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Sample records for stage ia1 squamous

  1. Multifocal FIGO Stage IA1 Squamous Carcinoma of the Cervix: Criteria for Identification, Staging, and its Good Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Day, Elizabeth; Duffy, Siobhan; Bryson, Gareth; Syed, Sheeba; Shanbhag, Smruta; Burton, Kevin; Lindsay, Rhona; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Millan, David

    2016-09-01

    Multifocal squamous cervical carcinomas account for up to 25% of IA1 tumors identified on excisional biopsy, yet there are no uniformly accepted histopathologic criteria for defining and staging these lesions. Here, we use a strict case definition and meticulous specimen processing from colposcopist to pathologist to identify and follow-up 25 cases of multifocal IA1 cervical squamous carcinomas identified in excisional biopsies. We stage these tumors using the dimensions of the largest focus and a minimum of 2 mm between each foci to define multifocality. The cases are followed up for a median of 7 yr with no episodes of tumor recurrence or metastasis. We also show that the prevalence of residual preinvasive (20%) and invasive disease (5%) on repeat excision/surgery are comparable to data available for unifocal IA1 cases. Our study supports the hypothesis that multifocal lesions should be staged according to largest individual focus of invasion and we emphasize the importance of meticulous specimen handling to appropriately identify multifocal tumors. In addition, our analysis suggests that outcomes are comparable to unifocal lesions and supports the hypothesis that they may be managed in a similar manner. PMID:26863478

  2. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  5. Entolimod in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-10

    Mucositis; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  6. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-30

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  7. Evaluation of preoperative staging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin-Na; He, Long-Jun; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Xin-Xin; Shan, Hong-Bo; Luo, Guang-Yu; Li, Yin; Lin, Shi-Yong; Wang, Guo-Bao; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known for its rapid progression and poor outcomes. China has the highest incidence and mortality in the world. Diagnoses made at early stages and accurate staging are associated with better outcomes, all of which can play a significant role in the selection of treatment protocols. ESCC is staged according to the widely accepted TNM system. Common imaging modalities used in staging ESCC before treatment include endoscopy, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endoscopic ultrasound is useful for staging tumor depth and nodal status. Narrow band imaging is valuable for early stage disease assessment. CT and PET provide additional valuable information regarding node and metastasis staging. The ability of MRI to delineate ESCC is continuously being improved and adds information regarding locoregional status to routine examinations. PMID:27547011

  8. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Radiation Therapy With Cisplatin, Docetaxel, or Cetuximab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  10. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  11. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  12. A Novel Inflammation-Based Stage (I Stage) in Patients with Resectable Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammation plays a key role in cancer. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based stage, named I stage, for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in the current study. The I stage was calculated as follows: patients with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (>10 mg/L), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (>3.5), and platelet-count-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (>150) were defined as I3. Patients with two, one, or no abnormal value were defined as I2, I1, or I0, respectively. The prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. There were 112 patients for I0, 97 patients for I1, 66 patients for I2, and 48 patients for I3, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with I0, I1, I2, and I3 was 50.0%, 30.9%, 18.2%, and 8.3%, respectively (I0 versus I1, P = 0.002; I1 versus I2, P = 0.012; I2 versus I3, P = 0.020). Multivariate analyses revealed that I stage was an independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable ESCC (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The inflammation-based stage (I stage) is a novel and useful predictive factor for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC.

  13. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  14. Value of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To review outcome and toxicity of Stage IVa and IVb head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with concomitant chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) according to a hybrid fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 42 patients with Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were irradiated according to a hybrid fractionation schedule consisting of 20 fractions of 2 Gy (once daily), followed by 20 fractions of 1.6 Gy (twice daily), to a total dose of 72 Gy. Chemotherapy (cisplatinum, 100mg/m{sup 2}) was administered at the start of Weeks 1 and 4. Treatment outcome and toxicity were retrospectively compared with a previous patient group (n = 55), treated according to the same schedule, but without intensity modulation. Results: Locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival were 81% and 56% after 2 years, respectively. In comparison with the previous cohort, no significant differences were observed regarding either LRC (66%, p = 0.38) or overall survival (73%, p = 0.29). No Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was reported in the IMRT group, either acute or chronic. The use of IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of late Grade 2 or 3 xerostomia (52.9% vs. 90.2%, p < 0.001). No difference was observed regarding late Grade 2 or 3 dysphagia (p = 0.66). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated chemoradiotherapy does not compromise LRC and significantly reduces late toxicity, especially regarding xerostomia.

  15. Chemoradiation with capecitabine and mitomycin-C for stage I-III anal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Standard therapy for patients with stage I-III squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal is chemo-radiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC). While there is limited published evidence to substitute capecitabine (CAP) for 5-FU, the objectives of the study were to describe the toxicity, dose intensity and outcomes of a sequential cohort of patients treated with chemo-radiotherapy with CAP and MCC in a population-based setting. Methods Patients with stage I-III malignancies of the anal canal referred between February 2010 and March 2012 were included. Dose intensity was calculated by comparing delivered versus planned radiation and chemotherapy treatments and toxicity was retrospectively graded according to standard protocol-specified criteria. Results Among 66 eligible patients, median planned dose of radiation was 51.9 Gy over 5.5 weeks, range 25.0 to 63 Gy, and dose intensity was 98%. Median delivered dose of MCC delivered was 12 mg/m2 on day one, week one while median CAP dose was 825 mg/m2 twice daily on radiation days. CAP dose reductions due to toxicity were recorded for 13 patients (20%). Median follow-up was 20 months and 94% of patients with squamous cell histology had no evidence of relapse. Conclusions Chemo-radiation with CAP plus MMC is well tolerated and may be a reasonable consideration for patients with stage I-III SCC of the anal canal. A range of planned radiation dose was observed and longer follow-up is necessary to ensure that patients who received lower doses of radiation have similar outcomes to those who received larger doses. PMID:24885554

  16. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 expression correlates to tumor staging in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de Carli, Marina-Lara; Sperandio, Felipe-Fornias; Hanemann, João-Adolfo-Costa; Pereira, Alessandro-Antônio-Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background The immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were analyzed in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), relating them to the clinical and morphological exhibition of these tumors. Material and Methods Twenty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; clinical data included gender, age, ethnicity and use of licit drugs such as alcohol and tobacco. The TNM staging and histopathological differentiation grading was assessed for each case. In addition, T1 patients were gathered with T2 patients; and T3 patients were gathered with T4 patients to assemble two distinct groups: (T1/T2) and (T3/T4). Results The mean follow-up time was 24 months and 30% of the patients died as a consequence of the disease, while 23.3% lived with the disease and 46.7% lived lesion-free. T1 and T2 tumors showed statistically lesser Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 staining when compared to T3 and T4 tumors. Conclusions Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 pose as auxiliary tools when determining the progression of tongue SCC at the time of diagnosis. Key words:Carcinoma, squamous cell, cyclin D, immunohistochemistry, Ki-67 antigen, prognosis. PMID:26449430

  17. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. Radical hysterectomy versus radiation therapy for stage IB squamous cell cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, M.P.; Morley, G.W. )

    1991-07-15

    Three hundred forty-five patients with Stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from 1970 to 1985. The overall cumulative 5-year survival rate was 89% and the mean age was 44.6 years. In 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy the cumulative 5-year survival rate was 92%; 14 patients were explored for radical hysterectomy that was not performed due to high risk features and their survival rate was 50%. Ninety-seven patients underwent radiation therapy as initial treatment and had a 5-year survival rate of 86%. There was no significant difference when radiation therapy was compared with radical hysterectomy (P = 0.098). The survival rates for lesions 3 cm or smaller were 94% for radical hysterectomy and 88% for radiation therapy. When the lesion was larger than 3 cm, the survival rates were 82% with radical surgery and 73% with radiation therapy. Metastatic disease to lymph nodes was present in 26 of the 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. When 1 to 3 nodes were involved 16 of 19 patients survived and when 4 to 10 nodes were involved 3 of 7 patients survived. The addition of radiation therapy did not influence survival. Complications were similar in both treatment groups. Fistulas occurred in 4 of 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and 1 of 111 undergoing radiation. Second surgery for a complication was required in 6 of 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and 7 of 111 undergoing radiation. Survival and complication rates in early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix are equal with either radical surgery or radiation therapy.

  19. Early-Stage Induction of SWI/SNF Mutations during Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Hidetsugu; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Kishino, Takayoshi; Kubo, Emi; Hattori, Naoko; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tachimori, Yuji; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is frequently inactivated by somatic mutations of its various components in various types of cancers, and also by aberrant DNA methylation. However, its somatic mutations and aberrant methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we aimed to clarify in ESCC, what components of the SWI/SNF complex have somatic mutations and aberrant methylation, and when somatic mutations of the SWI/SNF complex occur. Deep sequencing of components of the SWI/SNF complex using a bench-top next generation sequencer revealed that eight of 92 ESCCs (8.7%) had 11 somatic mutations of 7 genes, ARID1A, ARID2, ATRX, PBRM1, SMARCA4, SMARCAL1, and SMARCC1. The SMARCA4 mutations were located in the Forkhead (85Ser>Leu) and SNF2 family N-terminal (882Glu>Lys) domains. The PBRM1 mutations were located in a bromodomain (80Asn>Ser) and an HMG-box domain (1,377Glu>Lys). For most mutations, their mutant allele frequency was 31–77% (mean 61%) of the fraction of cancer cells in the same samples, indicating that most of the cancer cells in individual ESCC samples had the SWI/SNF mutations on one allele, when present. In addition, a BeadChip array analysis revealed that a component of the SWI/SNF complex, ACTL6B, had aberrant methylation at its promoter CpG island in 18 of 52 ESCCs (34.6%). These results showed that genetic and epigenetic alterations of the SWI/SNF complex are present in ESCCs, and suggested that genetic alterations are induced at an early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis. PMID:26812616

  20. Early-Stage Induction of SWI/SNF Mutations during Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Hidetsugu; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Kishino, Takayoshi; Kubo, Emi; Hattori, Naoko; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tachimori, Yuji; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is frequently inactivated by somatic mutations of its various components in various types of cancers, and also by aberrant DNA methylation. However, its somatic mutations and aberrant methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we aimed to clarify in ESCC, what components of the SWI/SNF complex have somatic mutations and aberrant methylation, and when somatic mutations of the SWI/SNF complex occur. Deep sequencing of components of the SWI/SNF complex using a bench-top next generation sequencer revealed that eight of 92 ESCCs (8.7%) had 11 somatic mutations of 7 genes, ARID1A, ARID2, ATRX, PBRM1, SMARCA4, SMARCAL1, and SMARCC1. The SMARCA4 mutations were located in the Forkhead (85Ser>Leu) and SNF2 family N-terminal (882Glu>Lys) domains. The PBRM1 mutations were located in a bromodomain (80Asn>Ser) and an HMG-box domain (1,377Glu>Lys). For most mutations, their mutant allele frequency was 31-77% (mean 61%) of the fraction of cancer cells in the same samples, indicating that most of the cancer cells in individual ESCC samples had the SWI/SNF mutations on one allele, when present. In addition, a BeadChip array analysis revealed that a component of the SWI/SNF complex, ACTL6B, had aberrant methylation at its promoter CpG island in 18 of 52 ESCCs (34.6%). These results showed that genetic and epigenetic alterations of the SWI/SNF complex are present in ESCCs, and suggested that genetic alterations are induced at an early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis. PMID:26812616

  1. Treatment strategies in early-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a French national survey.

    PubMed

    Gorphe, Philippe; Blanchard, Pierre; Morinière, Sylvain; Fakhry, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study is to perform a national survey of practices in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx (base of tongue and tonsils) targeting surgical and non-surgical procedures in France. A questionnaire concerning practices in surgery, radiotherapy, HPV screening, and two clinical cases were sent to all centers participating in the French Head and Neck Oncology Society, and to public hospitals listed as authorized to treat head and neck cancer according to the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). Sixty-four teams comprising almost all the University Hospitals and most of the Comprehensive Cancer Centers completed the survey questionnaire and responded to the clinical cases. Surgical and radiotherapy strategies were used in similar measure for early-stage SCC of the base of the tongue while tonsil lesions were mainly treated with surgery. The main arguments were disease control for the teams offering patients surgery, and functional results for those offering radiotherapy. However, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was chosen more frequently than radiotherapy alone in early-stage SCC of the base of tongue. Age and tobacco-alcohol addiction were decisive criteria in decision making for the majority of the teams. French oncology teams offered surgical and radiotherapy strategies in similar measure to treat early-stage SCC of the oropharynx (base of tongue and tonsils) as well as a high rate of multimodality therapy. Decision making was guided by the desire to achieve oncologic results adapted to the patient and his age, as well as functional preservation taking into account life expectancy. PMID:26253428

  2. Stage Presentation, Care Patterns, and Treatment Outcomes for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, Lindsay M.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Tward, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity, with few published series on outcomes. We evaluated the stage distributions and outcomes for surgery and radiation therapy in a U.S. population database. Methods and Materials: Subjects with SCC of the penis were identified using the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program database between 1988 and 2006. Descriptive statistics were performed, and cause-specific survival (CSS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons of treatment modalities were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Subjects were staged using American Joint Committee on Cancer, sixth edition, criteria. Results: There were 2458 subjects identified. The median age was 66.8 years (range, 17-102 years). Grade 2 disease was present in 94.5% of cases. T1, T2, T3, T4, and Tx disease was present in 64.8%, 17.1%, 9.5%, 2.1%, and 6.5% of cases, respectively. N0, N1, N2, N3, and Nx disease was noted in 61.6%, 6.9%, 4.0%, 3.7%, and 23.8% of cases, respectively. M1 disease was noted in 2.5% of subjects. Individuals of white ethnicity accounted for 85.1% of cases. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 16.7% of cases. The CSS for all patients at 5 and 10 years was 80.8% and 78.6%. By multivariable analysis grades 2 and 3 disease, T3 stage, and positive lymph nodes were adverse prognostic factors for CSS. Conclusion: SCC of the penis often presents as early-stage T1, N0, M0, grade 1, or grade 2 disease. The majority of patients identified were treated with surgery, and only a small fraction of patients received radiation therapy alone or as adjuvant therapy.

  3. Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin With Radiotherapy for Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyasu, Yuko Nagai, Nobutaka; Nagata, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Yasutoshi; Yuki, Shintaro; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyota, Naoyuki; Fujiwara, Hisaya; Kudo, Yoshiki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of concomitant intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) using cisplatin (CDDP) with radiotherapy for Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 29 cases of Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiotherapy and IAIC of CDDP from 1991 to 2006. External-beam therapy was given to the whole pelvis using four opposing parallel fields with an 18-MV linear accelerator unit. A central shield was used after 30-40 Gy with external whole-pelvic irradiation, and the total dose was 50 Gy. High-dose-rate brachytherapy was given with {sup 192}Ir microSelectron. The dose at Point A was 6 Gy per fraction, 2 fractions per week, and the total number of fractions was either 3 or 4. Two or three courses of IAIC were given concomitantly with CDDP 120 mg or carboplatin 300 mg. Results: We confirmed excellent medicine distribution directly by using computed tomographic angiography. The 5-year overall survival rate for Stage III patients was 62%, the cause-specific survival rate was 70%, and the local relapse-free survival rate was 89%. Local recurrence, distant metastasis, and occurrences of both were 7%, 38%, and 3%, respectively. The incidence of severe acute hematologic adverse reactions (Grade {>=}3) was 27% for all patients; however, all recovered without interruption of radiotherapy. Severe nonhematologic effects (Grade {>=}3) were 3%, including nausea and ileus. Only 1 patient's radiotherapy was interrupted for a period of 1 week because of ileus. Severe late complication rates (Grade {>=}3) for the bladder, rectum, and intestine were 3%, 3%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: A combination of IAIC and systemic chemotherapy should be considered to improve the prognosis of patients with Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  4. KLF4 is downregulated but not mutated during human esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis and has tumor stage-specific functions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yizeng; Katz, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    The transcriptional regulator Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is decreased in human esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC), and Klf4 deletion in mice produces squamous cell dysplasia. Nonetheless the mechanisms of KLF4 downregulation in ESCC and the functions of KLF4 during ESCC development and progression are not well understood. Here, we sought to define the regulation of KLF4 and delineate the stage-specific effects of KLF4 in ESCC. We found that KLF4 expression was decreased in human ESCC and in 8 of 9 human ESCC cell lines. However, by genomic sequencing, we observed no KLF4 mutations or copy number changes in any of 52 human ESCC, suggesting other mechanisms for KLF4 silencing. In fact, KLF4 expression in human ESCC cell lines was increased by the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism for KLF4 silencing. Surprisingly, while KLF4 decreased in high-grade dysplasia and early stage tumors, KLF4 increased with advanced cancer stage, and KLF4 expression in ESCC was inversely correlated with survival. Interestingly, KLF4 promoted invasion of human ESCC cells, providing a functional link to the stage-specific expression of KLF4. Taken together, these findings suggest that KLF4 loss is necessary for esophageal tumorigenesis but that restored KLF4 expression in ESCC promotes tumor spread. Thus, the use of KLF4 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in cancer requires careful consideration of context. PMID:26934576

  5. Increased Incidence of Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Mastomys natalensis Papillomavirus E6 Transgenic Mice during Two-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Iris; Chen, Min; Schmidt, Rainer; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Trick, David; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Papillomaviruses cause certain forms of human cancers, most notably carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In contrast to the well-established involvement of papillomavirus infection in the etiology of cervical carcinomas and in carcinomas of a rare hereditary condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, a causative role for cutaneous human papillomavirus types in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer has not been proven. In order to better understand the functions of individual genes of cutaneous papillomavirus types, we generated transgenic mice carrying oncogene E6 of the Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV), which causes keratoacanthomas of the skin in its natural host. In the present study, we demonstrate that under conditions of experimental two-stage skin carcinogenesis, fast-paced squamous cell carcinomas develop in nearly 100% of MnPV E6 transgenic mice in comparison to 10% in their nontransgenic littermates (log rank test; P < 0.0001). Therefore, we conclude that the MnPV E6 transgene favors the malignant progression of chemically induced tumors. Whereas an activating H-ras mutation is a consistent feature in benign and malignant tumors in wild-type mice, the majority of papillomas and keratoacanthomas and all squamous cell carcinomas obtained in MnPV E6 transgenic mice contain nonmutated ras alleles. These results indicate that the development of squamous cell carcinomas in MnPV E6 transgenic mice does not depend on an activated H-ras oncogene. PMID:15078961

  6. Ipilimumab, Cetuximab, and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage III-IVB Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. SU-E-I-85: Exploring the 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET Characteristics in Staging of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics derived from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET image and assess its capacity in staging of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: 26 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC who underwent 18F-FDG PET scan were included in this study. Different image-derived indices including the standardized uptake value (SUV), gross tumor length, texture features and shape feature were considered. Taken the histopathologic examination as the gold standard, the extracted capacities of indices in staging of ESCC were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Specificity and sensitivity for each of the studied parameters were derived using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: 18F-FDG SUVmax and SUVmean showed statistically significant capability in AJCC and TNM stages. Texture features such as ENT and CORR were significant factors for N stages(p=0.040, p=0.029). Both FDG PET Longitudinal length and shape feature Eccentricity (EC) (p≤0.010) provided powerful stratification in the primary ESCC AJCC and TNM stages than SUV and texture features. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor textural analysis can capability M stages with higher sensitivity than SUV measurement but lower in T and N stages. Conclusion: The 18F-FDG image-derived characteristics of SUV, textural features and shape feature allow for good stratification AJCC and TNM stage in ESCC patients.

  8. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  9. Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Nodal Staging of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Impact on Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Op de beeck, Katya; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Delaere, Pierre; Verbeken, Eric; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for nodal staging and its impact on radiotherapy (RT) planning. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), as well as MRI (with routine and DW sequences) prior to neck dissection. After topographic correlation, lymph nodes were evaluated microscopically with prekeratin immunostaining. Pathology results were correlated with imaging findings and an RT planning study was performed for these surgically treated patients. One set of target volumes was based on conventional imaging only, and another set was based on the corresponding DW-MRI images. A third reference set was contoured based solely on pathology results. Results: A sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 97% per lymph node were found for DW-MRI. Nodal staging agreement between imaging and pathology was significantly stronger for DW-MRI (kappa = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) than for conventional imaging (kappa = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96; p = 0.019, by McNemar's test). For both imaging modalities, the absolute differences between RT volumes and those obtained by pathology were calculated. Using an exact paired Wilcoxon test, the observed difference was significantly larger for conventional imaging than for DW-MRI for nodal gross tumor volume (p = 0.0013), as well as for nodal clinical target volume (p = 0.0415) delineation. Conclusions: These results suggest that DW-MRI is superior to conventional imaging for preradiotherapy nodal staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and provides a potential impact on organsparing and tumor control.

  10. Initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. What is the place of bronchoscopy and upper GI endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Page, Cyril; Lucas-Gourdet, Emily; Biet-Hornstein, Aurélie; Strunski, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    To determine the place of bronchoscopy and upper GI endoscopy in the initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A 10-year retrospective study was conducted on a series of 838 patients. As part of initial staging of the tumor, all patients were examined by neck and chest CT scan, 487 patients were examined by bronchoscopy and 588 patients were examined by upper GI endoscopy. Esophageal cancer was detected in 4.25 % of cases and lung cancer in 6.35 % of cases. Chest CT scan was statistically superior to bronchoscopy to detect second lung cancers (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, oral cancers (p = 0.009) and multiple (synchronous) HNSCC (p = 0.009) were associated with the presence of a second lung cancer. Systematic bronchoscopy (performed by a pulmonologist) might not to be indicated for initial staging of HNSCC, particularly in the presence of normal chest CT scan. In case of abnormal Chest CT scan, patients should be referred to a pulmonologist. However, as oral cancers and multiple (synchronous) HNSCCs were statistically associated with the presence of a second lung cancer in this study, bronchoscopy might be indicated in these cases in order to detect rare small proximal bronchic lesions which might be invisible on chest CT scan in these patients at risk. More, systematic upper GI endoscopy (performed by a gastroenterologist) for initial staging of HNSCC might also not to be indicated in a majority of cases. PMID:24682611

  11. Stage T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.; Sharkey, D.E.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1984-03-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 68 patients with Stage T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with surgery and/or irradiation from March 1965 to April 1981 at the University of Florida. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 17.5 years. Initial local-regional control of disease above the clavicles (i.e., prior to salvage attempts) by treatment technique for patients a risk for greater than or equal to 2 years was 11/19 (58%) with irradiation alone, 5/7 (71%) with preoperative irradiation and surgery, 8/9 (89%) with surgery and postoperative irradiation, and 18/23 (78%) with surgery alone. Initial control of disease at the primary site was accomplished in 11/18 (61%) treated with radiation therapy alone, and ultimate control of the primary was obtained in 15/18 (83%) after surgical salvage. Analysis of complications and survival is included, and treatment recommendations are discussed.

  12. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in solid organ transplant recipients: emerging strategies for surveillance, staging, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Cheng, Joyce; Colegio, Oscar R

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) is 65- to 250-fold greater than in the general population. In addition, SCC in SOTRs is more aggressive than in the general population. SOTRs must undergo skin cancer screenings at intervals based on their risk stratification. The incidence of SCC in SOTRs varies with the type, intensity, and duration of the immunosuppressive regimen. Notably, patients on sirolimus have lower incidence of SCC compared to patients on calcineurin inhibitors. Revision of immunosuppressive regimen to include sirolimus may be a viable preventative measure against SCC in SOTRs who are high at risk for developing SCCs. Retinoids are also emerging as a means of chemoprophylaxis against development of new SCCs in high-risk patients. Treatments of SCC include electrodesiccation and curettage, surgical resection, cryosurgery, radiation, and systemic chemotherapy such as 5-fluorouracil and cetuximab. PMID:27178693

  13. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853-15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  14. Upregulation of MAGEA4 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Zi-Hao; Yang, Tong-Xin; Wang, Han-Jin; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of cancer in the People’s Republic of China. Many genes have been reported to be linked with it. Melanoma antigen gene family A (MAGEA) genes are frequently highly expressed in various types of carcinoma. However, the specific role of MAGEA gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains unclear. MAGEA4 is a member of MAGEA genes. We aimed to investigate the expression and prognosis of MAGEA4 expression in ESCC. MAGEA4 messenger RNA expression levels of 120 pairs of tumor and nontumor tissues of patients with ESCC were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly elevated in tumor tissues of patients with ESCC compared to nontumor ones. In addition, overexpression of MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P=0.018) in early stage of patients with ESCC (I–IIA). In conclusion, MAGEA4 played an important role in the early stage of ESCC and overexpression of MAGEA4 was expected to become a potential prognostic marker for patients with early stage of ESCC. PMID:27478386

  15. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  17. Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the True Vocal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To compare radiation doses to carotid arteries among various radiotherapy techniques for treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the true vocal cords. Methods and Materials: Five patients were simulated using computed tomography (CT). Clinical and planning target volumes (PTV) were created for bilateral and unilateral stage T1 vocal cord cancers. Planning risk volumes for the carotid arteries and spinal cord were delineated. For each patient, three treatment plans were designed for bilateral and unilateral target volumes: opposed laterals (LATS), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), for a total of 30 plans. More than 95% of the PTV received the prescription dose (63Gy at 2.25 Gy per treatment). Results: Carotid dose was lowest with IMRT. With a bilateral vocal cord target, the median carotid dose was 10Gy with IMRT vs. 25 Gy with 3DCRT and 38 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05); with a unilateral target, the median carotid dose was 4 Gy with IMRT vs. 19 Gy with 3DCRT and 39 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05). The dosimetric tradeoff with IMRT is a small area of high dose in the PTV. The worst heterogeneity results were at a maximum point dose of 80 Gy (127%) in a unilateral target that was close to the carotid. Conclusions: There is no question that IMRT can reduce the dose to the carotid arteries in patients with early-stage vocal cord cancer. The question is whether the potential advantage of reducing the carotid dose outweighs the risk of tumor recurrence due to contouring errors and organ motion and the risk of complications from dose heterogeneity.

  18. Impact of FDG-PET/CT Imaging on Nodal Staging for Head-And-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Ryuji . E-mail: murakami@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Uozumi, Hideaki; Hirai, Toshinori; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Shiraishi, Shinya; Ota, Kazutoshi D.D.S.; Murakami, Daizo; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Oya, Natsuo; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging on nodal staging for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 23 patients with head-and-neck SCC who were evaluated with FDG-PET/CT and went on to neck dissection. Two observers consensually determined the lesion size and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and compared the results with pathologic findings on nodal-level involvement. Two different observers (A and B) independently performed three protocols for clinical nodal staging. Methods 1, 2, and 3 were based on conventional modalities, additional visual information from FDG-PET/CT images, and FDG-PET/CT imaging alone with SUV data, respectively. Results: All primary tumors were visualized with FDG-PET/CT. Pathologically, 19 positive and 93 negative nodal levels were identified. The SUV{sub max} overlapped in negative and positive nodes <15 mm in diameter. According to receiver operating characteristics analysis, the size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values were 1.9, 2.5, and 3.0 for lymph nodes <10 mm, 10-15 mm, and >15 mm, respectively. These cutoff values yielded 79% sensitivity and 99% specificity for nodal-level staging. For Observer A, the sensitivity and specificity in Methods 1, 2, and 3 were 68% and 94%, 68% and 99%, and 84% and 99%, respectively, and Method 3 yielded significantly higher accuracy than Method 1 (p = 0.0269). For Observer B, Method 3 yielded the highest sensitivity (84%) and specificity (99%); however, the difference among the three protocols was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Imaging with FDG-PET/CT with size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values is an important modality for radiation therapy planning.

  19. Upregulation of the long noncoding RNA PCAT-1 correlates with advanced clinical stage and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-hong; Wu, Qing-quan; Li, Su-qing; Yang, Tong-xin; Liu, Zi-hao; Tong, Yu-suo; Tuo, Lei; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies reveal that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in cancer biology. Prostate cancer-associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT-1) is one of the lncRNAs involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation of prostate cancer. This study aimed to assess the potential role of PCAT-1 specifically in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of PCAT-1 in matched cancerous tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues from 130 patients with ESCC, 34 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 30 patients with gastric carcinoma (GC). The correlation of PCAT-1 with clinicopathological features and prognosis were also analyzed. The expression of PCAT-1 was significantly higher in human ESCC compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues (70.8%, p < 0.01), and the high level of PCAT-1 expression was significantly correlated with invasion of the tumor (p = 0.024), advanced clinical stage (p = 0.003), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032), and poor prognosis. However, PCAT-1 mRNA expression had no significant difference between paired primary cancerous tissues and the adjacent noncancerous tissues in 34 cases of NSCLC (p = 0.293) and 30 cases of GC (p = 0.125). High expression of PCAT-1 was specifically correlated with invasion of cancer tissues, metastasis of lymph node, and advanced tumor stage of ESCC. High expression of PCAT-1 might reflect poor prognosis of ESCC and indicate a potential diagnostic target in ESCC patients. Adjuvant therapy targeting PCAT-1 molecule might be effective in treatment of ESCC. PMID:25731728

  20. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    PubMed Central

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; van Diest, Paul J; Brandt, Burkhard; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p < 0.01) and a significantly increased disease free period (p = 0.01) independent from nodal status and tumour size. In primary node negative T1/T2 SCC of the oral floor, absence of HIF-1α expression specified a subgroup of high-risk patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:16035955

  1. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  2. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  3. Conservative treatment of coexisting microinvasive squamous and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Cervo, Silvia; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea; Canzonieri, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) and microinvasive adenocarcinoma (MIAC) of the cervix is a rare phenomenon with very few clinically significant cases described in the literature. While a conservative approach has been studied, and may be effective in MISCC, a lower number of studies that recommend conservative treatment are available for MIAC. We report two cases of synchronous cervix lesions in two separate foci, MISCC and MIAC, who underwent fertility-sparing treatment with long-term follow-up. We describe clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of the two cases. The first case is a 41-year-old female with a diagnosis of MIAC of endocervical type, grade 1 differentiation, with a stromal invasion, associated with a separate area of squamous cell carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/TNM stage: pT1a1G1). The second case is a 45-year-old female with a diagnosis of plurifocal MISCC, associated with an MIAC of endocervical type with a stromal invasion (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/TNM stage: pT1a1G1). After multidisciplinary counseling, both patients accepted conization as definitive treatment. Eleven years after the conization, all tests (Papanicolaou smear, colposcopy, cervical curettage, and hybrid capture 2-human papillomavirus test) planned quarterly in the first year and every 6 months in the subsequent years were negative in both patients. In women affected by stage IA1 squamous cervical cancer coexisting with stage IA1 adenocarcinoma endocervical type, with clear margins, and without lymphovascular space invasion, cervical conization may be considered a fertility-preserving, safe, and definitive therapeutic option. PMID:26869798

  4. Gefitinib and Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-24

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  5. A propensity score matching analysis of survival following segmentectomy or wedge resection in early-stage lung invasive adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yihua; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the survival outcomes following segmentectomy or wedge resection in early-stage lung cancer. Methods: A total of 5880 patients with invasive lung adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were included in this study, of which 1156 received segmentectomy. Baseline characteristics were balanced using propensity score methods. Cox regression analysis was used to compare overall survival (OS) and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) following segmentectomy or wedge resection after matching patients based on propensity scores. Results: Overall, patients undergoing segmentectomy and wedge resection had no significant different OS and LCSS both in the invasive adenocarcinoma group and the squamous cell carcinoma group. Segmentectomy was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio = 0.626, 95% confidence interval: 0.457-0.858, P = 0.004) and LCSS (hazard ratio = 0.643, 95% CI: 0.440-0.939, P = 0.022) in invasive adenocarcinoma patients ≤ 65 years old. In patients with ≤ 2 cm invasive adenocarcinoma, segmentectomy was associated with significantly better OS (hazard ratio = 0.811, 95% confidence interval: 0.666-0.988, P = 0.038). Conclusion: Survival following segmentectomy or wedge resection was generally equivalent in lung invasive adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, invasive adenocarcinoma patients who were ≤ 65 years or had tumors ≤ 2 cm in size may have improved survival outcomes after segmentectomy. PMID:26871600

  6. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  7. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  8. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage

  9. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA–IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Ming-Zhu; Li, Ming-Xia; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wei, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75–80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs), unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA–IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People's Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases). Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00) was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00), the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04) and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03) had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00), depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00) and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03) were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  10. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-08

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  11. A Multi-institutional Investigation of the Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodal Yield in Advanced Stage Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OCSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, James J.; Zender, Chad A.; Mehta, Vikas; Davis, Kara; Ferris, Robert L.; Lavertu, Pierre; Rezaee, Rod; Feustel, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although existing literature provides surgical recommendations for treating occult disease (cN0) in early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, a focus on late stage OCSCC is less pervasive. Methods The records of 162 late stage OCSCC pN0 individuals that underwent primary neck dissections were reviewed. Lymph node yield (LNY) as a prognosticator was examined. Results Despite being staged pN0, patients that had a higher LNY had an improved regional/distant control rates, DFS, DSS, and OS. LNY consistently outperformed all other standard variables as being the single best prognostic factor with a tight risk ratio range (RR = 0.95–0.98) even when correcting for the number of lymph nodes examined. Conclusion The results of this study showed that lower regional recurrence rates and improved survival outcomes were seen as lymph node yield increased for advanced T-stage OCSCC pN0. This suggests that increasing lymph node yield with an extended cervical lymphadenectomy may result in lower recurrence rates and improved survival outcomes for this advanced stage group. PMID:24038739

  12. Ixabepilone in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  13. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  14. Effectiveness of PET/CT with 18F-fluorothymidine in the staging of patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinomas before radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vojtíšek, Radovan; Ferda, Jiří; Fínek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of our study was to compare the staging of the disease declared before anticancer treatment was begun with the staging that was found after the planning PET/CT scanning with 18F-FLT was performed. Background PET/CT in radiotherapy planning of head and neck cancers can facilitate the contouring of the primary tumour and the definition of metastatic lymph nodes. Materials and methods Between November 2010 and November 2013, 26 patients suffering from head and neck carcinomas underwent planning PET/CT examination with 18F-FLT. We compared the staging of the disease and the treatment strategy declared before and after 18F-FLT-PET/CT was performed. Results The findings from 18FLT-PET/CT led in 22 patients to a change of staging: in 19 patients it led to upstaging of the disease and in 3 patients it led to downstaging of the disease. In one patient, a secondary malignancy was found. Conclusions We have confirmed in this study that the use of 18F-FLT-PET/CT scanning in radiotherapy planning of squamous cell head and neck carcinomas has a great potential in the precise evaluation of disease staging and consequently in the precise determination of target volumes. PMID:25949225

  15. A 55-Year-Old Man with Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Right Groin after External Beam Radiation for Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibilibor, Christine; Wells, Jeremy; Kavuri, Sravan; Moses, Kelvin A

    2014-01-01

    Treating testicular cancer with adjuvant radiation has been associated with a number of second malignancies affecting the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal structures; however, there have been few reported cases of cutaneous second malignancies. We report the case of a man who developed stage IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of a condyloma after orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation for testicular cancer. We also review relevant literature available to date. A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented to the hospital with a large growth at the right groin which had grown into his right thigh preventing ambulation. His past medical history was significant for right testicular cancer of unknown pathology treated with orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation twenty years ago. Punch biopsy of the lesion revealed superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent excision of the growth with subsequent Cisplatin, radiation boost, and Paclitaxel regimens. Despite an aggressive treatment regimen and an initial good response, the patient's cancer progressed requiring palliative care. It is unclear whether or not therapeutic radiation in this case promoted the conversion of the patient's condyloma to a malignant lesion. Further studies are required at this time to clarify the clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25024864

  16. Reduced expression of mir15a in the blood of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is associated with tumor staging

    PubMed Central

    RICIERI BRITO, JOÃO ARTUR; GOMES, CAROLINA CAVALIÉRI; SANTOS PIMENTA, FLÁVIO JULIANO GARCIA; BARBOSA, ALVIMAR AFONSO; PRADO, MARCO ANTÔNIO MÁXIMO; PRADO, VÂNIA FERREIRA; GOMEZ, MARCUS VINÍCIUS; GOMEZ, RICARDO SANTIAGO

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mir15a and let7a are important regulators of bcl-2, ras and c-myc proteins. Considering that these miRNAs are commonly altered in many human cancers and that these proteins are reported to be altered in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we investigated them in a set of OSCC cases. The miRNAs as well as the proteins were evaluated in the tumor and blood of 20 patients by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The expression of mir15a and bcl-2 proteins in the tumors was not associated with each other or with tumor staging. On the other hand, we found reduced expression of this miRNA in the blood of patients with an advanced stage of OSCC and with lymph node metastasis. The expression of let7a in the tumor and blood was not associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, tumor staging and immunoexpression of ras and c-myc proteins. In conclusion, the present study shows that reduced expression of mir15a is associated with OSCC staging. PMID:23136618

  17. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  18. Presence of tumour high-endothelial venules is an independent positive prognostic factor and stratifies patients with advanced-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wirsing, Anna M; Rikardsen, Oddveig G; Steigen, Sonja E; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Hadler-Olsen, Elin

    2016-02-01

    Staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma is based on the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) system, which has been deemed insufficient for prognostic purposes. Hence, better prognostic tools are needed to reflect the biological diversity of these cancers. Previously, high numbers of specialized blood vessels called high-endothelial venules have been reported to be associated with prolonged survival in patients with breast cancer. In this study, we analysed the prognostic value and morphological characteristics of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules in oral cancer. The presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and analysed with correlation to clinicopathological parameters, patients' survival and vessel morphology. Ten of the samples were analysed at multiple levels to evaluate intratumoural heterogeneity. The presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules was found to be associated with lower disease-specific death in multivariate regression analyses (P = 0.002). High-endothelial venules were present in all (n = 53) T1-T2 tumours, but only in two thirds (n = 14) of the T3-T4 tumours. The morphology of high-endothelial venules was heterogeneous and correlated with lymphocyte density. High-endothelial venules were found to be distributed homogeneously within the tumours. We found the presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules to be an easy-to-use, robust, and independent positive prognostic factor for patients with oral cancer. Absence of these vessels in advanced-stage tumours might identify patients with more aggressive disease. Evaluating the presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules might help to tailor the treatment of oral cancer patients to their individual needs. PMID:26383526

  19. Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  20. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  1. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I; Davidson, B; Lerner-Geva, L; Gotlieb, W H; Ben-Baruch, G; Novikov, I; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study. Images PMID:10023343

  2. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  3. Identification of biomarkers with a tumor stage-dependent expression and exploration of the mechanism involved in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lian; Yang, Ning; Yang, Huijun; Guo, Xing; Jang, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers with a tumor stage-dependent expression manner and explore the regulatory mechanisms of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) progression. Microarray data GSE59102 was used for differential analysis using a limma package. Enrichment analyses were performed for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tumor tissues and normal tissues at different stages. A co-expressed network involving the overlapped DEGs in two stages was established based on Pearson's correlation coefficients. Furthermore, for the tumor stage‑dependent expressed DEGs, a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by mapping the genes using the STRING database. Transcription factors (TFs), oncogenes and tumor‑associated genes (TSGs) among the DEGs were predicted, following a search of the TRANSFAC, tumor-associated gene (TAG) and TSG databases. The CDT database was used to identify LSCC‑associated genes. In total, 696 DEGs from early stage and control samples and 622 DEGs from advanced sttage and control samples were selected, which were mainly enriched in the cell cycle pathway. In the co-expressed network, BUB1, TTK, E2F1 and CEP55 were prominent, with E2F1 being predicted as a TSG and CEP55 as an oncogene. The HOX family members were predicted as TFs. MMP1, MMP9, MMP3 and PLAU were the most evident nodes in the PPI network, where MMP3 was connected with MMP1. The ADH family was correlated with LSCC. Several biomarkers with tumor stage-dependent expression were identified including MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, PLAU and ADHs. Additionally, the dysregulated cell cycle pathway involving BUB1, TTK, E2F1 and CEP55, and the mediation of MMP1 by MMP3 as well as the predicted TF HOX, may all play significant roles in LSCC progression. PMID:26323359

  4. Feasibility and Efficacy of Induction Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Combined With Cisplatin Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Nonmetastatic Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, Robin J.; Oeksuez, Didem Colpan; Dyker, Karen; Coyle, Catherine; Sen, Mehmet

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report the experience of treating selected fit patients with locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma with three cycles of induction TPF (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2}, 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 2-5) followed by concurrent three-weekly bolus cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2006 and February 2010, 66 patients with nonmetastatic Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated in a single institution with three cycles of induction TPF, followed by radical radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: Median age was 54 years (range, 33-69 years). Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 4-55 months). During TPF, Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 18 patients (27%), dose modifications in 10 (15%), delays in 3 (5%), and unplanned admissions in 6 (9%); a clinical tumor response was documented in 60 patients (91%). Median time from the final cycle of TPF to commencing radiotherapy was 22 days. Sixty-two patients (94%) received radical radiotherapy, and all completed treatment with no delays {>=}3 days. One, two, and three cycles of concurrent cisplatin were delivered to 18 patients (29%), 38 patients (61%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Ninety-two percent of patients received enteral feeding; median weight loss during treatment was 7%. Forty-two patients (68%) had unplanned admissions with no on-treatment deaths. Three unrelated deaths occurred after treatment. At 1 year after treatment, 21% of patients without disease progression remained gastrostomy dependent. Of 58 assessable patients, 50 (86%) achieved a complete response after treatment. One- and 2-year progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 88%, 92%, and 86% and 80%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of induction TPF with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell

  5. A case of a patient with stage III familial hidradenitis suppurativa treated with 3 courses of infliximab and died of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-03-01

    Although rare, severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) of the anal, perianal, gluteal, thigh, and groin regions can evolve into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This usually does not occur until the HS has been present for more than 20 years. Malignant degeneration of HS in the axilla has not been reported. SCC has developed in dissecting cellulitis, acne conglobata, and pilonidal cysts (other members of the follicular tetrad). Whereas the male to female ratio of HS is 1:3, SCC in HS has a male to female ration of 5:1. The reasons behind malignant degeneration in HS are complex and might differ from the malignant degeneration causing Marjolin ulcers. It likely involves the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in affected areas (a rarity in the axilla), and impaired defensins, which combat HPV, in the skin of Hurley Stage III HS. In familial HS, the odds of developing SCC are likely greater because of independent loss-of-function mutations in the γ-secretase multiprotein complex, which regulates the Notch signaling pathway. Compromise of the Notch signaling pathway can undermine immune function and increase the risk of neoplastic development. Coincident SCC with use of tumor necrosis factor α blockers has been reported. I report a patient with long standing Hurley Stage III, familial HS, wwho developed metastatic SCC after 3 courses of infliximab and expired 11 months after the infliximab was started. A 47-year-old male presented with progressive HS since early adulthood. His stage III hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) involved his groin, legs buttocks, and perineal areas. Interestingly, his HS was familial; one daughter also suffered from HS. A pilonidal cyst had been excised in the past. He suffered from hypertension for which he took ramipril, 2.5 mg per day. He did not admit to smoking. He had undergone numerous surgeries and courses of clindamycin with rifampin and clindamycin with minocycline. He used pregablin among other stronger medications for pain control. He

  6. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  7. Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a diagnostic imaging and staging tool for feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Randall, E K; Kraft, S L; Yoshikawa, H; LaRue, S M

    2016-03-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) has been shown to be effective for staging human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but its application for cats with oral SCC is unknown. Twelve cats with biopsy-proven oral SCC were imaged with whole body 18FDG-PET/CT to determine its value as a diagnostic imaging and staging tool and fine needle aspirates were obtained of accessible regional lymph nodes. All tumors were FDG avid and conspicuous on 18FDG-PET/CT images, with an average of the maximum standardized uptake value 9.88 ± 5.33 SD (range 2.9-24.9). Soft tissue infiltrative tumors that were subtle and ill defined on CT were highly visible and more extensive on FDG-PET/CT. Tumors invading the osseous structures were more similar in extent on 18FDG-PET/CT and CT although they were more conspicuous on PET images. Three cytologically confirmed metastases were hypermetabolic on PET, while two of those metastases were equivocal on CT. PMID:23782408

  8. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  9. Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Stage II-III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: JCOG Trial (JCOG 9906)

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Ken; Muro, Kei; Minashi, Keiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Boku, Narikazu; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Komatsu, Yoshito; Miyata, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: In this Phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for Stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Patients with clinical Stage II-III (T1N1M0 or T2-3N0-1M0) thoracic ESCC were enrolled between April 2000 and March 2002. Chemotherapy comprised two courses of protracted infusion of 5-FU (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and 8-12, and 2-h infusion of CDDP (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8; this regimen was repeated every 5 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy involved 60-Gy irradiation (30 fractions) for 8 weeks with a 2-week break. Responders received two courses of 5-FU (800 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and CDDP (80 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. Final analysis was conducted in March 2007. Survival and late toxicities were monitored for 5 years. Results: The characteristics of the 76 patients enrolled were as follows: median age, 61 years; male/female, 68/8; performance status 0/1, 59/17 patients; Stage IIA/IIB/III, 26/12/38 patients. Of the 74 eligible patients, 46 (62.2%) achieved complete response. Median survival time was 29 months, with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities included Grade 3/4 esophagitis (17%), nausea (17%), hyponatremia (16%), and infection without neutropenia (12%). Late toxicities comprised Grade 3/4 esophagitis (13%), pericardial (16%) and pleural (9%) effusion, and radiation pneumonitis (4%), causing 4 deaths. Conclusions: CRT is effective for Stage II-III ESCC with manageable acute toxicities and can provide a nonsurgical treatment option. However, further improvement is required for reduction in late toxicity.

