Science.gov

Sample records for staggered work hours

  1. Residency Work-Hours Reform

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to proposed federal legislation, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education limited resident work-hours in July 2003. The cost may be substantial but, if successful, the reform might lower preventable adverse event costs in hospital and after discharge. Objectives This study sought to estimate the reform's net cost in 2001 dollars, and to determine the reduction in preventable adverse events needed to make reform cost neutral from teaching hospital and societal perspectives. Design Cost analysis using published literature and data. Net costs were determined for 4 reform strategies and over a range of potential effects on preventable adverse events. Results Nationwide, transferring excess work to task-tailored substitutes (the lowest-level providers appropriate for noneducational tasks) would cost $673 million; mid-level providers would cost $1.1 billion. Reform strategies promoting adverse events would increase net teaching hospital and societal costs as well as mortality. If task-tailored substitutes decrease events by 5.1% or mid-level providers decrease them by 8.5%, reform would be cost neutral for society. Events must fall by 18.5% and 30.9%, respectively, to be cost neutral for teaching hospitals. Conclusions Because most preventable adverse event costs occur after discharge, a modest decline (5.1% to 8.5%) in them might make residency work-hours reform cost neutral for society but only a much larger drop (18.5% to 30.9%) would make it cost neutral for teaching hospitals, unless additional funds are allocated. Future research should evaluate which reform approaches prevent adverse events and at what cost. PMID:16191130

  2. Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159479.html Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health At the job ... at Ohio State University. The link between long work hours and disease ''seems to be present a ...

  3. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  4. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  5. Working Hours Flexibility. Background Paper No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staines, Graham L.

    Flexible work schedules offer the promise of a low-cost option for helping people manage work and family responsibilities. Alternative work schedules include part-time work, job sharing, work sharing, shiftwork, compressed work week, flexitime, and flexiplace. Flexitime is the most prevalent full-time flexible schedule and is second in prevalence…

  6. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work....

  7. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work....

  8. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  9. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  10. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  11. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  12. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  13. Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the increased risks he found for women. The study included information on the working habits of nearly 7,500 U.S. men and women over more than three decades. Most of the study volunteers were over 50 toward the end of ...

  14. Dave Eggers's a heartbreaking work of staggering genius: memoir as a "pain-relief device".

    PubMed

    Miller, Elise

    2011-10-01

    Dave Eggers's memoir is an important addition to the tradition of autobiography in America, and offers significant contributions to our understanding of creativity, sublimation, and the psychology of the memoir-writing process. A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius is really two books--an autobiographical narrative about unbearable suffering, and a book of psychoanalytic commentary on the challenges of writing a memoir about catastrophic loss and trauma. The main narrative suggests the psychological resilience it takes to contain unbearable suffering. The metanarrative renders transparent the mind of someone who is both remembering his losses and constantly reflecting upon the process of writing about them. Eggers's identification with authorship, rather than bereavement or traumatization, may have played an important role in containing his affect and his sense of self when the heartbreaking events were originally unfolding. But a price is paid when a son uses his art to construct a new identity as an author--unconscious conflicts, primitive affect, anxieties about failing, as well as guilt about succeeding--consequences often missed by readers. Heartbreaking is a palimpsest, a story about story-telling superimposed on tales of death and survival, but its messages will be missed unless all its parts are preserved when being read or studied. PMID:21980140

  15. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." PMID:12280256

  16. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model. PMID:20643398

  17. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  18. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  19. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  20. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Every...

  1. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  2. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  3. Participation and hours of work of married females in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A

    1991-12-01

    The study provides estimates of female labor force participation and hours of work in Cairo, Egypt, from a sample of 3882 married females in 1984. The determinants of labor force participation are examined. The urban participation rate was 31% in 1984 compared to total labor force participation of 9% in 1976. Hours of work were estimated with ordinary least squares techniques and were based on the theories of Ben-Porath, Gronau, and Heckman. Determinants of labor force participation include weekly earnings, income, unemployment, age, schooling, and fertility measures. Educational status and age explain 10% of the variance in earnings; however the full set of explanatory variables explain 40-50% of the variation in hours of work function for all females. An increase in the level of schooling increased the probability of labor force participation by 47-48%. Women with higher levels of education had an average work week longer by 6.2-6.9 hours. Unemployment of a household member decreased the probability of participation. Level of household income was statistically significant and positive for participation and hours of work. The probability of participation was decreased by the presence of children under the age of 5 years in the household. The presence of a child 6-11 years old decreased the number of hours of work by 2 hours and an additional child aged 6-11 years decreased an hour of work by 0.2%. An increased weekly wage rate of L.E.10 led to a 2-hour per week work increase. The relationship of hours of work and wages is considered strongly inelastic. PMID:12288770

  4. Perspectives on the working hours of Australian junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work–life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors’ working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices. PMID:25560522

  5. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  6. Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnold, P K; Hartley, L R; Corry, A; Hochstadt, D; Penna, F; Feyer, A M

    1997-07-01

    Drivers and companies operating in the heavy road transport industry were surveyed about drivers' hours of work and perceptions of the causes and magnitude of fatigue as an industry problem. These drivers were operating in a state which, at the time of the survey, did not restrict driving hours for heavy haulage drivers. On the day of the interview, estimates based on retrospective and prospective reports, suggest that in a 24 hour period about 38% of drivers exceed 14 hours of driving, and 51% exceed 14 hours of driving plus other non-driving work. About 12% of drivers reported less than 4 hours of sleep on one or more working days in the week preceding the interview. These drivers are likely to be operating their vehicles while having a significant sleep debt. About 20% of drivers reported less than 6 hours sleep before starting their current journey, but nearly 40% of dangerous events that occurred on the journey were reported by these drivers (p < 0.05). Many drivers and company representatives reported fatigue to be a problem for other drivers, but considered themselves or their companies' drivers to be relatively unaffected by fatigue. There were differences between drivers' and companies' perceptions about causes of fatigue, and strategies that should be used to manage it. The results obtained from these drivers in an unregulated state were compared with earlier findings from drivers in states where driving hours restrictions are in place. PMID:9248505

  7. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  8. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  9. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  10. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  11. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  12. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours. PMID:17085914

