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Sample records for stabilization equipment essential

  1. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-17

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings.

  2. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-10-22

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings.

  3. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HORNER, T.M.

    2000-10-16

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a].

  4. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON, G.W.

    1999-05-18

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed.

  5. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Basic Equipment and Devices.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of U.S. dental offices, per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia, as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice, whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. PMID:26168530

  6. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 1: basic equipment and devices.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management (CRM) involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of US dental offices per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. Part 2 of this series will address advanced airway devices, including supraglottic airways and armamentarium for tracheal intubation and invasive airway procedures. PMID:24932982

  7. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Part 1: Basic Equipment and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.; Rosenberg, Morton B.; Phero, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management (CRM) involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of US dental offices per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. Part 2 of this series will address advanced airway devices, including supraglottic airways and armamentarium for tracheal intubation and invasive airway procedures. PMID:24932982

  8. Developing COSHH Essentials: dermal exposure, personal protective equipment and first aid.

    PubMed

    Garrod, A N I; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R

    2003-10-01

    The 'control banding' approach in COSHH Essentials combines the potential for harm with the potential for exposure by inhalation to band measures to control exposure at source, as generic strategies. These are simply adapted to specific tasks and circumstances to produce specific control advice. Where it is not possible or practical to use this control advice, the control bands can suggest adequate respiratory protective equipment using 'protection factors'. Proposals in the paper enable the user to identify the right level of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), and to begin selecting suitable RPE. Selection is made through a formatted questionnaire, enabling the user to give the right facts to the supplier. COSHH Essentials applies mainly to exposure by inhalation. However, skin exposure is very common and uptake via the skin can be an important contributor to body dose. This paper examines the factors concerning skin exposure, and the options for banding the potential for harm to the skin or via the skin. Proposals have then been made for dermal exposure control. Planning for emergencies is an important facet of risk control. Proposals are outlined to band chemical hazards for emergency planning according to a minimum of information, i.e. the danger symbol on a product label. PMID:14530184

  9. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF CHEMFIX SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION PROCESS AT THE PORTABLE EQUIPMENT SALVAGE COMPANY SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the GHEMFIX solidification/stabilization process was conducted under the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The demonstration was conducted in March 1989, at the Portable Equipment Sa...

  10. Stability of the Martian atmosphere: Is heterogeneous catalysis essential?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Sushil K.; Gu, Zhen Gang

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive homogeneous gas phase photochemical model is developed to study the problem of stability of the Martian atmosphere. The one-dimensional model extends from the ground up to 220 km, passing through the homopause at 125 km. The model thus couples the lower (neutral) atmosphere to the ionosphere above which provides significant downward flux of carbon monoxide and oxygen atoms. It is concluded on the basic of currently accepted values for globally and seasonally averaged water vapor abundance, dust opacity and the middle atmospheric eddy mixing coefficient, as well as the relevant laboratory data (particularly the temperature dependence of CO2 absorption cross section and the rate constant for CO+OH reaction), that the rate of re-formation of carbon dioxide exceeds its photolytic destruction rate by about 40%. Furthermore, it is found that this result is virtually independent of the choice of eddy mixing coefficient, unless its value in the middle atmosphere exceeds 10(exp 8) sq cm/sec or is far smaller than 10(exp 5)sq cm/sec, or the dust opacity, unless it exceeds unity, or the water vapor mixing ratio at the surface, unless it is far smaller (less than or = 1 ppm) or far greater (greater than or = 500 ppm) than the average value (approximately 150 ppm). Since none of these extremes represent globally and seasonally averaged conditions on Mars, we propose that the present model requires existence of a mechanism to throttle down the recycling rate of carbon dioxide on Mars. Therefore, it is suggested that a heterogeneous process which provides a sink to the species that participate in the recycling of CO2, i.e., H2O, H2O2, OH, CO or O, in particular, may be necessary to bring about the balance between the CO2 recycling rate and its photolytic destruction rate. Aerosols of dust or ice (pure or doped water or carbon dioxide ice present in the atmosphere of Mars) can provide the appropriate adsorption sites for the above heterogeneous process. Despite our

  11. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  12. Stability of the Essential Spectrum for Singular Transport Semigroups with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Jia, Junguo; Xu, Mengmeng

    2013-06-01

    In this article, the well posedness of the Cauchy problem associated to transport equations with singular cross-sections (i.e., unbounded collision frequencies and unbounded collision operators) on Lp spaces with periodic boundary conditions is discussed, and some compactness (or weak compactness) of the first order remainder term of the Dyson-Phillips expansion for a large class of singular collision operators is proved on Lp(1 < p < ∞) (or L1) spaces. Thus, this allows us to evaluate the essential type of the transport semigroup from which the asymptotic behavior and the well posedness of the solution is derived. Consequently, the stability of the essential spectrum is concluded.

  13. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  14. [Solid adsorption and stability of essential oil from pericarp of Gaultheria yunnaensis (Franch.) Rehd].

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ma, J; Yang, L; Wu, J; Chen, H

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been made on the solid adsorption and stability of the essential oil extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis. The results show that among the chemical constituents of the oil, methyl salicylate accounts for 99.66%. Grain adsorbents of aluminum hydroxide gel have been proved useful in obtaining higher release rates of the oil at required temperatures as well as keeping the oil stable at room temperature. PMID:11243152

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE RETRIEVAL & STABILIZATION & ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE SLUDGE AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    ROOSENDAAL, G.D.

    2005-07-05

    This poster presentation describes and illustrates some of the equipment and tools that Fluor Hanford and BNG America have developed and designed to remove, transport, stabilize and encapsulate radioactive sludge from the K Basins at the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, U.S.A. K Basins were built in the early 1950s to temporarily store irradiated nuclear fuel prior to chemical processing to remove plutonium for nuclear weapons. The sludge is the result of corrosion of these fuel elements and its removal is the final stage before the basin water can be drained and the basins decommissioned. The sludge is hydrogen-generating because of its uranium metal content and account has to be taken also of its heat generating capacity and criticality potential as it is moved from one containment to another. The paper describes all stages of sludge treatment from the use of vacuum wands to suck up the sludge, through consolidating the sludge in temporary underwater containers, transporting it though flexible, temporary pipe systems, acceleration of the corrosion of uranium to reduce hydrogen generation, measuring the fissile content and finally encapsulation in a cement grout. Emphasis is placed on the use of existing, transportable and temporary equipment. This not only saves initial costs but it also reduces the total amount of equipment needed to be disposed of as radioactive waste at the end of the job. The processes, equipment and tools described potentially have a broad applicability to nuclear site decommissioning and cleanup worldwide.

  16. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

    PubMed Central

    Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated. PMID:25550747

  17. YsxC, an essential protein in Staphylococcus aureus crucial for ribosome assembly/stability

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacterial growth and division requires a core set of essential proteins, several of which are still of unknown function. They are also attractive targets for the development of new antibiotics. YsxC is a member of a family of GTPases highly conserved across eubacteria with a possible ribosome associated function. Results Here, we demonstrate by the creation of a conditional lethal mutant that ysxC is apparently essential for growth in S. aureus. To begin to elucidate YsxC function, a translational fusion of YsxC to the CBP-ProteinA tag in the staphylococcal chromosome was made, enabling Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) of YsxC-interacting partners. These included the ribosomal proteins S2, S10 and L17, as well as the β' subunit of the RNA polymerase. YsxC was then shown to copurify with ribosomes as an accessory protein specifically localizing to the 50 S subunit. YsxC depletion led to a decrease in the presence of mature ribosomes, indicating a role in ribosome assembly and/or stability in S. aureus. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate that YsxC of S. aureus localizes to the ribosomes, is crucial for ribosomal stability and is apparently essential for the life of S. aureus. PMID:20021644

  18. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment. PMID:26142857

  19. Sde2: A novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Sde2 is essential for telomere silencing. {yields} Sde2 is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} Sde2 promotes the recruitment of SHREC, a histone deacetylase complex, to telomeres. -- Abstract: Telomeres, specialized domains assembled at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4{sup +} gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2{Delta} cells. The loss of Sde2 function compromises transcriptional silencing at telomeres, and this silencing defect is accompanied by increased levels of acetylated histone H3K14 and RNA polymerase II occupancy at telomeres as well as reduced recruitment of the SNF2 ATPase/histone deacetylase-containing complex SHREC to telomeres. Deletion of sde2 also leads to a higher frequency of mitotic minichromosome loss, and sde2{Delta} cells often form asci that contain spores in abnormal numbers, shapes, or both. In addition, sde2{Delta} cells are highly sensitive to several stresses, including high/low temperatures, bleomycin, which induces DNA damage, and thiabendazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent. Furthermore, Sde2 genetically interacts with the telomere regulators Taz1, Pof3, and Ccq1. These findings demonstrate that Sde2 cooperates with other telomere regulators to maintain functional telomeres, thereby preventing genomic instability.

  20. [Systemic emulsions. 2. Use of different methods of formulation: the effect of essential oils of thyme on stability].

    PubMed

    Passet, J; Laget, J P; Nielloud, F; Delonca, H

    1994-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation on emulsifying techniques, we studied the influence of different essential oils from Thymus vulgaris on emulsion stability. All four chimiotypes tested (geraniol, linalol, carvacrol, and thymol) caused a marked decrease in stability. This instability cannot be explained by a change in the hydrophilic lipophilic balance since the HLBc of the new oil phase (essential oil + paraffine oil) was not significantly different from that of paraffine alone. PMID:7884636

  1. Effect of downhole assembly and cutter geometry on stability of drillstrings equipped with polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.A.; Dareing, D.W.; Dupuy, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    Stability of drillstrings equipped with PDC cutters depends on many factors such as the design of the drillstring, design of the cutter, and formation type. In this paper, the authors show that the drill pipe plays a minor role in stability in comparison with that of the drill collars. They also show that the number of cutter blades affects the location of the stability pockets, while their spacing affects the size of these pockets. Using this data, a combination of drill collar and cutter design can be used to provide operating speeds resulting in maximum stability of the drillstring.

  2. Hdac3 is essential for the maintenance of chromatin structure and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskara, Srividya; Knutson, Sarah K.; Jiang, Guochun; Chandrasekharan, Mahesh B.; Wilson, Andrew J.; Zheng, Siyuan; Yenamandra, Ashwini; Locke, Kimberly; Yuan, Jia-ling; Bonine-Summers, Alyssa R.; Wells, Christina E.; Kaiser, Jonathan F.; Washington, M. Kay; Zhao, Zhongming; Wagner, Florence F.; Sun, Zu-Wen; Xia, Fen; Holson, Edward B.; Khabele, Dineo; Hiebert, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hdac3 is essential for efficient DNA replication and DNA damage control. Deletion of Hdac3 impaired DNA repair and greatly reduced chromatin compaction and heterochromatin content. These defects corresponded to increases in histone H3K9,K14ac, and H4K5ac and H4K12ac in late S phase of the cell cycle, and histone deposition marks were retained in quiescent Hdac3-null cells. Liver-specific deletion of Hdac3 culminated in hepatocellular carcinoma. While HDAC3 expression was down regulated in only a small number of human liver cancers, the mRNA levels of the HDAC3 cofactor NCOR1 were reduced in 1/3 of these cases. siRNA targeting of NCOR1 and SMRT (NCOR2) increased H4K5ac and caused DNA damage, indicating that the HDAC3/NCOR/SMRT axis is critical for maintaining chromatin structure and genomic stability. PMID:21075309

  3. Hybrid nanomaterial for stabilizing the antibiofilm activity of Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Saviuc, Crina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Hristu, Radu; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Stanciu, George A; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid core/shell nanostructures could be used as systems for stabilizing the Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil (EO) on catheter surface pellicles, in order to improve their resistance to fungal colonization. EO microwave assisted extraction was performed in a Neo-Clevenger (related) device and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid-core/shell nanoparticles (NP) were obtained by a precipitation method under microwave condition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) was used as a primary characterization method. The NPs were processed to achieve a core/shell/EO coated-shell nanosystem further used for coating the inner surface of central venous catheter samples. The tested fungal strains have been recently isolated from different clinical specimens. The biofilm architecture was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our results claim the usage of hybrid nanomaterial (core/shell/coated-shell) for the stabilization of E. carryophyllata EO, which prevented or inhibited the fungal biofilm development on the functionalized catheter, highlighting the opportunity of using these nanosystems to obtain improved, anti-biofilm coatings for biomedical applications. PMID:22949098

  4. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids. PMID:24426060

  5. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ΔK), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample. PMID:22659463

  6. Histone Chaperone Asf1 Plays an Essential Role in Maintaining Genomic Stability in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tanae, Katsuhiro; Horiuchi, Tomitaka; Matsuo, Yuzy; Katayama, Satoshi; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The histone H3-H4 chaperone Asf1 is involved in chromatin assembly (or disassembly), histone exchange, regulation of transcription, and chromatin silencing in several organisms. To investigate the essential functions of Asf1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, asf1-ts mutants were constructed by random mutagenesis using PCR. One mutant (asf1-33(ts)) was mated with mutants in 77 different kinase genes to identify synthetic lethal combinations. The asf1-33 mutant required the DNA damage checkpoint factors Chk1 and Rad3 for its survival at the restrictive temperature. Chk1, but not Cds1, was phosphorylated in the asf1-33 mutant at the restrictive temperature, indicating that the DNA damage checkpoint was activated in the asf1-33 mutant. DNA damage occured in the asf1-33 mutant, with degradation of the chromosomal DNA observed through pulse-field gel electrophoresis and the formation of Rad22 foci. Sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease in the asf1-33 mutant was increased compared to the asf1+ strain at the restrictive temperature, suggesting that asf1 mutations also caused a defect in overall chromatin structure. The Asf1-33 mutant protein was mislocalized and incapable of binding histones. Furthermore, histone H3 levels at the centromeric outer repeat region were decreased in the asf1-33 mutant and heterochromatin structure was impaired. Finally, sim3, which encodes a CenH3 histone chaperone, was identified as a strong suppressor of the asf1-33 mutant. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that Asf1 plays an essential role in maintaining genomic stability in S. pombe. PMID:22291963

  7. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  8. An intein-mediated modulation of protein stability system and its application to study human cytomegalovirus essential gene function

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Deng; Xuan, Baoqin; Sun, Yamei; Huang, Shaowu; Xie, Maorong; Bai, Yadan; Xu, Wenjia; Qian, Zhikang

    2016-01-01

    Functional analysis of the essential proteins encoded by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is hindered by the lack of complementing systems. To overcome this difficulty, we have established a novel approach, termed the intein-mediated modulation of protein stability (imPS), in which a destabilizing domain and part of a split intein are fused to the essential protein. The growth of the mutant virus can then be regulated by the degradation and splicing of the protein. We found that an ultrafast gp41-1 split intein was able to rescue or degrade the protein of interest (POI) by removing or adding a strong degron through protein splicing. As a result, the function of the POI was turned on or off during the process. Using HCMV essential gene IE1/IE2, we confirmed that imPS worked remarkably well in conditionally regulating protein stability during viral infection. This conditional approach is likely to be applicable for dissecting the gene functions of HCMV or other viruses. PMID:27188239