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. TGF-β inhibits metastasis in late stage human squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by a mechanism that does not involve Id1.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Anu; Paterson, Ian C; Prime, Stephen S; Eveson, John W; Pring, Miranda; Price, Nicky; Threadgold, Suzy P; Davies, Maria

    2010-12-01

    It is now generally accepted that TGF-β acts as a pro-metastatic factor in advanced human breast cancer. However, it is well documented, that TGF-β is context dependent, and whether the TGF-β pathway switches to promote metastasis during the progression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. This study examined the role of TGF-β signalling in SCC using a series of genetically related keratinocyte cell lines representing later stages of the disease, stably transduced with a dominant negative TβRII cDNA (dnTβRII). We demonstrated that clones expressing dnTβRII lost their growth inhibitory response to TGF-βin vitro, while ligand expression remained unchanged. Following transplantation of transduced cells to athymic mice in vivo, we showed that attenuation of the TGF-β signal resulted in a loss of differentiation and increased metastasis. In human tissue samples loss of TGF-β signal transduction as measured by pSmad2 activity also correlated with a loss of differentiation. Id1, previously shown to be down regulated by TGF-β, an inhibitor of differentiation and associated with metastasis, was weakly expressed in focal areas of a small number of human tumours but expression did not correlate with low levels of pSmad2. Our data demonstrate that TGF-β does not switch to promote metastasis in late stage human SCC of the skin and that inhibition of TGF-β signalling results in a loss of differentiation and increased metastasis in the later stages of this disease. PMID:20663607

  12. Cetuximab and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Tongue Cancer

  13. p16 expression independent of human papillomavirus is associated with lower stage and longer disease-free survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Virk, Sohaib A; Lum, Trina; Gao, Kan; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the incidence of p16 expression, its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role of p16 in OSCC is evaluated in 215 cases using tissue microarrays (TMAs). p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation were performed on TMAs following histopathology review of 215 patients with OSCC in the Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute database. Thirty-seven (17.2%) cases showed p16 expression without association with HPV. p16 expression significantly decreased with increasing pT category (p=0.002). p16 expression was associated with longer disease-specific survival on univariable analysis (p=0.044) but not on multivariable analysis adjusting for depth of invasion. Amongst patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, patients with p16 expression had significantly longer disease-free and overall survival. p16 expression was seen in early stage OSCCs and was associated with better survival following surgery and radiotherapy. While not an independent predictor of survival, p16 may mediate its effects by contributing to reduced proliferative capacity, leading to smaller tumour size and lower invasive potential. PMID:27370365

  14. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in squamous cell carcinoma of the oro- and hypopharynx: prognostic impact may depend on type of treatment and stage of disease.

    PubMed

    Distel, Luitpold V; Fickenscher, Rainer; Dietel, Katrin; Hung, Alexander; Iro, Heiner; Zenk, Johannes; Nkenke, Emeka; Büttner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G

    2009-10-01

    he purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic influence of various subtypes of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in head and neck cancer, in particular the potential influence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in relation to different treatment modalities was addressed. A total of 115 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oro- and hypopharynx were selected. A low-risk group of 62 patients with early disease was treated by primary surgery followed by external radiotherapy. A high-risk group of 53 inoperable patients with advanced disease was treated by primary radiochemotherapy. Two-hundred and forty biopsy samples were evaluated by use of the tissue-micro-array technique employing the following markers: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, FOXP3, Granzyme B. In the low-risk group high CD20+ infiltration was associated with a significantly better NED-survival rate (p=0.02). Contrary, among high-risk patients low CD20+ counts indicated significantly better survival (p=0.03). Additionally, in the low-risk group higher numbers of intraepithelial CD8+ TIL (>66.6 per thousand) led to improved NED-survival of 95% vs. 52% (p=0.005). The impact of TIL on prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer may be affected by type of treatment and stage of disease. This finding will influence future studies on the role of TIL in human cancers. PMID:19576838

  15. Next generation sequencing of stage IV squamous cell lung cancers reveals an association of PI3K aberrations and evidence of clonal heterogeneity in patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Paul K.; Shen, Ronglai; Won, Helen; Rekhtman, Natasha; Wang, Lu; Sima, Camelia S.; Arora, Arshi; Seshan, Venkatraman; Ladanyi, Marc; Berger, Michael F.; Kris, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers (SQCLC) has revealed several putative oncogenic drivers. There are, however, little data to suggest that these alterations have clinical relevance. We performed comprehensive genomic profiling of 79 stage IV SQCLCs (including next-generation sequencing) and analyzed differences in the clinical characteristics of two major SQCLC subtypes: FGFR1 amplified and PI3K aberrant. Patients with PI3K aberrant tumors had aggressive disease marked by worse survival (median OS 8.6 vs. 19.1 mo, p<0.001), higher metastatic burden (>3 organs 18% vs. 3%, p=0.025), and greater incidence of brain metastases (27% vs. 0% in others, p<0.001). We performed whole-exome and RNA sequencing on paired brain metastases and primary lung cancers to elucidate the metastatic process to brain. SQCLC primaries that gave rise to brain metastases exhibited truncal PTEN loss. SQCLC brain metastases exhibited a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and evidence of clonal differences between their primary sites. PMID:25929848

  16. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  17. Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-30

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  18. Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) – study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. Methods/Design The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ≤3 cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT ± chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS ± adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. Discussion This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized

  19. Stages III and IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mouth: Three-Year Experience with Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin Prior to Definitive Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Hamatake, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Uji, Yasuyoshi; Taen, Akira

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the 3-year experience with superselective intraarterial chemotherapy prior to definitive treatment for stages III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth. Methods: Twenty-two patients prospectively received superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using relatively low-dose cisplatin via a transfemoral approach. The locations of the tumors were the tongue (n= 12), gingiva (n= 5), buccal mucosa (n= 2), hard palate (n= 1), floor of the mouth (n= 1), and lip (n= 1). After intraarterial chemotherapy, 21 patients underwent surgery (n= 14), radiation therapy (n= 6), or both (n= 1). The survival rate of 25 patients who underwent surgery with/without radiation therapy until 1992 at Kumamoto University Hospital was also evaluated as a historical control. The survival curve was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the statistical difference between survival curves was determined with the generalized Wilcoxon test. Results: The overall response rate was 95% [complete response (tumor completely resolved), 24%; partial response (tumor reduction {>=}50%), 71%]. Fifty-two intraarterial infusions were performed without any catheter-related complications. Mild and transient local toxicity such as edema or mucositis of the infused area was relatively common. One patient died of renal failure from cisplatin. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range 2-41 months), the estimated 3-year survival rate for patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery was 91%. The survival of the patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery tended to be longer than that of the historical control. Conclusions: Early tumor reduction without delay of subsequent treatments can be obtained by intraarterial chemotherapy while minimizing complications and possibly improving survival. Further investigations of long-term survival with larger series need to be performed.

  20. Impact of KRAS mutation on response and outcome of patients with stage III non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yagishita, Shigehiro; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Sunami, Kuniko S; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Sumi, Minako; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kohno, Takashi; Furuta, Koh; Tsuta, Koji; Tamura, Tomohide; Ohe, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and clinical profile of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer harboring KRAS mutations have not yet been well documented. Here, we analyzed hotspot KRAS mutations using high-resolution melting analyses in tumor specimens from patients who received chemoradiotherapy between January 2001 and December 2010 at the National Cancer Center Hospital. The associations between the presence of KRAS mutations and the response rate, relapse-free survival, first relapse sites, survival post-progression and overall survival were investigated. A total of 274 non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients received chemoradiotherapy at our hospital. After excluding 121 patients for whom tumor specimens were not available and 34 patients with EGFR mutations, the remaining 119 patients were included in the analysis. KRAS mutations were found at a frequency of 13%. Patients with KRAS mutations had a shorter median relapse-free survival (6.1 vs 10.9 months) and a lower response rate (63% vs 81%). As for the first relapse site, patients with KRAS mutations had fewer local relapses (8% vs 23%) and more brain metastases (46% vs 12%). After disease progression, patients with KRAS mutations had a significantly shorter median survival post-progression (2.5 vs 7.3 months, P = 0.028) and median overall survival (15.1 vs 29.1 months, P = 0.022). Our results suggested that KRAS mutation could be associated with a reduced efficacy of chemoradiotherapy and a shortened survival time. PMID:26177347

  1. The role of lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel mode biopsy and positron emission tomography in the staging of the neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Nicholas Charles

    This thesis explores the limitations of current imaging modalities in the evaluation of the clinically node negative (N0) neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma and evaluates the utility of two new interventions. It will become evident that the use of clinical parameters and conventional imaging to detect clinically occult cervical lymph node metastases is an imprecise science. The presence of metastases in the neck is the single most important determinant of survival. Hitherto the lack of timely intervention in this regard may have been contributory in amplifying their effect upon survival. There is an obvious requirement for a more accurate technique to stage the neck in this patient group. Therefore the application of lymphoscintigraphy in combination with sentinel node biopsy (SNB), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been investigated. It appears that PET, whilst having a number of useful roles in the generic head and neck oncology patient, has little to contribute in the diagnosis of occult neck disease. In contra-distinction lymphoscintigraphy and SNB are not only feasible in the diagnosis of occult metastases, but also enhance our knowledge of lymphatic drainage from the oral cavity. This has, in some circumstances, led to the modification of initially prescribed treatment plans. Such is the current pace of technological advance that over the course of this research an entirely new imaging modality has emerged - PET/CT. Whilst it has not been possible to apply this retrospectively to the original patient population early experience of this novel technique in head and neck malignancy is explored and reported. The results of these initial applications are encouraging.

  2. Impact of KRAS mutation on response and outcome of patients with stage III non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yagishita, Shigehiro; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Sunami, Kuniko S; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Sumi, Minako; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kohno, Takashi; Furuta, Koh; Tsuta, Koji; Tamura, Tomohide; Ohe, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    The frequency and clinical profile of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer harboring KRAS mutations have not yet been well documented. Here, we analyzed hotspot KRAS mutations using high-resolution melting analyses in tumor specimens from patients who received chemoradiotherapy between January 2001 and December 2010 at the National Cancer Center Hospital. The associations between the presence of KRAS mutations and the response rate, relapse-free survival, first relapse sites, survival post-progression and overall survival were investigated. A total of 274 non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients received chemoradiotherapy at our hospital. After excluding 121 patients for whom tumor specimens were not available and 34 patients with EGFR mutations, the remaining 119 patients were included in the analysis. KRAS mutations were found at a frequency of 13%. Patients with KRAS mutations had a shorter median relapse-free survival (6.1 vs 10.9 months) and a lower response rate (63% vs 81%). As for the first relapse site, patients with KRAS mutations had fewer local relapses (8% vs 23%) and more brain metastases (46% vs 12%). After disease progression, patients with KRAS mutations had a significantly shorter median survival post-progression (2.5 vs 7.3 months, P = 0.028) and median overall survival (15.1 vs 29.1 months, P = 0.022). Our results suggested that KRAS mutation could be associated with a reduced efficacy of chemoradiotherapy and a shortened survival time. PMID:26177347

  3. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  4. Soy Isoflavones in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer Recurrence in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage I Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage II Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  5. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Cetuximab, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  6. Phase 2 Study of Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and Concurrent Radiation for Technically Resectable Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Inohara, Hidenori; Takenaka, Yukinori; Yoshii, Tadashi; Nakahara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomiyama, Yoichiro; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Sumida, Iori; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We investigated the efficacy and safety of weekly low-dose docetaxel and cisplatin therapy concurrent with conventionally fractionated radiation in patients with technically resectable stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and October 2011, we enrolled 117 patients, of whom 116 were analyzable (43 had oropharyngeal cancer, 54 had hypopharyngeal cancer, and 19 had laryngeal cancer), and 85 (73%) had stage IV disease. Radiation consisted of 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Docetaxel, 10 mg/m{sup 2}, followed by cisplatin, 20 mg/m{sup 2}, administered on the same day were given once a week for 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was overall complete response (CR) rate after chemoradiation therapy. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oropharyngeal cancer was examined by PCR. Results: Of 116 patients, 82 (71%) completed treatment per protocol; 102 (88%) received the full radiation therapy dose; and 90 (78%) and 12 (10%) patients received 6 and 5 chemotherapy cycles, respectively. Overall CR rate was 71%. After median follow-up of 50.9 months (range: 15.6-113.9 months for surviving patients), 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 82% and 68%, respectively. Cumulative 2-year and 4-year local failure rates were 27% and 28%, respectively, whereas distant metastasis rates were 15% and 22%, respectively. HPV status in oropharyngeal cancer was not associated with treatment efficacy. Acute toxicity included grade 3 and 4 in-field mucositis in 73% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas myelosuppression and renal injury were minimal. No patients died of toxicity. Feeding tube dependence in 8% and tracheostomy in 1% of patients were evident at 2 years postchemoradiation therapy in patients who survived without local treatment failure. Conclusions: Local control and survival with this regimen were satisfactory. Although acute toxicity, such as mucositis, was common, late toxicity, such as laryngoesophageal

  7. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  8. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  9. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  11. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Patient-tailored conservative surgical treatment of invasive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. A review.

    PubMed

    Menczer, J

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to review currently available data regarding the results of a more conservative, patient-tailored surgical approach in selected cases of early invasive uterine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A PubMed search of investigations in the English language published from January 2000 to September 2012 containing the terms conservative surgery, conservative treatment, trachelectomy, parametrectomy, lymphadenectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy and fertility sparing surgery in combination with SCC was made. Conization only is optimal for women with stage Ia1 disease mainly in tumors without lymph vascular space involvement (LVSI). In stage Ib1 patients interested to maintain reproductive capacity, vaginal or abdominal radical trachelectomy are the procedures of choice. Patients with small tumors (<2 cm), no deep invasion, no LVSI, and negative pelvic nodes are at very low risk of parametrial involvement and parametrectomy may be omitted in them. Such patients may benefit from less radical surgery and may be candidates for simple hysterectomy, simple trachelectomy, or conization with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is apparently a good predictor of node metastases and allows the performance of lymphadenectomy only in SLN positive cases. Thus lymphadenectomy may also be omitted in some patients. In young women with locally advanced tumors, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by fertility-sparing surgery may also be a feasible treatment. A more conservative, patient-tailored surgical approach in selected cases of early SCC is possible resulting in lower morbidity and preservation of fertility without compromising the outcome. PMID:24051940

  13. Antifungal properties of an actinomycin D-producing strain, Streptomyces sp. IA1, isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Goudjal, Yacine; Riba, Amar; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2015-02-01

    An actinomycete strain named IA1, which produced an antimicrobial compound, was isolated from a Saharan soil in In Amenas, Algeria. The study of the 16S rDNA sequence of this strain permitted to relate it to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (99.93% of similarity). Strain IA1 exhibited strong activity against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungi. One bioactive compound produced in large amounts (46.7 mg L(-1)  day(-1) ), named YA, was isolated and purified by TLC and reverse phase HPLC. The structure elucidation of the pure substance, using combined data from UV visible, NMR spectra, and mass spectrometry, permitted to identify it as actinomycin D, and was thus found for the first time in S. mutabilis related species. The biocontrol abilities of the strain IA1 and compound YA were evaluated through two diseases, i.e., chocolate spot of field bean and Fusarium wilt of flax. The occurrence of the two fungal diseases was effectively reduced. The reduction of chocolate spot disease symptoms reached 80 and 91.7% with IA1 and YA seedlings pretreatments, respectively. Soil pretreatment with IA1 or YA also allowed to reduce Fusarium wilt disease impact by almost 60%. PMID:25284744

  14. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Multivariate Analysis of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence After Definitive Radiotherapy for Stage IB-IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E.-Y.; Wang, C.-J.; Chen, H.-C.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, Y.-J.; Wang, C.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pretreatment risk factors of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence after primary radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 1992 and January 2006, the data from 758 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were retrospectively analyzed. No patient had undergone PALN radiotherapy as their initial treatment. PALN recurrence was diagnosed by computed tomography. PALN relapse-free status was determined clinically or radiographically. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox regression models. Results: Of the 758 patients, 38 (5%) and 42 (6%) had isolated and nonisolated PALN recurrences after a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 2-159 months), respectively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate after PALN recurrence was 35% and 28%, respectively. A squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) level >40 ng/mL (p <0.001), advanced parametrial involvement (score 4-6; p = 0.002), and the presence of pelvic lymphadenopathy (p = 0.007) were independent factors associated with PALN relapse on multivariate analysis. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate in patients with a SCC-Ag level >40 ng/mL, SCC-Ag level of 20-40 ng/mL, parametrial score of 4-6, pelvic lymphadenopathy, and no risk factors was 57%, 22%, 34%, 37%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and a high SCC-Ag level, pelvic lymphadenopathy, or advanced PM involvement were predisposed to PALN recurrence after definitive radiotherapy. More intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in high-risk patients.

  16. Genetic Testing in Screening Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Has Been or Will Be Removed by Surgery (The ALCHEMIST Screening Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-30

    Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

  17. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Treating Patients With Benign or Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-07

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage

  18. A phase III randomised trial of cisplatinum, methotrextate, cisplatinum + methotrexate and cisplatinum + 5-FU in end stage squamous carcinoma of the head and neck. Liverpool Head and Neck Oncology Group.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We describe a phase III trial on 200 patients with end stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The patients were randomised to one of four treatment arms: cisplatinum alone, methotrexate alone, cisplatinum + 5-FU and cisplatinum + methotrexate. There was no significant difference in the response rates, but the survival of the cisplatinum arm was significantly better than that of the methotrexate arm. The survival of patients receiving cisplatinum as a single agent was longer than that of patients receiving cisplatinum in combination with methotrexate or 5-FU, but not significantly so. Nausea/vomiting and anaemia were significantly more common in the cisplatinum arms than in the methotrexate arm, but the toxicity of combination regimens was not significantly greater than that of cisplatinum used as a single agent. PMID:2178667

  19. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Before Radiation Therapy With Paclitaxel in Treating HPV-Positive Patients With Stage III-IV Oropharynx, Hypopharynx, or Larynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma —

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Phase 3 Study of Bavituximab Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel Alone in Patients With Late-stage Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-01

    Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB; Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Stage IV; Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Metastatic; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma; Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

  3. Application of a cytochrome P-450 IA1-ELISA in environmental monitoring and toxicological testing of fish.

    PubMed

    Goksøyr, A; Larsen, H E; Husøy, A M

    1991-01-01

    1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on polyclonal rabbit anti-cod cytochrome P-450 IA1 IgG has been developed in our laboratory. 2. The antibodies employed in the ELISA demonstrate good cross-reactivity with the homologous protein in a number of other fish species, giving cross-reacting protein bands o 54-59 kDa in liver microsomes, as determined by Western blotting. 3. The ELISA technique has been used in numerous experiments with both field collected and laboratory exposed fish of different species, showing good correlation with contaminant exposure. 4. In some instances of PCB exposure where the classical P-450 IA1 monooxygenase assay 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) failed to reveal any induction, the ELISA technique demonstrated increased levels of P-450 IA1 protein, indicating inhibiting effects of the PCBs on EROD measurement. 5. In tissues like gill filaments, and in whole cod larvae, where EROD activity is barely detectable, if at all, the ELISA technique showed induction after exposure to a water soluble fraction (WSF) of North Sea crude oil. 6. The results reviewed indicate the usefulness of the ELISA technique to allow rapid screening of a large number of samples, and especially when catalytic measurement is difficult or impossible due to (a) small sample or tissue size, (b) loss of activities in bad storage conditions, or (c) presence of compounds inhibiting activity. PMID:1677846

  4. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... often enough to cure basal and squamous cell skin cancers without further treatment. There are different types of skin biopsies. The ... and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Skin Cancer - ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Basal and Squamous ...

  5. Influence of the vocal cord mobility in salvage surgery after radiotherapy for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Gorphe, Philippe; Blanchard, Pierre; Temam, Stephane; Janot, François

    2015-10-01

    Disease relapses occur in up to 40% of cases after radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage glottic laryngeal neoplasms, and the foremost remaining treatment option is salvage total laryngectomy (STL). Our objectives were to review the outcomes of patients treated with salvage surgery after RT for early-stage carcinoma of the glottic larynx and to assess prognostic factors. We retrospectively analyzed 43 patients who underwent surgery. Overall and disease-free survival rates among subgroups were calculated and compared, stratified by preoperative stage, vocal cord mobility and postoperative histopathologic data. Recurrences occurred 22.7 months after the end of RT. Surgery was STL in 33 cases (76.8%). The main prognostic factors associated with survival rates were initial vocal cord mobility, vocal cord mobility at the diagnosis of recurrence, and changes in mobility. Vocal cord mobility is an important clinical criterion in treatment decision making for early-stage glottis carcinoma and remains important during follow-up. PMID:25218197

  6. Segregation and efficacy of the cry1Ia1 gene for control of potato tuberworm in four populations of cultivated potato.

    PubMed

    Douches, David S; Coombs, Joseph J; Felcher, Kimberly J; Zuehlke, Matthew; Pett, Walter; Szendrei, Zsofia; Brink, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar 'SpuntaG2' contains a single copy of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ia1 gene and controls potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Two potato cultivars and two breeding lines were crossed with SpuntaG2 creating four populations used to study cry1Ia1 segregation and efficacy. The cry1Ia1 gene segregated in each of the four populations with a 1:1 ratio. All progeny that were polymerase chain reaction positive for the cry1Ia1 gene had no surviving larvae and no leaf mining in detached leaf assays after 72 h. These results support previous evidence that SpuntaG2 carries a single copy of the cry1Ia1 gene and that transmission of the transgene from parent to progeny is not restricted and follows expected Mendelian segregation ratios. Based on detached leaf assays, the efficacy of the cry1Ia1 gene is retained through sexual transmission. If the SpuntaG2 cry1Ia1 insertion event is deregulated for commercial use, SpuntaG2 could be used for conventional breeding and the progeny carrying the SpuntaG2 event would also be available for commercial use. PMID:23786096

  7. A Prospective Evaluation of Staging and Target Volume Definition of Lymph Nodes by {sup 18}FDG PET/CT in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Thoracic Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Wen; Fu Xiaolong; Zhang Yingjian; Xiang Jiaqing; Shen Lei; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine an optimal standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold for detecting lymph node (LN) metastases in esophageal cancer using {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography ({sup 18}FDG PET/CT) and to define the resulting nodal target volume, using histopathology as a 'gold standard.' Methods: Sixteen patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radical esophagectomy and three-field LN dissection after {sup 18}FDG PET/CT and CT scans were enrolled into this study. Locations of LN groups were recorded according to a uniform LN map. Diagnostic performance of different SUV thresholds was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The optimal cutoff SUV was determined by plotting the false-negative rate (FNR) and false-positive rate (FPR), the sum of both error rates (FNR+FPR), and accuracy against a hypothetical SUV threshold. For each patient, nodal gross tumor volumes (GTVNs) were generated with CT alone (GTVNCT), PET/CT (GTVNPET), and pathologic data (GTVNpath). GTVNCT or GTVNPET was compared with GTVNpath by means of a conformity index (CI), which is the intersection of the two GTVNs divided by the sum of them minus the intersection, e.g., CI{sub CT} and {sub path} = GTVN{sub CT} and {sub path}/(GTVN{sub CT}+ GTVN{sub path} - GTVN{sub CT} and {sub path}). Results: LN metastases occurred in 21 LN groups among the 144 specimens taken from the 16 patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9017 {+-} 0.0410. The plot of error rates showed a minimum of FNR+FPR for an SUV of 2.36, at which the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 76.19%, 95.93%, and 93.06%, respectively, whereas those of CT were 33.33%, 94.31%, and 85.42% (p values: 0.0117, 0.7539, and 0.0266). Mean GTVN{sub CT}, GTVN{sub PET}, and GTVN{sub path} were 1.52 {+-} 2.38, 2.82 {+-} 4.51, and 2.68 {+-} 4.16cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean CI{sub CT} and {sub path} and CI{sub PET} and {sub path

  8. Development of a New Classification Method for Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma Based on Lymph Node Density and Standard Pathological Risk Factors: The ND Staging System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zai-Shang; Yao, Kai; Chen, Peng; Wang, Bin; Mi, Qi-Wu; Chen, Jie-Ping; Li, Yong-Hong; Deng, Chuang-Zhong; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Qin, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Object: In this study, we evaluated the role of lymph node density (LND) and validated whether LND increases the accuracy of survival prediction when combined with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological node (N) staging system for penile cancer (7th edition). Methods: A total of 270 Chinese penile cancer patients treated between March 1999 and October 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. LND was analyzed as a trichotomous variable for the prediction of DSS in this cohort. We developed a new prediction model, which we refer to as the ND staging system, that is based on LND and pathological N staging. The predictive accuracy of this model was further assessed using the concordance index. Results: LND was correlated with the laterality of lymph node metastasis, extranodal extension, pelvic lymph node metastases, and pathologic tumor (T) and N stages (P<0.05). In separate multivariate Cox regression models, the LND (hazard ratio [HR], 1.966, 95% confidence interval [CI], (1.112-3.473, P=0.020) yielded independent effects on the outcome. According to the LND classification, the 3-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for patients with LNDs <7.0%, 7.0 to 16.9%, and ≥17.0% were 90.9%, 66.5%, and 22.2%, respectively (P<7.0%; 7.0%-16.9%=0.006; P7.0-16.9%; ≥17.0%=0.001). The corresponding rates were 95.7%, 76.7%, and 28.1% for the ND1, ND2, and ND3 patients, respectively (PND1-ND2=0.047; PND2-ND3<0.001). The indexes indicated that the accuracy of the pathological ND category that incorporated LND was significantly increased. Conclusion: LND was associated with some prognosticators and is thus a prognostic factor. The ND staging system that incorporates the LND better reflects the prognoses of penile cancer patients. PMID:26918038

  9. Esophagoscopy in Evaluating Treatment in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Who Are Undergoing Radiation Therapy and/or Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-09

    Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  10. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy T; Robertson, Patricia; Zaloudek, Charles J; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-09-01

    A pregnant 29-year-old gravida 4, para 3 woman with Stage IIB cervical cancer was admitted at 33 weeks and 4 days of gestation and delivered a healthy neonate. Her placenta was small but otherwise grossly unremarkable. Microscopic examination revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical stain for p16 was positive in the carcinoma cells, supporting metastasis from the cervical tumor. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta is very rare. We report a case and discuss metastatic cancer during pregnancy with recommendations for infant follow-up. PMID:23896714

  11. Radiation-induced squamous sialometaplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Leshin, B.; White, W.L.; Koufman, J.A. )

    1990-07-01

    We describe a patient with recurrent acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy. Mohs micrographic sections revealed extensive squamous sialometaplasia showing striking histologic similarity to the patient's squamous cell carcinoma. Criteria necessary to differentiate squamous sialometaplasia from neoplasm are presented. This differentiation is important to ensure adequate tumor resection without unnecessary sacrifice of tumor-free tissue.

  12. Induction therapy with cetuximab plus docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (ETPF) in patients with resectable nonmetastatic stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. A GERCOR phase II ECHO-07 study

    PubMed Central

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Lacave, Roger; Lefevre, Marine; Soussan, Patrick; Antoine, Martine; Périé, Sophie; Belloc, Jean-Baptiste; Banal, Alain; Albert, Sébastien; Chabolle, Frédéric; Céruse, Philippe; Baril, Philippe; Gatineau, Michel; Housset, Martin; Moukoko, Rachel; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 months. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3–4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage. PMID:25684313

  13. Induction therapy with cetuximab plus docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (ETPF) in patients with resectable nonmetastatic stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. A GERCOR phase II ECHO-07 study.

    PubMed

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Lacave, Roger; Lefevre, Marine; Soussan, Patrick; Antoine, Martine; Périé, Sophie; Belloc, Jean-Baptiste; Banal, Alain; Albert, Sébastien; Chabolle, Frédéric; Céruse, Philippe; Baril, Philippe; Gatineau, Michel; Housset, Martin; Moukoko, Rachel; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 onths. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage. PMID:25684313

  14. In Vivo{sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Graves, Edward; Pinto, Harlan; Brown, J. Martin; Spielman, Daniel

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate in vivo{sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO{sub 2}, nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 0.46 {+-} 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} {<=}10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 {+-} 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 2.74 {+-} 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO{sub 2}, treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

  15. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab and/or Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

  16. Comparison of Four Cisplatin-Based Radiochemotherapy Regimens for Nonmetastatic Stage III/IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck;Head-and-neck cancer; Cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy; Toxicity; Treatment outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Kronemann, Stefanie; Meyners, Thekla; Bohlen, Guenther; Tribius, Silke; Kazic, Nadja; Schroeder, Ursula; Hakim, Samer G.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of four cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 311 patients with Stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 (Group A, n = 74), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group B, n = 49), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group C, n = 102), or two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group D, n = 86). The groups were retrospectively compared for toxicity and outcomes, and 11 additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding radiation-related acute oral mucositis and radiation-related late toxicities. Acute Grade 3 skin toxicity was significantly more frequent in Group B than in the patients of the other three groups (p = .013). The chemotherapy-related Grade 3 nausea/vomiting rate was 24% for Group A, 8% for Group B, 9% for Group C, and 6% for Group D (p = .003). The corresponding Grade 3 nephrotoxicity rates were 8%, 1%, 2%, and 1% (p = .019). The corresponding Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity rates were 35%, 41%, 19%, and 21% (p = .027). Chemotherapy could be completed in 50%, 59%, 74%, and 83% of the Group A, B, C, and D patients, respectively (p = .002). Toxicity-related radiotherapy breaks occurred in 39%, 43%, 21%, and 15% of Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .005). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 67%, 72%, 60%, and 59% for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .48). The corresponding 3-year metastasis-free survival rates were 67%, 74%, 63%, and 79% (p = .31), and the corresponding 3-year survival rates were 60%, 63%, 50%, and 71% (p = .056). On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status, histologic grade, T/N category, preradiotherapy hemoglobin level

  17. Prediction of treatment outcome by cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in patients with stage III/IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, treated by concurrent cisplatin-radiation (RADPLAT).

    PubMed

    Hoebers, Frank J P; Pluim, Dick; Verheij, Marcel; Balm, Alfons J M; Bartelink, Harry; Schellens, Jan H M; Begg, Adrian C

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of our study was to test the predictive value of cisplatin-DNA adduct levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with cisplatin-radiation. Patients with advanced-stage HNSCC were treated within a randomized trial, investigating the optimal route of cisplatin administration, concurrently with radiation. Cisplatin was administered intra-arterially (IA, 150 mg/m2, with systemic rescue by sodium thiosulfate) or intravenously (IV, 100 mg/m2). In a subgroup, adducts were quantified in normal tissue and tumor. 32P-postlabeling was used to quantify intrastrand guanosine-guanosine adducts (GG-adducts) and adenosine-guanosine adducts (AG-adducts). Adduct levels were correlated with treatment outcome. Thirty-five patients were included (21 IV and 14 IA). At median follow-up of 27 months, locoregional (LR) control was 75% at 1 and 70% at 2 years. Adduct levels in tumor were 4-5-fold higher than in white blood cells (WBC) for both IA and IV treatment (p = 0.01). Adduct formation in WBC and buccal cells was higher in IV treated patients compared with IA infusion (p = 0.049 and 0.005 for GG-adducts in WBC and buccal cells, respectively). Adducts in tumors after IA infusion were not statistically different from those after IV. A strong correlation was observed between GG- and AG-adduct formation (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Patients with higher GG adduct levels (>median) in primary tumor had significantly better disease free survival (DFS) than patients with lower (< or = median) adduct levels (p = 0.02). For overall survival (OS), a nonsignificant trend was observed, again in favor of patients with higher adduct levels (p = 0.06). In conclusion, cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in primary tumor appears to be predictive for DFS in HNSCC. No differences were observed in intratumoral adduct levels between IA and IV treatments, despite selective infusion of high-dose cisplatin with the IA procedure. However, systemic adduct levels (WBC and buccal

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically ...

  20. Liver cells contain constitutive DNase I-hypersensitive sites at the xenobiotic response elements 1 and 2 (XRE1 and -2) of the rat cytochrome P-450IA1 gene and a constitutive, nuclear XRE-binding factor that is distinct from the dioxin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hapgood, J; Cuthill, S; Söderkvist, P; Wilhelmsson, A; Pongratz, I; Tukey, R H; Johnson, E F; Gustafsson, J A; Poellinger, L

    1991-01-01

    Dioxin stimulates transcription from the cytochrome P-450IA1 promoter by interaction with the intracellular dioxin receptor. Upon binding of ligand, the receptor is converted to a form which specifically interacts in vitro with two dioxin-responsive positive control elements located in close proximity to each other about 1 kb upstream of the rat cytochrome P-450IA1 gene transcription start point. In rat liver, the cytochrome P-450IA1 gene is marked at the chromatin level by two DNase I-hypersensitive sites that map to the location of the response elements and exist prior to induction of transcription by the dioxin receptor ligand beta-naphthoflavone. In addition, a DNase I-hypersensitive site is detected near the transcription initiation site and is altered in nuclease sensitivity by induction. The presence of the constitutive DNase I-hypersensitive sites at the dioxin response elements correlates with the presence of a constitutive, labile factor which specifically recognizes these elements in vitro. This factor appears to be distinct from the dioxin receptor, which is observed only in nuclear extract from treated cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that a certain protein-DNA architecture may be maintained at the response elements at different stages of gene expression. Images PMID:1652054

  1. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Comparison of Two Combination Chemotherapy Regimens Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-30

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer

  4. Interactions among Ah receptor agonists in a novel human bioassay for induction of cytochrome P-450 IA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hasspieler, B.M.; Gillan, K.; Haffner, G.D.; Adeli, K.; Niimi, A.

    1995-12-31

    A widespread technique for monitoring pollutant exposure and toxicity is based upon induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. Numerous classes of xenobiotics, including PCBs, PAHs, PCDDs and PCDFs, stimulate induction of the CYP IA1 subfamily via binding to the intracellular Ah receptor. A widely-used catalytic marker for this subfamily is ethoxyresorufin 0-deethylase (EROD). Toxic equivalency factors may be calculated for ranking toxicity of pollutants relative to agonists such as 2,3,7,8,-TCDD, a highly potent inducer and Ah receptor ligand. These methods typically utilize cell lines from rodents (e.g., H4IIE) or fish (e.g., RTL 149), and although such models may be relevant to these and related species, they are of little direct applicability to human health concerns. The laboratory has recently developed a system for monitoring EROD induction in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. Treatment of HepG2 cells with Ah receptor agonists such as TCDD elicits induction responses, comparable to those observed in non-human bioassays. When cells are exposed to TCDD and purified PCBs simultaneously, significant interactions are observed. Both inductive and non-inductive PCB congeners appear to inhibit TCDD-mediated EROD induction, presumably due to competition for the Ah receptor ligand-binding site. This may potentially lead to gross underestimation of the toxicity of complex mixtures in which such interactions take place. Results demonstrate the utility of this novel bioassay for assessing hazard of environmental pollutant mixtures to human as well as ecosystem health.

  5. Clinicopathologic Features of Advanced Squamous NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Socinski, Mark A; Obasaju, Coleman; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Bonomi, Philip; Bunn, Paul; Kim, Edward S; Langer, Corey J; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Spigel, David R; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. NSCLC accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers, and the prognosis for advanced-stage disease is typically poor. In recent years, the importance of histologic subtypes of NSCLC has been recognized, and the distinction between squamous and other NSCLC histologic subtypes is now critical to patient management. Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) represents approximately 25% to 30% of NSCLC. The prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC is poorer for those with sqCLC than for those with adenocarcinoma. This is partly due to a number of clinical characteristics that distinguish sqCLC from other NSCLC histologic subtypes, such as smoking history, comorbid diseases, age, and molecular profile. Together, these factors make sqCLC an especially challenging disease to manage. Herein, we review some of the key clinicopathologic features of sqCLC. Understanding these features to optimally address many of the unique therapeutic challenges of this disease is likely to be central to ultimately improving outcomes for patients with squamous NSCLC. PMID:27296106

  6. A case of simultaneous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoo; Iwaya, Yugo; Iwaya, Mai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Seki, Ayako; Ochi, Yasuhide; Hara, Etsuo; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Hosaka, Noriko; Arakura, Norikazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Hasebe, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    A 77-year-old male with a long history of alcohol consumption and smoking was admitted for hoarseness and dysphagia. Computed tomography revealed thickening of the middle intrathoracic esophageal wall and multiple mediastinal lymph node swellings. Esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination disclosed an advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma lesion in the middle intrathoracic esophagus with synchronous early stage Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for the adenocarcinoma followed by chemoradiation therapy for the squamous cell carcinoma. In spite of their common risk factors, the simultaneous manifestation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and requires further study. PMID:27220657

  7. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

  8. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Squamous Metaplasia Is Increased in the Bronchial Epithelium of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, Helen M.; Alias, Ahmad; Havelock, Thomas; O'Donnell, Rory; Djukanovic, Ratko; Davies, Donna E.; Wilson, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To quantify the extent of squamous metaplasia in bronchial biopsies and relate it to the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a smoking-related pathology. Methods Bronchial biopsies (n = 15 in each group) from smokers with COPD GOLD stage1 and GOLD stage2, smokers without COPD and healthy non-smokers were stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies that facilitated the identification of pseudostratified epithelium and distinction of squamous metaplasia and squamous epithelium from tangentially cut epithelium. The percentage length of each of these epithelial phenotypes was measured as a percent of total epithelial length using computerised image analysis. Sections were also stained for carcinoembryonic antigen and p53, early markers of carcinogenesis, and Ki67, and the percentage epithelial expression measured. Results The extent of squamous metaplasia was significantly increased in both COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers. The amount of fully differentiated squamous epithelium was also increased in COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy non-smokers, as was the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen. These features correlated with one other. Conclusion In subjects with COPD there is a loss of pseudostratified epithelium accompanied by an increase in squamous metaplasia with transition into a fully squamous epithelium and expression of early markers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27228128

  10. Genesis of squamous cell lung carcinoma. Sequential changes of proliferation, DNA ploidy, and p53 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, T.; Franzén, B.; Kato, H.; Ebihara, Y.; Auer, G.

    1994-01-01

    Squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCCs) represent a highly malignant group of tumors, and effective treatment is greatly dependent upon early diagnosis. However, objective diagnosis of atypia is difficult and useful markers need to be defined. In this study, genomic instability, cell proliferation, and cellular accumulation of mutant p53, as reflected by DNA aneuploidy, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p53 immunoreactivity, respectively, were evaluated in bronchial squamous metaplasia without atypia (n = 4), bronchial squamous metaplasia with low-grade atypia (n = 12), bronchial squamous metaplasia with high-grade atypia (n = 15), early-stage SCC (n = 15), and advanced-stage SCC (n = 33). Our results suggest that hyperproliferation is an early event followed by DNA aneuploidy, which in turn precedes p53 immunoreactivity in the genesis of SCC. We conclude that routine assessment of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, DNA ploidy, and p53 may be valuable for the early diagnosis of SCC. Images Figure 2 PMID:7906095

  11. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  12. Prognostic Significance of Invasive Tumor Front in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-01-01

    Tumor, Node, and Metastasis (TNM) classification dictates treatment planning for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This system stages tumor on the principle that smaller size tumors have a better prognosis than larger tumors with local or distant spread. It has been brought to light that many tumors with similar clinical staging show different clinical behavior and growth patterns. This results in difficulty in predicting the prognosis for patients with OSCC on the basis of clinical staging alone.(1) How to cite this article: Patil S, Augustine D, Rao RS. Prognostic Significance of Invasive Tumor Front in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(1):1-2. PMID:27084854

  13. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  14. [A study on survival rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, G S; Chen, C H

    1996-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is seen predominantly after the fourth decade of life. We have retrospectively reviewed 103 patients (92 males and 11 females) with squamous cell carcinoma, which were confirmed by histopathologic examination and treated by surgical excision at Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital from 1987 to 1991. The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 87 years. 39.8% of cases occurred on the buccal mucosa, 27.2% on the tongue, 15.5% on the gingiva of mandible, 8% on the maxilla, 7.8% on the lower lip and 1% on the floor of the mouth. 23.3% of the patients had stage I disease, 14.6% were stage II, 43.7% were stage III and 18.4% stage IV. Of 103 patients treated with wide excision, about 65% (17/103) of patients treated with wide excision and radical neck dissection or suprahyoid neck dissection, and 41% (42/103) were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. 96% (99/103) of our cases have completed a minimum follow-up period of 3 years. The sex and age of the patients did not influence survival significantly. The 5-year survival rates were 62% for patients with stage I disease, 80% for patients with stage II disease, 42% for patients with stage III, and 19% for patients with stage IV disease. Stage at initial presentation was an important factor influencing survival. The location of the primary tumor did not significantly influence survival for early stage tumors (stage I & II). In terminal stage tumors (stage III & IV). those with carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, gingiva of the mandible, lip, and maxilla had a 5-year survival of 15%, those with carcinomas of the tongue had a 5-year survival of 47%, and those with carcinomas of the buccal mucosa had a favorable survival rate of 53%. The differences were significant (P = 0.017). PMID:8699569

  15. Identification of somatic gene mutations in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Masferrer, Emili; Vivancos, Ana; Somoza, Rosa; Marés, Roso; Valverde, Claudia; Salvador, Carlos; Placer, Jose; Morote, Juan; Pujol, Ramon M; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; de Torres, Ines; Toll, Agusti; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies on somatic gene mutations and cell signaling driving penile carcinogenesis. Our objective was to analyze somatic mutations in genes downstream of EGFR in penile squamous cell carcinomas, especially the mTOR and RAS/MAPK pathways. We retrospectively analyzed somatic mutations in 10 in situ and 65 invasive penile squamous cell carcinomas by using Sequenom's Mass Spectrometry iPlex Technology and Oncocarta v1.0 Panel. The DNA was extracted from FFPE blocks and we identified somatic missense mutations in three in situ tumors and in 19 invasive tumors, mostly in PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and PDGFA genes. Somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene or RAS family genes were neither associated with tumor grade, stage or outcome, and were equally often identified in hrHPV positive and in hrHPV negative tumors that showed no p53 expression. Mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, and HRAS are frequent in penile squamous cell carcinoma and likely play a role in the development of p53-negative tumors. Although the presence of these mutations does not seem to correlate with tumoral behavior or outcome, they could be biomarkers of treatment failure with anti-EGFR mAb in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26216163

  16. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  17. Value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: an update of the series and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mistrangelo, D M; Bellò, M; Cassoni, P; Milanesi, E; Racca, P; Munoz, F; Fora, G; Rondi, N; Gilbo, N; Senetta, R; Ricardi, U; Morino, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inguinal metastases in patients affected by anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality. Since 2001, sentinel lymph node biopsy was applied in these patients. This original study reports an update of personal and previous published series, which were compared with Literature to value the incidence of inguinal metastases T-stage related and the overall incidence of false negative inguinal metastases at sentinel node. Methods: In all, 63 patients diagnosed with anal cancer submitted to inguinal sentinel node. Furthermore a research in the Pub Med database was performed to find papers regarding this technique. Results: In our series, detection rate was 98.4%. Inguinal metastases were evidentiated in 13 patients (20.6%). Our median follow-up was 35 months. In our series, no false negative nodes were observed. Conclusion: Sentinel node technique in the detection of inguinal metastases in patients affected by anal cancer should be considered as a standard of care. It is indicated for all T stages in order to select patients to be submitted to inguinal radiotherapy, avoiding related morbidity in negative ones. An overall 3.7% rate of false negative must be considered acceptable. PMID:23329231

  18. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Balzi, M.; Ninu, B.M.; Becciolini, A.; Scubla, E.; Boanini, P.; Gallina, E.; Gallo, O.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Bondi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Two cell kinetic parameters, the 3H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) and the mitotic index (MI), were studied in vitro on fragments of squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the larynx. They were evaluated to identify those elements able to characterize the growth of these solid tumors. The values of these parameters were analyzed as a function of the clinical stage and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the TLI from stage T1 to T3. No statistically significant differences in the TLI values were observed between the patients with positive and negative lymph nodes.