  13. Staggered baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon Andrew

    The strong force binds protons and neutrons within nuclei and quarks within mesons and baryons. Calculations of the masses of the light-quark baryons from the theory of the strong force, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), require numerical methods in which continuous Minkowski spacetime is replaced by a discrete Euclidean spacetime lattice. Finite computational resources and theoretical constraints impose significant limitations on lattice calculations. The price of perhaps the fastest formulation of lattice QCD, rooted staggered QCD, includes quark degrees of freedom called tastes, associated discretization effects called taste violations, and the rooting conjecture for eliminating the tastes in the continuum limit. Empirically successful rooted staggered QCD calculations of the baryon spectrum would constitute numerical evidence for the rooting conjecture and further vindication of QCD as the theory of the strong force. With such calculations as the goal, I discuss expected features of the staggered baryon spectrum, examine the spectra of interpolating operators transforming irreducibly under the staggered lattice symmetry group, construct such a set of baryon operators, and show how they could allow for particularly clean calculations of the masses of the nucleon, Delta, Sigma*, Ξ*, and O-. To quantify taste violations in baryonic quantities, I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory for light-quark baryons by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, calculate the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory, and discuss in detail the pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting baryon degeneracies and mixings. The resulting chiral forms could be used with interpolating operators already in use to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit.

  14. A template for change and response to work hour restrictions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Kathryn A; Mendoza, Bernardo; Britt, L D

    2003-08-01

    Surgical program directors are seeking how to best meet the work hour restrictions recently mandated by the American College of Graduate Medical Education. Implementation of an 80-hour work week forces major change to graduate medical education, especially surgical education. Creative restructuring of surgical training is necessary to ensure compliance. Developing an innovative solution to meet these requirements must consider programmatic needs, requiring commitment to a change process. The Department of Surgery at Eastern Virginia Medical School experienced a 5-month strategic planning process that generated the Mendoza plan. This plan uses an every third night call model and a night float model to meet site-specific needs. The specifics of the Mendoza plan protect the cornerstone of surgical education, which is continuity of patient care and resident education. The Mendoza plan, and the process leading to its development, may provide insightful information for other surgical residency programs planning to meet work hour guidelines. PMID:12885595

  15. Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475

  16. Resident Work Hour Restrictions and Change Management: A Cautionary Tale.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z Amy; Hudson, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Residents are a significant part of coverage in many hospitals. Resident associations are negotiating work hour limits to prevent fatigue-induced medical errors. Our intensive care unit experienced an unexpected resident shortage and used the opportunity to trial a shift schedule for one month. Post-surveys were sent to nurses, attending physicians and residents to evaluate the effects on staff interactions, patient safety and education quality. The trial was clearly a failure on all fronts. Work hour restrictions are a reality in medical education, and administrators need to start considering alternative staffing models and discussing alternative schedules with their medicine faculty. PMID:26359002

  17. Training for fitness: reconsidering the 80-hour work week.

    PubMed

    Caldicott, Catherine V; Holsapple, James W

    2008-01-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles about the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 2003 resident duty hour restrictions. Most of these papers describe creative and thoughtful responses to the new system. However, others express concern that the "80-hour work week" could hamper continuity of care and educational activities. Nevertheless, if fatigue impairs resident learning and medical care quality, then work hour restrictions seem worthwhile. We add our voices to the critics' for additional reasons. Data support that fatigue occurs even with reasonable work schedules, and residents do not reliably use time off from work to rest. Regulated work schedules can interfere with adequate rehearsal of the physical and mental stamina required in certain specialties, yet patients have a right to expect their physicians to be trained in the particular demands of those specialties. Similarly, residents have a right to a realistic understanding of authentic clinical practice. Further, while self-sacrifice need not be routine, trainees should feel that occasional self-sacrifice is appropriate and acceptable for a physician. We reject uniform, arbitrary duty hour limits for all specialties. Rather, we propose that a subspecialty-based system can foster the development of the endurance, skills, and reasoning that patients and colleagues expect. PMID:18192772

  18. Negative Impacts of Shiftwork and Long Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Claire C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Healthcare organizations often have to provide patient care around the clock. Shift work (any shift outside of 7 a.m. to 6 p.m) and long work hours increase the risk for short sleep duration and sleep disturbances. Thirty-two percent of healthcare workers report they do not get enough sleep. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of the wide range of risks to nurses, patients, and employers that are linked to shift work, long work hours, and poor sleep from other sources. Findings Shift work and long work hours increase the risk for reduced performance on the job, obesity, injuries, and a wide range of chronic diseases. In addition, fatigue-related errors could harm patients. Fatigued nurses also endanger others during their commute to and from work. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance The key strategy to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer’s systems for organizing work and in the nurse’s personal life. PMID:23780784

  19. Student opinions on orthopedic residency selection, education, and work hours.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Waqas; Hussain, Haroon; Manning, David W

    2013-08-01

    Other articles have been written about resident selection, musculoskeletal education, work hours, and call coverage, but none has described orthopedic applicants' opinions on these issues. We conducted a study to gain insight into applicants' attitudes about issues relevant to the specialty. We distributed a survey to 53 applicants interviewing for an orthopedic residency. The survey used both a multiple-choice format and a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree or least important) to 5 (strongly agree or most important). Respondents rated the adequacy of musculoskeletal education in medical school a mean standard deviation (SD) of 2.00 (0.8) on the Likert scale. Ranking the factors most valuable to an orthopedic surgery application, they rated United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 board examination scores a mean (SD) of 4.26 (0.9). In addition, of the 53 respondents, 46 (87%) anticipated working as a resident more than 80 hours per week, and 36 (68%) anticipated working as an attending 60 to 70 hours per week or less. Respondents also agreed that they should receive compensation for call coverage. Therefore, students agreed that medical school education is insufficient, rated USMLE scores the most important application factor, anticipated working more than 80 hours per week, and agreed that call coverage should be compensated. PMID:24078953

  20. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section 551.421 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... have a regularly scheduled administrative workweek. However, under title 5 United States Code, and...