  9. A comprehensive review of rollover accidents involving vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E; Scheibe, Robert R; Eyges, Vitaly E

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present. PMID:19026219

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E.; Scheibe, Robert R.; Eyges, Vitaly E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present. PMID:19026219

  11. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E on the lipid oxidation stability of cooked chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J M; Becerril-Pérez, C M; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil and vitamin E was evaluated in cooked chicken breast meat. In total, 480 broilers were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replications. Broilers were raised with a corn-soybean meal diet including either crude soybean oil or acidulated soybean oil soapstock, each supplemented with vitamin E at 10 or 100 mg or oregano essential oil at 100 mg/kg of feed. At 42 d, broilers were slaughtered and their breast meat was prepared into strips (1.5 × 10 cm) or patties (150 g). Fatty acid composition of the muscle was determined. For lipid oxidation stability, both meat strips and patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 74°C and malonaldehyde contents were assessed during 0, 3, 6, and 9 d of storage at 4°C. Each storage day had 4 replications per treatment. The meat lipid oxidative stability was estimated by content of malonaldehyde values. Results showed that feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion were not affected by the dietary oils or antioxidants, except for the mortality in acidulated soybean oil soapstock with the 10-mg vitamin E treatment. The fatty acid composition of the meat was similar between the 2 diets given the same antioxidant supplement. The oxidation stability of meat lipids in both types of meats showed a significant (P < 0.05) interaction between oils, antioxidants, and storage time. In the crude soybean oil oil diet, the malonaldehyde value in the 10-mg vitamin E treatment was the highest, followed by oregano essential oil, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment at 9 d of storage, whereas the value of oregano essential oil in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock diet was the highest, followed by the 10-mg vitamin E, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment during the 9 d of storage. In conclusion, the dietary oils and antioxidants used can be included in broiler diets without negative effects on their productivity. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was higher with a higher

  12. A mammalian NudC-like protein essential for dynein stability and cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tianhua; Zimmerman, Wendy; Liu, Xiaoqi; Erikson, Raymond L.

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein, a minus-end-directed microtubule motor, has been implicated in many fundamental cellular processes; however, little is known regarding the underlying molecular machinery that regulates its stability. In Aspergillus nidulans, nuclear distribution gene C (nudC) has been implicated in the regulation of dynein-mediated nuclear migration. Here, we characterize a previously undescribed mammalian NudC-like protein (NudCL). The expression and phosphorylation of NudCL are increased during mitosis. Depletion of NudCL by RNA interference in HeLa cells inhibits cell growth and induces mitotic arrest with multiple mitotic defects, which subsequently result in cell death. Unexpectedly, the majority of NudCL depletion-induced mitotic defects may result from loss of dynein function; this interpretation is supported by the failure to recruit sufficient γ-tubulin to spindle poles and the mislocalization of the dynein complex from kinetochores, spindle microtubules, and spindle poles during mitosis. Depletion of NudCL also results in the aggregation of dynein intermediate chain throughout the cytoplasm during mitosis. NudCL was shown to bind to the dynein complex, and its depletion induces degradation of dynein intermediate chain, a process suppressed by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism whereby NudCL appears to influence the stabilization of dynein intermediate chain. PMID:16754861

  13. Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

  14. Identification of cytoskeleton-associated proteins essential for lysosomal stability and survival of human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Groth-Pedersen, Line; Aits, Sonja; Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Nylandsted, Jesper; Jäättelä, Marja

    2012-01-01

    Microtubule-disturbing drugs inhibit lysosomal trafficking and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization followed by cathepsin-dependent cell death. To identify specific trafficking-related proteins that control cell survival and lysosomal stability, we screened a molecular motor siRNA library in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. SiRNAs targeting four kinesins (KIF11/Eg5, KIF20A, KIF21A, KIF25), myosin 1G (MYO1G), myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) were identified as effective inducers of non-apoptotic cell death. The cell death induced by KIF11, KIF21A, KIF25, MYH1 or TPM2 siRNAs was preceded by lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and all identified siRNAs induced several changes in the endo-lysosomal compartment, i.e. increased lysosomal volume (KIF11, KIF20A, KIF25, MYO1G, MYH1), increased cysteine cathepsin activity (KIF20A, KIF25), altered lysosomal localization (KIF25, MYH1, TPM2), increased dextran accumulation (KIF20A), or reduced autophagic flux (MYO1G, MYH1). Importantly, all seven siRNAs also killed human cervix cancer (HeLa) and osteosarcoma (U-2-OS) cells and sensitized cancer cells to other lysosome-destabilizing treatments, i.e. photo-oxidation, siramesine, etoposide or cisplatin. Similarly to KIF11 siRNA, the KIF11 inhibitor monastrol induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and sensitized several cancer cell lines to siramesine. While KIF11 inhibitors are under clinical development as mitotic blockers, our data reveal a new function for KIF11 in controlling lysosomal stability and introduce six other molecular motors as putative cancer drug targets. PMID:23071517

  15. Stability of Minimum Essential Medium functionality despite L-glutamine decomposition.

    PubMed

    Jagušić, Maja; Forčić, Dubravko; Brgles, Marija; Kutle, Leonida; Šantak, Maja; Jergović, Mladen; Kotarski, Ljerka; Bendelja, Krešo; Halassy, Beata

    2016-08-01

    L-Glutamine (L-Gln) instability in liquid media is a well-known fact. Also, negative effect of ammonia, one of the L-Gln degradation products, on viability of many cell cultures and on replication of different viruses has been described. However, negative effects of ammonia have been reported in doses excessively exceeding those that could be generated in regularly used liquid culture media due to spontaneous L-Gln breakdown (below 2 mM). Traditional virus vaccine production processes have been established and registered involving L-Gln containing media use. Eventual culture media replacement in the regular production process belongs to the major regulative changes that require substantial financial expenses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage of Minimum Essential Media with Hanks salts on their relevant biological functions during virus vaccine production process in relation to L-Gln decrease. Our results show a cell type dependent effect of spontaneous L-Gln degradation during medium storage. They also suggest that for cell cultures used in measles, mumps, and rubella virus production the media retain their functionality in respect to cell viability or virus growth over a certain time window despite L-Gln degradation. PMID:25904557

  16. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    PubMed

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  17. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  18. Cdk12 is essential for embryonic development and the maintenance of genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Juan, H-C; Lin, Y; Chen, H-R; Fann, M-J

    2016-06-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity during early embryonic development is important in order to ensure the proper development of the embryo. Studies from cultured cells have demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (Cdk12) is a multifunctional protein that maintains genomic stability and the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Perturbation of its functions is also known to be associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance in human cancers. However, the biological significance of Cdk12 in vivo is unclear. Here we bred mice that are deficient in Cdk12 and demonstrated that Cdk12 depletion leads to embryonic lethality shortly after implantation. We also used an in vitro culture system of blastocysts to examine the molecular mechanisms associated with the embryonic lethality of Cdk12-deficient embryos. Cdk12(-/-) blastocysts fail to undergo outgrowth of the inner cell mass because of an increase in the apoptosis of these cells. Spontaneous DNA damage was revealed by an increase in 53BP1 foci among cells cultured from Cdk12(-/-) embryos. Furthermore, the expression levels of various DNA damage response genes, namely Atr, Brca1, Fanci and Fancd2, are reduced in Cdk12(-/-) embryos. These findings indicate that Cdk12 is important for the correct expression of some DNA damage response genes and indirectly has an influence on the efficiency of DNA repair. Our report also highlights that DNA breaks occurring during DNA replication are frequent in mouse embryonic cells and repair of such damage is critical to the successful development of mouse embryos. PMID:26658019

  19. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages.

    PubMed

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids. PMID:26323518

  20. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages

    PubMed Central

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M. Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids. PMID:26323518

  1. Essential Roles of BCCIP in Mouse Embryonic Development and Structural Stability of Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huimei; Huang, Yi-Yuan; Mehrotra, Sonam; Droz-Rosario, Roberto; Liu, Jingmei; Bhaumik, Mantu; White, Eileen; Shen, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    BCCIP is a BRCA2- and CDKN1A(p21)-interacting protein that has been implicated in the maintenance of genomic integrity. To understand the in vivo functions of BCCIP, we generated a conditional BCCIP knockdown transgenic mouse model using Cre-LoxP mediated RNA interference. The BCCIP knockdown embryos displayed impaired cellular proliferation and apoptosis at day E7.5. Consistent with these results, the in vitro proliferation of blastocysts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of BCCIP knockdown mice were impaired considerably. The BCCIP deficient mouse embryos die before E11.5 day. Deletion of the p53 gene could not rescue the embryonic lethality due to BCCIP deficiency, but partially rescues the growth delay of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. To further understand the cause of development and proliferation defects in BCCIP-deficient mice, MEFs were subjected to chromosome stability analysis. The BCCIP-deficient MEFs displayed significant spontaneous chromosome structural alterations associated with replication stress, including a 3.5-fold induction of chromatid breaks. Remarkably, the BCCIP-deficient MEFs had a ∼20-fold increase in sister chromatid union (SCU), yet the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was modestly at 1.5 fold. SCU is a unique type of chromatid aberration that may give rise to chromatin bridges between daughter nuclei in anaphase. In addition, the BCCIP-deficient MEFs have reduced repair of irradiation-induced DNA damage and reductions of Rad51 protein and nuclear foci. Our data suggest a unique function of BCCIP, not only in repair of DNA damage, but also in resolving stalled replication forks and prevention of replication stress. In addition, BCCIP deficiency causes excessive spontaneous chromatin bridges via the formation of SCU, which can subsequently impair chromosome segregations in mitosis and cell division. PMID:21966279

  2. Cdk12 is essential for embryonic development and the maintenance of genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Juan, H-C; Lin, Y; Chen, H-R; Fann, M-J

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity during early embryonic development is important in order to ensure the proper development of the embryo. Studies from cultured cells have demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (Cdk12) is a multifunctional protein that maintains genomic stability and the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Perturbation of its functions is also known to be associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance in human cancers. However, the biological significance of Cdk12 in vivo is unclear. Here we bred mice that are deficient in Cdk12 and demonstrated that Cdk12 depletion leads to embryonic lethality shortly after implantation. We also used an in vitro culture system of blastocysts to examine the molecular mechanisms associated with the embryonic lethality of Cdk12-deficient embryos. Cdk12−/− blastocysts fail to undergo outgrowth of the inner cell mass because of an increase in the apoptosis of these cells. Spontaneous DNA damage was revealed by an increase in 53BP1 foci among cells cultured from Cdk12−/− embryos. Furthermore, the expression levels of various DNA damage response genes, namely Atr, Brca1, Fanci and Fancd2, are reduced in Cdk12−/− embryos. These findings indicate that Cdk12 is important for the correct expression of some DNA damage response genes and indirectly has an influence on the efficiency of DNA repair. Our report also highlights that DNA breaks occurring during DNA replication are frequent in mouse embryonic cells and repair of such damage is critical to the successful development of mouse embryos. PMID:26658019

  3. p120 Catenin-Mediated Stabilization of E-Cadherin Is Essential for Primitive Endoderm Specification

    PubMed Central

    Haenebalcke, Lieven; Stryjewska, Agata; De Rycke, Riet; Lemeire, Kelly; Huylebroeck, Danny; Stemmler, Marc P.; Wirth, Dagmar; Haigh, Jody J.; van Hengel, Jolanda; van Roy, Frans

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is critical for naive pluripotency of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). E-cadherin-depleted mESC fail to downregulate their pluripotency program and are unable to initiate lineage commitment. To further explore the roles of cell adhesion molecules during mESC differentiation, we focused on p120 catenin (p120ctn). Although one key function of p120ctn is to stabilize and regulate cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, it has many additional functions, including regulation of transcription and Rho GTPase activity. Here, we investigated the role of mouse p120ctn in early embryogenesis, mESC pluripotency and early fate determination. In contrast to the E-cadherin-null phenotype, p120ctn-null mESCs remained pluripotent, but their in vitro differentiation was incomplete. In particular, they failed to form cystic embryoid bodies and showed defects in primitive endoderm formation. To pinpoint the underlying mechanism, we undertook a structure-function approach. Rescue of p120ctn-null mESCs with different p120ctn wild-type and mutant expression constructs revealed that the long N-terminal domain of p120ctn and its regulatory domain for RhoA were dispensable, whereas its armadillo domain and interaction with E-cadherin were crucial for primitive endoderm formation. We conclude that p120ctn is not only an adaptor and regulator of E-cadherin, but is also indispensable for proper lineage commitment. PMID:27556156

  4. p120 Catenin-Mediated Stabilization of E-Cadherin Is Essential for Primitive Endoderm Specification.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Tim; Goossens, Steven; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Andries, Vanessa; Stryjewska, Agata; De Rycke, Riet; Lemeire, Kelly; Hochepied, Tino; Huylebroeck, Danny; Berx, Geert; Stemmler, Marc P; Wirth, Dagmar; Haigh, Jody J; van Hengel, Jolanda; van Roy, Frans

    2016-08-01

    E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is critical for naive pluripotency of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). E-cadherin-depleted mESC fail to downregulate their pluripotency program and are unable to initiate lineage commitment. To further explore the roles of cell adhesion molecules during mESC differentiation, we focused on p120 catenin (p120ctn). Although one key function of p120ctn is to stabilize and regulate cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, it has many additional functions, including regulation of transcription and Rho GTPase activity. Here, we investigated the role of mouse p120ctn in early embryogenesis, mESC pluripotency and early fate determination. In contrast to the E-cadherin-null phenotype, p120ctn-null mESCs remained pluripotent, but their in vitro differentiation was incomplete. In particular, they failed to form cystic embryoid bodies and showed defects in primitive endoderm formation. To pinpoint the underlying mechanism, we undertook a structure-function approach. Rescue of p120ctn-null mESCs with different p120ctn wild-type and mutant expression constructs revealed that the long N-terminal domain of p120ctn and its regulatory domain for RhoA were dispensable, whereas its armadillo domain and interaction with E-cadherin were crucial for primitive endoderm formation. We conclude that p120ctn is not only an adaptor and regulator of E-cadherin, but is also indispensable for proper lineage commitment. PMID:27556156

  5. Dynamic response and stability analysis of an unbalanced flexible rotating shaft equipped with n automatic ball-balancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehyaei, J.; Moghaddam, Majid M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents analytical and numerical investigations of a system of unbalanced flexible rotating shaft equipped with n automatic ball-balancers, where the unbalanced masses are distributed in the length of the shaft. It includes the derivation of the equations of motion, the stability analysis on the basis of linearized equations of motion around the equilibrium position, and the results of the time responses of the system. The Stodola-Green rotor model, of which the shaft is assumed flexible, is proposed for the analysis step. The rotor model includes the influence of rigid-body rotations, due to the shaft flexibility. Utilizing Lagrange's method, the nonlinear equations of motion are derived. The study shows that for the angular velocities more than the first natural frequency and selecting the suitable values for the parameters of the automatic ball-balancers, which are in the stability region, the auto ball-balancers tend to improve the vibration behavior of the system, i.e., the partial balancing, but the complete balancing was achieved in a special case, where the imbalances are in the planes of the auto ball-balancers. Furthermore, it is shown that if the auto ball-balancers are closer to the unbalanced masses, a better vibration reduction is achieved.

