mSEBT were determined via a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment (p < 0.05). Data was pooled for a correlation analysis (p < 0.05). There were no between-group differences in any of the screens, and only two positive correlations between the screens and the mSEBT (TSPU and right stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.37; left-leg ILL and left stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.46). The mSEBT clearly indicated participants with different dynamic stability capabilities. In contrast to the mSEBT, the selected FMS exercises investigated in this study have a limited capacity to identify dynamic stability in team sport athletes. PMID:26557187

  8. Evaluation of degradation kinetics for abamectin in formulations using a stability indicating method.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Atul; Razzak, Majid; Al-Kassas, Raida; Harvey, Joanne; Garg, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stability characteristics and kinetics behavior of abamectin (ABM) as a 1 % (m/V) topical veterinary solution. During the study, samples stressed at 55 and 70 C were regularly analyzed for several parameters over 8 weeks on a chromatographic (HPLC) system, using a Prodigy C18, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5-?m, column eluting with 15 : 34 : 51 (V/V/V) water/methanol/ acetonitrile as mobile phase. The HPLC method was validated for precision, accuracy, linearity and specificity, and was found to be stability indicating. The results showed that degradation of ABM followed first-order kinetics and data on loss in kobs (s-1) and half life (t1/2, days) demonstrated ABM showing the maximum stability in glycerol formal. The degradation behavior of ABM varies from solvent to solvent. The effect of added alkali on pH change and loss of ABM was studied and found to be unique for all solvents and very distinct from typical hydrolysis degradation. The present study may serve as a platform to design and develop topical non-aqueous solutions of ABM for veterinary use given no such comprehensive efforts have been published to date on the stability profile of ABM in non-aqueous solvents. PMID:23482313

  9. Radon as an Indicator of Nocturnal Atmospheric Stability: A Simplified Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Nocturnal evolution of radon concentration and the height of a box model, which is determined from radon concentration and local radon flux at the ground, are used as indicators of nocturnal atmospheric stability in single-height observations. However, quantitative relationships between these indicators and meteorological conditions, including the turbulent diffusion coefficient, have not yet been well established. Here, we construct a simple model based on the heat exchange process of the lower atmosphere to relate these parameters. The model neglects radiative flux divergence and assumes a uniform constant radon flux, making it most applicable to low wind conditions at sites well-removed from coastal influences, when advective effects are minimal. The model shows that the box height (equivalent mixing height) can be determined from near-surface parameters including sensible heat flux and the decrease in potential temperature after sunset. For these parameters, static stability and mechanical mixing components are incorporated. In addition, the constructed equations suggest the equivalent mixing height is proportional to the inversion layer height with a slope that depends on the vertical profile of potential temperature. The equivalent mixing height can be also related to the turbulent diffusion intensity. We demonstrate that radon observations at a single height are useful for monitoring nocturnal atmospheric stability.

  10. Radon as an Indicator of Nocturnal Atmospheric Stability: A Simplified Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Nocturnal evolution of radon concentration and the height of a box model, which is determined from radon concentration and local radon flux at the ground, are used as indicators of nocturnal atmospheric stability in single-height observations. However, quantitative relationships between these indicators and meteorological conditions, including the turbulent diffusion coefficient, have not yet been well established. Here, we construct a simple model based on the heat exchange process of the lower atmosphere to relate these parameters. The model neglects radiative flux divergence and assumes a uniform constant radon flux, making it most applicable to low wind conditions at sites well-removed from coastal influences, when advective effects are minimal. The model shows that the box height (equivalent mixing height) can be determined from near-surface parameters including sensible heat flux and the decrease in potential temperature after sunset. For these parameters, static stability and mechanical mixing components are incorporated. In addition, the constructed equations suggest the equivalent mixing height is proportional to the inversion layer height with a slope that depends on the vertical profile of potential temperature. The equivalent mixing height can be also related to the turbulent diffusion intensity. We demonstrate that radon observations at a single height are useful for monitoring nocturnal atmospheric stability.

  11. Soil aggregate stability as an indicator for eco-engineering effectiveness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Eco-engineering aims at stabilising soil and slopes by applying technical and biological measures. Engineering structures are commonly well defined, immediately usable and operative, and their stability effects quantifiable and verifiable. Differently, the use of plants requires more restrictive boundary conditions and the protection potential is rarely easily calculable and develop-ing as a function of growth rate. Although the use of vegetation is widely appreciated and their stabilising effect recognised, there is an increasing demand on sound facts on its efficiency, in particular, in relation to time. Conclusively, a certain necessity has been recognised to monitor, assess and quantify the effectiveness of ecological restora-tion measures in order to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge. Recent theoretical models emphasize the im-portance of taking an integrated monitoring approach that considers multiple variables. However, limited financial and time resources often prevent such comprehensive assessments. A solution to this problem may be to use integrated indicators that reflect multiple aspects and, therefore, allow extensive information on ecosystem status to be gathered in a relatively short time. Among various other indicators, such as fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution or microbiological parameters, soil aggregate stability seems the most appropriate indicator with regard to protecting slopes from superficial soil failure as it is critical to both plant growth and soil structure. Soil aggregation processes play a crucial role in re-establishing soil structure and function and, conclusively, for successful and sustainable re-colonisation. Whereas the key role of soil aggregate stability in ecosystem functioning is well known concerning water, gas, and nutrient fluxes, only limited information is available with regard to soil mechanical and geotechnical aspects. Correspondingly, in the last couple of years several studies have been performed in order to bridge this gap addressing partic-ularly the influence of root growth and mycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of soil aggregates against disintegration and linking it to slope stability. As superficial soil failure is often related to heavy rainstorms and, in this regard, mainly due to water satura-tion, recent investigations focused on the pore water pressure, too. Summarising main results of the different studies a positive relationship between soil aggregate stability and traditional soil mechanical shear strength parameters was found, e.g. given certain soil conditions, an increase in aggregate stability may be equated to an increase of the angle of internal friction Φ' and/or cohesion c'. In addition, almost all investigations showed a strong positive correlation between root length per soil volume and soil aggregate stability. In respect of mycorrhizal fungi, results are not yet as clear. On the one hand it was found that the use of unspecific (commercial) inoculum had no or even a negative effect on root growth within the first vegetation period and, correspondingly, on soil aggregate stability. However, the use of specific plant fungi combinations almost ever resulted in an obvious acceleration of root growth immediately with con-comitant gain of soil stability. As far as pore water pressure is concerned we did not yet find an interpretation that is fairly straightforward and not overly prone to controversy. It looks like soil aggregated by mycorrhized plants does have a higher capacity for building up pressure than such permeated by non-mycorrhized roots. Within this scope results of several studies showing these (inter-) relationships and correlations are presented and differences as well as unexpected results discussed.

  12. Influence of alkyl chain length on the stability of n-alkyl-modified reversed phases. 1. Chromatographic and physical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hetem, M.J.J.; de Haan, J.W.; Claessens, H.A.; van de Ven, L.J.M.; Cramers, C.A. ); Kinkel, J.N. )

    1990-11-01

    The influence of the ligand alkyl chain length, chemically bonded at the surface of a silica substrate, on stationary phase stability in liquid chromatography practice is reviewed. Several factors affecting long-term stability of modern reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) phases are considered and their individual contributions are evaluated in this paper. The stationary phases under study were identically modified on the same batch of silica substrate to eliminate differences in substrate properties and synthesis conditions. Modifications with ligand alkyl chain length between C{sub 1} and C{sub 18} were performed such that an approximately equal ligand density was obtained for the seven RP-HPLC phases studied. These n-alkyldimethylsiloxysilane bonded phases were exposed to simulated aging experiments. A subsequent chromatographic characterization regarding changes in capacity, lipophilic and polar selectivity, and silica degradation related separation performance was carried out. Comparison with results determined by other characterization methods, like bulk analysis, elemental analysis, and solid-state {sup 29}Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR revealed that with longer n-alkyl ligands gradually better substrate shielding properties were obtained.

  13. Stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of darunavir ethanolate.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B V Rami; Jyothi, G; Reddy, B S; Raman, N V V S S; Reddy, K Subhash Chander; Rambabu, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of darunavir ethanolate, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an X-Bridge C18 (150 4.6 mm 3.5 m) HPLC column in isocratic mode employing 0.01M ammonium formate (pH.3.0) buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 55:45 (v/v) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detector wavelength was monitored at 265 nm and the column temperature was maintained at 30C. Darunavir ethanolate was exposed to thermal, photolytic, acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. Considerable degradation of the drug substance was found to occur under acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. The peak homogeneity data of darunavir ethanolate obtained by photodiode array detection demonstrated the specificity of the method in the presence of degradants. The degradation products were well resolved from primary peak of darunavir, indicating that the method is specific and stability-indicating. The HPLC method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness. Regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained for darunavir ethanolate. PMID:23097581

  14. Performance Comparison of Voltage Stability Indices for Weak Bus Identification in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verayiah, R.; Mohamed, A.; Shareef, H.; Zainal Abidin, I. Hj

    2013-06-01

    Voltage collapse event is identified as complex and localized in nature but its effect is extensive once occurred. The vital effect of voltage collapse would be the total system collapse or blackouts which would cost a large loss to utility companies. Eventually, on- line monitoring of power system stability has become an important factor for electric power utilities. The last utmost option to avert voltage collapse incident from occurring is by the implementation of under voltage load shedding scheme. The identification of location for load shedding is the main motivation of the study. The weakest bus in a power system is identified as the location for load shedding. This location is obtained using voltage stability index Ld. The performance and effectiveness of Ld index is compared with Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) and Le Index. The results obtained indicate that Ld Index can be used to identify the weak bus in a power system and consequently for the placement of UVLS relays in a power system network.

  15. PrimeSupplier Cross-Program Impact Analysis and Supplier Stability Indicator Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calluzzi, Michael

    2009-01-01

    PrimeSupplier, a supplier cross-program and element-impact simulation model, with supplier solvency indicator (SSI), has been developed so that the shuttle program can see early indicators of supplier and product line stability, while identifying the various elements and/or programs that have a particular supplier or product designed into the system. The model calculates two categories of benchmarks to determine the SSI, with one category focusing on agency programmatic data and the other focusing on a supplier's financial liquidity. PrimeSupplier was developed to help NASA smoothly transition design, manufacturing, and repair operations from the Shuttle program to the Constellation program, without disruption in the industrial supply base.

  16. Evaluation of the stability indices for the thunderstorm forecasting in the region of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujovi?, D.; Paskota, M.; Todorovi?, N.; Vu?kovi?, V.

    2015-07-01

    The pre-convective atmosphere over Serbia during the ten-year period (2001-2010) was investigated using the radiosonde data from one meteorological station and the thunderstorm observations from thirteen SYNOP meteorological stations. In order to verify their ability to forecast a thunderstorm, several stability indices were examined. Rank sum scores (RSSs) were used to segregate indices and parameters which can differentiate between a thunderstorm and no-thunderstorm event. The following indices had the best RSS values: Lifted index (LI), K index (KI), Showalter index (SI), Boyden index (BI), Total totals (TT), dew-point temperature and mixing ratio. The threshold value test was used in order to determine the appropriate threshold values for these variables. The threshold with the best skill scores was chosen as the optimal. The thresholds were validated in two ways: through the control data set, and comparing the calculated indices thresholds with the values of indices for a randomly chosen day with an observed thunderstorm. The index with the highest skill for thunderstorm forecasting was LI, and then SI, KI and TT. The BI had the poorest skill scores.

  17. Stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of buspirone HCl.

    PubMed

    Khedr, A; Sakr, A

    1999-12-01

    The United States Pharmacopoeia high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method of buspirone is not able to discriminate buspirone from its degradation products. The purpose of this work is to develop a sensitive, selective, and validated stability-indicating HPLC assay for the analysis of a buspirone hydrochloride in a bulk drug. Buspirone HCI and its potential impurities and degradation products are analyzed on an Ultrasphere C18 column heated to 40 degrees C using a gradient program that contains monobasic potassium phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) and acetonitrile-methanol mixture (13:17) of 35% for 5 minutes, then increased to 54% in 5.5 minutes. The samples are monitored using a photo-diode array detector and integrated at 244 and 210 nm. The stress testing of buspirone HCI shows that buspirone acid hydrochloride is the major degradation product. The developed method shows a separation of buspirone degradation product and its potential impurities in one run. The stability of buspirone HCI is studied under accelerated conditions in order to provide a rapid indication of differences that might result from a change in the manufacturing process or source of the sample. The forced degradation conditions include the effect of heat, moisture, light, acid-base hydrolysis, sonication, and oxidation. The compatibility of buspirone HCI with some pharmaceutical excipients is studied under stress conditions. The linear range of buspirone HCI is between 5 and 200 ng/microL with a limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng/microL. The intraassay percentage deviation is not more than 0.38%, and the day-to-day variation was not more than 0.80%. The selectivity, repeatability, linearity, range, accuracy, sample solution stability, ruggedness, and robustness show acceptable values. PMID:10615593

  18. Stability indicating HPLC-UV method for determination of dapoxetine HCl in pharmaceutical product.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kai Bin; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-01-01

    A stability-indicating HPLC-UV method for the determination of dapoxetine hydrochloride in solution and pharmaceutical product was developed. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 0.2 M ammonium acetate buffer at 50 : 50 ratio. The chromatographic parameters, theoretical plates (N), tailing factor (T), capacity factor (k') and peak asymmetry factor (As) were calculated. Stress degradation studies, namely, acid, alkali, oxidation, heat and UV light, were performed. The analyte was eluted at 5.8 min using gradient system at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The theoretical plates count was > 2000, tailing factor < 1.54, capacity factor > 5.38 and peak asymmetry factor was < 1.10. The method was linear from 1 to 40 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The intraday precision and accuracy values were 0.14-1.54% and 0.63-1.83%, respectively. On the other hand, the interday precision and accuracy results were 0.49-1.83% and 1.15-1.85%, respectively. The drug solution was stable at ambient room temperature (26 degrees C) for 48 h. Dapoxetine HCI was found susceptible to oxidation and degraded slightly under acid and alkali conditions but was stable under UV light and heat. No interference from tablet excipiets and degradation products was found. Hence, the method can be employed as a stability-indicating method for the determination of dapoxetine HCl in pharmaceutical products. PMID:25265818

  19. Stability-Indicating HPLC Determination of Trandolapril in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hawash, Leena A.; Shakya, Ashok K.; Saleem, Maher L.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, accurate, precise, economical, robust, and stability indicating reverse phase HPLC-PDA procedure has been developed and validated for the determination of trandolapril. The trandolapril was separated isocratically on Hypersil-Gold C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 50% acetonitrile and 50% water (containing 0.025% triethylamine, pH 3.0 ± 0.1), at 25 ± 2°C. Retention time of the drug was ~4.6 min. The eluted compounds were monitored and identified at 210 nm. The linearity of the method was excellent (r2 > 0.9999) over the concentration range of 1–24 μg/mL; the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.0566 μg/mL and 0.1715 μg/mL, respectively. The overall precision was less than 2%. Mean recovery of trandolapril was more than 99%; no interference was found from the component present in the preparation. Stability studies indicate that the drug was stable to sunlight and UV light. The drug gives 6 different oxidative products on exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Slight degradation was observed in acidic condition. Degradation was higher in the alkaline condition compared to other conditions. The robustness of the method was studied using factorial design experiment. PMID:25802524

  20. Stability-indicating HPLC determination of trandolapril in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Al-Hawash, Leena A; Shakya, Ashok K; Saleem, Maher L

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, accurate, precise, economical, robust, and stability indicating reverse phase HPLC-PDA procedure has been developed and validated for the determination of trandolapril. The trandolapril was separated isocratically on Hypersil-Gold C18 column (250?mm 4.6?mm, 5??m) with a mobile phase consisting of 50% acetonitrile and 50% water (containing 0.025% triethylamine, pH 3.0 0.1), at 25 2C. Retention time of the drug was ~4.6?min. The eluted compounds were monitored and identified at 210?nm. The linearity of the method was excellent (r (2) > 0.9999) over the concentration range of 1-24??g/mL; the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.0566??g/mL and 0.1715??g/mL, respectively. The overall precision was less than 2%. Mean recovery of trandolapril was more than 99%; no interference was found from the component present in the preparation. Stability studies indicate that the drug was stable to sunlight and UV light. The drug gives 6 different oxidative products on exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Slight degradation was observed in acidic condition. Degradation was higher in the alkaline condition compared to other conditions. The robustness of the method was studied using factorial design experiment. PMID:25802524

  1. Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Jain, P S

    2010-01-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol-triethylamine (4:6 v/v). The system was found to give a compact spot for ambroxol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.53 +/- 0.02). Densitometric analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2) = 0.9966 +/- 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- standard deviation of slope and intercept were 164.85 +/- 0.72 and 1168.3 +/- 8.26 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng/spot, respectively. Ambroxol hydrochloride was subjected to oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under oxidation and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to oxidation and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of said drug. Stability indicating of new chemical entities is an important part for the drug development of ambroxol hydrochloride and for its estimation in plasma and other biological fluids; the novel Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride as bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and dosage forms. This work is to determine the purity of the drug available from the various sources by detecting the related impurities. PMID:20056035

  2. Stability of the Photon Indices in Z-source GX 340+0 for Spectral States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Frontera, Filippo

    2013-03-01

    We show an analysis of the spectral and timing properties of X-ray radiation from Z-source GX 340+0 during its evolution when the electron temperature of the transition layer (TL) kTe monotonically decreases from 21 to 3 keV. We analyze episodes observed with BeppoSAX and RXTE. We reveal that the X-ray broadband energy spectra during all spectral states can be reproduced by a physical model composed of a soft Blackbody component and two Comptonized components (both due to the presence of the TL that upscatters both seed photons of T s1 <~ 1 keV coming from the disk (first component Comptb1), and seed photons of temperature T s2 <~ 1.5 keV coming from the neutron star (second component Comptb2) and the iron-line (Gaussian) component. Spectral analysis using this model indicates that the photon power-law indices ?com1 and ?com2 of the Comptonized components are almost constant, ?com1 and ?com2 ~ 2 when kTe changes from 3 to 21 keV along the Z-track. We interpret the detected quasi-stability of the indices of Comptonized components to be near a value of 2. Furthermore, this index stability now found for the Comptonized spectral components of Z-source GX 340+0 is similar to that previously established in the atoll sources 4U 1728-34 and GX 3+1, and earlier proposed for a number of X-ray neutron stars (NSs). This behavior of NSs both for atoll and Z-sources is essentially different from that observed in black hole binaries where ?com increases during a spectral evolution from the low state to the high state and ultimately saturates at a high mass accretion rate.

  3. Forced degradation of nepafenac: Development and validation of stability indicating UHPLC method.

    PubMed

    Runje, Mislav; Babić, Sandra; Meštrović, Ernest; Nekola, Irena; Dujmić-Vučinić, Željka; Vojčić, Nina

    2016-05-10

    This paper presents stability study of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) nepafenac. In order to investigate stability of nepafenac, it was subjected to forced degradation under different stress conditions: acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, humidity, heat and light. A novel stability indicating reverse phase ultra high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method coupled to ultraviolet detector has been developed to separate nepafenac and all related compounds (2-aminobenzophenone, Cl-thionepafenac, thionepafenac, Cl-nepafenac, hydroxy-nepafenac, and cyclic-nepafenac). Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 stationary phase with a gradient elution. Quantification was carried out at 235nm at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min(-1). The resolution between nepafenac and six potential impurities is found to be greater than 2.0. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The r(2) values for nepafenac and six potential impurities were all greater than 0.999. The developed method is capable to detect impurities of nepafenac at a level of 0.005% with respect to test concentration of 1.0mg/mL. Significant degradation is observed in acid, base and oxidative degradation conditions and degradation products (DPs) were identified using mass spectrometry analysis; two of them were found to be a known process related impurities (hydroxy- and cyclic-nepafenac) whereas four degradation products were identified as new degradation impurities. The forced degradation samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 99.5%. PMID:26871279

  4. Stability-indicating LC method for the estimation of bendamustine hydrochloride and its related impurities.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Srinivasulu; Raja Sekhar Reddy, M; Kadaboina, Raja Sekhar; Murki, Veerender; Mulukutla, Venkata Suryanarayana

    2014-08-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantification of impurities (process related and degradants) and the assay determination of Bendamustine hydrochloride. A chromatographic separation of Bendamustine and its impurities was achieved with an Inertsil ODS-2 analytical column, 250 4.6 mm, 5 m, using gradient elution with mobile phase A consisting of a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid (1000:1, v/v) and mobile phase B consisting of acetonitrile. The instrumental settings included a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, column temperature of 27C and a detector wavelength of 233 nm, using a photodiode array detector. The tailing factor for Bendamustine was 1.10. Bendamustine hydrochloride was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic and oxidative stress conditions and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Peak homogeneity data of Bendamustine were obtained by using a photodiode array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms, which demonstrated the specificity of the method for estimation in the presence of degradants. The developed method was validated for parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, ruggedness and robustness. The stability tests were also performed on drug substances as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. PMID:23825351

  5. Stability-Indicating HPLC Assay for Determination of Idebenone in Pharmaceutical Forms

    PubMed Central

    Kombath, Sonoube; Balde, Issa-Bella; Carret, Sandra; Kabiche, Sofiane; Cisternino, Salvatore; Fontan, Jean-Eudes; Schlatter, Joël

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating method was validated for the determination in pharmaceutical forms of idebenone a coenzyme Q10-like compound. The assay was achieved by liquid chromatography analysis using a reversed-phase C18 column and a detector set at 480 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of isocratic flow rate at 1.0 mL/min for 3 min with methanol. The linearity of the assay was demonstrated in the range of 3.0 to 8.0 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient r2 > 0.998. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.03 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 1.0%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 98.6 to 101.5% with RSD < 0.6%. Specificity of the assay showed no interference from tablets components and breakdown products formed by alkaline, acidic, oxidative, sunlight, and high temperature conditions. This method allows accurate and reliable determination of idebenone for drug stability assay in pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26605105

  6. Stability-Indicating HPLC Assay for Determination of Idebenone in Pharmaceutical Forms.

    PubMed

    Kombath, Sonoube; Balde, Issa-Bella; Carret, Sandra; Kabiche, Sofiane; Cisternino, Salvatore; Fontan, Jean-Eudes; Schlatter, Jol

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating method was validated for the determination in pharmaceutical forms of idebenone a coenzyme Q10-like compound. The assay was achieved by liquid chromatography analysis using a reversed-phase C18 column and a detector set at 480?nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of isocratic flow rate at 1.0?mL/min for 3?min with methanol. The linearity of the assay was demonstrated in the range of 3.0 to 8.0?mg/mL with a correlation coefficient r (2) > 0.998. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.03 and 0.05?mg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 1.0%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 98.6 to 101.5% with RSD < 0.6%. Specificity of the assay showed no interference from tablets components and breakdown products formed by alkaline, acidic, oxidative, sunlight, and high temperature conditions. This method allows accurate and reliable determination of idebenone for drug stability assay in pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26605105

  7. Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Rosuvastatin and Ezetimibe in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Mukthinuthalapati, Mathrusri Annapurna; Bukkapatnam, Venkatesh; Bandaru, Sai Pavan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A simple stability indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: Best chromatographic response was achieved with C18 column (250 X 4.6 mm, 5µm) with photo diode array (PDA) detector. The mobile phase was composed of a mixture of sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.0) and acetonitrile (30:70, %v/v) with a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. (UV detection at 254 nm). Rosuvastatin and ezetimibe were subjected to stress conditions of degradation and the method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results: The method shows linearity over a concentration range of 0.5-250 µg/ml for both rosuvastatin (r2 = 0.9993) and ezetimibe (r2 = 0.9996). Both the drugs are highly sensitive towards alkaline conditions in comparison to other stress conditions. Conclusion: The proposed method can be successfully applied to perform long-term and accelerated stability studies for the simultaneous determination of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25436199

  8. Spectrophotometric and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic determinations of terbutaline sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Hisham A; Elmasry, Manal S; Hassan, Wafaa E; Trndelberg, Clemens; Jira, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Spectrophotometric and stability-indicating HPLC procedures are described for determination of terbutaline sulfate in bulk powder and dosage form. The first procedure is based on diazo coupling of the phenolic groups of terbutaline sulfate with fast red B salt in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The colored compound developed in alkaline medium was measured at 475 nm. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied. Beer's Law is obeyed in the concentration range of 1-6 microg/mL. In the HPLC procedure, the separation was carried out on a Caltrex AIII column, a relatively new packing material consisting of silica-bonded calix[8]arene, using an isocratic binary mobile phase, acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (50 + 50, v/v), at pH 6.2. A diode array detector was used at 280 nm. The method was validated for system suitability, linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ, specificity, stability, and robustness. The LOD and LOQ were 0.196 and 0.781 microg/mL, respectively. The recovery values of this method were between 98 and 102%, and the reproducibility was within 0.92%. Statistical comparison of the results obtained from the analysis of the studied drug to those of the official British Pharmacopoeia (2007) method using t- and F-tests showed no significant difference between them. PMID:23175974

  9. Development and validation of stability-indicating HPLC method for determination of cefpirome sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemys?aw; Skibi?ski, Robert; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Bednarek-Rajewska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The stability-indicating LC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of cefpirome sulfate (CPS) in the presence of degradation products formed during the forced degradation studies. An isocratic HPLC method was developed with Lichrospher RP-18 column, 5 ?m particle size, 125 mm x 4 mm column and 12 mM ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (90 : 10 v/v) as a mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was 270 nm and temperature was 30 degrees C. Cefpirome sulfate as other cephalosporins was subjected to stress conditions of degradation in aqueous solutions including hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The developed method was validated with regard to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and robustness. The method was applied successfully for identification and determination of cefpirome sulfate in pharmaceuticals and during kinetic studies. PMID:25362801

  10. A Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitisinone in Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Souri, Effat; Lahiji, Farnaz R.; Nourhashemi, Tannaz; Jalalizadeh, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study a simple and efficient stability-indicating HPLC method with short run time was developed for the determination of nitisinone. The stress degradation of nitisinone was studied in different acidic, basic, oxidative, thermal and photolytic conditions. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova-Pak C18 column using a mixture of 50 mM NaH2PO4 (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) as mobile phase. UV detection was performed at 280 nm. Good linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.5-50 μg/ml with r2>0.999. The within-day and between-day precision values were less than 2%. The proposed method could be used for the determination of nitisinone in the presence of its degradation products and also dosage form excipients for the quality control purposes. PMID:26180282

  11. Determination of Cefdinir by a stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Tushar N; Subbaiah, Gunta; Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi

    2005-01-01

    A simple, fast, specific, stability-indicating, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of Cefdinir in its different dosage forms, i.e., capsules and suspensions. The method was developed and optimized by analyzing the placebo preparation, formulations, and degraded samples of the drug substance according to the International Conference on Harmonization. The proposed method can successfully separate the drug from degradation products formed under stress conditions along with pharmaceutical ingredients such as preservatives. The developed method was used successfully to determine Cefdinir in capsules and Insta-use suspensions. The developed method was found to be linear for a concentration range of 6-14 microg/mL. Average recoveries obtained with the method were 99.3 +/- 0.4 and 99.6 +/- 0.4% for Insta-use suspensions and capsules, respectively. The method was shown to be specific, precise, and robust. PMID:16526448

  12. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Fingolimod in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Souri, Effat; Zargarpoor, Mohammad; Mottaghi, Siavash; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Fingolimod is an immunosuppressive agent which is used for the prophylaxis of organ transplantation rejection or multiple sclerosis treatment. In this study, systematic forced degradation studies on fingolimod bulk powder were performed to develop a stability-indicating HPLC method. Separation of fingolimod and its degradation products was achieved on a Nova-Pak C8 column. The mobile phase was a mixture of potassium dihydrogenphosphate 50 mM (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The proposed method was linear in the range of 0.12520 ?g mL?1. The within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were in the range of 0.61.2%. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the fingolimod amount in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:26839803

  13. Stability-indicating Simultaneous HPTLC Method for Olanzapine and Fluoxetine in Combined Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shah, C. R.; Suhagia, B. N.; Shah, N. J.; Patel, D. R.; Patel, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid, selective and stability-indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combined tablet dosage form. Olanzapine and fluoxetine were chromatographed on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate using methanol:toluene (4:2 v/v) as the mobile phase and spectrodensitometric scanning-integration was performed at a wavelength of 233 nm using a Camag TLC Scanner III. This system was found to give compact spots for both olanzapine (Rf value of 0.630.01) and fluoxetine (Rf value of 0.310.01). The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9995 in the concentration range of 100-800 ng/spot for olanzapine and 1000-8000 ng/spot for fluoxetine with r2=0.9991. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and specificity. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for the olanzapine were found to be 30 and 100 ng/spot, respectively and for fluoxetine 300 and 1000 ng/spot, respectively. Olanzapine and fluoxetine were degraded under acidic, basic and oxidation degradation conditions which showed all the peaks of degraded product were well resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Both drugs were not further degraded after thermal and photochemical degradation. The method was found to be reproducible and selective for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and fluoxetine. As the method could effectively separate the drugs from their degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating method. PMID:20046726

  14. Stability indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin and prednisolone in pharmaceutical formulations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A simple, specific, and fast stability indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was established for instantaneous determination of moxifloxacin and prednisolone in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Results Optimum chromatographic separations among the moxifloxacin, prednisolone and stress-induced degradation products were achieved within 10 minutes by use of BDS Hypersil C8 column (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 μm) as stationary phase with mobile phase consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer (18 mM) containing 0.1% (v/v) triethylamine, at pH 2.8 (adjusted with dilute phosphoric acid) and methanol (38:62 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min-1. Detection was performed at 254 nm using diode array detector. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. Response was a linear function of concentrations over the range of 20–80 μg mL-1 for moxifloxacin (r2 ≥ 0.998) and 40–160 μg mL-1 for prednisolone (r2 ≥ 0.998). The method was resulted in good separation of both the analytes and degradation products with acceptable tailing and resolution. The peak purity index for both the analytes after all types of stress conditions was ≥ 0.9999 indicated a complete separation of both the analyte peaks from degradation products. The method can therefore, be regarded as stabilityindicating. Conclusions The developed method can be applied successfully for simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin and prednisolone in pharmaceutical formulations and their stability studies. PMID:22947049

  15. Labeling, Stability and Biodistribution Studies of 99mTc-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M.; Dannoon, Shorouk F.; Noll, Samantha M.; Ruthengael, Varyanna C.; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Lewis, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction To probe the interplay between radiotracer stability and somatostatin receptor affinity, Tyr3-octreotate and six variations of its peptide sequence, for which the Re-cyclized products were previously reported, were radiolabeled with 99mTc and investigated for their in vitro stability. Methods Radiolabeling of the peptides was effected by ligand exchange from 99mTc-glucoheptonate, and the desired products were purified by radio-RP-HPLC. The in vitro stability in phosphate-buffered saline, mouse serum, and cysteine solutions at physiological temperature and pH for all seven 99mTc-cyclized peptides was determined by radio-RP-HPLC and radio-TLC. Normal CF-1 mouse biodistribution studies were performed for three of the 99mTc-cyclized peptides. Results Based on the fully characterized Re-cyclized peptide analogues, four 99mTc-coordination motifs were proposed for the 99mTc-cyclized peptides. Technetium-99m-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate derivatives with N2S2 metal coordination modes and large metal ring sizes were susceptible to oxidation and loss of 99mTc in the form of 99mTcO4?, as evidenced by their instability in the various solutions under physiological conditions (1558% intact at 24 h). As anticipated, the addition of a third cysteine to the sequence stabilized the 99mTc metal coordination, and peptides with NS3 coordination modes remained >85% intact out to 24 h. No significant differences were observed in the biodistribution studies performed with three peptides of varying stabilities. Conclusions Improvements in stability were not sufficient to outweigh the low somatostatin receptor affinity for the peptides in this study. Further improvements in the peptide sequence and/or metal coordination are needed to result in a radiodiagnostic/radiotherapeutic pair for targeting the somatostatin receptor. PMID:21531292

  16. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, P.; Suman Raj, D. S.; Aparna, C.; Bindu, V. Hima; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. Bioremediation, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO?3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content/oxidizable carbon), sorption capacity index (CEC/oxidizable carbon). Enzyme activities of agricultural interest like urease, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase, dehydrogenase and BAA-hydrolyzing protease, which are involved in the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles, were also assessed. Total content of macro and micronutrients in the final compost was also determined to assess the fertilizer value. The studies revealed that composting could be applied as a remediation technology after removing the top sediment. The maturity indices that are evaluated from the present study can be used to validate the success of the remediation technology. PMID:16705825

  17. Bioremediation of contaminated lake sediments and evaluation of maturity indicies as indicators of compost stability.

    PubMed

    Rekha, P; Suman Raj, D S; Aparna, C; Hima Bindu, V; Anjaneyulu, Y

    2005-08-01

    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. iBioremediatio n, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non-toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums--upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO-3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content/oxidizable carbon), sorption capacity index (CEC/oxidizable carbon). Enzyme activities of agricultural interest like urease, phosphatase, P-glucosidase, dehydrogenase and BAA-hydrolyzing protease, which are involved in the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles, were also assessed. Total content of macro and micronutrients in the final compost was also determined to assess the fertilizer value. The studies revealed that composting could be applied as a remediation technology after removing the top sediment. The maturity indices that are evaluated from the present study can be used to validate the success of the remediation technology. PMID:16705825

  18. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles--design, characterization and antimicrobial study.

    PubMed

    Manju, V; Dhandapani, P; Gurusamy Neelavannan, M; Maruthamuthu, S; Berchmans, S; Palaniappan, A

    2015-04-01

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25-30C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV-Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV-Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. PMID:25686977

  19. Stability-Indicating HPTLC Determination of Imatinib Mesylate in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musmade, P.; Vadera, N.; Subramanian, G.

    A simple, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method of analysis of imatinib mesylate both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of chloroform:methanol (6:4, v/v). The system was found to give compact spot for imatinib mesylate (R f value of 0.53 0.02). Densitometric analysis of imatinib mesylate was carried out in the absorbance mode at 276 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 = 0.9966 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1,000 ng per spot. The mean value SD of slope and intercept were 164.85 0.72 and 1168.3 8.26, respectively, with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng per spot, respectively. Imatinib mesylate was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, and oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic, basic, oxidation, and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to acid, base hydrolysis, oxidation, and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of the said drug. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and dosage forms.