  1. In the Face of Conflict: Work-Life Conflict and Desired Work Hour Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    This study helps integrate the work-life and work hours literatures by examining competing predictions about the relationship between work-life conflict and the desire for paid work. Using data from the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,178), I find that work-life conflict makes women want to decrease the number of hours they…

  2. Depressed mood in the working population: associations with work schedules and working hours.

    PubMed

    Driesen, Karolien; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, Ijmert; Mohren, Danielle C L; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M

    2010-07-01

    The impact of working time arrangements (WTA) on health has been studied extensively. Still, little is known about the interrelation between work schedules, working hours, and depressed mood. For work schedules, the underlying assumptions regarding depressed mood refer to a disturbance of social and biological rhythms, whereas for working hours, the assumptions relate to workload and work capacity. Conversely, depressed mood may urge an employee to adjust his/her work schedule and/or number of working hours/week (h/wk). The aim of this study was to assess the association between work schedule and working hours with depressed mood. Using baseline data from the Maastricht Cohort Study, depressed mood in day work was compared with depressed mood in different shiftwork schedules (n = 8843). Within day work, several categories of working h/wk were studied in association with depressed mood (n = 7217). The association between depressed mood and several aspects of overtime was assessed separately. Depressed mood was measured with a dichotomous item: "Did you feel down every day over the last two weeks?" Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for men and women, with adjustments for potential confounders. The odds ratio (OR) for depressed mood was greater for men involved in shiftwork than for men only involved in day work (three-shift OR = 2.05 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.52-2.77]; five-shift OR = 1.34 [95% CI 1.00-1.80]; irregular-shift OR = 1.79 [95% CI 1.27-2.53]). In female employees, five-shift work was associated with a higher prevalence of depressed mood (OR = 5.96 [95% CI 2.83-12.56]). Regarding the number of working h/wk, men working <26 h/wk had a higher prevalence of depressed mood than men working 36-40 h/wk (OR = 2.73 [95% CI 1.35-5.52]). After conducting trend analyses, a significant decreasing trend was found in men, whereas an increasing trend was found in women working a high number of hours. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was

  3. Nurses working 12-hour shifts in the hospice setting.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, L A

    1995-04-01

    A system of 12-hour nursing shifts was adopted at a newly-opened independent hospice. This paper presents the results from an exploratory, descriptive study in which nursing staff reported perceived advantages, disadvantages and satisfaction with the 12-hour shift system. A small sample (n = 11) of both qualified and unqualified nurses working the 12-hour shift completed the questionnaire. A content analysis of the qualitative data produced a number of categories relating to the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the 12-hour shift system in relation to the respondents, to the hospice and to patient and family care. The need for continuing to monitor and evaluate the shift system was demonstrated, particularly in relation to patient and family satisfaction, and the quality of care. It was concluded that examining the advantages and disadvantages of the 12-hour shift system increased awareness of the needs of staff, presented a useful way of identifying and managing potential difficulties within the workplace, and highlighted areas for future research. PMID:7606330

  4. Spending Time: The Impact of Hours Worked on Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Cheryl L.; Premeaux, Sonya F.

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have long assumed that as workers spend more time at work fewer hours are available for their non-work lives leading to negative effects in both domains, and most studies examining the impact of work hours on work and life domains have supported this viewpoint. However, the majority of these studies have used one-dimensional measures of…

  5. Atypical work hours and metabolic syndrome among police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Vila, Bryan J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether atypical work hours are associated with metabolic syndrome among a random sample of 98 police officers. Shift work and overtime data from daily payroll records and reported sleep duration were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined as elevated waist circumference and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of covariance models were used for analyses. Officers working midnight shifts were on average younger and had a slightly higher mean number of metabolic syndrome components. Stratification on sleep duration and overtime revealed significant associations between midnight shifts and the mean number of metabolic syndrome components among officers with less sleep (p = .013) and more overtime (p = .007). Results suggest shorter sleep duration and more overtime combined with midnight shift work may be important contributors to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19864222

  6. Fatigue and extended work hours among cardiovascular perfusionists: 2010 Survey.

    PubMed

    Trew, A; Searles, B; Smith, T; Darling, E M

    2011-09-01

    Due to the emergent unpredictable nature of cardiac surgery, perfusionists, potentially, are susceptible to extended work hours and acute sleep deprivation. While fatigue among other healthcare clinicians has been studied, there has been no research on this topic specifically in the perfusion community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to: (1) collect preliminary data on the prevalence of fatigue in perfusion and (2) identify if there were concerns regarding fatigue, performance and perfusion safety. In May 2010, a link to a 50-question survey (surveymonkey.com) was posted on Perflist and Perfmail. The survey was closed in July 2010. There were 445 respondents and data were analyzed and expressed as a response percent. Participants included 27% chief perfusionists/managers, 67% staff perfusionists, and 6.0% other (perfusion education faculty, retired perfusionists, locum tenens). Regarding extended work hours, 68.9% of surveyed perfusionists have worked at the hospital for greater than 23 hours straight and 17.5% have worked continuously for over 36 hours. Actual performance of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after 17, 23, and 36 hours of wakefulness was reported by 82.9%, 63% and 14.8% respondents, respectively. Regarding bathroom requirements while on CPB, 87.5% have felt extremely uncomfortable at least once, 19.9% have relieved themselves in the operating room at least once, and 22.3% have left the pump attended by a non-perfusionist to use the restroom at least once. Microsleep during CPB was reported by 49.5% of respondents. Automobile accidents attributed to an extended period of work and fatigue was reported by 6.9% and another 44.4% reported a near-miss auto accident. A fatigue-related minor error was reported by 66% and 6.7% admit to having a serious perfusion accident believed to be due to fatigue. Concerning critical phases of bypass, 51.5% believe that they perform less effectively when fatigued. Additionally, 75.9% indicate that they have been

  7. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Bannai, Akira; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Sachiko; Kishi, Reiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 non-shift workers and 824 shift workers). Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35–44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or self-reported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. Results The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among non-shift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57–1.24); however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21–5.10) compared with those working 35–44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. Conclusions The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules. PMID:27001115

  8. Long Working Hours and Work-related Cerebro-cardiovascular Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901

  9. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  10. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  11. 29 CFR 778.318 - Productive and nonproductive hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Productive and nonproductive hours of work. 778.318 Section... nonproductive hours of work. (a) Failure to pay for nonproductive time worked. Some agreements provide for payment only for the hours spent in productive work; the work hours spent in waiting time, time spent...