  6. Mre11 Nuclease Activity has Essential Roles in DNA Repair and Genomic Stability Distinct from ATM Activation

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Jeffrey; Wu, Yipin; Deng, Yibin; Leddon, Jennifer; Westfield, Gerwin; Eckersdorff, Mark; Sekiguchi, JoAnn M.; Chang, Sandy; Ferguson, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 complex (MRN) maintains genomic stability by bridging DNA ends and initiating DNA damage signaling through activation of the ATM kinase. Mre11 possesses DNA nuclease activities that are highly conserved in evolution, but play unknown roles in mammals. To define functions of Mre11 we engineered targeted mouse alleles which either abrogate nuclease activities or inactivate the entire MRN complex. Mre11 nuclease deficiency causes a striking array of phenotypes indistinguishable from absence of MRN, including early embryonic lethality and dramatic genomic instability. We identify a crucial role for the nuclease activities in homology directed double strand break repair, and a contributing role in activating the ATR kinase. However, nuclease activities are not required to activate ATM after DNA damage or telomere deprotection. Therefore, nucleolytic processing by Mre11 is an essential function of fundamental importance in DNA repair distinct from MRN control of ATM signaling. PMID:18854157

  7. Effect of Echinophora platyloba DC. essential oil and lycopene on the stability of pasteurized cream obtained from cow milk

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Ali; Hashemi, Mohammad; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Shokri, Sajad; Naghibi, Seyedeh Samane

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to enhance shelf life of pasteurized cream using Echinophora platyloba essential oil (EEO) and lycopene. For this purpose, two concentrations of EEO (0.10% and 0.50%) and lycopene (20 and 50 ppm) alone and together as combinations were added in pasteurized creams and analyzed for microbial characteristics, sensorial properties and lipid stability during storage at 4 ˚C and 25 ˚C for 14 days. Results of microbial and chemical analyses of experimental pasteurized creams showed that pasteurized creams treated with combinations of the EEO and lycopene in their higher concentrations had the best microbial and chemical properties and the most stability than control during storage (p < 0.05). Results of sensorial evaluation demonstrated that all treatments had favorable overall acceptability, even though, the best sensorial properties were observed in creams with combinations of EEO and lycopene in their lower concentrations. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, application of EEO and lycopene as natural preservatives is especially recommend in high fat dairy products such as butter and cream. PMID:27482359

  8. Effect of Echinophora platyloba DC. essential oil and lycopene on the stability of pasteurized cream obtained from cow milk.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Ali; Hashemi, Mohammad; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Shokri, Sajad; Naghibi, Seyedeh Samane

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to enhance shelf life of pasteurized cream using Echinophora platyloba essential oil (EEO) and lycopene. For this purpose, two concentrations of EEO (0.10% and 0.50%) and lycopene (20 and 50 ppm) alone and together as combinations were added in pasteurized creams and analyzed for microbial characteristics, sensorial properties and lipid stability during storage at 4 ˚C and 25 ˚C for 14 days. Results of microbial and chemical analyses of experimental pasteurized creams showed that pasteurized creams treated with combinations of the EEO and lycopene in their higher concentrations had the best microbial and chemical properties and the most stability than control during storage (p < 0.05). Results of sensorial evaluation demonstrated that all treatments had favorable overall acceptability, even though, the best sensorial properties were observed in creams with combinations of EEO and lycopene in their lower concentrations. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, application of EEO and lycopene as natural preservatives is especially recommend in high fat dairy products such as butter and cream. PMID:27482359

  9. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, R.W.; Grajczak, P.; Wilcoxson, J.C.; Webster, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  10. Disulfide-Mediated Stabilization of the IκB Kinase Binding Domain of NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is a 419 residue scaffolding protein that, together with catalytic subunits IKKα and IKKβ, forms the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, a key regulator of NF-κB pathway signaling. NEMO is an elongated homodimer comprising mostly α-helix. It has been shown that a NEMO fragment spanning residues 44–111, which contains the IKKα/β binding site, is structurally disordered in the absence of bound IKKβ. Herein we show that enforcing dimerization of NEMO1–120 or NEMO44–111 constructs through introduction of one or two interchain disulfide bonds, through oxidation of the native Cys54 residue and/or at position 107 through a Leu107Cys mutation, induces a stable α-helical coiled-coil structure that is preorganized to bind IKKβ with high affinity. Chemical and thermal denaturation studies showed that, in the context of a covalent dimer, the ordered structure was stabilized relative to the denatured state by up to 3 kcal/mol. A full-length NEMO-L107C protein formed covalent dimers upon treatment of mammalian cells with H2O2. Furthermore, NEMO-L107C bound endogenous IKKβ in A293T cells, reconstituted TNF-induced NF-κB signaling in NEMO-deficient cells, and interacted with TRAF6. Our results indicate that the IKKβ binding domain of NEMO possesses an ordered structure in the unbound state, provided that it is constrained within a dimer as is the case in the constitutively dimeric full-length NEMO protein. The stability of the NEMO coiled coil is maintained by strong interhelix interactions in the region centered on residue 54. The disulfide-linked constructs we describe herein may be useful for crystallization of NEMO’s IKKβ binding domain in the absence of bound IKKβ, thereby facilitating the structural characterization of small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:25400026

  11. Disulfide-mediated stabilization of the IκB kinase binding domain of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Yeo, Alan T; Ballarano, Carmine; Weber, Urs; Allen, Karen N; Gilmore, Thomas D; Whitty, Adrian

    2014-12-23

    Human NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is a 419 residue scaffolding protein that, together with catalytic subunits IKKα and IKKβ, forms the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, a key regulator of NF-κB pathway signaling. NEMO is an elongated homodimer comprising mostly α-helix. It has been shown that a NEMO fragment spanning residues 44-111, which contains the IKKα/β binding site, is structurally disordered in the absence of bound IKKβ. Herein we show that enforcing dimerization of NEMO1-120 or NEMO44-111 constructs through introduction of one or two interchain disulfide bonds, through oxidation of the native Cys54 residue and/or at position 107 through a Leu107Cys mutation, induces a stable α-helical coiled-coil structure that is preorganized to bind IKKβ with high affinity. Chemical and thermal denaturation studies showed that, in the context of a covalent dimer, the ordered structure was stabilized relative to the denatured state by up to 3 kcal/mol. A full-length NEMO-L107C protein formed covalent dimers upon treatment of mammalian cells with H2O2. Furthermore, NEMO-L107C bound endogenous IKKβ in A293T cells, reconstituted TNF-induced NF-κB signaling in NEMO-deficient cells, and interacted with TRAF6. Our results indicate that the IKKβ binding domain of NEMO possesses an ordered structure in the unbound state, provided that it is constrained within a dimer as is the case in the constitutively dimeric full-length NEMO protein. The stability of the NEMO coiled coil is maintained by strong interhelix interactions in the region centered on residue 54. The disulfide-linked constructs we describe herein may be useful for crystallization of NEMO's IKKβ binding domain in the absence of bound IKKβ, thereby facilitating the structural characterization of small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:25400026

  12. X-ray sensing materials stability: influence of ambient storage temperature on essential thermal properties of undoped vitreous selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, D.; Mani, H.; Belev, G.; Kostova, I.; Kasap, S.

    2014-12-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) is currently used in x-ray image detectors as an x-ray photoconductor. Normally a-Se films used in device applications are fabricated by the evaporation of vitreous bulk material loaded into boats in a typical vacuum deposition system. The resistance against crystallization is an important factor in both film and bulk forms of a-Se. Previous work has indicted that the resistance to crystallization is surprisingly more pronounced around 35 °C [1]. In this work we have therefore examined the essential thermal properties of vitreous selenium (99.999%) samples that have been stored at different temperatures. The thermal characterization experiments involved a series of DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) measurements in which have monitored the glass transition and melting endotherms, and the crystallization exotherm in heating-cooling-heating scans. In DSC experiments, a sample would be heated to a temperature above the melting temperature, equilibrated, then cooled at a fixed rate down to 20 °C, then equilibrated and finally scanned again under a heating schedule. The samples were isothermally stored at temperatures corresponding to 18, 35 and 55 °C. The thermal analysis results show that there are distinct differences in the thermal properties. We have examined the stability in terms of the difference in the crystallization onset temperature (Tc) and the onset of glass transition temperature (Tg). We also examined the Hruby coefficient (Kgl) of these samples, that is Kgl = (Tc - Tg)/(Tm - Tc) where Tc is the crystallization onset temperature and Tm is the melting onset temperature. We have found Kgl to depend on the storage temperature. Surprisingly, we observed that the Hruby coefficient is actually larger at 35 °C compared to the values at 18 and 55 °C.

  13. The comparative efficacy of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice, peroxide/baking soda dentifrice and essential oil mouthrinse for the prevention of gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Beiswanger, B B; McClanahan, S F; Bartizek, R D; Lanzalaco, A C; Bacca, L A; White, D J

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind parallel-design clinical study compared the efficacy of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice (Crest Plus Gum Care), baking soda and peroxide (NaF) dentifrice (Mentadent), and essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine) to a conventional NaF dentifrice (Crest) for the control of plaque, gingivitis and gingival bleeding over six months. Following an initial baseline examination and stratification, subjects received a complete oral prophylaxis and were distributed assigned test products. Following three and six months, subjects re-visited the clinic for examinations. Evaluations at baseline and at 3 and 6 months included soft tissue status. Löe-Silness gingivitis/gingival bleeding, Silness-Löe plaque and dental stain. Results subsequent to six months of product use were as follows: At six months, the stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice was observed to produce statistically significant 17.5% reductions in gingivitis and 27.5% reductions in gingival bleeding relative to the NaF dentifrice. The combination of sodium fluoride dentifrice and essential oil mouthrinse produced statistically significant reductions of 7.4% in gingivitis and 10.8% in plaque as compared with the NaF dentifrice. The stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice produced statistically significant reductions in both gingivitis (10.8%) and gingival bleeding (23.0%) relative to the combination of sodium fluoride dentifrice and essential oil mouthrinse. The baking soda and peroxide (NaF) dentifrice did not provide reductions in gingivitis, plaque or gingival bleeding as compared with the conventional NaF dentifrice. The stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice provided statistically significant reductions in gingivitis as compared with the baking soda and peroxide dentifrice following six months of use, and both the essential oil mouthrinse and stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice provided statistically significant reductions in gingivitis as compared with the baking soda and

  14. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  15. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  16. Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ligase CMPG1

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Armstrong, Miles R.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Boevink, Petra C.; Hein, Ingo; Taylor, Rosalind M.; Zhendong, Tian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; Harrower, Brian; Dixelius, Christina; Bryan, Glenn; Sadanandom, Ari; Whisson, Stephen C.; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens translocate effector proteins into host cells to establish infection. However, virulence targets and modes of action of their effectors are unknown. Effector AVR3a from potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans is translocated into host cells and occurs in two forms: AVR3aKI, which is detected by potato resistance protein R3a, strongly suppresses infestin 1 (INF1)-triggered cell death (ICD), whereas AVR3aEM, which evades recognition by R3a, weakly suppresses host ICD. Here we show that AVR3a interacts with and stabilizes host U-box E3 ligase CMPG1, which is required for ICD. In contrast, AVR3aKI/Y147del, a mutant with a deleted C-terminal tyrosine residue that fails to suppress ICD, cannot interact with or stabilize CMPG1. CMPG1 is stabilized by the inhibitors MG132 and epoxomicin, indicating that it is degraded by the 26S proteasome. CMPG1 is degraded during ICD. However, it is stabilized by mutations in the U-box that prevent its E3 ligase activity. In stabilizing CMPG1, AVR3a thus modifies its normal activity. Remarkably, given the potential for hundreds of effector genes in the P. infestans genome, silencing Avr3a compromises P. infestans pathogenicity, suggesting that AVR3a is essential for virulence. Interestingly, Avr3a silencing can be complemented by in planta expression of Avr3aKI or Avr3aEM but not the Avr3aKI/Y147del mutant. Our data provide genetic evidence that AVR3a is an essential virulence factor that targets and stabilizes the plant E3 ligase CMPG1, potentially to prevent host cell death during the biotrophic phase of infection. PMID:20457921

  17. Chloroplast targeting of FtsHprotease is essential for chloroplast development and thylakoid stability at elevated temperatures in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 is a chloroplast and mitochondria dual targeted metalloprotease, identified as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures at all developmental stages. Our study showed that FtsH11 plays critical roles in both the early stages of chloroplast biogenesis and main...