  20. Concentrations and inactivation of Ascaris eggs and pathogen indicator organisms in wastewater stabilization pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K L

    2003-01-01

    During treatment in wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) many pathogens, in particular helminth eggs, are concentrated in the sludge layer. Because periodic removal of the sludge is often required, information is needed on the concentrations and inactivation of pathogens in the sludge layer to evaluate the public health risk they pose upon removal of the sludge. In this paper, previous reports on the sludge concentrations of various pathogen indicator organisms and helminth eggs are reviewed and results from our own recent experiments are reported. The advantages and disadvantages of several methods for studying inactivation in the sludge layer are discussed, as well as implications for the management of WSP sludge. In our recent experiments, which were conducted at three WSPs in central Mexico, sludge cores, dialysis chambers, and batch experiments were used to measure the inactivation rates of fecal coliform bacteria, fecal enterococci, F+ coliphage, somatic coliphage, and Ascaris eggs. The first-order inactivation rate constants were found to be approximately 0.1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001 d(-1), respectively. The concentrations of all the organisms were found to vary both vertically and horizontally in the sludge layer; therefore, to determine the maximum and average concentration of organisms in the sludge layer of a WSP, complete sludge cores must be collected from representative locations throughout the pond. PMID:14510198

  1. Stability-indicating polarographic determination of acyclovir through chelation with nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Sheribah, Zeinab A; El-Brashy, Amina M; El-Gamal, Rania M

    2009-01-01

    A simple and sensitive, stability-indicating polarographic method was developed for the determination of acyclovir (ACV) in raw materials and dosage forms. The proposed method relies on the chelation of ACV with nickel(II) in Britton Robinson buffer (pH 5) and measuring the resulting polarographic wave either in the direct current (DCt) or differential pulse (DPP) modes. The polarographic wave has been characterized as being catalytic reduction prewave. Different experimental parameters affecting the formation of the Ni-ACV chelate and its polarographic activity were studied and optimized. The current concentration relationship was found to be linear over the range of 0.8-8 and 1-8 microg/mL, with minimum detectabilities of 0.10 and 0.19 microg/mL using DPP and DCt modes, respectively. The method was used to investigate the kinetics of the acid-induced degradation of the drug. The apparent first-order rate constants and half-life times were calculated. PMID:19485200

  2. Stability-indicating spectrofluorometric method for the determination of some cephalosporin drugs via their degradation products.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Nadia M; Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Weshahy, Soheir A; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Boltia, Shereen A

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating spectrofluorometric method was investigated for the determination of three cephalosporin drugs, namely, cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD), cefixime trihydrate (CFX), and cefepime hydrochloride (CPM), via their acid and alkali degradation products. The three drugs were determined via their acid degradation at 432, 422, and 435 nm using an excitation wavelength of 310, 330, and 307 nm for CPD, CFX, and CPM determination, respectively, and via their alkali degradation at 407, 411, and 405 nm using an excitation wavelength of 310, 305, and 297 nm for CPD, CFX, and CPM determination, respectively. Linearity was achieved in the ranges of 0.35-3.50, 0.4-4.0, and 0.3-3.0 ?g/mL for the acid degradation products of CPD, CFX, and CPM, respectively, and in ranges of 0.05-0.5, 0.1-1.0, and 0.08-0.80 ?g/mL for the alkali degradation products of CPD, CFX, and CPM, respectively. The method was validated for various parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these cephalosporin drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. The results obtained by the proposed spectrofluorometric method were compared with good agreement to the official HPLC method. PMID:25905742

  3. A stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of morphine and naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Jafari-Nodoushan, Milad; Barzin, Jalal; Mobedi, Hamid

    2016-02-01

    This study developed a stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride content in bulk, Solid dosage forms and in-vitro dissolution samples to support product development and quality control efforts. Chromatographic separation of the pharmaceutical compound was achieved on a perfectSil MZ C18 column (2504.6mm, 5?m) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetate buffer (10mM, pH 4, containing 0.1% of 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt) and acetonitrile with 80/20 at a flow rate of 1.5mlmin(-1). Both analytes were quantified using a photodiode array detector set at a wavelength of 280nm and column temperature was set to 30C. naltrexone, morphine and a mixture of the two were subjected to thermal, peroxide, acid, base and photolytic degradation and their peak homogeneity was obtained using a photodiode array detector, demonstrating the specificity of method. These pharmaceuticals were spiked in biological fluid to examine method selectivity. The method was validated for system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits and robustness and was found it is acceptable in range of 2-250?gml(-1) for morphine and 4-100?gml(-1) for naltrexone. PMID:26773883

  4. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Montelukast and Fexofenadine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Pankhaniya, Mona; Patel, Parula; Shah, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride, using a Lichrospher 100, RP-18e column and a mobile phase composed of methanol:0.1% o-phosphoric acid (90:10 v/v), pH 6.8. The retention times of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be 10.16 and 12.03 min, respectively. Linearity was established for montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in the range of 2-10 ?g/ml and 24-120 ?g/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be in the range of 99.09 and 99.81%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic, and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in bulk drugs and formulations. PMID:24082344

  5. Stability Indicating LC-Method for Estimation of Paracetamol and Lornoxicam in Combined Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dimal A.; Patel, Neel J.; Baldania, Sunil L.; Chhalotiya, Usman K.; Bhatt, Kashyap K.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, specific and stability indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam in tablet dosage form. A Brownlee C-18, 5 ?m column having 2504.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate:methanol (40:60, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 266 nm. The retention times of paracetamol and lornoxicam were 2.7 min and 5.1 min, respectively. The linearity for paracetamol and lornoxicam were in the range of 5200 ?g/ml and 0.0820 ?g/ml, respectively. Paracetamol and lornoxicam stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation and dry heat degradation. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of paracetamol and lornoxicam in combined tablet dosage form. PMID:21617776

  6. A Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Fluvoxamine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Souri, Effat; Donyayi, Hassan; khaniha, Reza Ahmad; Barazandeh Tehrani, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Fluvoxamine maleate is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which is used for the treatment of different types of depressive disorders. In the present study, a stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of fluvoxamine maleate. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a Nova-Pak CN column and a mixture of K2HPO4 50 mM (pH 7.0) and acetonitrile (60: 40, v/v) as the mobile phase. Target compounds were detected using a UV detector set at 235 nm. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 1-80 μg/ml with acceptable precision (CV values < 2.0%) and accuracy (error values < 1.6%). The degradation studies showed that fluvoxamine maleate is relatively unstable under acidic, basic and oxidative conditions and also when exposed to UV radiation. On the other hand, the bulk powder of fluvoxamine maleate was relatively stable when exposed to visible light or heat. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of active ingredient of fluvoxamine dosage form without any interference from tablet excipients. PMID:26664372

  7. Stability-Indicating HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Flurbiprofen and Chloramphenicol in Ophthalmic Solution.

    PubMed

    Sadakwala, Vaishnavi M; Chauhan, Renu S; Shah, Shailesh A; Shah, Dinesh R

    2016-01-01

    A specific, accurate and reproducible stability-indicating high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the estimation of flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol in the presence of their degradation products. Degradation studies of both the drugs were carried out in acidic, alkaline, neutral, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. Separation was performed on thin layer chromatography plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using ethyl acetate : n-hexane : methanol : tri-ethyl amine (5 : 4 : 2 : 0.5, v/v/v/v). Spots at retention factor 0.29 and 0.62 were recognized as flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol, respectively, and were quantified through densitometric measurements at wavelength 267 nm. Method was found to be linear over the concentration range 12-60 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 for flurbiprofen and 200-1,000 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.9977 for chloramphenicol. The proposed method was applied to the estimation of flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol in commercial ophthalmic formulation. The developed HPTLC method can be applied for routine analysis of flurbiprofen and chloramphenicol in the presence of their degradation products in their individual as well as combined pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:26202584

  8. Spectrofluorimetric methods of stability-indicating assay of certain drugs affecting the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, B. A.; Mohamed, M. F.; Youssef, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    Two stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the determination of ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil, drugs affecting the cardiovascular system, and validated in the presence of their degradation products. The first method, for ezetimibe, is based on an oxidative coupling reaction of ezetimibe with 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone hydrochloride in the presence of cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate in an acidic medium. The quenching effect of ezetimibe on the fluorescence of excess cerous ions is measured at the emission wavelength, λem, of 345 nm with the excitation wavelength, λex, of 296 nm. Factors affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The second method, for olmesartan medoxomil, is based on measuring the native fluorescence intensity of olmesartan medoxomil in methanol at λem = 360 nm with λex = 286 nm. Regression plots revealed good linear relationships in the assay limits of 10-120 and 8-112 g/ml for ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil, respectively. The validity of the methods was assessed according to the United States Pharmacopeya guidelines. Statistical analysis of the results exposed good Student's t-test and F-ratio values. The introduced methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil in drug substances and drug products as well as in the presence of their degradation products.

  9. Stress Degradation Studies on Varenicline Tartrate and Development of a Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Pujeri, Sudhakar S.; Khader, Addagadde M. A.; Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid and stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of varenicline tartrate (VRT) in the presence of its degradation products generated from forced decomposition studies. The HPLC separation was achieved on a C18 Inertsil column (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d. particle size is 5 ?m) employing a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer containing trifluoroacetic acid (0.02M; pH 4) and acetonitrile in gradient program mode with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min?1. The UV detector was operated at 237 nm while column temperature was maintained at 40 C. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and limit of quantification. The method was found to be simple, specific, precise and accurate. Selectivity of the proposed method was validated by subjecting the stock solution of VRT to acidic, basic, photolysis, oxidative and thermal degradation. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.1192 ?g mL?1 (R2 = 0.9994). The peaks of degradation products did not interfere with that of pure VRT. The utility of the developed method was examined by analyzing the tablets containing VRT. The results of analysis were subjected to statistical analysis. PMID:22396908

  10. Stability-Indicating HPTLC Method for Studying Stress Degradation Behavior of Sulbutiamine HCl.

    PubMed

    Farid, Nehal F; Abdelwahab, Nada S

    2016-04-01

    Sulbutiamine (SUL) is an ester of thiazides with neurotropic action. A new stability indicating HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of SUL in the presence of different degradation products. The drug was subjected to different stress conditions following ICH strategy such as hydrolytic degradation (neutral, alkaline and acidic hydrolysis), oxidation, photodegradation and dry heat degradation. The drug demonstrated degradation under all decomposition conditions except neutral hydrolysis and dry heat, where the drug was completely degraded with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 N HCl and 30% H2O2 while it was partially degradaed by 0.1 N HCl, 3% H2O2 and UV light. Structure elucidation of the resulting degradation products was performed using ESI-Q-MS-MS. A well-defined peak for SUL was obtained at Rf = 0.46 and was completely separated from all obtained degradation products. Chromatographic separation was carried out on HPTLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using acetone-methylene chloride-ammonia buffer (pH 8.5 ± 0.2) (7:3:0.5, v/v) as a developing system. Densitometric scanning of the separated peaks was performed at 254 nm. System suitability testing parameters were calculated to ascertain the quality performance of the developed method. The method was validated with respect to USP guidelines regarding accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and ruggedness. Good correlation coefficients were achieved in the range of 0.4-5.0 µg/band, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.11 and 0.33 µg/band, respectively. The utility of the suggested method was verified by application to Arcalion forte® tablets where no interference from additives was found. PMID:26759487

  11. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin

    PubMed Central

    Porel, A.; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 μl. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R2 >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup. PMID:22131621

  12. Stability-indicating micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the analysis of sumatriptan succinate in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Saad, Bahruddin; Tat, Chai Yuan; Mat, Ishak; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2011-12-15

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of sumatriptan succinate in pharmaceutical formulations was developed. The effects of several factors such as pH, surfactant and buffer concentration, applied voltage, capillary temperature, and injection time were investigated. Separation took about 5 min using phenobarbital as internal standard. The separation was carried out in reversed polarity mode at 20 C, 26 kV and using hydrodynamic injection for 10s. Separation was achieved using a bare fused-silica capillary 50 ?m40 cm and background electrolyte of 25 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate-adjusted with concentrated phosphoric acid to pH 2.2, containing 125 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and detection was at 226 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and selectivity. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 100-2000 ?g mL(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precision for migration time, peak area, corrected peak area, ratio of corrected peak area and ratio of peak area were less than 0.68, 3.48, 3.28, 2.97 and 2.83% and 2.01, 5.50, 4.46, 4.92 and 4.07%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determinations of the analyte in tablet. Forced degradation studies were conducted by introducing a sample of sumatriptan succinate standard solution to different forced degradation conditions using neutral (water), basic (0.1 M NaOH), acidic (0.1 M HCl), oxidative (10% H(2)O(2)) and photolytic (exposure to UV light at 254 nm for 2 h). It is concluded that the stability-indicating method for sumatriptan succinate can be used for the analysis of the drug in various samples. PMID:21873014

  13. Reduction of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in pig manure through fly ash and lime addition during alkaline stabilization.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2009-09-30

    A pilot scale study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lime and alkaline coal fly ash (CFA) on the reduction of pathogens in pig manure during alkaline stabilization and suppression of re-growth during post-stabilization incubation. Pig manure was mixed with CFA at 25%, 33% and 50%, and a control without fly ash was maintained. To these manure-ash mixtures, lime was added at the rate of 2% or 4% and incubated for 8 days. During the incubation, the population of Salmonella, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal Streptococcus and total bacteria were enumerated. After the alkaline stabilization process, the mixtures were incubated under green house condition to evaluate the re-growth of pathogens. During the 8-day alkaline stabilization, Salmonella, fecal coliforms, E. coli and fecal Streptococcus were completely devitalized in manure-ash-lime mixtures, whereas in the control, incubation reduced the pathogen and total bacterial population by 2-3 logs. Fecal streptococcus was destructed within 4 days of alkaline stabilization, whereas other pathogens needed 8 days for their destruction. During the incubation in green house, an increase in the population of the pathogens and total bacteria was observed. Results indicate that alkaline stabilization of pig manure with lime at 4% and CFA at 50% is effective in devitalizing the pathogens and reducing the post-stabilization re-growth. PMID:19442442

  14. Synthesis of tritium labelled endomorphin II and its stability in the radioreceptor assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tmbly, Cs.; Spetea, M.; Borsodi, A.; Tth, G.

    1999-01-01

    Endomorphine I (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin II (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are recently isolated neuropeptides. They have the highest specificity and affinity for the ?-opiate receptor among all the endogenous substances so far described, and they may be natural ligands for this receptor [1]. We prepared the [3H] endomorphin II with high specific radioactivity (53.4 Ci/mmol) by catalytic dehalotritiation. The precursor [(3,5-I2)Tyr1]-endomorphin II was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis using Boc chemistry. Labelled endomorphin II was used to investigate its binding properties in rat brain membrane. The stability of [3H]endomorphin II toward enzymatic degradation in membrane preparation was examined by RP-HPLC and by using a radioactivity detector.

  15. Synthesis of tritium labelled endomorphin II and its stability in the radioreceptor assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tömböly, Cs.; Spetea, M.; Borsodi, A.; Tóth, G.

    1999-01-01

    Endomorphine I (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin II (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are recently isolated neuropeptides. They have the highest specificity and affinity for the μ-opiate receptor among all the endogenous substances so far described, and they may be natural ligands for this receptor [1]. We prepared the [3H] endomorphin II with high specific radioactivity (53.4 Ci/mmol) by catalytic dehalotritiation. The precursor [(3,5-I2)Tyr1]-endomorphin II was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis using Boc chemistry. Labelled endomorphin II was used to investigate its binding properties in rat brain membrane. The stability of [3H]endomorphin II toward enzymatic degradation in membrane preparation was examined by RP-HPLC and by using a radioactivity detector.

  16. GO annotation in InterPro: why stability does not indicate accuracy in a sea of changing annotations.

    PubMed

    Sangrador-Vegas, Amaia; Mitchell, Alex L; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Yong, Siew-Yit; Finn, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The removal of annotation from biological databases is often perceived as an indicator of erroneous annotation. As a corollary, annotation stability is considered to be a measure of reliability. However, diverse data-driven events can affect the stability of annotations in both primary protein sequence databases and the protein family databases that are built upon the sequence databases and used to help annotate them. Here, we describe some of these events and their consequences for the InterPro database, and demonstrate that annotation removal or reassignment is not always linked to incorrect annotation by the curator.Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro. PMID:26994912

  17. GO annotation in InterPro: why stability does not indicate accuracy in a sea of changing annotations

    PubMed Central

    Sangrador-Vegas, Amaia; Mitchell, Alex L.; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Yong, Siew-Yit; Finn, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of annotation from biological databases is often perceived as an indicator of erroneous annotation. As a corollary, annotation stability is considered to be a measure of reliability. However, diverse data-driven events can affect the stability of annotations in both primary protein sequence databases and the protein family databases that are built upon the sequence databases and used to help annotate them. Here, we describe some of these events and their consequences for the InterPro database, and demonstrate that annotation removal or reassignment is not always linked to incorrect annotation by the curator. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro PMID:26994912

  18. Stability and maturity of biowaste composts derived by small municipalities: Correlation among physical, chemical and biological indices.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Torres-Lozada, P; Marmolejo-Rebellon, L F; Hoyos, L V; Gonzales, S; Barrena, R; Komilis, D; Sanchez, A

    2015-10-01

    Stability and maturity are important criteria to guarantee the quality of a compost that is applied to agriculture or used as amendment in degraded soils. Although different techniques exist to evaluate stability and maturity, the application of laboratory tests in municipalities in developing countries can be limited due to cost and application complexities. In the composting facilities of such places, some classical low cost on-site tests to monitor the composting process are usually implemented; however, such tests do not necessarily clearly identify conditions of stability and maturity. In this article, we have applied and compared results of stability and maturity tests that can be easily employed on site (i.e. temperature, pH, moisture, electrical conductivity [EC], odor and color), and of tests that require more complex laboratory techniques (volatile solids, C/N ratio, self-heating, respirometric index, germination index [GI]). The evaluation of the above was performed in the field scale using 2 piles of biowaste applied compost. The monitoring period was from day 70 to day 190 of the process. Results showed that the low-cost tests traditionally employed to monitor the composting process on-site, such as temperature, color and moisture, do not provide consistent determinations with the more complex laboratory tests used to assess stability (e.g. respiration index, self-heating, volatile solids). In the case of maturity tests (GI, pH, EC), both the on-site tests (pH, EC) and the laboratory test (GI) provided consistent results. Although, stability was indicated for most of the samples, the maturity tests indicated that products were consistently immature. Thus, a stable product is not necessarily mature. Conclusively, the decision on the quality of the compost in the installations located in developing countries requires the simultaneous use of a combination of tests that are performed both in the laboratory and on-site. PMID:26216503

  19. Ab-initio simulations of chemical stability indicators of the bis-DGA-type molecule and its radiation degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Koubsky, T.; Kalvoda, L.; Drab, M.

    2013-07-01

    For hydrometallurgical treatment of the high level liquid waste (HLLW) in the DIAMEX and SANEX processes, organic compounds of the bis-DGA family are used as cation extractants in apolar solvents. For the compound of m-xylylene-bis-diglycolamide high distribution coefficients for Eu and Am were found. Since the environment of the process is highly radioactive and acidic (nitric acid), it is necessary to ensure the stability of the extractants. In order to analyse the process theoretically, the molecule of m-xylylene-bis- diglycolamide and two of its degradation products were simulated by the DFT computational methods (PBE, RPBE, BLYP, B3LYP) available within the simulation environment DMol{sup 3} 6.1 and Gaussian 09 software. The local chemical stability of some locations of the molecule was assessed from the calculated stability indicators (electrostatic potential, Fukui function, HOMO localization). In connection with the chemical treatment, especially the stability against an electrophilic attack was tested. The results of calculated bond orders and spatial distribution of electrostatic potential and HOMO were are successfully correlated with the local and general stability determined by the experiment. These results should be helpful for the further development of the separation process. (authors)

  20. Synthesis, characterization and stability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer conjugate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiangdong; Shi, Xiangyang; Baker, James R

    2008-01-01

    Cancer targeting is crucial for cancer detection, therapy and targeted drug delivery. A dendrimer-peptide conjugate has been synthesized based on poly(amidoamine) dendrimer generation 5 (PAMAM G5) as a platform and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptide as a targeting moiety. The synthesized conjugate was fully characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV-Vis spectrometry, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Further stability experiments showed that the synthesized conjugate was stable after 72-h incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. The synthesized conjugate may find applications in biomedical targeting, gene delivery and imaging. PMID:18177559

  1. Survey of wastewater indicators and human pathogen genomes in biosolids produced by class a and class B stabilization treatments.

    PubMed

    Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the infectious aerosol risk associated with the land application of biosolids requires an in-depth knowledge of the magnitudes and changes in pathogen concentrations for a variety of class A and class B stabilization methods. The following survey used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture assays to detect environmentally resistant bacterial and viral pathogens and biosolid indicator organisms for 36 biosolid grab samples. Biosolids were collected from 14 U.S. states and included 16 class B mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) samples and 20 class A biosolid samples from temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), MAD plus composting (COM), and MAD plus heat pelletization processes. The indicator concentrations of fecal coliforms and male-specific coliphages as well as pathogen genome concentrations for human adenovirus species, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile were significantly lower in the class A samples, and a multivariate analysis of variance ranked the stabilization processes from the lowest pathogen/indicator load to the highest as (i) class A COM, (ii) class A TPAD, and (iii) class B MAD. Human adenovirus genomes were found in 88% of the class B samples and 70 to 100% of the class A samples. L. pneumophila, S. aureus, and C. difficile genomes were detected at the qPCR assay detection limits in 19 to 50% of the class B and class A anaerobic digestion samples, while L. pneumophila was detected in 50% of the class A compost samples. When considering all the stabilization methods, both the fecal coliform and the male-specific coliphage concentrations show a significant linear correlation with the pathogen genome concentrations. This survey provides the necessary pathogen concentrations to add to biosolid aerosol risk and pathogen exposure analyses and clarifies the effectiveness of class A stabilization methods with the pathogen and indicator loads in biosolids. PMID:18997022

  2. Survey of Wastewater Indicators and Human Pathogen Genomes in Biosolids Produced by Class A and Class B Stabilization Treatments ?

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the infectious aerosol risk associated with the land application of biosolids requires an in-depth knowledge of the magnitudes and changes in pathogen concentrations for a variety of class A and class B stabilization methods. The following survey used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture assays to detect environmentally resistant bacterial and viral pathogens and biosolid indicator organisms for 36 biosolid grab samples. Biosolids were collected from 14 U.S. states and included 16 class B mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) samples and 20 class A biosolid samples from temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), MAD plus composting (COM), and MAD plus heat pelletization processes. The indicator concentrations of fecal coliforms and male-specific coliphages as well as pathogen genome concentrations for human adenovirus species, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile were significantly lower in the class A samples, and a multivariate analysis of variance ranked the stabilization processes from the lowest pathogen/indicator load to the highest as (i) class A COM, (ii) class A TPAD, and (iii) class B MAD. Human adenovirus genomes were found in 88% of the class B samples and 70 to 100% of the class A samples. L. pneumophila, S. aureus, and C. difficile genomes were detected at the qPCR assay detection limits in 19 to 50% of the class B and class A anaerobic digestion samples, while L. pneumophila was detected in 50% of the class A compost samples. When considering all the stabilization methods, both the fecal coliform and the male-specific coliphage concentrations show a significant linear correlation with the pathogen genome concentrations. This survey provides the necessary pathogen concentrations to add to biosolid aerosol risk and pathogen exposure analyses and clarifies the effectiveness of class A stabilization methods with the pathogen and indicator loads in biosolids. PMID:18997022

  3. Removal of bacterial and viral faecal indicator organisms in a waste stabilization pond system in Choconta, Cundinamarca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Campos, C; Guerrero, A; Crdenas, M

    2002-01-01

    A major objective for domestic wastewater treatment using waste stabilization pond systems is the removal of pathogenic microorganisms. Traditional evaluation parameters for faecal contamination are the total and faecal coliforms. However, epidemiological studies, environmental resistance and the behaviour in the treatment systems, show that viruses are an important disease agent and even more resistant to disinfection than bacteria. Therefore, it is important to introduce viruses as a faecal indicator and to compare them with the traditional bacterial indicators. A waste stabilization pond system was evaluated in the municipality of Chocont, Cundinamarca (Colombia), for the removal of faecal indicators (such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens) and viruses like F+, somatic and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The system includes two facultative ponds in series with a flow of 1555 m3/day. Samples were collected at the entrance of the system, in the two ponds and from the final effluent. Results show a decrease between 0.3 and 4.7 logarithmic units in the bacterial indicators and between 1 and 4.6 logarithmic units with viral indicators. PMID:11833732

  4. In vitro availability of trimethylphloroglucinol and its degradation product from dosage formulations by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2005-10-01

    A simple, sensitive, reliable, and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phloroglucinol and trimethyl phloroglucinol has been developed. Acetonitrile-water (1:1 v/v) was used as mobile phase, with flow rate 2 ml/minutes. pH was adjusted to 3 with phosphoric acid. U.V detection was performed at 242 nm. The results obtained showed a good agreement with the declared content. Recovery values for phloroglucinol were from 99.91% to 100.62% and recovery values for trimethylphloroglucinol were from 98.44% to 100.04%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and selective, it may be used for the quantitative analysis of phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol. The method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and reliable for the determination of phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol in the form of raw materials, in bulk drugs and formulation. It was possible to determine both phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol in the concentration range of 5 nano gram to 30 nano grams. The detection limit of both phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol were 0.4 nano gram. PMID:16380351

  5. Simultaneous RP-HPLC and HPTLC Estimation of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride and Olanzapine in Tablet Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal; Patel, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    A binary mixture of fluoxetine HCl and olanzapine was determined by two different methods. The first method involved determination of fluoxetine HCl and olanzapine using reversed-phase liquid chromatography using acetonitrile:methanol:0.032 M ammonium acetate buffer (45:05:50, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Quantitation was achieved with ultraviolet detection at 235 nm over concentration ranges of 0.2-4 and 0.1-2 ?g/ml; mean accuracies were 101.160.59 and 99.790.56% for fluoxetine HCL and olanzapine, respectively. The second method was based on the high performance thin layer chromatography separation of the two drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their spots at 235 nm. The separation was carried out on Merck TLC aluminium sheets of silica gel 60 F254 using acetone:methanol:triethyleamine (5:3:0.5, v/v/v), as mobile phase. The linearity was found to be in the range of 3001000 and 150500 ng/spot; mean accuracies were 100.950.52 and 99.310.51% for fluoxetine HCl and olanzapine, respectively. The method was successively applied to tablets because no chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found. The methods retained their accuracy and precision when the standard addition technique was applied. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were statistically analyzed. PMID:20502563

  6. Sorption of certain isatins on various sorbents under RP-HPLC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, A. V.; Shafigulin, R. V.; Il'in, M. M.; Davankov, V. A.; Bulanova, A. V.; Purygin, P. P.

    2013-06-01

    The results from chromatographic analysis of biologically active isatin derivatives on hyper-crosslinked polystyrene (HCLPS) and silica gel modified by octadecyl groups (SilC18) are presented. The constants of distribution of sorbates between a mobile phase and the investigated sorbents ( K x ) and the changes in the standard differential molar Gibbs energies of adsorption (Δ _a bar G^circ ) are calculated, along with the chromatographic retention-physicochemical property of sorbate dependences. It is found that the equations describing these dependences have high forecasting ability with respect to the values of retention factors of the investigated sorbates.

  7. Fluconazol method validation by RP-HPLC for determination in biological skin matrices.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Alessandra C; Vianna-Soares, Cristina D; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2007-01-01

    The bis-triazole antifungal fluconazole (FCZ) is used in the systemic treatment of superficial mycoses. The inconvenience of drug interactions and incidence of adverse reactions occurs in approximately 16% of patients, despite several advantages against systemic fungal infections. Because its pharmacokinetics profile is favorable to cutaneous accumulation, it presents a prominent importance in the treatment of superficial mycoses. This study shows FCZ method validation by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in the linear range of 2 to 32 microg/mL, which suitable for application in biological matrices after topical permeation studies. The method is tested in simulated FCZ alcoholic solution applied to skin extracts after in vitro permeation studies using Franz cells. Recovery shows good results (in the range 75.0% +/- 4.1% to 82.0% +/- 6.6%) regarding the biological matrices. PMID:17555639

  8. [Simultaneous determination of six alkaloids in Coptis chinensis of different regions by RP-HPLC].

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhipeng; Zheng, Haijie; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Weizao; Qu, Xianyou

    2010-10-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatrorrhizine, columbamine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and berberine in Coptis chinensis was developed. Analysis was carried out on an Xtimate C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) eluted with acetonitrile-30 mmol x L(-1) ammonium bicarbonate solution (including 0.7% ammonia and 0.1% triethylamine) by gradient elution. The detective wavelength was 270 nm, the column temperature was 30 degrees C, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). By the above method, the linear ranges of gatrorrhizine, columbamine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and berberine were 0.85-16.96 (r = 0.9997), 1.25-24.96 (r = 0.999 5), 2.05-40.96 (r = 0.999 9), 3.65-72.96 (r = 0.999 9), 2.88-57.60 (r = 0. 999 8),13.25-264.96 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 6), respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) of the six alkaloids were 101.6% (RSD 1.3%),102.5% (RSD 1.5%), 100.8% (RSD 1.9%),102. 6% (RSD 1.2%), 97.80% (RSD 1.3%), 99.01% (RSD 1.5%), respectively. The determined results demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the contents of six alkaloids and total alkaloids among the tested samples. The method is accurate, reliable and repeatable for simultaneous determination of gatrorrhizine, columbamine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and berberine in C. chinensis. PMID:21174768

  9. Quantification of Aconitum alkaloids in aconite roots by a modified RP-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ying; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Cai, Xiong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Liu, Liang

    2005-01-01

    The three Aconitum alkaloids, aconitine (1), mesaconitine (2) and hypaconitine (3), are pharmacologically active but also highly toxic. A standardised method is needed for assessing the levels of these alkaloids in aconite roots in order to ensure the safe use of these plant materials as medicinal herbs. By optimising extraction, separation and measurement conditions, a reliable, reproducible and accurate method for the quantitative determination of all three Aconitum alkaloids in unprocessed and processed aconite roots has been developed. This method should be appropriate for use in the quality control of Aconitum products. The three Aconitum alkaloids were separated by a modified HPLC method employing a C18 column gradient eluted with acetonitrile and ammonium bicarbonate buffer. Quantification of Aconitum alkaloids, detected at 240 nm, in different batches of samples showed that the content of 1, 2 and 3 varied significantly. In general, the alkaloid content of unprocessed roots was higher than that of processed roots. These variations were considered to be the result of differences in species, processing methods and places of origin of the samples. PMID:16315485

  10. Regularities of Anthocyanins Retention in RP HPLC for “Water–Acetonitrile–Phosphoric Acid” Mobile Phases

    PubMed Central

    Deineka, V. I.; Deineka, L. A.; Saenko, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of exchange of HCOOH (System 2) by phosphoric acid (System 1) for acidification of the “acetonitrile–water” mobile phases for reversed-phase HPLC of anthocyanins was investigated in the framework of relative retention analysis. The differences and similarities of anthocyanins separation were revealed. It has been shown that some common features of the quantitative relationships may be used for preliminary anthocyanins structure differentiation, according to the number of OH-groups in anthocyanidin backbone as well as to a number of saccharide molecules in glycoside radicals in position 3 of the anthocyanin without MS detection. PMID:25692073

  11. RP-HPLC Estimation of Imipramine Hydrochloride and Diazepam in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, D.; Raju, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in pharmaceutical formulations. The elution was done in isocratic mode utilizing a mobile phase consisting of methanol:water:0.1M sodium acetate (30:50:20 v/v/v) on Chromosil C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and with detection at 243 nm. The measured retention time was 3.33±0.02 min for imipramine hydrochloride and 4.64±0.02 min for diazepam. Linearity was measured in the range 25-150 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride (r2=0.999) and in the range 5-30 μg/ml for diazepam (r2=0.9994), respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride and 0.02 and 0.07 μg/ml for diazepam. Satisfactory validation was also obtained from recovery (100.95-101.52% for imipramine hydrochloride and 99.47-100.33% for diazepam) studies, intraday and interday precision (<2%) and robustness results. The reported method was the first study of these drugs in combination and could be employed for routine quantitative determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets. PMID:26180281

  12. Analysis of RP-HPLC loading conditions for maximizing peptide identifications in shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Amelia; Hohmann, Laura; Huang, Li; Kim, Bong; Eng, Jimmy K.; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial energy and resources have been invested in improving mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, up-stream sample preparation protocols, and database search strategies to maximize peptide and protein identifications. The role of HPLC sample loading methods in maximizing MS identifications has been largely overlooked, and there exists an immense heterogeneity in the methods employed in the proteomics literature. We sought to optimize loading methods by testing multiple loading conditions (buffer composition, resin, initial gradient) using tryptic digests of an 18 protein mixture and whole yeast lysate. The loading buffer acetonitrile (ACN) concentration greatly affected peptide identifications: up to a 26% increase in peptide identifications was observed by decreasing the ACN concentration from 5% to 2% during sample loading. Hydrophilic peptides were the main contributors to the increase in peptide identifications and, at higher ACN concentrations, were washed from the pre-column during desalting. Sampling of the hydrophilic peptides was enhanced by using a shallow initial ACN gradient. The results were found to be resin-specific and not generalizable. Our investigation demonstrates the often unappreciated importance of optimizing sample loading conditions to reflect the aims of the research and the characteristics of the LC configurations employed. PMID:19601632

  13. [Determination of puerarin in gegen ginlian tablets by RP-HPLC].

    PubMed

    Tan, S; Qiu, X; Li, G; Zhao, B; Liang, Y

    1996-12-01

    A quantitative method was developed for the determination of puerarin in Gegen Qinglian Tablets by reversed phase HPLC. Chromatographic conditions included column ODS-C18, column temperature: 35 C, UV detector: 250 nm, mobile phase: EtOH-H2O (23:77), flow rate: 1 ml/min. The number of theoretical plates calculated for puerarin peak was no less than 2000. The standard curve was linear in the concentration range of 5-80 micrograms/ml, and the correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The average recovery and the relative standard deviation were 97.6% and 1.8% respectivily. PMID:9812678

  14. RP-HPLC and UV Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Pirfenidone in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, V. K.; Desai, S. B.; Vaja, T.