  12. Toward a Conceptual Clarification of Employee Responses to Flexible Working Hours: A Work Adjustment Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jon L.; Newstrom, John W.

    1980-01-01

    Elaborates on a work adjustment model to explain how flexible working hours can influence employee satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, tenure, organizational commitment, and job involvement. Discusses need fulfillment, stress reduction, and the harmonization of work with human circadian rhythms. (Author/RC)

  13. A gender approach to work ability and its relationship to professional and domestic work hours among nursing personnel

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Lúcia; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Banks, Bahby; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fischer, Frida Marina; Landsbergis, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The association between working hours and work ability was examined in a cross sectional study of male (N=156) and female (N=1092) nurses in three public hospitals. Working hours were considered in terms of their professional and domestic hours per week and their combined impact; total work load. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between total work load and inadequate work ability index (WAI) for females only. Females reported a higher proportion of inadequate WAI, fewer professional work hours but longer domestic work hours. There were no significant differences in total work load by gender. The combination of professional and domestic work hours in females seemed to best explain their lower work ability. The findings suggest that investigations into female well-being need to consider their total work load. Our male sample may have lacked sufficient power to detect a relationship between working hours and work ability. PMID:18405878

  14. Factors associated with work-related fatigue and recovery in hospital nurses working 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne

    2014-10-01

    Nurse fatigue threatens both nurse and patient safety; fatigue affects nurses' neurocognitive functioning and hinders their work performance. The authors assessed the association of work and non-work factors with acute and chronic fatigue and intershift recovery among hospital nurses working 12-hour shifts. This study used survey data from 80 nurses who provided full-time direct patient care on medical-surgical and critical care units in a large teaching hospital. Psychological job demands (e.g., work load and social support from supervisor or coworker) were significantly associated with acute and chronic fatigue and intershift recovery. Rotating shifts were significantly related to acute fatigue. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to fatigue management, including organizational support to provide healthful work schedules and favorable nursing work environments, fewer psychological and physical demands, and assistance to improve nurses' sleep quality and quantity. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):409-414.]. PMID:25199168

  15. Time for Children, One's Spouse and Oneself among Parents Who Work Nonstandard Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Vanessa R.; Raley, Sara B.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys, this article examines nonstandard work hours and their relationship to parents' family, leisure and personal care time--informing the discussion of the costs and benefits of working nonstandard hours. The results suggest that parents who work nonstandard evening hours spend less time in…

  16. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.403-3 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. The Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.) requires that certain contracts (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours...

  17. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  18. Long Working Hours and Emotional Well-Being in Korean Manufacturing Industry Employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. Methods The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index, emotional state was subdivided into three groups - reference group, low-mood group, and possible depression group- where 28 points and 50 points were division points, and two groups were compared at a time. Association between long work hours and emotional state was analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Working for extended working hours in the manufacturing industry showed a statistically significant increase (t test p < 0.001) in trend among the possible depression group when compared to the reference group and the low-mood group. When demographical characteristics, health behaviors, socioeconomic state, and work-related characteristics were fixed as controlled variables, as work hours increased the odds ratio of the possible depression group increased compared to the reference group, and especially the odds ratio was 2.73 times increased for work hours between 48–52 and 4.09 times increased for 60 hours or more and both were statistically significant. In comparing the low-mood group and possible depression group, as work hours increased the odds ratio increased to 1.73, 2.39, and 4.16 times, and all work hours from working 48–52 hours, 53–60 hours, and 60 hours or more were statistically significant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis also showed that among the reference group and possible group, the possible depression group was statistically significant as odds ratio increased to 2.94 times in working 53–60 hours

  19. Training in the Context of a Reduction in Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautmann, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the increased importance of training to employers, the need to manage training time efficiently, and the impact of legislation regulated training leave in France. Finds the beginnings of a shift of training from work time to leisure time. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  20. Relationship between Work Hours and Smoking Behaviors in Korean Male Wage Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study are 1) to measure the prevalence of smoking according to weekly work hours by using data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), and 2) to explain the cause of high smoking prevalence among those with short or long work hours by relative explanatory fraction. Methods Data from a total of 2,044 male subjects who responded to the questionnaire in the 10th year (2007) and 11th year (2008) of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study were used for analysis. Current smoking, smoking cessation, continuous smoking, start of smoking, weekly work hours, occupational characteristics, sociodemographic and work-related factors, and health behavior-related variables were analyzed. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to study the relationship between weekly work hours and smoking behaviors in terms of the prevalence ratio. Results The 2008 age-adjusted smoking prevalence was 64.9% in the short work hours group, 54.7% in the reference work hours group, and 60.6% in the long work hours group. The smoking prevalence of the short work hours group was 1.39 times higher than that of the reference work hours group (95% confidence interval of 1.17-1.65), and this was explained by demographic variables and occupational characteristics. The smoking prevalence of the long work hours group was 1.11 times higher than that of the reference work hours group when the age was standardized (95% confidence interval of 1.03-1.19). This was explained by demographic variables. No independent effects of short or long work hours were found when the variables were adjusted. Conclusion Any intervention program to decrease the smoking prevalence in the short work hours group must take into account employment type, job satisfaction, and work-related factors. PMID:24472534

  1. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI), food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices. PMID:21172014

  2. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes. PMID:27223247

  3. 29 CFR 778.318 - Productive and nonproductive hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Special Problems Effect of Failure to Count Or Pay for Certain Working Hours § 778.318 Productive and... agreement setting a different rate for nonproductive hours, the employee would be owed compensation at the.... Effect of Paying for But Not Counting Certain Hours...