  18. Experimental Verification of the Rudder-Free Stability Theory for an Airplane Model Equipped with Rudders Having Negative Floating Tendency and Negligible Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, Marion O.; Maggin, Bernard

    1944-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to obtain an experimental verification of the theoretical rudder-free stability characteristics of an airplane model equipped with conventional rudders having negative floating tendencies and negligible friction. The model used in the tests was equipped with a conventional single vertical tail having rudder area 40 percent of the vertical tail area. The model was tested both in free flight and mounted on a strut that allowed freedom only in yaw. Tests were made with three different amounts of rudder aerodynamic balance and with various values of mass, moment of inertia, and center-of-gravity location of the rudder. Most of the stability derivatives required for the theoretical calculations were determined from forced and free-oscillation tests of the particular model tested. The theoretical analysis showed that the rudder-free motions of an airplane consist largely of two oscillatory modes - a long-period oscillation somewhat similar to the normal rudder-fixed oscillation and a short-period oscillation introduced only when the rudder is set free. It was found possible in the tests to create lateral instability of the rudder-free short-period mode by large values of rudder mass parameters even though the rudder-fixed condition was highly stable. The results of the tests and calculation indicated that for most present-day airplanes having rudders of negative floating tendency, the rudder-free stability characteristics may be examined by simply considering the dynamic lateral stability using the value of the directional-stability parameter Cn(sub p) for the rudder-free condition in the conventional controls-fixed lateral-stability equations. For very large airplanes having relatively high values of the rudder mass parameters with respect to the rudder aerodynamic parameters, however, analysis of the rudder-free stability should be made with the complete equations of motion. Good agreement between

  19. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage. PMID:24583334

  20. Stable Phenotypic Changes of the Host T Cells Are Essential to the Long-Term Stability of Latent HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Seu, Lillian; Sabbaj, Steffanie; Duverger, Alexandra; Wagner, Frederic; Anderson, Joshua C.; Davies, Elizabeth; Wolschendorf, Frank; Willey, Christopher D.; Saag, Michael S.; Goepfert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extreme stability of the latent HIV-1 reservoir in the CD4+ memory T cell population prevents viral eradication with current antiretroviral therapy. It has been demonstrated that homeostatic T cell proliferation and clonal expansion of latently infected T cells due to viral integration into specific genes contribute to this extraordinary reservoir stability. Nevertheless, given the constant exposure of the memory T cell population to specific antigen or bystander activation, this reservoir stability seems remarkable, unless it is assumed that latent HIV-1 resides exclusively in memory T cells that recognize rare antigens. Another explanation for the stability of the reservoir could be that the latent HIV-1 reservoir is associated with an unresponsive T cell phenotype. We demonstrate here that host cells of latent HIV-1 infection events were functionally altered in ways that are consistent with the idea of an anergic, unresponsive T cell phenotype. Manipulations that induced or mimicked an anergic T cell state promoted latent HIV-1 infection. Kinome analysis data reflected this altered host cell phenotype at a system-wide level and revealed how the stable kinase activity changes networked to stabilize latent HIV-1 infection. Protein-protein interaction networks generated from kinome data could further be used to guide targeted genetic or pharmacological manipulations that alter the stability of latent HIV-1 infection. In summary, our data demonstrate that stable changes to the signal transduction and transcription factor network of latently HIV-1 infected host cells are essential to the ability of HIV-1 to establish and maintain latent HIV-1 infection status. IMPORTANCE The extreme stability of the latent HIV-1 reservoir allows the infection to persist for the lifetime of a patient, despite completely suppressive antiretroviral therapy. This extreme reservoir stability is somewhat surprising, since the latently HIV-1 infected CD4+ memory T cells that

  1. Pen-2 is essential for γ-secretase complex stability and trafficking but partially dispensable for endoproteolysis.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Oliver; Paturi, Swetha; Selkoe, Dennis J; Wolfe, Michael S

    2014-07-15

    The 19-transmembrane γ-secretase complex generates the amyloid β-peptide of Alzheimer's disease by intramembrane proteolysis of the β-amyloid precursor protein. This complex is comprised of presenilin, Aph1, nicastrin, and Pen-2. The exact function and mechanism of the highly conserved Pen-2 subunit remain poorly understood. Using systematic mutagenesis, we confirm and extend our understanding of which key regions and specific residues play roles in various aspects of γ-secretase function, including maturation, localization, and activity, but not processivity. In general, mutations (1) within the first half of transmembrane domain (TMD) 1 of Pen-2 decreased PS1 endoproteolysis and γ-secretase proteolytic activity, (2) within the second half of TMD1 increased proteolytic activity, (3) within the cytosolic loop region decreased proteolytic activity, (4) within TMD2 decreased PS1 endoproteolysis, (5) within the first half of TMD2 decreased proteolytic activity, and (6) within C-terminal residues decreased proteolytic activity. Specific mutational effects included N33A in TMD1 causing an increase in γ-secretase complexes at the cell surface and a modest decrease in stability and the previously unreported I53A mutation in the loop region reducing stability 10-fold and proteolytic activity by half. In addition, we confirm that minor PS1 endoproteolysis can occur in the complete absence of Pen-2. Together, these data suggest that rather than solely being a catalyst for γ-secretase endoproteolysis, Pen-2 may also stabilize the complex prior to PS1 endoproteolysis, allowing time for full assembly and proper trafficking. PMID:24941111

  2. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  3. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE. PMID:25442557

  4. Stabilities of thiomolybdate complexes of iron; implications for retention of essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Mo) in sulfidic waters.

    PubMed

    Helz, George R; Erickson, Britt E; Vorlicek, Trent P

    2014-06-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, availabilities of Fe, Mo and Cu potentially limit rates of critical biological processes, including nitrogen fixation, nitrate assimilation and N2O decomposition. During long periods in Earth's history when large parts of the ocean were sulfidic, what prevented these elements' quantitative loss from marine habitats as insoluble sulfide phases? They must have been retained by formation of soluble complexes. Identities of the key ligands are poorly known but probably include thioanions. Here, the first determinations of stability constants for Fe(2+)-[MoS4](2-) complexes in aqueous solution are reported based on measurements of pyrrhotite (hexagonal FeS) solubility under mildly alkaline conditions. Two linear complexes, [FeO(OH)MoS4](3-) and [(Fe2S2)(MoS4)2](4-), best explain the observed solubility variations. Complexes that would be consistent with cuboid cluster structures were less successful, implying that such clusters probably are minor or absent in aqueous solution under the conditions studied. The new data, together with prior data on stabilities of Cu(+)-[MoS4](2-) complexes, are used to explore computationally how competition of Fe(2+) and Cu(+) for [MoS4](2-), as well as competition of [MoS4](2-) and HS(-) for both metals would be resolved in solutions representative of sulfidic natural waters. Thiomolybdate complexes will be most important at sulfide concentrations near the [MoO4](2-)-[MoS4](2-) equivalence point. At lower sulfide concentrations, thiomolybdates are insufficiently stable to be competitive ligands in natural waters and at higher sulfide concentrations HS(-) ligands out-compete thiomolybdates. PMID:24226648

  5. Effect of thyme/cumin essential oils and butylated hydroxyl anisole/butylated hydroxyl toluene on physicochemical properties and oxidative/microbial stability of chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, effects of thyme/cumin essential oils (EO) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)/butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) on physicochemical properties and storage stability of chicken patties were compared in different storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d). It was found that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between physicochemical properties of patty samples treated with EO and the synthetic antioxidants. The EO showed similar performance to those of BHA and BHT in limiting TBARS values of chicken patty samples. Similarity in performance was also the case for microbial stability (total aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid, and coliform bacteria as well as molds and yeasts); namely, their effects were significant (P < 0.05). Effect of thyme EO was significant (P < 0.05) and remarkable, not allowing any coliform bacteria to grow in the samples. Given that EO were obtained from natural sources, the data suggested that the EO might be more useful than their synthetic counterparts, BHA and BHT, as additives for chicken patties to maintain oxidative/microbial stability and increase shelf life. PMID:24570469

  6. RbAp48 is essential for viability of vertebrate cells and plays a role in chromosome stability.

    PubMed

    Satrimafitrah, Pasjan; Barman, Hirak Kumar; Ahmad, Ahyar; Nishitoh, Hideki; Nakayama, Tatsuo; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Takami, Yasunari

    2016-05-01

    RbAp46/48, histone chaperone, is a family of evolutionarily conserved WD40 repeat-containing proteins, which are involved in various chromatin-metabolizing processes, but their in vivo functional relevance is yet unclear. In order to examine the biological role of pRbAp48 in chicken DT40 cells, we generated a tetracycline-inducible system for conditional RbAp48-knockout cells. Depletion of RbAp48 led to delayed S phase progression associated with slow DNA synthesis and nascent nucleosome formation, followed by accumulation in G2/M phase, finally leading to cell death. Prior to cell death, these cells exhibited aberrant mitosis such as highly condensed and abnormal chromosome alignment on the metaphase plate, leading to chromosome missegregation. Depletion of RbAp48 also caused dissociation of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) from pericentromeric heterochromatin. Furthermore, depletion of RbAp48 from cells led to elevated levels of acetylation and slightly decreased levels of methylation, specifically at Lys-9 residue of histone H3. These results suggest that RbAp48 plays an important role in chromosome stability for proper organization of heterochromatin structure through the regulation of epigenetic mark. PMID:26667624

  7. ESSENTIAL ROLE OF SURFACE HYDROXYLS FOR THE STABILIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TiO2-SUPPORTED GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Dudney, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of titania supported gold catalysts prepared by magnetron sputtering. Catalysts grown on natural fumed titania were structurally unstable resulting in the rapid coarsening of 2.3 nm gold clusters into large ~20 nm gold clusters in a few days at room temperature under normal atmospheric conditions. However, treating the titania support powder to a mock-deposition-precipitation process, at pH 4 or pH 10, followed by the subsequent deposition of gold onto this treated powder produced a remarkable enhancement in gold particle stability and a 20-40 fold enhancement of catalytic activity respectively. This enhancement can not be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface. Instead, it appears to be associated with the formation of strongly bound hydroxyl species on the TiO2 surface. The formation of surface hydroxyls during the deposition-precipitation method is coincidental and contributes significantly to the properties of Au/TiO2 catalysts.

  8. Vinculin directly binds zonula occludens-1 and is essential for stabilizing connexin-43-containing gap junctions in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E.; Godoy, Joseph C.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Asfaw, Elizabeth K.; Busija, Anna R.; Domenighetti, Andrea A.; Ross, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vinculin (Vcl) links actin filaments to integrin- and cadherin-based cellular junctions. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, also known as TJP1) binds connexin-43 (Cx43, also known as GJA1), cadherin and actin. Vcl and ZO-1 anchor the actin cytoskeleton to the sarcolemma. Given that loss of Vcl from cardiomyocytes causes maldistribution of Cx43 and predisposes cardiomyocyte-specific Vcl-knockout mice with preserved heart function to arrhythmia and sudden death, we hypothesized that Vcl and ZO-1 interact and that loss of this interaction destabilizes gap junctions. We found that Vcl, Cx43 and ZO-1 colocalized at the intercalated disc. Loss of cardiomyocyte Vcl caused parallel loss of ZO-1 from intercalated dics. Vcl co-immunoprecipitated Cx43 and ZO-1, and directly bound ZO-1 in yeast two-hybrid studies. Excision of the Vcl gene in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes caused a reduction in the amount of Vcl mRNA transcript and protein expression leading to (1) decreased protein expression of Cx43, ZO-1, talin, and β1D-integrin, (2) reduced PI3K activation, (3) increased activation of Akt, Erk1 and Erk2, and (4) cardiomyocyte necrosis. In summary, this is the first study showing a direct interaction between Vcl and ZO-1 and illustrates how Vcl plays a crucial role in stabilizing gap junctions and myocyte integrity. PMID:24413171

  9. A conserved π-cation and an electrostatic bridge are essential for 11R-lipoxygenase catalysis and structural stability.

    PubMed

    Eek, Priit; Piht, Mari-Ann; Rätsep, Margus; Freiberg, Arvi; Järving, Ivar; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-10-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are lipid-peroxidizing enzymes that consist of a regulatory calcium- and membrane-binding PLAT (polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, α-toxin) domain and a catalytic domain. In a previous study, the crystal structure of an 11R-LOX revealed a conserved π-cation bridge connecting these two domains which could mediate the regulatory effect of the PLAT domain to the active site. Here we analyzed the role of residues Trp107 and Lys172 that constitute the π-cation bridge in 11R-LOX along with Arg106 and Asp173-a potential salt bridge, which could also contribute to the inter-domain communication. According to our kinetic assays and protein unfolding experiments conducted using differential scanning fluorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy, mutants with a disrupted link display diminished catalytic activity alongside reduced stability of the protein fold. The results demonstrate that both these bridges contribute to the two-domain interface, and are important for proper enzyme activation. PMID:26215075

  10. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton stabilizes mouse megakaryocyte membrane systems and is essential for proplatelet and platelet formation.

    PubMed

    Patel-Hett, Sunita; Wang, Hongbei; Begonja, Antonija J; Thon, Jonathan N; Alden, Eva C; Wandersee, Nancy J; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Hartwig, John H; Italiano, Joseph E

    2011-08-11

    Megakaryocytes generate platelets by remodeling their cytoplasm first into proplatelets and then into preplatelets, which undergo fission to generate platelets. Although the functions of microtubules and actin during platelet biogenesis have been defined, the role of the spectrin cytoskeleton is unknown. We investigated the function of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in proplatelet and platelet production in murine megakaryocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that, like circulating platelets, proplatelets have a dense membrane skeleton, the main fibrous component of which is spectrin. Unlike other cells, megakaryocytes and their progeny express both erythroid and nonerythroid spectrins. Assembly of spectrin into tetramers is required for invaginated membrane system maturation and proplatelet extension, because expression of a spectrin tetramer-disrupting construct in megakaryocytes inhibits both processes. Incorporation of this spectrin-disrupting fragment into a novel permeabilized proplatelet system rapidly destabilizes proplatelets, causing blebbing and swelling. Spectrin tetramers also stabilize the "barbell shapes" of the penultimate stage in platelet production, because addition of the tetramer-disrupting construct converts these barbell shapes to spheres, demonstrating that membrane skeletal continuity maintains the elongated, pre-fission shape. The results of this study provide evidence for a role for spectrin in different steps of megakaryocyte development through its participation in the formation of invaginated membranes and in the maintenance of proplatelet structure. PMID:21566095

  11. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Vlielander, René; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2005-05-01

    The major components of oregano and thyme essential oils that had previously been shown to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. The MICs and MBCs of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, and gamma-terpinene against a strain of E. coli O157: H7 phage type 34 isolated from bovine feces were determined by microdilution assay. The constituents were then tested in checkerboard assays to detect possible interactions. Carvacrol and thymol displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties with MICs of 1.2 mmol/liter and were additive in combination. p-Cymene and gamma-terpinene displayed no measurable antibacterial activity up to 50 mmol/liter, and neither influenced the activity of carvacrol or thymol. Growth curves in the presence of nonlethal concentrations of carvacrol with the addition of agar (0.05%, wt/vol) or carrageenan (0.125%, wt/vol) as stabilizer were produced by optical density measurement. The stabilizers agar and carrageenan both significantly improved the effectiveness of carvacrol in broth, possibly because of a delay in the separation of the hydrophobic substrate from the aqueous phase of the medium. When carvacrol was dissolved in ethanol before addition to broth, stabilizers were not needed. Carvacrol and thymol, particularly when used in combination with a stabilizer or in an ethanol solution, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing growth of E. coli O157:H7 in liquid foods. PMID:15895722

  12. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:25265207

  13. Stabilization of Ultraviolet (UV)-stimulated Scaffold Protein A by Interaction with Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 7 Is Essential for Transcription-coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair.

    PubMed

    Higa, Mitsuru; Zhang, Xue; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Saijo, Masafumi

    2016-06-24

    UV-sensitive syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and deficiency in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that rapidly removes transcription-blocking DNA damage. UV-sensitive syndrome consists of three genetic complementation groups caused by mutations in the CSA, CSB, and UVSSA genes. UV-stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA), the product of UVSSA, which is required for stabilization of Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein and reappearance of the hypophosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II after UV irradiation, forms a complex with ubiquitin-specific peptidase 7 (USP7). In this study, we demonstrated that the deubiquitination activity of USP7 is suppressed by its interaction with UVSSA. The interaction required the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor domain of USP7 and the central region of UVSSA and was disrupted by an amino acid substitution in the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-binding motif of UVSSA. Cells expressing mutant UVSSA were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and defective in recovery of RNA synthesis after UV irradiation. These results indicate that the interaction between UVSSA and USP7 is important for TC-NER. Furthermore, the mutant UVSSA was rapidly degraded by the proteasome, and CSB was also degraded after UV irradiation as observed in UVSSA-deficient cells. Thus, stabilization of UVSSA by interaction with USP7 is essential for TC-NER. PMID:27129218

  14. 21 CFR 225.30 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 225.30 Section 225.30 Food and Drugs... Equipment § 225.30 Equipment. (a) Equipment which is designed to perform its intended function and is properly installed and used is essential to the manufacture of medicated feeds. Such equipment...