  20. Expression of GLUT-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Neha; Kumari Maurya, Malti; Kar, Meenakshi; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Sagar, Mala; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background GLUTs are a family of proteins that mediate glucose transport through the membrane, expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. GLUT-1 positivity in malignant cells indicates increased proliferative activity, energy requirements, aggressive behaviour and poor radiation response. Aim To observe the expression of GLUT-1 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users and to correlate the expression with histopathological grading and pathological staging. Methods 50 cases (25 tobacco and 25 non-tobacco) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, selected during period of August 2014 to July 2015. Histopathological grading, TNM and staging were done. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using standard protocol for paraffin embedded sections. Analysis was performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0). Results Significant association of GLUT-1 expression was found with history of tobacco (p < 0.001), Bryne's grade (p < 0.001), tumour size (p = 0.001), nodal metastasis (p = 0.022) and stage (p < 0.001). Higher GLUT-1 expression in stage II, stage III and stage IV was found as compared to stage I. GLUT-1 immunoexpression also shows progressive switch from membranous to cytoplasmic to combined location correlating with histopathologic grade and pTNM stage. Conclusion GLUT-1 expression correlates significantly with histological grade and pTNM staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It also significantly correlates with tobacco addiction. Thus, GLUT-1 expression may serve as a biomarker for patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26937365

  1. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles; Eifel, Patricia J. . E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors {<=}4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy

  2. Modeling Cutaneous Squamous Carcinoma Development in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Phillips Y.; Balmain, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers in Caucasian populations and is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The classic mouse model for studying SCC involves two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, which has been instrumental in the evolution of the concept of multistage carcinogenesis, as widely applied to both human and mouse cancers. Much is now known about the sequence of biological and genetic events that occur in this skin carcinogenesis model and the factors that can influence the course of tumor development, such as perturbations in the oncogene/tumor-suppressor signaling pathways involved, the nature of the target cell that acquires the first genetic hit, and the role of inflammation. Increasingly, studies of tumor-initiating cells, malignant progression, and metastasis in mouse skin cancer models will have the potential to inform future approaches to treatment and chemoprevention of human squamous malignancies. PMID:25183851

  3. Comparison of activities dependent on glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 IA1 in cultured keratinocytes and reconstructed epidermal models.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ian R; Siefken, Wilfried; Beck-Oldach, Konstanze; Brandt, Michael; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Pollet, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for in vitro testing of compounds for topical application. Reconstructed epidermal models may provide a suitable and relevant model for screening compounds that may affect the activities of phase I and II enzymes involved in epidermal detoxification. In this study, we measured the activity of a phase I enzyme, cytochrome P450 IA1, i.e. 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activities, and that of a phase II enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST). The enzyme activities were determined in cultured keratinocytes, reconstructed epidermal models and samples of human epidermis or hair follicle. EROD activity was detected in cultured keratinocytes and was induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and beta-naphthoflavone. The level of induction increased with increasing confluence. Induced EROD activity could be inhibited by clotrimazole in a dose-dependent manner. However, EROD activity was not detected in either hair follicles or untreated epidermal models but could be induced by 3-MC. The ability to induce EROD activity in epidermal models was batch dependent, and clotrimazole was able to inhibit the induced EROD activity. ECOD activity was detected in untreated models and paralleled EROD activity. GST activity was detected in cultured keratinocytes and all epidermal models. GST activity in models was equal or higher than the activity in epidermal samples. Reconstructed skin models may be useful to study the effects of non-water-soluble topical formulations on xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:12476009

  4. Variations of gastric corpus microbiota are associated with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ploner, Alexander; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Fahimi, Saman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Kamangar, Farin; Abnet, Christian C.; Winckler, Björn; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies revealed a relationship between changes in gastric mucosa and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) which suggested a possible role for gastric microbiota in ESCC carcinogenesis. In this study we aimed to compare pattern of gastric corpus microbiota in ESCC with normal esophagus. Cases were included subjects with early ESCC (stage I–II) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) as the cancer precursor. Control groups included age and sex-matched subjects with mid-esophagus esophagitis (diseased-control), and histologically normal esophagus (healthy-control). DNA was extracted from snap-frozen gastric corpus tissues and 16S rRNA was sequenced on GS-FLX Titanium. After noise removal, an average of 3004 reads per sample was obtained from 93 subjects. We applied principal coordinate analysis to ordinate distances from beta diversity data. Pattern of gastric microbiota using Unifrac (p = 0.004) and weighted Unifrac distances (p = 0.018) statistically varied between cases and healthy controls. Sequences were aligned to SILVA database and Clostridiales and Erysipelotrichales orders were more abundant among cases after controling for multiple testing (p = 0.011). No such difference was observed between mid-esophagitis and healthy controls. This study is the first to show that composition of gastric corpus mucosal microbiota differs in early ESCC and ESD from healthy esophagus. PMID:25743945

  5. Endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Nourouzi, Alireza; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahryar; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth common cancer and the sixth most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains the most common type of EC in the developing world and an important health problem in high-risk areas. Most of ESCC cases present in late stages, resulting in delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Prevention is the most effective strategy to control ESCC. Primary and secondary preventive methods may be considered for ESCC. In primary prevention, we try to avoid known risk factors. The aim of the secondary preventive method (ESCC screening programs) is to detect and eliminate premalignant precursor lesion of ESCC, preventing its progression into advanced stages. Similar to all population-based screening programs, any screening for early detection of ESCC must be cost-effective; otherwise, screening may not be indicated in that population. Endoscopy with iodine staining has been accepted as a population-level ESCC screening program in some high-risk areas including parts of China. This method may be too expensive and invasive in other high-risk communities. Nonendoscopic methods may be more applicable in these populations for population-based screenings. The limitations (questionable validity and costs) of new endoscopic imaging modalities, including narrow-band imaging (NBI), made them inappropriate to be used in population-level ESCC screening programs. Low-cost, less-invasive endoscopic imaging methods with acceptable diagnostic performance may make screening of ESCC in high-risk areas cost-effective. PMID:23725069

  6. Bupropion Hydrochloride or Patient's Choice for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-27

    Current Smoker; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Effects of two genes coding squamous cell carcinoma antigen on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qi’nan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Chenchen; Liu, Yanjuan; Chen, Zhuo; Lu, Fuer; Huang, Guangying

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of expressions of SCCA1 and SCCA2 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma on its diagnosis, treatment evaluation and prognosis analysis. M ethod s : Seventy-six cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients enrolled in our hospital from October 2011 to April 2013 were selected, and another 76 healthy females (without cervical tissue lesions) were enrolled as the control. SCCA1 and SCCA2 expressions in the two groups were compared by RT-PCR. The serodiagnosis results before and after chemotherapy were compared to clarify the effects of SCCA2 expression. Results: The two groups had similar relative SCCA1 expression rates that were not significantly correlated with pathological factors. Before chemotherapy, the relative expression rates of SCCA2 were significantly higher in the patients with later stage (t=6.018, P=0.00082<0.05) and lymphatic metastasis (t=6.281, P=0.00192<0.05). After treatment, relative SCCA2 expression rate was decreased more significantly in the effective group than that in the ineffective group (t=10.27893, P=0.02815<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of SCCA1 failed to indicate the onset, diagnosis and prevention of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, whereas that of SCCA2 worked as one of the tumor markers. PMID:24772127

  8. Isolated Limb Perfusion With Melphalan in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB-IV Melanoma or Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-22

    Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Eccrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Skin Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  9. Significance of the expression of integrin β1, VEGF and MVD in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y M; Gan, W G; Xu, Z H

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the expression of integrin β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) by CD105 staining in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma to determine their association with clinicopathologic characteristics, and to determine their role and the effects of their interactions in the development and progression of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of integrin β1 and VEGF and MVD in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and normal hypopharyngeal tissues were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The Image-Pro Plus software was used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Integrin β1 expression was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues (78.00%) than in normal hypopharyngeal tissues (35.00%; P = 0.001) and significantly differed across pathologic grades and different T stages, and regarding the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). VEGF expression was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues (74.00%) than in normal hypopharyngeal tissues (30.00%; P = 0.002), VEGF overexpression differed significantly across different pathologic grades and different T stages, and regarding the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The MVD count was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues (37.10 ± 5.95) than in normal hypopharyngeal tissues (8.70 ± 3.34; P = 0.000). MVD differed significantly across different pathologic grades and different T stages, and regarding the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). The expression of integrin β1 and VEGF and the MVD count exhibited no significant differences in terms of age, gender, history of smoking, and clinical stages (P > 0.05). VEGF expression was positively associated with the MVD count of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (r = 0.582, P = 0.000); however, integrin β1 was

  10. A rare case of renal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Kothikar, Vishakha

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women in many developing countries. Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix spreads principally by lymphatics and less commonly through blood vessels. The most frequent sites for those who develop distant metastasis include lungs (21%), lumbar and thoracic spine (16%), and para-aortic lymph nodes (7%). Metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare with <10 previously reported cases. We report a case of renal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix detected in end-stage kidney due to hydronephrosis. PMID:27499599

  11. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Role of the MIR146A polymorphism in the origin and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Annalisa; Carinci, Francesco; Martinelli, Marcella; Pezzetti, Furio; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Rubini, Corrado; Scapoli, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression and cell behavior are regulated by several factors, including small non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs affecting cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis are thought to play an important role in tumorigenesis. The levels of miR-146 appear to be associated with cancer development and progression, including that of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this investigation was to ascertain whether the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2910164, mapping in the MIR146A gene, has a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. A genetic association study was performed with a sample set of 346 oral squamous cell carcinomas collected in Italy. Our data indicate that the rs2910164 polymorphism is not associated with tumor development. However, a slight increase in the frequency of the variant allele was observed in Stage II tumors. Further investigations are needed to verify a possible role of the variant allele or rs2910164 in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. PMID:24612133

  13. Cervical conization and sentinel lymph node mapping in the treatment of stage I cervical cancer: is less enough?

    PubMed Central

    Andikyan, Vaagn; Khoury-Collado, Fady; Denesopolis, John; Park, Kay J.; Hussein, Yaser R.; Brown, Carol L.; Sonoda, Yukio; Chi, Dennis S.; Barakat, Richard R.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of cervical conization and sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping as a fertility-sparing strategy to treat stage I cervical cancer and estimate the tumor margin status needed to achieve no residual carcinoma in the cervix. Methods We identified all patients who desired fertility-preservation and underwent SLN mapping with cervical conization for stage I cervical cancer from 9/2005–8/2012. Relevant demographic, clinical, and pathological information was collected. Results Ten patients were identified. Median age was 28 years (range,18–36). None of the patients had a grossly visible tumor. The initial diagnosis of invasive carcinoma was made either on a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or cone biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative radiologic evaluation (MRI and PET-CT). None of the patients had evidence of gross tumor or suspicion of lymph node metastasis on imaging. Stage distribution included: IA1 with lymphovascular invasion, 7(70%); and microscopic IB1, 3(30%). Histology included: squamous cell carcinoma, 8(80%); adenocarcinoma, 1(10%); and clear cell carcinoma, 1(10%). Nine patients underwent repeat cervical conization with SLN mapping, and 1 patient underwent post-conization cervical biopsies and SLN mapping. None of the patients had residual tumor identified on the final specimen. The median distance from the invasive carcinoma to the endocervical margin was 2.25mm, and the distance from the invasive carcinoma to the ectocervical margin was 1.9mm. All collected lymph nodes were negative for metastasis. After a median follow-up of 17 months (range,1–83), none of the patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease and 3 patients (30%) achieved pregnancy. Conclusion Cervical conization and SLN mapping appears to be an acceptable treatment strategy for selected patients with small-volume stage I cervical cancer. Tumor clearance of ≥2mm appears to correlate well with no residual on repeat conization. A

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Harry; Knight, Glenn; Taylor, Joseph; Palka, Kevin; Ballard, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and external auditory canal is a rare tumor with a reported incidence of between 1 to 6 cases per million population per year. Because squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and auditory canal is so rare, developing an adequate tumor staging system and treatment has been difficult. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal in 65-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a 6-month history of right ear pain, 3-month history of serosanguineous right ear drainage, and symptoms of facial paralysis. Due to the extensive spread of her tumor into the middle ear at the time of diagnosis, her tumor was deemed unresectable and she received palliative chemotherapy and radiation therapy and was sent to Alice Hospice and died several weeks later. PMID:22937370

  15. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: an atypical presentation mimicking temporomandibular joint disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Andrea; Nolet, Paul S; Diwan, Murtaza A

    2004-01-01

    A 50-year-old female presented to a chiropractic clinic with left jaw pain consistent with temporomandibular joint disorder. Examination revealed a large ulcerated mass on the posterolateral margin of the tongue which was later diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of the oral cancers. These cancers are often detected late making treatment more complicated and reducing the chance of survival. In the early stages squamous cell carcinoma can be asymptomatic. Symptoms can be similar to that of temporomandibular joint disorder making examination of the patient’s mouth important to rule out oral cancers. Oral cancers should be considered when patients present to a chiropractor with pain in the area of the temporomandibular joint. Risk factors such as chronic tobacco and alcohol use should raise concern in these patients. Suspicious lesions should be referred immediately for further investigation. PMID:17549104

  16. Purification of a protein associated with human bronchogenic squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B S; Levy, J G

    1979-03-01

    A heteroantiserum raised in rabbits to extracts of human squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung which exhibited marked tumour specificity was used to monitor the fractionation and isolation of a tumour-associated component of the extract. KC1 extracts of pools of both normal lung and bronchogenic squamous-cell carcinoma were subjected to a series of purification steps involving acid precipitation, salting out, DEAE chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. At each stage, fractions were tested for their ability to react in the complement-fixation assay with the antiserum. A protein was ultimately isolated which did not appear to be present at detectable levels in an equivalent fraction of normal lung extract, reacted with the heteroantiserum, and appeared to be present in all extracts of squamous-cell carcinoma. PMID:465295

  17. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  18. Cell Surface Human Airway Trypsin-Like Protease Is Lost During Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DUHAIME, MICHAEL J.; PAGE, KHALIPH O.; VARELA, FAUSTO A.; MURRAY, ANDREW S.; SILVERMAN, MICHAEL E.; ZORATTI, GINA L.; LIST, KARIN

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is accompanied by increased levels of extracellular proteases that are capable of remodeling the extracellular matrix, as well as cleaving and activating growth factors and receptors that are involved in pro-cancerous signaling pathways. Several members of the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family have been shown to play critical roles in cancer progression, however, the expression or function of the TTSP Human Airway Trypsin-like protease (HAT) in carcinogenesis has not been examined. In the present study we aimed to determine the expression of HAT during squamous cell carcinogenesis. HAT transcript is present in several tissues containing stratified squamous epithelium and decreased expression is observed in carcinomas. We determined that HAT protein is consistently expressed on the cell surface in suprabasal/apical layers of squamous cells in healthy cervical and esophageal epithelia. To assess whether HAT protein is differentially expressed in normal tissue versus tissue in different stages of carcinogenesis, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of HAT protein expression levels and localization in arrays of paraffin embedded human cervical and esophageal carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissue. We found that HAT protein is expressed in the non-proliferating, differentiated cellular strata and is lost during the dedifferentiation of epithelial cells, a hallmark of squamous cell carcinogenesis. Thus, HAT expression may potentially be useful as a marker for clinical grading and assessment of patient prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26297835

  19. Cell Surface Human Airway Trypsin-Like Protease Is Lost During Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Michael J; Page, Khaliph O; Varela, Fausto A; Murray, Andrew S; Silverman, Michael E; Zoratti, Gina L; List, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Cancer progression is accompanied by increased levels of extracellular proteases that are capable of remodeling the extracellular matrix, as well as cleaving and activating growth factors and receptors that are involved in pro-cancerous signaling pathways. Several members of the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family have been shown to play critical roles in cancer progression, however, the expression or function of the TTSP Human Airway Trypsin-like protease (HAT) in carcinogenesis has not been examined. In the present study we aimed to determine the expression of HAT during squamous cell carcinogenesis. HAT transcript is present in several tissues containing stratified squamous epithelium and decreased expression is observed in carcinomas. We determined that HAT protein is consistently expressed on the cell surface in suprabasal/apical layers of squamous cells in healthy cervical and esophageal epithelia. To assess whether HAT protein is differentially expressed in normal tissue versus tissue in different stages of carcinogenesis, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of HAT protein expression levels and localization in arrays of paraffin embedded human cervical and esophageal carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissue. We found that HAT protein is expressed in the non-proliferating, differentiated cellular strata and is lost during the dedifferentiation of epithelial cells, a hallmark of squamous cell carcinogenesis. Thus, HAT expression may potentially be useful as a marker for clinical grading and assessment of patient prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26297835

  20. Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

  1. Squamous papilloma of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Singh, Vikram; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinaykumar S; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous papillomas are benign proliferating lesions induced by human papilloma virus. These lesions are painless and slowly growing masses. As an oral lesion, it raises concern because of its clinical appearance. These lesions commonly occur between age 30 and 50 years, and sometimes can occur before the age of 10 years. Oral squamous papilloma accounts for 8% of all oral tumors in children. Common site predilection for the lesion is the tongue and soft palate, and may occur on any other surface of the oral cavity such as the uvula and vermilion of the lip. Here, we are presenting a case of squamous papilloma on the palate. PMID:25565755

  2. Squamous Dysplasia of the Urinary Bladder: A Consecutive Cystectomy Series.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Kaag, Matthew; Raman, Jay D; Chan, Wilson; Tran, Truc; Kunchala, Sudhir; DeGraff, David; Chen, Guoli

    2016-06-01

    Squamous dysplasia of the urinary bladder is uncommon and may represent a precursor to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Though significant focus has been devoted to squamous differentiation in invasive bladder cancer, relatively little attention has been given to squamous dysplasia. We methodically reviewed microscopic slides from a consecutive cystectomy series at our institution (n = 303; 2001-2014), with special attention given to squamous dysplasia and squamous differentiation within association invasive carcinoma. Of these 303 cases, 3% (9 cases) had squamous dysplasia. The majority (89%; 8/9) had a similar morphological appearance to squamous dysplasia of the head and neck (ie, cytological atypia, architectural disturbances, and abnormal keratinization). Invasive carcinoma was present in 230 of the cystectomy cases. Of these 230 cases with invasive carcinoma, 4% (8 cases) also had squamous dysplasia. The invasive carcinoma had evidence of squamous differentiation in all cases with concurrent squamous dysplasia. Concurrent flat urothelial carcinoma in situ was present in 3 of the 8 cases with both invasive carcinoma and squamous dysplasia. Squamous dysplasia was not associated with clinical outcomes data, including death from bladder cancer and bladder cancer recurrence. The data from this study indicate that squamous dysplasia is uncommon in the cystectomy setting, frequently has the morphology of head and neck dysplasia, and is often associated with invasive carcinoma with squamous differentiation. PMID:26860905

  3. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  4. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Solmaz, Ali; Özdoğan, Kamil; Erçetin, Candaş; Yavuz, Erkan; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelebi, Fatih; Altınay, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach accounts for less than 1% of all gastric malignancies. Less than 100 cases were reported in the literature. Therefore, knowledge about management and prognosis of the disease is limited. Surgical approach is the basic form of treatment. In this study we confirmed a case of primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma with the aim of contribution to the literature, which is seen rare, and the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:27528817

  5. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  6. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  7. Veliparib With or Without Radiation Therapy, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma, Mixed Subtype; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  8. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: An Outcomes Study

    SciTech Connect

    Newlin, Heather E.; Iyengar, Meera; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To report survival and control rates in patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-five patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (Stages I-IIIB) who received radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy given with curative intent at University of Florida between 1963 and 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Overall survival (OS) at 5 years for Stages I, II, and III was 10%, 14%, and 7% (p = 0.0034); local-regional control at 5 years was 51%, 38%, and 29% (p = 0.0003); and freedom from metastases at 5 years was 81%, 60%, and 65% (p = 0.0689), respectively. Patients who received doses {>=} 65 Gy had improved cause-specific survival (CSS), OS, and metastasis-free survival at 5 years compared with those who received doses < 65 Gy. Five-year regional control was significantly improved with twice-daily vs. once-daily treatment (37% vs. 14%, p = 0.02). Chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year regional control (36% for patients who received chemotherapy vs. 13% for those who did not; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Dose escalation, accelerated fractionation, and combined modality therapies improve outcomes in SCC of the lung. Our review of the literature highlights the different natural history for SCC vs. other non-small cell lung cancers and emphasizes the importance of tailoring treatment strategies to individual patients. At University of Florida, we have begun treating unresectable Stage III patients with SCC of the lung using 69.6 Gy twice daily with concurrent chemotherapy.

  10. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Smaglo, Brandon G.; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Meyer, Joshua E.; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  11. Significance of Parafibromin Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inju; Lee, Mija; Lim, Sharon; Hong, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parafibromin is a product of the tumor suppressor gene that has been studied as a potential indicator of tumor aggressiveness in the parathyroid, breast, colorectum, and stomach. However, the clinical significance and potential function of parafibromin expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of parafibromin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to verify its potential as a biomarker of tumor behavior. Methods: Parafibromin expression was evaluated in 30 cases of LSCC using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between parafibromin expression and clinicopathologic parameters were investigated. Results: Parafibromin expression was positive in 15 cases (50%) and negative in 15 cases (50%). Tumor size and T stage showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with parafibromin expression (p=.028 and p<.001, respectively). Parafibromin expression was not associated with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant relationship between parafibromin expression and progression-free survival in the patients (p>.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the downregulation or loss of parafibromin expression can be employed as a novel marker of tumor progression or aggressiveness in LSCC. PMID:27334641

  12. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  13. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Smaglo, Brandon G; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Meyer, Joshua E; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M

    2015-12-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  14. Expression of Cofilin-1 and Transgelin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liao, Ruyi; Li, Hui; Liu, Ling; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Hongming

    2015-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has attracted much research attention around the world, and the number of ESCC cases has increased gradually in recent years. Identifying the specific biomarkers of ESCC is an effective approach for the early diagnosis of tumors. Material/Methods Immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method was used to determine the expressions of Cofilin-1 and transgelin in 68 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 48 individuals with normal esophageal tissues. In addition to the relationships between the expression of Cofilin-1 and transgelin, the clinicopathologic features of ESCC were also discussed. The correlation between Cofilin-1 and transgelin protein expression in ESCC was analyzed. Results (1) The positive expression rates of Cofilin-1 and transgelin were 60.3% (41/68) and 54.4% (37/68) in esophageal carcinoma tissue, respectively. The positive expression rates of Cofilin-1 and transgelin in normal esophageal tissue were 27.1% (13/48) and 29.1% (14/48), respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). (2) The positive expression rate of Cofilin-1 did not differ significantly (P>0.05) with sex, age, ethnicity, tumor size, or infiltration depth; but did have a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference with various degrees of tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stages. (3) The positive expression rate of transgelin did not differ significantly (P>0.05) with sex, age, ethnicity, tumor size, infiltration depth, and clinical stage, but did significantly (P<0.05) differ with degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Cofilin-1 and transgelin may play roles in the carcinogenesis and development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cofilin-1 may be useful as an important biomarker for indicating the degree of malignancy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and the detection of transgelin is valuable in early diagnosis of

  15. Evaluation of prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, M; Niwa, Y; Arisawa, T; Ohmiya, N; Goto, H; Hayakawa, T

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—For pretherapeutic staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is considered the most profitable modality because it can provide cross sectional imaging of the tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between prognosis and EUS findings, especially tumour area, in squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.
PATIENTS/METHODS—A total of 113 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus underwent EUS for pretherapeutic examination at Nagoya University Hospital. We compared EUS findings, histological results, and outcome. In addition, we measured the area of the tumour on EUS images (n=113) and evaluated if EUS area correlated with volume of the tumour on histological findings (n=50).
RESULTS—The overall accuracy rate of EUS was 83.2% (94/113) for depth of tumour invasion and 67.6% (69/102) for perioesophageal lymph node metastasis. The EUS area increased in proportion to the development of tumour infiltration, and patients with lymph node metastasis had a larger EUS area than patients without lymph node metastasis. There was a close correlation between EUS area and volume of the tumour on histological findings. If EUS area of the tumour was less than 50 mm2, the five year survival rate was 100%. As EUS area increased, the survival rate decreased.
CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of EUS area of the tumour is reliable for quantification of the tumour and prediction of prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.


Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma; oesophagus; endoscopic ultrasonography; prognosis; preoperative staging PMID:10861273

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer. PMID:26376556

  17. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Hinds, David A.; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7–11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvind S; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Hinds, David A; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7-11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  20. Transbronchial Dissemination of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Tomoya; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Bandoh, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung cancer with transbronchial dissemination in a 73-year-old man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple bronchial mucosal nodules that existed independently of one another. We reviewed 16 previous cases of endobronchial metastasis in lung cancer. All patients were men. Among the reports that described the smoking history, most patients were smokers (6/7), and the most frequent histological type of cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (11/17). Although hematogenous and lymphogenous routes have been reported as metastatic mechanisms, no previous cases involving transbronchial dissemination have been described. Transbronchial dissemination may be an alternative pathway of endobronchial metastasis. PMID:26672760

  1. Intraglomerular micrometastasis of squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Kumar, Sajal; Chenal, Mario E.; Nicosia, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction. PMID:25874083

  2. Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Atasoy, Pınar; Yulug, Isik G

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research. PMID:27215390

  3. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  4. Radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy as definitive treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter; Kirwan, Jessica; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    This study is aimed at updating our institution's experience with definitive radiotherapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. We reviewed 531 patients treated between 1983 and 2012 with definitive RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Of these, 179 patients were treated with either induction (n = 19) or concomitant (n = 160) chemotherapy. Planned neck dissection was performed on 217 patients: unilaterally in 199 and bilaterally in 18 patients. Median follow-up was 5.2 years for all patients (range 0.1-31.6 years) and 8.2 years for living patients (range 1.9-31.6 years). The 5-year local control rates by T stage were as follows: T1, 94 %; T2, 87 %; T3 79 %; T4, 70 %; and overall, 83 %. Multivariate analysis revealed that local control was significantly influenced by T stage and neck dissection. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates by overall stage were as follows: I, 94 %; II, 88 %; III, 87 %; IVA, 75 %; IVB, 52 %; and overall, 78 %. Multivariate analysis revealed that cause-specific survival was significantly influenced by T stage, N stage, overall stage, fractionation, neck dissection, sex, and ethnicity. Of 77 patients treated with ipsilateral fields only, contralateral neck failure occurred in 1 %. The rate of severe complications was 12 %. Definitive RT for patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma provides control rates equivalent to other modalities with a comparatively low incidence of late complications. Patients with anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa primaries that are well lateralized with no base of tongue or soft palate extension may be treated with ipsilateral fields. PMID:27059836

  5. Impact of Treatment Modalities on Survival of Patients With Locoregional Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Shan; Hung, Wei-Heng; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Hsu, Po-Kuei; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2016-03-01

    The optimal treatment modality for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still undetermined. This study investigated the treatment modalities affecting survival of patients with ESCC in Taiwan.Data on 6202 patients who underwent treatment for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma during 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Patients were stratified by clinical stage. The major treatment approaches included definitive chemoradiotherapy, preoperative chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy, esophagectomy followed by adjuvant therapy, and esophagectomy alone. The impact of different treatment modalities on overall survival was analyzed.The majority of patients had stage III disease (n = 4091; 65.96%), followed by stage II (n = 1582, 25.51%) and stage I cancer (n = 529, 8.53%). The 3-year overall survival rates were 60.65% for patients with stage I disease, 36.21% for those with stage II cancer, and 21.39% for patients with stage III carcinoma. Surgery alone was associated with significantly better overall survival than the other treatment modalities for patients with stage I disease (P = 0.029) and was associated with significantly worse overall survival for patients with stage III cancer (P < 0.001). There was no survival risk difference among the different treatment methods for patients with clinical stage II disease.Multimodality treatment is recommended for patients with stage II-III esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Patients with clinical stage I disease can be treated with esophagectomy without preoperative therapy. PMID:26962818

  6. MicroRNA Expression Differentiates Squamous Epithelium from Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Katherine S.; Owzar, Kouros; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Westfall, Kristen; Anderson, Blair R.; Souza, Rhonda F.; Diehl, Anna Mae; Provenzale, Dawn; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current strategies fail to identify most patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) before the disease becomes advanced and incurable. Given the dismal prognosis associated with EAC, improvements in detection of early-stage esophageal neoplasia are needed. Aims We sought to assess whether differential expression of microRNAs could discriminate between squamous epithelium, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and EAC. Methods We analyzed microRNA expression in a discovery cohort of human endoscopic biopsy samples from 36 patients representing normal squamous esophagus (n=11), BE (n=14), and high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/EAC (n=11). RNA was assessed using microarrays representing 847 human microRNAs followed by qRT-PCR verification of nine microRNAs. In a second cohort (n=18), qRT-PCR validation of five miRNAs was performed. Expression of 59 microRNAs associated with BE/EAC in the literature was assessed in our training cohort. Known esophageal cell lines were used to compare miRNA expression to tissue miRNAs. Results After controlling for multiple comparisons, we found 34 miRNAs differentially expressed between squamous esophagus and BE/EAC by microarray analysis. However, miRNA expression did not reliably differentiate non-dysplastic BE from EAC. In the validation cohort, all five microRNAs selected for qRT-PCR validation differentiated between squamous samples and BE/EAC. Microarray results supported 14 of the previously reported microRNAs associated with BE/EAC in the literature. Cell lines did not generally reflect miRNA expression found in vivo. Conclusions These data indicate that miRNAs differ between squamous esophageal epithelium and BE/EAC, but do not distinguish between BE and EAC. We suggest prospective evaluation of miRNAs in patients at high risk for EAC. PMID:23925817

  7. Optimization of the extent of surgical treatment in patients with stage I in cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    The study included 26 patients with FIGO stage Ia1-Ib1 cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing surgery (transabdominaltrachelectomy). To visualize sentinel lymph nodes, lymphoscintigraphy with injection of 99mTc-labelled nanocolloid was performed the day before surgery. Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes using hand-held gamma probe was carried out to determine the radioactive counts over the draining lymph node basin. The sentinel lymph node detection in cervical cancer patients contributes to the accurate clinical assessment of the pelvic lymph node status, precise staging of the disease and tailoring of surgical treatment to individual patient.

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis, A Rare Site for a Commonly Known Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nachiappan, Murugappan; Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan; Paravatraj, Varun Gautam; Sharma, Navil; Narasimhan, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nephrolithiasis predisposes to squamous metaplasia and subsequently SCC which is a rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. A 60-year-old woman with a long standing history of renal calculi presented with flank pain and fever. Investigations revealed a mass in the superior pole of a non functioning left kidney while the right kidney was sub optimally functioning, hydronephrotic and there was presence of bilateral staghorn calculi. Patient underwent decompression of right kidney by double j stenting and left radical nephrectomy that revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. Most SCC of the renal pelvis present with advanced disease and dismal prognosis while our patient presented with localized disease without lymphatic and distant metastasis. Thus radical nephrectomy can be curative if the disease can be diagnosed at an earlier stage. This emphasizes the need of early treatment of nephrolithiasis to prevent the development of SCC and screening of patients with long standing staghorn calculi. PMID:26894122

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis, A Rare Site for a Commonly Known Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan; Paravatraj, Varun Gautam; Sharma, Navil; Narasimhan, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nephrolithiasis predisposes to squamous metaplasia and subsequently SCC which is a rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. A 60-year-old woman with a long standing history of renal calculi presented with flank pain and fever. Investigations revealed a mass in the superior pole of a non functioning left kidney while the right kidney was sub optimally functioning, hydronephrotic and there was presence of bilateral staghorn calculi. Patient underwent decompression of right kidney by double j stenting and left radical nephrectomy that revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. Most SCC of the renal pelvis present with advanced disease and dismal prognosis while our patient presented with localized disease without lymphatic and distant metastasis. Thus radical nephrectomy can be curative if the disease can be diagnosed at an earlier stage. This emphasizes the need of early treatment of nephrolithiasis to prevent the development of SCC and screening of patients with long standing staghorn calculi. PMID:26894122

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma at maxillary sinus: clinicopathologic data in a single Brazilian institution with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcello Roter M; Servato, João Paulo S; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia A; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising at maxillary sinus is a rare neoplasm, characterized by aggressive growth pattern and glooming prognosis. There are no studies describing specifically its epidemiology in the South America. The aim of the current paper is to characterize a Brazilian maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma sample and to compare such data with others worldwide relevant series. The records of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (1997-2006) were gathered and plotted. Additionally, an extensive literature review was carry out using electronic database (PUBMED/MEDLINE and LILACS) over a period of 54 years. A descriptive statistics and univariate survival test (log rank) were employed. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest malignancy of sinonasal epithelium found. It affected mainly mid-age white men and most of them were diagnosed at advanced stage. Surgery combined with radiotherapy was the most therapeutic modalities given. The overall mortality rate in our sample was of 65.5%. Overall 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rate was 57.9%, 44.8%, and 17.7%, respectively. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor normally diagnosed at the advanced stage and most patients present an unfavorable prognosis and reduced survival rate. PMID:25674251

  11. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  12. Neoadjuvant treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are types of esophageal cancer, one of the most aggressive malignant diseases. Since both histological types present entirely different diseases with different epidemiology, pathogenesis and tumor biology, separate therapeutic strategies should be developed against each type. While surgical resection remains the dominant therapeutic intervention for patients with operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), alternative strategies are actively sought to reduce the frequency of post-operative local or distant disease recurrence. Such strategies are particularly sought in the preoperative setting. Currently, the optimal management of resectable ESCC differs widely between Western and Asian countries (such as Japan). While Western countries focus on neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard treatment in Japan. Importantly, each country and region has established its own therapeutic strategy from the results of local randomized control trials. This review discusses the current knowledge, available data and information regarding neoadjuvant treatment for operable ESCC. PMID:24834142

  13. Management of High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is an increasing public health concern, representing the second most common cancer in the United States. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents a subgroup of this disease, where patients are at higher risk of metastasis and death. To date, there are no accepted criteria for defining or managing these patients. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and outlines reasonable management strategies based on available data. PMID:20725546

  14. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  15. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Tommaso; Sacco, Roberto; Bertolai, Roberto; Acocella, Alessandro; Colafranceschi, Maurizio; Lazzeri, Davide

    2011-05-01

    Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a benign, locally infiltrative intraosseous tumor composed of well-differentiated squamous epithelium in a fibrous stroma. It seems to derive from the epithelial rests of Malassez in the periodontal ligament space. It presents an odontogenic origin, involving both the upper and lower maxillary bone, mainly areas without teeth or connective tissue of the odontogenic cysts. Clinically, SOT could be asymptomatic (3 cases), notwithstanding it is mainly characterized by pain, swelling, and tooth/teeth mobility. The most typical presentation of SOT is a slowly growing endobony lesion arising within a single periodontal location. Frequent misdiagnosis concerns either ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma and fibroma. Since its first description in 1975, less than 50 cases have been identified. In light of the few reported cases, there are no consistently recorded clinical and radiographic features of SOT, and there is no predictable sex or site predilection. Diagnosis is predicated on recognition of the histopathologic features of SOT to obviate possible misdiagnosis of malignancy or ameloblastoma.We report the first case of SOT that arose in the vicinity of an implant. Through a meticulous review of literature, we discuss current etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. PMID:21586976

  16. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  17. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  19. Th17 expression and IL-17 levels in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-Jun; Cai, Zhi-Jian; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Shou-De; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion The Th17 cell frequency in peripheral blood and levels of IL-17 showed significant differences between patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and those with vocal cords polyps. Serum levels of IL-17 were correlated with laryngocarcinoma staging. Objectives To investigate associations among the frequency of Th17 cells, levels of IL-17, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Method Eighty in-patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and 114 in-patients with polypus of the vocal cord were enrolled. Th17 cell frequencies in peripheral blood and serum levels of IL-17 were measured by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The tissue expression levels of IL-17 mRNA transcripts and protein were measured using quantitative RT-PCR or immunohistochemical detection, respectively. Results Th17 cell frequencies in peripheral blood and serum concentrations of IL-17 were significantly higher in patients with laryngocarcinoma compared with those in patients with polyps (p < 0.01 for both Th17 cells and IL-17 levels). Serum concentrations of IL-17 were significantly higher in patients with advanced laryngocarcinoma than in patients with early laryngocarcinoma (p < 0.01). The mRNA and protein levels of IL-17 were significantly higher in laryngocarcinoma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.01 for mRNA levels, p < 0.05 for protein levels). PMID:27052965

  20. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Update on Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Marur, Shanthi; Forastiere, Arlene A

    2016-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arises from multiple anatomic subsites in the head and neck region. The risk factors for development of cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx include tobacco exposure and alcohol dependence, and infection with oncogenic viruses is associated with cancers developing in the nasopharynx, palatine, and lingual tonsils of the oropharynx. The incidence of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in developed countries, and by 2020, the annual incidence could surpass that of cervical cancer. The treatment for early-stage squamous cell cancers of the head and neck is generally single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy. The treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancers is multimodal, with either surgery followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation as indicated by pathologic features or definitive chemoradiation. For recurrent disease that is not amenable to a salvage local or regional approach and for metastatic disease, chemotherapy with or without a biological agent is indicated. To date, molecular testing has not influenced treatment selection in head and neck cancer. This review will focus on the changing epidemiology, advances in diagnosis, and treatment options for squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, along with data on risk stratification specific to oropharyngeal cancer, and will highlight the direction of current trials. PMID:26944243

  1. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  2. Novel allelic mutations in murine Serca2 induce differential development of squamous cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Toki, Hideaki; Minowa, Osamu; Inoue, Maki; Motegi, Hiromi; Karashima, Yuko; Ikeda, Ami; Kaneda, Hideki; Sakuraba, Yoshiyuki; Saiki, Yuriko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Gondo, Yoichi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Noda, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    Dominant mutations in the Serca2 gene, which encodes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase, predispose mice to gastrointestinal epithelial carcinoma [1-4] and humans to Darier disease (DD) [14-17]. In this study, we generated mice harboring N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced allelic mutations in Serca2: three missense mutations and one nonsense mutation. Mice harboring these Serca2 mutations developed tumors that were categorized as either early onset squamous cell tumors (SCT), with development similar to null-type knockout mice [2,4] (aggressive form; M682, M814), or late onset tumors (mild form; M1049, M1162). Molecular analysis showed no aberration in Serca2 mRNA or protein expression levels in normal esophageal cells of any of the four mutant heterozygotes. There was no loss of heterozygosity at the Serca2 locus in the squamous cell carcinomas in any of the four lines. The effect of each mutation on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was predicted using atomic-structure models and accumulated mutated protein studies, suggesting that putative complete loss of Serca2 enzymatic activity may lead to early tumor onset, whereas mutations in which Serca2 retains residual enzymatic activity result in late onset. We propose that impaired Serca2 gene product activity has a long-term effect on squamous cell carcinogenesis from onset to the final carcinoma stage through an as-yet unrecognized but common regulatory pathway. PMID:27131742

  3. Clinical relevance of copy number profiling in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Braunius, Weibel W; Moelans, Cathy B; Rifi, Widad; Savola, Suvi; Koole, Ronald; Grolman, Wilko; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Current conventional treatment modalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are nonselective and have shown to cause serious side effects. Unraveling the molecular profiles of head and neck cancer may enable promising clinical applications that pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. We examined copy number status in 36 common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cohort of 191 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and 164 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) using multiplex ligation probe amplification. Copy number status was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status in OPSCC, with occult lymph node status in OSCC and with patient survival. The 11q13 region showed gain or amplifications in 59% of HPV-negative OPSCC, whereas this amplification was almost absent in HPV-positive OPSCC. Additionally, in clinically lymph node-negative OSCC (Stage I-II), gain of the 11q13 region was significantly correlated with occult lymph node metastases with a negative predictive value of 81%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a significantly decreased disease-free survival in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCC with a gain of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1. Gain of CCND1 showed to be an independent predictor for worse survival in OSCC. These results show that copy number aberrations, mainly of the 11q13 region, may be important predictors and prognosticators which allow for stratifying patients for personalized treatment of HNSCC. PMID:26194878

  4. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  5. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC. PMID:26029303

  6. Renal calculus complicated with squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jiantao; Lei, Jun; He, Leye; Yin, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding renal calculus is a risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis. It is highly aggressive and usually diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. We present two cases of kidney stone complications with renal pelvic SCC. These two patients had a radical nephrectomy and the dissected tissues were renal pelvic SCC. Our cases further emphasize that renal pelvic SCC should be considered in patients with longstanding renal calculus. These cases contribute greatly to an early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will significantly minimize the damage of, and markedly improve the prognosis of, renal pelvic SCC. PMID:26029303

  7. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery as treatment for oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Bernardo, E; Niza, M M R E; Lloret, A; Buracco, P

    2012-07-01

    A gingival maxillary squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier. After a complete diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomography scan, the tumour was staged as T3bN1aM0 and considered non-resectable at presentation. The combination of neoadjuvant megavoltage radiotherapy and neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and doxorubicin decreased the size of the tumour, allowing for surgery. The dog was free from local disease for 421 days after which it was euthanased at the owners' request. PMID:22731946