  4. Are Canadian general surgery residents ready for the 80-hour work week? A nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, Monisha; Hanna, Wael C.; Jamal, Mohammed H.; Nguyen, Lily H.P.; Fraser, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe Canadian general surgery residents’ perceptions regarding potential implementation of work-hour restrictions. Methods An ethics review board–approved, Web-based survey was submitted to all Canadian general surgery residency programs between April and July 2009. Questions evaluated the perceived effects of an 80-hour work week on length of training, operative exposure, learning and lifestyle. We used the Fisher exact test to compare senior and junior residents’ responses. Results Of 360 residents, 158 responded (70 seniors and 88 juniors). Among them, 79% reported working 75–100 hours per week. About 74% of seniors believed that limiting their work hours would decrease their operative exposure; 43% of juniors agreed (p < 0.001). Both seniors and juniors thought limiting their work hours would improve their lifestyle (86% v. 96%, p = 0.12). Overall, 60% of residents did not believe limiting work hours would extend the length of their training. Regarding 24-hour call, 60% of juniors thought it was hazardous to their health; 30% of seniors agreed (p = 0.001). Both senior and junior residents thought abolishing 24-hour call would decrease their operative exposure (84% v. 70%, p = 0.21). Overall, 31% of residents supported abolishing 24-hour call. About 47% of residents (41% seniors, 51% juniors, p = 0.26) agreed with the adoption of the 80-hour work week. Conclusion There is a training-level based dichotomy of opinion among general surgery residents in Canada regarding the perceived effects of work hour restrictions. Both groups have voted against abolishing 24-hour call, and neither group strongly supports the implementation of the 80-hour work week. PMID:22269303

  5. [The impact of resident work hour limitations on medical student clerkships in Spain].

    PubMed

    Lobato, R D; Fernández-Alén, J; Alday, R

    2008-06-01

    The influence of new regulations limiting residents work hours on the total time dedicated and the quality of teaching of medical students in university hospitals is analyzed. Though different studies have shown contradictory results on the possible effects of reduced-hour work week on both patients, safety and resident learning, a great concern is arising in Europe and Japan where duty-hour restriction is much more drastic than in USA (48 and 40 hours vs 80 hours, respectively). Deterioration of residents, training could also diminish the total time dedicated to and quality of medical student education. PMID:18654720

  6. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working

  7. Conservation properties of unstructured staggered mesh schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Perot, B.

    2000-03-20

    Classic Cartesian staggered mesh schemes have a number of attractive properties. They do not display spurious pressure modes and they have been shown to locally conserve, mass, momentum, kinetic energy, and circulation to machine precision. Recently, a number of generalizations of the staggered mesh approach have been proposed for unstructured (triangular or tetrahedral) meshes. These unstructured staggered mesh methods have been created to retain the attractive pressure aspects and mass conservation properties of the classic Cartesian mesh method. This work addresses the momentum, kinetic energy, and circulation conservation properties of unstructured staggered mesh methods. It is shown that with certain choices of the velocity interpolation, unstructured staggered mesh discretization of the divergence form of the Navier-Stokes equations can conserve kinetic energy and momentum both locally and globally. In addition, it is shown that unstructured staggered mesh discretization of the rotational form of the Navier-Stokes equations can conserve kinetic energy and circulation both locally and globally. The analysis includes viscous terms and a generalization of the concept of conservation in the presence of viscosity to include a negative definite dissipation term in the kinetic energy equation. These novel conserving unstructured staggered mesh schemes have not been previously analyzed. It is shown that they are first-order accurate on nonuniform two-dimensional unstructured meshes and second-order accurate on uniform unstructured meshes. Numerical confirmation of the conservation properties and the order of accuracy of these unstructured staggered mesh methods is presented.

  8. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  9. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  10. Work Hours Regulations for House Staff in Psychiatry: Bad or Good for Residency Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasminsky, Sonya; Lomonaco, Allison; Auchincloss, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The movement to limit work hours for house staff has gained momentum in recent years. The authors set out to review the literature on work hours reform, particularly as it applies to psychiatric residency training, and to provide two different viewpoints on the controversy. Methods: The authors present the historical background of work…

  11. Don't Blame the Babies: Work Hour Mismatches and the Role of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Johnson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Many authors suggest that having children leads to gaps between the number of hours people prefer to work and the hours they actually work. Existing research, however, offers mixed support for that claim. We discuss the roots of this popular but poorly supported hypothesis and offer the first review of research on the topic, paying special…

  12. New Measures of Teachers' Work Hours and Implications for Wage Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have good data on teachers' annual salaries but a hazy understanding of teachers' hours of work. This makes it difficult to calculate an accurate hourly wage and leads policy makers to default to anecdote rather than fact when debating teacher pay. Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that teachers work an average of…

  13. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  14. Balancing Work and Academics in College: Why Do Students Working 10 to 19 Hours Per Week Excel?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundes, Lauren; Marx, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Given that 74% of undergraduates work an average of 25.5 hours per week while going to school, we know surprisingly little about how off-campus employment affects undergraduates and to what extent its impact varies by the number of hours worked. Our survey of undergraduates at a small liberal arts college found that the academic performance of…

  15. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; de Vroome, Ernest; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jacob J; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Shipley, Martin J; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Dragano, Nico; Rugulies, Reiner; Kawachi, Ichiro; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working ⩾55 h per week was associated with 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval 1.12–2.29) increase in female breast cancer risk independently of age, socioeconomic position, shift- and night-time work and lifestyle factors, but this observation may have been influenced by residual confounding from parity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that working long hours is unrelated to the overall cancer risk or the risk of lung, colorectal or prostate cancers. The observed association with breast cancer would warrant further research. PMID:26889978

  16. The quantity of nursing care on wards working 8- and 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Reid, N; Robinson, G; Todd, C

    1993-10-01

    Interest in 12-hour nursing shifts has been renewed in response to demands for improved cost-effectiveness in the NHS, but the effects of this shift on the delivery of patient care have been unclear. This paper describes the results of a repeated-measures study of 10 wards, using activity analysis to describe patterns of care under an 8-hour compared to a 12-hour shift system. Significant reductions in the amount of direct patient care were found under the 12-hour shift, with corresponding increases in unofficial work-breaks. It is suggested that these findings, which were consistent over all study wards and throughout the whole 12-hour day, demonstrate a "pacing" effect by nurses who face 12 hours on duty. Such a detrimental effect should be a major consideration when coming to any decision to implement a 12-hour shift. PMID:8225806

  17. When work calls-associations between being contacted outside of regular working hours for work-related matters and health.