    2014-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic and UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of pirfenidone, a novel antifibrotic agent used in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Chromatography was carried out by isocratic technique on a reversed-phase C18 Zorbax Eclipse plus column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water (35:65 %v/v) at flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The UV spectrophotometric determinations were performed at 317 nm using methanol as a solvent. The proposed methods were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. The linearity range for pirfenidone was 0.2-5.0 and 3-25 ?g/ml for HPLC and UV method, respectively. Both the methods were accurate and precise with recoveries in the range of 98 and 102 % and relative standard deviation <2 %. The developed methods were successfully applied for determination of pirfenidone in tablets. PMID:25035534

  15. Increasing Proteome Coverage with Offline RP HPLC Coupled to Online RP NanoLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Emine; Andrews, Genna L.; Dean, Ralph A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Fractionation prior to mass spectrometry is an indispensable step in proteomics. In this paper we report the success of performing offline reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation on a C18 2.0 mm 150 mm column at the peptide level with microliter per minute flow rates prior to online nano-flow reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) using the well-studied fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A C18 75 m 150 mm column was used online and the online elution gradients for each fraction were adjusted in order to obtain well resolved separation. Comparing this method directly to only performing nanoLC-MS we observed a 61.6% increase in the number of identified proteins. At a 1% false discovery rate 1028 proteins were identified using two dimensions of RPLC versus 636 proteins identified in a single nano-flow separation. The majority of proteins identified by one dimension of nano-LC were present in the proteins identified in our two dimensional strategy. Although increasing analysis time, this non-orthogonal and facile pre-fractionation method affords a more comprehensive examination of the proteome. PMID:21342794

  16. A Sensitive RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Diethylcarbamazine and Levocetirizine in Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, J Mahesh; Jeyaprakash, M R; Madhuri, K; Meyyanathan, S N; Elango, K

    2011-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of diethylcarbamazine and levocetirizine in its tablet formulation by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using Waters1515 HPLC with UV detector at the ?(max) of 224 nm, using Princeton Sphere-100 C(18) (2504.6 mm. 5 ?) column. The mobile phase used was 20mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH: 3.2):acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) with isocratic flow (flow rate 1 ml/min) and the pH was adjusted with orthophosphoric acid. Losartan potassium was used as an internal standard. The compounds diethylcarbamazine, levocetirizine and losartan potassium were eluted at 2.12, 4.27 and 5.96 min, respectively. The peaks were eluted with better resolution. The method was accurate with assay values of 96.32 and 93.04% w/w, precise (%RSD) with intra-day 1.72 and 1.89 and inter-day 1.85 and 1.92, recoveries 102.86 and 101.1% w/w, which are very sensitive with limit of detections (LOD)'s 75, 50 ng/ml and limit of quantification (LOQ)'s 100, 75 ng/ml and linear with R(2) values 0.994 in the range of 5 to 30 ?g/ml 0.1 to 1 ?g/ml for diethylcarbamazine and levocetirizine, respectively. Hence this method can be applied for quantification of different formulations containing diethylcarbamazine and levocetirizine simultaneously. PMID:22457560

  17. Comparison of retention properties of stationary phases imitated cell membrane in RP HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bocian, Szymon; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

    2015-05-15

    Chromatographic properties of two columns was compared: commercial IAM.PC.DD2 that imitates the cell membrane and home-made Amino-P-C18 (N,O-dialkylphosphoramidate C18). The comparison has been done by correlation of retention (logkw parameters) of a series of solutes: hydrophobic (alkyl benzene derivatives and PAHs) and polar, with both acidic (flavonoids) and basic (nucleosides and nucleic bases) character. The slope of correlation plots for hydrophobic compounds and polar basic was very close to 1.0 that confirms the chromatographic similarity. Only for flavonoids the slope of correlation plot was 1.5. For hydrophobic compound retention parameters logkw were also correlated with hydrophobic parameter logP with very good determination coefficients. PMID:25899871

  18. A Stability-indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Assay for the Simultaneous Determination of Atenolol and Lercanidipine Hydrochloride in Tablets.

    PubMed

    Kaila, H O; Ambasana, M A; Thakkar, R S; Saravaia, H T; Shah, A K

    2011-07-01

    A simple, rapid, precise and accurate isocratic reversed phase stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of atenolol and lercanidipine hydrochloride in commercial tablets. The chromatographic separation was achieved on phenomenex Gemini C18 (2504.6 mm, 5 ?m) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and buffer (20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 3.5) in the ratio of (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 235 nm. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 40-160 ?g/ml (r(2)=0.9995) for atenolol and 8-32 ?g/ml (r(2)=0.9993) for lercanidipine. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the detection of atenolol and lercanidipine and the assay can thus be considered stability-indicating. PMID:22707819

  19. Development, Optimization, and Validation of a Green and Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Determination of Daptomycin in Lyophilized Powder.

    PubMed

    Ttoli, Eliane Gandolpho; Salgado, Hrida Regina Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Daptomycin is an antimicrobial that plays an important role in clinical practice today because it is considered a promising drug to combat resistant strains, such as methicilin and vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Considering the analysis of daptomycin in a pharmaceutical dosage form, the only method found in literature uses potentially toxic organic solvents. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a green and stability-indicating HPLC method for determination of daptomycin in lyophilized powder. The mobile phase was ethanol-water (55+45, v/v) at pH 4.5 pumped at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. A C18 column was used, and UV detection was performed at 221 nm. Stress degradation studies were conducted in order to demonstrate the specificity and stability-indicating capability of the method. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, proving to be linear (r=0.9996), precise, accurate, robust (demonstrated by the Plackett-Burman model), and specific within the range 20-70 ?g/mL. The retention time of daptomycin was 5.8 min. It can be concluded that the validated method can be a fast, safe, and environmentally friendly alternative for the analysis of daptomycin. PMID:26525246

  20. Stability-indicating HPTLC method for simultaneous determination of nateglinide and metformin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Asha Byju; Patil, Shrikrushna Digambar; Nanda, Rabindra Kumar; Kothapalli, Lata Prasad; Bhosle, Shital Shridhar; Deshpande, Avinash Devidas

    2011-10-01

    A stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of two anti-diabetic drugs, nateglinide and metformin hydrochloride in co-formulations. Study was performed on pre-coated silica gel HPTLC plates using chloroform:ethyl acetate:acetic acid (4:6:0.1 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. A TLC scanner set at 216nm was used for direct evaluation of the chromatograms in the reflectance/absorbance mode. Method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The correlation coefficients of calibration curves were found to be 0.996 and 0.995 in the concentration range of 200-2400 and 500-3000ngband(-1) for nateglinide and metformin, respectively. The method had an accuracy of 99.72% for nateglinide and 100.08% for metformin hydrochloride. The method had the potential to determine these drugs simultaneously from dosage forms without any interference of the tablets excipients. Nateglinide and metformin hydrochloride were also subjected to acid, base, oxidation, wet, heat and photo-degradation studies. The degradation products obtained were well resolved from the pure drugs with significantly different Rf values. As the method could effectively separate the drugs from its degradation products, it can be used for stability-indicating analysis. PMID:23960763

  1. The unique stability of the photon indices in "dipping" Z-source GX 340+0 throughout spectral states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Frontera, Filippo

    We present an analysis of the spectral and timing properties of X-ray radiation from accreting neutron star source GX340+0 during its evolution when the electron temperature of the transition layer (TL) kTe monotonically decreases from 21 to 3 keV. We analyze episodes observed with BeppoSAX and RXTE. We reveal that the X-ray broadband energy spectra during all spectral states can be reproduced by a physical model composed of a soft Blackbody component and two Comptonized components (both due to the presence of the TL that upscatters both seed photons of T_s1?1 keV coming from the disk (first component Comptb1), and seed photons of temperature T_{s2}?1.5 keV coming from the neutron star (second component Comptb2) and the iron-line (Gaussian) component. Spectral analysis using this model indicates that the photon power-law indices Gamma_com1 and Gamma_{com2} of the Comptonized components are almost constant, Gamma_{com1} and Gamma_{com2} 2 when kTe changes from 3 to 21 keV along the Z-track. We interpret the detected quasi-stability of the indices of Comptonized components to be near a value of 2. Furthermore, this index stability now found for the Comptonized spectral components of Z-source GX340+0 is similar to that previously established in the atoll sources 4U1728-34, 4U1820-30 and GX3+1, and earlier proposed for a number of X-ray neutron stars (NSs). This behavior of NSs both for atoll and Z-sources is essentially different from that observed in black hole binaries where Gamma_{com} increases during a spectral evolution from the low state to the high state and ultimately saturates at a high mass accretion rate

  2. A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A simple, rapid, and accurate stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Results Optimum chromatographic separations among pheniramine maleate, naphazoline hydrochloride and stress-induced degradation products have been achieved within 10 minutes by using an Agilent zorbax eclipse XDB C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) as the stationary phase with a mobile phase consisted of 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.8 containing 0.5% triethlamine and methanol (68:32, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. Detection was performed at 280 nm using a diode array detector. Theoretical plates for pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride were calculated to be 6762 and 6475, respectively. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and quantitation. Regression analysis showed good correlations (R2 > 0.999) for pheniramine maleate in the concentration range of 150–1200 μg mL-1 and naphazoline hydrochloride in 12.5-100 μg mL-1. The method results in excellent separation of both the analytes and degradation products. The peak purity factor is ≥980 for both analytes after all types of stress, indicating complete separation of both analyte peaks from the stress induced degradation products. Conclusions Overall, the proposed stability-indicating method was suitable for routine quality control and drug analysis of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:24485011

  3. A Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Assay of Lercanidipine Hydrochloride in Tablets and for Determining Content Uniformity.

    PubMed

    Kaila, H O; Ambasana, M A; Thakkar, R S; Saravaia, H T; Shah, A K

    2010-05-01

    A simple, precise and accurate HPLC method has been developed and validated for assay of lercanidipine hydrochloride in tablets and for determination of content uniformity. An isocratic separation was achieved using a Chromasil YMC Pack C(8), 150 4.6 mm i.d., 5m particle size columns with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and using a UV detector to monitor the elute at 240 nm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.02 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer:methanol (35:65, v/v) with pH 3.5 adjusted with phosphoric acid. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, pre-cision, accuracy, robustness and solution stability. The specificity of the method was deter-mined by assessing interference from the placebo and by stress testing of the drug (forced degradation). The method was linear over the concentration range of 20-80 g/ml (r(2)= 0.9992) with a limit of detection and quantitation of 0.1 and 0.3 g/ml respectively. Intraday and interday system and method precision were determined and accuracy was between 99.3-101.9 %. The method was found to be robust and suitable for assay of lercanidipine hydrochloride in a tablet formulation and for determination of content uniformity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of lercanidipine hydrochloride and the assay is thus stability-indicating. PMID:21188053

  4. Development and Validation of a Stability-indicating UV Spectroscopic Method for Candesartan in Bulk and Formulations.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, K K; Mishra, U S; Pattnaik, S; Panda, C K; Sahu, K C

    2011-11-01

    A simple, specific, accurate and stability-indicating UV- Spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of candesartan cilexitil, using a Shimadzu, model 1700 spectrophotometer and a mobile phase composed of methanol: water in the ratio of 9:1 at wave length (?(max)) 254 nm. Linearity was established for candesartan in the range of 10-90 ?g/ml. The percentage recovery of was found to be in the range of 99.76-100.79%. The drug was subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, UV light and photolytic degradation. Validation experiments performed to demonstrate system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, interday assay, intraday assay, robustness, ruggedness, LOD, and LOQ. While estimating the commercial formulation there was no interference of excipients and other additives. Hence this method can be used for routine determination of candesartan cilexetil in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed method for stability study shows that there was appreciable degradation found in stress condition of candesartan. PMID:23112408

  5. Development and Validation of a Stability-indicating UV Spectroscopic Method for Candesartan in Bulk and Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, K. K.; Mishra, U. S.; Pattnaik, S.; Panda, C. K.; Sahu, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate and stability-indicating UV- Spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of candesartan cilexitil, using a Shimadzu, model 1700 spectrophotometer and a mobile phase composed of methanol: water in the ratio of 9:1 at wave length (?max) 254 nm. Linearity was established for candesartan in the range of 10-90 ?g/ml. The percentage recovery of was found to be in the range of 99.76-100.79%. The drug was subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, UV light and photolytic degradation. Validation experiments performed to demonstrate system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, interday assay, intraday assay, robustness, ruggedness, LOD, and LOQ. While estimating the commercial formulation there was no interference of excipients and other additives. Hence this method can be used for routine determination of candesartan cilexetil in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed method for stability study shows that there was appreciable degradation found in stress condition of candesartan. PMID:23112408

  6. Stability indicating validated HPLC method for quantification of levothyroxine with eight degradation peaks in the presence of excipients.

    PubMed

    Shah, R B; Bryant, A; Collier, J; Habib, M J; Khan, M A

    2008-08-01

    A simple, sensitive, accurate, and robust stability indicating analytical method is presented for identification, separation, and quantitation of l-thyroxine and eight degradation impurities with an internal standard. The method was used in the presence of commonly used formulation excipients such as butylated hydroxyanisole, povidone, crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, mannitol, sucrose, acacia, lactose monohydrate, confectionary sugar, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium laurel sulfate, magnesium stearate, talc, and silicon dioxide. The two active thyroid hormones: 3,3',5,5'-tetra-iodo-l-thyronine (l-thyroxine-T4) and 3,3',5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine (T3) and degradation products including di-iodothyronine (T2), thyronine (T0), tyrosine (Tyr), di-iodotyrosine (DIT), mono-iodotyrosine (MIT), 3,3',5,5'-tetra-iodothyroacetic acid (T4AA) and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyroacetic acid (T3AA) were assayed by the current method. The separation of l-thyroxine and eight metabolites along with theophylline (internal standard) was achieved using a C18 column (25 degrees C) with a mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%, v/v, pH 3)-acetonitrile in gradient elution at 0.8 ml/min at 223 nm. The sample diluent was 0.01 M methanolic NaOH. Method was validated according to FDA, USP, and ICH guidelines for inter-day accuracy, precision, and robustness after checking performance with system suitability. Tyr (4.97 min), theophylline (9.09 min), MIT (9.55 min), DIT (11.37 min), T0 (11.63 min), T2 (14.47 min), T3 (16.29 min), T4 (17.60 min), T3AA (22.71 min), and T4AA (24.83 min) separated in a single chromatographic run. Linear relationship (r2>0.99) was observed between the peak area ratio and the concentrations for all of the compounds within the range of 2-20 microg/ml. The total time for analysis, equilibration and recovery was 40 min. The method was shown to separate well from commonly employed formulation excipients. Accuracy ranged from 95 to 105% for T4 and 90 to 110% for all other compounds. Precision was <2% for all the compounds. The method was found to be robust with minor changes in injection volume, flow rate, column temperature, and gradient ratio. Validation results indicated that the method shows satisfactory linearity, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness and also stress degradation studies indicated that the method can be used as stability indicating method for l-thyroxine in the presence of excipients. PMID:18524511

  7. Folding Properties of Cytosine Monophosphate Kinase from E. coli Indicate Stabilization through an Additional Insert in the NMP Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Beitlich, Thorsten; Lorenz, Thorsten; Reinstein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The globular 25 kDa protein cytosine monophosphate kinase (CMPK, EC ID: 2.7.4.14) from E. coli belongs to the family of nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases (NMPK). Many proteins of this family share medium to high sequence and high structure similarity including the frequently found ?/? topology. A unique feature of CMPK in the family of NMPKs is the positioning of a single cis-proline residue in the CORE-domain (cis-Pro124) in conjunction with a large insert in the NMP binding domain. This insert is not found in other well studied NMPKs such as AMPK or UMP/CMPK. We have analyzed the folding pathway of CMPK using time resolved tryptophan and FRET fluorescence as well as CD. Our results indicate that unfolding at high urea concentrations is governed by a single process, whereas refolding in low urea concentrations follows at least a three step process which we interpret as follows: Pro124 in the CORE-domain is in cis in the native state (Nc) and equilibrates with its trans-isomer in the unfolded state (Uc - Ut). Under refolding conditions, at least the Ut species and possibly also the Uc species undergo a fast initial collapse to form intermediates with significant amount of secondary structure, from which the trans-Pro124 fraction folds to the native state with a 100-fold lower rate constant than the cis-Pro124 species. CMPK thus differs from homologous NMP kinases like UMP/CMP kinase or AMP kinase, where folding intermediates show much lower content of secondary structure. Importantly also unfolding is up to 100-fold faster compared to CMPK. We therefore propose that the stabilizing effect of the long NMP-domain insert in conjunction with a subtle twist in the positioning of a single cis-Pro residue allows for substantial stabilization compared to other NMP kinases with ?/? topology. PMID:24205218

  8. Development and Validation of Stability-Indicating Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Ketoconazole and Beauvericin in Pharmaceutical Tablets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Yang, Min; Zhao, Zhongxi; Luan, Yuxia; Tang, Xuan; Zhu, Meihua; Liu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of ketoconazole (KCZ) and beauvericin (BEA) as well as their degradation products in the combination tablets. KCZ is a synthetic broad-spectrum antifungal agent with the risk of hepatoxicity. However, it was found that the combined use of KCZ and BEA in their low dose had not only maintained the antifungal activity of KCZ but also significantly reduced the liver toxicity. The method development was started from forced degradation studies including acidic, basic, oxidative, thermal and photolytic degradations in the solution mixtures of KCZ and BEA. The forced degradation study results indicate that hydrolysis and oxidation were the major degradation pathways for KCZ while BEA mainly decomposed under basic hydrolytic condition. The newly developed HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification and robustness. The method validation results indicate that the new HPLC method could be successfully applied in the simultaneous detection and quantitation of KCZ and BEA and their degradation products. For example, the accuracy and the precision of the method were determined by a recovery study at 80, 100 and 120% of the tablet dosage levels. The recovery was found to be 99.6-100.2 for both analytes with a relative standard deviation of no more than 1.2% (n = 5) at any concentration level. This new method can be used for further development of various KCZ and BEA combination drug products. PMID:26486149

  9. Gradient HPLC-DAD stability indicating determination of miconazole nitrate and lidocaine hydrochloride in their combined oral gel dosage form.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek S; Haggag, Rim S

    2012-05-01

    The pharmaceutical combination of miconazole nitrate (MZ) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LD) is used in the curative and prophylactic therapy of the oral and gastro-intestinal infections caused by Candida albicans. To the best of our knowledge, no attempts have yet been made to assay this combination by any analytical method. A simple and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) stability-indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of MZ and LD in their combined formulation. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax SB-C8 column with gradient elution of the mobile phase composed of 0.05 M phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The gradient elution started with 25% (by volume) acetonitrile, ramped up linearly to 65% in 6 min, then kept constant until the end of the run. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The multiple wavelength detector was set at 215 nm and analytes were quantified by measuring their peak areas. The retention times for LD and MZ were approximately 4.1 and 8.4 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, selectivity, robustness, detection and quantification limits. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 5-100 g/ml for both drugs with correlation coefficients > 0.999. Both drugs were subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The proposed method proved to be stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from the related substance and potential impurity (2,6-dimethylaniline) and from the forced-degradation products. The validated HPLC method was applied to the analysis of MZ and LD in the combined oral gel preparation, in which the two analytes were successfully quantified and resolved from the pharmaceutical additives. The proposed method made use of DAD as a tool for peak identity and purity confirmation. PMID:22407005

  10. Development and validation of stability indicating HPLC and HPTLC methods for determination of sulpiride and mebeverine hydrochloride in combination.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Ibrahim A; Abdelkawy, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Validated sensitive and highly selective stability indicating methods are adopted for simultaneous quantitative determination of sulpiride and mebeverine hydrochloride in presence of their reported impurities and hydrolytic degradates whether in pure forms or in pharmaceutical formulation. The first method is High Performance Liquid Chromatography, where the mixture of sulpiride and mebeverine hydrochloride together with the reported interferents plus metopimazine as internal standard are separated on a reversed phase cyano column (5 microm ps, 250 mm x 4.6 id) using acetonitrile: water (70:30 v/v) adjusted to pH = 7 as a mobile phase. The drugs were detected at 221 nm over a concentration range of 5-40 microg ml(-1) and 5-60 microg ml(-1) with mean percentage recoveries 99.75% (S.D. 0.910) and 99.99% (S.D. 0.450) for sulpiride and mebeverine hydrochloride respectively. The second method is High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, where sulpiride and mebeverine hydrochloride are separated on silica gel HPTLC F(254) plates using absolute ethanol:methylene chloride:triethyl amine (7:3:0.2 by volume) as mobile phase and scanning of the separated bands at 221 nm over a concentration range of 0.4-1.4 and 0.2-1.6 microg band(-1) with mean percentage recoveries 101.01% (S.D. 1.991) and 100.40% (S.D. 1.868) for sulpiride and mebeverine hydrochloride respectively. PMID:20538381

  11. A validated stability-indicative UPLC method for nilotinib hydrochloride for the determination of process-related and degradation impurities.

    PubMed

    Kondra, Sudhakar Babu; Madireddy, Venkataramanna; Chilukuri, Mohanareddy; Papadasu, Narayanareddy; Jonnalagadda, Latha

    2014-09-01

    A novel stability-indicating ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for quantitative determination of nilotinib hydrochloride in active pharmaceutical ingredients along with four impurities (imp-1, imp-2, imp-3 and imp-4). The method is applicable to the quantification of related compounds and assay of nilotinib hydrochloride drug. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II, 75 3.0 mm, 1.8-m column with a gradient mobile phase combination. Quantification was carried at 260 nm at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). Stress degradation conditions were established for nilotinib hydrochloride by subjecting it to acid, base, oxidation, humidity, thermal and photolysis. The stress samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found close to 97.0%. The developed UPLC method was validated according to the present International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for specificity, detection limit, quantitation limit, linearity, accuracy, precision, intermediate precision and robustness. The resolution between nilotinib hydrochloride and four potential impurities is found to be >2.0. Regression analysis shows as r value (correlation coefficient) of >0.999 for nilotinib hydrochloride and four potential impurities. PMID:24029617

  12. New Stability-Indicating RP-UFLC Method for Determination of Trospium Chloride in Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sagar Suman; Ravi Kumar, Bera V. V.; Mohanta, Ganeswar; Dash, Rabisankar; Patel, Pinkal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple, precise, and accurate isocratic RP-UFLC stability-indicating assay method has been developed to determine trospium chloride in tablet dosage form. Isocratic separation was achieved on an Enable-C18G (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 μm) column at room temperature, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:0.01M TBAHS (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, the injection volume was 20 μl, and PDA detection was carried out at 215 nm. The drug was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and heat as stress conditions. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, and system suitability. The method was linear in the drug concentration range of 10–300 μg/ml with the correlation coefficient being 0.999. The RSD for repeatability and intermediate precision was well below 2%. The mean recoveries were between 100.52–101.68% for trospium chloride. PMID:23264942

  13. Quality by design (QbD) based development of a stability indicating HPLC method for drug and impurities.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, S; Garber, R; Genchanok, Y; George, S; Yang, X; Hammond, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an application of Quality by Design (QbD) concepts to the development of a stability indicating HPLC method for a complex pain management drug product containing drug substance, two preservatives, and their degradants is described. The QbD approach consisted of (i) developing a full understanding of the intended purpose, (ii) developing predictive solutions, (iii) designing a meaningful system suitability solution that helps to identify failure modes, and (iv) following design of experiments (DOE) approach. The starting method lacked any resolution among drug degradant and preservative oxidative degradant peaks, and peaks for preservative and another drug degradant. The method optimization was accomplished using Fusion AE software (S-Matrix Corporation, Eureka, CA) that follows a DOE approach. Column temperature (50 5C), mobile phase buffer pH (2.9 0.2), initial % acetonitrile (ACN, 2 1%), and initial hold time (2.5, 5, or 10 min) of the HPLC method were simultaneously studied to optimize separation of the unresolved peaks. The optimized HPLC conditions (column temperature of 50C, buffer pH of 3.1, 3% initial ACN with 2.5 min initial hold) resulted in fully resolved peaks in the two critical pairs. The QbD based method development helped in generating a design space and operating space with knowledge of all method performance characteristics and limitations and successful method robustness within the operating space. PMID:21682993

  14. Stability-indicating simultaneous determination of paracetamol and three of its related substances using a direct GC/MS method.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek; Awad, Tamer; Clark, C Randall

    2009-01-01

    A simple, direct, and selective stability-indicating GC/MS procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PR) and three of its related substances: 4-aminophenol (4-AP), acetanilide (AD), and 4'-chloroacetanilide (4-CA). The method involved resolution of the underivatized compounds using a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane (Rtx-1) column, and MS detection was carried out in the electron-impact mode. The four compounds were completely resolved in less than 11 min. The fragmentation pathways for the four compounds were described, and the structures of the major fragment ions peaks were proposed. Quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed method including linearity, range, precision, accuracy, and detection and quantification limits were statistically validated. Calibration curves were linear over the ranges 75-500, 25-350, 25-350, and 25-350 microg/mL for PR, 4-AP, AD, and 4-CA, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PR and its related substances in laboratory-prepared mixtures of different proportions. Also, it was applied for the assay of PR in several commercially available pharmaceutical formulations with recoveries of 98.95-100.76%. PMID:20166578

  15. Measuring sperm whales from their clicks: Stability of interpulse intervals and validation that they indicate whale length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhinelander, Marcus Q.; Dawson, Stephen M.

    2004-04-01

    Multiple pulses can often be distinguished in the clicks of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Norris and Harvey [in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 (1972), pp. 397-417] proposed that this results from reflections within the head, and thus that interpulse interval (IPI) is an indicator of head length, and by extrapolation, total length. For this idea to hold, IPIs must be stable within individuals, but differ systematically among individuals of different size. IPI stability was examined in photographically identified individuals recorded repeatedly over different dives, days, and years. IPI variation among dives in a single day and days in a single year was statistically significant, although small in magnitude (it would change total length estimates by <3%). As expected, IPIs varied significantly among individuals. Most individuals showed significant increases in IPIs over several years, suggesting growth. Mean total lengths calculated from published IPI regressions were 13.1 to 16.1 m, longer than photogrammetric estimates of the same whales (12.3 to 15.3 m). These discrepancies probably arise from the paucity of large (12-16 m) whales in data used in published regressions. A new regression is offered for this size range.

  16. Stability-indicating High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aminophylline and Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A.; Ahmed, M.; Mahmud, T.; Qadir, M. A.; Nadeem, K.; Saleem, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the development and validation of method for simultaneous determination of antihistaminic drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. A precise, specific and accurate reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of aminophylline and chlorpheniramine maleate was developed. The separation of drugs was achieved on C-18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) high-performance liquid chromatography column. The runtime for analysis was 10 min. Mobile phase is mixture containing dilute H2SO4:methanol (60:40% v/v) with flow rate adjusted at 1.5 ml/min. The detection of components was performed at a wavelength of 264 nm. Retention times of aminophylline and chlorphinramine maleate were found to be 2.00 and 3.25 min, respectively. Linearity was found in the range of 16-24 μg/ml for chlorpheniramine maleate and 102.4-153.6 μg/ml for aminophylline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and 0.9996, respectively. High peak purity index of 99.99% indicated the complete separation of analytes in the presence of degradation products is justification of method stability. Linearity, accuracy, specificity, precision and robustness studies were performed for method validation. PMID:26798164

  17. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimating Olmesartan Medoxomil Using Quality by Design.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Sharma, Gajanand; Katare, O P; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-08-01

    The current studies entail systematic quality by design (QbD)-based development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective stability-indicating method for the estimation of olmesartan medoxomil. Quality target method profile was defined and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) for the reverse-phase liquid chromatography method earmarked. Chromatographic separation accomplished on a C18 column using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH 3.5) in 40 : 60 (v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 243 nm. Risk assessment studies and screening studies facilitated comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting CAAs. The mobile phase ratio and flow rate were identified as critical method parameters (CMPs) and were systematically optimized using face-centered cubic design, evaluating for CAAs, namely peak area, retention time, theoretical plates and peak tailing. Statistical modelization was accomplished followed by response surface analysis for comprehending plausible interaction(s) among CMPs. Search for optimum solution was conducted through numerical and graphical optimization for demarcating the design space. Analytical method validation and subsequent forced degradation studies corroborated the method to be highly efficient for routine analysis of drug and its degradation products. The studies successfully demonstrate the utility of QbD approach for developing the highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method with enhanced method performance. PMID:25583970

  18. Quantification of halobetasol propionate and its impurities present in topical dosage forms by stability-indicating LC method.

    PubMed

    Nalwade, Santaji; Reddy, Vangala Ranga; Kulkarni, Dipak; Todamal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A novel, sensitive, stability-indicating, gradient, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative determination of halobetasol propionate and its impurities in topical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Synergi polar reverse phase, 250 4.6 mm, 4 m column. Mobile phase A comprises a mixture of 0.01 M KH2PO4 buffer containing 0.2% 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio 80:15:05 (v/v/v), respectively, and mobile phase B contains a mixture of 0.01 M KH2PO4 buffer containing 0.2% 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio 20:70:10 (v/v/v), respectively. The flow rate is 0.8 mL min(-1). The column compartment temperature is set at 40C and the detection wavelength is set at 240 nm. The resolutions between Halobetasol propionate and all the impurities are >2.0 for all pairs of compounds. The drug product was subjected to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-prescribed hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. The method is validated as per the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness. PMID:24784115

  19. Stability-indicating Reversed-phase Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Determination of Losartan Potassium and Ramipril in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Kollipara, S.; Bende, G.; Bansal, Y.; Saha, R.

    2012-01-01

    A stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of losartan potassium and ramipril. Separations were achieved using a C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and (0.2% v/v, pH 2.5) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (45:55, v/v) in isocratic mode at 1 ml/min flow rate. Column effluent was monitored at 210 nm using a UV detector. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and robustness. Novel microwave-assisted forced degradation technique was employed for evaluation of selectivity. The method demonstrated excellent linearity for losartan potassium and ramipril with regression coefficients of 0.9999 and 0.9998, respectively. The linearity range was found to be 62.5-5000 ng/ml and 125-10,000 ng/ml with the mean percentage recoveries of 100.36% (±2.27) and 100.16% (±3.33) for losartan potassium and ramipril, respectively. In a robustness study, a full factorial design revealed that the analytical response remains unaffected by small variations in the critical chromatographic factors. The method was found to be sensitive with quantification limits of 44.30 and 79.93 ng/ml for losartan potassium and ramipril. The method was successfully employed for the determination of losartan potassium and ramipril in commercially available and in-house prepared tablets. PMID:23440900

  20. Stability-indicating LC-UV method for the determination of eszopiclone and degradation impurities in tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Kabeer; Patil, Ashish; Gite, Sandeep

    2014-04-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of eszopiclone and related impurities in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil C18 column (250 4.6 mm, 5 m), using a mobile phase consisting of 0.05M monobasic sodium phosphate buffer containing 0.8% sodium lauryl sulfate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v), at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and temperature of 40C. Quantification was achieved with photodiode array detection at 303 nm. The described method showed excellent linearity over a range of limits of quantification to 4.8 g/mL (150% of specification limit; i.e., 3.2 g/mL). The drug product was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, thermal and photolytic degradation. Eszopiclone degradation was observed in acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis and peroxide stress conditions. Eszopiclone was stable in thermal and photolytic degradation conditions. The developed method is simple, selective and accurate for the quantification of impurities and degradation products of eszopiclone in tablet dosage form. PMID:23552846

  1. MoS2 and ReS2 Stabilities as Indicators of the Oxidation State on the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Anomalies in the geochemical abundances of Mo and Re in late Archean shales from Western Australia have been used to infer enhanced availability of these elements due to oxidation by O2 in the atmosphere during weathering of MoS2 and ReS2 [1]. More specifically, the oxidation of MoS2 to MoO42- was suggested as indicating a "whiff" of O2 in the environment more than 50 million years before the start of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) [1]. This raises the question of the thermodynamic stabilities of MoS2 and ReS2 at near surface conditions during the late Archean. Under what conditions will MoS2 and ReS2 oxidize to aqueous molybdate and rhenate respectively? We calculated the equilibrium constants for the reactions MoS2 + 3H2O + 9/2O2 (g) = MoO42- + 2SO42- + 6H+ , logK = 236.4, and ReS2 + 5/2H2O + 19/4O2 (g) = ReO4- + 2SO42- + 5H+ , logK = 245.3, using thermodynamic data for the sulfide minerals from [2] and for the aqueous species from [3]. Assuming that the aqueous oxyanions have activities of 10-6 and that the pH = 7.0, results in calculated values of the logfO2 (g) equal to -66 and -63, respectively. Regardless of kinetic considerations, these results indicate that there is a thermodynamic driving force for the oxidation of MoS2 and ReS2 for logfO2 values greater than the above values. In other words, the oxidation of the metal sulfides to soluble oxyanions could take place in the absence of any significant quantity of O2. This implies that anomalies in the abundances of Mo and Re do not necessarily indicate any O2 in the Archean environment before the GOE. [1] Anbar A. et al. (2007) Science 317, 1903-1906. [2] Mills K. C. (1974) Thermodynamic data for inorganic sulfides, selenides and tellurides, Butterworths, 845 pp. [3] Shock et al. (1997) Geochim et Cosmochim. Acta 61, 907-950.

  2. Stability indicating spectrophotometric and spectrodensitometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its degradation product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K.; Riad, Safaa M.; Abdel Gawad, Sherif A.; Fawaz, Esraa M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2015-02-01

    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA), in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5 diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation were developed and validated. The first method is a first derivative (D1) spectrophotometric one, which allows the determination of DTA in the presence of its degradate at 231.2 nm (corresponding to zero crossing of the degradate) over a concentration range of 2-24 μg/mL with mean percentage recovery 99.95 ± 0.97%. The second method is the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD1) by measuring the peak amplitude at 227 nm over the same concentration range as D1 spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.99 ± 1.15%. The third method is a TLC-densitometric one, where DTA was separated from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:methanol:ammonium hydroxide (20:10:2 by volume) as a developing system. This method depends on quantitative densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of DTA at 238 nm over a concentration range of 4-20 μg/spot, with mean percentage recovery 99.88 ± 0.89%. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  3. Stability of the Associations between Early Life Risk Indicators and Adolescent Overweight over the Evolving Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Petersen, Liselotte; Sovio, Ulla; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandbæk, Annelli; Laitinen, Jaana; Taanila, Anja; Pouta, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. Objective We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. Methods We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966) and 5414 children born in 1985–1986 (NFBC1986). In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors, maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year), and preschool BMI (age 2–5 years). We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (<50, 50–75, 75–90 and >90) and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight, according to the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) definitions, at the ages of 9 and 15 years. Results The prevalence of overweight at the age of 15 was 9% for children born in 1966 and 16% for children born in 1986. However, medians of infant weight and preschool BMI changed little between the cohorts, and we found similar associations between maternal BMI, infant weight, preschool BMI, and later overweight in the two cohorts. At 5 years, children above the 90th percentile had approximately a 12 times higher risk of being overweight at the age of 15 years compared to children below the 50th percentile in both cohorts. Conclusions The associations between early body size and adolescent overweight showed remarkable stability, despite the increase in prevalence of overweight over the 20 years between the cohorts. Using consequently defined internal percentiles may be a valuable tool in clinical practice. PMID:24748033

  4. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Michael J; Sysel, Annette M; Lupica, Joseph A; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor; Bauer, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic 'Trojan horse', utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis(®) RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min(-1)) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  5. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Michael J.; Sysel, Annette M.; Lupica, Joseph A.; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic Trojan horse, utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis RP-amide (150 mm 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column at 35 C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min?1) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  6. Application of spectrophotometric, densitometric, and HPLC techniques as stability indicating methods for determination of Zaleplon in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Fadia H.; Abdelkawy, M.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.

    2007-12-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrodensitometric and HPLC are stability indicating methods described for determination of Zaleplon in pure and dosage forms. As Zaleplon is easily degradable, the proposed techniques in this manuscript are adopted for its determination in presence of its alkaline degradation product, namely N-[4-(3-cyano-pyrazolo[1,5a]pyridin-7-yl)-phenyl]- N-ethyl-acetamide. These approaches are successfully applied to quantify Zaleplon using the information included in the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions. The second derivative (D 2) spectrophotometric method, allows determination of Zaleplon without interference of its degradate at 235.2 nm using 0.01N HCl as a solvent with obedience to Beer's law over a concentration range of 1-10 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.24 ± 0.86%. The first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD) based on the simultaneous use of ( 1DD) and measurement at 241.8 nm using the same solvent and over the same concentration range as (D 2) spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.9 ± 1.07%. The spectrodensitometric analysis allows the separation and quantitation of Zaleplon from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:acetone:ammonia solution (9:1:0.2 by volume) as a mobile phase. This method depends on quantitave densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of Zaleplon at 338 nm over a concentration range of 0.2-1 μg band -1, with mean percentage recovery 99.73 ± 1.35. Also a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method using 5-C8 (22 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size) column was described and validated for quantitation of Zaleplon using acetonitrile:deionised water (35:65, v/v) as a mobile phase using Paracetamol as internal standard and a flow rate of 1.5 ml min -1 with UV detection of the effluent at 232 nm at ambient temperature over a concentration range of 2-20 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.19 ± 1.15%. The insignificance difference of the proposed methods results with those of the reference one proved their accuracy and precision.