  8. Downregulation of MTSS1 expression is an independent prognosticator in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, G; Csanadi, A; Kakanou, S; Prasse, A; Kassem, A; Stickeler, E; Passlick, B; zur Hausen, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) is a newly discovered protein putatively involved in tumour progression and metastasis. Material and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of MTSS1 was analysed in 264 non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Results: The metastasis suppressor 1 was significantly overexpressed in NSCLC compared with normal lung (P=0.01). Within NSCLC, MTSS1 expression was inversely correlated with pT-stage (P=0.019) and histological grading (P<0.001). NSCLC with MTSS1 downregulation (<20%) showed a significantly worse outcome (P=0.007). This proved to be an independent prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; P=0.041), especially in early cancer stages (P=0.006). Conclusion: The metastasis suppressor 1 downregulation could thus serve as a stratifying marker for adjuvant therapy in early-stage SCC of the lung. PMID:25625275

  9. Is there a role of whole-body bone scan in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Correct detection of bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is pivotal for prognosis and selection of an appropriate treatment regimen. Whole-body bone scan for staging is not routinely recommended in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bone scan in detecting bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the radiographic and scintigraphic images of 360 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients between 1999 and 2008. Of these 360 patients, 288 patients received bone scan during pretreatment staging, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of bone scan were determined. Of these 360 patients, surgery was performed in 161 patients including 119 patients with preoperative bone scan and 42 patients without preoperative bone scan. Among these 161 patients receiving surgery, 133 patients had stages II + III disease, including 99 patients with preoperative bone scan and 34 patients without preoperative bone scan. Bone recurrence-free survival and overall survival were compared in all 161 patients and 133 stages II + III patients, respectively. Results The diagnostic performance for bone metastasis was as follows: sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 90.1%; positive predictive value, 43.5%; and negative predictive value, 97.9%. In all 161 patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0.009, univariately). In multivariate comparison, absence of preoperative bone scan (P = 0.012, odds ratio: 5.053) represented the independent adverse prognosticator for bone recurrence-free survival. In 133 stages II + III patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0

  10. [Initial surgical management of squamous carcinoma of the vulva].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Báez, Israel; Salazar-Campos, Jessica E; López-Arias, Alhely; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Candelaria-Hernández, Myrna; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Cantú de León, David

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar cancer accounts for approximately 4% of gynecological malignancies. At the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico it occupies the fourth place. The purpose of this study is to assess the management of squamous carcinoma of the vulva with initial surgical treatment. It is a descriptive retrospective, observational study, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2012. Twenty-seven patients, clinical stages I, II, or III, initial surgical management, with at least one year of follow-up were included. In 51.85% a partial vulvectomy was performed and in 40.74% a wide excision; 66.66% underwent inguinofemoral dissection. Recurrence occurred in 25.91% of cases and the overall survival at 10 years was 63%. It is concluded that with invasion of up to 1 mm of lymph node, affection is 0%; with invasion of 1 mm and up to 5 mm this increases to 25%; an invasion of more than 5 mm implies up to 45%. Recurrence in our study was primarily distant, necessitating long-term monitoring with emphasis on symptoms to request imaging studies when suspected. Adjuvant therapy should be offered to patients with positive nodes, close or positive margins, and tumors larger than 4 cm. PMID:27335183

  11. Study protocol: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in first-line treatment of squamous non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a high unmet need for effective treatments for patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eli Lilly and Company is conducting a phase III, randomized, multicenter, open-label study of gemcitabine plus cisplatin plus necitumumab (GC + N) versus gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) for the first-line treatment of patients with stage IV squamous NSCLC. Given GC is not the only treatment commonly used for the treatment of squamous NSCLC, this study was designed to compare the survival, toxicity, and quality of life outcomes of current treatment strategies for squamous NSCLC in the first-line setting. Methods/Design A systematic review and meta-analysis (including indirect comparisons) of treatments used in squamous NSCLC will be conducted to assess the clinical efficacy (overall and progression-free survival), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and safety (grade 3–4 toxicity) of GC + N compared to other treatments used in squamous NSCLC. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines will be followed for all aspects of this study. A systematic literature review will be conducted to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating chemotherapy treatment in first-line NSCLC. Eligible articles will be restricted to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among chemotherapy-naïve advanced NSCLC cancer patients that report outcome data (survival, toxicity, or quality of life) for patients with squamous histology. Following data extraction and validation, data consistency and study heterogeneity will be assessed. A network meta-analysis will be conducted based on the available hazard ratios for overall and progression-free survival, odds ratios for published toxicity data, and mean difference of HRQoL scales. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted. Discussion This is a presentation of the study protocol only. Results and conclusions are pending completion of this study. Systematic review

  12. Sequencing study on familial lung squamous cancer

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHAOMIN; WANG, LINA; MA, ZHENCHUAN; MA, YUEFENG; ZHAO, JIANGMAN; PENG, BO; QIAO, ZHE

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The majority of lung cancers are sporadic, and familial cases are extremely rare. Previous studies have mainly focused on sporadic lung cancer and identified a large quantity of driver genes. However, familial lung cancers are rarer and studied less. The present study recruited a Chinese family in which multiple members had developed lung squamous carcinoma. To find the causative mutations, whole exome sequencing was conducted using a peripheral blood sample of one lung squamous carcinoma patient, and certain variants were validated in more samples. Whole exome sequencing analysis obtained ~2.0 Gb of data (an average of 60x depth for each targeted base), and further validation experiments identified two functional variants in two cancer-related genes (c.1218delA:p.E406fs in PDE4DIP and C1342A:p.L448I in CLTCL1). This study therefore provides useful sources for the further study of hereditary lung cancer. PMID:26622902

  13. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amir, H; Mbonde, M P; Kitinya, J N

    1992-11-01

    The Tanzania Cancer Registry at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was reviewed for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in non-albino African subjects. The data was analysed for age, sex, site and predisposing factors. Our results were then compared with studies previously carried out in Tanzania, elsewhere in Africa and also on Blacks in America. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found to be a common malignancy, and the commonest skin cancer. Its peak was in the 40-49 years age group though it could occur in children under five years of age. The most affected site was the lower limb, followed by the head and the neck. The penis in the male and the vulva in the female were the third most affected sites. The scalp and the lip were more affected in females than males. Chronic trauma, chronic ulcers, and scars were the main predisposing risk factors to the lower limb and the scalp, while ultra violet radiation to the head and neck, and smegma of the uncircumcised penis were thought to be predisposing risk factors. PMID:1308840

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  16. Case of pure ovarian squamous cell carcinoma resistant to combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin but responsive to monotherapy with weekly irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Kamei, Toshiaki; Shinagawa, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yuka; Miwa, Ichiro

    2015-05-01

    Primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is uncommon, and the optimal treatment strategy for this disease has not yet been established. A 71-year-old woman diagnosed with FIGO stage IIb pure ovarian squamous cell carcinoma underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. After the second treatment course, a recurrent mass grew rapidly, and serum tumor maker levels increased. Monotherapy with weekly irinotecan was then instituted. This second-line chemotherapy was remarkably effective, and the patient subsequently underwent complete interval debulking surgery with a pathological complete response after the third treatment course. Weekly irinotecan is an effective choice for primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma resistant to combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. PMID:25511544

  17. Phase Ib Study of BKM120 With Cisplatin and XRT in High Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; HPV Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Early Invasive Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Carcinoma of Larynx; Cancer of Nasopharynx

  18. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma--an overview.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Adam J; Welch, Chris M; Zevallos, Jose P; Patel, Samip N

    2014-09-01

    Inhaled or chewed tobacco is equally addictive and harmful and used daily by over 1 billion people. In addition to increased rates of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancers, tobacco is the leading preventable cause of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to tobacco, consumption and abuse of alcohol, and betel nut quid significantly contribute to the burden of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Dental visits are excellent opportunities to identify primary lesions in the oral cavity. This review highlights relevant anatomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment options for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25284574

  19. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  20. None-endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and sixth most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. ESCC develops by progression from premalignant lesions, which are called esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD). Prevention is the most effective strategy for controlling this disease. Generally, two methods may be defined for ESCC prevention. The aim of the first preventive method is to prevent the initiation of ESD by avoiding the known risk factors, or primary prevention. Secondary prevention focuses on detection of the disease in its early curable stage, thus preventing its progression into advanced stages. Endoscopy with iodine staining and biopsy is the diagnostic choice for ESD. However it is invasive and expensive, and not accepted by asymptomatic ESD cases. Therefore, it is necessary to find a non-endoscopic screening method. Despite the large number of studies conducted worldwide, no approved method has been developed for ESCC screening. Regarding the multi-factorial nature of ESCC, it is proposed that the use of a combination of various criteria, such as cytological examination, risk factors, genetic alteration, and molecular markers may result in the development of a comprehensive and effective ESCC screening program. PMID:24829644

  1. None-endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Review.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and sixth most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. ESCC develops by progression from premalignant lesions, which are called esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD). Prevention is the most effective strategy for controlling this disease. Generally, two methods may be defined for ESCC prevention. The aim of the first preventive method is to prevent the initiation of ESD by avoiding the known risk factors, or primary prevention. Secondary prevention focuses on detection of the disease in its early curable stage, thus preventing its progression into advanced stages. Endoscopy with iodine staining and biopsy is the diagnostic choice for ESD. However it is invasive and expensive, and not accepted by asymptomatic ESD cases. Therefore, it is necessary to find a non-endoscopic screening method. Despite the large number of studies conducted worldwide, no approved method has been developed for ESCC screening. Regarding the multi-factorial nature of ESCC, it is proposed that the use of a combination of various criteria, such as cytological examination, risk factors, genetic alteration, and molecular markers may result in the development of a comprehensive and effective ESCC screening program. PMID:24829644

  2. Profile of nivolumab in the treatment of metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yvonne LE; Lim, Joline SJ; Soo, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the prognosis and treatment of patients with advanced-stage squamous cell lung cancers have been limited. An improvement in the understanding of the role of the immune system in tumor immunosurveillance has led to the development of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo). Nivolumab is the first PD-1 inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced-stage squamous cell non-small-cell lung cancer following platinum-based chemotherapy. In the key Phase III trial CHECKMATE 017, a better overall survival and progression-free survival were seen in patients treated with second-line nivolumab compared with docetaxel. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression did not predict for outcome. In addition, nivolumab had better safety and tolerability, and led to better patient reported outcomes. Further research on the role of PD-L1 expression as a predictive biomarker should be performed, and other biomarkers that can predict the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors should also be pursued. Further studies on the combination treatment are ongoing to determine the optimal role of nivolumab as monotherapy or nivolumab with other agents in non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:27313464

  3. A retrospective study of (90)Strontium plesiotherapy for feline squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Mark; Hayes, Alison; Murphy, Sue; Brearley, Malcolm

    2006-06-01

    The responses of 15 cats with histologically (n=14) or cytologically (n=1) confirmed nasal squamous cell carcinoma treated with (90)Strontium plesiotherapy were reviewed retrospectively. Cats were treated such that a total dose of 50Gy was delivered at a depth of 2mm, administered in five fractions over a 10-day period. Of the cats, 11 were stage T(2), three were T(is) and one had only a cytological diagnosis precluding staging. Eleven of the cats achieved complete response (no visible lesion after 6-8 weeks) following the first cycle of therapy, and two cats with partial response achieved complete response with a second cycle of therapy. The remaining two cats achieved partial response following therapy, but further intervention was declined. Euthanasia was performed in these two cats because of progressive disease after 81 and 142 days. Of the 85% of cats that achieved a complete response, there was no recurrence of disease during a follow-up period of 134-2,043 days (median 652 days). In addition to prolonged disease-free survivals, (90)Strontium therapy produced excellent cosmetic results from the owners' perspective. These results demonstrate that superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the feline nasal planum responds excellently to (90)Strontium plesiotherapy, and this form of therapy may offer advantages over other alternatives currently available. PMID:16442824

  4. Evaluation of miRNA-expression and clinical tumour parameters in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    PubMed

    Moratin, J; Hartmann, S; Brands, R; Brisam, M; Mutzbauer, G; Scholz, C; Seher, A; Müller-Richter, U; Kübler, A C; Linz, C

    2016-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. The past decades have not led to substantial improvement in diagnosis and therapy. Analysis of miRNA-expression may help to determine the progression profiles and outcomes of many different diseases, including HNSCC. Therefore, in this investigation, 43 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma were micro-dissected, analysed for expression of 30 miRNAs and were compared with non-tumorous tissue. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed, investigating possible correlations of miRNA-expression and patient or tumour-linked data, such as age, sex, tumour stage and size. miRNA extraction from FFPE samples functioned well for OSCC, and several miRNAs were differently expressed in tumours compared with non-tumorous tissue (i.e., miR-99*; miR-224; miR-205*), indicating their possible utility as biomarkers. Moreover, some miRNAs showed significant correlations with clinical and pathological data (e.g. tumour size: miR-3156, P = 0.033; T-stage: miR-212, P = 0.0009). PMID:27210505

  5. Prognostic significance of CT-emphysema score in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Cho, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Although emphysema is a known independent risk factor of lung cancer, no study has addressed the prognostic impact of computed tomography (CT)-emphysema score in advanced stage lung cancer. Methods For 84 consecutive patients with stage IIIB and IV squamous cell lung cancer that underwent palliative chemotherapy, severity of emphysema was semi-quantitatively scored using baseline chest CT images according to the Goddard scoring system (possible scores range, 0–24). The cutoff of high CT-emphysema score was determined using the maximum chi-squared test and the prognostic significance of the high CT-emphysema score was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results The median CT-emphysema score was 5 (range, 0–22). Patients with a high CT-emphysema score (≥4) tended to have poorer overall survival (OS) (median: 6.3 vs. 13.7 months) than those with a score of <4 (P=0.071). Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher CT-emphysema score was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor OS [hazard ratio (HR) =2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–3.41; P=0.005), along with no response to first-line therapy (P=0.009) and no second-line therapy (P<0.001). Conclusions CT-emphysema score is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer.

  6. Genomics of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Melissa; Devarakonda, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer have the squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) histological subtype. Although targeted therapies have improved outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma, no agents are currently approved specifically for use in SQCC. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) recently published the results of comprehensive genomic analyses of tumor samples from 178 patients with SQCC of the lung. In this review, we briefly discuss key molecular aberrations reported by TCGA and other investigators and their potential therapeutic implications. Carefully designed preclinical and clinical studies based on these large-scale genomic analyses are critical to improve the outcomes of patients with SQCC of lung in the near future. PMID:23728941

  7. [Thyroid's metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Scanelli, Giovanni; Aimoni, Claudia; Marchetti, Elisabetta; Geminiani, Matteo; Pastore, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 58 years old man, affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, who underwent left tonsillectomy with bilateral neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. After a 6 months period, the patient began to suffer from dysphonia, dysphagia and loss of weight: a painless neoformation was detected at the right lobe of the tyhroid, resulted a metastasis of the tonsillar neoplasm. The search for intranodular thyroglobulin was negative; the patient underwent thyroidectomy which showed a massive infiltration of the right cricothyroid space, cricoid and thyroid wing cartilage necrosis and intralaryngeal tumor infiltration. The authors describe the thyroid metastasis treatment, present an up-to-date review of the literature and suggest a thyroid careful clinical evaluation in every patient with a previous history of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:16229323

  8. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  9. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  10. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  12. Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  14. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  15. Stage Posts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulsby, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty about identity and the future is occurring at a stage of life when people do question what they have achieved and what they still want to achieve. The notion of midlife crisis has been in existence for some time but recently its occurrence has coincided with opportunities to take early retirement or redundancy. This has meant that the…

  16. Salivary biomarkers for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma – current state and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Maha; Fuentes, Laurel; Wang, Marilene B.; Abemayor, Elliot; Wong, David T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on thorough clinical oral examination combined with biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC. PMID:24883261

  17. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-08

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK. PMID:18190354

  19. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node. PMID:26681399

  20. PICSAR: Long Noncoding RNA in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunhai; Morgan, Stefanie L; Wang, Kevin C

    2016-08-01

    It is increasingly evident that long noncoding RNAs may play the roles of both oncogenes and tumor suppressors during cancer development. A new study from Piipponen et al. provides evidence that a long noncoding RNA, PICSAR, promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. Because specific inhibition of PICSAR suppresses tumor growth, this long noncoding RNA may serve as a useful diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27450499

  1. Primary Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nipple

    PubMed Central

    Pendse, Avani A.; O'Connor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cutaneous cancers; however, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple is extremely rare. Among the few reported cases, the majority have occurred in older women with rare cases seen in younger women and male patients. Our patient presented with an exophytic mass of the right nipple while pregnant. A superficial biopsy was reviewed at an outside institution and then at our institution and diagnosed as squamous papilloma and then as hyperkeratosis of the nipple, respectively. The subsequent excisional biopsy revealed multiple nests of tumor cells extending into the dermis with associated chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and the lesion was diagnosed as a primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the nipple. Following that, a wide local excision of the excision site and sampling of the regional lymph nodes were negative for carcinoma. Due to the rarity of this diagnosis, it is not known whether prognosis and response to therapy differ from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at other sites. Therefore, risk stratification and therapy have been based on those for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26798535

  2. Adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Pradier, Olivier . E-mail: opradier@gwdg.de; Christiansen, Hans; Schmidberger, Heinz; Martin, Alexios; Jaeckel, Martin C.; Steiner, Wolfgang; Ambrosch, Petra; Kahler, Elke; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to show that a less invasive surgery with organ preservation in combination with radiotherapy is an alternative to a radical treatment. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000, 208 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after surgical CO{sub 2} laser resection. Primary sites included oral cavity, 38; oropharynx, 88; larynx, 36; hypopharynx, 46. Disease stages were as follows: Stage III, 40 patients; Stage IV, 168 patients. Before 1994, the treatment consisted of a split-course radiotherapy with carboplatinum (Treatment A). After 1994, the patients received a conventional radiotherapy (Treatment B). Results: Patients had 5-year locoregional control and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates of 68% and 48%, respectively. The 5-year DSS was 70% and 44% for Stages III and IV, respectively (p = 0.00127). Patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater or equal to 13.5 g/dL before radiotherapy had a 5-year DSS of 55% as compared with 39% for patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater than 13.5 g/dL (p = 0.0054). Conclusion: In this series of patients with advanced head-and-neck tumors, transoral laser surgery in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in locoregional control and DSS rates similar to those reported for radical surgery followed by radiotherapy. Treatment B has clearly been superior to Treatment A. A further improvement of our treatment regimen might be expected by the combination of adjuvant radiotherapy with concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy.

  3. Endoscopic Ultrasound for Preoperative Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-xin; Shan, Hong-bo; Luo, Guang-yu; Li, Yin; Lin, Shi-yong; Wang, Guo-bao; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guo-liang; Li, Jian-jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment options and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) depend on the primary tumor depth (T-staging) and regional lymph node status (N-staging). Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as a useful staging tool, but studies regarding its benefits have been variable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of EUS for detecting preoperative ESCC. Methods We included in our meta-analysis studies involving EUS-based staging of preoperative ESCC compared with pathological staging. Using a random-effects model, we performed a meta-analysis of the accuracy of EUS by calculating pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic odds ratio. In addition, we created a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results Forty-four studies (n = 2880) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of T1 were 77% (95%CI: 73 to 80) and 95% (95%CI: 94 to 96). Among the T1 patients, EUS had a pooled sensitivity in differentiating T1a and T1b of 84% (95%CI: 80 to 88) and 83% (95%CI: 80 to 86), and a specificity of 91% (95%CI: 88 to 94) and 89% (95%CI: 86 to 92). To stage T4, EUS had a pooled sensitivity of 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89) and a specificity of 96% (95%CI: 95 to 97). The overall accuracy of EUS for T-staging was 79% (95%CI: 77 to 80), and for N-staging, 71% (95%CI: 69 to 73). Conclusions EUS has good diagnostic accuracy for staging ESCC, which has better performance in T1 sub-staging (T1a and T1b) and advanced disease (T4). PMID:27387830

  4. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Progressive squamous epithelial neoplasia in K14-human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Arbeit, J M; Münger, K; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1994-01-01

    To model human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic progression, expression of the early region of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was targeted to the basal cells of the squamous epithelium in transgenic mice, using a human keratin 14 (K14) enhancer/promoter. Twenty-one transgenic founder mice were produced, and eight lines carrying either wild-type or mutant HPV16 early regions that did not express the E1 or E2 genes were established. As is characteristic of human cancers, the E6 and E7 genes remained intact in these mutants. The absence of E1 or E2 function did not influence the severity of the phenotype that eventually developed in the transgenic mice. Hyperplasia, papillomatosis, and dysplasia appeared at multiple epidermal and squamous mucosal sites, including ear and truncal skin, face, snout and eyelids, and anus. The ears were the most consistently affected site, with pathology being present in all lines with 100% penetrance. This phenotype also progressed through discernible stages. An initial mild hyperplasia was followed by hyperplasia, which further progressed to dysplasia and papillomatosis. During histopathological progression, there was an incremental increase in cellular DNA synthesis, determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and a profound perturbation in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, as revealed by immunohistochemistry to K5, K14, and K10 and filaggrin. These K14-HPV16 transgenic mice present an opportunity to study the role of the HPV16 oncogenes in the neoplastic progression of squamous epithelium and provide a model with which to identify genetic and epigenetic factors necessary for carcinogenesis. Images PMID:7515971

  6. Correlation of EGFR-expression with safety and efficacy outcomes in SQUIRE: a randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase III study of gemcitabine–cisplatin plus necitumumab versus gemcitabine–cisplatin alone in the first-line treatment of patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Ares, L.; Socinski, M. A.; Shahidi, J.; Hozak, R. R.; Soldatenkova, V.; Kurek, R.; Varella-Garcia, M.; Thatcher, N.; Hirsch, F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background SQUIRE demonstrated addition of necitumumab to gemcitabine and cisplatin significantly improved survival in patients with stage IV sq-NSCLC. Here, we report additional outcomes for the subpopulation of patients with tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression. Patients and methods Patients with pathologically confirmed stage IV sq-NSCLC were randomized 1:1 to receive a maximum of six 3-week cycles of gemcitabine (1250 mg/m2 i.v., days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 i.v., day 1) chemotherapy with or without necitumumab (800 mg i.v., days 1 and 8). Patients in the chemotherapy plus necitumumab group with no progression continued on necitumumab alone until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. SQUIRE included mandatory tissue collection. EGFR protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a central laboratory. Exploratory analyses were pre-specified for patients with EGFR protein expressing (EGFR > 0) and non-expressing (EGFR = 0) tumors. Results A total of 982 patients [90% of intention-to-treat (ITT)] had evaluable IHC results. The large majority of these patients (95%) had tumor samples expressing EGFR protein; only 5% had tumors without detectable EGFR protein. Overall survival (OS) for EGFR > 0 patients was significantly longer in the necitumumab plus gemcitabine–cisplatin group than in the gemcitabine–cisplatin group {stratified hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69, 0.92; P = 0.002]; median 11.7 months (95% CI 10.7, 12.9) versus 10.0 months (8.9, 11.4)}. Additionally, an OS benefit was seen in all pre-specified subgroups in EGFR > 0 patients. However, OS HR for EGFR = 0 was 1.52. Adverse events of interest with the largest difference between treatment groups in EGFR > 0 patients (Grade ≥3) were hypomagnesemia (10% versus <1%) and skin rash (6% versus <1%). Conclusions In line with SQUIRE ITT, addition of necitumumab to gemcitabine–cisplatin significantly prolonged OS and was

  7. Stages of Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... following stages are used for anal cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells ... or check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of stage 0 is ...

  8. Tracheo-parenchymal fistula following concurrent chemo-radiation for stage III NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Alzghoul, Bashar; Meena, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) are frequently diagnosed at a later stage [1]. Treatment involves chemotherapy and radiation, either sequentially or concurrently [2]. Concurrent therapy is more efficacious but also associated with more complications [4-6]. We present a rare care of trachea-pulmonary fistula formation after concurrent chemo and radiation in a patient with Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC). PMID:27144112

  9. Targeted therapy for squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Rachel G.; Watanabe, Hideo; Meyerson, Matthew; Hammerman, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is the second most common subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer and leads to 40,000–50,000 deaths per year in the USA. Management of non-small-cell lung cancer has dramatically changed over the past decade with the introduction of targeted therapeutic agents for genotypically selected individuals with lung adenocarcinoma. These agents lead to improved outcomes, and it has now become the standard of care to perform routine molecular genotyping of lung adenocarcinomas. By contrast, progress in lung SqCC has been modest, and there has yet to be a successful demonstration of targeted therapy in this disease. Here, we review exciting work from ongoing genomic characterization and biomarker validation efforts that have nominated several likely therapeutic targets in lung SqCCs. These studies suggest that targeted therapies are likely to be successful in the treatment of lung SqCCs and should be further explored in both preclinical models and in clinical trials. PMID:23956794

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants.

    PubMed

    Czerninski, Rakefet; Kaplan, Ilana; Almoznino, Galit; Maly, Alexander; Regev, Eran

    2006-10-01

    It is well documented that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is related to risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption as well as premalignant lesions and conditions such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP), and previous malignancy of the upper respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Osseointegrated dental implants are rarely reported in association with OSCC. This article presents 2 cases of OSCC adjacent to dental implants in patients at risk for oral cancer--1 was a heavy smoker with OLP; the other had a history of previous oral and colon cancer. Six additional cases of malignancy adjacent to dental implants were retrieved from the literature; the majority of cases had at least 1 recognized risk factor for oral cancer. Although such cases are rarely reported, patients at risk for oral cancer, especially those with multiple existing risk factors, that present with failing dental implants should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out the presence of malignancy disguised as peri-implant disease. PMID:17017632

  11. Molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC).

    PubMed

    Azoury, SaÏd C; Gilmore, Richard C; Shukla, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most frequent tumors of the head and neck and often presents at an advanced-stage. Traditionally, treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy depending on both the site and stage of disease. Although the treatment approach for local disease is often standardized, the management of recurrent and advanced disease is evolving. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HNSCC has led to numerous promising investigations and the push for the development of novel therapies. Similarly, over the past several decades, growing data supports the notion that an individual's immune system can be manipulated in such a way to help eradicate cancer. The success of immunotherapeutic agents such as interleukin therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitor blockade in cancer, particularly advanced-stage melanoma, has stimulated researchers to uncover similar success stories in HNSCC. Examples of immunotherapeutics that are being studied for the treatment of HNSCC include adoptive T-cell therapy, vaccines, and immune checkpoint inhibitor proteins (e.g., anti-CTLA-4, -PD-1, -PD-L1). Molecularly targeted agents of interest include inhibitors of transmembrane growth factor receptors, angiogenesis, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR and NOTCH signaling pathways. To date, cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is the only targeted agent for HNSCC that was approved by the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the basis that it improves overall survival when combined with chemotherapy or radiation. Herein, the authors provide an up-to-date review of immunotherapeutic and molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of HNSCC. PMID:27448787

  12. Gene expression analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Paweł; Schork, Nicholas J.; Luczewski, Lukasz; Kolenda, Tomasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM. Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC. PMID:25575813

  13. Neck dissection for oral squamous cell carcinoma: our experience and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article describes our experience with neck dissection in 10 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and October 2009, 10 patients underwent primary surgery for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. For patients with N0 disease on clinical exam, selective neck dissection (SND [I-III]) was performed. In patients with palpable cervical metastases (N+), modified radical neck dissections were performed, except in one patient in whom SND (I-III) was performed. The histopathologic reports were reviewed to assess the surgical margins, the presence of extra-capsular spread, perineural invasion, and lymphatic invasion. Results On histopathologic examination, positive soft tissue margins were found in three patients, and regional lymph node metastases were present in five of the ten patients. Perineural invasion was noted in five patients, and extra nodal spread was found in four patients. Regional recurrence was seen in two patients and loco-regional recurrence plus distant metastasis to the tibia was observed in one patient. During the study period, three patients died. Seven patients remain free of disease to date. Conclusion Histopathological evaluation provides important and reliable information for disease staging, treatment planning, and prognosis. The philosophy of neck dissection is evolving rapidly with regard to the selectivity with which at-risk lymph node groups are removed. The sample size in the present study is small, thus, caution should be employed when interpreting these results. PMID:26734556

  14. Gene expression analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Paweł; Schork, Nicholas J; Luczewski, Lukasz; Kolenda, Tomasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM . Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC. PMID:25575813

  15. The detective, prognostic, and predictive value of DNA methylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Cao, Baoping; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 90 % of esophageal cancer cases. Genetic and epigenetic changes have been found to accumulate during the development of various cancers, including esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two major risk factors for ESCC, and both tobacco and alcohol were found to induce methylation changes in ESCC. Growing evidence demonstrates that aberrant epigenetic changes play important roles in the multiple-step processes of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. DNA methylation may occur in the key components of cancer-related signaling pathways. Aberrant DNA methylation affects genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, Wnt, TGF-β, and NF-κB signaling pathways, including P16, MGMT, SFRP2, DACH1, and ZNF382. Certain genes methylated in precursor lesions of the esophagus demonstrate that DNA methylation may serve as esophageal cancer early detection marker, such as methylation of HIN1, TFPI-2, DACH1, and SOX17. CHFR methylation is a late stage event in ESCC and is a sensitive marker for taxanes in human ESCC. FHIT methylation is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Aberrant DNA methylation changes may serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and chemo-sensitive markers. Characterization of the DNA methylome in ESCC will help to better understand its mechanisms and develop improved therapies. PMID:27110300

  16. [A Case of Long-Term Survival of Advanced Esophageal Basaloid Squamous Carcinoma Invading the Trachea].

    PubMed

    Tokura, Michiyo; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Murata, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Takatoshi; Hoshino, Mayumi; Goto, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Masaki; Koshiishi, Haruya

    2015-11-01

    A woman in her 50s complained of dysphagia and was diagnosed with locally advanced esophageal cancer in the middle and upper thoracic esophagus, invading the tracheal bronchus. The biopsy indicated esophageal basaloid squamous carcinoma. The pretreatment diagnosis was cT4N2M0, cStage Ⅳa. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of FAP (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], doxorubicin [DXR] and cisplatin[CDDP]), which resulted in significant tumor shrinkage. One year later, the tumor regrew, and nedaplatin (CDGP) plus docetaxel (DOC) was administered as second-line chemotherapy. The patient complained of dysphagia during the course of chemotherapy, and received radiation therapy for the residual tumor, which again significantly shrunk. Four years after the first round of chemotherapy, the patient can take oral nutrition, and is continuing to undergo chemotherapy. This is a case of long-term survival of locally advanced esophageal cancer of basaloid squamous carcinoma. Effective chemotherapy and radiation can improve the treatment outcome. PMID:26805208

  17. Analytical assessment of the novel Maglumi squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) immunoluminometric assay

    PubMed Central

    Dipalo, Mariella; Gnocchi, Cecilia; Aloe, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for routine measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is rapidly increasing in clinical laboratories, due to the central role that this biomarker plays in staging and monitoring patients with various forms of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Methods The present analytical evaluation of Maglumi SCCA was aimed to assess the imprecision, linearity and comparability against a widely used technique. Results The intra- and inter-assay imprecision was comprised between 2.6-4.2% and between 5.0-7.3%, respectively. The linearity of the test was excellent in the range of SCC values comprised between 1.0 and 18.0 ng/mL (r=0.998; P<0.001). A highly significant correlation was observed between Maglumi SCCA and BRAHMS Kryptor SCC in the range of values comprised between 0.44 and 15.18 ng/mL (r=0.960; P<0.001). The mean bias was 0.79 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.61-0.97) and the diagnostic agreement at the respective diagnostic cut-offs was 95%. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that Maglumi SCCA may be regarded as a suitable alternative to Kryptor SCC for routine and fully-automated assessment of SCCA in clinical laboratories. PMID:26807406

  18. Ileal Intussusception Due to Metastasis from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Resected 12 Years Previously.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Chino, Osamu; Tajima, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Yokoyama, Daiki; Hanashi, Tomoko; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2015-12-01

    An 88-year-old woman, with a history of resection of stage IIA lung cancer in 1998, was referred to our hospital in August 2010 complaining of upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and dark brown stools. After endoscopic examination, she was admitted with a diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Vomiting occurred when food intake was resumed after fasting. Intestinal obstruction was suspected on abdominal radiography, and complete small bowel obstruction was confirmed by contrast-enhanced imaging after placement of an ileus tube. A small intestinal tumor with intussusception was detected by computed tomography. At laparotomy, there was no ascites. Intussusception was found due to an ileal tumor located approximately 50 cm from the ileocecal valve, and we performed partial small bowel resection. The resected small intestine contained a submucosal tumor approximately 40 mm in diameter that had penetrated the bowel wall to reach the serosa. Pathological examination revealed a submucosal tumor that showed poor continuity with the surrounding mucosa, while the histology was squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was CK7 positive, CK20 negative, TTF-1 negative, and CK10 positive. Based on these findings, we made a diagnosis of small intestinal metastasis at 12 years after radical resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:26662663

  19. Serum placental-type alkaline phosphatase activity in women with squamous and glandular malignancies of the reproductive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Ind, T E; Iles, R K; Carter, P G; Lowe, D G; Shepherd, J H; Hudson, C N; Chard, T

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To investigate serum placental-type alkaline phosphatase (PLAP-type) activities in women with squamous and glandular malignancies of the reproductive tract using an immunoradiometric assay. METHODS--PLAP-type immunoreactivity was measured in 180 women with non-ovarian malignancies of the reproductive tract and the values were compared with those from 334 controls. The cases comprised 18 vulval, nine vaginal, 103 cervical, 46 endometrial, and five fallopian tube cancers. RESULTS--Serum PLAP-type activities were no different from controls in patients with squamous cell tumours. Women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube had increased values: women with endometrial cancer had a median value nearly four times greater than that of controls. There was no direct correlation between PLAP-type activities and stage of disease in patients with endometrial cancer, but values reverted to normal after treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PLAP-type measurements are of no value in the management of patients with squamous cell tumours of the female reproductive tract. Raised activities can, however, be found in glandular tumours, in particular endometrial cancer where serum PLAP-type measurements may be of value in predicting remission. PMID:7829680

  20. [Results of complex treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using advanced radiotherapy technologies].

    PubMed

    Glebovskaya, V V; Tkachev, S I; Rasulov, A O; Tsaryuk, V F; Gordeev, S S; Fedyanin, M Yu; Aliev, V A; Mamedly, Z Z; Kuzmichev, D V; Trofimova, O P; Borisova, T N; Yazhgunovich, I P

    2015-01-01

    During recent decades radiotherapy is the basis, on which it is built a medical complex that is the first-line treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. An increase of overall and disease-free survival and quality of life of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal at the present stage of development of a comprehensive medical treatment is largely due to the improvement of technical equipment of radiotherapy departments of oncology clinics. The use of modem linear electron accelerators and systems of computer dosimetric planning to create a 3D program of isodose distribution, diagnostic devices (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) as well as a number of other conditions permit accurate summarizing of proposed dose, reducing of absorbed dose to critical structures, diminishing unplanned interruptions in chemoradiotherapy course by means of modern technologies of conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT, IMRT, VMAT). The paper presents the preliminary results of a comprehensive medical treatment of 14 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. PMID:26571840

  1. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in basal and squamous cell skin cancer research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  2. Osseointegrated implants: a potential route of entry for squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Schache, Andrew; Thavaraj, Selvam; Kalavrezos, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    Documented cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in relation to osseointegrated implants are rare. We present the first case with evidence to suggest that implants provide a route of entry for squamous cell carcinoma to the mandible. PMID:18063453

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Copur, S; Ledakis, P; Novinski, D; Mleczko, K L; Frankforter, S; Bolton, M; Fruehling, R M; VanWie, E; Norvell, M; Muhvic, J

    2001-05-01

    Primary squamous cell colorectal carcinomas are uncommon, and their characteristics are not well known. They seem to occur most commonly in the fifth decade of life with a slight predominance for men. The most commonly reported anatomic locations are the rectum and the proximal colon. Clinical features and common diagnostic methods do not easily differentiate squamous cell colorectal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas. Because of their extremely rare occurrence, it is difficult to study their natural course, clinical behavior, and response to therapy. This report presents the case of a pure squamous cell colorectal cancer and provides a brief review of the literature, which includes 60 previously published cases. The case of a patient with T3N2M0 primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, which was initially treated with abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, is presented. During the follow-up, an elevated squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) level led to restaging computed tomography scans, which confirmed recurrent metastatic disease in the liver. Response to chemotherapy with a decrease in tumor size correlated with a decrease in the serum SCC Ag level. Although SCC Ag has been used as a tumor marker for squamous cell cancers of the lung, head and neck, uterine cervix, and esophagus, this is the first reported case of a squamous cell colon carcinoma presenting with an elevated SCC Ag at the time of recurrence. In addition, this patient showed an objective partial response to combination chemotherapy, with a decrease in the serum level of this tumor marker. PMID:12445380

  4. A multivariate analysis of determinants of survival for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Ildstad, S T; Tollerud, D J; Bigelow, M E; Remensnyder, J P

    1989-02-01

    The prognosis for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck remains poor, despite refinements in conventional therapy and experimental protocols using alternative treatment modalities. Clinical characteristics reported to influence survival have included age and sex of the patient, the therapy used, location of the primary tumor, and stage at initial presentation. However, such variables are highly correlated, and previous reports have lacked sufficient statistical analysis to assess the independent influence of these competing variables on survival. To better define the principal determinants of survival, we used a Cox multivariate regression analysis of 542 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated exclusively at our institution from 1962 to 1976. All patients were followed for a minimum of 5 years after diagnosis, with 98% complete follow-up achieved. Stage at initial presentation was the single-most important factor influencing survival for all tumor locations (p less than 0.0001). Advanced age (p = 0.001) and location of the primary tumor in the tonsillar area (p = 0.01) were also independently associated with an inferior survival. The type of therapy used and sex of the patient did not significantly influence survival after controlling for stage. These data emphasize the need for early diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and underscore the limitations of current therapeutic approaches. Future investigations should incorporate multivariate statistical techniques whenever possible, and additional efforts must be directed at basic research into the biology and immunologic characteristics of these tumors in an attempt to identify innovative therapeutic modalities. PMID:2916867

  5. [Pulmonary tuberculosis after 11 years of observation in a patient suffering from advanced squamous lung cancer cured by radical radiotherapy--a case report].

    PubMed

    Mysiorski, Grzegorz; Marciniak, Marek; Rogowska, Danuta; Sedlaczek, Andrzej; Witkiewicz, Iwona; Tarnowska-Matusiak, Marzenna; Pankowski, Juliusz

    2003-01-01

    Advanced lung cancer is a neoplasm of a poor prognosis. The treatment may improve it to a certain degree but not satisfactory. A case of squamous- cell lung cancer, in a stage III B of TNM classification, which was by cured completely radiotherapy is described. The 11 years post-treatment observation was performed without any symptoms of recurrence. Actually patient is hospitalised due to active tuberculosis. No evidence for lung cancer was found until now. PMID:14587431

  6. [Malignant cystosarcoma phylloides and squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. A rare tumor combination].

    PubMed

    Hunger, E; Türk, R; Wurster, K

    1984-10-01

    A case of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the stroma of cystosarcoma phylloides malignum is reported. A short review of prognosis and therapy is given on comparable cases. It is not uncommon to find squamous cell metaplasias in the dilated ducts of cystosarcoma phylloides. The combination of squamous cell carcinoma with this tumour, however, is a rarity. PMID:6097500

  7. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  8. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  9. Pathophysiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Sagoo, Mandeep S.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is possible that these are the progenitor cells in OSSN. OSSN arises in the basal epithelial cells spreading towards the surface which resembles the movement of corneo-limbal stem cell progeny before it later invades through the basement membrane below. UV radiation damages DNA producing pyrimidine dimers in the DNA chain. Specific CC → TT base pair dimer transformations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene occur in OSSN allowing cells with damaged DNA past the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. UV radiation also causes local and systemic photoimmunosuppression and reactivates latent viruses such as HPV. The E7 proteins of HPV promote proliferation of infected epithelial cells via the retinoblastoma gene while E6 proteins prevent the p53 tumour suppressor gene from effecting cell-cycle arrest of DNA-damaged and infected cells. Immunosuppression from UV radiation, HIV and vitamin A deficiency impairs tumour immune surveillance allowing survival of aberrant cells. Tumour growth and metastases are enhanced by; telomerase reactivation which increases the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo; vascular endothelial growth factor for angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that destroy the intercellular matrix between cells. Despite these potential triggers, the disease is usually unilateral. It is unclear how HPV reaches the conjunctiva. PMID:25447808

  10. Survival Outcome of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qing-Zhuang; Li, De-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhen-Gang; Wu, Yue-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) is a rare benign tumor of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. It is destructive or bone-remodeling, tends to recur after surgical resection, and has a significant malignant potential. The present study aimed to perform a retrospective analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from IP, including characteristics, survival outcome, and predictors of associated malignancy. Methods: The medical records of 213 patients diagnosed with IP from January 1970 to January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-seven patients were diagnosed with SCC/IP; their clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results: Of the 87 patients with SCC/IP, the 5- and 10-year overall survival outcomes were 39.6% and 31.8%, respectively. Twenty-nine of these patients received surgery and 58 received combined surgery and radiation. Of the patients with stages III–IV, the 5-year survival rate was 30.7% for those treated with surgery only and 39.9% for those given the combination treatment (P = 0.849). Factors associated with significantly poor prognosis were advanced-stage, metachronous tumors, or with cranial base and orbit invasion. Age, synchronous or metachronous tumors, and pathological stage were independent risk factors for mortality, shown by multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Patients with SCC/IP had low overall survival outcomes. Advanced age, stage, and metachronous tumors are the main factors affecting prognosis. Treatment planning should consider high-risk factors to improve survival outcome. PMID:26365962

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumour of keratinocytes arising in the epidermis, with histological evidence of dermal invasion. Incidence varies by country, skin colour, and outdoor behaviour, and is as high as 400/100,000 in Australia. People with fair skin colour who have high sun exposure and sunburn easily with little or no tanning, people with xeroderma pigmentosum, and people who are immunosuppressed are most susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Does the use of sunscreen help prevent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and actinic (solar) keratosis? What is the optimal margin for primary excision of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-metastatic)? Does radiotherapy after surgery affect local recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in people with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (non-metastatic)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: sunscreens, primary excision, and radiotherapy after surgery. PMID:25137222

  12. Targeting Angiogenesis in Squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merla, Amartej; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, and can be further classified as nonsquamous carcinoma (including adenocarcinoma, which accounts for 50% of NSCLCs) and squamous NSCLC, which makes up 30% of NSCLC cases. The emergence of inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptors, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) in the last decade has resulted in steady improvement in clinical outcome for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. However, improvements in the survival of patients with squamous NSCLC have remained elusive, presenting an urgent need for understanding and investigating therapeutically relevant molecular targets specifically in squamous NSCLC. Although anti-VEGF therapy has been studied in squamous NSCLC, progress has been slow, in part due to issues related to pulmonary hemorrhage. In addition to these safety concerns, several phase III trials that initially included patients with squamous NSCLC failed to demonstrate improved overall survival (primary endpoint) with the addition of antiangiogenic therapy to chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone. Angiogenesis is an established hallmark of tumor progression and metastasis, and the role of VEGF signaling in angiogenesis is well established. However, some studies suggest that while inhibiting VEGF signaling may be beneficial, prolonged exposure to VEGF/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors may allow tumor cells to utilize alternative angiogenic mechanisms and become resistant. As a result, agents that target multiple angiogenic pathways simultaneously are also under evaluation. This review focuses on current and investigational antiangiogenic targets in squamous NSCLC, including VEGF/VEGFRs, fibroblast growth factor receptors, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, and angiopoietin. Additionally, clinical trials investigating VEGF- and multi-targeted antiangiogenic therapies are discussed. PMID:24578213

  13. [Advances in Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Bao, Feichao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, computed tomography screening has made the disease spectrum of lung cancer shift from the previously predominating central local advanced squamous cell carcinoma to early stage lung adenocarcinoma represented by solitary pulmonary nodule, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and sub-centimeter nodule. This paper reviewed the recent proceeding in the surgical management of early stage lung cancer. PMID:27335305

  14. Stages and Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & ... Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Stages and Behaviors Text size: A A A Stages / Behaviors As ...