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2013-11-01

    Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n = 23 760). The risk of reporting ≥1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects. PMID:23898880

  18. Cognitive and Psychomotor Function Changes Among Anesthesiology Residents After 12 Working Hours in Elective Anesthesia Service

    PubMed Central

    Perdana, Aries; Nugroho, Alfan Mahdi; Ariadi, Ade; Nari Lastri, Diatri

    2016-01-01

    Background: The practice of anesthesia requires good awareness, parallel decision-making and fine motor skills. The duration of working hours of anesthesiology residents is often more than 12 hours. Objectives: This study aimed to measure cognitive and psychomotor functions of anesthesiology residents after 12 working hours. Patients and Methods: This was an observational study on anesthesiology residents who underwent 12 working hours. Each subject, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, had their cognitive and psychomotor functions tested at 0 and 12 hours. The cognitive function was measured by “Cognitive Stimulation” test, while the psychomotor function was measured by the grooved pegboard. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the results between 0 and 12 hours. Results: Cognitive Stimulation” test revealed statistically significant decrease at sequential image frequency stimulation (P = 0.035). Other stimulation tests did not show any statistically significant result. Grooved pegboard test showed statistically significant decrease in psychomotor function from 0 to 12 hours (P = 0.037). Conclusions: There was a decrease in cognitive function, including attention, visual memory, naming, and executive function, as well as psychomotor function among residents of Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, who underwent 12 working hours. PMID:27047793

  19. When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a Back Seat

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158861.html When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a ... of her job with the needs of her new baby, particularly when it comes to breast-feeding. ...

  20. When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a Back Seat

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158861.html When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a Back Seat Study found little change ... faced a 10 percent chance that they quit breast-feeding altogether by their baby's sixth month, the researchers ...

  1. Working Hours and Wishes Concerning Working Hours among Women in Western and Eastern Germany. Results of an Empirical Study from 1995. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Petra

    The actual and desired working hours of women in western and eastern Germany were examined by surveying a random sample of 6,742 western and eastern German women aged 18-65 years. Of the women interviewed, 1,800 from western Germany and 1,341 from eastern Germany were in dependent employment. An overall response rate of 52.8% was achieved.…

  2. The Relationship between Work Hours and Utilization of General Practitioners in Four Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Deshayne B; Kephart, George; Curtis, Lori J; Bower, Kelly; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Reid, Robert; Roos, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess whether long work hours act as a barrier to accessing general practitioner (GP) services. Data Sources Secondary data from the 1996/1997 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and administrative health services utilization data from four Canadian provinces. Study Design This study was cross-sectional, however, employment variables and GP utilization were reflective of the 12-month period preceding the NPHS interview date. Negative binomial regression was used to model the relationship between the number of GP visits in a 1-year period and employment-related variables while adjusting for other determinants of GP utilization including education, income, and health status. Data Extraction Methods NPHS and administrative data were linked to create an analysis file. Principal Findings Subjects with long, standard work hours (>45 hours/week, with most hours during the day) had significantly lower GP utilization rates compared with full-time workers. White-collar workers with long work hours visited a GP significantly less often than white-collar workers with regular hours. Conclusions Long work hours may act as a nonfinancial barrier to accessing GP services independent of health status. PMID:17610434

  3. Workers With Irregular Hours During Seasonal Work Surges: Promoting Healthy Sleep.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    A significant proportion of the labor force works irregular hours during harvest, summer, or holiday work surges. Unfortunately such workers are often uninformed about the importance of sleep and fatigue management. Seasonally timed worker training can improve health and safety outcomes during work surges. PMID:26941083

  4. The association between working hours and sleep disturbances according to occupation and gender.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to explore the relationship between working hours and sleep disturbance according to occupation and gender among Korean workers. Data were derived from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2011 by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. From a total of 50,032 workers, 34,783 salaried contract workers were selected. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 h/week. The outcome variable was sleep disturbance, which was assessed by a single question item (During the past 12 months, have you experienced sleep disturbance or insomnia?). Multiple survey logistic regression models were performed after adjusting with age, education level, marital status, self-rated health, salary, shift work, smoking and alcohol drinking. Gender and occupation were stratified in these models. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance in male non-manual workers with long work hours (>60 h/week) was 3.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.956-4.653]. In female non-manual workers who work 49-60 working hour per week, the OR was 1.525 (95% CI 1.034-2.249). Long working hours can be a risk factor for sleep disturbance in Korean workers. The association was especially prominent in male non-manual workers. PMID:26317888

  5. The impact of reduced working hours on surgical training in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend for reduced working hours for doctors, particularly in the developed western countries. This has been led by the introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) that has had a significant impact on work patterns and training. Australia currently has a more flexible working environment but this is changing. In New Zealand there is a contract for resident doctors defining a maximum 72 h of rostered work per week. PMID:21550001

  6. Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension.
DESIGN—A five year prospective cohort study.
SETTING—Work site in Osaka, Japan.
PARTICIPANTS—941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension.
MAIN RESULTS—336 and 88 men developed hypertension above the borderline level and definite hypertension during the 3940 and 4531 person years, respectively. After controlling for potential predictors of hypertension, the relative risk for hypertension above the borderline level, compared with those who worked < 8.0 hours per day, was 0.63 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.43, 0.91) for those who worked 10.0-10.9 hours per day and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.74) for those who worked ⩾ 11.0 hours per day. The relative risk for definite hypertension, compared with those who worked < 8.0 hours per day, was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.95) for those who worked ⩾ 11.0 hours per day. The multivariate adjusted slopes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) during five years of follow up decreased as working hours per day increased. From the multiple regression analyses, working hours per day remained as an independent negative factor for the slopes of systolic blood pressure, DBP, and MABP.
CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.