  15. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  16. iRhom2 is essential for innate immunity to DNA viruses by mediating trafficking and stability of the adaptor STING.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei-Wei; Li, Shu; Li, Chen; Lian, Huan; Yang, Qing; Zhong, Bo; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-09-01

    STING is a central adaptor in the innate immune response to DNA viruses. However, the manner in which STING activity is regulated remains unclear. We identified iRhom2 ('inactive rhomboid protein 2') as a positive regulator of DNA-virus-triggered induction of type I interferons. iRhom2 deficiency markedly impaired DNA-virus- and intracellular-DNA-induced signaling in cells, and iRhom2-deficient mice were more susceptible to lethal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. iRhom2 was constitutively associated with STING and acted in two distinct processes to regulate STING activity. iRhom2 recruited the translocon-associated protein TRAPβ to the STING complex to facilitate trafficking of STING from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear microsomes. iRhom2 also recruited the deubiquitination enzyme EIF3S5 to maintain the stability of STING through removal of its K48-linked polyubiquitin chains. These results suggest that iRhom2 is essential for STING activity, as it regulates TRAPβ-mediated translocation and EIF3S5-mediated deubiquitination of STING. PMID:27428826

  17. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  18. Lithography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    1996-07-01

    Until recently, lithography capability evolved consistently with Moore's law. It appears that semiconductor manufacturers are now deviating from Moore's law, which has implications for lithography equipment. DUV lithography is moving into production in a mix-and-match environment. Step- and-scan technology is the wave of the near-future, as a way to contend with the difficulty of manufacturing wide-field lenses. Resist processing equipment will undergo few fundamental changes, but will often be integrated with steppers, particularly for DUV applications. Metrology is being stretched beyond its limits for technologies below 250 nm. The move is on to 300 m diameter wafers, and 193 nm lithography is under consideration.

  19. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  20. A comparison of intraoral antimicrobial effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice, baking soda/peroxide dentifrice, conventional NaF dentifrice and essential oil mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Bacca, L A; Leusch, M; Lanzalaco, A C; Macksood, D; Bouwsma, O J; Shaffer, J B; Howard-Nordan, K S; Knippenberg, S H; Kreutzjans, M K; Miller, J M; Poore, C L; Sunberg, R J; Vastola, K A; Becus, M; Bartizek, R D; Block, R P; Briner, W W; White, D J

    1997-01-01

    The intraoral antimicrobial activity of four commercial oral products-conventional NaF dentifrice (Crest), baking soda/peroxide/NaF dentifrice (Mentadent), essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine) and SnF2 dentifrice (Crest Plus Gum Care)-have been compared in three test regimens. Formulations were compared for their ability to suppress the regrowth and apical extension of dental plaque following toothbrushing during thirty hours of non-brushing where products were used as oral rinses (30-hour plaque regrowth model). Formulations were also compared for their ability to suppress the colony-forming units (cfu) of facultative anaerobic bacteria sampled from buccal gingival surfaces following use (Gingival Surface Microbial Index-GSMI model). Lastly, formulations were compared for effects in suppressing the glycolytic metabolic activity and regrowth activity of in vivo-treated dental plaques sampled at various periods following topical use and incubated under controlled ex vivo conditions (Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth-PGRM model). In thirty-hour plaque regrowth testing, the rank ordered antimicrobial efficacy of formulations followed SnF2 > essential oils > NaF = water = baking soda/peroxide. In GSMI testing, all formulations were shown to suppress the cfu of facultative anaerobic bacteria relative to baseline, although SnF2 treatment was observed to reduce bacterial levels to a significantly greater degree than NaF dentifrice or baking soda/peroxide dentifrice up to two hours following brushing. In PGRM testing, the SnF2 dentifrice provided significant inhibition of bacterial metabolism and regrowth following topical application when compared with the NaF dentifrice as control. The baking soda/peroxide dentifrice provided no reduction in either bacterial metabolism or regrowth in PGRM. Previous studies had demonstrated modest effects for essential oil rinse in reducing PGRM plaque regrowth, with no effects for this treatment on plaque metabolism. Overall, these results

  1. Thin, a Trim32 ortholog, is essential for myofibril stability and is required for the integrity of the costamere in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    LaBeau-DiMenna, Elisa M.; Clark, Kathleen A.; Bauman, Kenneth D.; Parker, Daniel S.; Cripps, Richard M.; Geisbrecht, Erika R.

    2012-01-01

    Myofibril stability is required for normal muscle function and maintenance. Mutations that disrupt myofibril stability result in individuals who develop progressive muscle wasting, or muscular dystrophy, and premature mortality. Here we present our investigations of the Drosophila l(2)thin [l(2)tn] mutant. The “thin” phenotype exhibits features of the human muscular disease phenotype in that tn mutant larvae show progressive muscular degeneration. Loss-of-function and rescue experiments determined that l(2)tn is allelic to the tn locus [previously annotated as both CG15105 and another b-box affiliate (abba)]. tn encodes a TRIM (tripartite motif) containing protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is orthologous to the human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H disease gene Trim32. Thin protein is localized at the Z-disk in muscle, but l(2)tn mutants showed no genetic interaction with mutants affecting the Z-line–associated protein muscle LIM protein 84B. l(2)tn, along with loss-of-function mutants generated for tn, showed no relative mislocalization of the Z-disk proteins α-Actinin and muscle LIM protein 84B. In contrast, tn mutants had significant disorganization of the costameric orthologs β-integrin, Spectrin, Talin, and Vinculin, and we present the initial description for the costamere, a key muscle stability complex, in Drosophila. Our studies demonstrate that myofibrils progressively unbundle in flies that lack Thin function through progressive costamere breakdown. Due to the high conservation of these structures in animals, we demonstrate a previously unknown role for TRIM32 proteins in myofibril stability. PMID:23071324

  2. Thin, a Trim32 ortholog, is essential for myofibril stability and is required for the integrity of the costamere in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    LaBeau-DiMenna, Elisa M; Clark, Kathleen A; Bauman, Kenneth D; Parker, Daniel S; Cripps, Richard M; Geisbrecht, Erika R

    2012-10-30

    Myofibril stability is required for normal muscle function and maintenance. Mutations that disrupt myofibril stability result in individuals who develop progressive muscle wasting, or muscular dystrophy, and premature mortality. Here we present our investigations of the Drosophila l(2)thin [l(2)tn] mutant. The "thin" phenotype exhibits features of the human muscular disease phenotype in that tn mutant larvae show progressive muscular degeneration. Loss-of-function and rescue experiments determined that l(2)tn is allelic to the tn locus [previously annotated as both CG15105 and another b-box affiliate (abba)]. tn encodes a TRIM (tripartite motif) containing protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is orthologous to the human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H disease gene Trim32. Thin protein is localized at the Z-disk in muscle, but l(2)tn mutants showed no genetic interaction with mutants affecting the Z-line-associated protein muscle LIM protein 84B. l(2)tn, along with loss-of-function mutants generated for tn, showed no relative mislocalization of the Z-disk proteins α-Actinin and muscle LIM protein 84B. In contrast, tn mutants had significant disorganization of the costameric orthologs β-integrin, Spectrin, Talin, and Vinculin, and we present the initial description for the costamere, a key muscle stability complex, in Drosophila. Our studies demonstrate that myofibrils progressively unbundle in flies that lack Thin function through progressive costamere breakdown. Due to the high conservation of these structures in animals, we demonstrate a previously unknown role for TRIM32 proteins in myofibril stability. PMID:23071324

  3. Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

  4. Arabidopsis BRICK1/HSPC300 is an essential WAVE-complex subunit that selectively stabilizes the Arp2/3 activator SCAR2.

    PubMed

    Le, Jie; Mallery, Eileen L; Zhang, Chunhua; Brankle, Steven; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2006-05-01

    The actin cytoskeleton dynamically reorganizes the cytoplasm during cell morphogenesis. The actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex is a potent nucleator of actin filaments that controls a variety of endomembrane functions including the endocytic internalization of plasma membrane , vacuole biogenesis , plasma-membrane protrusion in crawling cells , and membrane trafficking from the Golgi . Therefore, Arp2/3 is an important signaling target during morphogenesis. The evolutionarily conserved Rac-WAVE-Arp2/3 pathway links actin filament nucleation to cell morphogenesis . WAVE translates Rac-GTP signals into Arp2/3 activation by regulating the stability and/or localization of the activator subunit Scar/WAVE . The WAVE complex includes Sra1/PIR121/CYFIP1, Nap1/NAP125, Abi-1/Abi-2, Brick1(Brk1)/HSPC300, and Scar/WAVE : Defining the in vivo function of each subunit is an important step toward understanding this complicated signaling pathway. Brk1/HSPC300 has been the most recalcitrant WAVE-complex protein and has no known function. In this paper, we report that Arabidopsis brick1 (brk1) is a member of the "distorted group" of trichome morphology mutants, a group that defines a WAVE-ARP2/3 morphogenesis pathway . In this paper we provide the first strong genetic and biochemical evidence that BRK1 is a critical WAVE-complex subunit that selectively stabilizes the Arp2/3 activator SCAR2. PMID:16584883

  5. A Central Cysteine Residue Is Essential for the Thermal Stability and Function of SUMO-1 Protein and SUMO-1 Peptide-Protein Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Drobecq, Hervé; Boll, Emmanuelle; Sénéchal, Magalie; Desmet, Rémi; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Lacapère, Jean-Jacques; Mougel, Alexandra; Vicogne, Jérôme; Melnyk, Oleg

    2016-06-15

    SUMOylation constitutes a major post-translational modification (PTM) used by the eukaryote cellular machinery to modulate protein interactions of the targeted proteins. The small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) features a central and conserved cysteine residue (Cys52) that is located in the hydrophobic core of the protein and in tight contact with Phe65, suggesting the occurrence of an S/π interaction. To investigate the importance of Cys52 on SUMO-1 thermal stability and biochemical properties, we produced by total chemical synthesis SUMO-1 or SUMO-1 Cys52Ala peptide-protein conjugates featuring a native isopeptidic bond between SUMO-1 and a peptide derived from p53 tumor suppressor protein. The Cys52Ala modification perturbed SUMO-1 secondary structure and resulted in a dramatic loss of protein thermal stability. Moreover, the cleavage of the isopeptidic bond by the deconjugating enzyme Upl1 was significantly less efficient than for the wild-type conjugate. Similarly, the in vitro SUMOylation of RanGap1 by E1/E2 conjugating enzymes was significantly less efficient with the SUMO-1 C52A analog compared to wild-type SUMO-1. These data demonstrate the critical role of Cys52 in maintaining SUMO-1 conformation and function and the importance of keeping this cysteine intact for the study of SUMO-1 protein conjugates. PMID:27195426

  6. Essential Tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential tremor) is the most common form of abnormal tremor. (In some people, tremor is a symptom ... shown this agent to be promising as a potential new treatment. Scientists are also studying the effectiveness ... Tremor Action Network P.O. Box 5013 Pleasanton, CA 94566- ...

  7. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  8. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties. PMID:25375335

  9. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  10. Essential debate.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2012-11-26

    With the election settled, the Obama administration has forged ahead with a draft rule on essential benefits and other provisions under the Affordable Care Act. Key players are still digesting the proposals, but HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius, left, says she's confident that the new rules-and an extended deadline related to exchanges-will give states what they need to implement the law. PMID:23326870

  11. Histone Acetyl Transferase 1 Is Essential for Mammalian Development, Genome Stability, and the Processing of Newly Synthesized Histones H3 and H4

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Ge, Zhongqi; Sirbu, Bianca; Doughty, Cheryl; Agudelo Garcia, Paula A.; Schlederer, Michaela; Annunziato, Anthony T.; Cortez, David; Kenner, Lukas; Parthun, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1−/− neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1−/− MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly. PMID:23754951

  12. Regulation of c-myc mRNA stability in vitro by a labile destabilizer with an essential nucleic acid component.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, G; Ross, J

    1989-01-01

    The turnover rates of some mRNAs vary by an order of magnitude or more when cells change their growth pattern or differentiate. To identify regulatory factors that might be responsible for this variability, we investigated how cytosolic fractions affect mRNA decay in an in vitro system. A 130,000 X g supernatant (S130) from the cytosol of exponentially growing erythroleukemia cells contains a destabilizer that accelerates the decay of polysome-bound c-myc mRNA by eightfold or more compared with reactions lacking S130. The destabilizer is deficient in or absent from the S130 of cycloheximide-treated cells, indicating that it is labile or is repressed when translation is blocked. It is not a generic RNase, because it does not affect the turnover of delta-globin, gamma-globin, or histone mRNA and does not destabilize a major portion of polysomal polyadenylated mRNA. The destabilizer accelerates the turnover of the c-myc mRNA 3' region, as well as subsequent 3'-to-5' degradation of the mRNA body. It is inactivated in vitro by mild heating and by micrococcal nuclease, suggesting that it contains a nucleic acid component. c-myb mRNA is also destabilized in S130-supplemented in vitro reactions. These results imply that the stability of some mRNAs is regulated by cytosolic factors that are not associated with polysomes. Images PMID:2747642

  13. FAP20 is an inner junction protein of doublet microtubules essential for both the planar asymmetrical waveform and stability of flagella in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Mathis, Garrison; Oda, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Masafumi; Richey, Elizabeth A.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Marshall, Wallace F.; Kikkawa, Masahide; Qin, Hongmin

    2014-01-01

    The axoneme—the conserved core of eukaryotic cilia and flagella—contains highly specialized doublet microtubules (DMTs). A long-standing question is what protein(s) compose the junctions between two tubules in DMT. Here we identify a highly conserved flagellar-associated protein (FAP), FAP20, as an inner junction (IJ) component. The flagella of Chlamydomonas FAP20 mutants have normal length but beat with an abnormal symmetrical three-dimensional pattern. In addition, the mutant axonemes are liable to disintegrate during beating, implying that interdoublet connections may be weakened. Conventional electron microscopy shows that the mutant axonemes lack the IJ, and cryo–electron tomography combined with a structural labeling method reveals that the labeled FAP20 localizes at the IJ. The mutant axonemes also lack doublet-specific beak structures, which are localized in the proximal portion of the axoneme and may be involved in planar asymmetric flagellar bending. FAP20 itself, however, may not be a beak component, because uniform localization of FAP20 along the entire length of all nine DMTs is inconsistent with the beak's localization. FAP20 is the first confirmed component of the IJ. Our data also suggest that the IJ is important for both stabilizing the axoneme and scaffolding intra–B-tubular substructures required for a planar asymmetrical waveform. PMID:24574454