  15. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Julie; Malone, C. Helen; Kelly, Brent; Wagner, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin. PMID:27293916

  16. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  17. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  18. HER2 as a Therapeutic Target in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Netanya I.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) present with advanced-stage disease. Current standard of care is surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy or chemoradiation alone. The addition of cetuximab for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or recurrent/metastatic HNSCC has improved overall survival and locoregional control; however, responses are often modest, and treatment resistance is common. A variety of therapeutic strategies are being explored to overcome cetuximab resistance by blocking candidate proteins implicated in resistance mechanisms such as HER2. Several HER2 inhibitors are in clinical development for HNSCC, and HER2-targeted therapy has been approved for several cancers. This review focuses on the biology of HER2, its role in cancer development, and the rationale for clinical investigation of HER2 targeting in HNSCC. PMID:25424855

  19. Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Major, Aidan G.; Pitty, Luke P.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the world's top ten most common cancers. Current survival rates are poor with only 50% of patients expected to survive five years after diagnosis. The poor survival rate of HNSCC is partly attributable to the tendency for diagnosis at the late stage of the disease. One of the reasons for treatment failure is thought to be related to the presence of a subpopulation of cells within the tumour called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs display stem cell-like characteristics that impart resistance to conventional treatment modalities and promote tumour initiation, progression, and metastasis. Specific markers for this population have been investigated in the hope of developing a deeper understanding of their role in the pathogenesis of HNSCC and elucidating novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23533441

  20. [Present status of concurrent chemoreadiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck].

    PubMed

    Li, X M; Song, Q

    2016-07-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common kind of malignancies in human body. For HNSCC in early stage, either surgical operation or radiotherapy can acquire satisfactory treatment results. However, any single treatment modality such as surgery alone or single radiation is insufficient to gain satisfactory tumor control. Multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) has become a mainstay and important therapeutic strategy in the management of HNSCC. Among various approaches in the MDT, concurrent chemoradiotheraqpy (CCR) constitutes a major progress, which implicates a lot in improving outcomes and organ preservations in managing HNSCC. In the present review, the history, mechanisms, indications along with side effects and drawbacks, and perspectives of CCR are to be described and discussed, in the hope of providing effective guidance for the domestic MDT, especially CCR in the management of HNSCC. PMID:27480307

  1. Serum miR-1297: a promising diagnostic biomarker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Qingbao; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xuan; Nesa, Effat Un; Guan, Shanghui; Liu, Bowen; Han, Lihui; Tan, Bingxu; Wang, Ding; Chen, Pengxiang; Liu, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Han; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to value the diagnostic potential of serum miR-1297 in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Its expression level was detected in 156 pairs of patients with ESCC and healthy volunteers using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. It was statistically decreased in ESCC patients compared with healthy controls. AUC based on serum miR-1297 was 0.840 ± 0.035 in discovery group and 0.837 ± 0.034 in validation group. Further analysis on early-stage patients revealed that the AUC was 0.819 ± 0.053 in discovery group and 0.814 ± 0.044 in validation group. Its sensitivity and specificity were promising. In conclusion, serum miR-1297 can serve as an ideal indicator for the diagnosis of ESCC. PMID:27152453

  2. Role of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Pathway in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Du, Li; Shen, Jingping; Weems, Andrew; Lu, Shi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is one of the most frequently observed molecular alterations in many human malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A growing body of evidence demonstrates the prime importance of the PI3K pathway at each stage of tumorigenesis, that is, tumor initiation, progression, recurrence, and metastasis. Expectedly, targeting the PI3K pathway yields some promising results in both preclinical studies and clinical trials for certain cancer patients. However, there are still many questions that need to be answered, given the complexity of this pathway and the existence of its multiple feedback loops and interactions with other signaling pathways. In this paper, we will summarize recent advances in the understanding of the PI3K pathway role in human malignancies, with an emphasis on HNSCC, and discuss the clinical applications and future direction of this field. PMID:22666248

  3. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy. PMID:24936508

  4. Radiation therapy for nasal vestibule squamous cell carcinoma: a 40-year experience.

    PubMed

    Wray, Justin; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal vestibule. Eighty-six patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) and 13 patients received surgery and RT. The mean follow-up was: 9.7 years (range 4 months-35.9 years). The 5- and 10-year outcomes were: local control (LC), 88 and 82 %; local-regional control (LRC), 78 and 73 %; freedom from distant metastases (FFDM), 96 and 96 %; cause-specific survival (CSS), 91 and 86 %; and overall survival, 75 and 51 %. The 5- and 10-year LC rates for patients treated with RT were 94 and 89 % overall. A multivariate analysis was performed. Tumor size predicted LC, LRC, OS, and CSS. Overall stage predicted LRC. RT cures most patients with T1-T2 and favorable T4 SCCs with acceptable toxicity. RT and surgery result in improved likelihood of cure for patients with advanced T4 lesions. PMID:25773487

  5. Surgical margins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: what is 'close'?

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Bonali, Marco; Piccinini, Alessia; Marra, Laura; Ghidini, Angelo; Cunsolo, Elio Maria; Maiorana, Antonino; Presutti, Livio; Conte, Pier Franco

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the definition of close margin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and its possible prognostic significance. An appropriate string was run on PubMed to retrieve articles discussing the 'close' surgical margin issue in HNSCC. A double cross-check was performed on citations and full-text articles retrieved. In total, 348 articles were identified. Further references were included by using the option "Titles in your search terms" option in PubMed. 15 papers were finally included for qualitative synthesis. In vocal cord surgery of HNSCC, a close margin could be considered to be ≤1 mm, in the larynx ≤5 mm, in the oral cavity ≤4 mm, and in the oropharynx ≤5 mm. In each patient, the choice of extent of close margin should be balanced against general condition, tumor stage, and functional issues to indicate appropriate adjuvant therapy. PMID:23271033

  6. ‘Saddle nose’ deformity caused by advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hamish Edward; Connolly, Cara; Pahal, Gurjinderpal S; Stafford, Francis W

    2014-01-01

    Hidden behind their common garden symptoms, malignant tumours of the nasal cavity are typically advanced when detected. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common histological type of these rare tumours which may simply present with epistaxis or a blocked nose. A 79-year-old woman attended our clinic with a 2-year history of progressive nasal collapse resulting in a ‘saddle nose deformity’. Imaging showed a soft tissue mass with absolute destruction of the nasal septum and bones with hard palate and maxillary involvement. Histology confirmed a poorly differentiated SCC. Following discussion at the local head and neck multidisciplinary team meeting, the patient was offered radiotherapy alone due to her advanced presentation. She has had a good response to treatment with no further disease progression. Nasal septal SCC is far more successfully treated in the early stages. A suspicious clinician is the patients best ally. PMID:25096649

  7. Squamousness: Next-generation sequencing reveals shared molecular features across squamous tumor types

    PubMed Central

    Schwaederle, Maria; Elkin, Sheryl K; Tomson, Brett N; Carter, Jennifer Levin; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the underlying biology of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we tested the hypothesis that SCC originating from different organs may possess common molecular alterations. SCC samples (N = 361) were examined using clinical-grade targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). The most frequent SCC tumor types were head and neck, lung, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and gynecologic cancers. The most common gene alterations were TP53 (64.5% of patients), PIK3CA (28.5%), CDKN2A (24.4%), SOX2 (17.7%), and CCND1 (15.8%). By comparing NGS results of our SCC cohort to a non-SCC cohort (N = 277), we found that CDKN2A, SOX2, NOTCH1, TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, and FBXW7 were significantly more frequently altered, unlike KRAS, which was less frequently altered in SCC specimens (all P < 0.05; multivariable analysis). Therefore, we identified “squamousness” gene signatures (TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, CDKN2A, SOX2, NOTCH 1, and FBXW7 aberrations, and absence of KRAS alterations) that were significantly more frequent in SCC versus non-SCC histologies. A multivariable co-alteration analysis established 2 SCC subgroups: (i) patients in whom TP53 and cyclin pathway (CDKN2A and CCND1) alterations strongly correlated but in whom PIK3CA aberrations were less frequent; and (ii) patients with PIK3CA alterations in whom TP53 mutations were less frequent (all P ≤ 0 .001, multivariable analysis). In conclusion, we identified a set of 8 genes altered with significantly different frequencies when SCC and non-SCC were compared, suggesting the existence of patterns for “squamousness.” Targeting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and/or cyclin pathway components in SCC may be warranted. PMID:26030731

  8. Solitary Myocardial Metastasis from Locoregionally Controlled Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Roderick; Skarsgard, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 62-year-old male originally diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the right retromolar trigone, Stage cT2N2bM0. He was treated radically with a pharyngotomy and segmental mandibular resection, right selective neck nodal dissection, and then reconstruction with a free fibular flap. The pathologic stage was T4aN1. He then received adjuvant chemoradiation therapy with a radiation dose of 6,000 cGy in 30 fractions, along with cisplatin, 100 mg/m2 every three weeks. Good local control was repeatedly documented for two years. He then presented with shortness of breath and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) with rapid ventricular response. Computed tomography/pulmonary embolus protocol (CT/PE) showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism but did show a small pericardial effusion. His AF was refractory to medical management, and he was later admitted to hospital with congestive heart failure. He was found to have a large mass arising from the free wall of the right ventricle, a biopsy of which confirmed squamous cell carcinoma consistent with his head and neck primary. The patient declined further therapy and passed away within one month of presentation. This case is unusual in that the only known site of metastatic disease seen was to the myocardium of the right ventricle, presenting as cardiac arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. Although post-mortem studies show cardiac metastases to occur in 2 to 20% of cancer patients, it is rarely seen as a sole site of relapse in clinical practice. PMID:27453804

  9. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  10. Nuclear Fractal Dimensions as a Tool for Prognostication of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yinti, Shanmukha Raviteja; Boaz, Karen; Lewis, Amitha J; Ashokkumar, Pandya Jay; Kapila, Supriya Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinogenesis follows complex molecular alterations, which are triggered by subtle chromatin architectural changes that are imperceptible to the human eye. As the treatment decisions in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) are hindered by the imprecise clinical stage determination and inter-observer variability in histological grading, focus in recent years has shifted to discovering identifiers related to neoplastic cell morphology studied through computer-aided image analysis. One such approach is the assessment of fractal geometry, a technique first described by Mandelbrot, which aids in precise assessment of architecture of natural objects. Assessment and quantification of degree of complexity of these fractal objects (self-similarities in structural complexity at different magnifying scales) is described as fractal dimension (FD). Aim To evaluate the nuclear fractal dimension (NFD) in OSCC using computer-aided image analysis. Materials and Methods Histological sections of 14 selected cases of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) and 6 samples of normal buccal mucosa (as control) were stained with Haematoxylin-Eosin and Feulgen stain for histopathological examination and evaluation of nuclear complexity respectively. Fifteen HPF at Invasive Tumour Front (ITF) and Tumour Proper (TP) of Feulgen-stained sections were selected and photographed in test and control samples. At ITF, TP and normal buccal mucosa 200 nuclei each were selected and analyzed using Image J software to quantify FD. The test and control groups were compared statistically using Independent sample t-test and One-way ANOVA. Results Nuclear FD increased progressively towards worst tumour staging as compared to normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion Nuclear FD can be considered for quantification of nuclear architectural changes as a prognostic indicator in OSCC. PMID:26674013

  11. Gender specific quality of life in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate the somatic and psychological effects by means of QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL) of surgical treatment of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The factors gender, age, nicotine consumption, and tumour stage were taken into consideration. Methods 54 patients after surgical resection of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were analysed from 01.09.2005 to 31.05.2008. Inclusion criteria for the study were: age at least 18 years, no indication or treatment of synchronous and metachronous tumours. German translations of the EORTC H&N-35 and EORTC QLQ-C-30 questionnaires, as well as a general socioeconomic patient history were used as measuring instruments. The questionnaires were completed independently by the patients. The answers were translated into scale values for statistical evaluation using appropriate algorithms. Results Analysis of the EORTC-QLQ-C-30 questionnaires demonstrated a tendency of more negative assessment of emotional function among the female participants, and a more negative evaluation of social function among the male participants. Greater tumour sizes showed significantly lower bodily function (p = 0.018). While a smaller tumour size was significantly associated with lower cognitive functioning (p = 0.031). Other cofactors such as age, nicotine consumption, and tumour stage only showed a tendency to influence the quality of sleep and daily life. Conclusions The data obtained within this investigation demonstrated that gender had the most significant power on the subjectively perceived postoperative quality of life. This factor is important e.g. in preoperative decision making regarding immediate microvascular reconstruction after e.g. mandibular resection and therefore QOL assessment should become integral component of the care of patients with OSCC. PMID:20727183

  12. Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy With or Without Metformin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma; Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Cell Membrane CD44v6 Levels in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Association with High Cellular Proliferation and High Concentrations of EGFR and CD44v5

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Nuñez, Matilde Isabel; Pubul, Virginia; Herranz, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Membranous CD44v6 levels in tumors and surrounding samples obtained from 94 patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas were studied and compared to clinical stage, cellular proliferation, membranous CD44v5 levels, epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and cytoplasmatic concentrations of CYFRA 21.1. CD44v6 positive values were observed in 33/38 non-tumor samples and in 76/94 tumor samples, but there were not statistically significant differences between both subgroups. In CD44v6 positive tumor samples, CD44v6 was not associated with clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and lymph node involvement, but significant association was found with high cellular proliferation. Likewise, CD44v6 positive tumors had significantly higher levels of EGFR and CD44v5. In patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas and clinical stage I, positive CD44v6 cases were associated with the same parameters. Furthermore, positive CD44v5 squamous tumors were associated significantly with histological grade III and lower levels of CYFRA21.1. Our findings support the value of CD44v6 as a possible indicator of poor outcome in patients with squamous lung carcinomas. PMID:25809603

  14. Cell membrane CD44v6 levels in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: association with high cellular proliferation and high concentrations of EGFR and CD44v5.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Nuñez, Matilde Isabel; Pubul, Virginia; Herranz, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Membranous CD44v6 levels in tumors and surrounding samples obtained from 94 patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas were studied and compared to clinical stage, cellular proliferation, membranous CD44v5 levels, epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and cytoplasmatic concentrations of CYFRA 21.1. CD44v6 positive values were observed in 33/38 non-tumor samples and in 76/94 tumor samples, but there were not statistically significant differences between both subgroups. In CD44v6 positive tumor samples, CD44v6 was not associated with clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and lymph node involvement, but significant association was found with high cellular proliferation. Likewise, CD44v6 positive tumors had significantly higher levels of EGFR and CD44v5. In patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas and clinical stage I, positive CD44v6 cases were associated with the same parameters. Furthermore, positive CD44v5 squamous tumors were associated significantly with histological grade III and lower levels of CYFRA21.1. Our findings support the value of CD44v6 as a possible indicator of poor outcome in patients with squamous lung carcinomas. PMID:25809603

  15. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Submandibular Salivary Gland with Sialo-Cutaneous Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary glands are rare entities. Most common malignant tumour of submandibular gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histological finding of squamous cell carcinoma is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. Metastasis from distant primary squamous malignancy, direct invasion from cutaneous or mucosal squamous carcinoma, squamous component of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary origin are some of the possible causes. Of these, the latter is distinctly uncommon. Primary squamous malignancy is diagnosed only after ruling out other possible explanations. A positive mucin stain in the tumour or synchronous/ metachronous squamous carcinoma elsewhere excludes the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma. Primary squamous carcinoma is seen most commonly in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland. We present a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of right submandibular salivary gland in a 45-year old-man. This case is presented for the rare entity of primary squamous cell carcinoma in submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26435997

  16. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of liver is rare, and its prognosis is extremely poor. This study aims at reviewing the clinical data of all pathologically diagnosed liver cancer in our institute, and discussing the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of our cases of SCC and the literatures reported previously. All the patients undergoing liver surgery or biopsy for liver cancers from 2002 to 2013 in our hospital were reviewed, and the liver specimens were examined pathologically. A literature search for case reports of primary SCC of liver published until December 31, 2014, was performed on PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. The primitive data of the case reports were all included and analyzed if available. From January 2002 to October 2013, 2210 cases of liver cancer were diagnosed pathologically in our hospital. Among, 4 cases (0.2%) were diagnosed as primary SCC of liver. All were negative for hepatitis B infection, but present with liver cyst and/or hepatolithiasis. One patient underwent radical resection, but died of tumor recurrence 18 months postoperatively. One patient received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and 1 patient received laparotomy and alcohol injection, but died 9 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The last patient received only biopsy and supportive treatment, and finally died of tumor metastasis 6 months later. From 1970 to 2014, 31 cases of primary liver SCC have been published in English previously. Thirty one cases and the 4 cases in the present study were included. The average age of the patients were 54 years (range 18–83), with a male to female ratio of 19:16. Twenty patients had liver cysts, 7 had bile duct stones, and 2 cases had both. Patients undergoing radical surgery had better prognosis than those undergoing palliative treatments (median survival 17 vs 5 months, P = 0.005, log-rank test). Patients with liver cysts seemed to have worse

  17. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

  18. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: new translational therapies.

    PubMed

    Prince, Anthony; Aguirre-Ghizo, Julio; Genden, Eric; Posner, Marshall; Sikora, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx, and lymph nodes of the neck. Although early disease is amenable to single-modality treatment with surgery or radiation, patients with advanced disease have a dramatically worse prognosis, despite potentially morbid/toxic treatment regimens involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or all 3 modalities. The present review seeks to provide an overview of current understanding and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the nonspecialist clinician or basic/translational researcher, followed by an overview of major translational approaches to the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Translational research topics addressed include targeted molecular therapy, immunotherapy, minimally invasive robotic surgery, and ablation of dormant/residual tumor cells. Despite the many potentially promising avenues of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma research, only 2 new treatment approaches (antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy and robotic surgery) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the past 30 years. Focused research programs involving integrated teams of clinicians, basic scientists, and translational clinician-researchers have the potential to accelerate discovery and change treatment paradigms for patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:21105129

  19. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN THE GULF MENHADEN, 'BREVOORTIA PATRONUS' GOODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The communication reports a case (RTLA 3618) of squamous cell carcinoma from the gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus Goode, the first tumor reported from the species. The affected fish was collected in a gill net on 15 January 1986 in the northern Gulf of Mexico near Round Island,...

  20. Biventricular metastatic invasion from cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; Evans, Matthew C; Shkullaku, Melsjan; Schillinger, Rachel; White, Charles S; Roque, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the heart has been previously described with primary lung and breast carcinoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, mesothelioma and melanoma. However, left-ventricular cardiac metastasis from primary cervical squamous cell carcinoma is poorly described. This report describes the clinical presentation of a patient with cardiac metastatic invasion from cervical cancer. PMID:27371746

  1. Squamous cell cancer of female urethra. Successful treatment with chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.B.; Kalra, J.K.; Silber, L.; Molho, L.

    1985-03-01

    The case is reported of a seventy-four-year-old woman with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra who achieved complete biopsy-proved regression of the tumor for more than thirty months after therapy with 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and radiotherapy.

  2. Chromoblastomycosis associated with a lethal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, Edoardo; Beristain, Javier Gil; Lievanos, Zahide; Arenas, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dermatophytic fungi Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora. Usual complications include secondary infection, lymphedema and elephantiasis. Associated malignancies have been found in chronic cases. This case report describes a 72 year-old male with a 30 year history of chromoblastomycosis in the gluteal region, who went on to develop a squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20520950

  3. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  4. Tracheal Resection With Carinal Reconstruction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Krantz, Seth B; Patterson, G Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary malignancies of the trachea. We present here the rare case of a lifelong nonsmoker with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, requiring tracheal resection and anterior carinal reconstruction. Patient preparation, surgical technique, and considerations to avoid airway anastomotic complications are discussed. PMID:27343542

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. ); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Zitelli, J.A. )

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  7. Role of CD24 Protein in Predicting Metastatic Potential of Uterine Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Patients Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ghee Young; Ha, Hongil; Ahn, Geunghwan; Park, Seon Young; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The protein CD24 is a cell surface protein that appears to function as an adhesion molecule; its expression has been shown to correlate with prognosis in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoreactivity of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma to CD24 and determine whether CD24 is associated with clinical and pathologic parameters, including prognosis. Methods and Materials: The expression of CD24 protein was immunohistochemically studied in 73 cases of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone or with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Two pathologists independently analyzed the immunostaining; they did not have knowledge of the patient outcomes and evaluated any changes according to the percentage of tumor cells stained as follows: negative, <5% reactive; and positive, >5% reactive. Results: Positive staining was found in 43 cases (58.9%). The immunoreactivity did not correlate with age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, lymph node metastasis, or tumor size. For patients who were CD24 negative, the total failure and distant metastasis rates were decreased about 20% compared with the rates for patients who were CD24 positive. On univariate analysis, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate of CD24-negative patients was significantly greater than that of the CD24-positive patients (84.7% vs. 66.7%, respectively, p = 0.0497). The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and CD24 expression were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: CD24 expression was a significant independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival in patients with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In the future, prospective determination of CD24 expression might aid clinical practice in the selection of the appropriate therapy for individual patients.

  8. Cervical metastases of oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Peng, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Cervical treatment of oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains controversial. We determined the metastases incidence and evaluated its predictive factors. Systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of 23 Chinese and English-language articles retrieved from PubMed, Ovid, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Scientific and Technological Journal databases. Total cervical metastases and occult metastases rate was 32% and 21%, respectively. Positive lymph node detection was likeliest from levels I to III. The maxillary gingival metastases rate was higher than that of the hard palate. Advanced-stage tumors had higher metastatic risk than early-stage tumors. Well-differentiated tumors had a significantly higher metastases rate than medium and poor-differentiation tumors. N0 cases had survival benefit compared with N+ cases. Metastases rate of oral maxillary SCC correlates significantly with T classification and pathological stage. T and N classifications impact outcome significantly. Therefore, levels I to III selective neck dissection is recommended for patients with T3/4 cN0 disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2335-E2342, 2016. PMID:26890607

  9. Histopathologic features of multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; Leffell, David J; McNiff, Jennifer M; Ko, Christine J

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the leg, particularly those occurring multiply in sun exposed skin of nonimmunosuppressed women, are a distinct clinical subtype. There are few reports of the histopathologic features of this subtype. A retrospective chart review of 4 patients with multiple SCCs on the leg was performed and a total of 35 biopsies from the legs examined. Histopathologically, the tumors lacked adjacent actinic keratosis (AK) and often had adjacent basaloid retiform proliferations. Most lesions (all but one) were well differentiated and about 40% could be classified histopathologically as keratoacanthoma. Perineural invasion was absent in all but one case. Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for SCC, 21 tumors were Stage I, and 9 Stage II. During 7-10 years of follow-up, no recurrence or metastasis occurred. Patients with multiple SCCs on the lower extremities can have a range of histopathologic features, from keratoacanthoma-like to well-differentiated SCC. PMID:27220356

  10. Screening for characteristic microRNAs between pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIAO-LU; WEN, SHANG-YUN; AI, ZHI-HONG; WANG, JUAN; XU, YAN-LI; TENG, YIN-CHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer. A gene expression profile (GSE7803) containing 21 invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma samples, 10 normal squamous cervical epithelium samples and seven high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using significance analysis of microarray software, and a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The miRNAs that interacted with the identified DEGs were selected, based on the TarBase v5.0 database. Regulatory networks were constructed from these selected miRNAs along with their corresponding target genes among the DEGs. The regulatory networks were visualized using Cytoscape. A total of 1,160 and 756 DEGs were identified in the pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer, respectively. The results of the GO enrichment demonstrated that the DEGs were predominantly involved in the immune response and the cell cycle, in the pre-invasive and invasive stages, respectively. Furthermore, a total of 18 and 26 characteristic miRNAs were screened in the pre-invasive and invasive stages, respectively. These miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of cervical cancer. PMID:25695263

  11. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  12. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Huarong; Niyaz, Huerxidan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Songan; Reheman, Yiming; Bao, Yongxing; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63); the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis. PMID:27034835

  13. Lack of Adjuvant Radiotherapy May Increase Risk of Retropharyngeal Node Recurrence in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck after Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Blakaj, Dukagjin M.; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Glanzman, Jonathan; Patel, Shyamal; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has increased in popularity in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, TORS does not address the neck or retropharyngeal nodes (RPN). In the current report, we highlight the impact of the lack of adjuvant radiotherapy on RPN recurrence after TORS. Materials and Methods. A 58-year-old Caucasian male presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck of unknown primary. He was offered radiotherapy as a definitive management for clinical stage T0N2aM0, stage IVA, but he opted to left neck dissection. Follow-up PET-CT scan revealed recurrence in the left base of tongue and right level II lymph node. He was offered radiotherapy which he declined and opted to TORS and right neck dissection. Follow-up PET-CT scan showed recurrence in left RPN for which he underwent salvage concurrent chemoradiotherapy to 70 Gy. Results. After a followup of 9 months from the date of salvage chemoradiotherapy completion, the patient is with no evidence of disease. Conclusions. TORS followed by adjuvant radiotherapy seems reasonable in the context of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck due to the odds of RPN involvement. Further reports are warranted to optimize post-TORS adjuvant treatment. PMID:23840995

  14. A case of long-term survival after multimodal local treatments of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Shojiro; Tokoro, Akihiro; Utsumi, Tomoki; Ishihara, Masahiro; Akira, Masanori; Atagi, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer is rare, and it has a short prognosis. We report a 53-year-old man diagnosed with cT4N0M0, stage IIIA squamous cell lung cancer. Ten months after left pneumonectomy (pT4N0M0), an intramedullary spinal cord tumor developed at the axis level. The intramedullary spinal cord tumor was resected, and he was diagnosed with metastatic squamous cell lung cancer. Radiotherapies and another tumor resection were conducted, as he had a good performance status and the discrete lesion was associated with the risk of brain stem compression. Multimodal local treatments for intramedullary spinal cord metastasis caused the tumor to shrink, and he lived for 25 months after the spinal metastasis occurred. PMID:27621899

  15. A case of long-term survival after multimodal local treatments of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tokoro, Akihiro; Utsumi, Tomoki; Ishihara, Masahiro; Akira, Masanori; Atagi, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer is rare, and it has a short prognosis. We report a 53-year-old man diagnosed with cT4N0M0, stage IIIA squamous cell lung cancer. Ten months after left pneumonectomy (pT4N0M0), an intramedullary spinal cord tumor developed at the axis level. The intramedullary spinal cord tumor was resected, and he was diagnosed with metastatic squamous cell lung cancer. Radiotherapies and another tumor resection were conducted, as he had a good performance status and the discrete lesion was associated with the risk of brain stem compression. Multimodal local treatments for intramedullary spinal cord metastasis caused the tumor to shrink, and he lived for 25 months after the spinal metastasis occurred. PMID:27621899

  16. EMX2 Is a Predictive Marker for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Tolani, Bhairavi; Mo, Minli; Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Runfen; Jin, Joy Q.; Luh, Thomas W.; Yang, Cathryn; Tseng, Hsin-Hui K.; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Woodard, Gavitt A.; Hao, Xishan; Wang, Changli; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current staging methods do not adequately predict outcome for this disease. EMX2 is a homeo-domain containing transcription factor known to regulate a key developmental pathway. This study assessed the significance of EMX2 as a prognostic and predictive marker for resectable lung SCC. Methods Two independent cohorts of patients with lung SCC undergoing surgical resection were studied. EMX2 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, or immunofluorescence. EMX2 expression levels in tissue specimens were scored and correlated with patient outcomes. Chemo-sensitivity of lung SCC cell lines stably transfected with EMX2 shRNAs to cisplatin, carboplatin, and docetaxel was examined in vitro. Results EMX2 expression was down-regulated in lung SCC tissue samples compared to their matched adjacent normal tissues. Positive EMX2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival in stage I lung SCC patients, and in stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. EMX2 expression was also associated with expression of EMT markers in both lung SCC cell lines and tissue samples. Knock-down of EMX2 expression in lung SCC cells promoted chemo-resistance and cell migration. Conclusions EMX2 expression is down-regulated in lung SCC and its down-regulation is associated with chemo-resistance in lung SCC cells, possibly through regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). EMX2 may serve as a novel prognostic marker for stage I lung SCC patients and a prediction marker for stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26132438

  17. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. |; Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. |; Wang, H.-M. |; Cheng, A.-J. |; Chang, J.T.-C. ||. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  18. The clinicopathological significances and biological functions of parafibromin expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Xue-Feng; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Ren, Li; Gou, Wen-Feng; Shen, Dao-Fu; Zhao, Shuang; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Downregulated parafibromin expression is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of parathyroid, breast, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancers. To investigate the roles of parafibromin expression in tumorigenesis, progression, and prognostic evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), we transfected parafibromin-expressing plasmid into HNSCC cell and examined the phenotypes and their relevant molecules. Parafibromin expression was detected on tissue microarray containing squamous epithelium, dysplasia, and carcinoma of head and neck by immunohistochemistry. Parafibromin overexpression was found to suppress growth, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis, S arrest, and mesenchymal to epithelial transition (EMT), compared with the mock and control (P < 0.05). Both overexpression of Cyclin E1, Bax, and E-cadherin and hypoexpression of c-myc, Bcl-xL, and slug were detected in B88 transfectants, in comparison to mock and control by real-time PCR. Parafibromin expression was weaker in primary cancers than those in normal squamous tissue and dysplasia (P < 0.05), but stronger than the metastatic cancers in lymph node (P < 0.05). Parafibromin expression was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, but positively with human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity (P < 0.05). The HNSCCs in tongue showed more parafibromin expression than those in larynx (P < 0.05). There was stronger parafibromin expression in moderately-than poorly-differentiated carcinomas (P < 0.05). The significantly positive correlation was observed between parafibromin expression and relapse-free survival rate by Kaplan-Meier curves (P < 0.05). Cox's proportional hazard model indicated that distant metastasis and parafibromin expression were independent prognostic factors for overall and relapse-free survival of HNSCC, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that downregulated expression of

  19. [Extensive squamous papillomatosis of the oesophagus with malignant transformation of squamous epithelium].

    PubMed

    Borgulya, M; Lorenz, D; Vieth, M; Ell, C; Pohl, J

    2011-11-01

    While small solitary oesophageal papillomas are uncommon findings that are occasionally identified on routine upper endoscopies, extensive oesophageal papillomatosis is an extremely rare condition with only 9 cases reported in the English literature. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who was referred for progressive dysphagia for solid food and clinical signs for a reflux disease. Upper endoscopy demonstrated bizarre villous alterations of the mucosa covering the oesophagus subtotally and a suspicious area within these alterations. Histological work-up of the biopsy samples revealed marked papillary hypertrophy and a squamous epithelial carcinoma in situ corresponding to the suspicious lesion. The patient underwent oesophagectomy with cervical gastroesophageal anastomosis and proximal remnants of papillomatous mucosa above the anastomosis were destroyed with endoscopic argon plasma coagulation. In the 2-year follow-up the patient showed limited recurrence of the papillomatosis in the remaining proximal oesophagus containing a circumscript carcinoma that was successfully treated by local endoscopic mucosectomy. Our case strongly underscores the risk of malignant transformation in large areas of papillomatous mucosa and shows that systematic surveillance is essential. PMID:22069046

  20. High DEPTOR expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan-bo; Zhang, Jun-hua; Liu, Yu-fan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-zhong; Li, Ji-wei; Liu, Wen-yue; Huang, Chen; Shen, Tao; Gu, Cheng-wei; Gao, Dong-yun; Wu, Xia; Wu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The disheveled, Egl-10, and pleckstrin (DEP) domain containing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is a binding protein containing mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), and an endogenous mTOR inhibitor. DEPTOR shows abnormal expressions in numerous types of solid tumors. However, how DEP-TOR is expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains elusive. Methods The expression of DEPTOR in 220 cases of ESCC and non-cancerous adjacent tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. DEPTOR levels in ESCC and paired normal tissue were quantified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis to verify the immunohistochemical results. The relationship between DEPTOR expression and the clinicopathological features of ESCC was analyzed based on the results of immunohistochemistry. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between DEPTOR expression and the prognosis of patients with ESCC. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression rate of DEPTOR in ESCC tissues was significantly increased. DEPTOR mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in ESCC tissues than in normal adjacent esophageal squamous tissues. High DEPTOR expression was significantly correlated with regional lymph node status in the TNM stage of patients with ESCC. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the rate of overall survival was significantly lower in patients with high DEPTOR expression than in those with low DEPTOR expression. Additionally, high DEPTOR expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC patients. Conclusion High DEPTOR expression is an independent prognostic biomarker indicating a worse prognosis for patients with ESCC. PMID:26640385

  1. Prevalence trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mexico City’s General Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Guerrero, Juan C.; Jacinto-Alemán, Luís F.; Jiménez-Farfán, María D.; Macario-Hernández, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports suggest an increase in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequency. To improve programs in public health, it is necessary to understand the epidemiological conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in gender, age, anatomic zone and OSCC stage from Mexico City’s General Hospital patients from 1990 to 2008. Study design: A retrospective review of all OSCC cases diagnosed by the Pathology Department of the Mexico City General Hospital was performed. Demographic data, in addition to anatomic zone and histological degree of differentiation were obtained. Central tendency, dispersion and prevalence rate per 100,000 individuals were determined. Results: A total of 531 patients were diagnosed with OSCC; 58.4% were men, giving a male:female ratio of 1.4:1, and the mean age was 62.5 ± 14.9 years. The predominant anatomic zone was the tongue (44.7%), followed by the lips (21.2%) and gums (20.5%). The most frequent histological degree was moderately differentiated in 325 cases (61.2%). The rates of OSCC prevalence showed similar patterns in terms across time. A significant correlation (P = 0.007) between anatomic zone and age was observed. Conclusion: According to our results, the prevalence of OSCC does not show important variations; however, a relationship between age and anatomic zone was observed. These data could be used as parameters for the diagnosis of OSCC as well as for the development and dissemination of preventive programs for the early detection of oral cancer. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, prevalence, histology degree and anatomic zone. PMID:23385493

  2. TERT promoter hot spot mutations are frequent in Indian cervical and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, Vilvanathan; Arunkumar, Ganesan; Revathidevi, Sundaramoorthy; Arun, Kanagaraj; Manikandan, Mayakannan; Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam; Ajay, Chandrasekar; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy; Ramani, Rajendren; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix and oral cavity are most common cancers in India. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) overexpression is one of the hallmarks for cancer, and activation through promoter mutation C228T and C250T has been reported in variety of tumors and often shown to be associated with aggressive tumors. In the present study, we analyzed these two hot spot mutations in 181 primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity by direct DNA sequencing and correlated with patient's clinicopathological characteristics. We found relatively high frequency of TERT hot spot mutations in both cervical [21.4 % (30/140)] and oral [31.7 % (13/41)] squamous cell carcinomas. In cervical cancer, TERT promoter mutations were more prevalent (25 %) in human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cases compared to HPV-positive cases (20.6 %), and both TERT promoter mutation and HPV infection were more commonly observed in advanced stage tumors (77 %). Similarly, the poor and moderately differentiated tumors of the uterine cervix had both the TERT hot spot mutations and HPV (16 and 18) at higher frequency (95.7 %). Interestingly, we observed eight homozygous mutations (six 228TT and two 250TT) only in cervical tumors, and all of them were found to be positive for high-risk HPV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India reporting high prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity. Our results suggest that TERT reactivation through promoter mutation either alone or in association with the HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) could play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical and oral cancers. PMID:26700669

  3. Detection of differentially expressed genes and association with clinicopathological features in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong Sheng; Shen, Xiaohui; Qian, Xiaoyun; Yu, Chenjie; Wu, Haiyan; Gao, Xia

    2012-12-01

    Head and neck cancer is a significant health problem worldwide. Early detection and prediction of prognosis will improve patient survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between laryngeal cancer and the corresponding normal tissues as potential biomarkers. A total of 36 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited. Four of these cases were randomly selected for cDNA microarray analysis of the entire genome. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the differential expression of genes and their protein products, respectively, between laryngeal cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues was verified in the remaining 32 cases. The expression levels of these genes and proteins were investigated for associations with clinicopathological parameters taken from patient data. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 349 differentially expressed genes between tumor and normal tissues, 112 of which were upregulated and 237 were downregulated in tumors. Seven genes and their protein products were then selected for validation using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The data demonstrated that the expression of SENP1, CD109, CKS2, LAMA3, ITGAV and ITGB8 was increased, while LAMA2 was downregulated in laryngeal cancer compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Associations between the expression of these genes and clinicopathological data from the patients were also established, including age, tumor classification, stage, differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Our current study provides the first evidence that these seven genes may be differentially expressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with clinicopathological data. Future study is required to further confirm whether detection of their expression can be used as biomarkers for prediction of patient survival or potential treatment targets. PMID:23226807

  4. Differential Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonam A; Spinale, Francis G; Ikonomidis, John S; Stroud, Robert E; Chang, Eileen I; Reed, Carolyn E

    2010-01-01

    Objective The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the aggressive course of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there are a large number of MMP subtypes with diverse proteolytic substrates and different induction pathways. This study tested the hypothesis that a differential MMP profile would exist between NSCLC and normal lung and that MMP patterns would differ between NSCLC histologic type. Methods NSCLC samples and remote normal samples were obtained from patients with stage I or II NSCLC with either squamous cell (n=22) or adenocarcinoma (n=19) histology. Absolute concentrations for each of the MMP subclasses; collagenases (MMP-1, 8, -13), gelatinases (MMP-2,-9), lysins (MMP-2, -7) and elastase (MMP-12) were determined by a calibrated and validated multiplex suspension array. Results Overall, MMP levels were significantly increased in NSCLC compared to normal. For example, MMP-1 and MMP-7 increased by approximately 10 fold in NSCLC (p<0.05). Moreover, a different MMP portfolio was observed between NSCLC histologic types. For example MMP-1,-8,-9 and -12 increased by over 4-fold in squamous cell versus adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). In those patients who recurred within 3 years of resection, 3-fold higher levels of MMP-8 and -9 were observed (p<0.05). Conclusion Increased levels of a number of MMP types occur with NSCLC, but the MMP profile was distinctly different between histologic types and in those patients with recurrence. These different MMP profiles may be important in the mechanistic basis for the natural history of different NSCLC types, as well as identifying potential prognostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:20304142

  5. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability. PMID:26581612

  6. A Phase Ib/II Study of BYL719 and Cetuximab in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (RM HNSCC) Patients Who Are Resistant or Ineligible/Intolerant to Platinum-based Chemotherapy.; Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  8. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Gurudutt, Vivek V; Genden, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  9. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  10. The Mutational Landscape of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stransky, Nicolas; Egloff, Ann Marie; Tward, Aaron D.; Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Lawrence, Michael; Sougnez, Carrie; McKenna, Aaron; Shefler, Erica; Ramos, Alex H.; Stojanov, Petar; Carter, Scott L.; Voet, Douglas; Cortés, Maria L; Auclair, Daniel; Berger, Michael F.; Saksena, Gordon; Guiducci, Candace; Onofrio, Robert; Parkin, Melissa; Romkes, Marjorie; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Seethala, Raja R.; Wang, Lin; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Winckler, Wendy; Ardlie, Kristin; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S.; Getz, Gad; Golub, Todd R.; Garraway, Levi A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority exhibited a mutational profile consistent with tobacco exposure; human papilloma virus was detectable by sequencing of DNA from infected tumors. In addition to identifying previously known HNSCC genes (TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, and HRAS), the analysis revealed many genes not previously implicated in this malignancy. At least 30% of cases harbored mutations in genes that regulate squamous differentiation (e.g., NOTCH1, IRF6, and TP63), implicating its dysregulation as a major driver of HNSCC carcinogenesis. More generally, the results indicate the ability of large-scale sequencing to reveal fundamental tumorigenic mechanisms. PMID:21798893

  11. Penis keratoacanthoma transforming into squamous cell carcinoma: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Yihong; Liu, Jianye; Tang, Yuxin; Tang, Jin; Yao, Kun; Xia, Bing; Dai, Yingbo

    2015-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma is variously regarded as a benign epithelial tumor, characterized by a rapid-growing and solitary flesh-colored nodule with a central keratin plug on the sun-exposed skin. Under certain circumstances, it can transform into squamous cell carcinoma. In this paper, we present a case of a 50-year-old man with a 2.5 × 3 × 2.2 cm mass on his penis stub-end. The patient was treat with a partial penectomy after further expert discussions and histopathology the lesion demonstrated penis keratoacanthoma. He received a partial penectomy again and the pathological result revealed squamous cell carcinoma this time. This case indicates that undergoing a partial penectomy on initial diagnosis of a penile tumor secondary to penile keratoacanthoma should be considered because of its high malignant potency. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe the malignant conversion of penis keratoacanthoma. PMID:26885065

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ lining the uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Anthuenis, J; Baekelandt, J; Bourgain, C; De Rop, C

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia is a very common and well-known pathology. However superficial spreading of this lesion is very rare. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman with an abdominal mass, who had previously undergone a cervical conisation for a high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Anatomo-pathological examination of the mass showed a large distended fluid-filled uterus with the entire endometrium replaced by a high-grade squamous cell lesion. There were only micro-invasive foci found. The authors performed a literature search in PubMed with the following MeSH-terms: "squamous cell carcinoma" and "endometrium". Other articles were selected out of the references of previously found articles. Only 31 similar cases were found. The presentation of the cases is varies extremely and a long-term prognosis is not yet known. PMID:27048127

  13. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Nemcova, Jana; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was an 85-year-old man, who had a 2.5x2.5-cm, brown-colored ulcerated nodule, with a fragile, flesh-colored bleeding surface located beyond the metacarpophalangeal joint of the second finger of his left hand. Histopathologically, there were areas of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, alternating with the typical area of ESFA characterized by anastomosing cords, strands, and columns of epithelial cells extending from the crusted epidermis into a thickened, edematous, myxoid vascular-rich dermis. Immunohistochemically, the areas with dysplastic epithelium were positive for p16, whereas the benign ESFA parts tested negative. Human papillomavirus was detected in the lesional tissue by polymerase chain reaction, and the subsequent sequencing analysis demonstrated that the virus was close to human papillomavirus type 107. PMID:19033931

  14. Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Martin, Chelsea K; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted. PMID:26965084

  15. Site and origin of squamous cervical cancer: a histomorphologic study.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, E; Ostör, A G

    1983-07-01

    Based on extensive histomorphologic study, a concept of cervical carcinogenesis is formulated. Intraepithelial neoplasia arises in well defined and predestined fields that are well demarcated from each other. Different forms of intraepithelial neoplasia coexist and have different topographic distribution. Extension and enlargement of atypical epithelial fields are not brought about by active spread, but by apposition of new fields. Two different pathways exist for the genesis of intraepithelial neoplasia affecting cell types involved in regeneration or transformation. In the majority of cases the precursor lesion is atypical squamous metaplasia in the transformation zone. Less commonly, malignant change occurs in original squamous epithelium, probably via atypical basal hyperplasia. The role of the "last gland" is seen as the anatomic landmark dividing these two areas. So-called minor forms of intraepithelial neoplasia cannot progress and change into carcinoma in situ, as they are differently located. PMID:6856213

  16. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  17. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  18. Spontaneous regression in advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Hee; Park, Bo Mi; Park, Se Yeon; Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Ju Ock; Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Hee Sun; Moon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of malignant tumors is rare especially of lung tumor and biological mechanism of such remission has not been addressed. We report the case of a 79-year-old Korean patient with non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell cancer with a right hilar tumor and multiple lymph nodes, lung to lung metastasis that spontaneously regressed without any therapies. He has sustained partial remission state for one year and eight months after the first histological diagnosis. PMID:27076978