Keywords: hypertension; longitudinal study; working hours PMID:11297649

  7. The Not-so-Staggering Effect of Staggered Animated Transitions on Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Fanny; Dragicevic, Pierre; Franconeri, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Interactive visual applications often rely on animation to transition from one display state to another. There are multiple animation techniques to choose from, and it is not always clear which should produce the best visual correspondences between display elements. One major factor is whether the animation relies on staggering-an incremental delay in start times across the moving elements. It has been suggested that staggering may reduce occlusion, while also reducing display complexity and producing less overwhelming animations, though no empirical evidence has demonstrated these advantages. Work in perceptual psychology does show that reducing occlusion, and reducing inter-object proximity (crowding) more generally, improves performance in multiple object tracking. We ran simulations confirming that staggering can in some cases reduce crowding in animated transitions involving dot clouds (as found in, e.g., animated 2D scatterplots). We empirically evaluated the effect of two staggering techniques on tracking tasks, focusing on cases that should most favour staggering. We found that introducing staggering has a negligible, or even negative, impact on multiple object tracking performance. The potential benefits of staggering may be outweighed by strong costs: a loss of common-motion grouping information about which objects travel in similar paths, and less predictability about when any specific object would begin to move. Staggering may be beneficial in some conditions, but they have yet to be demonstrated. The present results are a significant step toward a better understanding of animation pacing, and provide direction for further research. PMID:26356938

  8. Surveying the Impact of Work Hours and Schedules on Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Hege, Adam; Perko, Michael; Johnson, Amber; Yu, Chong Ho; Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the long hours on the road involving multiple and interacting work stressors (i.e., delivery pressures, irregular shifts, ergonomic hazards), commercial drivers face a plethora of health and safety risks. Researchers goal was to determine whether and to what extent long-haul trucker work schedules influence sleep duration and quality. Methods Survey and biometric data collected from male long-haul truck drivers at a major truckstop in central North Carolina over a six month period. Results Daily hours worked (mean = 11 hours, 55 minutes) and frequency of working over government-mandated daily HOS regulations (23.8% “frequently or always”) were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. Miles driven per week (mean = 2,812.61), irregular daily hours worked (63.8%), and frequency of working over the daily hour limit (23.8% “frequently or always”) were statistically significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusion Implications of findings suggest a comprehensive review of the regulations and operational conditions for commercial motor vehicle drivers be undertaken. PMID:26106509

  9. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  10. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents’ Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents’ time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers’ workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work. PMID:25960588

  11. Musculoskeletal pain and insomnia among workers with different occupations and working hours.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Claudia R C; Lowden, Arne; Vasconcelos, Suleima; Marqueze, Elaine C

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether working hours and type of occupation are associated with insomnia, pain and insomnia plus pain. Insomnia and musculoskeletal pain symptoms were measured in airline pilots, rural workers and factory workers using validated indexes. Rural and night work were predictors for the outcomes (insomnia and pain). However, musculoskeletal pain was found to be a predictor of insomnia but not vice versa. The current findings suggest that working hours and type of occupation play a role in the sleep-pain relationship. PMID:27088881

  12. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J.; Biddle, Stuart J.H.; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m2). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p < 0.001), and during working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p < 0.001) on workdays. Drivers spent less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26844184

  13. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Clemes, Stacy A

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p < 0.001), and during working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p < 0.001) on workdays. Drivers spent less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26844184

  14. Taking Pressure off Families: Child-Care Subsidies Lessen Mothers' Work-Hour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Julie E.; Fagan, Jay; Laughlin, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    We use the Philadelphia Survey of Child Care and Work to model the effect of child-care subsidies and other ecological demands and resources on the work hour, shift, and overtime problems of 191 low-income urban mothers. Comparing subsidy applicants who do and do not receive cash payments for child care, we find that mothers who receive subsidies…

  15. Employees' use of social media for private reasons during working hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to find out: Whether Icelandic organizations allowed open access to social media (SM), whether the respondents used SM for private reasons during working hours, which SM they used, how much time they devoted to such use, and what was the attitude of managers and the employees themselves towards such use. The respondents were asked to disclose whether they worked in the private or the public sector and the type of organization that they worked for. This was a two-dimensional study: A questionnaire sent to an internet panel and a telephone survey both based on a random sample selected from the National Registry in February 2013. A similar study has not been performed in Iceland before. Foreign studies of the same nature are not known, only related research. The main findings were that about half of the organizations allowed open access to SM, just below 50% of respondents took advantage of SM for personal use during working hours and the great majority used Facebook. Employees used a considerable part of their working hours for personal use of SM. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that managers objected to the use of SM during working hours and a larger majority believed that such use of themselves was unacceptable. The survey adds valuable information for a better understanding of the status of SM at places of work. The results could be of value to organizations that want to evaluate the pros and cons of SM for the organization.

  16. Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

    1997-06-01

    The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the

  17. Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

    1997-01-01

    The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the

  18. US public opinion regarding proposed limits on resident physician work hours

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In both Europe and the US, resident physician work hour reduction has been a source of controversy within academic medicine. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended a reduction in resident physician work hours. We sought to assess the American public perspective on this issue. Methods We conducted a national survey of 1,200 representative members of the public via random digit telephone dialing in order to describe US public opinion on resident physician work hour regulation, particularly with reference to the IOM recommendations. Results Respondents estimated that resident physicians currently work 12.9-h shifts (95% CI 12.5 to 13.3 h) and 58.3-h work weeks (95% CI 57.3 to 59.3 h). They believed the maximum shift duration should be 10.9 h (95% CI 10.6 to 11.3 h) and the maximum work week should be 50 h (95% CI 49.4 to 50.8 h), with 1% approving of shifts lasting >24 h (95% CI 0.6% to 2%). A total of 81% (95% CI 79% to 84%) believed reducing resident physician work hours would be very or somewhat effective in reducing medical errors, and 68% (95% CI 65% to 71%) favored the IOM proposal that resident physicians not work more than 16 h over an alternative IOM proposal permitting 30-h shifts with ≥5 h protected sleep time. In all, 81% believed patients should be informed if a treating resident physician had been working for >24 h and 80% (95% CI 78% to 83%) would then want a different doctor. Conclusions The American public overwhelmingly favors discontinuation of the 30-h shifts without protected sleep routinely worked by US resident physicians and strongly supports implementation of restrictions on resident physician work hours that are as strict, or stricter, than those proposed by the IOM. Strong support exists to restrict resident physicians' work to 16 or fewer consecutive hours, similar to current limits in New Zealand, the UK and the rest of Europe. PMID:20515479

  19. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. Methods We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Results Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose–response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. Conclusions The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism. PMID:24661575