  7. Development and validation of three stability-indicating methods for determination of bisacodyl in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Fadia H; Abdelkawy, Mohammed; Naguib, Ibrahim A

    2007-01-01

    Three new, simple, sensitive, and accurate stability-indicating methods were developed for quantitative determination of bisacodyl in the presence of its degradation products, monoacetyl bisacodyl (I) and desacetyl bisacodyl (II), in enteric coated tablets, suppositories, and raw material. The first is a spectrodensitometric method in which the drug is separated from I and II on silica gel plates using chloroform-acetone (9 + 1, v/v) as the mobile phase with ultraviolet detection of the separated bands at 223 nm over a concentration range of 0.2-1.4 microg/band for bisacodyl with mean recovery 100.35 +/- 1.923%. The second method is fourth derivative D4 spectrophotometry, which allows determination of bisacodyl in the presence of its degradation products in raw material at 223 nm using acetonitrile as the solvent with adherence to Beer's law over the concentration range 2-18 microg/mL with mean recovery 99.77+/-1.056%. In the third method, the spectrophotometric data of bisacodyl, I, and II using absolute ethanol as solvent were processed by 3 chemometric techniques: classical least-squares, principal component regression, and partial least-squares. A training set consisting of 15 mixtures containing different ratios of bisacodyl, I, and II was used for construction of the 3 models. A validation set consisting of 6 mixtures was used to validate the prediction ability of the suggested models. The 3 chemometric methods were applicable over a concentration range between 2-14microg/mL for bisacodyl with mean recovery of 99.97+/-0.865, 100.01 +/- 0.749, and 99.97 +/- 0.616% for the 3 models, respectively. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied to the analysis of raw material and pharmaceutical formulations containing bisacodyl, except for the second method that applies only for raw material. The validity of the suggested procedures was further assessed by applying the standard addition technique; the recoveries obtained were in accordance with those given by the reference method. PMID:17373442

  8. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for the stabilization of epigallocatechin gallate.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, Joana F; Parra, Alexander; Silva, Amlia M; Egea, Maria A; Souto, Eliana B; Garcia, Maria L; Calpena, Ana C

    2014-11-20

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea catechin with potential health benefits, such as anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. In general, EGCG is highly susceptible to degradation, therefore presenting stability problems. The present paper was focused on the study of EGCG stability in HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) medium regarding the pH dependency, storage temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid a reducing agent. The evaluation of EGCG in HEPES buffer has demonstrated that this molecule is not able of maintaining its physicochemical properties and potential beneficial effects, since it is partially or completely degraded, depending on the EGCG concentration. The storage temperature of EGCG most suitable to maintain its structure was shown to be the lower values (4 or -20 C). The pH 3.5 was able to provide greater stability than pH 7.4. However, the presence of a reducing agent (i.e., ascorbic acid) was shown to provide greater protection against degradation of EGCG. A validation method based on RP-HPLC with UV-vis detection was carried out for two media: water and a biocompatible physiological medium composed of TranscutolP, ethanol and ascorbic acid. The quantification of EGCG for purposes, using pure EGCG, requires a validated HPLC method which could be possible to apply in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. PMID:25175728

  9. Isolation, Identification, and Characterisation of Degradation Products and the Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Method for the Estimation of Impurities in the Tolterodine Tartrate Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Lakkireddy; Himaja, Malipeddi; Vasudev, Rudraraju

    2015-01-01

    A short and sensitive stability-indicating gradient RP-UPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities and degradation products of tolterodine tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was developed by using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH shield RP18 (2.1 100 mm, 1.7 ?m) column with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A and B at a detection wavelength of 210 nm. During the stress study, the degradation products of tolterodine tartrate were well-resolved from tolterodine and its impurities and the mass balances were found to be satisfactory in all the stress conditions, thus proving the stability-indicating capability of the method. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. During the stability (40C/75% RH, 3 months) analysis of the drug product, one unknown impurity was detected by the above stability-indicating method. The unknown impurity was isolated by preparative HPLC and subjected to mass and NMR studies. Based on the spectral data, the unknown impurity was characterised as 2-(3-amino-1-phenylpropyl)-4-methylphenol (des-N,N-diisopropyl tolterodine). Structural elucidation of the impurity by spectral data is discussed in detail. PMID:26839802

  10. Development and stability of semisolid preparations based on a supercritical CO2 Arnica extract.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Mazzi, Giovanni; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2006-05-01

    Conventional herbal drug preparations (HDP) based on Arnica montana L. have a low content of the active principles, sesquiterpene lactones, which show poor stability and low physical compatibility in semisolid formulations. Recently, an innovative supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extract with high sesquiterpene content has been marketed. Development of six semisolid preparations (cetomacrogol, polysorbate 60, polawax, anphyphil, natrosol and sepigel) based on this innovative CO2 extract is discussed. Stability of these preparations was investigated according to ICH guidelines. The evaluation of in vitro release of active constituents was performed using the cell method reported in the European Pharmacopoeia. Preliminary data on in vivo permeation of three selected formulations is demonstrated using the "skin stripping" test, according to the FDA, in healthy subjects. Analysis of sesquiterpene lactones within the extract and in vitro and in vivo studies was performed by RP-HPLC-DAD-MS method. The cetomacrogol showed the best release profile in the in vitro test, while in the in vivo test the best preparation resulted polysorbate 60 and polawax. PMID:16457981

  11. Genetic variants of human serum albumin: molecular defects and biological stability.

    PubMed

    Galliano, M; Rossi, A; Porta, F; Minchiotti, L

    1995-01-01

    Because of recent studies, more heritable structural variants of serum albumin are known than for any other human protein except haemoglobin. However, alloalbumins are benign and thus they are detected only by screening of blood proteins in studies of population genetics or during routine clinical electrophoresis. We report the results of a collaborative study undertaken on genetic variants to define the structural changes and correlate these with the molecular properties of albumin. Our strategy consists in CNBr cleavage of the alkylated purified variants followed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) analysis to identify the fragment in which the substitution occurs. The abnormal peptide is then purified and digested with trypsin or V8 protease. A map of the digests is obtained by Rp-HPLC, the variant peptide is purified, and its amino-acid composition and sequence are determined. This procedure has so far allowed the identification of the molecular defects in 20 among the 26 alloalbumins detected in Italy. In the present study the mutations of the characterized variants are correlated with their frequency, geographic distribution, and biological stability. Point mutations, with only a few exceptions which are discussed, do not affect the stability of the protein. Alterations at the N-terminal, as in the case of proalbumins or Arg-Albumin, and extensive modifications at the C-terminal of the molecule, as well as changes involving the disulfide bridges, reduce the amount of the circulating protein. PMID:8593973

  12. Chromium Oxidation State in Planetary Basalts: Oxygen Fugacity Indicator and Critical Variable for Cr-Spinel Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P. V.; Le, Loan; Papike, J. J.; Jone, J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cr is a ubiquitous and relatively abundant minor element in basaltic, planetary magmas. At the reduced oxidation states (stability and Cr concentration of magmatic phases such as spinel, clinopyroxene, and olivine. However, understanding the Cr valence in quenched melts has historically been plagued with analytical issues, and only recently has reliable methodology for quantifying Cr valence in quenched melts been developed. Despite this substantial difficulty, the pioneering works of Hanson and Jones and Berry and O'Neill provided important insights into the oxidation state of Cr in in silicate melts. Here we present a series of 1-bar gas mixing experiments performed with a Fe-rich basaltic melt in which have determined the Cr redox ratio of the melt at over a range of fO2 values by measuring this quantity in olivine with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The measured Cr redox ratio of the olivine phenocrysts can be readily converted to the ratio present in the conjugate melt via the ratio of crystal-liquid partition coefficients for Cr3+ and Cr2+. We have applied these results to modeling Cr spinel stability and Cr redox ratios in a primitive, iron-rich martian basalt.

  13. A Fast, Stability-Indicating, and Validated Liquid Chromatography Method for the Purity Control of Lercanidipine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Saumil; Singh, Sukhdev; Chikhalia, Kishor

    2014-01-01

    A robust, sensitive, and stability-indicating rapid resolution liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of process impurities and degradation products of lercanidipine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was performed on the Zorbax SB C18 [(50 4.6) mm] 1.8 ?m column, using gradient elution of a potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.5, 0.01 M) and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and UV detection was performed at 220 nm. The method was further evaluated for its stability-indicating capability by hydrolytic, oxidative, thermal, thermal with moisture, and photolytic degradation studies. All acceptance criteria of the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for validation were covered in the method validation. This method can be used for purity control during manufacture and real time stability studies. A shorter run time of 10 minutes and good solution stability for at least 48 hours allowed the quantification of more than 50 samples per day with comparatively lower costs than existing methods. PMID:24959405

  14. A fast, stability-indicating, and validated liquid chromatography method for the purity control of lercanidipine hydrochloride in tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saumil; Singh, Sukhdev; Chikhalia, Kishor

    2014-06-01

    A robust, sensitive, and stability-indicating rapid resolution liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of process impurities and degradation products of lercanidipine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was performed on the Zorbax SB C18 [(50 4.6) mm] 1.8 ?m column, using gradient elution of a potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.5, 0.01 M) and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and UV detection was performed at 220 nm. The method was further evaluated for its stability-indicating capability by hydrolytic, oxidative, thermal, thermal with moisture, and photolytic degradation studies. All acceptance criteria of the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for validation were covered in the method validation. This method can be used for purity control during manufacture and real time stability studies. A shorter run time of 10 minutes and good solution stability for at least 48 hours allowed the quantification of more than 50 samples per day with comparatively lower costs than existing methods. PMID:24959405

  15. A Novel, Rapid, and Validated Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for the Estimation of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Ibuprofen Impurities in Oral Solid Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Vijay Kumar, Rekulapally; Rao, Vinay U.; Anil Kumar, N.; Venkata Subbaiah, B.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, stability-indicating, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the determination of pure drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen in the presence of their impurities and degradation products. The method was developed using a Waters UPLC BEH C18, 100 2.1 mm, 1.7 m column with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and detector wavelength at 210 nm. The mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. Drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen were subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, photolytic, and thermal degradation. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved, thus confirming the test method as stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. PMID:26839839

  16. Stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of the anticoagulant drug apixaban in the presence of its hydrolytic degradation product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Mahmoud A.; El-Ragehy, Nariman A.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Apixaban (a novel anticoagulant agent) was subjected to a stress stability study including acid, alkali, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal degradation. The drug was found to be only liable to acidic and alkaline hydrolysis. The degradation product was then isolated and identified by IR and GC-mass spectrometry. Four spectrophotometric methods, namely; first derivative (D1), derivative ratio (DR), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR), have been suggested for the determination of apixaban in presence of its hydrolytic degradation product. The proposed methods do not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined, and the methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing different percentages of the degradation product with the drug. The developed methods were successfully applied for the determination of apixaban in bulk powder and its tablet dosage form.

  17. Stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of the anticoagulant drug apixaban in the presence of its hydrolytic degradation product.

    PubMed

    Tantawy, Mahmoud A; El-Ragehy, Nariman A; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    Apixaban (a novel anticoagulant agent) was subjected to a stress stability study including acid, alkali, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal degradation. The drug was found to be only liable to acidic and alkaline hydrolysis. The degradation product was then isolated and identified by IR and GC-mass spectrometry. Four spectrophotometric methods, namely; first derivative (D(1)), derivative ratio (DR), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR), have been suggested for the determination of apixaban in presence of its hydrolytic degradation product. The proposed methods do not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined, and the methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing different percentages of the degradation product with the drug. The developed methods were successfully applied for the determination of apixaban in bulk powder and its tablet dosage form. PMID:26824484

  18. Integrated Community Profiling Indicates Long-Term Temporal Stability of the Predominant Faecal Microbiota in Captive Cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne A. M. J.; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Snauwaert, Cindy; Hesta, Myriam; Huys, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gut microbes and their animal host requires characterization of the core microbiota across populations and in time. Especially in captive populations of endangered wildlife species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), this knowledge is a key element to enhance feeding strategies and reduce gastrointestinal disorders. In order to investigate the temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota in cheetahs under human care, we conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period with bimonthly faecal sampling of 5 cheetahs housed in two European zoos. For this purpose, an integrated 16S rRNA DGGE-clone library approach was used in combination with a series of real-time PCR assays. Our findings disclosed a stable faecal microbiota, beyond intestinal community variations that were detected between zoo sample sets or between animals. The core of this microbiota was dominated by members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XIVa, with mean concentrations ranging from 7.5-9.2 log10 CFU/g faeces and with significant positive correlations between these clusters (P<0.05), and by Lactobacillaceae. Moving window analysis of DGGE profiles revealed 23.3-25.6% change between consecutive samples for four of the cheetahs. The fifth animal in the study suffered from intermediate episodes of vomiting and diarrhea during the monitoring period and exhibited remarkably more change (39.4%). This observation may reflect the temporary impact of perturbations such as the animal’s compromised health, antibiotic administration or a combination thereof, which temporarily altered the relative proportions of Clostridium clusters I and XIVa. In conclusion, this first long-term monitoring study of the faecal microbiota in feline strict carnivores not only reveals a remarkable compositional stability of this ecosystem, but also shows a qualitative and quantitative similarity in a defined set of faecal bacterial lineages across the five animals under study that may typify the core phylogenetic microbiome of cheetahs. PMID:25905625

  19. Integrated community profiling indicates long-term temporal stability of the predominant faecal microbiota in captive cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anne A M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Snauwaert, Cindy; Hesta, Myriam; Huys, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gut microbes and their animal host requires characterization of the core microbiota across populations and in time. Especially in captive populations of endangered wildlife species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), this knowledge is a key element to enhance feeding strategies and reduce gastrointestinal disorders. In order to investigate the temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota in cheetahs under human care, we conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period with bimonthly faecal sampling of 5 cheetahs housed in two European zoos. For this purpose, an integrated 16S rRNA DGGE-clone library approach was used in combination with a series of real-time PCR assays. Our findings disclosed a stable faecal microbiota, beyond intestinal community variations that were detected between zoo sample sets or between animals. The core of this microbiota was dominated by members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XIVa, with mean concentrations ranging from 7.5-9.2 log10 CFU/g faeces and with significant positive correlations between these clusters (P<0.05), and by Lactobacillaceae. Moving window analysis of DGGE profiles revealed 23.3-25.6% change between consecutive samples for four of the cheetahs. The fifth animal in the study suffered from intermediate episodes of vomiting and diarrhea during the monitoring period and exhibited remarkably more change (39.4%). This observation may reflect the temporary impact of perturbations such as the animal's compromised health, antibiotic administration or a combination thereof, which temporarily altered the relative proportions of Clostridium clusters I and XIVa. In conclusion, this first long-term monitoring study of the faecal microbiota in feline strict carnivores not only reveals a remarkable compositional stability of this ecosystem, but also shows a qualitative and quantitative similarity in a defined set of faecal bacterial lineages across the five animals under study that may typify the core phylogenetic microbiome of cheetahs. PMID:25905625

  20. Stability-indicating TLC-densitometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and chlorzoxazone and their toxic impurities.

    PubMed

    Abdelaleem, Eglal A; Abdelwahab, Nada S

    2013-02-01

    A highly sensitive, selective and accurate thin-layer chromatographic (TLC)-densitometric method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PAR) and chlorzoxazone (CZ) and their toxic impurities, 4-amino phenol (4AP) and 2-amino-4-chlorophenol (2ACP), respectively, which are also considered to be the hydrolytic degradation products and related substances of the studied drugs. A developing system consisting of chloroform-methanol-glacial acetic acid (9.5:0.5:0.25, by volume) was found to be sufficient for chromatographic separation among the four studied components using pre-activated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates with ultraviolet detection at 225 nm. Calibration curves were constructed in the ranges of 0.3-3, 1-10, 0.06-3 and 0.04-3 g/band for PAR, CZ, 4AP and 2ACP, respectively, using polynomial equations. The developed method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. Moreover, the method was successfully applied for the determination of PAR and CZ in different marketed samples and the results were statistically compared to those obtained by the reported reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using F-test and Student's-t test. The low detection and quantitation limits of the developed method make it suitable for quality control and stability studies of PAR and CZ in different pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22843763

  1. Development of a Stability-Indicating Stereoselective Method for Quantification of the Enantiomer in the Drug Substance and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form of Rosuvastatin Calcium by an Enhanced Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra Reddy, Gangireddy; Ravindra Reddy, Papammagari; Siva Jyothi, Polisetty

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, precise, and stability-indicating stereoselective method was developed and validated for the accurate quantification of the enantiomer in the drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms of Rosuvastatin Calcium. The method is capable of quantifying the enantiomer in the presence of other related substances. The chromatographic separation was achieved with an immobilized cellulose stationary phase (Chiralpak IB) 250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5.0 μm particle size column with a mobile phase containing a mixture of n-hexane, dichloromethane, 2-propanol, and trifluoroacetic acid in the ratio 82:10:8:0.2 (v/v/v/v). The eluted compounds were monitored at 243 nm and the run time was 18 min. Multivariate analysis and statistical tools were used to develop this highly robust method in a short span of time. The stability-indicating power of the method was established by subjecting Rosuvastatin Calcium to the stress conditions (forced degradation) of acid, base, oxidative, thermal, humidity, and photolytic degradation. Major degradation products were identified and found to be well-resolved from the enantiomer peak, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification, precision, linearity, accuracy, and robustness. The method exhibited consistent, high-quality recoveries (100 ± 10%) with a high precision for the enantiomer. Linear regression analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the peak responses and concentrations (r2 value of 0.9977) for the enantiomer. The method is sensitive enough to quantify the enantiomer above 0.04% and detect the enantiomer above 0.015% in Rosuvastatin Calcium. The stability tests were also performed on the drug substances as per ICH norms. PMID:26839815

  2. Improvement of a stability-indicating method by Quality-by-Design versus Quality-by-Testing: a case of a learning process.

    PubMed

    Hubert, C; Lebrun, P; Houari, S; Ziemons, E; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a Quality-by-Design approach was applied in order to optimize a routinely used method. An analytical issue occurring at the last stage of a long-term stability study involving unexpected impurities perturbing the monitoring of characterized impurities needed to be resolved. A compliant Quality-by-Design (QbD) methodology based on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was evaluated within the framework of a Liquid Chromatography (LC) method. This approach allows the investigation of Critical Process Parameters (CPPs), which have an impact on Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) and, consequently, on LC selectivity. Using polynomial regression response modeling as well as Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation, Design Space (DS) was computed in order to determine robust working conditions for the developed stability-indicating method. This QbD compliant development was conducted in two phases allowing the use of the Design Space knowledge acquired during the first phase to define the experimental domain of the second phase, which constitutes a learning process. The selected working condition was then fully validated using accuracy profiles based on statistical tolerance intervals in order to evaluate the reliability of the results generated by this LC/ESI-MS stability-indicating method. A comparison was made between the traditional Quality-by-Testing (QbT) approach and the QbD strategy, highlighting the benefit of this QbD strategy in the case of an unexpected impurities issue. On this basis, the advantages of a systematic use of the QbD methodology were discussed. PMID:24176744

  3. A modeling approach to estimate the solar disinfection of viral indicator organisms in waste stabilization ponds and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Tamar; Mattle, Michael J; Minella, Marco; Vione, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Sunlight is known to be a pertinent factor governing the infectivity of waterborne viruses in the environment. Sunlight inactivates viruses via endogenous inactivation (promoted by absorption of solar light in the UVB range by the virus) and exogenous processes (promoted by adsorption of sunlight by external chromophores, which subsequently generate inactivating reactive species). The extent of inactivation is still difficult to predict, as it depends on multiple parameters including virus characteristics, solution composition, season and geographical location. In this work, we adapted a model typically used to estimate the photodegradation of organic pollutants, APEX, to explore the fate of two commonly used surrogates of human viruses (coliphages MS2 and ?X174) in waste stabilization pond and natural surface water. Based on experimental data obtained in previous work, we modeled virus inactivation as a function of water depth and composition, as well as season and latitude, and we apportioned the contributions of the different inactivation processes to total inactivation. Model results showed that ?X174 is inactivated more readily than MS2, except at latitudes >60. ?X174 inactivation varies greatly with both season (20-fold) and latitude (10-fold between 0 and 60), and is dominated by endogenous inactivation under all solution conditions considered. In contrast, exogenous processes contribute significantly to MS2 inactivation. Because exogenous inactivation can be promoted by longer wavelengths, which are less affected by changes in season and latitude, MS2 exhibits smaller fluctuations in inactivation throughout the year (10-fold) and across the globe (3-fold between 0 and 60) compared to ?X174. While a full model validation is currently not possible due to the lack of sufficient field data, our estimated inactivation rates corresponded well to those reported in field studies. Overall, this study constitutes a step toward estimating microbial water quality as a function of spatio-temporal information and easy-to-determine solution parameters. PMID:26615386

  4. Development and validation of a stability-indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for assay of betamethylepoxide and estimation of its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kang Ping; Chien, Dwight; Markovich, Robert; Rustum, Abu M

    2007-07-20

    Betamethylepoxide (16beta-methyl-Delta(1,4)-pregnadiene-9beta-11beta-oxide-17alpha,21-diol-3,20-dione) is a key intermediate for the synthesis of various active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of steroid compounds. A stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method for assay of betamethylepoxide and estimation of its related compounds has been developed and validated. This method can accurately quantitate betamethylepoxide in the presence of numerous structurally related compounds (including the alpha-epimer, known as alphamethylepoxide). This method can also adequately separate most of the impurities from each other and estimate their quantities in betamethylepoxide samples. The stability-indicating capability of this method has been demonstrated by adequate separation of the degradation products from betamethylepoxide in stress degraded and aged stability samples. The HPLC column used in the method was a 5 cm YMC Hydrosphere C(18) column (4.6 mm I.D.) and the mobile phase consisted of (A) water and (B) acetonitrile:methanol (8:25, v/v). PMID:17512937

  5. Engineering deamidation-susceptible asparagines leads to improved stability to thermal cycling in a lipase

    PubMed Central

    Bhanuramanand, K; Ahmad, Shoeb; Rao, N M

    2014-01-01

    At high temperatures, protein stability is influenced by chemical alterations; most important among them is deamidation of asparagines. Deamidation kinetics of asparagines depends on the local sequence, solvent, pH, temperature, and the tertiary structure. Suitable replacement of deamidated asparagines could be a viable strategy to improve deamidation-mediated loss in protein properties, specifically protein thermostability. In this study, we have used nano RP-HPLC coupled ESI MS/MS approach to identify residues susceptible to deamidation in a lipase (6B) on heat treatment. Out of 15 asparagines and six glutamines in 6B, only five asparagines were susceptible to deamidation at temperatures higher than 75C. These five positions were subjected to site saturation mutagenesis followed by activity screen to identify the most suitable substitutions. Only three of the five asparagines were found to be tolerant to substitutions. Best substitutions at these positions were combined into a mutant. The resultant lipase (mutC) has near identical secondary structure and improved thermal tolerance as compared to its parent. The triple mutant has shown almost two-fold higher residual activity compared to 6B after four cycles at 90C. MutC has retained more than 50% activity even after incubation at 100C. Engineering asparagines susceptible to deamidation would be a potential strategy to improve proteins to withstand very high temperatures. PMID:25043738

  6. Advanced stability indicating chemometric methods for quantitation of amlodipine and atorvastatin in their quinary mixture with acidic degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-02-01

    Two advanced, accurate and precise chemometric methods are developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate (AML) and atorvastatin calcium (ATV) in the presence of their acidic degradation products in tablet dosage forms. The first method was Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) and the second was Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). PLS was compared to ANN models with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm (GA)). For proper analysis, a 5-factor 5-level experimental design was established resulting in 25 mixtures containing different ratios of the interfering species. Fifteen mixtures were used as calibration set and the other ten mixtures were used as validation set to validate the prediction ability of the suggested models. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical tablets containing AML and ATV. The methods indicated the ability of the mentioned models to solve the highly overlapped spectra of the quinary mixture, yet using inexpensive and easy to handle instruments like the UV-VIS spectrophotometer.

  7. Improved efficiency and stability of secnidazole - An ideal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman; Haseeb, Mohd; Baig, Mohd Hassan; Bagga, Paramdeep Singh; Siddiqui, H H; Kamal, M A; Khan, Mohd Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Secnidazole (α,2-Dimethyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol) is a highly effective drug against a variety of G(+)/G(-) bacteria but with significant side effects because it is being used in very high concentration. In this study, gold nanoparticles (GNPS) were selected as a vehicle to deliver secnidazole drug at the specific site with more accuracy which made the drug highly effective at substantially low concentrations. The as-synthesized GNPs were capped with Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and subsequently bioconjugated with secnidazole because HSA provides the stability and improves the solubility of the bioconjugated drug, secnidazole. The quantification of covalently bioconjugated secnidazole with HSA encapsulated on enzymatically synthesized GNPs was done with RP-HPLC having SPD-20 A UV/VIS detector by using the C-18 column. The bioconjugation of GNPs with secnidazole was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The bioconjugated GNPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and DLS. Zeta potential confirmed the stability and uniform distribution of particles in the emulsion of GNPs. The separation of bioconjugated GNPs, unused GNPs and unused drug was done by gel filtration chromatography. The minimal inhibitory concentration of secnidazole-conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-HSA-Snd) against Klebsiella pneumonia (NCIM No. 2957) and Bacillus cereus (NCIM No. 2156) got improved by 12.2 times and 14.11 times, respectively, in comparison to pure secnidazole. Precisely, the MIC of Au-HSA-Snd against K. pneumonia (NCIM No. 2957) and B. cereus (NCIM No. 2156) were found to be 0.35 and 0.43 μg/ml, respectively whereas MIC of the pure secnidazole drug against the same bacteria were found to be 4.3 and 6.07 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:25561882

  8. Advanced stability indicating chemometric methods for quantitation of amlodipine and atorvastatin in their quinary mixture with acidic degradation products.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Hany W; Hassan, Said A; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2016-02-01

    Two advanced, accurate and precise chemometric methods are developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate (AML) and atorvastatin calcium (ATV) in the presence of their acidic degradation products in tablet dosage forms. The first method was Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) and the second was Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). PLS was compared to ANN models with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm (GA)). For proper analysis, a 5-factor 5-level experimental design was established resulting in 25 mixtures containing different ratios of the interfering species. Fifteen mixtures were used as calibration set and the other ten mixtures were used as validation set to validate the prediction ability of the suggested models. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical tablets containing AML and ATV. The methods indicated the ability of the mentioned models to solve the highly overlapped spectra of the quinary mixture, yet using inexpensive and easy to handle instruments like the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. PMID:26513228

  9. Analytical method development and validation of prasugrel in bulk and its pharmaceutical formulation using the RP-HPLC method

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, B. Mohammed; Prakash, K. Vanitha; Mohan, G. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of prasugrel in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: The HPLC separation was carried out by reverse phase chromatography on an inertsil ODS-3V column (5 ?m; 250 4.6mm2) with a mobile phase composed of 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, 0.02 M dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate in water:acetonitrile (30:70 v/v) in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detection was monitored at 210 nm. Results: The calibration curve for prasugrel was linear from 100 to 600 ?g/ml. The inter-day and intra-day precision was found to be within limits. The proposed method has adequate sensitivity, reproducibility, and specificity for the determination of prasugrel in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for prasugrel were found to be 0.25 ?g/ml and 0.75 ?g /ml, respectively. Accuracy (recoveries: 99.8101.2%) and reproducibility were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion: The proposed method is simple, fast, accurate, and precise for the simultaneous quantification of prasugrel in the dosage form, bulk drugs as well as for routine analysis in quality control. PMID:23781451

  10. Optimization and Validation of RP-HPLC-UV/Vis Method for Determination Phenolic Compounds in Several Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Akkbik, Mohammed; Assim, Zaini Bin; Ahmad, Fasihuddin Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC) as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250?mg/L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25% (n = 4). Limits of detection for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.196, 0.170, and 0.478?mg/L, respectively. While limits of quantification for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.593, 0.515, and 1.448?mg/L, respectively. The recovery for BHA, BHT, and OMC was ranged from 92.1105.9%, 83.2108.9%, and 87.3103.7%, respectively. The concentration ranges of BHA, BHT, and OMC in 12 commercial personal care samples were 0.134.85, 0.162.30, and 0.1265.5?mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of phenolic compounds in these personal care samples were below than maximum allowable concentration in personal care formulation, that is, 0.000410?mg/g, 0.0025?mg/g, and up to 100?mg/g for BHA, BHT, and OMC, respectively. PMID:21760792

  11. Rapid identification of RoHS-relevant flame retardants from polymer housings by ultrasonic extraction and RP-HPLC/UV.

    PubMed

    Phlein, Manfred; Llopis, Ana Segura; Wolf, Marion; van Eldik, Rudi

    2005-02-25

    A rapid method was developed for the extraction and identification of RoHS-relevant organic flame retardants in polymer material. Extraction was carried out using ultrasonic supported solvent extraction (USSE) and isopropanol. HPLC separation was achieved using a reversed-phase phenylhexyl-modified column and methanol, containing 2-aminoethanol-buffered, alkaline water. Identification was carried out by scanning UV detection and comparison with a library assembled from spectra of reference substances. The method was used to extract and identify polymer additives in TV and PC monitor housings. The overall runtime required for extraction and chromatographic analysis is less than 10 min. The limits of detection comply with the recommendations set by the German draft law. PMID:15794561

  12. RP-HPLC method with electrochemical detection for the determination of metoclopramide in serum and its use in pharmacokinetic studies.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lamparczyk H; Chmielewska A; Konieczna L; Plenis A; Zarzycki PK

    2001-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of metoclopramide in serum. The assay was performed after single extraction with ethyl ether using methyl parahydroxybenzoate as internal standard. Chromatographic separations were performed on C(18) stationary phase with a mobile phase composed of methanol-phosphate buffer pH 3 (30:70 v/v). Analytes were detected electrochemically. The quantification limit for metoclopramide in serum was 2 ng mL(-1). Linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 5-120 ng mL(-1) (correlation coefficient 0.9998). Within-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.3 to 5.5% and between-day RSDs from 0.8 to 6.0%. The analytical method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters after ingestion of 10 mg dose of metoclopramide. Studies were performed on 18 healthy volunteers of both sexes.

  13. RP-HPLC method with electrochemical detection for the determination of metoclopramide in serum and its use in pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lamparczyk, H; Chmielewska, A; Konieczna, L; Plenis, A; Zarzycki, P K

    2001-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of metoclopramide in serum. The assay was performed after single extraction with ethyl ether using methyl parahydroxybenzoate as internal standard. Chromatographic separations were performed on C(18) stationary phase with a mobile phase composed of methanol-phosphate buffer pH 3 (30:70 v/v). Analytes were detected electrochemically. The quantification limit for metoclopramide in serum was 2 ng mL(-1). Linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 5-120 ng mL(-1) (correlation coefficient 0.9998). Within-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.3 to 5.5% and between-day RSDs from 0.8 to 6.0%. The analytical method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters after ingestion of 10 mg dose of metoclopramide. Studies were performed on 18 healthy volunteers of both sexes. PMID:11748686

  14. A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Analysis of 1-Fluoronaphthalene and Its Process-Related Impurities.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidou, Evrykleia G; Bekiari, Eleni T; Vastardi, Elli I

    2015-09-01

    A simple and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of 1-fluoronaphthalene and its process-related impurities, 1-aminonaphthalene, 1-nitronaphthalene, naphthalene and 2-fluoronaphthalene. 1-Fluoronaphthalene is the key starting material for the synthesis of duloxetine hydrochloride active pharmaceutical ingredient and is therefore a potential impurity of the API. The determination of the impurity profile is critical for the safety assessment of a substance and manufacturing process thereof. In duloxetine hydrochloride active pharmaceutical ingredient, only 1-fluoronaphthalene is detected and neither of its related impurities of 1-aminonaphthalene, 1-nitronaphthalene, naphthalene and 2-fluoronaphthalene. Chromatography was carried out on a Symmetry C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column, using mobile phase A-a mixture of 0.01 Μ KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 ± 0.1):methanol:acetonitrile in the ratio of 35:52:13 v/v/v and mobile phase B-a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile in the ratio of 80:20 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analytes were monitored using photo diode array detector at 230 nm. The proposed method is found to be having linearity in the concentration of 0.075-5.000 μg/mL, 0.150-5.000 μg/mL, 0.3125-5.000 μg/mL and 0.3125-5.000 μg/mL for 1-aminonaphthalene, 1-nitronaphthalene, naphthalene and 2-fluoronaphthalene, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.9998, 0.9998, 0.9997 and 0.9997, respectively. The proposed method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The mean recoveries for all the studied impurities are in the range of 90-110%. Due to its specificity, high precision and accuracy, the developed method can be used for the determination of 1-fluoronaphthalene, key starting material for the synthesis of duloxetine hydrochloride API. PMID:25713107

  15. Analytical Quality by Design Approach in RP-HPLC Method Development for the Assay of Etofenamate in Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Peraman, R.; Bhadraya, K.; Reddy, Y. Padmanabha; Reddy, C. Surayaprakash; Lokesh, T.

    2015-01-01

    By considering the current regulatory requirement for an analytical method development, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of etofenamate in dosage form has been optimized using analytical quality by design approach. Unlike routine approach, the present study was initiated with understanding of quality target product profile, analytical target profile and risk assessment for method variables that affect the method response. A liquid chromatography system equipped with a C18 column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μ), a binary pump and photodiode array detector were used in this work. The experiments were conducted based on plan by central composite design, which could save time, reagents and other resources. Sigma Tech software was used to plan and analyses the experimental observations and obtain quadratic process model. The process model was used for predictive solution for retention time. The predicted data from contour diagram for retention time were verified actually and it satisfied with actual experimental data. The optimized method was achieved at 1.2 ml/min flow rate of using mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.2% triethylamine in water at 85:15, % v/v, pH adjusted to 6.5. The method was validated and verified for targeted method performances, robustness and system suitability during method transfer.