  19. Ganetespib Window of Opportunity Study in Head and Neck Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Reduced-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  1. Genetic and epigenetic changes in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Nooij, Linda S; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy with an annual incidence in developed countries of approximately 2 per 100,000 women. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has two etiological pathways: a high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent route, which has usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) as a precursor lesion, and an HPV-independent route, which is associated with differentiated VIN (dVIN), lichen sclerosus, and genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations. Research on the molecular etiology of vulvar cancer has increased in the past years, not only regarding genetic alterations, but also epigenetic changes. In genetic alterations, a mutation irreversibly changes the nucleotide sequence of the DNA, or the number of copies of chromosomes per cell is altered. In epigenetics, the nucleotide sequence remains the same but genes can be 'switched' on or off by, for example, DNA methylation or histone modification. We searched the current literature on genetic and epigenetic alterations in VSCC and its precursor lesions. Many studies have reported a higher incidence of somatic mutations in HPV-negative tumors compared to HPV-positive tumors, with TP53 mutations being the most frequent. Allelic imbalances or loss of heterozygosity are more frequently found in higher stages of dysplasia and in invasive carcinomas, but it is not exclusive to HPV-negative tumors. A limited number of studies are available on epigenetic changes in vulvar lesions, with hypermethylation of CDKN2A being the most frequently investigated change. For most genes, hypermethylation occurs more frequently in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas than in precursor lesions. As most studies have focused on HPV infection and TP53 mutations, we suggest that more research should be performed using whole genome or next generation sequencing to determine the true landscape of genetic and epigenetic alterations in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25448458

  2. Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, D L; Pope, E R; Payne, J T; West, M K; Tompson, R V; Tate, D

    2000-01-01

    Eleven dogs with naturally occurring oral squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Photochlor (HPPH) as the photosensitizer. The largest length of the tumours measured in a two-dimensional plane ranged from 0.9 to 6.8 cm. Seven of the tumours invaded underlying bone as determined by radiograph appearance. Photochlor was injected intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg kg–1. Forty-eight hours later the tumours were treated. Tumours with a surface to base depth of greater than 1 cm were surgically reduced to less than 1 cm. Irradiation with 665 nm light with an energy density of 100 J cm–2was administered. Eight dogs were considered cured with no tumour recurrence for at least 17 months after treatment. Local treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas with PDT appears to give results similar to those obtained with surgical removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla. The cosmetic results with PDT are superior to those of radical surgical removal. The new sensitizer, Photochlor, appears effective for oral squamous carcinomas with results similar to those reported for other sensitizers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10755404

  3. Emerging role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Rajeev; Vishwakarma, Supriya; Agarwal, Rahul; Panday, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer type, with an annual incidence of approximately half a million people worldwide. It has a high recurrence rate and an extremely low survival rate. This is due to limited availability of effective therapies to reduce the rate of recurrence, resulting in high morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced stages of the disease. HNSCC often develops resistance to chemotherapy and targeted drug therapy. Thus, to overcome the problem of drug resistance, there is a need to explore novel drug targets. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in inflammation, tumor progression, and angiogenesis. S1P is synthesized intracellularly by two sphingosine kinases (SphKs). It can be exported to the extracellular space, where it can activate a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Alternatively, S1P can act as an intracellular second messenger. SphK1 regulates tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in HNSCC. SphK1 expression is highly elevated in advanced stage HNSCC tumors and correlates with poor survival. In this article, we review current knowledge regarding the role of S1P receptors and enzymes of S1P metabolism in HNSCC carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize the current perspectives on therapeutic approaches for targeting S1P pathway for treating HNSCC. PMID:27330306

  4. Analysis of exhaled breath for diagnosing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, M; Tisch, U; Jeries, R; Amal, H; Hakim, M; Ronen, O; Marshak, T; Zimmerman, D; Israel, O; Amiga, E; Doweck, I; Haick, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are wide-spread cancers that often lead to disfigurement and loss of important functions such as speech and ingestion. To date, HNSCC has no adequate method for early detection and screening. Methods: Exhaled breath samples were collected from 87 volunteers; 62 well-defined breath samples from 22 HNSCC patients (larynx and pharynx), 21 patients with benign tumours (larynx and pharynx) and 19 healthy controls were analysed in a dual approach: (i) chemical analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and (ii) breath-print analysis using an array of nanomaterial-based sensors, combined with a statistical algorithm. Results: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified ethanol, 2-propenenitrile and undecane as potential markers for HNSCC and/or benign tumours of the head and neck. The sensor-array-based breath-prints could clearly distinguish HNSCC both from benign tumours and from healthy states. Within the HNSCC group, patients could be classified according to tumour site and stage. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a breath test for a specific, clinically interesting application: distinguishing HNSCC from tumour-free or benign tumour states, as well as for staging and locating HNSCC. The sensor array used here could form the basis for the development of an urgently needed non-invasive, cost-effective, fast and reliable point-of-care diagnostic/screening tool for HNSCC. PMID:24983369

  5. The expression and prognostic relevance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Miia; Halme, Elina; Tiilikainen, Lauri; Luukkainen, Annika; Laranne, Jussi; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Paavonen, Timo; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion IDO might be useful for predicting progression of primary tumor stage T2 and T3 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), but does not seem like a specific biomarker for diagnosing TSCC and predicting patient survival. Objectives Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in many cells and it catabolises the essential amino acid tryptophan to kynurenine. IDO acts as an immune modulator through suppression of T-cell immunity and other pathways. In cancer cells, IDO has been proposed to promote tumor progression by enabling malignant cells to escape from the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and prognostic relevance of IDO expression in TSCC. Method One hundred and eight retrospective tongue and lymph node specimens were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody anti-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. The relative abundance of IDO positive epithelial cells, IDO staining intensity, and inflammation were assessed semi-quantitatively with light microscopy. Results IDO was expressed stronger in tongue hyperplasia than in TSCC. However, IDO expression associated with poor survival in the sub-groups with primary tumor stage T2-T4 and in the sub-group with strong inflammation in tumors' invasive front. PMID:26982018

  6. Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Dan; Bar, Anna; Snaveley, Nicholas; Lee, Ken; Chen, Nathaniel; Swanson, Neil; Simpson, Eric; Jacques, Steve

    2012-06-01

    For rapid, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic scan image wide surgical margins (approximately 1 cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, eosin fluorescence (Eo) for labeling cytoplasm, and endogenous reflectance (R) for marking collagen and keratin. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488 nm (AO fluorescence) and 532 nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H&E, enabling detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The sum of mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic the appearance of eosin, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic the appearance of hematoxylin in H&E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing invasive SCC, and five containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4× histology. Of the total 50 SCC and 25 normal sub-mosaics presented, two reviewers made two and three type-2 errors (false positives), respectively. Limitations to precisely mimic H&E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that confocal mosaics may effectively guide staged SCC excisions in skin and other tissues.

  7. Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Anna; Snaveley, Nicholas; Lee, Ken; Chen, Nathaniel; Swanson, Neil; Simpson, Eric; Jacques, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. For rapid, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic scan image wide surgical margins (approximately 1 cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, eosin fluorescence (Eo) for labeling cytoplasm, and endogenous reflectance (R) for marking collagen and keratin. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488 nm (AO fluorescence) and 532 nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H&E, enabling detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The sum of mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic the appearance of eosin, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic the appearance of hematoxylin in H&E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing invasive SCC, and five containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4× histology. Of the total 50 SCC and 25 normal sub-mosaics presented, two reviewers made two and three type-2 errors (false positives), respectively. Limitations to precisely mimic H&E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that confocal mosaics may effectively guide staged SCC excisions in skin and other tissues. PMID:22734774

  8. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  9. Immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhen-ge; Ren, Xiao-hua; Wang, Sha-sha; Liang, Xin-hua; Tang, Ya-ling

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models can closely mimic human oral squamous epithelial carcinogenesis, greatly expand the in vivo research possibilities, and play a critical role in the development of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. With the development of the recent research on the contribution of immunity/inflammation to cancer initiation and progression, mouse models have been divided into two categories, namely, immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models. And thus, this paper will review these two kinds of models applied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to provide a platform to understand the complicated histological, molecular, and genetic changes of oral squamous epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:26869799

  10. Multi-institutional analysis of early squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx treated with radical radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa . E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Saito, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Naoki; Nakata, Kensei; Hareyama, Masato; Takada, Takahiro; Karasawa, Kumiko; Watanabe, Toshiichi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Gen; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Toba, Takashi; Yamada, Shogo

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of patients with early hypopharyngeal cancer treated with radical radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten institutions combined the data from 115 patients with Stage I-II hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive RT between 1990 and 2001. The median patient age was 67 years; 99 patients were men and 16 were women. Of the 115 patients, 39 had Stage I and 76 had Stage II disease. Conventional fractionation was used in 98 patients and twice-daily RT in 17 patients; chemotherapy was combined with RT in 57 patients. The median follow-up period was 47 months. Results: The overall and disease-specific 5-year survival rate for 95 patients without synchronous malignancies was 66.0% and 77.4%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate by T stage was 95.8% for patients with T1 disease and 70.1% for patients with T2 disease (p = 0.02). Of the 115 patients, local control with laryngeal voice preservation was achieved in 34 of 39 patients with T1 lesions, including 7 patients successfully salvaged, and in 56 of 76 patients with T2 lesions. Sixty-five patients (56.5%) had synchronous or metachronous cancers. Of the 115 patients, 19 died of hypopharyngeal cancer, 10 died of second primary cancers, and 14 died of other causes during the study and follow-up periods. Conclusions: Patients with early hypopharyngeal cancer tended to have a good prognosis after RT. However, second malignancies had an adverse effect on the overall outcomes of patients with early hypopharyngeal cancer.

  11. Osteopontin Involves Cisplatin Resistance and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sheng-Dean; Chen, Yi-Ju; Liu, Chien-Ting; Rau, Kun-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hsin-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han; Chiu, Tai-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in cell survival, migration, and adhesion. However, its role in chemosensitivity in locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in humans has not yet been investigated. Methods. We enrolled 121 patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B OSCC receiving cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT from January 1, 2006, through January 1, 2012. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess OPN expression in OSCC patients' biopsy specimens from paraffin blocks before treatment. In addition, MTT/colony formation assay was used to estimate the influence of OPN in an oral cancer cell line treated with cisplatin. Results. Of the 121 patients, 94 had positive OPN findings and 52 responded to IC followed by CCRT. Positive osteopontin immunostaining also correlated significantly with positive N status/TNM stage/male gender and smoking. Univariate analyses showed that patients whose tumors had a low expression of OPN were more likely to respond to chemotherapy and have a significantly better OS than those whose tumors had a high expression of OPN. Multivariate analysis revealed that prolonged survival was independently predicted for patients with stage IVA disease, negative lymph nodes, and negative expressions of OPN and for those who received chemotherapy with Docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (TPF). An oral cancer line stimulated with OPN exhibited a dose-dependent resistance to cisplatin treatment. Conversely, endogenous OPN depletion by OPN-mediated shRNA increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Conclusions. A positive expression of OPN predicts a poor response and survival in patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B OSCC treated with cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT. PMID:26491674

  12. Evolution of microRNA expression during human bronchial squamous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mascaux, C; Laes, J F; Anthoine, G; Haller, A; Ninane, V; Burny, A; Sculier, J P

    2009-02-01

    MicroRNAs, negative post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, are involved in cancer. Their role in early bronchial carcinogenesis was analysed in 60 biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy (six per stage: normal tissue of nonsmokers, normal normofluorescent and hypofluorescent bronchial tissue of smokers, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC)). In total, 69 microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in the course of bronchial carcinogenesis. Among them, some microRNAs showed a linear evolution of their expression level, such as miR-32 and miR-34c, whose expression progressively decreased from normal bronchial tissues of nonsmokers to SQCC. Others behaved differently at successive stages, such as miR-142-3p or miR-9, or are only altered from a specific stage, such as miR-199a or miR-139. MicroRNAs globally followed a two-step evolution, first decreasing (a reverse of their increase during embryogenesis) during the earliest morphological modifications of bronchial epithelium, and thereafter increasing at later stages of lung carcinogenesis. Moreover, microRNA expression was very efficient for the prediction of the histological classification between low- and high-grade lesions and between in situ and invasive carcinoma. The present data show, for the first time, that microRNAs are involved in bronchial carcinogenesis from the very early steps of this process and, thus, could provide tools for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:19010987

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer ...

  14. Stage IB adenocarcinoma of the cervix: metastatic potential and patterns of dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Kjorstad, K.E.; Bond, B.

    1984-10-01

    The metastatic potential patterns of dissemination have been investigated in 150 patients with Stage 1B adenocarcinoma of the cervix treated during a 20-year period from 1956 to 1977. All cases with the exception of one were treated with a combination of intracavitary radium implants followed by a radical surgical procedure with pelvic lymph node dissection. It was found that the incidence of pelvic metastases and distant recurrences and the survival rates were the same as in previously published reports for squamous cell carcinomas treated in the same manner. In one respect adenocarcinomas showed a significant difference when compared with squamous cell cancers: The incidence of residual tumor in the hysterectomy specimens after intracavitary treatment was much higher (30% versus 11%). This is considered a strong argument for surgical treatment of patients with early stages of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.

  15. 7, 12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced "early" Squamous Cell carcinoma in the Golden Syrian hamster: evaluation of an animal model and comparison with "early" forms of human Squamous Cell car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    To improve our knowledge on PDT of human early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract and to evaluate new photosensitizers, we have set up the Syrian hamster as an animal model. A 0.5% oily solution of DMBA was applied topically to the left buccal pouch mucosa 3 times weekly. The contralateral buccal pouch served as control. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks from the first applications. Tissue samples of the buccal mucosa were analyzed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical techniques and compared with preneoplastic and neoplastic changes which are seen in the human carcinogenesis of the upper aero-digestive tract. After 6 to 9 weeks from the beginning of the application, we observed different degrees of epithelial dysplasia and after 10 weeks microinvasive carcinomas. The sequence of dysplastic changes to early carcinoma was reproducible in different groups of animals, and they were closely comparable with the human forms of `early' squamous cell cancer. Hyper- and dyskeratosis were present at all stages of tumor development. We are particularly interested in (mu) -invasive tumor forms appearing 10 weeks after the first application because they are potentially amenable to photodynamic therapy.

  16. Capecitabine and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-01

    Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. The root bark of Paeonia moutan is a potential anticancer agent in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunnan; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Kondo, Seiji; Mukudai, Yoshiki; Sato, Daisuke; Kurihara, Yuji; Kamatani, Takaaki; Shintani, Satoru

    2012-07-01

    Currently there is growing use of complementary and alternative anticancer medicines worldwide, and considerable interest in finding anticancer drugs among Chinese medicinal herbs. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of the root bark of Paeonia moutan (RBPM) in human squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Cell lines derived from human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC2, 3, 4, SAS) were tested with different concentrations of RBPM (1-100 μg/ml) using a series of in vitro assay systems. RBPM at a concentration of 100 μg/ml inhibited monolayer and anchorage-independent growth, and interrupted coordinated migration. RBPM activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and serine/threonine kinase AKT in 30 min; then, at a later stage (after 6 hours) exhibited potent cytostatic, pro-apoptotic effects through the down-regulation of the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and its partner cyclin D1, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. We found direct evidence that RBPM induces apoptotic cell death via DNA fragmentation. Taken together, the antitumor activity of RBPM was demonstrated through antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. PMID:22753719

  18. Prognostic factors in anal squamous carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters in 235 cases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, N A; Scholefield, J H; Love, S B; England, J; Northover, J M

    1990-06-01

    Clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters have been analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis to define those parameters of important prognostic influence in 235 cases of surgically treated squamous carcinoma of the anus and perianal skin. Patients had been treated by anorectal excision (166 patients) or by local excision (69). Analyses were carried out on five data sets--the two surgical subgroups, two groups distinguished by site of tumour and on all 235 patients. Univariate analysis showed many parameters to be of prognostic influence, although histological typing of tumours into the more common histological subtypes was of no prognostic value. Parameters of independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis were those indicating depth of spread, inguinal lymph node involvement and DNA-ploidy. In this study the subdivision of the rarer types of anal canal tumour, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, microcystic squamous carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma, was relevant confirming that these tumours have a poor prognosis. It is now felt that surgery should not be employed as primary treatment in most cases of anal cancer and the results of this study have to be interpreted with caution when applied to patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the most useful prognostic information can be gleaned from accurate clinical staging and an assessment of DNA-ploidy status. PMID:2376397

  19. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Muttagi, Sidramesh Shivanand; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Gaikwad, Rohith; Singh, Bikramjit; Pawar, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. Results: All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut's deleterious effects. Conclusion: Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India. PMID:22754206

  20. Potential impact of human papilloma virus on survival of basaloid squamous carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Christian; Ayx, Isabelle; Fritsche, Kristin; Piontek, Guido; Hoffmann, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Knopf, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Basaloid-squamous-carcinomas (BSCC) have been considered as aggressive variants of common squamous-cell-carcinomas (HNSCC). Recent studies demonstrated a different clinical course depending on the tumour site. The aim of the study is to analyze the histopathologic/clinical features of BSCC/HNSCC resolved by the HPV-status. Methods We analysed the histopathologic/clinical features of BSCC (n=59) and HNSCC (n=981), subdivided due to the HPV status. Differences were analysed using Chi square, Fisher exact, and student's t-test. Survival rates were calculated by Kaplan–Meier and log-rank test. Prognostic variables were subsequently evaluated by Cox regression. Results Our cohort was congruent with the literature regarding sex, age, metastases, and a predilection in the oropharynx. HNSCC/BSCC did not show a different disease-specific-survival. After UICC matching, univariate analysis revealed a better survival of UICC stage IVa BSCC compared to HNSCC (69% vs. 42%, p=0.022) that was associated with a better response to radio-chemotherapy (p = 0.009). These results referred to the high prevalence of HPV+ (86%) oropharyngeal BSCC. Subgroup analysis demonstrated a better survival of HPV+ oropharyngeal BSCC than HPV-BSCC (p=0.017). Conclusion The clinical outcome in BSCC depends on the tumour site and HPV-status. Prospective studies have to evaluate the beneficial application of postoperative radio-chemotherapy in HPV+ BSCC. PMID:25739121

  1. Evaluation of EGFR as a prognostic and diagnostic marker for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Polanska, Hana; Raudenska, Martina; Hudcová, Kristyna; Gumulec, Jaromir; Svobodova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Fojtu, Michaela; Binkova, Hana; Horakova, Zuzana; Kostrica, Rom; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 90% of all head and neck tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. The overall survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is low (≤50%). A non-invasive marker of disease progression is sorely required. The present study focused on the plasmatic levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in HNSCC patients (N=92) compared with healthy (N=29) and diabetic [type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); N=26] controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antibodies against the extracellular region of EGFR (L25-S645) was performed. No significant changes were observed between diabetic and healthy controls. However, there were significantly higher EGFR plasma levels in HNSCC patients compared with both control groups (P=0.001 and 0.005, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a sensitivity of 76.09%, a specificity of 67.27% and an area under curve of 0.727 for this comparison. No significant association was observed between EGFR plasma levels and tumor stage, tumor grade, lymph node or distant metastasis occurrence, smoking habit or hypertension. However, the presence of human papillomavirus infection and T2DM in HNSCC patients had borderline effect on the plasma EGFR levels. Survival analysis revealed no significant influence of plasmatic EGFR levels on the overall and disease-specific survival of HNSCC patients. In conclusion, EGFR plasma levels appear to be a relatively promising diagnostic, but poor prognostic, HNSCC marker. PMID:27602151

  2. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids. Review of 7 years of experience of the adult ophthalmology service of the Casablanca university medical center].

    PubMed

    Khtibari, Z; El Belhadji, M; Benhmidoune, L; Berrada, S; Rqibate, S; Amraoui, A

    2015-02-01

    Malignant eyelid tumors generate considerable functional and aesthetic complications. Squamous cell carcinoma or squamous cell epithelioma (SCE) of the eyelids represents about 9% of all peri-ocular skin tumors. It is potentially lethal by orbital invasion or metastasis and characterized by clinical polymorphism and its ability to mimic other benign lesions of the eyelids, thus requiring early diagnosis and management. The goal of our work is to establish the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and prognosis of SCE of the eyelids. This retrospective study was performed over a period of 7 years on 25 cases of SCE of the eyelids. The mean age was 62 years. The gender ratio was 1.77 with a male predominance. Twelve patients had precancerous lesions. Biopsy revealed squamous epithelioma SCE in 24 cases and a mixed carcinoma in one case. Surgical treatment was performed in 23 cases. Eyelid reconstruction was immediate in all cases. Radiation therapy (RTH) was carried out for additional 5 patients. The mean follow-up was 15 months. We noted 2 cases of recurrence; revision surgery was necessary in one case and radiotherapy in the other case. SCE is often diagnosed at advanced stages in our context because of the limited access to health care and the extreme clinic polymorphism. This explains the need for histological examination of any suspicious lesion. Prevention through photoprotection is essential. PMID:25675868

  3. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status.

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, T; Matsumura, S; Hiranuma, H; Jikko, A; Furukawa, S; Ishida, T; Fuchihata, H

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers. Images PMID:10023341

  4. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    PubMed Central

    Cesnjevar, Monika; Anzic, Mitja; Hadzic, Jasna But; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; Jeromen, Ana; Korosec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Patients and methods One hundred consecutive patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated radically with 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy boost and with concurrent mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil. The influence on survival of pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was studied. Results The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival, disease specific survival and overall survival rates for all patients were 72%, 71%, 77% and 62%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with pre-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb > 120 g/L survived statistically significantly better compared to patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. Patients with mean on-treatment Hb > 120 g/L only had statistically significant better locoregional control and overall survival than patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were pre-treatment Hb (> 120 g/L vs. ≤ 120 g/L) for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.419, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.190–0.927, p = 0.032) and stage (I & II vs. III) for disease specific (HR = 3.523, 95% CI = 1.375–9.026, p = 0.009) and overall survival (HR = 2.230, 95% CI = 1.167–4.264, p = 0.015). Conclusions The pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb concentration > 120 g/L carried better prognosis for patients for with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. The pre-treatment Hb > 120 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for overall

  5. Lack of Correlation between Aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 Protein Expression and Promoter Methylation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperplastic candidiasis is characterized by thickening of the mucosal epithelia with Candida albicans infection with occasional progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). C. albicans is a critical factor in tumor development; however, the oncogenic mechanism is unclear. We have previously produced an animal model for hyperplastic candidiasis in the rat forestomach. In the present study, we investigate whether impaired DNA methylation and associated protein expression of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes are involved in the SCC carcinogenesis process using this hyperplastic candidiasis model. Promoter methylation and protein expression were analyzed by methylation specific PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, of 5 areas in the forestomachs of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with hyperplastic candidiasis: normal squamous epithelia, squamous hyperplasia, squamous hyperplasia adjacent to SCC, squamous hyperplasia transitioning to SCC, and SCC. We observed nuclear p16 overexpression despite increases in p16 gene promoter methylation during the carcinogenic process. TIMP3 and RAR-β2 promoter methylation progressed until the precancerous stage but disappeared upon malignant transformation. In comparison, TIMP3 protein expression was suppressed during carcinogenesis and RAR-β2 expression was attenuated in the cytoplasm but enhanced in nuclei. ERCC1 and BRCA1 promoters were not methylated at any stage; however, their protein expression disappeared beginning at hyperplasia and nuclear protein re-expression in SCC was observed only for ERCC1. These results suggest that aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 expression might occur that is inconsistent with the respective gene promoter methylation status, and that this overexpression might serve to promote the inflammatory carcinogenesis caused by C. albicans infection. PMID:27410681

  6. Lack of Correlation between Aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 Protein Expression and Promoter Methylation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperplastic candidiasis is characterized by thickening of the mucosal epithelia with Candida albicans infection with occasional progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). C. albicans is a critical factor in tumor development; however, the oncogenic mechanism is unclear. We have previously produced an animal model for hyperplastic candidiasis in the rat forestomach. In the present study, we investigate whether impaired DNA methylation and associated protein expression of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes are involved in the SCC carcinogenesis process using this hyperplastic candidiasis model. Promoter methylation and protein expression were analyzed by methylation specific PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, of 5 areas in the forestomachs of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with hyperplastic candidiasis: normal squamous epithelia, squamous hyperplasia, squamous hyperplasia adjacent to SCC, squamous hyperplasia transitioning to SCC, and SCC. We observed nuclear p16 overexpression despite increases in p16 gene promoter methylation during the carcinogenic process. TIMP3 and RAR-β2 promoter methylation progressed until the precancerous stage but disappeared upon malignant transformation. In comparison, TIMP3 protein expression was suppressed during carcinogenesis and RAR-β2 expression was attenuated in the cytoplasm but enhanced in nuclei. ERCC1 and BRCA1 promoters were not methylated at any stage; however, their protein expression disappeared beginning at hyperplasia and nuclear protein re-expression in SCC was observed only for ERCC1. These results suggest that aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 expression might occur that is inconsistent with the respective gene promoter methylation status, and that this overexpression might serve to promote the inflammatory carcinogenesis caused by C. albicans infection. PMID:27410681

  7. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With Paclitaxel and Nedaplatin Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Preliminary Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Meiqin; Liu Suping; Wang, Xiang-E.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with LASCC (FIGO Stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy for Stage IIB and 50 Gy for Stage III) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (50 Gy for Stage IIB and 35 Gy for Stage III). The cumulative dose at point A was 50 Gy for Stage IIB and 65 Gy for Stage III. Concurrent chemotherapy with paclitaxel (35 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}) was given every week for 6 weeks. Consolidation chemotherapy with paclitaxel (135 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Results: All patients completed CCRT, and 28 of 34 patients completed consolidation chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 88% (95% CI, 73-96%). The most common Grade 3 or higher toxicities were leukopenia/neutropenia (10.9% of the cycles). During a median follow up of 23 months (range, 14-30 months), 5 patients had locoregional failure and 1 patient had distant metastasis. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 82% (95% CI, 68-95%) and 93% (95% CI, 83-100%), respectively. Grade 3 late complications occurred in 3 patients (9%). Conclusions: CCRT with paclitaxel and nedaplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Further randomized trials of comparing this regimen with the standard treatment are worth while.

  8. Improvement in the Results of Surgical Treatment of Advanced Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma During 15 Consecutive Years

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Nobutoshi; Ozawa, Soji; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kitajima, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    Objective To document the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients undergoing esophagectomy for squamous carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus, and to examine the factors contributing to improvements in outcome noted in patients with advanced carcinoma. Summary Background Data Japanese and some Western surgeons recently have reported that radical esophagectomy with extensive lymphadenectomy conferred a survival advantage to patients with esophageal carcinoma. The factors contributing to this improvement in results have not been well defined. Methods From 1981 to 1995, 419 patients with carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus underwent esophagectomy at the Keio University Hospital. The clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients treated between 1981 and 1987 were compared with those of patients treated between 1988 and 1995. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model was carried out to evaluate the impact of 15 variables on survival of patients with p stage IIa to IV disease. Several variables related to prognosis were examined to identify differences between the two time periods. Results The 5-year survival rate for all patients was 40.0%. The 5-year survival rate was 17.7% for p stage IIa to IV patients treated during the earlier period and 37.6% for those treated during the latter period. The Cox regression model revealed seven variables to be important prognostic factors. Of these seven, three (severity of postoperative complications, degree of residual tumor, and number of dissected mediastinal nodes) were found to be significantly different between the earlier and latter periods. Conclusions The survival of patients undergoing surgery for advanced carcinoma (p stage IIa to IV) of the thoracic esophagus has improved during the past 15 years. The authors’ data suggest that this improvement is due mainly to advances in surgical technique and perioperative management. PMID:10903602

  9. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhongli; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen; Xiao, Zefen; Tan, Wen; and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  10. Results of radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Kuroda, Yuuki; Murakami, Naoya; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of radical radiotherapy by electron beams for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the eyelid and to find the possible prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: Records of 38 patients with histologically confirmed SCC of the eyelid who underwent electron beam radiation therapy between 1964 and 2010 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Median tumor size was 15 mm (range, 3–40 mm). T stage was T1 in three, T2a in six, T2b in 14, and T3a in 15 patients. Four patients had nodal metastasis. Of the 38 patients, 14 had relapsed disease after prior treatment. Median radiation dose was 60.0 Gy (range, 45.0–70.4 Gy). Median follow-up was 72.5 months (range, 2.0–369 months). Results: 5-year local relapse-free, nodal relapse-free, distant metastasis-free and relapse-free rates for all patients were 71.8%, 77.5%, 90.6% and 58.0%, respectively. In seven patients, lymph node metastases occurred in 11 faciocervical regions. The 5-year overall survival was 79.5%. T stage and radiation dose expressed in EQD2 Gy tended to have impacts on local control. Relapsed patients showed unfavorable local relapse-free rate, however this was without statistical significance. Of the 14 patients who died, 12 succumbed to concurrent diseases. Grade 3 or greater severe late morbidities (CTCAE ver4.0) were observed in nine patients. Due to the morbidities, two patients lost their vision. Conclusion: Radical radiotherapy for SCC of the eyelid yielded good results and could be a treatment option. Whether radiation-dose escalation could improve local control in advanced T stages and relapsed patients needs further study. PMID:23750022

  11. Plasma miRNA-506 as a Prognostic Biomarker for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Ping; Su, Hong-Xin; Zhao, Da; Guan, Quan-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis in tumor cells. miRNA-506 is abnormally expressed in multiple tumors, indicating that it might be oncogenic or tumor-suppressive. However, little is known about the association between miRNA-506 expression and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Material/Methods We examined the expression of miRNA-506 in the plasma of ESCC patients using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine the association between miRNA-506 expression and clinicopathological features of ESCC. ROC curves were produced for ESCC diagnosis by plasma miRNA-506 and the area under curve was calculated to explore its diagnostic value. Results Average miRNA-506 expression levels were remarkably higher in the plasma of ESCC patients than in healthy volunteers (P<0.001). The expression of miRNA-506 in the plasma was closely associated with lymph node status (P=0.004), TNM stage (P=0.031), and tumor length (P<0.001). According to ROC curves, the area under the curve for plasma miRNA-506 was 0.835, indicating statistical significance for ESCC diagnosis by plasma miRNA-506 (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high miRNA-506 expression had significantly shorter survival time than those with low miRNA-506 expression. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that T stage, N stage, tumor length, and miRNA-506 expression levels were significantly correlated with prognosis in ESCC patients. Conclusions miRNA-506 can serve as an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognostic prediction of ESCC. PMID:27345473

  12. Co-targeting ALK and EGFR parallel signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Cara B; De La Chapa, Jorge J; Saikumar, Pothana; Singha, Prajjal K; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Chavez, Jeffery; Horning, Aaron M; Parra, Jamie; Kirma, Nameer B

    2016-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises 90% of all head and neck cancers and has a poor survival rate due to late-stage disease that is refractive to traditional therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in greater than 80% of head and neck SCC (HNSCC). However, EGFR targeted therapies yielded little to no efficacy in clinical trials. This study investigated the efficacy of co-targeting EGFR and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) whose promoter is hypomethylated in late-stage oral SCC (OSCC). We observed increased ALK activity in late-stage human OSCC tumors and invasive OSCC cell lines. We also found that while ALK inhibition alone had little effect on proliferation, co-targeting ALK and EGFR significantly reduced OSCC cell proliferation in vitro. Further analysis showed significant efficacy of combined treatment in HSC3-derived xenografts resulting in a 30% decrease in tumor volumes by 14days (p<0.001). Western blot analysis showed that co-targeting ALK and EGFR significantly reduced EGFR phosphorylation (Y1148) in HSC3 cells but not Cal27 cells. ALK and EGFR downstream signaling interactions are also demonstrated by Western blot analysis in which lone EGFR and ALK inhibitors attenuated AKT activity whereas co-targeting ALK and EGFR completely abolished AKT activation. No effects were observed on ERK1/2 activation. STAT3 activity was significantly induced by lone ALK inhibition in HSC3 cells and to a lower extent in Cal27 cells. Together, these data illustrate that ALK inhibitors enhance anti-tumor activity of EGFR inhibitors in susceptible tumors that display increased ALK expression, most likely through abolition of AKT activation. PMID:27424178

  13. CD68 and interleukin 13, prospective immune markers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis prediction

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yan-Ru; Bi, Jiong; Liu, Hai-Bo; Li, Yan; Cai, Mu-Yan; Ma, Stephanie; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xie, Dan; Guan, Xin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Oncology immunity was reported to play a key role in cancer development and progression, so we investigated the prediction role of several immune markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients after operation in this study. Patients and Methods 66 primary ESCC tumor tissues and four sets of tissue microarrays including 705 primary ESCC tumor tissues from four centers were collected and analyzed. Expressions of several immune markers in ESCC tumor tissue were detected with immunohistochemistry staining. Their distribution densities were analyzed with InForm™ 2.0.1 software. All statistic analyses were performed with SPSS16.0 and Stata version 10.0. Results Survival analyses assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests demonstrated that densities of CD68 and interleukin 13 (IL-13) in tumor stroma were positively correlated with the overall survival of ESCC patients after operation (p < 0.01 for CD68, p < 0.001 for IL-13). Further, a model based on tumor stroma densities of CD68 and IL-13 was constructed and it could significantly classify patients with poor or good prognosis. This model could further identify high-risk group and low-risk group at the same Tumor lymph Nodes Metastases (TNM) stage. Lastly, a more accuracy model based on TNM stage, densities of CD68 and IL-13 was constructed to predict the prognosis of ESCC patient after operation. Conclusion Combining the TNM staging system and densities of CD68 and IL-13 could substantially improve the prognosis prediction accuracy of ESCC patient after operation, which might be an excellent tool for selecting patients for individualized therapy in future. PMID:26771842

  14. Plasma miRNA-506 as a Prognostic Biomarker for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Ping; Su, Hong-Xin; Zhao, Da; Guan, Quan-Lin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis in tumor cells. miRNA-506 is abnormally expressed in multiple tumors, indicating that it might be oncogenic or tumor-suppressive. However, little is known about the association between miRNA-506 expression and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined the expression of miRNA-506 in the plasma of ESCC patients using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine the association between miRNA-506 expression and clinicopathological features of ESCC. ROC curves were produced for ESCC diagnosis by plasma miRNA-506 and the area under curve was calculated to explore its diagnostic value. RESULTS Average miRNA-506 expression levels were remarkably higher in the plasma of ESCC patients than in healthy volunteers (P<0.001). The expression of miRNA-506 in the plasma was closely associated with lymph node status (P=0.004), TNM stage (P=0.031), and tumor length (P<0.001). According to ROC curves, the area under the curve for plasma miRNA-506 was 0.835, indicating statistical significance for ESCC diagnosis by plasma miRNA-506 (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high miRNA-506 expression had significantly shorter survival time than those with low miRNA-506 expression. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that T stage, N stage, tumor length, and miRNA-506 expression levels were significantly correlated with prognosis in ESCC patients. CONCLUSIONS miRNA-506 can serve as an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognostic prediction of ESCC. PMID:27345473

  15. Predicting the molecular role of MEIS1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rad, Abolfazl; Farshchian, Moein; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Geerts, Dirk; A'rabi, Azadeh; Memar, Bahram; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-02-01

    The three amino acid loop extension (TALE) class myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (MEIS1) homeobox gene is known to play a crucial role in normal and tumor development. In contrast with its well-described cancer stemness properties in hematopoietic cancers, little is known about its role in solid tumors like esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we analyzed MEIS1 expression and its clinical relevance in ESCC patients and also investigated its correlation with the SOX2 self-renewal master transcription factor in the ESCC samples and in the KYSE-30 ESCC cell line. MEIS1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly decreased in ESCC disease (P < 0.05). The inverse correlation between MEIS1 mRNA expression and tumor cell metastasis to the lymph nodes (P = 0.004) was significant. Also, MEIS1 protein levels inversely correlated to lymph node involvement (P = 0.048) and high tumor stage (stages III/IV, P = 0.030). The low levels of DNA methylation in the MEIS1 promoter showed that this suppression does not depend on methylation. We showed that downregulation of EZH2 restored MEIS1 expression significantly. Also, we investigated that MEIS1 downregulation is concomitant with increased SOX2 expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the MEIS1 gene in ESCC. The inverse correlation of MEIS1 with metastasis, tumor staging, and the role of EZH2 in methylation, together with its correlation with stemness factor SOX2 expression, led us to predict cancer stemness properties for MEIS1 in ESCC. PMID:26314854

  16. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  17. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Émilie L.; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  18. Recent advances in squamous non-small cell lung cancer: evidence beyond predictive biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Genova, Carlo; Rijavec, Erika; Grossi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has always been characterized by a limited number of therapeutic options and by the lack of actionable biomarkers compared to its non-squamous counterpart. Recent clinical trials have led to the approval of new anti-neoplastic drugs available to both non-squamous and squamous NSCLC, consisting in a vascular-disrupting agent and two immune check-point inhibitors; additionally, a monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is currently under evaluation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). While predictive molecular biomarkers have not been identified with consistency and are still highly demanded, these agents proved themselves noteworthy and can be considered a powerful addition to the available treatments for squamous NSCLC. PMID:26567561

  19. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy of selected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using bleomycin and hydroxyurea: a Southwest Oncology Group study

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, A.B. Jr.; Perkins, M.; Aust, J.B.

    1982-08-01

    Forty-three patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with simultaneous hydroxyurea and bleomycin in four treatment levels and with full-dose radiotherapy. Complete responses ranged from 28 to 50% (P = .47), and complete plus partial responses ranged from 57 to 84% (P = .50), in a total of 33 patients. The primary toxicity was moderate to severe mucositis and minimal leukopenia. Despite good initial response, long-term survival duration was not greater than was that for historical controls.

  20. A study of the expression and localization of toll-like receptors 2 and 9 in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dasgupta, Anindya; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Ghosh, TapanKumar; Dalui, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subhas; Banerjee, Uma; Basu, Anupam

    2015-12-01

    TLRs are important molecules of innate immune response, those play central role in host pathogen interaction and recognition through pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Previous studies have indicated the role of TLRs in many human malignancy and cervical cancer in terms of viral recognition and inflammatory changes in-vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression and localization of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 in preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer patients and to investigate its use as a probable diagnostic tool for better management cervical cancer. This single institution study includes individuals with normal, precancerous lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplastic (CIN) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. Upon confirmation by histopathology, fluorescence based immunohistochemistry was performed in all patients for TLR2 and TLR9, followed by semi-quantitative estimation of the staining intensity and grade of expression. The expression pattern of TLR2 and TLR9 does not vary greatly from normal to precancerous lesions, but a significant variation was observed in advance stages, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Additionally the expression increased marginally in higher grades. In spite of their low difference in expression along different stages of cervical cancer, both TLR2 and TLR9 could detect the disease at an advance stages as depicted by the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis. PMID:26569074

  1. Is there any role of mast cell density and microvessel density in cervical squamous cell carcinoma? A histologic study with special reference to CD-34 immunomarker staining

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Dasgupta, Senjuti; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Chatterjee, Shankha; Chakraborty, Debdutta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mast cells are involved in induction of angiogenesis in the early-stages of tumor development and in modulating blood vessel growth in the later stages of tumor progression. Aims and Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the association between mast cell density (MCD) and microvessel density (MVD) in carcinoma in situ (CIS), microinvasive carcinoma (CA) and invasive squamous cell CA of cervix. Materials and Methods: Six cases of CIS, four cases of microinvasive CA and 38 cases of invasive CA were studied over a period of 2 years from August, 2011 to June, 2013. Ten control samples were included in the study. Routine histologic examination was done. Toluidine blue stain was used for MCD determination. Immunohistochemical analysis with CD-34 was done for assessing MVD. Student's t-test was used to calculate the statistical significance of MCD and MVD. Results: Both MCD and MVD increased from normal samples through CIS to invasive cervical CA. In the four cases of microinvasive CA, the MCD and MVD were more than that of the control samples, but less than that of the six cases of CIS. Conclusion: There is a correlation between mast cell accumulation and angiogenesis in CIS, microinvasive CA and invasive cervical squamous cell CA. MCD and MVD in invasive CA exceed those in CIS and microinvasive CA. It gives us an opportunity to postulate that therapeutic strategies against mast cell mediators and angiogenesis may be of benefit in patients of early-stage cervical CA. PMID:25197180

  2. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A) association with lymph node metastasis predicts poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chin, Mei-Chung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A) is a multifunctional protein aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers. However, its expression pattern and clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression pattern of ANP32A in 259 OSCC patients and the results were correlated with clinicopathological factors using Allred, Klein and Immunoreactive scoring (IRS) system. Our data indicated that high expression of ANP32A was significantly associated with N stage and tumor differentiation status in OSCC patients. High ANP32A expression with N2/N3 stage had an increased mortality risk than low ANP32A expressing OSCC patients with N0/N1 stage. Functional studies revealed that knockdown of ANP32A significantly decreased the migration and invasion ability thereby concomitantly increasing E-cadherin and decreasing Slug, Claudin-1 and Vimentin expression in vitro. These results suggest that ANP32A is commonly increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma and ANP32A protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of oral cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. PMID:26918356

  3. Deciphering Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Multidimensional Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Ewan A.; Enfield, Katey S. S.; Tsui, Ivy F. L.; Chari, Raj; Lam, Stephen; Alvarez, Carlos E.; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) arise in a wide range of tissues including skin, lung, and oral mucosa. Although all SqCCs are epithelial in origin and share common nomenclature, these cancers differ greatly with respect to incidence, prognosis, and treatment. Current knowledge of genetic similarities and differences between SqCCs is insufficient to describe the biology of these cancers, which arise from diverse tissue origins. In this paper we provide a general overview of whole genome approaches for gene and pathway discovery and highlight the advancement of integrative genomics as a state-of-the-art technology in the study of SqCC genetics. PMID:21234096

  4. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva: A diagnostic enigma

    PubMed Central

    Bharanidharan, R; Dineshkumar, T; Raghavendhar, Karthik; Kumar, A Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignant neoplasm affecting the oral cavity; early detection is an important criterion for achieving high cure rate. Occasionally, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable and innocuous clinical appearance. Carcinomas of the gingiva are a unique subset of OSCC, constituting approximately 10% of OSCCs and can mimic a multitude of oral lesions especially those of inflammatory origin with benign features, often leading to delay in the diagnosis and hence delayed treatment. This article reports a rare case of gingival OSCC in a 62-year-old female patient mimicking an inflammatory gingival mass. PMID:26604512

  6. Impact of cervical disease and its definitive radiotherapeutic management on survival: Experience in 2013 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx and pharyngolarynx

    SciTech Connect

    Bataini, J.P.; Bernier, J.; Jaulerry, C.; Brunin, F.; Pontvert, D. )

    1990-07-01

    Two thousand thirteen patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and pharyngolarynx were reviewed with regard to neck disease presentation and disease-free survival after radical radiotherapy. All patients were staged according to both the AJCC 1976 and the UICC 1978 classifications. Causes of failure, disease-free survival, and complication rates were assessed. Sixty percent had a clinically positive neck. The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 58%, 44%, 38%, and 25% for AJCC N0, N1, N2, and N3 cases, respectively. Corresponding UICC figures were 58%, 46%, 26%, and 29%. Analyzed parameters were nodal stage, size, site and fixity, and location of primary. Complications attributed to neck disease did not exceed 3%. A critical appraisal of the nodal staging systems is derived from these sets of data.