  14. The BEACH Domain Protein SPIRRIG Is Essential for Arabidopsis Salt Stress Tolerance and Functions as a Regulator of Transcript Stabilization and Localization

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Alexandra; Bräutigam, Andrea; Jakoby, Marc; Hülskamp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Members of the highly conserved class of BEACH domain containing proteins (BDCPs) have been established as broad facilitators of protein–protein interactions and membrane dynamics in the context of human diseases like albinism, bleeding diathesis, impaired cellular immunity, cancer predisposition, and neurological dysfunctions. Also, the Arabidopsis thaliana BDCP SPIRRIG (SPI) is important for membrane integrity, as spi mutants exhibit split vacuoles. In this work, we report a novel molecular function of the BDCP SPI in ribonucleoprotein particle formation. We show that SPI interacts with the P-body core component DECAPPING PROTEIN 1 (DCP1), associates to mRNA processing bodies (P-bodies), and regulates their assembly upon salt stress. The finding that spi mutants exhibit salt hypersensitivity suggests that the local function of SPI at P-bodies is of biological relevance. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed qualitative differences in the salt stress-regulated transcriptional response of Col-0 and spi. We show that SPI regulates the salt stress-dependent post-transcriptional stabilization, cytoplasmic agglomeration, and localization to P-bodies of a subset of salt stress-regulated mRNAs. Finally, we show that the PH-BEACH domains of SPI and its human homolog FAN (Factor Associated with Neutral sphingomyelinase activation) interact with DCP1 isoforms from plants, mammals, and yeast, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of an association of BDCPs and P-bodies. PMID:26133670

  15. The arginine repressor is essential for plasmid-stabilizing site-specific recombination at the ColE1 cer locus.

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, C J; Szatmari, G; Stewart, G; Smith, M C; Sherratt, D J

    1988-01-01

    The heritable stability in Escherichia coli of the multicopy plasmid ColE1 and its natural relatives requires that the plasmids be maintained in the monomeric state. Plasmid multimers, that arise through recA-dependent homologous recombination, are normally converted to monomers by a site-specific recombination system that acts at a specific plasmid site (cer in ColE1). No plasmid functions that act at this site have been identified. In contrast, two unlinked E.coli genes that encode functions required for cer-mediated site-specific recombination have been identified. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of one such gene (xerA) and show it to be identical to the gene encoding the repressor of the arginine biosynthetic genes (argR). The argR protein binds to cer DNA both in vivo and in vitro in the presence of arginine. We believe this binding is required to generate a higher order protein-DNA complex within the recombinational synapse. The argR gene of Bacillus subtilis complements an E.coli argR deficiency for cer-mediated recombination despite the two proteins having only 27% amino acid identity. Images PMID:3149585

  16. The BEACH Domain Protein SPIRRIG Is Essential for Arabidopsis Salt Stress Tolerance and Functions as a Regulator of Transcript Stabilization and Localization.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Alexandra; Bräutigam, Andrea; Jakoby, Marc; Hülskamp, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Members of the highly conserved class of BEACH domain containing proteins (BDCPs) have been established as broad facilitators of protein-protein interactions and membrane dynamics in the context of human diseases like albinism, bleeding diathesis, impaired cellular immunity, cancer predisposition, and neurological dysfunctions. Also, the Arabidopsis thaliana BDCP SPIRRIG (SPI) is important for membrane integrity, as spi mutants exhibit split vacuoles. In this work, we report a novel molecular function of the BDCP SPI in ribonucleoprotein particle formation. We show that SPI interacts with the P-body core component DECAPPING PROTEIN 1 (DCP1), associates to mRNA processing bodies (P-bodies), and regulates their assembly upon salt stress. The finding that spi mutants exhibit salt hypersensitivity suggests that the local function of SPI at P-bodies is of biological relevance. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed qualitative differences in the salt stress-regulated transcriptional response of Col-0 and spi. We show that SPI regulates the salt stress-dependent post-transcriptional stabilization, cytoplasmic agglomeration, and localization to P-bodies of a subset of salt stress-regulated mRNAs. Finally, we show that the PH-BEACH domains of SPI and its human homolog FAN (Factor Associated with Neutral sphingomyelinase activation) interact with DCP1 isoforms from plants, mammals, and yeast, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of an association of BDCPs and P-bodies. PMID:26133670

  17. Essential tremor.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Essential tremor, including the juvenile and senile variations, may be a result of a disorder of the servomechanism that controls physiologic tremor. Hands and arms are affected most commonly, and the tremor can vary in amplitude as well as frequency. Long-term treatment with propranolol has been helpful for some patients, although older patients are less likely to benefit. Other drugs and behaviour modification therapy have been less successful. Surgical treatment is effective but should probably be reserved for severe cases. An effective instrument for measuring the subjective and objective aspects of the tremor is still needed, as is an effective long-term method of treatment. PMID:7018658

  18. Equipment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magnavox Government & Electronics Company originally used the NASTRAN program in the design stage of heavy aluminum fixtures for vibration testing. Program also used to compare the resonant frequencies of the circuitry to predict whether failures may occur because of high vibration levels. The company engineers can then make design alterations to improve the equipment's vibration resistance. Method allows Magnavox to insure reliability and reduce any possibility of vibration-caused failure in critical defense products they manufacture. Magnavox uses another COSMIC software package called GENOPTICS in the development of a Digital Optical Recorder, and also in research and development of other optical systems. This enables use of an optically recorded disc to store and retrieve digital data. It is reported that this program provides accurate results and that its use saved six man-months of time that would have been needed to develop a comparable software package.

  19. The RNA Binding Protein Tudor-SN Is Essential for Stress Tolerance and Stabilizes Levels of Stress-Responsive mRNAs Encoding Secreted Proteins in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    dit Frey, Nicolas Frei; Muller, Philippe; Jammes, Fabien; Kizis, Dimosthenis; Leung, Jeffrey; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe

    2010-01-01

    Tudor-SN (TSN) copurifies with the RNA-induced silencing complex in animal cells where, among other functions, it is thought to act on mRNA stability via the degradation of specific dsRNA templates. In plants, TSN has been identified biochemically as a cytoskeleton-associated RNA binding activity. In eukaryotes, it has recently been identified as a conserved primary target of programmed cell death–associated proteolysis. We have investigated the physiological role of TSN by isolating null mutations for two homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The double mutant tsn1 tsn2 displays only mild growth phenotypes under nonstress conditions, but germination, growth, and survival are severely affected under high salinity stress. Either TSN1 or TSN2 alone can complement the double mutant, indicating their functional redundancy. TSN accumulates heterogeneously in the cytosol and relocates transiently to a diffuse pattern in response to salt stress. Unexpectedly, stress-regulated mRNAs encoding secreted proteins are significantly enriched among the transcripts that are underrepresented in tsn1 tsn2. Our data also reveal that TSN is important for RNA stability of its targets. These findings show that TSN is essential for stress tolerance in plants and implicate TSN in new, potentially conserved mechanisms acting on mRNAs entering the secretory pathway. PMID:20484005

  20. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that it does not cause essential loads to become inoperative as a result of electrical power supply... electronic equipment must be supplied with power under the requirements of § 25.1355(c). (c) Radio...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that it does not cause essential loads to become inoperative as a result of electrical power supply... electronic equipment must be supplied with power under the requirements of § 25.1355(c). (c) Radio...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that it does not cause essential loads to become inoperative as a result of electrical power supply... electronic equipment must be supplied with power under the requirements of § 25.1355(c). (c) Radio...

  3. 14 CFR 135.179 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.179 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and which are essential for...

  4. 14 CFR 135.179 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.179 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and which are essential for...

  5. 14 CFR 398.4 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 398.4 Section 398.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.4 Equipment....

  6. Essential thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Jean B

    2007-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) characterized by a sustained elevation of platelet number with a tendency for thrombosis and hemorrhage. The prevalence in the general population is approximately 30/100,000. The median age at diagnosis is 65 to 70 years, but the disease may occur at any age. The female to male ratio is about 2:1. The clinical picture is dominated by a predisposition to vascular occlusive events (involving the cerebrovascular, coronary and peripheral circulation) and hemorrhages. Some patients with ET are asymptomatic, others may experience vasomotor (headaches, visual disturbances, lightheadedness, atypical chest pain, distal paresthesias, erythromelalgia), thrombotic, or hemorrhagic disturbances. Arterial and venous thromboses, as well as platelet-mediated transient occlusions of the microcirculation and bleeding, represent the main risks for ET patients. Thromboses of large arteries represent a major cause of mortality associated with ET or can induce severe neurological, cardiac or peripheral artery manifestations. Acute leukemia or myelodysplasia represent only rare and frequently later-onset events. The molecular pathogenesis of ET, which leads to the overproduction of mature blood cells, is similar to that found in other clonal MPDs such as chronic myeloid leukemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen. Polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen and ET are generally associated under the common denomination of Philadelphia (Ph)-negative MPDs. Despite the recent identification of the JAK2 V617F mutation in a subset of patients with Ph-negative MPDs, the detailed pathogenetic mechanism is still a matter of discussion. Therapeutic interventions in ET are limited to decisions concerning the introduction of anti-aggregation therapy and/or starting platelet cytoreduction. The therapeutic value of hydroxycarbamide and aspirin in high risk

  7. 14 CFR 91.1115 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... take off an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and that are essential for...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1115 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... take off an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and that are essential for...

  9. Schools Lack the Equipment to Carry out Essential Practical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2013

    2013-01-01

    SCORE is a collaboration of organisations that aim to improve science education in UK schools and colleges by supporting the development and implementation of effective education policy. Research commissioned by SCORE (Science Community Representing Education), a collaboration including the Association for Science Education (ASE), reports that…

  10. Maintenance program guidelines for programmatic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Division Directors at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are responsible for implementing a maintenance program for research equipment (also referred to as programmatic equipment) assigned to them. The program must allow maintenance to be accomplished in a manner that promotes operational safety, environmental protection and compliance, and cost effectiveness; that preserves the intended functions of the facilities and equipment; and that supports the programmatic mission of the Laboratory. Programmatic equipment -- such as accelerators, lasers, radiation detection equipment, and glove boxes -- is dedicated specifically to research. Installed equipment, by contrast, includes the mechanical and electrical systems installed as part of basic building construction, equipment essential to the normal functioning of the facility and its intended use. Examples of installed equipment are heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems; elevators; and communications systems. The LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (PUB-3111, Revision 4) requires that a maintenance program be prepared for programmatic equipment and defines the basic maintenance program elements. Such a program of regular, documented maintenance is vital to the safety and quality of research activities. As a part of that support, this document offers guidance to Laboratory organizations for developing their maintenance programs. It clarifies the maintenance requirements of the Operating and Assurance Program (OAP) and presents an approach that, while not the only possibility, can be expected to produce an effective maintenance program for research equipment belonging to the Laboratory`s organizations.

  11. Water-Using Equipment: Commercial and Industrial

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water is an important aspect of many facets in energy engineering. While the previous article detailed domestic related water-using equipment such as toilets and showerheads, this article focuses on various types of water-using equipment in commercial and industrial facilities, including commercial dishwashers and laundry, single-pass cooling equipment, boilers and steam generators, cooling towers, and landscape irrigation. Opportunities for water and energy conservation are explained, including both technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes. Water management planning and leak detection are also included as they are essential to a successful water management program.

  12. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  13. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  14. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ... Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local ...

  15. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  16. Selecting Microform Reading Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Melinda

    1983-01-01

    Cites sources of information concerning selection of microform reading equipment and provides step-by-step outline of selection process. Defining specific needs for which equipment is used, determining what equipment is being marketed, and examining and evaluating readers' design features in terms of practicability and aesthetics are discussed.…

  17. Anaesthesia equipment malfunction.

    PubMed

    Holley, H S; Carroll, J S

    1985-01-01

    Anaesthetic equipment was studied to determine whether the accuracy was improved and failure rate decreased by routine maintenance and calibration by a biomedical technician. Each piece was evaluated, and then repaired and rechecked at intervals by the same technician. Equipment failures were divided into three types: first, equipment that was completely nonfunctional; second, equipment that was functional but inaccurate; and third, equipment that was functional and accurate but needed minor repairs. The percentage of equipment failures in each group was compared on initial evaluation and after 6 months. Of the 311 pieces of equipment, 40% needed repair at the time of the initial survey; 80% was nonfunctional, and 18% was functional but inaccurate. After six months on a maintenance schedule, only 15% of the equipment needed repair, 3% was nonfunctional, and 6% was functional but inaccurate. The difference between the total percentage of equipment failure initially and after six months was statistically significant. After a regular maintenance, calibration, and checkout schedule by a biomedical technician was instituted, there was a significant improvement in the accuracy of the equipment and a reduction in the percentage of equipment needing repair. PMID:3970340

  18. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  19. 10 proven strategies for reducing equipment costs.

    PubMed

    Henley, Richard J; Zimmerman, Martin A

    2005-05-01

    It is essential to consider your organization's equipment acquisitions in light of your business strategy. In negotiating the financing, share your business objectives with a preferred list of financing sources that can be counted on to recommend alternatives in addition to quoting on the specified financing. PMID:15938353

  20. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  1. Electronic Equipment Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, R. L.; Jenkins, L. C.

    An assessment is made of the importance of thermal management in electronic equipment design, illustrating the ways in which CAD technology may be used to improve electronic equipment thermal management programs. Attention is given to the Electronic Equipment Thermal Management portion of the aircraft system-level Thermal Management Control (TMC) program. TMC establishes the process by which the airframe's environmental control system and the electronic equipment are integrated to optimize system reliability through life cycle cost minimization, by allocating available cooling capacity to system elements on the basis of derived benefits.

  2. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  3. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  4. Troubleshooting rotating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that equipment problems in a Peruvian refinery illustrate the process engineer's role as a troubleshooter. Examples show that rotating equipment problems can stem from mechanical or process factors and involve both inspection/maintenance specialists and process engineers.

  5. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  6. Equipment Operator 1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

  7. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  8. Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

  9. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  10. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  11. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  12. Selecting Library Furniture & Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media & Methods, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selecting school library furniture and equipment. Describes various models of computer workstations; reading tables and chairs; and shelving. Sidebar lists names and addresses of library furniture manufactures and distributors. (AEF)

  13. Tracking equipment on hire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

  14. Medical equipment management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article. PMID:16796335

  15. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  16. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  17. Wellhead equipment support

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.P.