  16. Quality by Design Approach for Simultaneous Estimation of Doxycycline Hyclate and Curcumin by RP-HPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhal, C.; Ahmad, F. J.; Chauhan, A.; Jyothi, M.; Singh, R. M.; Saini, P. K.; Mathur, S. C.; Singh, G. N.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, robust and optimized reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of doxycycline hyclate and curcumin was successfully developed and validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The objective was achieved in terms of well separated peaks within 10 min on a Waters Sunfire C8 column with dimensions of 250×4.6 mm, particle size 5.0 μm using mobile phase consisting of 30 volumes of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (50 mM) adjusted to pH 6.5±0.1 with triethylamine and 70 volumes of methanol at flow rate of 0.85 ml/min. The column effluents were monitored at 400 nm maintained at ambient column temperature (28o). The developed method was found linear over the concentration range of 200-700 μg/ml for doxycycline hyclate and 8-28 μg/ml for curcumin, the detection and quantitation limit was found to be 26.063 and 78.97 μg/ml for doxycycline hyclate; 0.795 and 2.13 μg/ml for curcumin, respectively. The developed method was optimized using Minitab software version 16 to meet the current quality by design requirements. The method validation was done for linearity, range, detection and quantitation limit, accuracy, precision, specificity, system suitability testing, and robustness.

  17. RP-HPLC Determination of Phenylalkanoids and Monoterpenoids in Rhodiola rosea and Identification by LC-ESI-TOF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An HPLC method permitting the simultaneous determination of fourteen compounds (phenylalkanoids and monoterpenoids) from the roots of Rhodiola rosea was developed. A separation was achieved within 35 minutes by using C-18 column material, a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing 0.05% phos...

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Six Active Compounds in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, by RP-HPLC-UV Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; He, ChenHui; Awuti, Gulistan; Zeng, Cheng; Xing, JianGuo; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a sensitive, precise, and accurate HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the six analytes (luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, tilianin, and rosmarinic acid) in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, in which five analytes (i.e., luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, and rosmarinic acid) were determined for the first time in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, the content of tilianin in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules was reported in other literatures, and the content of tilianin in our work was higher than that of the literature reports. The quality of 11 batch samples from four different manufacturers was evaluated using the proposed determination method. The contents of the six analytes were largely different among samples from various manufacturers. Therefore, this determination method can provide a scientific basis for quality evaluation and control of Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules. PMID:26587308

  19. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants often synthesize secondary metabolites that are enantiomers. Enantiomers can cause very different physiological responses. Ammodendrine (1) and anabasine (2) are teratogens that can cause congenital malformations in livestock and enantiomeric forms of each have been found in Lupinus spp. an...

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Fangchinoline and Tetrandrine in Qi-Fang-Xi-Bi-Granules by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lu, XinGang; Zhang, RuoXi; Fu, Feng; Shen, Jie; Nian, Hua; Wu, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Knee Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases of elder worldwide. Qi-Fang-Xi-Bi-Granules (QFXBG) is a new Chinese medicine granules employed for the treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis. Fangchinoline (FAN) and tetrandrine (TET) are used as targets of quality control of QFXBG. A simple, practical high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of FAN and TET in Stephaniae tetrandrae radix and QFXBG. The analysis was performed on a Athena C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with mobile phase of methanol-water (65 : 35, v/v, pH 3.0, adjusted by glacial acetic acid) containing 1.0 g/L sodium 1-octanesulfonate. This method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. Results showed that this method had good linearity with R(2) at >0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for FAN were 0.13 and 0.35 mg/L, while for TET were 0.28 and 0.76 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations of precision were 0.1-1.3% for intraday and 0.5-2.4% for interday. The recovery was 94.56-98.81% of FAN and 94.07-99.12% of TET, respectively. The chromatographic analytical time was 14 min. This method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of FAN and TET in Stephaniae tetrandrae radix and QFXBG, so that it could be extended to quality control of QFXGB in commercial. PMID:25754692

  1. Analysis of polysorbate 80 and its related compounds by RP-HPLC with ELSD and MS detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Wang, Y; Tan, L; Zhang, H Y; Yang, M

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition of polysorbate 80 strongly influences the physicochemical properties and performance of many products. Consequently, a reliable characterization of polysorbate 80 is crucial for many applications. However, the exact composition of these chemical mixtures cannot be determined by colorimetry, hydrolysis, size-exclusion chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry (MS). Meanwhile, due to the strong retention of higher esters on the reversed-phase (RP) column, the published high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods suffered from inadequate elution. In the present paper, an HPLC-evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and an HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS method were developed and validated for the separation and identification of the chemical composition of polysorbate 80. A full separation of the entire composition was achieved in 45 min. In the HPLC-ESI-MS spectra, each class of the compound in polysorbate 80 was directly confirmed and identified by [M + NH(4)](+) and [M + 2NH(4)](2+) ions. The number of polyoxyethylene groups and their distribution within the molecule were determined, in addition to the dehydration and esterification degree of sorbitol. Analysis showed that polysorbate 80 contained different proportions of components (polyoxyethylene sorbitan, polyoxyethylene isosorbide, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate-dioesters-trioleates-tetraoleates and polyoxyethylene isosorbide monoester-dioesters). It was concluded that HPLC-ESI-MS is a useful tool for establishing the compositional profile of polysorbate 80. PMID:22542890

  2. RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in beverages and plant extracts using a CoulArray detector.

    PubMed

    Jandera, Pavel; Skeifkov, Veronika; Rehov, Lucie; Hjek, Toms; Baldrinov, Lucie; Skopov, Gabriela; Kellner, Vladimr; Horna, Ales

    2005-06-01

    Methods were developed for the analysis of natural antioxidants including phenolic compounds and flavonoids in beverages and plant extracts using gradient HPLC with multi-channel electrochemical coulometric detection. Suitability of various reversed-phase columns for this purpose was compared; pH and mobile phase gradients were optimized with respect to the separation selectivity and sensitivity of detection. Because of different target compounds in various sample types, the overlapping resolution maps and the normalized resolution product approaches described earlier were used to select optimum columns and gradients to suit the analysis of the individual sample types. The methods were applied to the analysis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in beer, wine, tea, and yacon extracts. 32 phenolic compounds were identified and determined, including derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids, flavones, and a few related glycosides. Eight-channel CoulArray detection offers high selectivity and sensitivity with limits of detection in the low microg L(-1) range, at least an order of magnitude lower than single-channel coulometric detection using the Coulochem detector. No special sample pretreatment is necessary and, because of the compatibility of the CoulArray detector with gradient elution, phenolic antioxidants of different polarities can be determined in a single run. In addition to the retention times, the ratios of the areas of the pre-dominant and post-dominant peaks to the area of the dominant peak can be used for improved identification of natural antioxidants. PMID:16013828

  3. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the determination of genotoxic alkyl benzenesulfonates in amlodipine besylate.

    PubMed

    Raman, N V V S S; Reddy, K Ratnakar; Prasad, A V S S; Ramakrishna, K

    2008-09-10

    The present paper describes a simple isocratic reverse phase HPLC method for the determination of four genotoxic alkyl benzenesulfonates (ABSs) viz. methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl benzenesulfonates (MBS, EBS, NPBS and IPBS) in amlodipine besylate (ADB). Good resolution between benzene sulfonic acid (BSA), MBS, EBS, NPBS, IPBS and ADB was achieved with Inertsil ODS 3V (150 mmx4.6 mm, 5 microm) column using a 65:35 (v/v) mixture of 1% triethyl amine, pH adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the elution was monitored at 220 nm. The factors involved in the method development are discussed. This method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and is able to quantitate MBS, EBS, NPBS and IPBS at 21, 32, 35 and 28 ppm levels, respectively with respect to 5 mg/ml of ADB. The method is linear in range of 75-180 ppm of ABSs, which matches the range of 50-120% of estimated permitted level (150 ppm) of ABSs. ABSs were not present in the three studied pure and tablet batches of ADB. PMID:18602788

  4. RP-HPLC method development for the simultaneous determination of timolol maleate and human serum albumin in albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boiero, Carolina; Allemandi, Daniel; Longhi, Marcela; Llabot, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of human serum albumin (HSA) and timolol in albumin nanoparticles. This method involved a reversed-phase-C18 column thermostated at 25 °C, UV detection at 276 nm, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and a mobile phase compounded by 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid in water/0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid in an acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) solution. The elution times for albumin and timolol were 1.84 ± 0.05 min and 2.67 ± 0.04 min, respectively. Calibration curves were linear from 0.2 to 100 mg/ml for HSA and 0.01 to 1 mg/ml for timolol. Limits of quantification were 0.2 mg/ml for HSA and 0.01 mg/ml for timolol. The values of accuracy and precision of intra- and inter-day variation studies were within acceptable limits, according to the US Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry. The described method has proved to be useful to give accurate measurements of human serum albumin and timolol from albumin nanoparticles to determine the percentage of encapsulation and the process yield. PMID:25890214

  5. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Stiripentol: Development, Validation, Kinetics, Structure Elucidation and Application to Commercial Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Hany W.; Abdelhameed, Ali S.; Bakheit, Ahmed H.; Khalil, Nasr Y.; Al-Majed, Abdulrahman A.

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and accurate isocratic reversed-phase stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the determination of stiripentol and its degradation product in its bulk form and pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 column and quantification was achieved using photodiode array detector (DAD). The method was validated in accordance with the ICH requirements showing specificity, linearity (r2 = 0.9996, range of 125??g/mL), precision (relative standard deviation lower than 2%), accuracy (mean recovery 100.08 1.73), limits of detection and quantitation (LOD = 0.024 and LOQ = 0.081??g/mL), and robustness. Stiripentol was subjected to various stress conditions and it has shown marked stability under alkaline hydrolytic stress conditions, thermal, oxidative, and photolytic conditions. Stiripentol degraded only under acidic conditions, forming a single degradation product which was well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different retention time values. This degradation product was characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy as well as ion trap mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the method would have a great value when applied in quality control and stability studies for stiripentol. PMID:25371844

  6. Development and validation of a stability-indicating LC-UV method for the determination of pantethine and its degradation product based on a forced degradation study.

    PubMed

    Canavesi, Rossana; Aprile, Silvio; Varese, Elena; Grosa, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Pantethine (d-bis-(N-pantothenyl-?-aminoethyl)-disulfide, PAN), the stable disulfide form of pantetheine, has beneficial effects in vascular diseases being able to decrease the hyperlipidaemia, moderate the platelet function and prevent the lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, recent studies suggested that PAN may be an effective therapeutic agent for cerebral malaria and, possibly, for neurodegenerative processes. Interestingly, in the literature, there were no data dealing with the chemical stability and the analytical aspects of PAN. Hence, in the present work the chemical stability of PAN was for the first time established through a forced degradation study followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry investigation showing the formation of three degradation products of PAN (PD1, PD2 and POx) arising from hydrolytic, thermal and oxidative stresses. Based on these data a stability-indicating LC-UV method for simultaneous estimation of PAN, and its most relevant degradation product (PD1) was developed and validated; moreover the method allowed also the separation and the quantification of the preservative system, constituted by a paraben mixture. The method showed linearity for PAN (0.4-1.2mgmL(-1)), MHB, PHB (0.4-1.2?gmL(-1)) and PD1 (2.5-100?gmL(-1)); the precision, determined in terms of intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as RSDs, were in the ranges 0.4-1.2 and 0.7-1.4, respectively. The method demonstrated to be accurate and robust; indeed the average recoveries were 100.2, 99.9, and 100.0% for PAN, MHB and PHB, respectively, and 99.9% for PD1. By applying small variations of the mobile phase composition, counter-ion concentration and pH the separation of analytes was not affected. Finally, the applicability of this method was evaluated analyzing the available commercial forms at release as well as during stability studies. PMID:24863372

  7. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  8. Quantitative determination of the β-methyl carbapenem doripenem in powder for injection by a stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Paliosa, P K; Garcia, C V; Schapoval, E E S; Mendez, A S L; Steppe, M

    2015-09-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis method for quantitative determination of doripenem in synthetic matrix was developed. The stability-indicating capability was performed applying stress testing protocols. The selected analytical conditions include 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.0) as run electrolyte, voltage of +15 kV, hydrodynamic injection of 5s (50 mBar), detection at 298 nm and temperature of analysis of 25 degrees C. The electrophoretic separation was carried out in a fused silica capillary (effective length 40 cm, 50 μm i.d.), using procainamide hydrochloride as internal standard. The proposed method showed quickness and reproducibility, with an analytical run in a total time of 5 min. The percentage of drug amount estimated was 101.33% (RSD = 0.80), with satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precision. In the recovery test, the method was found to be reliable and accurate in the drug quantitation (mean recovery = 101.86%). The robustness was performed applying the Plackett-Burman experimental design which confirmed the assay reliability. Based on results from forced degradation study, the stability-indicating capability was established, being observed a major degradation in alkaline, photolytic and thermal conditions. In comparison to HPLC method previously developed, the proposed capillary electrophoresis assay is statistically equivalent. PMID:26492640

  9. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-UPLC Method for the Estimation of Impurities in Cinacalcet Hydrochloride API and its Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Sunil Reddy, Pingili; Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Raju, Penmetsa Satyanarayana; Varma, Nadimpalli Sunil; Babu, Kondra Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating, gradient reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of cinacalcet hydrochloride impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulations. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH Shield RP18, 100 2.1 mm, 1.7 m column with the mobile phase containing pH 6.6 phosphate buffer and acetonitrile. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.3 mL min?1 with a column temperature of 35C and detection wavelength at 223 nm. The relative response factor values of (+)-R-1-(1-Naphthyl)ethylamine, regioisomer, diastereomer isomer-1, and diastereomer isomer-2 were 1.79, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. The cinacalcet hydrochloride formulation sample was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity, and photolytic degradation. Cinacalcet hydrochloride was found to degrade significantly under the peroxide stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from cinacalcet hydrochloride and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the cinacalcet hydrochloride peak was homogenous in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 96%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. PMID:26839840

  10. Development and validation of a stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoretic method for the assessment of entecavir and its correlation with liquid chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Dalmora, Sergio Luiz; Nogueira, Daniele Rubert; D'Avila, Felipe Bianchini; Souto, Ricardo Bizogne; Leal, Diogo Paim

    2011-01-01

    A stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was validated for the analysis of entecavir in pharmaceutical formulations, using nimesulide as an internal standard. A fused-silica capillary (50 m i.d.; effective length, 40 cm) was used while being maintained at 25C; the applied voltage was 25 kV. A background electrolyte solution consisted of a 20 mM sodium tetraborate solution at pH 10. Injections were performed using a pressure mode at 50 mbar for 5 s, with detection at 216 nm. The specificity and stability-indicating capability were proven through forced degradation studies, evaluating also the in vitro cytotoxicity test of the degraded products. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1-200 g mL(-1) (r(2) = 0.9999), and was applied for the analysis of entecavir in tablet dosage forms. The results were correlated to those of validated conventional and fast LC methods, showing non-significant differences (p > 0.05). PMID:21415508

  11. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C; Jadhav, Sushant B

    2011-09-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  12. Validation of a Stability-Indicating Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantitative Determination of Vitamin K3 (Menadione Sodium Bisulfite) in Injectable Solution Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mashhour M.; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A.; Hallak, Hussein O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of menadione sodium bisulfite in the injectable solution formulation. The method is based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) coupled with a photodiode array detector. The desired separation was achieved on the ZIC-HILIC column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 25°C temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of 200mM ammonium acetate (NH4AC) solution and acetonitrile (ACN) (20:80; v/v) pH-adjusted to 5.7 by glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.5 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 261 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peak retention, peak USP tailing factor, and column efficiency were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing menadione sodium bisulfite standard and the injectable solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and the excipients, thus proving that the method is a reliable, stability-indicating tool. The method was validated as per ICH and USP guidelines (USP34/NF29) and found to be adequate for the routine quantitative estimation of menadione sodium bisulfite in commercially available menadione sodium bisulfite injectable solution dosage forms. PMID:24106670

  13. A Validated Stability-Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Desloratadine and Sodium Benzoate in Oral Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Navneet; Sangeetha, Dhanaraj; Reddy, Pingili Sunil; Prakash, Lakkireddy

    2012-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and selective stability-indicating gradient reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of desloratadine and sodium benzoate in pharmaceutical oral liquid formulation. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity BEH C8 (100 mm 2.1 mm) 1.7 ?m column by using mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A (0.05 M KH2PO4 and 0.07 M triethylamine, pH 3.0) and B (50:25:25 v/v/v mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water) at flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Column temperature was maintained at 40C and detection was carried out at a wavelength of 272 nm. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 0.254 ?g/mL to 76.194 ?g/mL for desloratadine and 1.006 ?g/mL to 301.67 ?g/mL for sodium benzoate. The correlation coefficient for desloratadine and sodium benzoate was more than 0.999. To establish stability-indicating capability of the method, drug product was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. The degradation products were well resolved from desloratadine and sodium benzoate. The developed method was validated as per international ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision and robustness. PMID:22396911

  14. Simple and Sensitive Stability-Indicating Ion Chromatography Method for the Determination of Cyclopropylamine in Nevirapine and Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride Drug Substances

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Pavan Kumar S. R.; Khagga, Mukkanti; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Sigamani, John Prasanna; Vundavilli, Jagadeesh Kumar; Masani, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Hemant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of cyclopropylamine (CPA) in nevirapine (NEV) and moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) pharmaceutical drug substances. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Metrosep C4, 5 ?m (250 mm 4.0 mm) column. The mobile phase consists of 5 mM hydrochloric acid containing 10% (v/v) acetonitrile and was delivered in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min?1 at 27C. A conductometric detector was used for the detection of the analyte. The drug substances were subjected to stress conditions including oxidation, thermal, photolytic and humidity for the evaluation of the stability-indicating nature of the method. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and solution stability. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values are 0.10 ?g mL?1 and 0.37 ?g mL?1 respectively. The linearity range of the method is between 0.37 ?g mL?1 and 1.5 ?g mL?1 and the correlation coefficient is found to be 0.9971. The average recoveries of CPA in NEV and MOX are 97.0% and 98.0%, respectively. PMID:22396905

  15. Simple and sensitive stability-indicating ion chromatography method for the determination of cyclopropylamine in nevirapine and moxifloxacin hydrochloride drug substances.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Pavan Kumar S R; Khagga, Mukkanti; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Sigamani, John Prasanna; Vundavilli, Jagadeesh Kumar; Masani, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Hemant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of cyclopropylamine (CPA) in nevirapine (NEV) and moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) pharmaceutical drug substances. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Metrosep C4, 5 ?m (250 mm 4.0 mm) column. The mobile phase consists of 5 mM hydrochloric acid containing 10% (v/v) acetonitrile and was delivered in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min(-1) at 27C. A conductometric detector was used for the detection of the analyte. The drug substances were subjected to stress conditions including oxidation, thermal, photolytic and humidity for the evaluation of the stability-indicating nature of the method. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and solution stability. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values are 0.10 ?g mL(-1) and 0.37 ?g mL(-1) respectively. The linearity range of the method is between 0.37 ?g mL(-1) and 1.5 ?g mL(-1) and the correlation coefficient is found to be 0.9971. The average recoveries of CPA in NEV and MOX are 97.0% and 98.0%, respectively. PMID:22396905

  16. Stress degradation studies on azithromycin and development of a validated stability-indicating TLC-densitometric method with HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS analysis of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Kwiecie?, Anna; Krzek, Jan; Walczak, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a sensitive stability-indicating TLC-densitometric method for determination of azithromycin (AZ) in the presence of its impurities E, I, and L, and to study the stability of AZ under different stress conditions. The method was developed on TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel F254 using the mobile phase methanol-acetone-ammonia 25% (2+13+0.1, v/v/v), which gives compact zones for AZ (Rf= 0.39) and impurities E, I, and L (Rf = 0.54, 0.20, and 0.05, respectively). Densitometric analysis of AZ and its impurities was carried out at 483 nm after spraying with sulfuric acid-ethanol (1 + 4, v/v) and heating at 100 degrees C for 5 min. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationships with r = 0.9941 for AZ, 0.9987 for impurity E, 0.9989 for impurity I, and 0.9984 for impurity L. AZ was subjected to acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, oxidation, and reduction stress. The drug underwent degradation under these conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the pure drug, with significantly different Rf values. A plausible degradation pathway of AZ was established by HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the products. PMID:23175975

  17. Assay and stability-indicating micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of valacyclovir, acyclovir and their major impurity guanine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Saad, Bahruddin; Makahleah, Ahmad; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Elbashir, Abdalla A

    2010-05-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of the antiviral drugs acyclovir and valacyclovir and their major impurity, guanine, was developed. The influences of several factors (surfactant and buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage, capillary temperature and injection time) were studied. Using tyramine hydrochloride as internal standard, the analytes were all separated in about 4 min. The separation was carried out in reversed polarity mode at 28 degrees C, 25 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (15 s). The separation was effected in a fused-silica capillary 100 microm x 56 cm and a background electrolyte of 20 mM citric acid-1 M Tris solution (pH 2.75), containing 125 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate and detection at 254 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and selectivity. Calibration curves were linear over the range 0.1-1 microg/mL (guanine) and from 0.1 to 120 microg/mL for both valacyclovir and acyclovir. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas were less than 5.0%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the analytes in tablets and creams. From the previous study it is concluded that the stability-indicating method developed for acyclovir and valacyclovir can be used for analysis of the drug in various stability samples. PMID:19739243

  18. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Maria da Graça; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2015-01-01

    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics. PMID:26075139

  19. A comparative study between three stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its cytotoxic degradation product based on two-wavelength selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riad, Safaa M.; El-Rahman, Mohamed K. Abd; Fawaz, Esraa M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2015-06-01

    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA) in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5-diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation, were developed and validated. The first method is ratio difference, the second one is the bivariate method, and the third one is the dual wavelength method. The calibration curves for the three proposed methods are linear over a concentration range of 2-24 μg/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  20. A comparative study between three stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its cytotoxic degradation product based on two-wavelength selection.

    PubMed

    Riad, Safaa M; El-Rahman, Mohamed K Abd; Fawaz, Esraa M; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2015-06-15

    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA) in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5-diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation, were developed and validated. The first method is ratio difference, the second one is the bivariate method, and the third one is the dual wavelength method. The calibration curves for the three proposed methods are linear over a concentration range of 2-24 ?g/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed. PMID:25791882

  1. Stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method development and characterization of impurities in vortioxetine utilizing LC-MS, IR and NMR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Cao, Na; Ma, Xingling; Xiong, Kaihe; Sun, Lili; Zou, Qiaogen; Yao, Lili

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports the development and validation of a stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the separation and identification of potential impurities in vortioxetine, a recently developed antidepressant. The structures of a new compound and four process-related impurities formed during the synthesis were characterized and confirmed by NMR, MS, and IR spectroscopy analyses. The most probable formation mechanisms of the impurities identified were proposed. Based on the characterization data, the new compound was proposed to be 1-[4-[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)thio]phenyl]-piperazine. In addition, an efficient chromatographic method was optimized to separate and quantify the impurities, which were obtained in the 0.05-0.75?g/mL range. The developed HPLC method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, and limits of detection and quantitation. PMID:26412721

  2. Determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in the presence of process and degradation impurities by a validated stability-indicating RP-LC method.

    PubMed

    Raman, N V V S S; Harikrishna, K A; Prasad, A V S S; Reddy, K Ratnakar; Ramakrishna, K

    2010-03-11

    A stability-indicating gradient reverse phase liquid chromatographic purity and assay method for duloxetine hydrochloride (DUH) was developed and validated. DUH was subjected to the stress conditions and it is sensitive towards oxidative, acid and hydrolytic degradation. Successful separation of DUH from its two process impurities and one degradation impurity formed under stress conditions was achieved on a Symmetry C18, 250x4.6mm, 5microm column using a gradient mixture of solvent A (0.01M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate having 0.2% triethyl amine, pH adjusted to 2.5 with orthophosphoric acid) and solvent B (20:80 v/v mixture of acetonitrile and methanol). The flow rate is 1ml/min and the detection wavelength is 230nm. The mass balance was found to be in the range of 99.2-99.7% in all the stressed conditions. PMID:20005658

  3. A New Rapid and Sensitive Stability-Indicating UPLC Assay Method for Tolterodine Tartrate: Application in Pharmaceuticals, Human Plasma and Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Yanamandra, Ramesh; Vadla, Chandra Sekhar; Puppala, Umamaheshwar; Patro, Balaram; Murthy, Yellajyosula L N; Ramaiah, Parimi Atchuta

    2012-01-01

    A new rapid, simple, sensitive, selective and accurate reversed-phase stability-indicating Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC) technique was developed for the assay of Tolterodine Tartrate in pharmaceutical dosage form, human plasma and urine samples. The developed UPLC method is superior in technology to conventional HPLC with respect to speed, solvent consumption, resolution and cost of analysis. Chromatographic run time was 6 min in reversed-phase mode and ultraviolet detection was carried out at 220 nm for quantification. Efficient separation was achieved for all the degradants of Tolterodine Tartrate on BEH C18 sub-2-μm Acquity UPLC column using Trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a linear gradient program. The active pharmaceutical ingredient was extracted from tablet dosage form using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as diluent. The calibration graphs were linear and the method showed excellent recoveries for bulk and tablet dosage form. The test solution was found to be stable for 40 days when stored in the refrigerator between 2 and 8 °C. The developed UPLC method was validated and meets the requirements delineated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The intra-day and inter-day variation was found be less than 1%. The method was reproducible and selective for the estimation of Tolterodine Tartrate. Because the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. PMID:22396907

  4. A New Rapid and Sensitive Stability-Indicating UPLC Assay Method for Tolterodine Tartrate: Application in Pharmaceuticals, Human Plasma and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yanamandra, Ramesh; Vadla, Chandra Sekhar; Puppala, Umamaheshwar; Patro, Balaram; Murthy, Yellajyosula. L. N.; Ramaiah, Parimi Atchuta

    2012-01-01

    A new rapid, simple, sensitive, selective and accurate reversed-phase stability-indicating Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC) technique was developed for the assay of Tolterodine Tartrate in pharmaceutical dosage form, human plasma and urine samples. The developed UPLC method is superior in technology to conventional HPLC with respect to speed, solvent consumption, resolution and cost of analysis. Chromatographic run time was 6 min in reversed-phase mode and ultraviolet detection was carried out at 220 nm for quantification. Efficient separation was achieved for all the degradants of Tolterodine Tartrate on BEH C18 sub-2-μm Acquity UPLC column using Trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a linear gradient program. The active pharmaceutical ingredient was extracted from tablet dosage form using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as diluent. The calibration graphs were linear and the method showed excellent recoveries for bulk and tablet dosage form. The test solution was found to be stable for 40 days when stored in the refrigerator between 2 and 8 °C. The developed UPLC method was validated and meets the requirements delineated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The intra-day and inter-day variation was found be less than 1%. The method was reproducible and selective for the estimation of Tolterodine Tartrate. Because the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. PMID:22396907

  5. Stability-indicating RP-LC method for determination of azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone in pharmaceutical dosage forms: application to degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, Walid M; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Patonay, Gabor

    2014-10-01

    A RP-LC method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the active components, azilsartan medoxomil (AZL) and chlorthalidone (CLT), in their novel antihypertensive combined recipe. The chromatographic separation was achieved on anEclipse XDB-C18 (4.6??150mm, 5?m) column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol/potassium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH8, 0.05M) (40:60, v/v) in isocratic mode. The flow rate was maintained at 0.8mLmin(-1) at ambient temperature. Detection was carried out at 210nm. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were satisfactory over the concentration range of 5.0-50.0 and 2.5-25.0?gmL(-1) for AZL and CLT, respectively (r (2)?=?0.9999). LODs for AZL and CLT were 0.90 and 0.32?gmL(-1), whereas LOQs were 2.72 and 0.98?gmL(-1), respectively. Both drugs were subjected to forced degradation studies under hydrolysis (neutral, acidic, and alkaline), oxidative, and photolytic extensive stress conditions. The proposed method is stability indicating by the resolution of the investigated drugs from their degradation products. Moreover, the kinetics of the acidic degradation of AZL as well as the kinetics of the alkaline degradation of CLT were investigated. Arrhenius plots were constructed and the apparent first-order rate constants, half-life times, shelf-life times, and the activation energies of the degradation processes were calculated. The method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs simultaneously in their coformulated tablet. The developed method is specific and stability indicating for the quality control and routine analysis of the cited medications in their pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25190009

  6. Stability indicating LC method for rapid determination of related substances of O-desmethyl venlafaxine in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Karri Visweswara; Reddy, Kesareddy Padmaja; Kumar, Yelavarthi Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    A simple, precise and accurate stability-indicating reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the quantitative determination of O-desmethyl venlafaxine (ODV) and its related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical formulation. The method was developed using YMC-pack ODS-A (150 4.6 mm, 3 ?m) column with mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents A and B. Solvent A contained a mixture of buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 85:15 (v/v). The buffer consisted of 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 2 mM 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH adjusted to 6.0 by using diluted potassium hydroxide solution). Solvent B contained a mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 20:80 (v/v). The eluted compounds were monitored at 230 nm. ODV and its six impurities were well separated within 14 min run time. It was subjected under the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, water, thermal and photolytic degradation. It was sensitive towards acidic, basic, oxidative and water stress conditions, stable in photolytic and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, the mass balance in each case was >99.0%, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to its specificity, linearity (correlation coefficient >0.9996), limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy (recovery range 97.1-103.2%), precision (% relative standard deviation ?1.9%) and robustness. PMID:24474426

  7. Development and validation of a stability indicating method for S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation products in oral syrup formulation.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; De Filippis, Piero; Curcuruto, Ornella; Repeto, Paolo; Roveda, Davide; Hartenstein, Matthew; Adams, Erwin; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2015-11-10

    A stability-indicating method for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation impurities in Exputex 250mg/5mL syrup was developed in anion-exchange liquid chromatography mode. A forced degradation study supported the method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Aqueous solutions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and syrup samples at different pH-values were stress-tested in different thermal, light exposure and headspace conditions. One degradation product was detected in thermal stress studies at 60C and 80C in the pH range 5.0-7.0 and was identified by mass spectrometry as 5-oxo-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (lactam of carbocysteine). A second degradation product was only generated in moderately strong oxidizing conditions (0.5% H2O2 aqueous solution) and was identified as S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine-(R/S)-sulphoxide (carbocysteine sulphoxide). The method was developed on a Zorbax SAX column, in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of 200mM phosphate solution at pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) and UV detection was performed at a wavelength of 205nm. The method was linear for carbocysteine (R>0.9982) over a concentration range of 2.5-50?g/mL and 0.4-0.6mg/mL. Linearity for the impurities was shown from the LOQ to 50?g/mL. Specificity was verified and accuracy demonstrated for the active ingredient and its degradation products in syrup samples at 3 levels around their respective specification limits. Repeatability, intermediate precision and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on three commercial batches, analyzed in triplicate by two operators at both the transferring and the receiving site and demonstrated a successful method transfer to the manufacturing quality control laboratory. PMID:26159351

  8. Development and validation of a rapid stability indicating HPLC-method using monolithic stationary phase and two spectrophotometric methods for determination of antihistaminic acrivastine in capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Ayman A.; Hashem, Hisham; Jira, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Simple, rapid and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and spectrophotometric methods are described for determination of antihistaminic acrivastine in capsules. The first method (method A) is based on accurate, sensitive and stability indicating chromatographic separation method. Chromolith® Performance RP-18e column, a relatively new packing material consisting of monolithic rods of highly porous silica, was used as stationary phase applying isocratic binary mobile phase of ACN and 25 mM NaH2PO4 pH 4.0 in the ratio of 22.5:77.5 at flow rate of 5.0 mL/min and 40 °C. A diode array detector was used at 254 nm for detection. The elution time of acrivastine was found to be 2.080 ± 0.032. The second and third methods (methods B and C) are based on the oxidation of acrivastine with excess N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and determination of the unconsumed NBS with, metol-sulphanilic acid (λmax: 520 nm) or amaranth dye (λmax: 530 nm). The reacted oxidant corresponds to the drug content. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range 1.563-50, 2.0-20 and 1.0-10 μg mL-1 for methods A, B and C, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.40, 0.292 and 0.113 μg mL-1 and 0.782, 0.973 and 0.376 μg mL-1 for methods A, B and C, respectively. The HPLC method was validated for system suitability, linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantitation, specificity, stability and robustness. Stability tests were done through exposure of the analyte solution for four different stress conditions and the results indicate no interference of degradants with HPLC-method. The proposed methods was favorably applied for determination of acrivastine in capsules formulation. Statistical comparison of the obtained results from the analysis of the studied drug to those of the reported method using t- and F-tests showed no significant difference between them.

  9. Development and validation of a rapid stability indicating HPLC-method using monolithic stationary phase and two spectrophotometric methods for determination of antihistaminic acrivastine in capsules.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman A; Hashem, Hisham; Jira, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    Simple, rapid and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and spectrophotometric methods are described for determination of antihistaminic acrivastine in capsules. The first method (method A) is based on accurate, sensitive and stability indicating chromatographic separation method. Chromolith Performance RP-18e column, a relatively new packing material consisting of monolithic rods of highly porous silica, was used as stationary phase applying isocratic binary mobile phase of ACN and 25 mM NaH2PO4 pH 4.0 in the ratio of 22.5:77.5 at flow rate of 5.0 mL/min and 40C. A diode array detector was used at 254 nm for detection. The elution time of acrivastine was found to be 2.0800.032. The second and third methods (methods B and C) are based on the oxidation of acrivastine with excess N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and determination of the unconsumed NBS with, metol-sulphanilic acid (?max: 520 nm) or amaranth dye (?max: 530 nm). The reacted oxidant corresponds to the drug content. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 1.563-50, 2.0-20 and 1.0-10 ?g mL(-1) for methods A, B and C, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.40, 0.292 and 0.113 ?g mL(-1) and 0.782, 0.973 and 0.376 ?g mL(-1) for methods A, B and C, respectively. The HPLC method was validated for system suitability, linearity, precision, limits of detection and quantitation, specificity, stability and robustness. Stability tests were done through exposure of the analyte solution for four different stress conditions and the results indicate no interference of degradants with HPLC-method. The proposed methods was favorably applied for determination of acrivastine in capsules formulation. Statistical comparison of the obtained results from the analysis of the studied drug to those of the reported method using t- and F-tests showed no significant difference between them. PMID:24813276

  10. Longitudinal stability of social competence indicators in a Portuguese sample: Q-sort profiles of social competence, measures of social engagement, and peer sociometric acceptance.