  7. Clinical implication of computed tomography findings in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.

    PubMed

    Ryu, In Sun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-10-01

    Accurate tumor staging including involvement of laryngeal cartilage is important to treatment planning. Clinicians rely on imaging findings and determine initial laryngectomy for T4-stage cancer with functionless larynx or extralaryngeal spread (ELS). We examined the accuracy and prognostic value of preoperative CT findings for tumor staging in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Ninety-four consecutive patients with clinically T3-T4-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx who underwent curative resection of primary tumor were reviewed. Preoperative CT findings were interpreted by a radiologist without pathologic information. Pathologic findings were used as the gold standard for correlating radiographic findings. CT imaging identified 23 (72%) of 32 cases of pathologically documented thyroid cartilage penetration and 24 (73%) of 33 cases of pathologically documented ELS. The positive predictive values for thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS were 70 and 80%, respectively. Pretreatment CT imaging up-staged 6 of 46 pT3 cases and all of 8 pT2 cases, while it down-staged 7 of 40 pT4 cases. The accuracy for clinical staging by CT imaging was 78%. Subglottic extension of the CT image was an independent variable for predicting thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS (P = 0.014). Thyroid cartilage penetration with or without ELS on CT scans is significantly associated with unfavorable DFS outcome of patients (P = 0.020). CT imaging is suboptimal in diagnosing TCP or ELS of advanced laryngeal cancer, but may be useful to predict patient survival by identifying clinically TCP. PMID:25149290

  8. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-06

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. The emerging role of immunotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): anti-tumor immunity and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulou, Panagiota; Perisanidis, Christos; Giotakis, Evaggelos I.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with low survival rates for advanced stage tumors and minimal improvement in survival trends through the past decades. It is becoming increasingly clear that HNSCC oncogenesis and evolution is characterized by profound immune defects, as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance due to accumulation of genetic mutations and tumor heterogeneity. Improved understanding of the role of the immune system in cancer has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are being investigated for their potential to provide durable responses. In this review, we will summarize the role of the immune system in HNSCC, the rationale behind immunotherapy strategies and their clinical applications. PMID:27275486

  10. Diagnostic model of saliva peptide finger print analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients using weak cation exchange magnetic beads

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Peng; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Li-Xin; Peng, Xin; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Saliva diagnostics utilizing nanotechnology and molecular technologies to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has become an attractive field of study. However, no specific methods have been established. To refine the diagnostic power of saliva peptide fingerprints for the early detection of OSCC, we screened the expression spectrum of salivary peptides in 40 T1 stage OSCC patients (and healthy controls) using MALDI-TOF-MS combined with magnetic beads. Fifty proteins showed significantly different expression levels in the OSCC samples (P<0.05). Potential biomarkers were also predicted. The novel diagnostic proteomic model with m/z peaks of 1285.6 Da and 1432.2 Da are of certain value for early diagnosis of OSCC. PMID:26182373

  11. Dexamethasone in Reducing Oral Pain and Dry Mouth After Surgery in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-08

    Dysphagia; Pain; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Epithelial lesions associated with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma: a pathologic study of 288 cases.

    PubMed

    Cubilla, Antonio L; Velazquez, Elsa F; Young, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    A heterogeneous spectrum of epithelial alterations and atypical lesions affect the squamous epithelium of penile mucosal anatomical compartments. Analogous to other genital sites, the terminology utilized to define the lesions is variable. The few pathologic studies of penile precancerous lesions are mostly related to carcinoma in situ and human papilloma virus (HPV), and the information on low-grade atypical lesions is limited. The objective of this study was to comprehensively describe the morphologic features of all epithelial alterations, benign and atypical, low grade and high grade, associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and to investigate their relation with each other and with subtypes of invasive carcinoma. We also propose herein a simple and reproducible nomenclature for penile precancerous abnormalities until more biological, molecular, or epidemiologic information on the lesions is available. Two hundred and eighty-eight penectomy and circumcision specimens with invasive squamous cell carcinoma were pathologically evaluated. Carcinomas were classified as usual, verrucous, papillary not otherwise specified, warty (condylomatous), basaloid, and mixed. Associated lesions were classified as squamous hyperplasia and squamous intraepithelial lesions of low and high grade (LGSIL and HGSIL). In LGSIL, atypia was confined to the lower third, and in HGSIL, atypical cells affected at least two thirds of the squamous epithelium. Subtypes of SIL were squamous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, and papillary. Squamous hyperplasia, the most common lesion, was found in 83% of the cases, followed by LGSIL (59%) and HGSIL (44%). In 62% of the cases more than 1 associated lesion was present per specimen. A sequence from squamous hyperplasia to low-grade to high-grade SIL was seen frequently. Squamous hyperplasia was more commonly associated with usual squamous, papillary, and verrucous than with warty and basaloid invasive carcinomas. LGSIL was

  13. Conventional clinical and prognostic variables in 150 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases from the indigenous population of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir, Muhammad Mohiuddin; Jamal, Qamar; Mirza, Talat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinical and prognostic variables of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cases from the indigenous population of Karachi and to correlate with the common risk factor of tobacco habit. Methods: The study was conducted at Ziauddin University, Karachi. One hundred fifty OSCC cases were collected from the Oncology Department of Ziauddin University Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi and Otolaryngology ward of Civil Hospital, Karachi, during 2011 and 2015. The reporting included demographic details and variables like intra-oral subsites, clinical stage and histological grade. Recurrence of tumor after initial resection was also documented. Results: The patient’s population comprised of 98 males and 52 females. The mean age was 47.1± 12.22 (range:20-78 years). Maximum numbers were seen in the 41–50 years age group. Urdu-speaking community was the most affected ethnic group (n=75). Clinico-pathological analysis revealed that majority of cases were moderately differentiated (59%) and were either clinical stage II (35%) or IV (29%) tumors. The most common intra-oral subsite came out to be buccal mucosa of cheeks (56%) followed by lateral borders of tongue (21%), lips (13%), alveolar (6%), palate (2.6%) floor of mouth (1.3%), etc. Recurrence was observed in 08 out of 150 cases. All patients underwent primary resection±neck dissection and reconstruction where possible. Conclusions: Overall experience with oral squamous cell carcinoma shows that it has a high tendency for local invasion as well as dissemination to regional lymph nodes, i.e. cervical lymph nodes, both are associated with a poor prognosis. Preventable risk factor of tobacco chewing has been observed in majority of these cases. PMID:27375712

  14. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  15. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P < 0.001). In addition, IL-37 expression was lower in OSCC with lymph node metastasis than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). What’s more, overexpression of IL-37 in RAW264.7 cells remarkably reduced the pseudopodia, vacuolization and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Finally, we found IL-37 and its receptor IL-18Rα but not its binding partner IL-18BP have similar tissue location and expression trend in different stages of oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions. PMID:27225603

  16. Cross-species identification of genomic drivers of squamous cell carcinoma development across preneoplastic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Coarfa, Cristian; Drummond, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Tri; Joseph, Aaron; Chilukuri, Suneel; Charpiot, Elizabeth; Adelmann, Charles H; Ching, Grace; Nguyen, Tran N; Nicholas, Courtney; Thomas, Valencia D; Migden, Michael; MacFarlane, Deborah; Thompson, Erika; Shen, Jianjun; Takata, Yoko; McNiece, Kayla; Polansky, Maxim A; Abbas, Hussein A; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Gower, Adam; Spira, Avrum; Covington, Kyle R; Xiao, Weimin; Gunaratne, Preethi; Pickering, Curtis; Frederick, Mitchell; Myers, Jeffrey N; Shen, Li; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Rapini, Ronald P; Wheeler, David A; Hawk, Ernest T; Flores, Elsa R; Tsai, Kenneth Y

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC) comprises 15-20% of all skin cancers, accounting for over 700,000 cases in USA annually. Most cuSCC arise in association with a distinct precancerous lesion, the actinic keratosis (AK). To identify potential targets for molecularly targeted chemoprevention, here we perform integrated cross-species genomic analysis of cuSCC development through the preneoplastic AK stage using matched human samples and a solar ultraviolet radiation-driven Hairless mouse model. We identify the major transcriptional drivers of this progression sequence, showing that the key genomic changes in cuSCC development occur in the normal skin to AK transition. Our data validate the use of this ultraviolet radiation-driven mouse cuSCC model for cross-species analysis and demonstrate that cuSCC bears deep molecular similarities to multiple carcinogen-driven SCCs from diverse sites, suggesting that cuSCC may serve as an effective, accessible model for multiple SCC types and that common treatment and prevention strategies may be feasible. PMID:27574101

  17. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  18. Younger women have a better prognosis among patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Xie, Hao-Jun; Lin, Peng; Zhang, Lanjun; Rong, Tiehua

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested a potential role for sex hormones in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) etiology. However, the significance of gender as an independent prognostic factor remains uncertain. Our retrospective study was designed to investigate the prognostic role of gender for survival after esophagectomy. Methods Data from 674 patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection were retrospectively analysed. Age 55 years was selected as a surrogate for menopause. Patients were assigned to age-gender groups: A (female younger than age 55 years), B (female age 55 years and older), C (male younger than age 55 years) and D (male age 55 years and older). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for survival. Results There were 520 males and 154 females with median age was 58 years. The 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates of group A, B, C and D were 93.6%, 70.2%, 61.7% vs. 86.9%, 47.7%, 40.2% vs. 77.8%, 43.9%, 37.0% and 80.3%, 47.9%, 36.6%, respectively (P=0.003). Multivariate analysis suggested that age-gender groups and pTNM staging were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions Among patients with ESCC after esophagectomy, women younger than age 55 years attained a favorable prognosis. PMID:27162661

  19. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.D.; Panis, X.; Legros, M.; Froissart, D.

    1983-03-01

    From January, 1976 to January, 1980, 141 patients (135 males and 6 females) with Stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received a split course of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFR). In the first group, involving 91 patients, the therapeutic schedule was as follows: first and fourth week, 7.2 Gy per day in 8 sessions of .9 Gy from Monday to Friday, the second and third week no irradiation was given. Thus, patients were given 72 Gy total dose, fractionated into 80 sessions. Mucosal necrosis and severe hemorrhage were responsible for the death of 26 patients (28%). Therefore the therapeutic protocol was altered for the 50 patients of the second group: during the first and sixth week 6.6 Gy per day in 6 sessions of 1.1 Gy from Monday to Friday. The total dose was thus reduced to 66 Gy fractionated into 60 sessions, resulting in the decrease of toxicity. Regardless of the therapeutic protocol and site of primary, 114 patients (80%) achieved a complete remission and 8 showed a partial remission (>50%), whereas no change was seen for the 19 remainders. Local recurrence appeared in 60 patients (48%). Acute mucositis and laryngeal edema regularly occurred a week after every course of HFR and were considered severe in 40 patients. In spite of toxicity, the median survival is 14 months and 22 patients are still alive in November 1981: 19 without disease, and 8 of these patients have a survival time of at least 3 years.

  20. Clinical features and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ximei; Zhang, Baozhong; Zang, Fenglin; Zhao, Lujun; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Data on breast squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and to explore the rational treatment of patients with breast SCC. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of breast SCC cases treated at our center from 1966 to 2014. The majority of these patients received primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, whilst four elderly patients had lumpectomy only. Results Patients with breast SCC were usually women, and large masses, large proportion of early stage disease, low levels of estrogen receptor expression, less frequent axillary lymph nodes involvement, and unfavorable prognosis were common. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival of all patients were 67.2% and 57.8%, respectively. Axillary nodal involvement was a significant prognostic factor for survival. Conclusion The current results indicated that breast SCC is clinically aggressive and the outcomes were poor. Distant metastasis was the main failure pattern. New strategies will be needed because of the poor outcomes. PMID:27313463

  1. [The expression and significance of hnRNPD in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Geng, Yangyang; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Miaomiao; Sheng, Wenjiong; Dong, Aijing; Cao, Jinming; Cao, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (hnRNPD) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and the relationship between hnRNPD expression and the clinicopathological features of ESCC, and to study the effect of down-regulated hnRNPD on the proliferation of ESCC cells and explore its potential mechanism. Methods The expression of hnRNPD protein in ESCC tissues and the normal paracancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. The siRNA-hnRNPD was transfected into ESCC cells and the silence effect was verified by Western blotting. MTT assay and clone formation assay were used to evaluate the proliferation of ESCC cells after down-regulation of hnRNPD genes. Cell apoptosis was examined by annexin V-phycoerythrin/7-aminoactinomycin D (annexin V-PE/7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry. Results The expression of hnRNPD protein in ESCC tissues was significantly higher than that of the normal paracancerous tissues, and the expression was closely related with neoplasm staging. Down-regulation of hnRNPD inhibited the proliferation and clonality of ESCC cells. Compared with the control group, siRNA targeting hnRNPD significantly promoted cell apoptosis. Conclusion Down-regulation of hnRNPD inhibits the proliferation of ESCC cells by promoting cell apoptosis. PMID:26648300

  2. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  3. Electron beam radiotherapy for the management of recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia with orbital extension

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ramesh; Gupta, Himika; Krishnatry, Rahul; Laskar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) with orbital invasion can be successfully managed with external radiotherapy using electrons resulting in eye and vision salvage. We report a case of right eye recurrent OSSN in an immunocompetent adult Indian male, with extensive orbital involvement. The patient had two previous surgical excisions with recurrent disease. At this stage, conventionally exenteration is considered the treatment modality. However, he was treated with 5040 cGy radiotherapy (15eV electrons) resulting in complete disease regression. At the end of 3 years follow-up, the patient was disease free, maintained a vision of 20/25, with mild dry eye, well-managed with topical lubricants. Extensive OSSN with orbital invasion does not always need exenteration. External beam electron radiotherapy provides a noninvasive cure with organ and vision salvage and should be considered in extensive OSSN not amenable to simple excision biopsies. Long-term studies to evaluate the effect of radiation on such eyes are suggested. PMID:26576526

  4. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Do Not Express EGFRvIII

    SciTech Connect

    Melchers, Lieuwe J.; Clausen, Martijn J.A.M.; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Schuuring, Ed

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of EGFRvIII, a specific variant of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), in 3 well-defined cohorts of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for the specific detection of EGFRvIII using the L8A4 antibody was optimized on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using glioblastoma tissue. It was compared with EGFR and EGFRvIII RNA expression using a specific reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction also optimized for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Tissue microarrays including 531 HNSCCs of various stages with complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were tested for the presence of EGFRvIII. Results: None of the 531 cases showed EGFRvIII protein expression. Using an immunohistochemistry protocol reported by others revealed cytoplasmic staining in 8% of cases. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for the EGFRvIII transcript of the 28 highest cytoplasmic staining cases, as well as 69 negative cases, did not show expression in any of the tested cases, suggesting aspecific staining by a nonoptimal protocol. Conclusions: The EGFRvIII mutation is not present in HNSCC. Therefore, EGFRvIII does not influence treatment response in HNSCC and is not a usable clinical prognostic marker.

  5. A cellular model reflecting the phenotypic heterogeneity of mutant HRAS driven squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cantariño, Neus; Fernández-Figueras, M Teresa; Valero, Vanesa; Musulén, Eva; Malinverni, Roberto; Granada, Isabel; Goldie, Stephen J; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Douet, Julien; Forcales, Sonia-Vanina; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas have a range of histopathological manifestations. The parameters that determine this clinically observed heterogeneity are not fully understood. Here, we report the generation of a cell culture model that reflects part of this heterogeneity. We have used the catalytic subunit of human telomerase hTERT and large T to immortalize primary UV-unexposed keratinocytes. Then, mutant HRAS G12V has been introduced to transform these immortal keratinocytes. When injected into immunosuppressed mice, transformed cells grew as xenografts with distinct histopathological characteristics. We observed three major tissue architectures: solid, sarcomatoid and cystic growth types, which were primarily composed of pleomorphic and basaloid cells but in some cases displayed focal apocrine differentiation. We demonstrate that the cells generated represent different stages of skin cancerogenesis and as such can be used to identify novel tumor-promoting alterations such as the overexpression of the PADI2 oncogene in solid-type SCC. Importantly, the cultured cells maintain the characteristics from the xenograft they were derived from while being amenable to manipulation and analysis. The availability of cell lines representing different clinical manifestations opens a new tool to study the stochastic and deterministic factors that cause case-to-case heterogeneity despite departing from the same set of oncogenes and the same genetic background. PMID:27074337

  6. Prognostic value of SATB2 expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geng, Guo-Jun; Li, Ning; Mi, Yan-Jun; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Luo, Xian-Yang; Gao, Jing; Luo, Qi-Cong; Xie, Jing-Dun; Fa, Xian-En; Jiang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    SATB2, a member of the family of special AT-rich binding proteins, has been shown to affect numerous tumorigenesis. However, the role of SATB2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. In this study, the SATB2 expression was examined at mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry in ESCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Statistical analyses were applied to test the associations between SATB2 expression, clinicopathologic factors, and prognosis. Western blotting and qRT-PCR showed that the expression levels of SATB2 mRNA and protein were both significantly lower in SATB2 tissues than those in non-cancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that SATB2 expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage and Histological differentiation. The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that a low expression level of SATB2 resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of ESCC patients. Importantly, multivariate analysis showed that low SATB2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for ESCC patients. In sum, our data suggest that SATB2 plays an important role in ESCC progression, and that decreased expression of SATB2 in tumor tissues could be used as a potential prognostic marker for patients with ESCC. PMID:25755730

  7. MMP1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Luo, Kong-Jia; Xie, Xiu-Ying; Wen, Jing; Fu, Jian-Hua; Yang, Hong

    2016-07-10

    Matrix metalloproteinases play an essential role in the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we show that MMP1 expression was markedly increased in a majority of ESCC compared with nontumorous tissue. High expressions of MMP1 were closely associated with lymph node metastasis, microvessel density and advanced TNM stage. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses indicated MMP1 as an independent factor for overall survival in two independent cohorts of 613 patients with ESCC. In vitro studies demonstrated that MMP1 overexpression resulted in enhanced cell viability, abilities of colony formation and cell migration. The knockdown of MMP1 in ESCC cells resulted in the opposite phenomenon. Consistently, in vivo data showed that ectopic expression of MMP1 promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Further study revealed that MMP1 facilitated ESCC through the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway by LY294002 significantly attenuated MMP1-mediated cell proliferation and migration. Taken together, our data suggest that MMP1 functions as an oncogene and serves as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in ESCC. PMID:27130665

  8. Intraoperative optical assessment of photodynamic therapy response of superficial oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Rigual, Nestor; Arshad, Hassan; Tracy, Erin C.; Cooper, Michelle T.; Shafirstein, Gal; Wilding, Gregory; Merzianu, Mihai; Baumann, Heinz; Henderson, Barbara W.; Sunar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) measurements could assess clinical response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, the correlation between parameters measured with DOS and the crosslinking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular marker for PDT-induced photoreaction, was investigated. Thirteen patients with early stage HNSCC received the photosensitizer 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) and DOS measurements were performed before and after PDT in the operating room (OR). In addition, biopsies were acquired after PDT to assess the STAT3 crosslinking. Parameters measured with DOS, including blood volume fraction, blood oxygen saturation (StO2), HPPH concentration (cHPPH), HPPH fluorescence, and blood flow index (BFI), were compared to the pathologic response and the STAT3 crosslinking. The best individual predictor of pathological response was a change in cHPPH (sensitivity=60%, specificity=100%), while discrimination analysis using a two-parameter classifier (change in cHPPH and change in StO2) classified pathological response with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. BFI showed the best correlation with the crosslinking of STAT3. These results indicate that DOS-derived parameters can assess the clinical response in the OR, allowing for earlier reintervention if needed.

  9. CD73 as a novel marker for poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    REN, ZHEN-HU; YUAN, YONG-XIANG; JI, TONG; ZHANG, CHEN-PING

    2016-01-01

    Ecto-5′-nucleotidase [cluster of differentiation (CD)73] has important functions in several types of cancer, however, its expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate CD73 expression in SCC. CD73 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 113 patients with oral SCC (OSCC). The association between CD73 expression and clinicopathological features, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) times of patients were statistically analyzed. CD73 expression was detected in 58.4% (66/113) of OSCC patients, with the immunostaining predominantly localized in the cytomembrane and a little in the cytoplasm. Statistical analysis revealed that CD73 expression was more frequently detected in patients with larger tumors (P=0.021). The overexpression of CD73 was significantly associated with clinical stage (P=0.047). Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining showed that overexpression of CD73 was inversely correlated with DFS (P=0.002) and OS (P=0.002) times. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CD73 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.018) and OS (P=0.021). The current study is the first to evaluate the clinical significance and prognostic value of CD73 in patients with OSCC. The findings suggest that CD73 is a potential prognostic marker for OSCC. PMID:27347180

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil managed by conventional surgery and postoperative radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Rahmatullah; Dogan, Snjezana; Pyke, Owen; Palmer, Frank; Awad, Mahmoud; Lee, Nancy; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report the long-term outcome of patients with squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the tonsil managed by surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). Methods Eighty-eight patients treated between 1985 and 2005 were analyzed. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Forty-eight percent of patients had T3 to T4 disease and 75% had a positive neck. Five-year OS, DSS, and RFS were 66%, 82%, and 80%, respectively. The status of the neck was not predictive of outcome (DSS 80% for N0 vs 82% for N+; p = .97). Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of OS, DSS, and RFS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Lymphovascular invasion but not pathological stage of the neck is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with tonsillar SCC. PMID:24616252

  11. Radiation therapy for feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using a hypofractionated protocol.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Simone C S; Carvalho, Luis Alfredo V; Canary, Paulo Cesar; Reisner, Marcio; Corgozinho, Katia B; Souza, Heloisa J M; Ferreira, Ana Maria R

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of a hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-five histologically confirmed SCCs in 15 cats were treated with four fractions of 7.6-10Gy each, with 1 week intervals. The equipment used was a linear accelerator Clinac 2100 delivering electron beam of 4 or 6MeV, and a bolus of 5 or 10mm was used in all lesions. Of the lesions, 44% were staged as T4, 16% as T3, 8% as T2 and 32% as T1. Of the irradiated lesions, 40% had complete response, 12% had partial response and 48% had no response (NR) to the treatment. For T1 tumors, 62.5% had complete remission. Mean overall survival time was 224 days. Owners requested euthanasia of cats having NR to the treatment. Mean disease free time was 271 days. Side effects observed were skin erythema, epilation, ulceration and conjunctivitis, which were graded according to Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (VRTOG) toxicity criteria. Response rates found in this study (52%) were lower when compared to other protocols, probably due to technique differences, such as fractionation schedule, bolus thickness and energy penetration depth. However, the hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial SCC. Modifications of this protocol are being planned with the objective of improving the cure rates in the future. PMID:20034827

  12. Human papillomavirus in anal squamous cell carcinoma: an angel rather than a devil?

    PubMed

    Ravenda, Paola Simona; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Nicola; Barberis, Massimo; Bottiglieri, Luca; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer is a rare disease with an increasing incidence worldwide but, unfortunately, even today the scientific community still has a limited knowledge and limited options of treatment. More than 50% of patients with anal cancer presenting at diagnosis with locoregional disease have good chances of cure with chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT). However, once patients develop metastatic spread, the prognosis is very poor. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in more than 80% of anal cancers and while multiple etiologic connections between HPV infection and anal cancer have already been well elucidated, its prognostic and/or predictive role is currently under investigation, especially among immunocompetent patients affected by this disease. In a single-institutional set, we have retrospectively analysed clinical data of 50 consecutive cases homogeneously treated with CT-RT for stage I-III anal squamous cell carcinoma. We found that HPV-positive anal cancers had a statistically significant improved five-year disease-free survival (DFS) compared to HPV-negative group. These findings could be explained by an increased chemo/radiosensitivity of HPV-positive tumours. Further efforts should be directed towards a better understanding of HPV-related oncogenesis and towards designing novel tailored strategies for the management of this disease both in terms of prevention and treatment. PMID:25987898

  13. Histopathological grading systems analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas of young patients

    PubMed Central

    Frare, Juliana-Cristina; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Ayroza-Rangel, Ana-Lucia-Carrinho; Bueno, Alexandre-Galvão; de Morais, Carlos-Floriano; Nagai, Hildebrando-Massahiro; Kunz, Reno

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the clinicopathological profile of young patients (≤ 40 years) with oral SCC and correlate with a control group (≥ 50 years) by means of histopathological grading systems. Material and Methods 14 young patients and 14 control patients were selected with similar clinical stage and tumor location. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patient records and histological sections were evaluated according to four histopathological grading systems. Associations between categories of demographic and clinical data were performed through Chi-square test and Exact Fisher test. The survival analyzes were performed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The comparison between groups showed a greater association of treatment modalities in younger patients (p=0.022), they had a higher incidence of local recurrence and regional metastasis (p=0.018) and lower disease-free survival in 5 years (p=0.069). There was no difference in 5-year overall survival among the studied groups. There was no difference in histological grading between studied groups according to the four used systems. Conclusions This study showed that, despite tumors had similar histological grade and more therapeutic modalities were used in the young group, tumors in young patients had a higher incidence of recurrence/metastasis, showing tendency to a more aggressive behavior. Key words:Squamous cell carcinoma, tumors histological grading, young. PMID:26946200

  14. Somatically Acquired LINE-1 Insertions in Normal Esophagus Undergo Clonal Expansion in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Doucet-O'Hare, Tara T; Sharma, Reema; Rodić, Nemanja; Anders, Robert A; Burns, Kathleen H; Kazazian, Haig H

    2016-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in the world and is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage when successful treatment is challenging. Understanding the mutational profile of this cancer may identify new treatment strategies. Because somatic retrotransposition has been shown in tumors of the gastrointestinal system, we focused on LINE-1 (L1) mobilization as a source of genetic instability in this cancer. We hypothesized that retrotransposition is ongoing in SCC patients. The expression of L1 encoded proteins is necessary for retrotransposition to occur; therefore, we evaluated the expression of L1 open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p). Using immunohistochemistry, we detected ORF1p expression in all four SCC cases evaluated. Using L1-seq, we identified and validated 74 somatic insertions in eight tumors of the nine evaluated. Of these, 12 insertions appeared to be somatic, not genetically inherited, and sub-clonal (i.e., present in less than one copy per genome equivalent) in the adjacent normal esophagus (NE), while clonal in the tumor. Our results indicate that L1 retrotransposition is active in SCC of the esophagus and that insertion events are present in histologically NE that expands clonally in the subsequent tumor. PMID:27319353

  15. Two Cases of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Immunosuppressed Patients with Chronic Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuma, Yuki; Ito, Takamichi; Nagae, Konosuke; Mizote, Yukihiro; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Okura, Masae; Oda, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are linked to a large subset of numerous malignant tumors, including mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, its involvement in cutaneous SCC has not fully been elucidated. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer and is increasing in frequency every year. Since we have no satisfactory treatment for advanced SCC, it is important to provide a definitive diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention at an early stage. Here, we present two cases of SCC arising in immunosuppressed patients. In these cases, we suspected the association between SCC and HPV infection histopathologically and succeeded in proving the presence of high-risk type HPV by PCR analysis (HPV 14 in case 1 and HPV 23 and 38 in case 2). Although it is unclear whether HPV actually induced SCC in our cases, our cases showed rapid progression comparing to typical courses of actinic keratosis (AK)/SCC. SCC and AK are common diseases; in daily practice, dermatologists examine many patients with immunosuppression of various causes. We should apply increased oncological vigilance to these patients to prevent an aggressive course of SCC/AK. PMID:26351427

  16. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P < 0.001). In addition, IL-37 expression was lower in OSCC with lymph node metastasis than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). What's more, overexpression of IL-37 in RAW264.7 cells remarkably reduced the pseudopodia, vacuolization and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Finally, we found IL-37 and its receptor IL-18Rα but not its binding partner IL-18BP have similar tissue location and expression trend in different stages of oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions. PMID:27225603

  17. Radiotherapy for the management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Christine; Citrin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) affect approximately 35,000 people in the United States yearly. Although survival has improved with advances in therapy, patients with advanced stages of SCCHN continue to have a poor prognosis. An understanding of rationale for treatment selection, newer developments in therapy, and treatment toxicity is critical. Methods Standard methods of treating locally advanced SCCHN are reviewed. Advances in medical and radiotherapeutic management are discussed and the toxicities of therapy are described. Results Post-operative chemoradiation is used in patients with high risk characteristics. Induction chemotherapy and altered fractionation radiation treatment have been evaluated as alternatives to definitive chemo-radiotherapy. Targeted agents such as cetuximab may prove to increase survival with minimal increase in toxicity profile. Technological improvements such as the use of intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) have proven to decrease some debilitating side effects from radiation treatment. Conclusions Locally advanced SCCHN continues to present a therapeutic challenge. Survival, local control, and quality of life are all goals of treatment. The optimal method of treating locally advanced SCCHN is the subject of ongoing research. Long term side effects can be minimized with the use of newer technologies and with careful treatment planning. PMID:19036056

  18. Expression and clinical significance of Apollon in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Chen, Bo-lin; Zhou, Yan-wu; Guo, Ren-wei; Shuai, Meng-ting; Zeng, Jun-xian; Leng, Ai-min

    2016-01-01

    Apollon, an unusually large member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, may be important for oncogenesis development. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and Apollon expression levels, and to highlight the association between Apollon and the occurrence, development and prognosis of ESCC. Apollon expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in ESCC tissues, adjacent non-cancerous tissues and paired normal tissues respectively, in order to analyze the association between Apollon expression and the clinicopathological features of ESCC. Survival analysis was used to assess the prognostic significance of Apollon expression. It was determined that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Apollon were significantly higher in the carcinoma tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and normal control tissues (P<0.001). There was a significant difference in lymph node involvement and the tumor, nodes, and metastases stage in patients categorized according to different Apollon expression levels. The prognostic significance of Apollon was also determined using the log-rank method. The overexpression of Apollon was associated with shorter overall survival and disease-free survival rates. The present study indicates that Apollon expression is associated with the biological characteristics of ESCC, and may be a valuable prognostic factor and a novel chemotherapeutic target for ESCC treatment. PMID:27432467

  19. [A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal with a Perianal Abscess].

    PubMed

    Adikrisna, Rama; Udagawa, Masaru; Sugita, Yuusuke; Ishii, Takeshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yabata, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    A 72-year-old female patient was referred to our department because she felt pain at the anus with pus discharge. Physical examination revealed a tumor on the left side of the anus, and a subcutaneous induration near the tumor. Abdominal CT scan revealed an irregularly shaped tumor with abscess formation. There were no enlarged lymph nodes or distant metastasis. Anal canal carcinoma (cStage Ⅱ) with a complication of perianal abscess was suspected, so we performed surgical incision and drainage. A biopsy of the tumor led to the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. However, because surgical drainage alone was not effective for treatment of the abscess, colostomy of the sigmoid colon was carried out 14 days after admission. After chemoradiation therapy (5-FU 800 mg/m2/day on days 1-4 and 29-32, mitomycin C [MMC] 10 mg/m2 on days 1 and 29, and radiation with a total dose 54 Gy), the tumor disappeared completely, considered to be a complete response. Twenty months after chemoradiation, there were no signs of recurrence. PMID:26805351

  20. KiSS-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wui-Jung; Cho, Young-Ah; Kang, Kyung-Rim; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Seong-Doo; Lee, Jae-Il; Hong, Sam-Pyo; Yoon, Hye-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Downregulated expression of KiSS-1 has been correlated with tumor progression, metastasis, and patient prognosis in various human malignancies. However, there is no information regarding the expression of KiSS-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aims were to examine KiSS-1 expression in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines and to determine its prognostic significance. KiSS-1 expression was significantly lower in lymph node (LN) metastases than in primary tumor tissues. Five of six OSCC cell lines showed absence or relatively low expression of KiSS-1. Correlations between KiSS-1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were statistically assessed. There were significant correlations between KiSS-1 expression and LN metastasis (p = 0.007), TNM stage (p = 0.024), and local recurrence (p = 0.012). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, negative KiSS-1 expression significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression modeling revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Our findings suggested that KiSS-1 downregulation may play a role in tumor progression and metastasis of OSCC and may be a reliable biomarker for predicting clinical outcome in OSCC. PMID:26809635

  1. Tumor and Stromal-Based Contributions to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, Steven M.; Weed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is typically diagnosed at advanced stages with evident loco-regional and/or distal metastases. The prevalence of metastatic lesions directly correlates with poor patient outcome, resulting in high patient mortality rates following metastatic development. The progression to metastatic disease requires changes not only in the carcinoma cells, but also in the surrounding stromal cells and tumor microenvironment. Within the microenvironment, acellular contributions from the surrounding extracellular matrix, along with contributions from various infiltrating immune cells, tumor associated fibroblasts, and endothelial cells facilitate the spread of tumor cells from the primary site to the rest of the body. Thus far, most attempts to limit metastatic spread through therapeutic intervention have failed to show patient benefit in clinic trails. The goal of this review is highlight the complexity of invasion-promoting interactions in the HNSCC tumor microenvironment, focusing on contributions from tumor and stromal cells in order to assist future therapeutic development and patient treatment. PMID:25734659

  2. Esophagectomy Compared to Chemoradiation for Early Stage Esophageal Cancer in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Julian A.; Buono, Donna L.; Strauss, Joshua; McBride, Russell B.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy has been the traditional treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancer. However, esophagectomy is associated with high mortality and morbidity in the elderly, and these patients often receive chemoradiation instead. We compared outcomes of esophagectomy versus chemoradiation in a population-based sample of elderly patients with early stage esophageal cancer. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify patients ≥65 years diagnosed with stage 1 or 2 esophageal cancer from 1991–2002. We assessed associations of treatment with esophagectomy or chemoradiation with demographic and clinical variables. We performed survival analyses to compare outcomes with treatment modality, adjusted for potential confounders. Results We identified 730 patients with stage 1 or 2 esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy (n=341; 46.7%) or chemoradiation (n=389, 53.3%). Older age, squamous cell histology, and lower socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of receipt of chemoradiation. In multivariable analyses, chemoradiation was associated with worse disease-specific (HR 2.08, 95%CI 1.64–2.64) and overall survival (HR 1.92, 95%CI 1.58–2.34). Receipt of chemoradiation was associated with worse survival for adenocarcinoma (HR 3.01, 95%CI 2.24–4.04), but there was no significant difference for squamous cell (HR 1.33, 95%CI 0.98–1.80). Conclusion Compared to chemoradiation, esophagectomy may be associated with improved survival for early stage esophageal cancer in the elderly. The results suggest that there may also be a subset of squamous cell patients for whom chemoradiation is adequate therapy. A randomized trial would be useful to determine optimal treatment for elderly patients with early stage esophageal cancer. PMID:19637343

  3. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  4. Mutational landscape of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Curtis R.; Zhou, Jane H.; Lee, J. Jack; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Peng, S. Andrew; Saade, Rami E.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Curry, Jonathan L.; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Lai, Stephen Y; Yu, Jun; Muzny, Donna M.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Shinbrot, Eve; Covington, Kyle R.; Zhang, Jianhua; Seth, Sahil; Caulin, Carlos; Clayman, Gary L.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Weber, Randal S.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, David A.; Frederick, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is often a disfiguring and lethal disease. Very little is currently known about the mutations that drive aggressive cSCC. Experimental Design Whole exome sequencing was performed on 39 cases of aggressive cSCC to identify driver genes and novel therapeutic targets. Significantly mutated genes were identified with MutSig or complementary methods developed to specifically identify candidate tumor suppressors based upon their inactivating mutation bias. Results Despite the very high mutational background caused by UV exposure, 23 candidate drivers were identified including the well-known cancer-associated genes TP53, CDKN2A, NOTCH1, AJUBA, HRAS, CASP8, FAT1, and KMT2C (MLL3). Three novel candidate tumor suppressors with putative links to cancer or differentiation, NOTCH2, PARD3 and RASA1, were also identified as possible drivers in cSCC. KMT2C mutations were associated with poor outcome and increased bone invasion. Conclusions The mutational spectrum of cSCC is similar to that of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dominated by tumor suppressor genes. These results improve the foundation for understanding this disease and should aid in identifying and treating aggressive cSCC. PMID:25303977

  5. [Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Szumiło, Justyna

    2008-09-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most lethal malignances of digestive tract. Epidemiological data confirmed influence of the diet especially Mediterranean one that decreases the risk of cancer. High consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, mainly citrus and tea drinking, also has a beneficial effect on decreasing incidence of the cancer. High intake of various antioxidants and natural fibers found in the plant diet as well as prolonged administration of cyclooxygenase-inhibitors, especially aspirin, plays also a protective role. Results of sparse, prospective, randomized trials on chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are not so unequivocal. Supplementation of six traditional Chinese herbs, retinamide and riboflavin provided the most promising effects, but intake of multiple vitamins and minerals, including calcium and decaffeinated green tea, was ineffective. However, the studies were performed on small populations inhabiting select Chinese provinces known for their high esophageal cancer incidence. Due to a number of limitations, the collected data cannot be compared directly to other populations who are exposed to different environmental factors and with different genetic predispositions. PMID:19112850

  6. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lung squamous cell carcinoma (lung SqCC) is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in lung SqCC have not been comprehensively characterized and no molecularly targeted agents have been developed specifically for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we profiled 178 lung SqCCs to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. Lung SqCC is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumor. We found statistically recurrent mutations in 18 genes in including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations were seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2/KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, PI3K/AKT in 47%, and CDKN2A/RB1 in 72% of tumors. We identified a potential therapeutic target in the majority of tumors, offering new avenues of investigation for lung SqCC treatment. PMID:22960745

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

  8. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  10. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  11. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  12. Current systems: Upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States orbital transfer vehicles are presented: PAM-D (Payload Assist Module); PAM-D2; IUS (Inertial Upper Stage); and TOS (Transfer Orbit Stage). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  13. Evaluation of the 7th edition of the TNM classification in patients with resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Nan; Zheng, Qing-Feng; Yan, Shi; Lv, Chao; Li, Shao-Lei; Yang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors and tumor stages of the 7th edition TNM classification for esophageal cancer. METHODS: In total, 1033 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who underwent surgical resection with or without (neo)adjuvant therapy between January 2003 and June 2012 at the Thoracic Surgery Department II of the Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing, China were included in this study. The following eligibility criteria were applied: (1) squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction identified by histopathological examination; (2) treatment with esophagectomy plus lymphadenectomy with curative intent; and (3) complete pathologic reports and follow-up data. Patients who underwent non-curative (R1) resection and patients who died in hospital were excluded. Patients who received (neo)adjuvant therapy were also included in this analysis. All patients were restaged using the 7th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for survival. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate differences between the subgroups. RESULTS: Of the 1033 patients, 273 patients received (neo)adjuvant therapy, and 760 patients were treated with surgery alone. The median follow-up time was 51.6 mo (range: 5-112 mo) and the overall 5-year survival rate was 36.4%. Gender, “pT” and “pN” descriptors, (neo)adjuvant therapy, and the 7th edition TNM stage grouping were independent prognostic factors in the univariate and multivariate analyses. However, neither histologic grade nor cancer location were independent prognostic factors in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The 5-year stage-based survival rates were as follows: IA, 84.9%; IB, 70.9%; IIA, 56.2%; IIB, 43.3%; IIIA, 37.9%; IIIB, 23.3%; IIIC,12.9% and IV, 3

  14. Carcinoma of the cervix: surgical staging and radiotherapy with 32 MeV Betatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.; Olson, M.H.; Dillard, E.A.

    1982-09-01

    Fifty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were staged by exploratory laparotomy. Twenty-eight of them received radiotherapy with 32 MeV Betatron and intracavitary radium. Twenty-one patients with Stage IB or IIA had a radical hysterectomy, five had post-operative pelvic irradiation, and two had primary exenteration. An overall 23.2% of patients had metastases in the paraaortic fields. Four patients with paraaortic node disease received extended field irradiation: 4500 rad in 5 weeks to paraaortic nodes. Two of them are alive and disease-free at 5.5 to 6.5 years.