    1987-03-24

    A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

  18. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  19. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890

  20. Bicycle safety equipment.

    PubMed

    Ellis, T H; Streight, D; Mellion, M B

    1994-01-01

    It is important for the physician to understand bicycle safety equipment in order to prevent and treat bicycle-related injuries effectively. The physician should understand (1) the basic design and function of bicycles, (2) the relationship of improper bicycle fit to injuries, (3) the potential of the various forms of serious riding and racing for injury, and (4) bicycle safety equipment and the standards involved in its fit, manufacture, and care. A decision to use bicycle safety equipment is a decision to control the risk of injury. Physicians should accept a share of the responsibility for decreasing bicycling-related injuries, because they are viewed by the public as credible sources of information regarding the prevention of accidents and injuries. PMID:8111858

  1. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  2. SILEX Beacon equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

    1990-07-01

    The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

  3. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  4. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are doctors who identify and treat diseases of ... an educational service of the American Academy of Neurology. It is based on an assessment of current ...

  5. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  6. Artifacts and essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic because of its provenance), but ordinary artifacts likewise receive value from their history (e.g., a worn and tattered blanket may have special value if it was one's childhood possession). Moreover, in some cases, object history may be thought to have causal effects on individual artifacts, much as an animal essence has causal effects. I review empirical support for these claims and consider the implications for both artifact concepts and essentialism. This perspective suggests that artifact concepts cannot be contained in a theoretical framework that focuses exclusively on similarity or even function. Furthermore, although there are significant differences between essentialism of natural kinds and essentialism of artifact individuals, the commonalities suggest that psychological essentialism may not derive from folk biology but instead may reflect more domain-general perspectives on the world. PMID:23976903

  7. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

  8. Adaptive Equipment from Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Erna, O'Brian, Maryann

    1984-01-01

    The article presents four readily accessible inexpensive equipment designs to promote effective remedial body positioning for children with neuromotor or developmental delays. Assembly instructions are offered for the side lyer, the side sitter, the lab board, and the floor table. (CL)

  9. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  10. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  11. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  12. Engineer Equipment Chief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

  13. The EQUIP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, John C.; Potter, Granville Bud; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Devlin, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. This article recaps some key points about EQUIP, a Positive Peer Culture (PPC)-based cognitive behavioral intervention program for behaviorally at-risk youth, and notes how the program has…

  14. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  15. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  16. Remote maintenance lessons learned'' on prototypical reprocessing equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Schrock, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Hardware representative of essentially every major equipment item necessary for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel has been installed and tested for remote maintainability. This testing took place in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) within the Fuel Recycle Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The reprocessing equipment tested included a Disassembly System, a Shear System, a Dissolver System, an Automated Sampler System, removable Equipment Racks on which various chemical process equipment items were mounted, and an advanced servomanipulator (ASM). These equipment items were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the remote handling systems that are available within the cold mock-up area. This paper summarizes the lessons learned'' as a result of the numerous maintenance activities associated with each of these equipment items. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 40 CFR 1068.410 - How must I select and prepare my engines/equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Select engines/equipment as described in the test order. If you are unable to select test engines... between the time you receive the test order and the time you finish selecting test engines/equipment. (2... an adjustment with in-use engines/equipment. (f) Stabilizing emission levels. (1) Before you...

  18. Maintaining gas cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    An often overlooked key to satisfactory operation and longevity of any mechanical device is proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer`s written instructions. Absorption chillers, although they use a different technology than the more familiar vapor compression cycle to produce chilled water, operate successfully in a variety of applications if operated and maintained properly. Maintenance procedures may be more frequent than those required for vapor compression chillers, but they are also typically less complex. The goal of this article is to describe the basic operation of an absorption chiller to provide an understanding of the relatively simple tasks required to keep the machine operating at maximum efficiency for its design life and beyond. A good starting point is definitions. Gas cooling equipment is generally defined as alternative energy, non-electric cooling products. This includes absorption chillers, engine-drive chillers and packaged desiccant units, among others. Natural gas combustion drives the equipment.

  19. Orbiter based construction equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Many orbiter based activities need equipment to hold a payload steady while it is being worked on. This work may be construction, updating, repair, services, check out, or refueling operations in preparation for return to Earth. The Handling and Positioning Aid (HPA) is intended for use as general purpose equipment. The HPA provides a wide choice of work station positions, both immediately above the orbiter cargo bay and beyond. It can act in a primary docking role and, if required, can assist actively in the berthing process. From an analysis of ten reference missions, it was determined that two types of HPA mobility are needed; a tilt table, which simply swings out of the cargo bay, pivoting about an athwartships y axis, and an articulated arm. Illustration of the aid are provided.

  20. Equipment Failure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Tennessee Eastman uses NASTRAN to minimize lost production by pinpointing the causes of equipment failures and preventing recurrences. An example of the program's utility involves a large centrifugal fan which developed cracks during start-ups and shutdowns. This information prompted redesign of the fan. Tennessee Eastman has made extensive use of NASTRAN, both as failure analysis tool and as an aid in redesigning production hardware.

  1. HVAC equipment and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Cerami, V.J.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to define how the selection of HVAC equipment and layout impact the achievable noise criteria (NC) levels in occupied spaces. It will focus on the design of HVAC systems that employ floor-by-floor air handling/air conditioning units and their acoustical ramifications. This is of increasing importance since tenants require incorporation of noise limits in lease agreements.

  2. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  3. 47 CFR 22.863 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency stability. 22.863 Section 22.863...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.863 Frequency stability. The frequency stability of equipment used under this subpart shall be sufficient to ensure that,...

  4. 47 CFR 22.863 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency stability. 22.863 Section 22.863...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.863 Frequency stability. The frequency stability of equipment used under this subpart shall be sufficient to ensure that,...

  5. 47 CFR 22.863 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency stability. 22.863 Section 22.863...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.863 Frequency stability. The frequency stability of equipment used under this subpart shall be sufficient to ensure that,...

  6. 47 CFR 22.863 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency stability. 22.863 Section 22.863...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.863 Frequency stability. The frequency stability of equipment used under this subpart shall be sufficient to ensure that,...

  7. 47 CFR 22.863 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency stability. 22.863 Section 22.863...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.863 Frequency stability. The frequency stability of equipment used under this subpart shall be sufficient to ensure that,...

  8. Physical Education: Essential Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken, Ed.; Hardman, Ken, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is aimed primarily at under and postgraduate students pursuing entire programmes or discrete courses and modules in the broad area of physical education and sport in schools. It consists of a collection of what is considered to be essential readings in the sense that they are contributions from eminent authors on a breadth of salient…

  9. Essentials of Professional Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Terry M.; Niles, Jerry A.

    1987-01-01

    The essentials needed for developing teaching novices into good teachers are autonomy, collaboration, and time. School improvement plans should include an understanding of the conditions that foster the professional growth of teachers. Provides a table and extensive list of references. (MD)

  10. Benign Essential Blepharospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation 637 North 7th Street Suite 102 P.O. ... 832-0788 Fax: 409-832-0890 Dystonia Medical Research Foundation 1 East Wacker Drive Suite 2810 Chicago, IL ...

  11. 12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Stabilized Zeeman split laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to stabilize the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The stability of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.

  13. Getting Equipped and Staying Equipped, Part 2: Finding the Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Gregory; Orwig, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Suggests how school libraries can fund computer equipment; gain assistance from high-tech businesses; develop business partnerships and foundations; lease equipment; accept equipment donations; fund raise; build money into the budget; and communicate school needs with budget voters. Sidebars include leasing advice; resources for parent-teacher…

  14. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

  15. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Miscellaneous Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes six units of instruction covering the small, specialized equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance…

  16. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  17. Pharmacotherapy of Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Hedera, Peter; Cibulčík, František; Davis, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This has limited the development of effective pharmacotherapy. The current therapeutic armamentaria for ET represent the product of careful clinical observation rather than targeted molecular modeling. Here we review their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, dosing, and adverse effect profiles and propose a treatment algorithm. We also discuss the concept of medically refractory tremor, as therapeutic trials should be limited unless invasive therapy is contraindicated or not desired by patients. PMID:24385718

  18. Pharmacotherapy of essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Hedera, Peter; Cibulčík, František; Davis, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This has limited the development of effective pharmacotherapy. The current therapeutic armamentaria for ET represent the product of careful clinical observation rather than targeted molecular modeling. Here we review their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, dosing, and adverse effect profiles and propose a treatment algorithm. We also discuss the concept of medically refractory tremor, as therapeutic trials should be limited unless invasive therapy is contraindicated or not desired by patients. PMID:24385718

  19. Causal essentialism in kinds.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Taylor, Eric G; Kato, Daniel; Marsh, Jessecae K; Bloom, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The current study examines causal essentialism, derived from psychological essentialism of concepts. We examine whether people believe that members of a category share some underlying essence that is both necessary and sufficient for category membership and that also causes surface features. The main claim is that causal essentialism is restricted to categories that correspond to our intuitive notions of existing kinds and hence is more attenuated for categories that are based on arbitrary criteria. Experiments 1 and 3 found that people overtly endorse causal essences in nonarbitrary kinds but are less likely to do so for arbitrary categories. Experiments 2 and 4 found that people were more willing to generalize a member's known causal relations (or lack thereof) when dealing with a kind than when dealing with an arbitrary category. These differences between kinds and arbitrary categories were found across various domains-not only for categories of living things, but also for artefacts. These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds. PMID:23098315

  20. Development of the flatness standard equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengxia

    2012-10-01

    Flatness is an important parameter of independent transmission in geometric metrology. The flatness standard is by interferometer and optical flats to implement transmission. Main parts of the flatness standard equipment are composed of a laser point diffraction interference system, one phase shifts system and one image acquisition system. The equipment is three PZTs to drive the Φ 300mm reference optical flat to move, only one CCD to adjust attitudes of the optical flats by reflecting spots and capture a series of interference pictures. The whole equipment is placed on a one 1200mm×800mm optical platform, and the optical platform is placed on a Φ1800mm vibration-free base. The optical system of the flatness standard equipment is very simple, which only needs a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser and a space filter to construct a point source, one reflecting mirror, one beam splitter, one Φ 300mm transparent collimating system, one needle-hole stop, one CCD and its lens.

  1. Guidelines for Purchasing Playground Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Notes that the purchase of playground equipment is one of the most important decisions center directors make. Offers advice from a number of playground equipment manufacturers that suggests directors consider activities, safety, construction, installation, and warranty when purchasing equipment. Also suggests interviewing other directors about…

  2. Adapting Equipment for Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, Sue

    1992-01-01

    All students benefit from physical education, but equipment used in mainstream programs often is not appropriate for students with special needs. Equipment adaptation is necessary to improve students' opportunities for successful participation in class. The article describes how to create and finance adapted equipment and offers a resource list.…

  3. Safety Equipment in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Willard A.S.

    1964-01-01

    Findings of two recent surveys on safety equipment in laboratory facilities are presented. The first survey was a pilot study of emergency shower and eye wash equipment. This study was followed by a more comprehensive random survey of safety equipment in 2,820 labs. Among other findings, the surveys indicate that many plants are underequipped, or…

  4. Decision Analysis for Equipment Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilliers, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Equipment selection during process design is a critical aspect of chemical engineering and requires engineering judgment and subjective analysis. When educating chemical engineering students in the selection of proprietary equipment during design, the focus is often on the types of equipment available and their operating characteristics. The…

  5. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-07-01

    of Commercial Grade Digital Equipment for Nuclear Safety Applications, and the supplemental guidance of EPRI TR-107339, Evaluating Commercial Digital Equipment for High Integrity Applications. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has reviewed some of the qualification activities and reports and issued a number of Safety Evaluation Reports (SERs). Although some additional work may be required to support specific applications, the generic qualification activities and NRC reviews have provided significant clarification and further stabilized the regulatory environment for use of digital equipment in safety-related applications. (authors)

  6. Orbital construction support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements. The scenarios were used to perform a functional analysis, which resulted in the definition of 100 distinct SPS elements. These elements are the components, parts, subsystems, or assemblies upon which construction activities take place. The major SPS elements for each configuration are shown. For those elements, 300 functional requirements were identified in seven generic processes. Cumulatively, these processes encompass all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. Individually each process is defined such that it includes a specific type of activity. Each SPS element may involve activities relating to any or all of the generic processes. The processes are listed, and examples of the requirements defined for a typical element are given.

  7. Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

  8. Biomedical equipment and medical services in India.

    PubMed

    Sahay, K B; Saxena, R K

    Varieties of Biomedical Equipment (BME) are now used for quick diagnosis, flawless surgery and therapeutics etc. Use of a malfunctioning BME could result in faulty diagnosis and wrong treatment and can lead to damaging or even devastating aftermath. Modern Biomedical Equipments inevitably employ highly sophisticated technology and use complex systems and instrumentation for best results. To the best of our knowledge the medical education in India does not impart any knowledge on the theory and design of BME and it is perhaps not possible also. Hence there is need for a permanent mechanism which can maintain and repair the biomedical equipments routinely before use and this can be done only with the help of qualified Clinical Engineers. Thus there is a genuine need for well organized cadre of Clinical Engineers who would be persons with engineering background with specialization in medical instrumentation. These Clinical engineers should be made responsible for the maintenance and proper functioning of BME. Every hospital or group of hospitals in the advanced countries has a clinical engineering unit that takes care of the biomedical equipments and systems in the hospital by undertaking routine and preventive maintenance, regular calibration of equipments and their timely repairs. Clinical engineers should be thus made an essential part of modern health care system and services. Unfortunately such facilities and mechanism do not exist in India. To make BME maintenance efficient and flawless in India, study suggests following measures and remedies: (i) design and development of comprehensive computerized database for BME (ii) cadre of Clinical engineers (iii) online maintenance facility and (iv) farsighted managerial skill to maximize accuracy, functioning and cost effectiveness. PMID:10166967

  9. Essential biodiversity variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  10. TQM: the essential concepts.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality. PMID:9697367

  11. Essential Variational Poisson Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.

    2012-08-01

    In our recent paper "The variational Poisson cohomology" (2011) we computed the dimension of the variational Poisson cohomology {{{H}^bullet_K({V})}} for any quasiconstant coefficient ℓ × ℓ matrix differential operator K of order N with invertible leading coefficient, provided that {{{V}}} is a normal algebra of differential functions over a linearly closed differential field. In the present paper we show that, for K skewadjoint, the {{{Z}}} -graded Lie superalgebra {{{H}^bullet_K({V})}} is isomorphic to the finite dimensional Lie superalgebra {{widetilde{H}(Nell,S)}} . We also prove that the subalgebra of "essential" variational Poisson cohomology, consisting of classes vanishing on the Casimirs of K, is zero. This vanishing result has applications to the theory of bi-Hamiltonian structures and their deformations. At the end of the paper we consider also the translation invariant case.