    PubMed

    Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple indicators. Sociometric status categories (Asher & Dodge, 1986) and reciprocated friendships were derived from sociometric data. Composites for social competence domains were significantly associated across all time points. Within age-periods, social competence domains were associated with both sociometric and friendship status categories; however, neither sociometric status nor reciprocated friendships were stable over time. Nevertheless, analyses examining the social competence antecedents to reciprocated friendship at age-4 and age-5 suggested that more socially competent children in the prior year were more likely to have a reciprocated friendship in the current year. Popular and rejected sociometric status categories were also associated with social competence indicators in prior years, but this was most clearly seen at age-5. PMID:24015691

  11. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) Method for the Determination of Related Substances of Micafungin Sodium in Drug Substances

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shengsheng; Meng, Xiang; Su, Xin; Luo, Yongwei; Sun, Zuyue

    2013-01-01

    An isocratic, sensitive and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of micafungin sodium was developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 4.6 mm, 5 ?m). Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for micafungin sodium and its six impurities. Limit of detection of impurities was in the range of 0.006%0.013% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 98.2% and 102.0% for all impurities. RSD obtained for the repeatability and intermediate precision experiments, was less than 1.0%. The method was successfully applied to quantify related substances of micafungin sodium in bulk drugs. PMID:24284389

  12. Development and validation of a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of related substances of micafungin sodium in drug substances.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengsheng; Meng, Xiang; Su, Xin; Luo, Yongwei; Sun, Zuyue

    2013-01-01

    An isocratic, sensitive and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of micafungin sodium was developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 4.6 mm, 5 ?m). Forced degradation study con?rmed that the newly developed method was speci?c and selective to the degradation products. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for speci?city, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for micafungin sodium and its six impurities. Limit of detection of impurities was in the range of 0.006%-0.013% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 98.2% and 102.0% for all impurities. RSD obtained for the repeatability and intermediate precision experiments, was less than 1.0%. The method was successfully applied to quantify related substances of micafungin sodium in bulk drugs. PMID:24284389

  13. Validated stability indicating liquid chromatographic determination of ebastine in pharmaceuticals after pre column derivatization: Application to tablets and content uniformity testing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An accurate, simple, sensitive and selective reversed phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of ebastine in its pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method depends on the complexation ability of the studied drug with Zn2+ ions. Reversed phase chromatography was conducted using an ODS C18 (150 × 4.6 mm id) stainless steel column at ambient temperature with UV-detection at 260 nm. A mobile phase containing 0.025%w/v Zn2+ in a mixture of (acetonitril/methanol; 1/4) and Britton Robinson buffer (65:35, v/v) adjusted to pH 4.2, has been used for the determination of ebastine at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The calibration curve was rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.3 - 6.0 μg/ml with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.13 μg/ml, and quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.26 μg/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ebastine in its dosage forms, the obtained results were favorably compared with those obtained by a comparison method. Furthermore, content uniformity testing of the studied pharmaceutical formulations was also conducted. The composition of the complex as well as its stability constant was also investigated. Moreover, the proposed method was found to be a stability indicating one and was utilized to investigate the kinetics of alkaline and ultraviolet induced degradation of the drug. The first-order rate constant and half life of the degradation products were calculated. PMID:21554731

  14. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, ?-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and ?-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations. PMID:20637132

  15. Using an innovative Quality-by-Design approach for development of a stability indicating UHPLC method for ebastine in the API and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander H; Molnr, Imre

    2013-05-01

    A stability-indicating ultra high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method has been developed for purity testing of ebastine and its pharmaceutical formulations. Successful chromatographic separation of the API from impurities was achieved on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18, 50 mm 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m particle size column with gradient elution of 10 mM acetate buffer pH 6.2 and a mixture of acetonitrile/2-propanol (1:1) as the mobile phase. Incorporating Quality by Design (QbD) principles to the method development approach by using the chromatography modeling software DryLab4 allows the visualization of a "Design Space", a region in which changes to method parameters will not significantly affect the results as defined in the ICH guideline Q8 (R2). A verification study demonstrated that the established model for Design Space is accurate with a relative error of prediction of only 0.6%. The method was fully validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision, and robustness in compliance to the ICH guideline Q2 (R1). The method was found to be linear in the concentration range from the quantification limit (LOQ) to 125% of the specification limit for ebastine and each of the impurities with correlation coefficients of not less than 0.999. The recovery rate was between 98.15 and 100.30% for each impurity. The repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD) were less than 3.2% for ebastine and each of the impurities. The robustness of the developed method was studied by varying the six parameters: gradient time, temperature, ternary composition of the eluent, flow rate and start and end concentration of the gradient at 3 levels (+1, 0, -1). The resulting 729 experiments were performed in silico from the previously constructed model for Design Space and showed that the required resolution of 2.0 can be reached in all experiments. To prove the stability-indicating performance of the method, forced degradation (acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic and thermal stress conditions) of ebastine was carried out. Baseline separation could be achieved for all peaks of the impurities, the degradation products and the API. Total run time was only 4 min, which is an impressive 40-fold increase in productivity in comparison to the method published in the Ph. Eur. monograph and allowed purity testing of more than 360 samples per day. PMID:23454599

  16. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, M E; Iriarte, M M; Mercado Guzmán, A; Coronado, O; Almanza, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1mLg(-1) for coliphage, between 1 and 100mLg(-1) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000mLg(-1) for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. PMID:26881733

  17. Collapse of the sea surface stability during the Miocene to Quartenary in the Western Pacific Ocean, indicated by Discoaster abundance and Coccolith size change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Pratiwi, S. D.; Farida, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe in detail the middle Miocene to Pleistocene paleoceanography of the Western Pacific Ocean based on calcareous nannofossils. Abundantly occurrence of discoasters, which indicates the stable sea surface stratification and the development of thermo- and nutri-cline, are found in the interval from NN2 to NN4 zones of the early Miocene. The relative abundance of discoaster is decreased in the NN4-5 zone and it changed to very rare above NN10 (B in Fig.1). These characteristics are found in both Sites 805 and 782. Focusing to the mean size of Reticulofenestra species, it decreased at NN4-5 zone (A in Fig 2), and lower part of NN11 (B in Fig. 2). The presence of larger size Reticulofenestra species also show the oligotrophic conditions of sea surface with thermocline. On the basis of these results, the collapse of the stability of the sea surface stratification in the Western Pacific Ocean progressed throughout the Miocene to Quaternary. As the results, nutrient conditions of sea surface in these area were changed in steps from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions at NN4-5 and lower part of NN11 (A and B in Fig. 2). These datum related to collapse of sea surface conditions, is cleary correlated to the timing of the end of Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (A) and the intensify of the Asian Monsoon (B; Fig. 2).

  18. Preparation and characterization of two new forced degradation products of letrozole and development of a stability-indicating RP-LC method for its determination.

    PubMed

    Elkady, Ehab Farouk; Fouad, Marwa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Two new hydrolytic products of letrozole were identified and proved to be true degradation products obtained by alkaline and acidic degradation of the drug. The acid and amide forms of the nitrile groups of letrozole were prepared and identified by IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. Subsequently, a simple, precise and selective stability-indicating RPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of letrozole in the presence of its degradation products. Letrozole was subjected to alkali and acid hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation and photo-degradation. The degradation products were well isolated from letrozole. The chromatographic method was achieved using gradient elution of the drug and its degradation products on a reversed phase Zorbax Eclipse C18 column (100mm x 4.6mm, 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of 0.01M KH₂PO₄and methanol at a flow rate of 1 mL min⁻¹. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 230 nm. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 0.01-80 μgmL⁻¹. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of letrozole in bulk, plasma and in its pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:26639498

  19. Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of the New Antipsychotic Agent Asenapine in Bulk and in Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Chhalotiya, Usmangani K.; Bhatt, Kashyap K.; Shah, Dimal A.; Patel, Jigar R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, specific and stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of asenapine in tablet dosage form. A SunFire C18, 5 ?m column having 2504.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate: acetonitrile (95:05, v/v, pH 3.5 adjusted with 1% o-phosphoric acid) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min?1 and effluents were monitored at 232 nm. The retention time of asenapine was 5.51 min. The linearity for asenapine was in the range of 0.120 ?g/ml. The recoveries obtained for asenapine were 98.31101.51%. Asenapine stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, sunlight and dry heat degradation. The degraded product peaks were well resolved from the pure drug peak with significant difference in their retention time values. Stressed samples were assayed using developed LC method. The proposed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of asenapine in tablet dosage form. PMID:22896826

  20. Development and validation of a simple stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of miconazole nitrate in bulk and cream formulations.

    PubMed

    De Zan, Mara M; Cmara, Mara S; Robles, Juan C; Kergaravat, Silvina V; Goicoechea, Hctor C

    2009-08-15

    A simple and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of miconazole nitrate in bulk and cream preparations. The extraction step for cream samples consisted in a warming, cooling and centrifugation procedure that assures the elimination of the lipophilic matrix component, in order to avoid further precipitation in the chromatographic system. Separation was achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB - C18 (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm particle size) column, using a mobile phase consisting of water, methanol and acetonitrile, in a flow and solvent gradient elution for 15 min. The column was maintained at 25 degrees C and 10 microL of solutions were injected. UV detection was performed at 232 nm, although employment of a diode array detector allowed selectivity confirmation by peak purity evaluation. The method was validated reaching satisfactory results for selectivity, precision and accuracy. Degradation products in naturally aged samples could be simultaneously evaluated, without interferences in the quantitative analysis. PMID:19576442

  1. QbD-Based Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Estimating Ketoprofen in Bulk Drug and Proniosomal Vesicular System.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Nand K; Raghuvanshi, Ashish; Sharma, Gajanand; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, Om P; Nanda, Sanju

    2016-03-01

    The current studies entail systematic quality by design (QbD)-based development of simple, precise, cost-effective and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method for estimation of ketoprofen. Analytical target profile was defined and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) were selected. Chromatographic separation was accomplished with an isocratic, reversed-phase chromatography using C-18 column, pH 6.8, phosphate buffer-methanol (50 : 50v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 258 nm. Systematic optimization of chromatographic method was performed using central composite design by evaluating theoretical plates and peak tailing as the CAAs. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with parameters such as high sensitivity, specificity of the method with linearity ranging between 0.05 and 250 µg/mL, detection limit of 0.025 µg/mL and quantification limit of 0.05 µg/mL. Precision was demonstrated using relative standard deviation of 1.21%. Stress degradation studies performed using acid, base, peroxide, thermal and photolytic methods helped in identifying the degradation products in the proniosome delivery systems. The results successfully demonstrated the utility of QbD for optimizing the chromatographic conditions for developing highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method for ketoprofen. PMID:26514627

  2. Stability-indicating LC assay for butenafine hydrochloride in creams using an experimental design for robustness evaluation and photodegradation kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Barth, Aline Bergesch; de Oliveira, Gabriela Bolfe; Malesuik, Marcelo Donadel; Paim, Clsio Soldatelli; Volpato, Nadia Maria

    2011-08-01

    A stability-indicating liquid chromatography method for the determination of the antifungal agent butenafine hydrochloride (BTF) in a cream was developed and validated using the Plackett-Burman experimental design for robustness evaluation. Also, the drug photodegradation kinetics was determined. The analytical column was operated with acetonitrile, methanol and a solution of triethylamine 0.3% adjusted to pH 4.0 (6:3:1) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detection at 283 nm. BTF extraction from the cream was done with n-butyl alcohol and methanol in ultrasonic bath. The performed degradation conditions were: acid and basic media with HCl 1M and NaOH 1M, respectively, oxidation with H(2)O(2) 10%, and the exposure to UV-C light. No interference in the BTF elution was verified. Linearity was assessed (r(2) = 0.9999) and ANOVA showed non-significative linearity deviation (p > 0.05). Adequate results were obtained for repeatability, intra-day precision, and accuracy. Critical factors were selected to examine the method robustness with the two-level Plackett-Burman experimental design and no significant factors were detected (p > 0.05). The BTF photodegradation kinetics was determined for the standard and for the cream, both in methanolic solution, under UV light at 254 nm. The degradation process can be described by first-order kinetics in both cases. PMID:21801482

  3. Spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric stability-indicating methods for determination of some oxicams using 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl).

    PubMed

    Taha, Elham Anwer; Salama, Nahla Nour; Fattah, Laila El-Sayed Abdel

    2006-05-01

    Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric stability-indicating methods have been developed for the determination of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory oxicam derivatives namely lornoxicam (Lx), tenoxicam (Tx) and meloxicam (Mx) after their complete alkaline hydrolysis. The methods are based on derivatization of alkaline hydrolytic products with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). The products showed an absorption maximum at 460 nm for the three studied drugs and fluorescence emission peak at 535 nm in methanol. The color was stable for at least 48 h. The optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated and it was found that the reaction proceeds quantitatively at pH 8, after heating in a boiling water bath for 30 min. The methods were found to be linear in the ranges of 1-10 microg ml(-1) for Lx and Tx and 0.5-4.0 microg ml(-1) for Mx for spectrophotometric method, while 0.05-1.0 microg ml(-1) for Lx and Tx and 0.025-0.4 microg ml(-1) for Mx for the spectrofluorimetric method. The validity of the methods was assessed according to USP guidelines. Statistical analysis of the results revealed high accuracy and good precision. The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of the above mentioned drugs in pure and dosage forms as well as in the presence of their degradation products. PMID:16651760

  4. Development and validation of stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method to analyze gatifloxacin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical preparations

    PubMed Central

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Kalam, Mohd. Abul; Sultana, Yasmin; Imran, Ahamad; Alshamsan, Aws

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of gatifloxacin in tablets, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and eye-drops using a very simple and rapid chromatographic technique was validated and developed. Formulations were analyzed using a reverse phase SUPELCO 516 C-18-DB, 50306-U, HPLC column (250mmנ4.6mm, 5?m) and a mobile phase consisting of disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer:acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) and with orthophosphoric acid pH was adjusted to 3.3 The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and analyte concentrations were measured using a UV-detector at 293nm. The analyses were performed at room temperature (252C). Gatifloxacin was separated in all the formulations within 2.767min. There were linear calibration curves over a concentration range of 4.040?g.mL?1 and correlation coefficients of 0.9998 with an average recovery above 99.91%. Detection of analyte from different dosage forms at the same Rt indicates the specificity and stability of the developed method. PMID:25685047

  5. Development and validation of stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method to analyze gatifloxacin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Kalam, Mohd Abul; Sultana, Yasmin; Imran, Ahamad; Alshamsan, Aws

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative determination of gatifloxacin in tablets, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and eye-drops using a very simple and rapid chromatographic technique was validated and developed. Formulations were analyzed using a reverse phase SUPELCO 516 C-18-DB, 50306-U, HPLC column (250mmנ4.6mm, 5?m) and a mobile phase consisting of disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer:acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) and with orthophosphoric acid pH was adjusted to 3.3 The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and analyte concentrations were measured using a UV-detector at 293nm. The analyses were performed at room temperature (252C). Gatifloxacin was separated in all the formulations within 2.767min. There were linear calibration curves over a concentration range of 4.0-40?g.mL(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9998 with an average recovery above 99.91%. Detection of analyte from different dosage forms at the same Rt indicates the specificity and stability of the developed method. PMID:25685047

  6. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  7. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  8. Novel Validated Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for the Estimation of Naproxen and its Impurities in Bulk Drugs and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Venkatarao, Papanaboina; Nagendra Kumar, Morrisetty; Ravi Kumar, Maram

    2012-12-01

    A novel, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of related substances in Naproxen (NAP) bulk drugs and dosage forms. The related substances included degradation and process-related impurities. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column using the gradient program with mobile phase A of a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer and methanol in the ratio of 90: 10 (v/v) and mobile phase B as methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v). Naproxen and its impurities were monitored at 260 nm. Naproxen was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity, and photolytic degradations. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. PMID:23264943

  9. Preparation of uniform-sized exenatide-loaded PLGA microspheres as long-effective release system with high encapsulation efficiency and bio-stability.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Wu, Jie; Fan, Qingze; He, Fan; Tian, Guifang; Yang, Tingyuan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2013-12-01

    Exenatide-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres hold great potential as a drug delivery system to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because they can overcome the shortcoming of exenatide's short half-life and realize sustained efficacy. However, conventional preparation methods often lead to microspheres with a broad size distribution, which in turn would cause poor preparation repeatability, drug efficacy and so forth. In this study, we used Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) premix membrane emulsification technique characterized with high trans-membrane flux and size controllability to prepare uniform-sized PLGA microspheres. By optimizing trans-membrane pressure and PVA concentration in external aqueous phase, uniform-sized PLGA microspheres with large size (around 20μm) were successfully obtained. To achieve high encapsulation efficiency (EE) and improve in vitro release behavior, we have carefully examined the process parameters. Our results show that using ultrasonication to form primary emulsion, microspheres with high EE were easily obtained, but the rate of in vitro release was very slow. Instead, high EE and appropriate in vitro release were achieved when homogenization with optimized time and speed were employed. Besides, we also systematically investigated the effect of formulations on loading efficiency (LE) as well as the relationship between the resultant size of the microspheres and pore size of the membrane. Finally, through RP-HPLC and CD spectra analysis, we have demonstrated that the bio-stability of exenatide in microspheres was preserved during the preparation process. PMID:24075786

  10. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Determination of Cloxacillin Sodium in Its Bulk Form and Formulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikita; Contractor, Pooja; Keshrala, Rajesh; Patel, Parag R; Shridhar, Bhimagoni

    2015-07-01

    A simple, linear gradient, rapid, precise and stability-indicating RP-UPLC method was developed for the determination of Cloxacillin Sodium in its bulk form and formulation. Ultra performance liquid chromatography, a most promising advancement in a world of chromatography, reduces analysis time, increases reliability through higher resolution, sensitivity and selectivity as well as used as an economic method due to reducing solvent consumption. A chromatographic separation of a drug as well as its degradants was achieved using Waters acquity BEH, 2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm C18 column with gradient of mobile phase A: phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 and mobile phase B: methanol:acetonitrile (75:25). The drug and degradants were monitored at a detection wavelength of 225 nm with a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min and an injection volume of 10 µL. The temperature of the column and auto sampler compartments was at 30°C and 25°C ± 1°C, respectively. The retention time of the drug was ∼6.9 min. The resolution of the drug and degradant peak was >1.5 in all cases. Force degradation of CLOX SOD was carried under alkaline, acidic, oxidative, thermal, photo degradation conditions and it was analyzed by the proposed method. The drug degrades under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions but was stable in temperature and light. A developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines using validation parameters such as precision, linearity and range, limit of quantification, specificity, assay and robustness. PMID:25368408

  11. Gradient HPLC-diode array detector stability-indicating determination of lidocaine hydrochloride and cetylpyridinium chloride in two combined oral gel dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek S; Shaalan, Rasha A; Haggag, Rim S

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and selective HPLC-diode array detector method was developed for the simultaneous determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LD) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in two combined pharmaceutical formulations. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C8 (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 microm particle size) column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of 0.05 M phosphoric acid and acetonitrile. The gradient elution started with 25% (v/v) acetonitrile, ramped up linearly to 85% in 5 min, and then was constant until the end of the run. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The multiple wavelength detector was set at 214 and 258 nm, and quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas. The retention times for LD and CPC were about 3.4 and 7.3 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to linearity, range, precision, accuracy, selectivity, robustness, LOD, and LOQ. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 5-200 and 10-400 microg/mL for LD and CPC, respectively, with correlation coefficients > 0.999. The proposed method was proven to be stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from the related substance and potential impurity (2,6-dimethylaniline) as well as from forced-degradation products. The validated HPLC method was extended to the analysis of LD and CPC in two combined oral gel preparations for which the two analytes were successfully resolved from the pharmaceutical adjuvants and quantified with recoveries not less than 97.9%. PMID:21563684

  12. Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Stojanka; Stojanovi?, Biljana; Veljkovi?, Jelena; Prazi?-Arsi?, Ljiljana; Rogli?, Goran; Manojlovi?, Dragan

    2008-08-22

    HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives. PMID:18644604

  13. HPLC, TLC, and first-derivative spectrophotometry stability-indicating methods for the determination of tropisetron in the presence of its acid degradates.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila S; El-Sherif, Zeinab A; Kilani, Khadiga M; El-Haddad, Dalia A

    2010-01-01

    Three stability-indicating assay methods were developed for the determination of tropisetron in a pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of its degradation products. The proposed techniques are HPLC, TLC, and first-derivative spectrophotometry (1D). Acid degradation was carried out, and the degradation products were separated by TLC and identified by IR, NMR, and MS techniques. The HPLC method was based on determination of tropisetron in the presence of its acid-induced degradation product on an RP Nucleosil C18 column using methanol-water-acetonitrile-trimethylamine (65 + 20 + 15 + 0.2, v/v/v/v) mobile phase and UV detection at 285 nm. The TLC method was based on the separation of tropisetron and its acid-induced degradation products, followed by densitometric measurement of the intact spot at 285 nm. The separation was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum sheets using methanol-glacial acetic acid (22 + 3, v/v) mobile phase. The 1D method was based on the measurement of first-derivative amplitudes of tropisetron in H2O at the zero-crossing point of its acid-induced degradation product at 271.9 nm. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable over concentration ranges of 40-240 microg/mL, 1-10 microg/spot, and 6-36 micro/mL for the HPLC, TLC, and 1D methods, respectively. The suggested methods were successfully applied for the determination of the drug in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures, and a commercial sample. PMID:20922950

  14. Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Diclofenac Sodium and Diflunisal in Their Combined Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Shaalan, Rasha A.; Belal, Tarek S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly selective HPLC-DAD method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diclofenac sodium (DIC) and diflunisal (DIF) in pure form and in their combined formulation. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax SB-C8 (4.6×250 mm, 5 μm particle size) column with a mobile phase composed of 0.05 M phosphoric acid, acetonitrile, and methanol in the ratio of 40:48:12 (by volume). The mobile phase was pumped isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas at 228 nm. The retention times for diflunisal and diclofenac were about 7.9 and 9.5 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to system suitability, linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection, and quantification limits. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 5–100 μg/mL for both drugs with correlation coefficients >0.9998. The proposed method proved to be selective and stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from four of their related substances and potential impurities as well as from forced-degradation (hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and dry heat) products. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of DIC and DIF in their combined dosage form (suppositories). The proposed method made use of the diode array detector (DAD) as a tool for peak identity and purity confirmation. PMID:24106669

  15. Development of validated stability-indicating chromatographic method for the determination of fexofenadine hydrochloride and its related impurities in pharmaceutical tablets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A simple reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been developed and subsequently validated for the determination of fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX) and its related compounds; keto fexofenadine (Impurity A), meta isomer of fexofenadine (Impurity B), methyl ester of fexofenadine (Impurity C) in addition to the methyl ester of ketofexofenadine (Impurity D). The separation was based on the use of a Hypersil BDS C-18 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer containing 0.1 gm% of 1-octane sulphonic acid sodium salt monohydrate and 1% (v/v) of triethylamine, pH 2.7 and methanol (60:40, v/v). The separation was carried out at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 215 nm using lisinopril as internal standard, with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 0.1-50 μg/ml for FEX and its related compounds. The optimized conditions were used to develop a stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative determination of FEX and its related compounds in tablet dosage forms. The drugs were subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and heat to apply stress conditions. Complete separation was achieved for the parent compounds and all degradation products. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, robustness, limits of detection and quantitation and other aspects of analytical validation. PMID:22136482

  16. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Binnor, Anil K.; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V.; Roy, Sunilendu B.

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 2C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:24482769

  17. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability

  18. Determination of Cefixime by a Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method and Identification of its Related Substances by LC-MS/MS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Talebpour, Zahra; Pourabdollahi, Hakimeh; Rafati, Hasan; Abdollahpour, Asem; Bashour, Yusef; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cefixime is an important cephalosporin antibiotic that easily decomposes and releases different related substances in preparation and storage steps. The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate isocratic liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of cefixime in the presence of its related substances generated from thermal stress in the bulk drug. The chromatographic conditions were comprised of a reversed-phase C18 column (4.6 250 mm, 5 ?m) with a mobile phase composed of water: acetonitrile (85:15 v/v, with 0.5% formic acid) and ultraviolet detection (UV). Some thermal degradation products were identified using a proposed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Five peaks (A, B, C, D, and E impurities based on British Pharmacopoeia) were known and a few unknown peaks appeared in the thermal stress solution of cefixime. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot of the LC-UV method showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range 0.91000.0 ?g mL?1. The recovery of the optimized method was between 94.6 and 98.4% and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations were less than 3.3%. The obtained results shown in the LC-UV proposed method can be conveniently used in a quality control laboratory for routine analysis of cefixime for the assay and related substances, as well as for the evaluation of stability samples of bulk drugs. PMID:23833715

  19. Use of chemical indicators of beer aging for ex-post checking of storage conditions and prediction of the sensory stability of beer.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Pavel; Culk, Ji?; Hork, Tom; Jurkov, Marie; Olovsk, Jana

    2013-12-26

    The rate of beer aging is affected by storage conditions including largely time and temperature. Although bottled beer is commonly stored for up to 1 year, sensorial damage of it is quite frequent. Therefore, a method for retrospective determination of temperature of stored beer was developed. The method is based on the determination of selected carbonyl compounds called as "aging indicators", which are formed during beer aging. The aging indicators were determined using GC-MS after precolumn derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentaflourobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and their profile was correlated with the development of old flavor evolving under defined conditions (temperature, time) using both a mathematical and statistical apparatus. Three approaches, including calculation from regression graph, multiple linear regression, and neural networks, were employed. The ultimate uncertainty of the method ranged from 3.0 to 11.0 C depending on the approach used. Furthermore, the assay was extended to include prediction of beer tendency to sensory aging from freshly bottled beer. PMID:24308508

  20. Protein linear indices of the 'macromolecular pseudograph alpha-carbon atom adjacency matrix' in bioinformatics. Part 1: prediction of protein stability effects of a complete set of alanine substitutions in Arc repressor.

    PubMed

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Medina-Marrero, Ricardo; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Romero-Zaldivar, Vicente; Torrens, Francisco; Castro, Eduardo A

    2005-04-15

    A novel approach to bio-macromolecular design from a linear algebra point of view is introduced. A protein's total (whole protein) and local (one or more amino acid) linear indices are a new set of bio-macromolecular descriptors of relevance to protein QSAR/QSPR studies. These amino-acid level biochemical descriptors are based on the calculation of linear maps on Rn[f k(xmi):Rn-->Rn] in canonical basis. These bio-macromolecular indices are calculated from the kth power of the macromolecular pseudograph alpha-carbon atom adjacency matrix. Total linear indices are linear functional on Rn. That is, the kth total linear indices are linear maps from Rn to the scalar R[f k(xm):Rn-->R]. Thus, the kth total linear indices are calculated by summing the amino-acid linear indices of all amino acids in the protein molecule. A study of the protein stability effects for a complete set of alanine substitutions in the Arc repressor illustrates this approach. A quantitative model that discriminates near wild-type stability alanine mutants from the reduced-stability ones in a training series was obtained. This model permitted the correct classification of 97.56% (40/41) and 91.67% (11/12) of proteins in the training and test set, respectively. It shows a high Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC=0.952) for the training set and an MCC=0.837 for the external prediction set. Additionally, canonical regression analysis corroborated the statistical quality of the classification model (Rcanc=0.824). This analysis was also used to compute biological stability canonical scores for each Arc alanine mutant. On the other hand, the linear piecewise regression model compared favorably with respect to the linear regression one on predicting the melting temperature (tm) of the Arc alanine mutants. The linear model explains almost 81% of the variance of the experimental tm (R=0.90 and s=4.29) and the LOO press statistics evidenced its predictive ability (q2=0.72 and scv=4.79). Moreover, the TOMOCOMD-CAMPS method produced a linear piecewise regression (R=0.97) between protein backbone descriptors and tm values for alanine mutants of the Arc repressor. A break-point value of 51.87 degrees C characterized two mutant clusters and coincided perfectly with the experimental scale. For this reason, we can use the linear discriminant analysis and piecewise models in combination to classify and predict the stability of the mutant Arc homodimers. These models also permitted the interpretation of the driving forces of such folding process, indicating that topologic/topographic protein backbone interactions control the stability profile of wild-type Arc and its alanine mutants. PMID:15781410

  1. The "Golden Shale": An indicator of coastal stability for Marble Point, McMurdo Sound, over the last four million years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claridge, G.G.C.; Campbell, I.B.

    2007-01-01

    A small sedimentary deposit near Gneiss Point on the western side of McMurdo Sound, previously identified as shale, is described. The deposit is phillipsite, a zeolite that is believed to have formed from the deposition and alteration of volcanic ash in a small ice-marginal saline lake. Other previously recorded occurrences of phillipsite in the dry valleys are believed to be several million years old. A similar age for this deposit is suggested for the Gneiss Point deposit. This is consistent with other weathering and landscape features found in the immediate area, including traces of halloysite in soils. The deposit is very close to sea level but could not have formed if the site had been below sea level, indicating that there has been very little uplift following that which caused the sea to retreat from the Wright Fiord.

  2. Planktonic Foram Sr/Ca Indicates Long-Term Stability of Carbonate Saturation State and Seawater Sr/Ca during the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, J. K.; Opdyke, B.; Owens, R.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in ocean chemistry are poorly understood over timescales of tens of millions of years; yet, such changes reflect the interplay of fundamental Earth processes, such as the long-term carbon-cycle, evolution, tectonics, and weathering. Simultaneously constraining two ocean chemical parameters could help deconvolve these processes and improve our understanding of the marine response to anthropogenic perturbations to the carbon cycle. We use a multi-proxy and modeling approach, utilizing planktonic foram Sr/Ca, calcite cements, and box-modeling to produce a first-attempt at a Cenozoic carbonate saturation state (?) curve and to improve estimates of long-term seawater Sr/Ca variability. Evidence from both culturing studies and glacial-interglacial records indicate that foram Sr/Ca is dominantly sensitive to ?, suggesting that foram Sr/Ca can be used to reconstruct ? if seawater Sr/Ca can be constrained. We apply this new proxy to an updated Cenozoic planktonic foram Sr/Ca record, comprising 1680 records from 18 publications. Our foram Sr/Ca record is largely constant during the Cenozoic, with a minimum at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary and a pronounced shift at 38Mya, corresponding to a major planktonic foram overturning event, which we interpret as a species offset. To constrain seawater Sr/Ca, we use both trace element data from calcite cements and a box-model linked to the 87Sr/86Sr record. Both the model and calcite cement data suggest seawater Sr/Ca has remained relatively stable, with slightly higher values during the Paleogene, a minimum during the mid-Miocene, and variability driven by changes in carbonate deposition and mineralogy. Relative to calcite, ? was low (~4) during much of the Paleogene, but increased during the Oligocene, reaching a maximum during the mid-Miocene. ? declined to a local minimum at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, and has since increased to pre-industrial values of 5-6. This record helps explain the lag between the aragonite-calcite transition in the early Paleogene and the widespread appearance of scleractinian reefs during the Oligocene, suggesting that aragonitic reefs are particularly sensitive to ?. Further, the combination of trace element proxies from forams and calcite cements and modeling suggest that ? and seawater Sr/Ca have remained relatively constant during the Cenozoic.

  3. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  4. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of nimesulide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Rishbha; Nair, Anroop; Saini, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nimesulide (NS), phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and caffeine anhydrous (CF) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. A reversed phase Hypersil phenyl column (4.6 mm x 25 cm) with mobile phase having pH 5.5 consisting of methanol and buffer (55:45, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute and the effluents were monitored at 214 nm. The retention times of all the drugs were found to be 7.47 min (NS), 3.944 min (PE), 4.55 min (CF) and 17.15 min (CPM), respectively. The linearity for all the drugs was obtained in the range of 300-800 microg/mL (NS), 15-32 microg/mL (PE), 16-32 microg/mL (CPM) and 30-180 microg/mL (CF), respectively. The results of analysis have been well validated according to guidelines of International Conference of Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. The method was found to be simple, precise, economical, less time consuming and reproducible. Hence, the suggested procedure could be used for the determination of all the four drugs in commercial preparations. PMID:23285660

  5. Simultaneous determination of methocarbamol and aspirin by RP-HPLC using fluorescence detection with time programming: its application to pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    El-Din, M Sharaf; Eid, M; Zeid, A M

    2013-01-01

    A new simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methocarbamol (MET) and aspirin (ASP) in their combined dosage form. The separation of these compounds was achieved within 6.0 min on a CLC Shim-pack C8 column (250 4.6 mm, 5 m particle size) using isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.02 M dihydrogenphosphate buffer (30:70, v/v) at pH = 5.0. The analysis was performed at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with fluorescence detection at 277/313 nm for MET and 298/410 nm for ASP using real-time programming. The selectivity, linearity of calibration, accuracy, inter- and intra-day precision and recovery were examined as parts of the method validation. The concentration-response relationship was linear over concentration ranges of 0.02-0.20 and 0.02-0.40 g/mL for MET and ASP, respectively, with a limit of detection of 6 and 32 ng/mL for MET and ASP, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of both MET and ASP in prepared tablets with average recoveries of 99.88 0.65% for MET and 100.44 0.78% for ASP. The results were favourably compared to those obtained by a reference method. PMID:22715138

  6. SIRPH analysis: SNuPE with IP-RP-HPLC for quantitative measurements of DNA methylation at specific CpG sites.

    PubMed

    El-Maarri, Osman

    2004-01-01

    This chapter describes a detailed protocol using single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) for quantitative analysis of DNA methylation on specific CpG sites. The first step DNA sample to be studied is treated with sodium bisulfite, which converts selectively unmethylated cytosines to uracil, while methylated cytosines remain unconverted. Subsequently, a SNuPE reaction is performed, with an oligo just flanking a CpG site, using a purified polymerase chain reaction product derived from bisulfite-treated DNA as a template. The oligo is extended by either ddCTP or ddTTP depending on whether the site is methylated or unmethylated, respectively. The reaction is quantitative and linear, and two to three sites can be studied simultaneously in a multiple reaction. The SNuPE product, without further purification, is separated by ion-pair reverse-phase (IP RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (using an alkylated nonporous polysterene-divinylbenzene cartridge) that allows an easy, semiautomated method for separation of the extended and unextended products and an accurate quantification of the extended products. The ratio of the ddCTP to the ddTTP gives the fraction of the methylated cytosines at that specific CpG site. PMID:15273413

  7. Identification of lipopeptide isoforms by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS based on the simultaneous purification of iturin, fengycin, and surfactin by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Li, Xu; Li, Xue; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao

    2015-03-01

    A three-stage linear gradient strategy using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was optimized for rapid, high-quality, and simultaneous purification of the lipopeptide isoforms of iturin, fengycin, and surfactin, which may differ in composition by only a single amino acid and/or the fatty acid residue. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to detect the lipopeptides harvested from each reversed-phase HPLC peak. Amino acid analysis based on phenyl isothiocyanate derivatization was further used for confirmation of the amino acid species and molar ratio in a certain HPLC fraction. By this MALDI-TOF-MS/MS coupled with amino acid analysis, it was revealed that iturin at m/z 1,043 consists of a circular Asn-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser peptide and C14 ?-OH fatty acid. Surfactin homologs from Bacillus subtilis THY-7 at m/z 1,030, 1,044, 1,058, and 1,072 possess a circular Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu peptide and the ?-OH fatty acid with a different length (C13-C16). Fengycin species at m/z 1,463 and 1,477 are homologs possessing the circular peptide Glu-Orn-Tyr-Thr-Glu-Ala-Pro-Gln-Tyr-Ile linked to a C16 or C17 ?-OH fatty acid, whereas fengycin at m/z 1,505 contains a Glu-Orn-Tyr-Thr-Glu-Val-Pro-Gln-Tyr-Ile sequence with a Val instead of Ala at position 6. The method developed in this work provided an efficient approach for characterization of diverse lipopeptide isoforms from the iturin, fengycin, and surfactin families. PMID:25662934

  8. Simultaneous quantitative determination of six active components in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array detection for quality control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-yang; Ma, Xiao-hui; Li, Wei; Chu, Yang; Guo, Jia-hua; Zhou, Shui-ping; Zhu, Yong-hong

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and reliable method for the simultaneous separation and determination of six active components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule() (CG) was developed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector detection. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column with aqueous formic acid (0.1%, v/v) and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min at 30 C. Because of the different UV characteristics of these components, change detection wavelength method was used for quantitative analysis. All of the analytes showed good linearity (r > 0.9992). The established method showed good precision and relative standard deviations (%) for intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.15-1.81 and 0.11-1.98%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously determination of six active components in CG from different batches. PMID:23934038

  9. Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method for the quantitation of odanacatib in rat and human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Police, Anitha; Gurav, Sandip; Dhiman, Vinay; Zainuddin, Mohd; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    A simple, specific, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method has been developed and validated for the estimation of odanacatib in rat and human plasma. The bioanalytical procedure involves extraction of odanacatib and itraconazole (internal standard, IS) from a 200 ?L plasma aliquot with simple liquid-liquid extraction process. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry Shield RP18 using an isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The UV detection wave length was 268 nm. Odanacatib and IS eluted at 5.5 and 8.6 min, respectively with a total run time of 10 min. Method validation was performed as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 50.9-2037 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.994). The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 2.06-5.11 and 5.84-13.1%, respectively, in rat plasma and 2.38-7.90 and 6.39-10.2%, respectively, in human plasma. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. PMID:25914381

  10. Isotherm models for localized monolayers with lateral interactions. Application to single-component and competitive adsorption data obtained in RP-HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, I.; Guiochon, G.