  15. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  16. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  20. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Gynecological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-09

    Cervical Adenosarcoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Carcinosarcoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma

  1. Antitumor effect of temsirolimus against oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Takaoka, Munenori; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2010-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is engaged in the molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which frequently invades the maxilla or the mandible. However, the effects of a mTOR inhibitor on bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of temsirolimus-mediated mTOR inhibition against advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma. Temsirolimus inhibited the proliferation and migration of HSC-2 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and suppressed the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in vivo. Significantly, we clearly show that temsirolimus inhibited osteoclast formation both in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that temsirolimus decreased the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand, known as an osteoclast differentiation factor in bone stromal ST2 cells. Moreover, temsirolimus normalized blood-free calcium concentration in mouse models for humoral hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling is a potential target of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction, and hence we describe the efficacy of temsirolimus for the treatment of advanced oral squamous carcinoma. PMID:20858724

  2. Constitutive expression of human keratin 14 gene in mouse lung induces premalignant lesions and squamous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dakir, E L Habib; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Linnoila, R Ilona

    2008-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 20% of all human lung cancers and is strongly linked to cigarette smoking. It develops through premalignant changes that are characterized by high levels of keratin 14 (K14) expression in the airway epithelium and evolve through basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia and dysplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. In order to explore the impact of K14 in the pulmonary epithelium that normally lacks both squamous differentiation and K14 expression, human keratin 14 gene hK14 was constitutively expressed in mouse airway progenitor cells using a mouse Clara cell specific 10 kDa protein (CC10) promoter. While the lungs of CC10-hK14 transgenic mice developed normally, we detected increased expression of K14 and the molecular markers of squamous differentiation program such as involucrin, loricrin, small proline-rich protein 1A, transglutaminase 1 and cholesterol sulfotransferase 2B1. In contrast, wild-type lungs were negative. Aging CC10-hK14 mice revealed multifocal airway cell hyperplasia, occasional squamous metaplasia and their lung tumors displayed evidence for multidirectional differentiation. We conclude that constitutive expression of hK14 initiates squamous differentiation program in the mouse lung, but fails to promote squamous maturation. Our study provides a novel model for assessing the mechanisms of premalignant lesions in vivo by modifying differentiation and proliferation of airway progenitor cells. PMID:18701433

  3. Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP is correlated with progression and prognosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Ying-Xue; Xi, Mian; Liu, Shi-Liang; Luo, Li-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be a critical role in cancer progression and prognosis. However, little is known about the pathological role of lncRNA HOXA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients. The aim of this study is to measure the expression of lncRNA HOTTIP in TSCC patients and to explore the clinical significance of the lncRNA HOTTIP. The expression of lncRNA HOTTIP was measured in 86 TSCC tissues and 14 adjacent non-malignant tissues using qRT-PCR. In our study, results indicated that lncRNA HOTTIP was highly expressed in TSCC compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with T stage (T1-2 vs. T3-4, P = 0.023), clinical stage (I-II stages vs. III-IV stages, P = 0.018), and distant metastasis (absent vs. present, P = 0.031) in TSCC patients. Furthermore, we also found that lncRNA HOTTIP overexpression was an unfavorable prognostic factor in TSCC patients (P < 0.001), regardless of T stage, distant metastasis, and clinical stage. Finally, overexpression of lncRNA HOTTIP was supposed to be an independent poor prognostic factor for TSCC patients through multivariate analysis (P = 0.023). In conclusion, increased lncRNA HOTTIP expression may be serve as an unfavorable prognosis predictor for TSCC patients. Nevertheless, further investigation with a larger sample size is needed to support our results. PMID:26058875

  4. Radiological Findings of Malignant Tumors of External Auditory Canal: A Cross-Sectional Study Between Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuang; Yan, Shuo; Zhang, Mengjie; Cheng, Yan; Noel, Jacinth; Chong, Vincent; Shen, Wen

    2015-09-01

    The primary malignant tumors of external auditory canal (EAC) are rare. The purpose of this study is to compare the imaging features of growth and recurrence pattern between 2 most common carcinomas namely squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the EAC.This is a retrospective study involving 41 patients with primary EAC carcinomas of which 22 are SCC and 19 are adenocarcinoma. They were all scanned with high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up clinical and imaging studies have also been collected and compared with a median follow-up time of 43 months (range 5-192 months). Necrosis was presented as hypodensity on computed tomography images, hyper-intense on T2WI and heterogeneous enhancement.Eighteen patients were diagnosed to be in T1 and T2 stage, it was found that SCC involved both the cartilaginous part and the bony part of the EAC (11/12), whereas adenocarcinoma involved only the cartilaginous part (6/6) (P < 0.01). Twenty-three patients were diagnosed to be in T3 and T4 stage showed bony involvement and adjacent tissue involvement for both SCC and adenocarcinoma. Parapharyngeal space involvement is much more common in recurrent SCC (P = 0.02). Lymph node metastasis was seen in 6 out of 22 patients with SCC, while 5 out of 19 patients of adenocarcinoma had lung metastasis, even at early stage (1/6; 1/5). Necrosis is more likely to occur in the patients with SCC (9/10) than that of adenocarcinoma (3/13) (P = 0.02).SCC and adenocarcinoma is seen to have different growth pattern at early stage but share similar patterns in the advanced stage. Lymph node metastasis is commonly seen in patients with SCC while adenocarcinoma shows lung metastasis even at early stage. PMID:26334907

  5. Endoscopic surveillance of head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Minoru; Ishihara, Ryu; Hamada, Kenta; Tonai, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) frequently arise in the upper aerodigestive tract, referred to as the field cancerization phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinical features of second primary head and neck (H&N) SCCs arising in patients with esophageal SCC. Patients and methods: A total of 818 patients underwent endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer between January 2006 and December 2013. Of these, 439 patients met our inclusion criteria, and we retrospectively investigated the incidence, primary sites, and stages of second primary H&N SCCs in these patients. Results: A total of 53 metachronous H&N SCCs developed in 40 patients after a median follow-up period of 46 months (range 9 – 109). The cumulative incidence rates of metachronous H&N SCCs at 3, 5, and 7 years were 5.3 %, 9.7 %, and 17.2 %, respectively. These lesions were frequently located at pyriform sinus or in the posterior wall of the pharynx (70 %, 37/53 lesions). Most of the lesions were detected at an early stage, though 4 lesions were associated with lymph node metastasis when their primary sites were detected (1 postcricoid area, 2 posterior wall of hypopharynx, and 1 lateral wall of oropharynx). Conclusions: Patients with esophageal SCC should undergo careful inspection of the pyriform sinus and posterior wall of the pharynx for detection of H&N SCCs. Methods to open the hypopharyngeal space, such as the Valsalva maneuver, should be included in the surveillance program. PMID:27556090

  6. Multimodal confocal mosaics enable high sensitivity and specificity in screening of in situ squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grados Luyando, Maria del Carmen; Bar, Anna; Snavely, Nicholas; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Screening cancer in excision margins with confocal microscopy may potentially save time and cost over the gold standard histopathology (H and E). However, diagnostic accuracy requires sufficient contrast and resolution to reveal pathological traits in a growing set of tumor types. Reflectance mode images structural details due to microscopic refractive index variation. Nuclear contrast with acridine orange fluorescence provides enhanced diagnostic value, but fails for in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), where the cytoplasm is important to visualize. Combination of three modes [eosin (Eo) fluorescence, reflectance (R) and acridine orange (AO) fluorescence] enable imaging of cytoplasm, collagen and nuclei respectively. Toward rapid intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaics can image wide surgical margins (~1cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional H and E. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488nm (AO fluorescence) and 532nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H and E, enabling detection of the carcinoma in situ in the epidermal layer The sum mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic eosins' appearance in H and E, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic hematoxylins' appearance in H and E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing SCC in situ and 5 containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4X histology. Of the total 16 SCC in situ multimodal mosaics and 16 normal cases presented, two reviewers made 1 and 2 (respectively) type-2 errors (false positives) but otherwise scored perfectly when using the confocal images to screen for the presence of SCC in situ as compared to the gold standard histopathology. Limitations to precisely mimic H and E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that

  7. Human Papillomavirus as an Independent Predictor in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Xu, Qin-gan; Chen, Xin-ming; Fan, Ming-wen

    2009-01-01

    Aim There is an increasing evidence for the role of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relevance of HPV infection to the survival and prognosis of OSCC. Methodology Fifty-two patients with OSCC were followed from 4 to 88 months with a median of 50.7 months. HPV DNA was identified in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens by nested PCR with MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs and the HPV genotype was determined by direct DNA sequencing. Association between the HPV status and risk factors for cancer as well as tumor-host characteristics were analyzed. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed using the log-rank test. Results HPV was found in 40.4% of the tumors with HPV16 accounting for 63.5%, HPV18 for 30.8%, HPV6 for 3.9% and HPV11 for 1.8%. No infection with more than one HPV genotype was detected. HPV infection was significantly associated with poor histological grade, TNM stage I–II, alcohol usage and no smoking status. Multi-variate analysis showed that HPV had an independent prognostic effect on the overall survival after adjusting other confounding factors such as histological grade, TNM stage and tobacco usage. The presence of HPV was significantly correlated with a better survival in patients with OSCC. Conclusion HPV infection can act as an independent predictor for the survival and prognosis of OSCC. PMID:20695077

  8. Correlation of Hsp70 Serum Levels with Gross Tumor Volume and Composition of Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Patients with Squamous Cell and Adeno Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Sophie; Ostheimer, Christian; Stangl, Stefan; Specht, Hanno M; Mozes, Petra; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Vordermark, Dirk; Combs, Stephanie E; Peltz, Friedhelm; Jung, Max P; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently found on the plasma membrane of a large number of malignant tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gets released into the blood circulation in lipid vesicles. On the one hand, a membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype correlates with a high aggressiveness of the tumor; on the other hand, mHsp70 serves as a target for natural killer (NK) cells that had been pre-stimulated with Hsp70-peptide TKD plus low-dose interleukin-2 (TKD/IL-2). Following activation, NK cells show an up-regulated expression of activatory C-type lectin receptors, such as CD94/NKG2C, NKG2D, and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs; NKp44, NKp46, and NKp30) and thereby gain the capacity to kill mHsp70-positive tumor cells. With respect to these results, the efficacy of ex vivo TKD/IL-2 stimulated, autologous NK cells is currently tested in a proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial in patients with squamous cell NSCLC after radiochemotherapy (RCT) at the TUM. Inclusion criteria are histological proven, non-resectable NSCLC in stage IIIA/IIIB, clinical responses to RCT and a mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype. The mHsp70 status is determined in the serum of patients using the lipHsp70 ELISA test, which enables the quantification of liposomal and free Hsp70. Squamous cell and adeno NSCLC patients had significantly higher serum Hsp70 levels than healthy controls. A significant correlation of serum Hsp70 levels with the gross tumor volume was shown for adeno and squamous cell NSCLC. However, significantly elevated ratios of activated CD69(+)/CD94(+) NK cells that are associated with low serum Hsp70 levels were observed only in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. These data might provide a first hint that squamous cell NSCLC is more immunogenic than adeno NSCLC. PMID:26579130

  9. Correlation of Hsp70 Serum Levels with Gross Tumor Volume and Composition of Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Patients with Squamous Cell and Adeno Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Sophie; Ostheimer, Christian; Stangl, Stefan; Specht, Hanno M.; Mozes, Petra; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Vordermark, Dirk; Combs, Stephanie E.; Peltz, Friedhelm; Jung, Max P.; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently found on the plasma membrane of a large number of malignant tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gets released into the blood circulation in lipid vesicles. On the one hand, a membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype correlates with a high aggressiveness of the tumor; on the other hand, mHsp70 serves as a target for natural killer (NK) cells that had been pre-stimulated with Hsp70-peptide TKD plus low-dose interleukin-2 (TKD/IL-2). Following activation, NK cells show an up-regulated expression of activatory C-type lectin receptors, such as CD94/NKG2C, NKG2D, and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs; NKp44, NKp46, and NKp30) and thereby gain the capacity to kill mHsp70-positive tumor cells. With respect to these results, the efficacy of ex vivo TKD/IL-2 stimulated, autologous NK cells is currently tested in a proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial in patients with squamous cell NSCLC after radiochemotherapy (RCT) at the TUM. Inclusion criteria are histological proven, non-resectable NSCLC in stage IIIA/IIIB, clinical responses to RCT and a mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype. The mHsp70 status is determined in the serum of patients using the lipHsp70 ELISA test, which enables the quantification of liposomal and free Hsp70. Squamous cell and adeno NSCLC patients had significantly higher serum Hsp70 levels than healthy controls. A significant correlation of serum Hsp70 levels with the gross tumor volume was shown for adeno and squamous cell NSCLC. However, significantly elevated ratios of activated CD69+/CD94+ NK cells that are associated with low serum Hsp70 levels were observed only in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. These data might provide a first hint that squamous cell NSCLC is more immunogenic than adeno NSCLC. PMID:26579130

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis as a Result of Long-Standing Staghorn Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Jongyotha, Kamonchanok; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 79-year-old woman with staghorn calculi who presented with severe hypercalcemia. She was later found to have humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy caused by a rare tumor, squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Chronic irritation, infection and inflammation from staghorn stones cause squamous metaplasia, leading to squamous cell carcinoma of the renal collecting system. The prognosis is very poor, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. This case highlights the importance of awareness of a very rare and aggressive carcinoma in a patient with long-standing nephrolithiasis. PMID:26557077

  11. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol’s efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  12. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol's efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  13. Ipsilateral radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update our institution's experience with ipsilateral radiation therapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar area. Outcome study of 76 patients treated between 1984 and 2012 with ipsilateral RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Patients had either cT1 (n = 41, 54 %) or cT2 (n = 35, 46 %) primaries and cN0 (n = 27, 36 %), cN1 (n = 15, 20 %), cN2a (n = 8, 11 %), or cN2b (n = 26, 34 %) nodal disease. Of these, 32 (42 %) patients underwent a planned neck dissection and 21 (28 %) patients received concomitant chemotherapy. Median follow-up for all patients was 7.1 years (range 0.1-27.2) and 7.8 years (range 2.1-27.2 years) for living patients. The 2- and 5-year control and survival rates were as follows: local control, 98.6 and 96.9 %; local-regional control 95.8 and 92.6 %; cause-specific survival 95.9 and 93.1 %; and overall survival, 92.1 and 83.8 %. One patient failed in the contralateral, non-radiated neck 3 years after primary treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly influenced by whether the patient had a primary tumor in the anterior tonsillar pillar versus the tonsillar fossa with the latter performing better. The incidence of severe late complications was 16 %. Ipsilateral RT for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa with no base of tongue or soft palate extension is an efficacious treatment that provides excellent control rates with a relatively low incidence of late complications. PMID:26223350

  14. High Expression of Leucine Zipper-EF-Hand Containing Transmembrane Protein 1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Shuangping; Piao, Longzhen; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Zhenhua; Li, Zhuhu

    2014-01-01

    Leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein and plays an important role in mitochondrial ATP production and biogenesis. High expression levels of LETM1 have been correlated with numerous human malignancies. This study explored the clinicopathological significance of LETM1 expression as a prognostic determinant in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC samples from 176 patients were selected for immunohistochemical staining of LETM1 protein. Correlations between LETM1 overexpression and clinicopathological features of HNSCC were evaluated by Chi-squared tests and Fisher's exact tests, and relationships between prognostic factors and patient survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Our results demonstrated that the strongly positive rate of LETM1 protein was 65.3% in HNSCC, which was significantly higher than in either adjacent nontumor tissue (25.0%) or normal squamous epithelia (6.7%). LETM1 overexpression correlated with poor differentiation, presence of lymph node metastasis, advanced stage, absence of chemoradiotherapy, and 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates in HNSCC. Further analysis showed that high LETM1 expression, advanced stage, and nonchemoradiotherapy were significant independent risk factors for mortality in HNSCC. In conclusion, LETM1 plays an important role in the progression of HNSCC and is an independent poor prognostic factor for HNSCC. PMID:24689060

  15. Parenteral Nutrition for Patients Treated for Locally Advanced Inoperable Tumors of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage IV; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage IV; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm

  16. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  17. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  18. Staging of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Duseja, Ajay

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh's class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC. PMID:25755615

  19. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control. PMID:26057719

  20. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  1. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  2. Obstructive Jaundice from Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Seth, Abhishek; Palmer, Thomas R; Campbell, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice from metastatic lung cancer is extremely rare. Most reported cases have had small cell cancer of lung or adenocarcinoma of lung as primary malignancy metastasizing to the biliary system. We report the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of obstructive jaundice found to have metastatic involvement of hepatobiliary system from squamous cell cancer (SCC) of lung. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with biliary stenting is the procedure of choice in such patients. Our case is made unique by the fact that technical difficulties made it difficult for the anesthesiologists to intubate the patient for an ERCP. As a result percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) with internal-external biliary drainage was performed. PMID:27389381

  3. Human papillomavirus tumor infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludmir, Ethan B.; Stephens, Sarah J.; Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been recognized for over three decades. Recently, multiple meta-analyses have drawn upon existing literature to assess the strength of the HPV-ESCC linkage. Here, we review these analyses and attempt to provide a clinically-relevant overview of HPV infection in ESCC. HPV-ESCC detection rates are highly variable across studies. Geographic location likely accounts for a majority of the variation in HPV prevalence, with high-incidence regions including Asia reporting significantly higher HPV-ESCC infection rates compared with low-incidence regions such as Europe, North America, and Oceania. Based on our examination of existing data, the current literature does not support the notion that HPV is a prominent carcinogen in ESCC. We conclude that there is no basis to change the current clinical approach to ESCC patients with respect to tumor HPV status. PMID:26029456

  4. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years. PMID:22816210

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma on a syphilitic gumma: A unique presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahima, S.; Riyaz, Najeeba; Latheef, E.N. Abdul; Shyni, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gumma is a characteristic lesion of tertiary syphilis that is rare nowadays, but still rarer is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from it. A 74-year-old male presented with throat pain and nasal twang with a past history of genital ulcer. Examination revealed a well-defined ulcer with a perforation of 1.5 cm over the hard palate with induration and nodularity at the margins. This patient also had leukoplakia over the ventral aspect of the tongue. His treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive, and biopsy revealed well-differentiated SCC from the lesion over the palate and leukoplakia with dysplasia from the lesion over the tongue. Patient is on treatment from radiotherapy. To conclude, this is a unique presentation of syphilitic gumma with palatal perforation with SCC and syphilitic leukoplakia with Ca in situ over tongue. Thus, serology for syphilis should be done in all patients with SCC of the oral cavity. PMID:26392665

  6. Free posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to determine outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (SCCHP) in whom the free posterior tibial flap was used for primary reconstruction of hypopharynx defects after cancer resection. Subjects and methods Between August 2009 and February 2012, 10 patients with SCCHP underwent posterior tibial flap reconstruction for hypopharynx defects. The corresponding clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results Despite the multistep and time-consuming procedure, the posterior tibial flap survival rate was 100%. Operation-induced complications did not occur in four patients. Six patients developed postoperative hypoproteinemia, four patients developed postoperative pulmonary infections, and four patients developed pharyngeal fistula. The pharyngeal and laryngeal functions of all patients were preserved. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that the posterior tibial flap is a safe and reliable choice for the reconstruction of hypopharynx defects. PMID:24884631

  7. Pulmonary hypertension due to isolated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thromboemboli.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael K; Granger, Emily K; Preda, Veronica A

    2006-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension as the initial presentation of occult malignancy is extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension due to arterial tumour embolism is often overlooked and deserves contemplation. Our case report details the presentation of cardiorespiratory decompensation from an assumed classic saddle pulmonary embolus in a previously fit, well 80-year-old gentleman. The patient underwent successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, however, intraoperatively the specimen was noted to be atypical. This resulted in the surprising definitive diagnosis of thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension secondary to laminated thrombi of metastatic squamous cell tumour emboli. The site of tumour origin was however not histologically apparent and was unable to be elucidated on extensive further investigation. Post-operatively the patient had considerable subjective and functional improvement returning to activities of daily living. He however passed away some 9 months later. PMID:16412689

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the liver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Kyung; Kim, Byung Ik; Han, Eun Na; Kim, Dong Hyung; Yoo, Jung Hee; Lee, Seung Jae; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the liver is very rare, and few cases have been reported in Korea. Primary SCC of the liver is known to be associated with hepatic cysts and intrahepatic stones. A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital, and a abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 10 × 6 cm mass in the liver. Analysis of a biopsy sample suggested SCC, and so our team performed a thorough workup to find the primary lesion, which was revealed hepatoma as a pure primary SCC of the liver with multiple distant metastases. The patient was treated with one cycle of radiotherapy, transferred to another hospital for hospice care, and then died 1 month after discharge. PMID:27044770

  9. Human Papilloma Virus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus

    PubMed Central

    Gami, Bhavna; Kubba, Faris; Ziprin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. In the UK, the incidence is estimated at approximately 1.5 per 100,000. Most of this increase is attributed to certain at-risk populations. Persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive and men who have sex with men (MSM), Organ transplant recipients, women with a history of cervical cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV), or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are known to have a greater risk for anal cancer. This paper will focus on HPV as a risk factor for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and discusses the etiology, anatomy, pathogenesis, management of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus. PMID:25288893

  10. Recurrent CDK1 overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, K; Kiwerska, K; Szaumkessel, M; Bodnar, M; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, M; Marszalek, A; Janiszewska, J; Bartochowska, A; Jackowska, J; Wierzbicka, M; Grenman, R; Szyfter, K; Giefing, M; Jarmuz-Szymczak, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the expression profile of four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell lines and tumor samples. With the application of microarray platform, we have shown the overexpression of these genes in all analyzed LSCC samples in comparison to non-cancer controls from head and neck region. We have selected CDK1 for further analysis, due to its leading role in cell cycle regulation. It is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proven oncogenic properties. The results obtained for CDK1 were further confirmed with the application of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The observed upregulation of CDK1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has encouraged us to analyze for genetic mechanisms that can be responsible this phenomenon. Therefore, with the application of array-CGH, sequencing analysis and two methods for epigenetic regulation analysis (DNA methylation and miRNA expression), we tried to identify such potential mechanisms. Our attempts to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for observed changes failed as we did not observe significant alterations neither in the DNA sequence nor in the gene copy number that could underline CDK1 upregulation. Similarly, the pyrosequencing and miRNA expression analyses did not reveal any differences in methylation level and miRNA expression, respectively; thus, these mechanisms probably do not contribute to elevation of CDK1 expression in LSCC. However, our results suggest that alteration of CDK1 expression on both mRNA and protein level probably appears on the very early step of carcinogenesis. PMID:26912061

  11. Chemoprevention of lung squamous cell carcinoma by ginseng.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Li, Kezhen; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2013-06-01

    Ginseng has been used as a medicinal herb to maintain physical vitality for thousands of years, and it has also been shown to be a nonorgan-specific cancer preventive agent by several epidemiologic studies. However, the chemopreventive effects of Korea white ginseng (KWG) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been tested. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of KWG in a mouse lung SCC model. N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) was used to induce lung tumors in female Swiss mice, and KWG was given orally. KWG significantly reduced the percentage of lung SCCs from 26.5% in the control group to 9.1% in the KWG group and in the meantime, increased the percentage of normal bronchial and hyperplasia. KWG was also found to greatly reduce squamous cell lung tumor area from an average of 9.4% in control group to 1.5% in the KWG group. Treatment with KWG decreased Ki-67 staining, suggesting that the lung tumor inhibitory effects of KWG were partly through inhibition of proliferation. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry identified 10 ginsenosides from KWG extracts, Rb1 and Rd being the most abundant as detected in mouse blood and lung tissue. The tumor inhibitory effects of KWG are mediated by inhibition of activator protein (AP-1), as showed by in vitro study conducted on AP-1/NF-κB-dependent mouse non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Western blotting of lung tissues also indicated that NTCU upregulated AP-1 through phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-kinase, which was downregulated by KWG in concurrence with its chemoprevention function. These results suggest that KWG could be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung SCC. PMID:23550152

  12. Multiple stage railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-08-10

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  13. Two-stage Supercharging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Richard S

    1941-01-01

    The arrangement of the parts and the installation and control problems of the two-stage mechanically driven superchargers for aircraft engines are discussed. Unless an entirely new form of supercharging is developed, there will be a definite need for a two-stage centrifugal supercharger. It is shown that the two-stage mechanically driven supercharger itself is a comparatively simple device; the complications arise from the addition of inter-coolers and controls.

  14. Levels of biological markers of nitric oxide in serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Antonowicz, Bozena; Dziemianczyk, Dorota; Grabowska, Stanislawa Zyta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a determination of the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and its biological markers such as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and identification of the relationships between NO and those markers. These studies were performed on patients with SCC of the oral cavity before and after treatment. Griess reaction was used for the estimation of the total concentration of NO in serum. The nitrotyrosine level in serum was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and MDA level using a spectrophotometric assay. Higher concentrations of NO in blood serum were determined in patients with stage IV of the disease before treatment in comparison to the control group and patients with stages II and III of the disease. Moreover, higher concentrations of MDA and nitrotyrosine were determined in the serum of patients in all stages of the disease in comparison to healthy people. After treatment, lower concentrations of NO in the serum of patients with stage IV of the disease were observed in comparison to the amounts obtained prior to treatment. In addition, lower levels of nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with all stages of the disease were recorded, whereas higher concentrations of MDA were determined in these patients in comparison to results obtained before treatment. The compounds formed with the contribution of NO, such as MDA and nitrotyrosine, may lead to cancer progression in patients with SCC of the oral cavity, and contribute to formation of resistance to therapy in these patients as well. Moreover, the lack of a relationship between concentrations of NO and MDA, and between NO and nitrotyrosine in serum suggests that the process of lipid peroxidation and nitration in patients with SCC does not just depend on NO. PMID:23970140

  15. [Inveterate squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid: a case report].

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Marcasciano, M; Pacitti, F; Toscani, M; Tarallo, M; Fino, P; Scuderi, G L

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation. It is the second most common cancer of the skin and usually occurs in areas exposed to the sun but it can rarely arise within the conjunctival epithelium with a deep component. We describe a woman with a history of chronic blepharoconjunctivitis unresponsive to topical medications. Examination disclosed a hyperaemic translucent patch with blurred margins of the upper palpebral conjunctiva. Tarsoconjunctival biopsy revealed intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma. Management consisted of complete tumor excision with removal of the entire posterior lamella of the left upper eyelid and reconstruction. Histopathologic analysis confirmed primary squamous cell carcinoma arising from conjunctival epithelium, involving the underlying tarsus. Patients with unexplained chronic unilateral blepharoconjunctivitis or papillary hypertrophy of the palpebral conjunctiva should be considered for biopsy to rule out neoplasia, even when there is no sign of an evident mass. PMID:23868639

  16. Automatic detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using k-means clustering.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya; Doğdu, Erdoğan

    2010-04-01

    A new approach based on the implementation of k-means clustering is presented for automated detection of erythemato-squamous diseases. The purpose of clustering techniques is to find a structure for the given data by finding similarities between data according to data characteristics. The studied domain contained records of patients with known diagnosis. The k-means clustering algorithm's task was to classify the data points, in this case the patients with attribute data, to one of the five clusters. The algorithm was used to detect the five erythemato-squamous diseases when 33 features defining five disease indications were used. The purpose is to determine an optimum classification scheme for this problem. The present research demonstrated that the features well represent the erythemato-squamous diseases and the k-means clustering algorithm's task achieved high classification accuracies for only five erythemato-squamous diseases. PMID:20433056

  17. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  18. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Seddik, Youssef; Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Afqir, Said

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a well known malignancy of the skin and other organs composed of squamous cells, which are normally not found inside the breast. Therefore, a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceedingly uncommon phenomen and the management of this type of disease is still unclear. We report the case of a 43-year-old Moroccan woman, without significant medical history, presented an infected mass of 9 cm in the left breast associated with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The mass's surgical biopsy revealed a triple negative primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. She underwent a neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 5 Fluoro-Uracil and platinum. After three courses, she presented a contralateral breast progression and apparition of metastasis at D10. She received one course of a palliative chemotherapy based on weekly paclitaxel stopped because of her peformans status deterioration. She died 7 months after her admission.

  19. Laser treatment of an oral squamous papilloma in a pediatric patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Misir, Ahmet Ferhat; Demiriz, Levent; Barut, Figen

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass induced by human papilloma virus (HPV). These oral mucosa lesions are most often asymptomatic and have small progression. Laser assisted surgery is common nowadays with several advantages including successful hemostasis, devoid of sutures, wound sterilization and minimal post-operative pain and edema. The aim of this report is to present the oral squamous papilloma in a pediatric patient and its treatment with soft tissue laser. The lesion was excised with diode laser and the healing was uneventful in follow-up visit after one year. Oral squamous papillomas can be found in child's oral cavity and laser dentistry can be used by dental clinicians to treat these kinds of oral lesions and should be considered as an alternative to conventional surgery. PMID:24262405

  20. In vivo nonlinear spectral imaging as a tool to monitor early spectroscopic and metabolic changes in a murine cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Giju; van Voskuilen, Johan; Truong, Hoa; Song, Ji-Ying; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Timely detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with non-invasive modalities like nonlinear spectral imaging (NLSI) can ensure efficient preventive or therapeutic measures for patients. In this study, in vivo NLSI was used to study spectral characteristics in murine skin treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. The results show that NLSI could detect emission spectral changes during the early preclinical stages of skin carcinogenesis. Analyzing these emission spectra using simulated band-pass filters at 450-460 nm and 525-535 nm, gave parameters that were expressed as a ratio. This ratio was increased and thus suggestive of elevated metabolic activity in early stages of skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25574438

  1. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  2. Mighty mouse breakthroughs: a Sox2-driven model for squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Anandaroop; Oliver, Trudy G

    2015-01-01

    Squamous lung cancer is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer with a poor overall prognosis. We have recently generated a mouse model of squamous lung carcinoma by overexpressing Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) and deleting liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) using a lentiviral approach. This model recapitulates the human disease in terms of histopathology, biomarker expression, and signaling pathway activation, making it an excellent model for preclinical studies. PMID:27308419

  3. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum effectively treated with TS-1: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshihiro; Nasu, Yuichiro; Hamamoto, Hitomi; Miyata, Fumiko; Oshige, Akihiko; Shigenobu, Shuho; Kanmura, Shuji; Numata, Masatsugu; Aozaki, Shinichiro; Ido, Akio

    2014-12-01

    An 89-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for thorough investigation of refractory diabetes mellitus, which revealed primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum. After two courses of chemotherapy, follow-up esophagoduodenogastroscopy and duodenal biopsy showed no evidence of tumor. No findings were suggestive of recurrence of the primary lesion 19 months after starting chemotherapy. This case suggests that chemotherapy including TS-1 may be effective for treating unresectable primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum. PMID:25482907

  4. Can MMP-9 be a Prognosticator Marker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Shiva Kumar; Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours severely endanger the life of cancer patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the commonly found malignancies in the oral cavity and its survival rate has not improved from past few decades. Since an important risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma is the presence of epithelial dysplasia, it is necessary to check the presence of a prognosticator marker in both of them. As matrix metalloproteinase’s (MMP’s) are involved in degradation of type IV collagen, which are one of the important components of extracellular matrix components which play a relevant role in several steps of tumour progression such as invasion and metastasis. We have studied MMP-9 expression to evaluate its prognostic potential in oral cancers as well as oral epithelial dysplasia along with tissues of normal oral epithelium. Materials and Methods The expression was examined using immunohistochemistry procedure with MMP-9 in 100 samples including cases of epithelium from normal oral mucosa, oral dysplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. One set of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of the three categories were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The sections were then evaluated under microscope. Data was examined for statistical significance using SPSS 13.0 by Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results With MMP-9 gain of expression was noted from Control group to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic staining was seen with MMP-9. Statistically highly significant differences were seen between oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Conclusion This study suggested that oral squamous cell carcinoma shows higher MMP-9 expression as compared to oral epithelial dysplasia followed by epithelium from normal oral mucosa. However, no correlation was found among the

  5. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26710834

  6. Radiation Therapy and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-08

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and occludin in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their clinico-pathological significance

    PubMed Central

    Phattarataratip, Ekarat

    2016-01-01

    Background Claudin and occludin are the important tight junctions protein in human. The downregulation or upregulation of claudins and occludin might have a role in cancer development. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and occludin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their relationships with the prognostically-related clinico-pathologic features. Material and Methods Standard indirect immunohistochemical technique using anti-claudin-5, anti-claudin-7 and anti-occludin was performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 66 OSCC samples from Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University. The positive cases were divided into 2 groups, the low expression group (cases with less than 50% of positive cancer cells) and the high expression group for statistical analysis. Categorical analysis of the clinico-pathologic parameters together with univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test were performed. Results There were 22 male and 23 female patients enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 65.82+12.10 years. The claudin-5 immunoreactivity was observed in 26.6% of cases. The positive immunoreactivity of claudin-7 is more noted (93.3%). Only 4 cases showed occludin immunoreactivity (8.9%) and all of them show positivity less than 25% of cancer cells. Only loss of claudin-7 expression was associated with the high pathologic grade, advanced TNM staging, large tumor size, the presence of microscopic perineural, vascular invasions and regional lymph node involvement. There is a tendency towards the association of the higher claudin-7 expression and a longer survival time (P=0.012). Conclusions The results showed expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and low expression of occludin in OSCC. Only claudin-7 expression showed impact on clinic-pathological parameter of OSCC. Key words:Claudin, occludin, oral squamous cell carcinoma, tight junctions, oral cancer. PMID:27398181

  8. Connexin 43 (Cx43) Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Preliminary Data on Its Possible Prognostic Role.

    PubMed

    Puzzo, Lidia; Caltabiano, Rosario; Parenti, Rosalba; Trapasso, Serena; Allegra, Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the report is to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Eighty-seven previously untreated patients submitted to laryngectomy ± neck dissection ± radiotherapy were enrolled in this retrospective study. The original primary tumor slides were reassessed, tumor grade and stage reviewed, and Cx43 immunohistochemical analysis performed: only cytoplasmic membranous staining of Cx43 has been shown. Neither significant correlation has been showed for clinical T (p = 0.75) and N (p = 0.81), while significant correlation has been found with grading (p < 0.0001) and pathological N (p < 0.0001). Five year overall survival (OS) of the 87 patients was 54 %; 5 year OS was 59.6 % in Cx43 positive patients and 37.1 % in Cx43 negative patients, but also this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.058). Our best findings were: poorly differentiated carcinomas had low or negative Cx43 expression; moderately differentiated tumors without node metastasis and no radiotherapy but with Cx43 expression had a better outcome; moderately differentiated tumors without node metastasis and no radiotherapy but without Cx43 expression had a worse outcome; moderately differentiated tumors with node metastasis and radiotherapy but without Cx43 expression had a better outcome. Interestingly, in G2 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis, Cx43 aberrant overexpression could identify a subset of patients with poor prognosis, far less responsive to radio/chemotherapy. PMID:26748803

  9. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes Following IMRT Versus Conventional Radiotherapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min Karnell, Lucy H.; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Dornfeld, Ken; Buatti, John M.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To compare health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were extracted from the database of an ongoing longitudinal Outcome Assessment Project. Eligible criteria included (1) treated with definitive radiation, and (2) provided 12-month posttreatment HRQOL data. Excluded were 7 patients who received IMRT before October 1, 2002, during this institution's developmental phase of the IMRT technique. The HRQOL outcomes of patients treated with IMRT were compared with those of patients who received CRT. Results: Twenty-six patients treated using IMRT and 27 patients treated using CRT were included. Patients in the IMRT group were older and had more advanced-stage diseases and more patients received concurrent chemotherapy. However, the IMRT group had higher mean Head and Neck Cancer Inventory scores (which represent better outcomes) for each of the four head-and-neck cancer-specific domains, including eating, speech, aesthetics, and social disruption, at 12 months after treatment. A significantly greater percentage of patients in the CRT group had restricted diets compared with those in the IMRT group (48.0% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.032). At 3 months after treatment, both groups had significant decreases from pretreatment eating scores. However, the IMRT group had a significant improvement during the first year, but the CRT group had only small improvement. Conclusions: Proper delivery of IMRT can improve HRQOL for patients with oropharyngeal cancer compared with CRT.

  10. Ron tyrosine kinase receptor synergises with EGFR to confer adverse features in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Keller, J; Nimnual, A S; Shroyer, K R; Joy, C; Ischenko, I; Chandler, C S; Dong, L M; Hayman, M J; Chan, E L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although EGFR inhibitors have shown some success in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), the results are not dramatic. Additional molecular targets are urgently needed. We previously showed that the loss of Ron receptor activity significantly slowed squamous tumour growth and progression in a murine model. Based on these data, we hypothesised that Ron expression confers an aggressive phenotype in HNSCCs. Methods: We prospectively collected and evaluated 154 snap-frozen, primary HNSCCs for Ron and EGFR expression/phosphorylation. Biomarker correlation with clinical, pathological and outcome data was performed. The biological responses of HNSCC cell lines to Ron knockdown, its activation and the biochemical interaction between Ron and EGFR were examined. Results: We discovered that 64.3% (99 out of 154) HNSCCs expressed Ron. The carcinomas expressed exclusively mature functional Ron, whereas the adjacent nonmalignant epithelium expressed predominantly nonfunctional Ron precursor. There was no significant association between Ron and sex, tumour differentiation, perineural/vascular invasion or staging. However, patients with Ron+HNSCC were significantly older and more likely to have oropharyngeal tumours. Ron+HNSCC also had significantly higher EGFR expression and correlated strongly with phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR). Newly diagnosed HNSCC with either Ron/pEGFR or both had lower disease-free survival than those without Ron and pEGFR. Knocking down Ron in SCC9 cells significantly blunted their migratory response to not only the Ron ligand, MSP, but also EGF. Stimulation of Ron in SCC9 cells significantly augmented the growth effect of EGF; the synergistic effect of both growth factors in SCC9 cells was dependent on Ron expression. Activated Ron also interacted with and transactivated EGFR. Conclusion: Ron synergises with EGFR to confer certain adverse features in HNSCCs. PMID:23799848

  11. Proteomic identification of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein as a plasma biomarker of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-Dong; Li, Jun-Zheng; Hu, Shui-Wang; Peng, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gang; Liu, Xiong; Chen, Huai-Hong; Xu, Xia; Li, Xiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) has very poor prognosis compared with other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Late-stage diagnosis of HSCC increases mortality. Therefore, more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of HSCC are necessary. Unfortunately, appropriate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis have not been identified yet. However, recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to identify plasma proteins as biomarkers for HSCC. In the present study, plasma samples were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). A total of 26 proteins representing 12 unique gene products were identified. The up-regulation proteins were alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), complement C4-B, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, and ceruloplasmin, whereas the down-regulation proteins were serum albumin, angiotensinogen, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, Ig gamma-3 chain C region, fibrinogen gamma chain, apolipoprotein A-I, and Ig kappa chain C region. Among all the differentially expressed proteins, AHSG was validated by western blot and ELISA. The results were consistent with the data from 2D-DIGE, further suggesting that AHSG may be employed as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of HSCC. In summary, this study was the first to use 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF platform to identify the potential plasma biomarkers for HSCC. The plasma AHSG showed great potential for HSCC screening. PMID:26464644

  12. Proteomic identification of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein as a plasma biomarker of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wen-Dong; Li, Jun-Zheng; Hu, Shui-Wang; Peng, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gang; Liu, Xiong; Chen, Huai-Hong; Xu, Xia; Li, Xiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) has very poor prognosis compared with other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Late-stage diagnosis of HSCC increases mortality. Therefore, more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of HSCC are necessary. Unfortunately, appropriate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis have not been identified yet. However, recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to identify plasma proteins as biomarkers for HSCC. In the present study, plasma samples were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). A total of 26 proteins representing 12 unique gene products were identified. The up-regulation proteins were alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), complement C4-B, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, and ceruloplasmin, whereas the down-regulation proteins were serum albumin, angiotensinogen, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, Ig gamma-3 chain C region, fibrinogen gamma chain, apolipoprotein A-I, and Ig kappa chain C region. Among all the differentially expressed proteins, AHSG was validated by western blot and ELISA. The results were consistent with the data from 2D-DIGE, further suggesting that AHSG may be employed as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of HSCC. In summary, this study was the first to use 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF platform to identify the potential plasma biomarkers for HSCC. The plasma AHSG showed great potential for HSCC screening. PMID:26464644

  13. The Discovery and Validation of Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Couch, George; Redman, James E; Wernisch, Lorenz; Newton, Richard; Malhotra, Shalini; Dawsey, Sanford M; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2016-07-01

    The 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer is less than 10% in developing countries, where more than 90% of these cancers are esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Endoscopic screening is undertaken in high incidence areas. Biomarker analysis could reduce the subjectivity associated with histologic assessment of dysplasia and thus improve diagnostic accuracy. The aims of this study were therefore to identify biomarkers for esophageal squamous dysplasia and carcinoma. A publicly available dataset was used to identify genes with differential expression in ESCC compared with normal esophagus. Each gene was ranked by a support vector machine separation score. Expression profiles were examined, before validation by qPCR and IHC. We found that 800 genes were overexpressed in ESCC compared with normal esophagus (P < 10(-5)). Of the top 50 genes, 33 were expressed in ESCC epithelium and not in normal esophagus epithelium or stroma using the Protein Atlas website. These were taken to qPCR validation, and 20 genes were significantly overexpressed in ESCC compared with normal esophagus (P < 0.05). TNFAIP3 and CHN1 showed differential expression with IHC. TNFAIP3 expression increased gradually through normal esophagus, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, and SCC (P < 0.0001). CHN1 staining was rarely present in the top third of normal esophagus epithelium and extended progressively towards the surface in mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia, and SCC (P < 0.0001). Two novel promising biomarkers for ESCC were identified, TNFAIP3 and CHN1. CHN1 and TNFAIP3 may improve diagnostic accuracy of screening methods for ESCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 558-66. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27072986

  14. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Premalignancy and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Ramesh, K.; Gudiseva, Swetha; Bala, Sekar; Sundar, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer has multifactorial aetiology and is a multistep process involving initiation, promotion and tumour progression. Cellular proliferation is one of the important indicators for the biologic aggressiveness of a malignant lesion. The dysregulated proliferation may be a significant change to determine the potential prognosis of various malignant tumours. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an indicator for clinical aggressiveness in oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 50 blocks were taken from the Department of Oral Pathology which was diagnosed previously histopathologically. It comprised of normal oral mucosa (10), dysplasia (10) and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (30) of patients between the age group of 40–60 years. From each block, sections of 4 micro metre thicknesses were prepared and placed on poly- L lysine coated slides. These sections were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal proliferating cell antibody (PC10). The stained slides were evaluated by a single examiner for cell count. Results A comparison between study groups and controls showed a probability value (p-value) < 0.05. Significant increase in the proliferative index from the normal to oral squamous cell carcinoma was noticed. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed maximum proliferative index followed by moderately differentiated, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, dysplasia and normal mucosa. Conclusion Present study concluded that PCNA index can be used to assess the proliferation and aggressiveness in dysplasia and different grades oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26266215

  15. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. PMID:27037113

  16. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Outcome in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients With Nodal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Lee, Nancy Y.; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Thaler, Howard T.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Snehal G.; Moreira, Andre L.; Sherman, Eric; Karimi, Sasan; Wang, Ya; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; and others

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can provide information regarding tumor perfusion and permeability and has shown prognostic value in certain tumors types. The goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment DCE-MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with nodal disease undergoing chemoradiation therapy or surgery. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma and neck nodal metastases were eligible for the study. Pretreatment DCE-MRI was performed on a 1.5T MRI. Clinical follow-up was a minimum of 12 months. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using the Tofts model. DCE-MRI parameters were related to treatment outcome (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]). Patients were grouped as no evidence of disease (NED), alive with disease (AWD), dead with disease (DOD), or dead of other causes (DOC). Prognostic significance was assessed using the log-rank test for single variables and Cox proportional hazards regression for combinations of variables. Results: At last clinical follow-up, for Stage III, all 12 patients were NED. For Stage IV, 43 patients were NED, 4 were AWD, 11 were DOD, and 4 were DOC. K{sup trans} is volume transfer constant. In a stepwise Cox regression, skewness of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant) was the strongest predictor for Stage IV patients (PFS and OS: p <0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows that skewness of K{sup trans} was the strongest predictor of PFS and OS in Stage IV HNSCC patients with nodal disease. This study suggests an important role for pretreatment DCE-MRI parameter K{sup trans} as a predictor of outcome in these patients.

  17. MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-16

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  18. "High Stage" Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, William R.

    Although a psychological theory of stages of transformation in human development currently exists, organizational researchers have yet to elaborate and test any theory of organizational transformation of comparable elegance. According to the organizational stage theory being developed since 1974 by William Torbert, bureaucratic organization, which…

  19. Distant Metastases in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min; Lu Minggen; Savvides, Panayiotis S.; Rezaee, Rod; Zender, Chad A.; Lavertu, Pierre; Buatti, John M.; Machtay, Mitchell

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern and risk factors for distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after curative treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 284 HNSCC patients treated in a single institution with IMRT. Sites included were oropharynx (125), oral cavity (70), larynx (55), hypopharynx (17), and unknown primary (17). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution includes I (3), II (19), III (42), and IV (203). There were 224 males and 60 females with a median age of 57. One hundred eighty-six patients were treated with definitive IMRT and 98 postoperative IMRT. One hundred forty-nine patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 22.8 months (range, 0.07-77.3 months) and 29.5 months (4.23-77.3 months) for living patients. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 94.6%, 96.4%, 92.5%, 84.1%, and 68.95%, respectively. There were 45 patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was strongly associated with N stage (p = 0.046), T stage (p < 0.0001), and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value of the lymph node (p = 0.006), but not associated with age, gender, disease sites, pretreatment standardized uptake value of the primary tumor, or locoregional control. The freedom from distant metastasis at 3 years was 98.1% for no factors, 88.6% for one factor, 68.3% for two factors, and 41.7% for three factors (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Conclusion: With advanced radiation techniques and concurrent chemotherapy, the failure pattern has changed with more patients failing distantly. The majority of patients with distant metastases had no local or regional failures, indicating that these patients might have microscopic distant

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: An update and implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Glen R; Kong, Cherng H; Warrier, Satish K; Lynch, Andrew C; Heriot, Alexander G; Ngan, Samuel Y

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015. A qualitative analysis was undertaken examining patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment and outcome. The quantitaive analysis was limited to data extracted on treatment and outcomes including radiological, clinical and pathological complete response where available. The narrative and quantitative review were synthesised in concert. RESULTS: The search identified 487 articles in total with 79 included in the qualitative review. The quantitative analysis involved 63 articles, consisting of 43 case reports and 20 case series with a total of 142 individual cases. The underlying pathogenesis of rectal SCC while unclear, continues to be defined, with increasing evidence of a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and a possible role for human papilloma virus in this progression. The presentation is similar to rectal adenocarcinoma, with a diagnosis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Many presumed rectal SCC’s are in fact an extension of an anal SCC, and cytokeratin markers are a useful adjunct in this distinction. Staging is most accurately reflected by the tumour-node-metastasis classification for rectal adenocarcinoma. It involves examining locoregional disease by way of magnetic resonance imaging and/or endorectal ultrasound, with systemic spread excluded by way of computed tomography. Positron emission tomography is integral in the workup to exclude an external site of primary SCC with metastasis to the rectum. While the