  12. Equipping surgeons as educators.

    PubMed

    Fry, Heather

    2009-03-01

    There is a developing interest in equipping surgeons as educators but a perceived lack of knowledge and evidence about how to do this effectively, or how to reward and recognize educational expertise within the surgical career structure. A brief consideration of the surgical educator role is offered. The findings and conclusions of a meta-analysis of the influence of faculty development in medical education are summarized. Various sources are drawn on to present an overview of master's level provision in medical education and a master's in surgical education is outlined. Issues relating to developing suitable curricula, educational accreditation, recognition, reward and career structure are raised and some UK approaches to these areas summarized. Evidence indicates the importance of context in training medical educators, the value of experiential learning, training that is spread over time and training that mixes theory, practice and reflection. A schema for recognizing educational expertise, created as an outcome of analysis of the evidence and current provision, is presented. The effect of a possible change from educational training being voluntary to the introduction of a compulsory regime is raised as an area requiring further discussion and evidence collection. Mechanisms by which to acknowledge, reward and recognize education expertise in surgeons do not generally exist; it is suggested their development would be timely. PMID:19317787

  13. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, D. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Schneider, S. L.

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8 mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described.

  14. VIEW OF MICROMACHINING, HIGH PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED TO CUSTOM MAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MICRO-MACHINING, HIGH PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED TO CUSTOM MAKE SMALL PARTS. LUMPS OF CLAY; SHOWN IN THE PHOTOGRAPH, WERE USED TO STABILIZE PARTS BEING MACHINED. (11/1/87) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  16. Information technology equipment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  17. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Are the essential lysines essential?

    PubMed

    Tian, G C; Yan, H G; Jiang, R T; Kishi, F; Nakazawa, A; Tsai, M D

    1990-05-01

    Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have probed the structural and functional roles of lysine-21 and lysine-27 of adenylate kinase (AK) from chicken muscle expressed in Escherichia coli. The two residues were chosen since according to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) model [Mildvan, A. S., & Fry, D. C. (1987) Adv. Enzymol. 58, 241-313], they are located near the alpha- and the gamma-phosphates, respectively, of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the AK-MgATP complex. In addition, a lysine residue (Lys-21 in the case of AK) along with a glycine-rich loop is considered "essential" in the catalysis of kinases and other nucleotide binding proteins. The Lys-27 to methionine (K27M) mutant showed only slight increases in kcat and Km, but a substantial increase (1.8 kcal/mol) in the free energy of unfolding, relative to the WT AK. For proper interpretation of the steady-state kinetic data, viscosity-dependent kinetics was used to show that the chemical step is partially rate-limiting in the catalysis of AK. Computer modeling suggested that the folded form of K27M could gain stability (relative to the wild type) via hydrophobic interactions of Met-27 with Val-179 and Phe-183 and/or formation of a charge-transfer complex between Met-27 and Phe-183. The latter was supported by an upfield shift of the methyl protons of Met-27 in 1H NMR. Other than this, the 1H NMR spectrum of K27M is very similar to that of WT, suggesting little perturbation in the global or even local conformations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2161682

  18. Assimilation is Essential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    Norman Bowen's 1922 paper, `The behavior of inclusions in igneous magmas', and its abridged version in The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks, are the classic papers on reaction between silicate melt and minerals. Bowen showed that dissolution of minerals in magma above its liquidus temperature is limited to a few percent of the melt mass, because the heat of fusion of silicates is much larger than the heat capacity of silicate melt. Thus, he proposed that for extensive reaction between melt and rock, there must be a link between dissolution of one phase and crystallization of another. Bowen's reasoning should be the starting point for all studies of igneous open systems. Nonetheless, Bowen reached some controversial conclusions. He wrote, `It is doubtful whether the presence of foreign matter is ever essential to the production of any particular type of differentiate'. This was during debate over the `calc-alkaline trend', with high Mg/(Mg+Fe), or Mg#, over a range of silica contents. Bowen reasoned that the calc-alkaline trend started with basalt, a primary melt, and ended with granite, the end-product of fractional crystallization, so the entire trend must be due to fractional crystallization. However, Clarence Fenner thought that fractional crystallization of basalt produced decreasing Mg# at nearly constant silica, a `tholeiitic trend'. For Fenner, the debate wasn't aboutgranite, but about intermediate, calc-alkaline andesites, (i.e., high Mg# andesite, 54 wt% < SiO2 < 63 wt%, Mg# > 0.45). This debate is still not resolved, but there are cases in which reaction of basaltic melt with granitic rock was essential in producing high Mg# andesites. Similarly, some high Mg# andesites arise via magma mixing, a kind of `incorporation of foreign matter'. Some high Mg# andesites are partial melts of peridotite, and some arise via melt-rock reaction in the mantle. The `andesite problem' has extra importance because continental crust has a high Mg# andesite composition. Bowen

  19. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  20. VIEW OF ULTRASONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ULTRA-SONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT NON-DESTRUCTIVELY TESTS WEAPONS COMPONENTS FOR FLAWS AND CRACKS. (9/11/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 141. ARAIII Equipment location plan. Includes list of equipment and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. ARA-III Equipment location plan. Includes list of equipment and location in reactor, control, and other buildings. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-101-U-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0101-65-013-192508. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Material stabilization characterization management plan

    SciTech Connect

    GIBSON, M.W.

    1999-08-31

    This document presents overall direction for characterization needs during stabilization of SNM at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Technical issues for needed data and equipment are identified. Information on material categories and links to vulnerabilities are given. Comparison data on the material categories is discussed to assist in assessing the relative risks and desired processing priority.

  3. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-11-08

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C.

  4. Comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Neven; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-08-01

    Throughout the medical equipment life cycle, preventive maintenance is considered one of the most important stages that should be managed properly. However, the need for better management and control by giving a reasonable prioritization for preventive maintenance becomes essential. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). The quality function deployment is proposed in order to identify the most important criteria that could impact preventive maintenance priority decision; meanwhile the role of the fuzzy logic is to generate a priority index of the list of equipment considering those criteria. The model validation was carried out on 140 pieces of medical equipment belonging to two hospitals. In application, we propose to classify the priority index into five classes. The results indicate that the strong correlation existence between risk-based criteria and preventive maintenance priority decision. PMID:26736488

  5. Homocysteine and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Passalacqua, Walter; Araya, Julia; Orellana, Myriam; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2003-12-01

    The authors examine the available clinical and experimental data supporting the view that homocysteine, an alternative risk factor of cardiovascular disease, may play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. The mechanism of this disease has not been elucidated, but it may be related to impairment of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Therefore, the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction could contribute to alterations of the endothelium-dependent vasomotor regulation. Elevated homocysteinemia diminishes the vasodilation by nitric oxide, increases oxidative stress, stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and alters the elastic properties of the vascular wall. Thus, homocysteine contributes to elevate the blood pressure. Also it is known that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine could lead to oxidant injury to the endothelium. The correction of elevated homocysteinemia by administration of vitamins B12 and B6 plus folic acid, could be a useful adjuvant therapy of hypertension. However, further controlled randomized trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and tolerability of these potentially therapeutic agents. PMID:14615465

  6. Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient

    PubMed Central

    SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

  7. Slope stability and stabilization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.

  8. An overview of non-road equipment emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Kaishan; Di, Baofeng; Hu, Baomei

    2016-05-01

    As the vehicle population has dramatically increased in China in the past two decades, vehicle emissions have become one of the major sources to air pollution across the entire country, especially for the metropolitan cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Most of the non-road equipment are diesel-fueled and have been proved to be a key source for NOx and PM emissions, contributing significantly to the formation of haze/smog. Therefore, an accurate estimation of emission inventory from non-road equipment is essential for air quality improvement policy making, which mainly depends on the data availability of equipment population, activity, and emissions factor. Compared to on-road vehicles, less studies regarding emissions characterization have been conducted and investigated for non-road mobile sources in China. Thus, in order to identify the data gaps and future research needs, the objective of this study is to review the current status of research in non-road mobile emissions. Five types of non-road equipment were addressed in this study, including agricultural equipment, industrial equipment, river/ocean-going vessels, locomotives, and commercial airplanes, with a focus on the former two. The equipment are further classified mainly based on national standards and data availability to account for fuel type, job duties and others. This investigation has found that the research regarding emissions from non-road equipment is still at its early stage and there is a huge data gap for both activity and emissions factors. For most of the study, data used for emission inventory estimation were based on either literature with similar equipment or as-developed emissions models such as NONROAD or CORPERT. The representativeness of these data to the localities was not much discussed in those studies, which might have weakened the accuracy of the estimated emission inventory. For future study, real-world in-use measurements of activities and emissions for the non-road equipment

  9. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  10. Available Equipment in School Foodservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay

    This report provides data on the National Food Service Management Institute's multi-year research project that identified type, style, age, and condition of available food service equipment in K-12 schools nationwide. The study found that smaller schools, serving less than 400 lunches per day, had kitchens equipped with ranges, small…

  11. Food Service Equipment and Appurtenances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Equipment design specifications are presented relating to tables of all kinds, counters, sinks and drainboards, bins, shelves, drawers, hoods and similar kitchen appurtenances, not including baking, roasting, toasting, broiling or frying equipment, food preparation machinery such as slicers, choppers, and cutters, mixers and grinders, steam…

  12. Heavy Equipment Mechanic. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist heavy equipment instructors in teaching the latest concepts and functions of heavy equipment. It includes 7 sections and 27 instructional units. Sections (and units) are: orientation (shop safety and first aid, hand tools and miscellaneous tools, measuring, basic rigging and hoisting), engines (basic engine…

  13. ISAARE: Information System for Adaptive, Assistive, and Recreational Equipment: Volume I: Existence; Volume II, Communication; Volume V, Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melichar, Joseph F.

    Described as part of the Information System for Adaptive, Assistive and Recreational Equipment are equipment items for physically handicapped pupils in the functional areas of existence, equipment and adaptation. Reviewed in the existence section are such items as assistive food containers and container stabilizers, feeder accessories, bowel and…

  14. Aeration equipment for small depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  15. Information technology equipment cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  16. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    1997-09-29

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive.

  17. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equipped with means for the prevention or removal of ice on windshields, wings, empennage, propellers, and... otherwise determining the formation of ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint... functioning deicing anti-icing equipment protecting each propeller, windshield, wing, stabilizing or...

  18. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipped with means for the prevention or removal of ice on windshields, wings, empennage, propellers, and... otherwise determining the formation of ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint... functioning deicing anti-icing equipment protecting each propeller, windshield, wing, stabilizing or...

  19. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equipped with means for the prevention or removal of ice on windshields, wings, empennage, propellers, and... otherwise determining the formation of ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint... functioning deicing anti-icing equipment protecting each propeller, windshield, wing, stabilizing or...

  20. Essential Medicines: An Indian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; Bhatia, Vikas; Padhy, Biswa Mohan; Hota, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    The concept of defining essential medicines and establishing a list of them was aimed to improve the availability of affordable medicines for the world's poor. Access to essential medicines is a major determinant of health outcomes. Several countries have made substantial progress towards increasing access to essential medicines, but access to essential medicines in developing countries like India is not adequate. In this review we have tried to present the Indian scenario in respect to availability and accessibility of essential medicines over last one decade. To enhance the credibility of Indian healthcare system, procurement and delivery systems of essential medicines have to be strengthened through government commitment, careful selection, adequate public sector financing, efficient distribution systems, control on taxes and duties, and inculcating a culture of rational use of medicines in current and future prescribers. PMID:26435594

  1. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  2. Essential Medicines: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Bhatia, Vikas; Padhy, Biswa Mohan; Hota, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    The concept of defining essential medicines and establishing a list of them was aimed to improve the availability of affordable medicines for the world's poor. Access to essential medicines is a major determinant of health outcomes. Several countries have made substantial progress towards increasing access to essential medicines, but access to essential medicines in developing countries like India is not adequate. In this review we have tried to present the Indian scenario in respect to availability and accessibility of essential medicines over last one decade. To enhance the credibility of Indian healthcare system, procurement and delivery systems of essential medicines have to be strengthened through government commitment, careful selection, adequate public sector financing, efficient distribution systems, control on taxes and duties, and inculcating a culture of rational use of medicines in current and future prescribers. PMID:26435594

  3. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

  4. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the heavy equipment mechanic program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  5. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  6. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  7. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  8. Postoutbreak disinfection of mobile equipment.

    PubMed

    Alphin, R L; Ciaverelli, C D; Hougentogler, D P; Johnson, K J; Rankin, M K; Benson, E R

    2010-03-01

    Current control strategies for avian influenza virus, exotic Newcastle disease, and other highly contagious poultry diseases include surveillance, quarantine, depopulation, disposal, and decontamination. Skid steer loaders and other mobile equipment are extensively used during depopulation and disposal. Movement of contaminated equipment has been implicated in the spread of disease in previous outbreaks. One approach to equipment decontamination is to power wash the equipment, treat with a liquid disinfectant, change any removable filters, and let it sit idle for several days. In this project, multiple disinfectant strategies were individually evaluated for their effectiveness at inactivating Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on mechanical equipment seeded with the virus. A small gasoline engine was used to simulate typical mechanical equipment. A high titer of LaSota strain, NDV was applied and dried onto a series of metal coupons. The coupons were then placed on both interior and exterior surfaces of the engine. Liquid disinfectants that had been effective in the laboratory were not as effective at disinfecting the engine under field conditions. Indirect thermal fog showed a decrease in overall virus titer or strength. Direct thermal fog was more effective than liquid spray application or indirect thermal fog application. PMID:20521731

  9. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway. PMID:25233181

  10. Equipment Efficiency for Healthy School Meals. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Food Service Management Inst., University, MS.

    A satellite seminar on large-scale food production equipment discusses ways child nutrition personnel can maximize use of existing equipment, considers research related to use of existing equipment, explains plan reviews for equipment selection and purchase, and explores new equipment options. Examples illustrate use of planning or modernizing…

  11. 14 CFR 25.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 25.1415 Section 25.1415... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Ditching equipment used in airplanes to be certificated for ditching under § 25.801, and required by...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 27.1415 Section 27.1415... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule in this chapter must meet the...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 23.1415 Section 23.1415... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 23.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule in...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 29.1415 Section 29.1415... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule of this chapter must meet...

  15. 21 CFR 226.30 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 226.30 Section 226.30 Food and Drugs... Facilities and Equipment § 226.30 Equipment. Equipment used for the manufacture, processing, packaging, bulk... facilitate maintenance and operation for its intended purpose. The equipment shall: (a) Be so...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1022... identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of the equipment does not require physical tagging of the equipment. For example, the...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1003...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1003...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification...

  19. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment identification. 65.103... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of...

  20. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment identification. 65.103 Section 65.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1022... identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of the equipment does not require physical tagging of the equipment. For example, the...

  2. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment identification. 65.103... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1022 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1022... identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of the equipment does not require physical tagging of the equipment. For example, the...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1003...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification...

  5. 40 CFR 65.103 - Equipment identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment identification. 65.103... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.103 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of...

  6. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  7. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  8. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  9. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  10. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...