    1996-10-30

    Single-component and competitive adsorption data of 2-phenylethanol and 3-phenylpropanol on ODS-silica with methanol-water as the mobile phase, which had been previously reported, were reinterpreted. These data were fitted to several isotherm models derived from statistical thermodynamics which considered lateral adsorbate-adsorbate interactions on homogeneous surfaces: the Fowler, Ruthven, and Moreau et al. models. The single-component Kiseleve model for specific lateral interactions was extended to account for the competitive adsorption of binary mixtures and for the finite or infinite dimension of the adsorbed associates. These last models were tested using the same set of experimental data. A comparison was made regarding the ability of these models to predict mixed equilibria using only the identified parameters of the single-component isotherms. In this regard, the best result were obtained with the Kiselev model, which considers the formation of both binary and ternary associates on the surface. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Comparison of adsorption coefficient (K[sub oc]) for soils and HPLC retention factors of aromatic hydrocarbons using a chemically immobilized humic acid column in RP-HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, G. ); Bulman, R.A. )

    1994-01-01

    The determination of soil adsorption coefficients (K[sub oc]) via HPLC capacity factors (k[prime]) has been studied, including the effect of column type and mobile phase composition on the correlation between log K[sub oc] and log k[prime]. K[sub oc] values obtained by procedures other than HPLC correlate well with HPLC capacity factors determined on a chemically immobilized humic acid stationary phase, and it is suggested that this phase is a better model for the sorption onto soil or sediment than the octadecyl-, phenyl- and ethylsilica phases. By using log k[prime][sub w] a theoretical capacity factor has been obtained by extrapolation of the retention data in a binary solvent system to pure aqueous eluent. There is a better correlation between log K[sub oc] and log k[prime][sub w] than the correlation between log K[sub oc] and log k[prime].

  12. Standardization of RP-HPLC methods for the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harmit; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Malave, Poonam; Saputra, Denny; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-03-01

    Crude peanut extract (CPE) was analyzed for three major allergens (Ara h 1, h 2, and h 3) using a C12 and a C18 column at two wavelengths (280 and 220nm) and under different solvent conditions. HPLC profiles were compared for retention time, resolution, and peak heights. CPE samples were spiked with pure allergens to identify the peaks corresponding to allergens. The HPLC fractions of corresponding allergens were collected and freeze-dried in order to perform SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting tests. The best method was identified the one with a shorter retention time, better resolution, and greater peak height as compared with the other methods. In general, the peak heights were greater at 220nm than at 280nm. The major disadvantage of the C12 column was the need for two sets of conditions to identify the allergens as compared to the C18 column where all three allergens could be identified in one run. PMID:26471570

  13. RP-HPLC method using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate incorporated with normalization technique in principal component analysis to differentiate the bovine, porcine and fish gelatins.

    PubMed

    Azilawati, M I; Hashim, D M; Jamilah, B; Amin, I

    2015-04-01

    The amino acid compositions of bovine, porcine and fish gelatin were determined by amino acid analysis using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as derivatization reagent. Sixteen amino acids were identified with similar spectral chromatograms. Data pre-treatment via centering and transformation of data by normalization were performed to provide data that are more suitable for analysis and easier to be interpreted. Principal component analysis (PCA) transformed the original data matrix into a number of principal components (PCs). Three principal components (PCs) described 96.5% of the total variance, and 2 PCs (91%) explained the highest variances. The PCA model demonstrated the relationships among amino acids in the correlation loadings plot to the group of gelatins in the scores plot. Fish gelatin was correlated to threonine, serine and methionine on the positive side of PC1; bovine gelatin was correlated to the non-polar side chains amino acids that were proline, hydroxyproline, leucine, isoleucine and valine on the negative side of PC1 and porcine gelatin was correlated to the polar side chains amino acids that were aspartate, glutamic acid, lysine and tyrosine on the negative side of PC2. Verification on the database using 12 samples from commercial products gelatin-based had confirmed the grouping patterns and the variables correlations. Therefore, this quantitative method is very useful as a screening method to determine gelatin from various sources. PMID:25442566

  14. Simultaneous determination of the endogenous free ?-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid in human plasma and erythrocytes by RP-HPLC coupled with electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Abad

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive, precise, and accurate reversed-phase high performance liquid-chromatography/electrochemical detection method for simultaneous determination of the endogenous free ?-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid in biological matrices is presented. The two analytes are extracted from samples with acetonitrile-10% m-phosphoric acid solution(aqueous) (50:50 v/v). To determine the total lipoic acid, samples are treated with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine solution in phosphate buffer: pH 2.5 with 85% o-phosphoric acid prior to deproteination. The two analytes are separated on a C18 (150??4.6 mm, 5 ?m) analytical column using acetonitrile-50 mM phosphate buffer: pH 2.5 with 85% o-phosphoric acid (35:65 v/v) as the isocratic mobile phase pumped at a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min at the column oven temperature of 35 C. The column eluents are monitored at a potential of 0.9 V. These analytes are efficiently resolved in <7 min. PMID:25323519

  15. ESI-MS and MS/MS identification of the first ceramide analogues of fumonisin B? mycotoxin from a Fusarium verticillioides culture following RP-HPLC separation.

    PubMed

    Bartk, T; Szcsi, ; Juhsz, K; Bartk, M; Mesterhzy,

    2013-01-01

    Following the earlier detection of six new esterified fumonisin B? (EFB?) isomers containing three acyl groups in a Fusarium verticillioides-inoculated rice culture, it was assumed that linoleic, palmitic or oleic acid esterifies one of the free OH groups on the fumonisin backbone. On the basis of the results of our recent investigations we now propose that these EFB? isomers are actually 3-O- and 5-O-acyl derivatives of FB? (3-O-linoleoyl-FB?, 5-O-linoleoyl-FB?, 3-O-palmitoyl-FB?, 5-O-palmitoyl-FB?, 3-O-oleoyl-FB? and 5-O-oleoyl-FB?). A F. verticillioides strain was identified that produced not only O-acyl-FB? isomers, but also low amounts of three N-acyl derivatives (N-linoleoyl-FB?, N-palmitoyl-FB? and N-oleoyl-FB?), which eluted from the HPLC column after the six O-acyl compounds and in the same sequence as for the O-acyl compounds. The characteristic positive and negative ESI-MS/MS spectra obtained after solid-phase extraction of the culture extract facilitated identification of these N-acyl-FB? derivatives. The biosynthesis of N-palmitoyl-FB? by F. verticillioides was verified by spiking the culture extract with synthetic N-palmitoyl-FB?. This is the first report of the separation and mass spectrometric identification of the six O-acyl- and three N-acyl-FB? derivatives extracted from a F. verticillioides culture. PMID:23837460

  16. Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of aceglutamide and oxiracetam in an injection formulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Wu, Shengde

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid method to determine aceglutamide (ACE) and oxiracetam (OXI) present in an injection formulation using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The method was validated with respect to suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Chromatography was carried out on an Elite SinoChrom ODS-BP C18 (5 ?m, 250 4.60 mm) column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol-phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) in the ratio of 5:95, v/v, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a UV-PDA detector at 210 nm. The linearity range for ACE and OXI were 10-500 and 10-300 ?g/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations for replicate measurements were always <2%. PMID:25238766

  17. RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous quantitation of boeravinone E and boeravinone B in Boerhaavia diffusa extract and its formulation.

    PubMed

    Bhope, S G; Gaikwad, P S; Kuber, V V; Patil, M J

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of two major rotenoids, boeravinone E and boeravinone B, in Boerhaavia diffusa extract and its formulation. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Inertsil ODS-3 column by using gradient mobile phase containing 0.1% v/v orthophosphoric acid in water and acetonitrile. The detection was carried out at 276 nm. The method was validated for specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The linearity (r(2) = 0.9989 and 0.9991) was found to be in the range of 7.26-35.75 g mL(-1) and 2.20-11.00 g mL(-1) for boeravinone E and B, respectively. The percent recovery observed from the extract sample was 95.22-95.83. PMID:22480291

  18. Determination of pKa values of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-oxicams by RP-HPLC and their analysis in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Ebru Cubuk; Alsancak, Guleren; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2009-09-01

    In this study, pK(a) values were determined by using the dependence of the capacity factor on the pH of the mobile phase for four ionizable substances, namely, tenoxicam, piroxicam, meloxicam, and naproxen (I.S.). The effect of the mobile phase composition on the ionization constant was studied by measuring the pK(a) at different ACN concentrations, ranging from 30 to 40%. The adequate condition for the chromatographic determination of these compounds in pharmaceutical dosage forms was established based on the different retention behaviors of the species. An octadecylsilica Nucleosil C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) was used for all the determinations. The chromatographic separation of oxicams was carried out using acetonitrile (ACN)/water at 35% v/v, containing 65 mM phosphoric acid and UV detection at a wavelength of 355 nm. The method developed was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of these drug compounds in laboratory-prepared mixtures and their commercial pharmaceutical dosage forms. Each analysis requires no longer than 12 min. PMID:19662642

  19. Novel whey-derived peptides with inhibitory effect against angiotensin-converting enzyme: in vitro effect and stability to gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Tânia; Contreras, Maria Del Mar; Amorim, Manuela; Pintado, Manuela; Recio, Isidra; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by proteases from the flowers of Cynara cardunculus, and the resulting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory effect was monitored. The whole WPC hydrolysate exhibited an IC(50) value of 52.9 ± 2.9 μg/mL, whereas the associated peptide fraction with molecular weight below 3 kDa scored 23.6 ± 1.1 μg/mL. The latter fraction was submitted to RP-HPLC, and 6 fractions were resolved that exhibited ACE-inhibitory effects. Among the various peptides found, a total of 14 were identified via sequencing with an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Eleven of these peptides were synthesized de novo--to validate their ACE-inhibitory effect, and also to ascertain their stability when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Among them, three novel, highly potent peptides were found, corresponding to α-lactalbumin f(16-26)--with the sequence KGYGGVSLPEW, α-lactalbumin f(97-104) with DKVGINYW, and β-lactoglobulin f(33-42) with DAQSAPLRVY; their IC(50) values were as low as 0.80 ± 0.1, 25.2 ± 1.0 and 13.0 ± 1.0 μg/mL, respectively. None of them remained stable in the presence of gastrointestinal enzymes: they were partially, or even totally hydrolyzed to smaller peptides--yet the observed ACE-inhibitory effects were not severely affected for two of those peptides. PMID:21335046

  20. Impurity profiling and a stability-indicating UPLC method development and validation for the estimation of related impurities of halobetasol propionate in halobetasol propionate 0.05% (w/w) cream.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Lakkireddy; Malipeddi, H; Subbaiah, B Venkata; Lakka, Narasimha S

    2015-01-01

    A simple, short and stability-indicating reverse phase-ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of related impurities of halobetasol propionate in halobetasol propionate 0.05% cream formulation. The proposed method was developed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Phenyl (2.1 100 mm, 1.7 m) column at 40C with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of potassium hydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile and methanol as modifiers with a runtime of 13.0 min at a monitored wavelength of 242 nm. A simple preparative method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-compatible UPLC method also were developed for the isolation and identification of impurities and degradation products. The drug was subjected to forced-degradation conditions and found to degrade significantly. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method is established by analyzing forced-degradation samples in which the spectral purity of halobetasol propionate is ascertained along with the separation of degradation products from the analyte peak. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The developed method is precise (%relative standard deviation <2.0) and is capable of detecting and quantifying all the six impurities at a level of 0.01 and 0.03%, respectively, with respect to test concentration. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, short retention time and simple mobile phase imply that the method is suitable for routine quantification of halobetasol propionate and its related substances. PMID:24795078

  1. Indices To Measure Stability of Rule Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    When learning is taking place, students test their hypotheses and evaluate them, and modify their current theories on the basis of new information. This phenomenon is known as "hypothesis testing view" or "theory changes." Many students change their rules to another while they are taking a test. This study introduced a new concept called "slip

  2. Development of RP UPLC-TOF/MS, stability indicating method for omeprazole and its related substances by applying two level factorial design; and identification and synthesis of non-pharmacopoeial impurities.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sushant Bhimrao; Kumar, C Kiran; Bandichhor, Rakeshwar; Bhosale, P N

    2016-01-25

    A new UPLC-TOF/MS compatible, reverse phase-stability indicating method was developed for determination of Omeprazole (OMP) and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms by implementing Design of Experiment (DoE) i.e. two level full factorial Design (2(3)+3 center points=11 experiments) to understand the Critical Method Parameters (CMP) and its relation with Critical Method Attribute (CMA); to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of eleven specified impurities including conversion product of OMP related compound F (13) and G (14) i.e. Impurity-I (1), OMP related compound-I (11) and OMP 4-chloro analog (12) was achieved in a single method on Acquity BEH shield RP18 1002.1mm, 1.7?m column, with inlet filter (0.2?m) using gradient elution and detector wavelength at 305nm and validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust and specific. The drug was found to degrade extensively in heat, humidity and acidic conditions and forms unknown degradation products during stability studies. The same method was used for LC-MS analysis to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unknown impurities (Non-Pharmacopoeial) i.e. Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9) formed during stability studies. Based on the results, degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of identified impurities i.e. impurities (Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9)) are discussed in detail to ensure in-depth understanding of OMP and its related impurities and optimum performance during lifetime of the product. PMID:26600119

  3. Development of a stability-indicating LC method for determination of a synthetic chalcone derivative in a nanoemulsion dosage form and identification of the main photodegradation product by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Cristiane B; Deponti, Vnia B; Barreto, Fabiano; Simes, Cludia M O; Andrighetti-Frohner, Carla R; Nunes, Ricardo J; Steindel, Mrio; Teixeira, Helder F; Koester, Letcia S

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a stability indicating LC for the determination of 5-(2-benzoylethenyl)-N-benzyl-2 methoxybenzenesulfonamide (SCD - a synthetic chalcone derivative), and evaluate the degradation profile of the compound under different stress conditions recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). Chromatographic separation was performed on a silica C18 column, methanol-water mobile phase 70:30 (v:v), pH 5.0 adjusted with the addition of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1); detection by UV absorption at 330 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and specificity. The SCD was subjected to forced degradation and peak photodegradation product was well separated from the pure substance, with retention times significantly different, indicating the specificity of the method. Second-order degradation kinetics of SCD was observed under photodegradation and base-induced degradation. In order to identify the product formed under photodegradation, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed. These results indicate that the method can be successfully used in order to assay SCD in a nanoemulsion dosage form, and that this formulation has a protective effect over SCD degradation. PMID:22884784

  4. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  5. RBC indices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... concentration (MCHC); Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); Red blood cell indices ... RBCs transport hemoglobin which, in turn, transports oxygen. The ... cells. These RBC measures are used to diagnose types of anemia . ...

  6. ROLE OF A NOVEL EXCIPIENT POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-b-POLY (l-HISTIDINE) IN RETENTION OF PHYSICAL STABILITY OF INSULIN AT AQUEOUS/ORGANIC INTERFACE

    PubMed Central

    Taluja, Ajay; Han Bae, You

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a cationic polyelectrolyte; poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-b-poly(l-histidine) diblock copolymer [PEG-polyHis] can stabilize insulin, at the aqueous/methylene chloride interface formed during the microencapsulation process. Insulin aggregation at this interface was monitored spectrophotometrically at 276 nm. The effects of protein concentration, pH of the aqueous medium, and the presence of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] in methylene chloride (MC) on insulin aggregation were observed. For the 2.0 mg/ml insulin solutions in phosphate buffer (PB), the effect of addition of Pluronic F-127 as a positive control and addition of PEG-polyHis as a novel excipient in PB was also evaluated at various insulin/polymeric excipient weight ratios. The conformation of insulin protected by PEG-polyHis and recovered after interfacial exposure was evaluated via circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Greater loss in soluble insulin was observed with increasing insulin concentrations. pH 6.0 was selected for optimal ionic interactions between insulin and PEG-polyHis based on zeta potential and particle size studies. pH 4.5 and 7.4 (no ionic complexation between insulin and PEG-polyHis) were selected as controls to compare the stabilization effect of PEG-polyHis with that at pH 6.0. Incubation of PEG-polyHis with insulin at pH 6.0 drastically reduced protein aggregation, even in the presence of PLGA. PEG-polyHis and F-127 reduced insulin aggregation in non-complexing pH conditions pointing to the role played by PEG in modulation of insulin adsorption at the interface. Far-UV (205-250 nm) circular dichroism (CD) study revealed negligible qualitative effects on soluble insulins secondary structure after interfacial exposure. RP-HPLC and size-exclusion HPLC showed no deamidation of insulin or formation of soluble high molecular weight transformation products respectively. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the results from chromatographic procedures. Radioimmunoassay carried out on select samples showed that recovered soluble insulin had retained its immunoreactivity. An experimental method to simulate interfacial denaturation of proteins was designed for assessment of protein stability at the interface and screening for novel protein stabilizers. Understanding and manipulation of such polyelectrolyte-insulin complexation will likely play a role in insulin controlled delivery via microspheres formulation(s). PMID:17439239

  7. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E. (Poway, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  8. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary

  9. New chromatographic and biochemical strategies for quick preparative isolation of tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Cayama, Edmundo; Ypez, Antonio; Rotondo, Fernando; Bandeira, Eduardo; Ferreras, Ana C.; Triana-Alonso, Francisco J.

    2000-01-01

    A combination of hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC was used to purify individual tRNAs with high specific activity. The efficiency of chromatographic separation was enhanced by biochemical manipulations of the tRNA molecule, such as aminoacylation, formylation of the aminoacyl moiety and enzymatic deacylation. Optimal combinations are presented for three different cases. (i) tRNAPhe from Escherichia coli. This species was isolated by a combination of low pressure phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic chromatography with RP-HPLC. (ii) tRNAIle from E.coli. Aminoacylation increases the retention time for this tRNA in RP-HPLC. The recovered acylated intermediate is deacylated by reversion of the aminoacylation reaction and submitted to a second RP-HPLC run, in which deacylated tRNAIle is recovered with high specific activity. (iii) tRNAiMet from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aminoacylated form of this tRNA is unstable. To increase stability, the aminoacylated form was formylated using E.coli enzymes and, after one RP-HPLC step, the formylated derivative was deacylated using peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from E.coli. The tRNAiMet recovered after a second RP-HPLC run exhibited electrophoretic homogeneity and high specific activity upon aminoacylation. These combinations of chromatographic separation and biochemical modification can be readily adapted to the large-scale isolation of any particular tRNA. PMID:10871387

  10. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the stability of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of 2 years. Findings will identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain stability and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality are being monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.

  11. Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

  12. 46 CFR 178.210 - Stability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability information. 178.210 Section 178.210 Shipping... information. (a) Stability information (stability details indicated on the Certificate of Inspection, a... this section. Enough stability information, including stability calculations and assumptions made...

  13. 46 CFR 178.210 - Stability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability information. 178.210 Section 178.210 Shipping... information. (a) Stability information (stability details indicated on the Certificate of Inspection, a... this section. Enough stability information, including stability calculations and assumptions made...

  14. 46 CFR 178.210 - Stability information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information. (a) Stability information (stability details indicated on the Certificate of Inspection, a stability letter, or a stability booklet) is required on certain vessels by paragraphs (b) or (c) of this... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability information. 178.210 Section 178.210...

  15. Validation of liquid chromatographic method for analysis of lidocaine hydrochloride, dexamethasone acetate, calcium dobesilate, buthylhydroxyanisol and degradation product hydroquinone in suppositories and ointment.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Lj; Zecevic, M; Markovic, S; Petrovic, S; Ivanovic, I

    2005-09-23

    In this paper, there was developed a sensitive, precise and accurate reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method and validated for simultaneous determination of lidocaine hydrochloride, dexamethasone acetate (DA) and calcium dobesilate (CD) in suppositories and ointment. Also there was achieved a parallel analysis of buthylhydroxyanisol, as a preservative, and hydroquinone, as a degradation product of calcium dobesilate, present in these dosage forms. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for all five compounds indicated a good precision and accuracy of the RP-HPLC method. Method is selective, sensitive and reproducible with good recovery values and can be applied in simultaneous determination of all mentioned compounds. PMID:16130749

  16. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  17. The operator's emotional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilberman, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional stability in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional stability is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional stability can be determined.

  18. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A. (P.O. Box 49, Taos, NM 87571)

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  19. Does Shoulder Stabilizations Stabilize Shoulders?

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-26

    Glenohumeral Stabilization; Computer Tomography; Subtle or Minor Instability; Unstable Painful Shoulder; Apprehension; Dislocation; Subluxation; Kinematics Modeling; Biomechanics; Motion Capture; 3D Simulation

  20. Metallic alloy stability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The dimensional stability of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional stability. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional stability and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional stability is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.

  1. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  2. Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Arginine and Lysine deficient Proline Rich Glutamine Rich Wheat Storage Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of enzymatic digest has made possible identification of a wide variety of proteins and complex samples prepared by such techniques as RP-HPLC or 2-D gel electrophoresis. Success requires peptide fragmentation to be indicative of the peptide amino acid sequence. The f...

  3. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  4. Stabilization of supersaturated zincate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrenko, V.E.; Zubov, M.S.; Baulov, V.I.; Balyakina, N.N.; Kotov, A.V.

    1986-09-10

    This paper investigates the stabilization of supersaturated zincate electrolytes in a silver-zinc battery by the addition of potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, and molasses. Molasses, in combination with the hydroxide additives, was found to demonstrate a profound stabilizing influence on the zincate supersaturation and the electrolyte. Preliminary data on discharge of a battery using the combined additive indicates that it has higher discharge capacity than do batteries which contain the individual additives. The chemistry of this stabilizing influence is discussed.

  5. Development of a hyphenated procedure of heat-reflux and ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by RP-HPLC separation for the determination of three flavonoids content in Scutellaria barbata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Hong, Show-Jen

    2013-12-01

    A hyphenated procedure of heat-reflux and ultrasound-assisted extraction (HUAE), and an accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method were developed for the determination of apigenin, baicalin and luteolin content in Scutellaria barbara D. Don. The suitable HUAE conditions for the extraction of target compounds from the herb were identified as an ultrasonic frequency of 40kHz, power of 185W, duty cycle of 75% (intermittent sonication), mean particle size of 0.355mm, extraction temperature of 50C, ratio of solvent to raw material of 12:1 (mL/g), ethanol concentration of 60% (v/v), extraction time of 30min and three cycles. Compared with a traditional heat-reflux extraction method, the proposed method reduced the extraction time, extraction temperature and solvent consumption. Also, this HUAE method achieved superior apigenin, baicalin and luteolin yields. Furthermore, the developed HUAE-HPLC method was applied successfully for the simultaneous evaluation of three bioactive compounds in five samples of S. barbara D. Don obtained from different geographical regions. These results clearly demonstrated that the combined HUAE-HPLC process is feasible in the future commercialized manufacture of this highly valuable Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24145017

  6. Development and validation of an RP-HPLC-UV method for the determination of BOL-303225-A, a new coumarin-based anti-inflammatory drug, in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Adriana; Maugeri, Francesco; Ward, Keith W; Bucolo, Claudio

    2007-04-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis in rat plasma of BOL-303225-A, a new coumarin-based anti-inflammatory drug. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C(18) column using acetonitrile and water containing 1% triethylamine pH 3.5, adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (35.5:64.5 v/v) as mobile phase. The UV detector was set at 324 nm. The method proved to be linear (r(2) > 0.99) and precise (RSD < 7%) over the concentration range 29-940 ng/mL, and was suitable for the support of pharmacokinetic studies in rats. PMID:17221925

  7. Analysis of Wheat Prolamins, the Causative Agents of Celiac Sprue, Using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Mejías, Jaime H.; Lu, Xiaoqiao; Osorio, Claudia; Ullman, Jeffrey L.; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Wheat prolamins, commonly known as “gluten”, are a complex mixture of 71–78 proteins, which constitute ~80% of the proteins in the wheat grains and supply 50% of the global dietary protein demand. Prolamins are also responsible for numerous gluten-induced disorders and determine the unique visco-elastic properties of the wheat dough. These properties necessitate the reliable determination of the prolamin composition in wheat grains and their derived products. Therefore, this study examined the impact of HPLC conditions, including column type, column temperature, flow rate, and the gradient of polar and non-polar solvents in the mobile phase, to improve the analytical resolution of prolamins. The following conditions were found optimal for analyses: column temperature 60 °C, flow rate 1.0 mL/min and an elution gradient of 20%–60% of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid + acetonitrile in 60 min. For further improvement of resolution, gliadin and glutenin extracts were analyzed using MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPLC fractionation. Two semi-quantitative methods, densitometry of stained polyacrylamide gels and HPLC, were used to determine relative prolamin quantities and the correspondence between the methods was established. The combinatorial gluten analyses approach developed during the present study was used to analyze prolamin profiles of wheat transformants expressing DEMETER silencing artificial microRNA, and the results are discussed. PMID:24739977

  8. Hybridoma stability.

    PubMed

    Castillo, F J; Mullen, L J; Grant, B C; DeLeon, J; Thrift, J C; Chang, L W; Irving, J M; Burke, D J

    1994-01-01

    Hybridoma stability issues include mutations, chromosome losses, and the potential effects of process variables on the yield, quality and homogeneity of the Monoclonal Antibody (MAb) product. MAb production by murine hybridomas is typically unstable in the early stages after fusion but repeated cloning normally produces stable clones. The stability of hybridomas and the consistency of the MAbs produced during extended high density perfusion cultures at Xoma Corporation were evaluated. Cell stability was assessed by recovering cells from the bioreactors at different intervals and comparing their growth and product formation kinetics and yields to those of cells started fresh from the corresponding Manufacturer's Working Cell Banks. Product consistency was evaluated in the crude harvests and in the corresponding purified MAb lots by biochemical and functionality tests including: SDS-PAGE (reducing and non-reducing), IEF, HPLC (size exclusion and cation exchange), peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing, carbohydrate composition and binding assays. Several murine hybridomas were studied during runs lasting several months and found to be stable by all criteria employed. Such results support the viability of extended hollow fiber perfusion cultures for reproducible production of murine MAbs. Selecting stable clones and understanding the effects of process variables on the quantity and quality of the MAbs are keys to controlling hybridoma stability during the manufacturing process. PMID:7533731

  9. Purification and identification of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV inhibitory peptides from the macroalga Palmaria palmata.

    PubMed

    Harnedy, Pdraign A; O'Keeffe, Martina B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitory peptides were purified and identified from an aqueous Palmaria palmata protein extract hydrolysed with Corolase PP. The hydrolysate was fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE) using a C18 matrix followed by semi-preparative reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (SP RP-HPLC). IC50 values of 1.47 0.09, 0.54 0.03 and 0.36 0.03 mg/ml were obtained for the hydrolysate, the 25%--acetonitrile (ACN) SPE fraction and the most active SP RP-HPLC peptide fraction (SP RP-HPLC 25_F28), respectively. Thirteen peptide sequences were identified following UPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis of SP RP-HPLC 25_F28. Three novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, Ile-Leu-Ala-Pro, Leu-Leu-Ala-Pro and Met-Ala-Gly-Val-Asp-His-Ile, with IC50 values in the range 43-159 ?M were identified. The results indicate that P. palmata derived peptides may have potential as functional food ingredients in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25442570

  10. Phytotoxicity as an indicator of stability of broiler production residues.

    PubMed

    Mendes, P M; Becker, R; Corrêa, L B; Bianchi, I; Dai Prá, M A; Lucia, T; Corrêa, E K

    2016-02-01

    Beddings used for successive broiler lots act as substrate to absorb water and feed from the excreta and may be subsequently used as agricultural fertilizers. This study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and the phytotoxicity of beddings used to raise five consecutive broiler lots in five aviaries. Samples were collected for beddings not used yet and for beddings used at each of the five broiler lots. Lettuce and cucumber seeds were considered as phytotoxicity bioindicators. As beddings were used for greater number of lots, N, Ca, K, Mg and P contents generally increased, but the C content decreased, the pH alkalinized and humidity was reduced (P < 0.05). The germination index for lettuce and cucumber seeds was reduced with increased bedding (P < 0.05). Beddings used for at least five broiler lots presented decreased C:N ratio and would not recommended for agricultural use due to its toxicity for both tested seeds. PMID:26686067

  11. Stabilization of compactible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Monitoring cheddar cheese ripening by chemical indices of proteolysis. 3. Identification of several high-molecular mass peptides.

    PubMed

    Belitz, H D; Kaiser, K P

    1993-08-01

    Two Cheddar cheeses from two different production plants were ripened over 24 weeks at 10 degrees C and then analysed for peptides soluble in citrate buffer at pH 4.6 by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC. Thirteen peptides with a chain length of between 35 and 65 amino acid residues and molecular masses between 3800 and 7400 were isolated and assigned to the corresponding amino acid sequences of the casein fractions via Edman degradation and amino acid composition. All peptides were fragments of the region K29-S96 of beta-casein A1 and A2, and eleven of them had M93 as the C-terminal. The amounts and proportions of these peptides varied differently during ripening of the two cheeses, so they may be suitable markers for characterizing the stage of ripening. PMID:8212903

  13. Turbulence stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yu; Gilles, Jrme

    2012-06-01

    We recently developed a new approach to get a stabilized image from a sequence of frames acquired through atmospheric turbulence. The goal of this algorihtm is to remove the geometric distortions due by the atmosphere movements. This method is based on a variational formulation and is efficiently solved by the use of Bregman iterations and the operator splitting method. In this paper we propose to study the influence of the choice of the regularizing term in the model. Then we proposed to experiment some of the most used regularization constraints available in the litterature.

  14. STABILIZED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.

  15. Stabilizing brokerage

    PubMed Central

    Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M. Meyersson

    2011-01-01

    A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can stabilize fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding. PMID:22198763

  16. Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Hlio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nlida L.

    2005-01-01

    Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

  17. Fireplace damper indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, C.L.; Fox, B.E.

    1982-09-21

    Disclosed herein is an indicator system and linkage for a fireplace damper whereby the open and closed modes of a fireplace damper are readily indicated without the necessity of inspecting the damper itself. The apparatus includes a series of links which alternatively expose a pair of indicators which reveal the mode that the damper door is currently in.

  18. ECOLOGICAL INDICATOR OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Indicator Program in NERL is developing indicators for two key purposes. The first is to characterize the biological condition of shallow streams and large rivers. The second is to develop diagnostic indicators to evaluate the causes of impairment to these commun...

  19. Fluid leak indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, George E. (Inventor); Loo, Shu (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fluid leak indicator (30) for detecting and indicating leaks in visually inaccessible fluid tubing joints (20, 21), such as those obstructed by insulation (24), includes a bag system (25) and a wicking system (30) surrounding or wrapping the joints (20, 21) under the visual obstructing material (24). Leaking fluid is collected in the bag (25) or on the wicking material (34) where it is conducted along the wicking material (34) to a visibly accessible capturing transparent indicator bulb (35) for providing a visual indication of the leak without requiring a chemical change in the capturing indicator bulb (35).

  20. Fluid leak indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Loo, S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A fluid leak indicator for detecting and indicating leaks in visually inaccessible fluid tubing joints, such as those obstructed by insulation includes a bag system and a wicking system surrounding or wrapping the joints under the visual obstructing material. Leaking fluid is collected in the bag or on the wicking material where it is conducted along the wicking material to a visily accessible capturing transparent indicator bulb for providing a visual indication of the leak without requiring a chemical change in the capturing indicator bulb.

  1. Stability of climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Rimbu, Norel; Wagner, Axel; Dima, Mihai

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of climate mode indices using proxy data as predictors is limited due to non-stationarity in atmospheric teleconnections. In this paper a method is presented to identify stable predictors for the reconstruction of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. Using the 20th Century reanalysis data, the AO index is calculated for the last 140 years and correlated with global two meter temperature, precipitation, and sea surface temperature anomalies in various moving windows. The stability of the correlation was checked in every point of the global grids. Anomalies from the regions where the correlation of the AO index is stable are used as stable predictors for the AO index. It is shown that the predictors identified through our analysis lead to proper AO reconstructions. Statistical analysis of a global climate simulation covering the last millennium reveals that the stability correlation map of model AO and temperature are very similar to the corresponding observed correlation stability map. It is shown that the stability correlation maps of the AO, as derived from the model, are insensitive to different climate forcing and can be used to systematically select stable predictors for the AO reconstruction during the last millennium and most likely for the late Holocene. Finally, several high resolution proxy data from the stable regions are selected and used for a reconstruction of the AO index during the last three centuries. We argue that selection of proxy data from the stable regions of AO teleconnections leads to a suitable AO reconstruction. Furthermore, the hypothesis of stable teleconnections is tested using atmospheric circulation model experiments. For climate conditions with other ice sheet distributions on the Northern Hemisphere, such as the last glacial maximum climate, considerable changes are detected in the atmospheric variability pattern compared to the present day. Correlation maps of pseudo proxy records over Europe, the Red Sea area, and Greenland indicate that the associated wind pattern can change drastically. During glacial times, Greenland ice cores indicate cold and warm phases in the northern North Atlantic. When looking in detail for the interannual variability for these phases, model simulations indicate that Greenland temperature variations are linked to distinct large-scale Northern Hemisphere circulation patterns and associated local wind directions. It is argued that such analysis provides a dynamical interpretation of past climate variability. With the combined use of models and data, one can examine the representativeness of sites where the reconstructions are available.

  2. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  3. Stability of Metronidazole Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Ying, James

    2015-01-01

    Metronidazole is an antiprotozoal agent used in the treatment of bacterial and protozoal anaerobic infections. The objectives of this study were to develop concentrated metronidazole suspensions that are inexpensive and easy to prepare and determine the stability of these suspensions after storage in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles at room temperature (23C) and under refrigeration (5C). Metronidazole suspensions (50 mg/mL) were prepared from powder using Ora-Blend or simple syrup as the vehicles. Samples were collected in triplicate from each container on days 0, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 93. Samples were assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method that had been validated as stability indicating. Color, change in physical appearance, and pH were also monitored at each time interval. There was no apparent change in color or physical appearance. The pH values changed by less than 0.20 units over the 93 days. The stability of metronidazole suspensions compounded from United States Pharmacopeia powder using Ora-Blend or simple syrup and packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles was determined to be 93 days when stored at either room temperature or under refrigeration. PMID:26714365

  4. Welding-Current Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Milton C.; Huston, Steven W.; Kroy, Ralph E.

    1990-01-01

    Light flashes on to indicate high current. Simple, inexpensive display circuit indicates when 3,000-A welding current flows in welding gun. Onset of welding current induces voltage and current in 1,000-turn, 28-gauge copper-wire coil. Single-transistor amplifier amplifies induced current, energizing light-emitting diode (LED) connected to collector of transistor. Light from LED gives simple, direct indication of welding current.

  5. Chemical Calcium Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, R. Madelaine; Etzler, Julie C.; Watts, Lora Talley; Lechleiter, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling as well as our appreciation for its ubiquitous role in cellular processes and has been rapidly advanced, in large part, due to the development of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators. In this chapter, we discuss some of the most common chemical Ca2+ indicators that are widely used for the investigation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Advantages, limitations and relevant procedures will be presented for each dye including their spectral qualities, dissociation constants, chemical forms, loading methods and equipment for optimal imaging. Chemical indicators that are now available allow for intracellular Ca2+ detection over a very large range (<50 nM to >50 ?M). Higher affinity indicators can be used to quantify Ca2+ levels in the cytosol while lower affinity indicators can be optimized for measuring Ca2+ in subcellular compartments with higher concentrations. Indicators can be classified into either single wavelength or ratiometric dyes. Both classes require specific lasers, filters, and/or detection methods that are dependent upon their spectral properties and both classes have advantages and limitations. Single wavelength indicators are generally very bright and optimal for Ca2+ detection when more than one fluorophore is being imaging. Ratiometric indicators can be calibrated very precisely and they minimize the most common problems associated with chemical Ca2+ indicators including uneven dye loading, leakage, photobleaching and changes in cell volume. Recent technical advances that permit in vivo Ca2+ measurements will also be discussed. PMID:18929663

  6. Crisis stability in the new world order

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    This report gives a preliminary discussion of the crisis stability characteristics of the new world order through calculations calibrated for the current order. If finds that crisis stability indices have qualitatively similar behavior in the new order, but significantly more comforting values than in the old. The recent summit proposed significant cuts in MIRVed and heavy intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and strategic weapons generally, that take the world into an apparently new order. This report gives a preliminary discussion of the crisis stability characteristics of that new order and of the interaction of offenses and defenses with stability indices in it.

  7. A whole soil stability index (WSSI) for evaluating soil aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregate stability is an indicator of soil quality. However, there is no standard methodology for measuring soil aggregation or aggregate stability, particularly for determining a whole soil stability index. A whole soil stability index (WSSI) was developed here which combined data from dry ...

  8. Composite stabilizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    An improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabillizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  9. Solid-state stability and compatibility studies of clavulanate potassium.

    PubMed

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Zalewski, Przemys?aw; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Barszcz, Boles?aw

    2015-03-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of degradation of clavulanate potassium in the solid state were studied by using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The degradation of clavulanate potassium was a first-order reaction depending on the substrate concentration at an increased relative air humidity (RH) and in dry air. The dependence ln k?=?f(1/T) became the ln k?=?(0.026??166.35)-(2702.82??1779.43)(1/T) in dry air and ln k?=?(1.65??100.40)??10(3)-(5748.81??3659.67)(1/T) at 76.4% RH. The thermodynamic parameters Ea, ?H(?a), ?S(?a) of the degradation of clavulanate potassium in the solid state were calculated. The dependence ln k?=?f (RH%) assumed the form ln k?=?(8.78??5.75) 10?(-2) (RH%) + (2.64??10(-8?)?40.41). The compatibility of clavulanate potassium with commonly used excipients was studied at an increased temperature and in dry air. The geometric structure of molecule, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) orbitals were also determined in order to predict the structural changes and reactive sites in clavulanate potassium during degradation and compatibility studies in the solid state. The ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectra of degraded samples of the compound were analyzed. PMID:24219797

  10. Deflection resistance indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, H. S.; Pontious, H. L.; Zinsley, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Instrument for nondestructively measuring compression resistance of spray foam used as thermal insulation was developed. Cylindrical indicator has probe with coil spring to provide force and indicating dial. Probe is manually pressed against area to be tested until complete foot area contacts foam surfaces.

  11. Quality Indicator System Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report is a product of the implementation of a quality indicator system for Colorado's public higher education system. In 1999, the Colorado Commission on Higher Education established a core set of nine indicators, for which data were gathered and benchmarks were identified for measuring performance in terms of these benchmarks. The first

  12. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  13. Temperature-indicating Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzig, F

    1939-01-01

    This report is an attempt at a new method of coating the surface of the cylinder with materials that undergo chemical change at definite temperatures as indicated by a change in color. In this way it was hoped that the substance itself would indicate directly the position of its isotherms, which in measurements with thermocouples requires a tedious amount of labor.

  14. Film advance indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, E. T.; Stump, C. W.; Dreisbach, F. W. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A film advancement indicator which includes an optical sensor that detects the rotational movement of a disc that rotates only when the film advance is described. When the film does not advance, an indicator light is activated. A counter is included in the electronic circuit to determine the number of film frames advanced.

  15. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  16. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

  17. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of

  18. Design and properties of hepatitis C virus antisense oligonucleotides for liver specific drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, T J; Serwe, M; Caselmann, W H; Engels, J W

    2001-01-01

    Different backbone modified antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) directed against the hepatitis C virus genome were 5'-conjugated to cholesterol, cholic acid or taurocholic acid to enhance liver specific drug targeting and hepatocellular uptake. The lipophilic character of modified AS-ODNs was determined from RP-HPLC retention times and duplex stability was correlated with Tm-values from UV melting curves. PMID:11563018

  19. The radon indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, L.

    2005-11-01

    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of ?-, ?- and ?-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  20. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOEpatents

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  1. Composite stabilizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ebaugh, L.R.; Sadler, C.P.; Carter, G.D.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit, having a central body and peripherally located stabilizer fins, situated at the aft end of the projectile, the improvement wherein prefabricated multiple stabilizer fins are joined into the stabilizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer, the central body of the stabilizer unit formed in the injection molding process and comprised of the engineering grade polymer, and the prefabricated multiple stabilizer fins are comprised of reinforced polymeric material.

  2. Position indicating, rotating boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibble, A. C.; Gibson, F. W.; Padelt, J. R.; Saunders, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    Universal multiplanar position indicating, rotating boom for mounting various instruments or sensors is described. Boom is telescoping, and apparatus is capable of 3 types of rotation controlled by electric motors. Movement may be continuous or incremental.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  4. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  5. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  6. Stability analysis and stabilization strategies for linear supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Helbing, Dirk

    2004-04-01

    Due to delays in the adaptation of production or delivery rates, supply chains can be dynamically unstable with respect to perturbations in the consumption rate, which is known as “bull-whip effect”. Here, we study several conceivable production strategies to stabilize supply chains, which is expressed by different specifications of the management function controlling the production speed in dependence of the stock levels. In particular, we will investigate, whether the reaction to stock levels of other producers or suppliers has a stabilizing effect. We will also demonstrate that the anticipation of future stock levels can stabilize the supply system, given the forecast horizon τ is long enough. To show this, we derive linear stability conditions and carry out simulations for different control strategies. The results indicate that the linear stability analysis is a helpful tool for the judgement of the stabilization effect, although unexpected deviations can occur in the non-linear regime. There are also signs of phase transitions and chaotic behavior, but this remains to be investigated more thoroughly in the future.

  7. Stability of missile forces and defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    This note derives the exchange equation for mixes of missiles and defenses and discusses the impact on stability of varying their relative proportions. For fixed offenses increasing defenses decreases stability until first strikes fall to zero. The same is true of decreasing offenses for fixed defenses, although the decrease in indices is smaller. A judicious increase in defenses and decrease in offenses should effect that transition with minimum loss of stability.

  8. Dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Balkan; Richter, Marcus; Huch, Klaus; Puhl, Wolfhart; Schmidt, Ren

    2006-08-01

    This study analyzed the outcome of patients treated with total disk replacement and posterior dynamic stabilization. For pathologies of different origin, dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine is a novel alternative to fusion surgery. Although a physiological reconstruction of the sagittal profile was not always achieved, improvement was seen in all subscales of the clinical outcome measures in both treatment groups. Posterior dynamic stabilization and total disk replacement are promising alternatives to fusion with acceptable morbidity for strictly defined indications. PMID:16924866

  9. Nitrogen enrichment weakens ecosystem stability through decreased species asynchrony and population stability in a temperate grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhai; Loreau, Michel; Lü, Xiaotao; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2016-04-01

    Biodiversity generally promotes ecosystem stability. To assess whether the diversity-stability relationship observed under ambient nitrogen (N) conditions still holds under N enriched conditions, we designed a 6-year field experiment to test whether the magnitude and frequency of N enrichment affects ecosystem stability and its relationship with species diversity in a temperate grassland. Results of this experiment showed that the frequency of N addition had no effect on either the temporal stability of ecosystem and population or the relationship between diversity and stability. Nitrogen addition decreased ecosystem stability significantly through decreases in species asynchrony and population stability. Species richness was positively associated with ecosystem stability, but no significant relationship between diversity and the residuals of ecosystem stability was detected after controlling for the effects of the magnitude of N addition, suggesting collinearity between the effects of N addition and species richness on ecosystem stability, with the former prevailing over the latter. Both population stability and the residuals of population stability after controlling for the effects of the magnitude of N addition were positively associated with ecosystem stability, indicating that the stabilizing effects of component populations were still present after N enrichment. Our study supports the theory predicting that the effects of environmental factors on ecosystem functioning are stronger than those of biodiversity. Understanding such mechanisms is important and urgent to protect biodiversity in mediating ecosystem functioning and services in the face of global changes. PMID:26511538

  10. Assessing asset indices.

    PubMed

    Filmer, Deon; Scott, Kinnon

    2012-02-01

    The use of asset indices in welfare analysis and poverty targeting is increasing, especially in cases in which data on expenditures are unavailable or hard to collect. We compare alternative approaches to welfare measurement. Our analysis shows that inferences about inequalities in education, health care use, fertility, and child mortality, as well as labor market outcomes, are quite robust to the economic status measure used. Different measures-most significantly per capita expenditures versus the class of asset indices-do not, however, yield identical household rankings. Two factors stand out in predicting the degree of congruence in rankings. First is the extent to which expenditures can be explained by observed household and community characteristics. Rankings are most similar in settings with small transitory shocks to expenditure or with little random measurement error in expenditure. Second is the extent to which expenditures are dominated by individually consumed goods, such as food. Asset indices are typically derived from indicators of goods that are effectively public at the household level, while expenditures are often dominated by food, an almost exclusively private good. In settings in which individually consumed goods are the main component of expenditures, asset indices and per capita consumption yield the least similar results. PMID:22135117

  11. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  12. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  13. On the crisis stability of a submarine deterrent

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    Without defenses, stability indices fall monotonically as the number of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) is reduced. For few SLBMs, the favorable stability properties of the survivable SLBMs are masked by the unfavorable stability properties of the non-survivable land missiles. With ground-based interceptor (GBI) defenses, stability initially falls faster. The number of GBIs could be increased gradually to minimize their impact on stability.

  14. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  15. Proportioning the airplane for lateral stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proportioning for lateral aircraft control included: (1) directional stability (slope of curve of yawing moment coefficient against sideslip), and (2) effective dihedral factor (slope of curve of rolling moment coefficient against sideslip). Basic forces influencing the directional stability of aircraft are indicated. Propeller side force, basic fuselage yaw, and vertical tail side force contributed to yaw moment about center of gravity.

  16. Temporal Stability and Accuracy of Motivational Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc; Tasse, Marc J.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated both the accuracy and stability of motivational profiles with 74 individuals with mental retardation. Raters were presented with three motivational profiles and asked to identify the one corresponding to the person they had rated 3 years earlier. Results indicated good to excellent stability and very good accuracy. Results

  17. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  18. Residential Stability and Academic Sense of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that stability level of an individual and the community in which he operates is directly related to a child's sense of control and consequently his achievement in school. Findings indicate that for whites, community stability is positively and significantly related to sense of control, with the inverse for blacks. (Author/AM)

  19. Fluorescent Gage Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, C. E.; Gilbaugh, B. L.; Gin, B.; Holt, W. L.; Lesak, P.; Mancini, R.; Spencer, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of dye shows quality of contact between two mating parts. Mating parts checked for fit by spreading fluorescent dye on one, making brief light contact with other, and looking (under UV light) for transferred dye. Dye offers greater visibility under ultraviolet illumination, allowing better indication of how precisely parts match and what areas interfere.

  20. Triboluminescent indicator system

    DOEpatents

    Goods, Steven H. (Livermore, CA); Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L. (Danville, CA)

    2003-06-24

    There is provided a light emitting device comprising a plurality of triboluminescent particles dispersed throughout a low density, frangible body and activated by rapidly crushing the body in order to transfer mechanical energy to some portion of the particles. The light emitted by these mechanically excited particles is collected and directed into a light conduit and transmitted to a detector/indicator means.

  1. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  2. Indicators of Reading Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.

    Monitoring the effectiveness of reading education is central to the appraisal of the productivity of schooling, yet most measures currently being used do not take into account the full range of processes which lead to successful reading education. A model of indicators relevant to reading education (outcome, process, and input) can be used to

  3. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity

  4. Rhinoplasty indications and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is considered to be one of the most challenging procedures in otolaryngology head and neck surgery. Meticulous planning and excellent surgical skills are pre-requisites for reproducible good outcomes. More than 100 years after the first rhinoplasty, many controversies regarding indication and techniques remain unresolved. The aim of this article is to review current concepts and arguments. PMID:22073085

  5. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...

  6. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  7. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to

  8. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  9. Science and Technology Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents the salient characteristics of science and technology activities in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development area and indicates the main similarities and differences between member countries. Includes data on: trends in research and development (R & D) spending; university research; R & D in industry; and other areas. (JN)

  10. 1989 Education Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Curtis O., Ed.; And Others

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) gathers and produces statistics and other information on the status and progress of education in the United States. In 1989 as in 1988, the center published the "indicators" (key data that measure the health of education, monitor important developments, and show trends in major aspects of

  11. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  12. New indications for antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, A F

    2000-01-01

    The second and third generation of antidepressants, i.e., the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, nefazodone, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine, are proving to be useful in a variety of seemingly diverse disorders, including most anxiety disorders. In addition to receiving approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for major depressive disorder, some of the newer antidepressants have received FDA approval for other disorders, e.g., generalized anxiety disorder (venlafaxine), bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine), obsessive-compulsive disorder (fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, and fluoxetine), social phobia (paroxetine), panic disorder (sertraline, paroxetine), and posttraumatic stress disorder (sertraline). In controlled studies, these agents have also shown usefulness in premenstrual dysphoric disorder, borderline personality disorder, obesity, smoking cessation, and alcoholism. This article describes the new and potential indications for recently developed antidepressants and the studies that suggested these indications. PMID:10926050

  13. MODIS Vegetation Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, Alfredo; Didan, Kamel; van Leeuwen, Willem; Miura, Tomoaki; Glenn, Ed

    Assessments of vegetation condition, cover, change, and processes are major components of global change research programs, and are topics of considerable societal relevance. Spectral vegetation indices are among the most widely used satellite data products, which provide key measurements for climate, hydrologic, and biogeochemical studies; phenology, land cover, and land cover change detection; natural resource management and sustainable development. Vegetation indices (VI) are robust and seamless data products computed similarly across all pixels in time and space, regardless of biome type, land cover condition, and soil type, and thus represent true surface measurements. The simplicity of VIs enables their amalgamation across sensor systems, which facilitates an ensured continuity of critical datasets for long-term land surface modeling and climate change studies. Currently, a more than two decades long NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-derived consistent global normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) land record exists, which has contributed significantly to global biome, ecosystem, and agricultural studies.

  14. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, Sidney (Port Jefferson, NY); Degen, Michael F. (Patchogue, NY); Peters, Henry F. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over the item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection.

  15. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Jarhyan, Prashant; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  16. Setting accuracy indicator for machines (STUM)

    SciTech Connect

    Orekhovskii, V.P.; Gerya, V.A.; Ivashchenko, V.A.; Stepanov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of STUM indicators helps to stabilize plant performance, notably the amounts of charge taken on by the hoppers and in the final analysis the quality of the coke. The equipment on the car gives more reliable performance, since there are no breakages or inaccurate operations. Less coal dust and fumes are discharged during oven charging operations. The engineer's tasks are lightened and general cultural standards in the plant are enhanced. 2 figures.

  17. Workshop on Feedback Stabilization of MHD Stabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Mauel, M.; Nevins, W.; Prager, S.

    1996-12-31

    The feedback stabilization of MHD instabilities is an area of research that is critical for improving the performance and economic attractiveness of magnetic confinement devices. A Workshop dedicated to feedback stabilization of MHD instabilities was held from December 11-13, 1996 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton NJ, USA. The resulting presentations, conclusions, and recommendations are summarized.

  18. [Indications for liver transplant].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan; Torre, Aldo; Vilatob, Mario; Contreras, Alan; Snchez-Cedillo, Aczel; Antolinez-Motta, Jorge; Garca-Jurez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice in selected patients with end-stage liver disease and in some with acute liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other diseases with no synthetic liver failure. Currently, LT has an overall survival > 90 % at 1 year. Proper selection of LT candidates is important given the shortage in organ donation. The allocation and priorization of organs to patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) in waiting lists, is determined by the MELD priority score (Model of End Stage Liver Disease). Indications for LT in patients with CLF are the same regardless of the etiology (any type of hepatic decompensation or development of HCC). Priority MELD is a variant to this classification used only in special cases such as in those with stable hepatopathy but severe extra-hepatic features (e.g., HCC or hepato-pulmonary syndrome). The indication for LT in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and acute failure associated to chronic liver failure (ACLF) are not fully established; there are prognostic factors that may guide the decision for urgent LT and some centers, like the King's College Hospital criteria in the UK. Currently, LT is a therapeutic modality in some primary liver tumors (HCC, cholangiocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine liver metastatic tumors. These protocols have provided significant opportunities for long-term survival (> 70% at 5 years). The high demand and shortage of organs have fostered the development of new strategies to benefit more patients, such as the use of extended criteria donors, or "domino" transplants. This review focuses on the most relevant data on the different indications of LT. PMID:25729871

  19. Slickenside kinematic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas, Miguel

    1998-09-01

    A new classification of slickenside kinematic indicators is presented based on 61 criteria. These slickensides have been subdivided into eleven major groups: `V' or crescentic markings, steps, fractures, trains of inclined planar structures, trailed material, asymmetric elevations, deformed elements, mineralogical/crystallographic orientations, asymmetric plan-view features, asymmetric cavities, and asymmetric folds. This classification constitutes a useful tool for geologists interested in the determination of the shear sense in fault surfaces bearing slickensides. Examples of application of this classification to natural fault surfaces at different scales are presented.

  20. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  1. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune field morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2012-09-01

    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains (NAGP) mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare, with the exception of transverse and barchan mega-dunes in the Nebraska Sand Hills. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model explaining the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes under unidirectional wind. Simulations with a range of initial dune morphologies (closely-spaced transverse to disperse barchans) indicate that stabilized morphology is determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to deposition tolerance of vegetation. Slipface deposition rate is related to dune height, flux, and celerity. With a fixed depositional tolerance, large, slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and freeze in place once vegetation is introduced. Relatively small, fast dunes have high slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes, often colliding during stabilization. Our hypothesis could explain differences in stabilized morphology across the NAGP and elsewhere.

  2. Colonoscopy: Quality Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joseph C; Butterly, Lynn F

    2015-01-01

    Effective endoscopic screening for colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the few preventable cancers, is dependent on the adequate detection and removal of potentially precancerous lesions. However, observed variation in colonoscopy performance in practice and outcomes has highlighted the need for consistent quality measures. Quality indicators or measures are tools that help to quantify health-care processes and can aid in providing high-quality health care. The primary colonoscopy quality indicator is the adenoma detection rate (ADR), which is defined as the proportion of an endoscopist's screening colonoscopies in which one or more adenomas have been detected. The risk of post-colonoscopy CRC is inversely correlated with an endoscopist's ADR. However, ADR is dependent on other quality measures, including cecal intubation rates, withdrawal times, and quality of bowel preparation. Achieving suggested benchmarks for these other quality measures will aid the endoscopist in achieving the recently updated ADR benchmark of 25% in their practice. In addition, beyond ensuring adequate ADRs, endoscopists should have high compliance rates with guideline-recommended and evidence-based screening and surveillance intervals. Compliance with quality measures will ensure effective and safe CRC prevention and better patient outcomes. PMID:25716302

  3. Nonintegral Maslov indices

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, H.; Trost, J.

    1996-08-01

    The phase loss of a wave reflected by a smooth potential generally varies continuously from {pi} in the long-wave limit to {pi}/2 in the limit of short waves. Incorporating the corresponding nonintegral multiples of {pi}/2 as nonintegral Maslov indices in the formulation of the WKB approximation leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy when the conditions for applicability of the WKB method are violated only near the classical turning points. We demonstrate the efficacy of using nonintegral Maslov indices for a Woods-Saxon potential and a repulsive 1/{ital x}{sup 2} potential. The nonintegral Maslov index for a given 1/{ital x}{sup 2} potential yields far more accurate wave functions than the conventional Langer modification of the potential in conjunction with phase loss {pi}/2. The energy spectrum of the radial harmonic oscillator (including the centrifugal potential), which is reproduced exactly by the standard WKB method with the Langer modification, is also reproduced exactly without the Langer modification when the nonintegral Maslov index is used. We suggest a method for approximately calculating the nonintegral Maslov index near the long-wave limit from the decaying WKB wave function in the classically forbidden region. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  5. Breathiness in Indic languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Christina; Khan, Sameeruddowla; Hurst, Alex

    2005-04-01

    Previous work on breathiness in Indic languages has focused on the acoustic properties of breathy oral stops in languages like Hindi ([bal] hair versus [bhal] forehead) or Bengali ([baSa] house versus [bhaSa] language). However, breathiness in Indic languages often extends to nasals (e.g., Marathi ([maar] beat versus [mhaar] a caste). It is unclear if languages such as Hindi and Bengali have breathy nasals in addition to breathy oral stops. This study addresses the following questions: (1) Are breathy nasals (Nh) acoustically different from N+h sequences, both in languages where they are phonemic and ones where they are not? (2) In sequences of a breathy stop and a modal nasal (e.g., Hindi [udhmi] naughty) where is the breathiness realized, if at all? To answer these questions, audio, aerodynamic, and electroglottographic recordings will be made of Hindi, Bengali, and Marathi speakers. It is hypothesized that acoustically breathy nasals in Hindi and Bengali will not be distinct from sequences of N+ h. We believe that this will also be true for the oral stops. In addition, it is believed that in sequences of breathy oral stop followed by a modal nasal (e.g., ChN), the breathiness will be produced on the nasal.

  6. High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.

    1996-01-01

    Future aircraft turbine engines, both commercial and military, must be able to successfully accommodate expected increased levels of steady-state and dynamic engine-face distortion. The current approach of incorporating a sufficient component design stall margin to tolerate these increased levels of distortion would significantly reduce performance. The objective of the High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) program is to design, develop, and flight demonstrate an advanced, high-stability, integrated engine control system that uses measurement-based, real-time estimates of distortion to enhance engine stability. The resulting distortion tolerant control reduces the required design stall margin, with a corresponding increase in performance and decrease in fuel burn. The HISTEC concept, consisting of a Distortion Estimation System and a Stability Management Control, has been designed and developed. The Distortion Estimation System uses a small number of high-response pressure sensors at the engine face to calculate indicators of the type and extent of distortion in real time. The Stability Management Control, through direct control of the fan and compressor pressure ratio, accommodates the distortion by transiently increasing the amount of stall margin available based on information from the Distortion Estimation System. Simulation studies have shown the HISTEC distortion tolerant control is able to successfully estimate and accommodate time-varying distortion. Currently, hardware and software systems necessary for flight demonstration of the HISTEC concept are being designed and developed. The HISTEC concept will be flight tested in early 1997.

  7. Chemical and mechanical stabilization of martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Kustov, S.; Pons, J.; Cesari, E.; Van Humbeeck, J

    2004-09-06

    An algorithm of quantitative analysis of two basic contributions to the stabilization of martensite - atomic reordering ('chemical' stabilization component) and pinning of interfaces ('mechanical' contribution) - has been developed. The algorithm uses data obtained by routine calorimetry measurements. The possibility to quantitatively separate contributions of 'chemical' and 'mechanical' stabilization components stems from the fact that they affect the first reverse transformation of stabilized martensite through thermodynamically reversible and irreversible factors, respectively. Analysis of the thermodynamics of the thermoelastic martensitic transformations allowed us to conclude that stabilization of martensite should be described in terms of pure shift and broadening of the reverse transformation. These parameters are shown to have a clear physical meaning. Namely, pure shift of the reverse transformation as a result of martensite stabilization provides an upper estimate for the atomic reordering or 'chemical' contribution to the stabilization, whereas broadening of the reverse transformation represents a lower limit for pinning-induced or 'mechanical' stabilization component. Experimental data on stabilization of a Cu-Zn-Al alloy are analyzed, indicating that contributions of 'chemical' and 'mechanical' stabilization components are comparable but depend on martensite ageing period and details of the initial heat treatment of samples.

  8. Mirtazapine: other indications.

    PubMed

    Falkai, P

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade, it became evident that antidepressants may represent a useful treatment option for a variety of primary psychiatric disorders other than depression. Improved understanding of both underlying etiology of these disorders and pharmacologic modes of action of available treatments has led to an improvement in conditions such as panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In addition, evidence is accumulating that some new antidepressants may be of therapeutic value in treatment of some subtypes of depressive disorder previously unresponsive to treatment or difficult to treat, such as seasonal affective disorder, depression with atypical features, and recurrent brief depression. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant with mode of action different from other currently available antidepressants. A review of currently available data of mirtazapine's use in indications other than depression and in some types of depressive disorder is presented. PMID:10446741

  9. Enhanced tamper indicator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.

    2003-07-08

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method whereby the reliability and tamper-resistance of tamper indicators can be improved. A flexible connector may be routed through a latch for an enclosure such as a door or container, and the free ends of the flexible connector may be passed through a first locking member and firmly attached to an insert through the use of one or more attachment members such as set screws. A second locking member may then be assembled in interlocking relation with the first locking member to form an interlocked assembly around the insert. The insert may have one or more sharp projections extending toward the first or second locking member so that any compressive force applied in an attempt to disassemble the interlocked assembly results in permanent, visible damage to the first or second locking member.

  10. The stability of solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, Iu. P.

    Liapunov's direct method is used to analyze the stability of periodically time-dependent multidimensional soliton solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of charged solitons are formulated. The Hobart-Derrick theorem concerning the energy instability of multidimensional solitons is generalized, and it is shown that Q-theorem conditions are necessary for the stability of nodeless scalar solitons.

  11. Limits to Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)

  12. Automatic Stability of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1932-01-01

    It is endeavored in this report to give a full outline of the problem of airplane stability and to classify the proposed solutions systematically. Longitudinal stability, which can be studied separately, is considered first. The combination of lateral and directional stabilities, which cannot be separated, will be dealt with later.

  13. 'Light bar' attitude indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enevoldson, E. K.; Horton, V. W.

    1982-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a light bar attitude indicator to help maintain proper aircraft attitude during high altitude night flying is described. A standard four-inch ADI was modified to project an artificial horizon across the instrument panel for pitch and roll information. A light bulb was put in the center of the ADI and a thin slit cut on the horizon, resulting in a thin horizontal sheet of light projecting from the instrument. The intensity of the projected beam is such that it can only be seen in a darkened room or at night. The beam on the instrument panel of the T-37 jet trainer is shown, depicting various attitudes. The favorable comments of about 50 pilots who evaluated the instrument are summarized, including recommendations for improving the instrument. Possible uses for the instrument to ease the pilot task are listed. Two potential problems in using the device are the development of pilot complacency and an upright-inverted ambiguity in the instrument.

  14. Entanglement-breaking indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-09-01

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement-breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two-qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  15. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10 - 20 grams, a minor percentage of the formulation. As demonstrated by the over-fortification measured in Italian Vegetables and Grilled Pork Chop, homogeneity may be difficult to achieve with such small amounts. Thus, pouch-to-pouch variability, over-fortification, and underfortification may ensue if a method for precise addition is not identified. Stability will continue to be evaluated over two years of storage at three temperatures, and future analysis should reveal the extent to which this issue should be a concern

  16. Development and Application of a Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Quantitation and Characterization of a Chikungunya Virus-Like Particle Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Shytuhina, Anastasija; Pristatsky, Pavlo; He, Jian; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schwartz, Richard M.; Hoang, Van M.; Ha, Sha

    2014-01-01

    To effectively support the development of a Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, a sensitive and robust high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that can quantitate CHIKV VLPs and monitor product purity throughout the manufacturing process is needed. We developed a sensitive reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method that separates capsid, E1, and E2 proteins in CHIKV VLP vaccine with good resolution. Each protein component was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS). The post-translational modifications on the viral glycoproteins E1 and E2 were further identified by intact protein mass measurements with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The RP-HPLC method has a linear range of 0.5112 ?g protein, an accuracy of 96106% and a precision of 12% RSD, suitable for vaccine product release testing. In addition, we demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method is useful for characterizing viral glycoprotein post-translational modifications, monitoring product purity during process development and assessing product stability during formulation development. PMID:25234500

  17. Viscosupplementation: techniques, indications, results.

    PubMed

    Legré-Boyer, V

    2015-02-01

    Viscosupplementation by hyaluronic acid (HA) injections is frequently used for local treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), due to ease of use and good tolerance. A profusion of linear or reticulated HA derivates are marketed, with varied characters and levels of evidence. Viscosupplementation has demonstrated moderate but significant efficacy (20%) versus placebo in terms of pain and function, with a high rate of responders (60-70%) in knee osteoarthritis. It allows reduced administration of opioid analgesics and NSAIDs, with improved risk/benefit ratio, and may delay joint replacement. Cartilage protection remains to be proven. Clinical efficacy shows 1-4 weeks' later onset than corticosteroids, but is maintained for 6 or even 12 months. Systematic association of corticosteroid and HA injection is not justified, and an interval has to be left before undertaking arthroplasty. Intra-articular injection of HA requires a skilled specialist, and may be difficult in a non-swollen joint; some tips and tricks may be helpful. In other joints than the knee, radiologic or ultrasound guidance is recommended. The efficacy of viscosupplementation is a matter of ongoing debate, after discordant findings in some meta-analyses. Some poor results may be due to inappropriate use of HA injections, poorly adapted to the patient's OA phenotype. Viscosupplementation is a treatment for chronic moderate symptomatic OA, and not for flares with joint swelling. Application in sport-related chondropathy has yet to be properly assessed. The optimal response profile remains to be determined. The ideal indication in the knee seems to be moderate femorotibial OA without swelling. Results have been generally disappointing in hip osteoarthritis but promising in OA of the ankle and shoulder (with and without rotator cuff tear). Further studies are needed to determine response profile and optimal treatment schedule, according to the joint. PMID:25596987

  18. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period (+2): Wide scale river flooding, marshy acres and meadows.-Farmers cope with poor harvests of hay, grains, fruit etc. resulting in famines.-Late grape harvests, poor yield quantity and quality of wine. Wet period (+1): High water levels cq discharges of major rivers, tributaries and brooks, local river floodings, marshy acres and meadows in the low lying areas.-Wearisome and hampered agriculture. Normal (0) Dry period (-1): Low water levels cq discharges of major rivers, tributaries and brooks. Some brooks may dry up.-Summer half year: local short of yield of grass, hay and other forage.-Summer half year: moor-, peat- and forest fires. Very dry period (-2): Very low water levels cq discharges of major rivers and tributaries. Brooks and wells dry up. Serious shortage of drinking water; especially in summer.-Major agricultural damage, shortage of water, mortality stock of cattle. Shortage of grain. Flour can not be produced due to water mills running out of water, shortage of bread, bread riots, famines.-Large scale forest and peat areas, resulting in serious air pollution. Town fires. By verifying the historical evidence on these criterions, a series of 5 step indices ranging from very dry to very wet for summer and winter half year of the Low Countries was obtained. Subsequently these indices series were compared with the instrumentally observed seasonal precipitation sums for De Bilt (1735-2008), which is considered to be representative for the Central Netherlands. For winter (Oct-March) and summer half year (Apr.-Sept.) the accumulated precipitation amounts are calculated; these amounts are approximately normally distributed. Based on this distribution, the cumulative frequency distribution is calculated. By tabulating the number of summers in the pre-instrumental period 1201-1750 for each of the drought classes, a distribution is calculated which is then related to the modern accumulated precipitation distribution. Assuming that the accumulated precipitation amount has not been below (above) the mean precipitation minus (plus) three standard deviations for the corresponding season, an accumulated precipitation amount which relates to each of the five drought classes in the classification can be estimated. (1) Buisman, J. , Van Engelen, A.F.V. (editor), Duizend jaar weer wind en water in de Lage Landen, Van Wijnen, Franeker (Netherlands), Vol. I763-1300, 1995, Vol. II, 1300-1450, 1996, Vol. III, 1450-1575, 1998, Vol. IV, 1575-1675, 2000, Vol. V, 1675-1750, 2006. (2) Shabalova, M.V., Van Engelen, A.F.V., Evaluation of a reconstruction of winter and summer temperatures in the Low Countries, AD 764-1998, Climatic Change 58: 219-242, 2003

  19. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  20. Physicochemical characterization of native glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine tripeptide for wound healing and anti-aging: a preformulation study for dermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, Travis; Svirskis, Darren; Wu, Zimei

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the physicochemical properties of glycyl-histidyl-lysine-copper (GHK-Cu) to support the development of a formulation for effective topical delivery. The solubility and distribution coefficients (log D) were investigated using conventional methods and GHK concentrations were quantified with a validated stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. In addition, the stability of GHK-Cu under stressed conditions and the compatibility with some potential formulation components were assessed. The peptide was susceptible to hydrolytic cleavage under basic and oxidative stressors and to a lesser extent acidic stress with first-order degradation profiles. Surprisingly, the peptide was stable in water and in pH (4.5-7.4) buffers for at least two weeks at 60  °C. The HPLC in conjunction with mass spectrometry identified three key degradation products, one of which was the constituent amino acid histidine. The distribution coefficients in octanol-phosphate buffered saline indicated the highly hydrophilic nature of GHK-Cu with log D values between -2.38 and -2.49 at pH range of 4.5-7.4. Furthermore, GHK-Cu was compatible with Span 60 based niosomes but less stable in the presence of the negatively charged lipid dicetyl phosphate. In summary, the preformulation studies provided information useful to deliver the GHK-Cu complex by carrier. PMID:25384620