  20. Business process improvement: an electronic system to monitor compliance with medical resident work hours.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Linda Young; Markowitz, Forest; Conde, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The limitation of medical intern and resident work hours, known as the Bell 405 regulations, was initiated in New York State in 1989 with a modification to the state hospital code. The Bell 405 regulations were strengthened in 2000, and facilities would now be fined for noncompliance. Monitoring systems in place at that time were insufficient to provide an adequate level of review for the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) with more than 7,000 medical residents whose training is based at or who rotate through these public hospitals. A "simple to use," yet comprehensive, method of monitoring compliance needed to be developed to ensure that residents and interns complied with laws regulating working hours. The subsequent development of national accreditation standards increased the stakes for reliable scrutiny. HHC developed and implemented a Web-based Structured Query Language (SQL) application that facilitated easy access to work hour surveys captured through electronic time sheets. The time sheet data automatically entered a database that provided instant analysis of conformance to state law. The development of an electronic on-line application accessible from anywhere allowed HHC to efficiently identify nonconformance and pinpoint corrective action. Since the inception of the application and its expansion allowing access through the intranet, 26,000 individual time sheets have been submitted for evaluation. With the national movement regulating work hours, other hospitals still at the pencil and manual computation stage would greatly benefit by developing a similar application. PMID:20150790

  1. The Determinants of Hours of Work of Low-Income Family Heads: A Statistical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Carl Dean

    The purpose of this dissertation is to estimate the relation between hours worked and sources and levels of income as well as other market and personal factors for selected groups of low-income family heads grouped into four categories conforming to expected welfare eligibility requirements. Multivariate least-squares regression techniques…

  2. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  3. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year observations).…

  4. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard. PMID:26334800

  5. 29 CFR 778.412 - Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours employee may be expected to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employee may be expected to work. 778.412 Section 778.412 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... employee may be expected to work. While the guaranteed pay may not cover more than 60 hours, the contract... contract for an employee whose duties necessitate irregular hours of work, the number of hours for...

  6. Residents' working hours in a consortium-wide surgical education program.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vijay; Salem, Madhavi; Tyburski, James; Brocato, Joseph; Lloyd, Larry; Silva, Yvan; Silbergleit, Allen; Shanley, Charles; Remine, Stephen

    2004-02-01

    Traditional work schedules of surgical residents have been cited as a factor that negatively influences education and the quality of patient care. Demands by federal and state legislators as well as the general public have forced a re-evaluation of the issue. Long working hours and resulting sleep deprivation affect the lives of residents profoundly, but the question remains does it lower the quality of medical care? The justification for the long hours is that they are vital to medical education, but residents are so drained by their schedules that they are rarely in the best state of mind to learn from their experiences. Under the scrutiny of the Resident Review Committee (RRC), many programs and institutions have been cited in the recent past in violation of resident working hour requirements. As a result, many institutions have implemented reforms, thereby reducing the number of citations they received. In spite of having the highest number of citations, the field of general surgery has failed to show any improvement. The Oakland Health Education Programme Center for Medical Education (OHEP), a consortium of 16 teaching hospitals in the State of Michigan, set out to review the components of general surgery residency training in order to be able to make recommendations that might assist program directors in making appropriate changes where necessary to enhance resident education and the quality of patient care as well as to meet the personal demands of residents. Questionnaires on residents' attitudes concerning their working hours and possible reforms were sent to all general surgery residency programs in the OHEP consortium. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions divided into three major sections: the first section encompassed demographic information including current work hours and on-call schedules. The second section consisted of questions relating to attitudes toward work hours and the options for change. The third section consisted of questions that

  7. Decreasing the Hours That Anesthesiologists and Nurse Anesthetists Work Late by Making Decisions to Reduce the Hours of Over-Utilized Operating Room Time.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    In this special article, we evaluate how to reduce the number of hours that anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists work beyond the end of their scheduled shifts. We limit consideration to surgical suites where the hours of cases in each operating room (OR) average 8 hours or more per day. Let "allocated hours" refer to the hours into which cases are scheduled, calculated months in advance for each combination of service and day of the week. Over-Utilized time is the OR workload exceeding allocated time. Reducing Over-Utilized time is the key to reducing the hours that anesthesia providers work late. Certain decisions that reduce Over-Utilized time and reduce the hours that anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists work late are made by the surgical committee or perioperative medical director months in advance. Such decisions include increasing the number of first case starts and planning staffing for turnovers and lunch breaks during the busiest times of the day. However, most decisions substantively influencing Over-Utilized OR time are made within 1 workday before the day of surgery and on the day of surgery, because only then are ORs sufficiently full that changes can be made to minimize Over-Utilized time. Decisions to reduce Over-Utilized time on the day of surgery include targeting ORs with expected Over-Utilized time and taking steps to reduce it, including making effective staff assignments and appropriately scheduling add-on cases. PMID:26891395

  8. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety.

    PubMed

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine's report, entitled "Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety", published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation's teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release, discussion of the

  9. Making sense: duty hours, work flow, and waste in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Bush, Roger W; Philibert, Ingrid

    2009-12-01

    Parsimony, and not industry, is the immediate cause of the increase of capital. Industry, indeed, provides the subject which parsimony accumulates. But whatever industry might acquire, if parsimony did not save and store up, the capital would never be the greater.Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, book 2, chapter 31In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented resident duty hour limits that included a weekly limit and limits on continuous hours. Recent recommendations for added reductions in resident duty hours have produced concern about concomitant reductions in future graduates' preparedness for independent practice. The current debate about resident hours largely does not consider whether all hours residents spend in the educational and clinical-care environment contribute meaningfully either to residents' learning or to effective patient care. This may distract the community from waste in the current clinical-education model. We propose that use of "lean production" and quality improvement methods may assist teaching institutions in attaining a deeper understanding of work flow and waste. These methods can be used to assign value to patient- and learner-centered activities and outputs and to optimize the competing and synergistic aspects of all desired outcomes to produce the care the Institute of Medicine recommends: safe, effective, efficient, patient-centered, timely, and equitable. Finally, engagement of senior clinical faculty in determining the culture of the care and education system will contribute to an advanced social-learning and care network. PMID:21976000

  10. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (<40 years vs. ≥40 years). Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%). We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16) for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged <40 years. Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers. PMID:22651100

  11. The Effect of the Children's Health Insurance Program on Pediatricians' Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    He, Fang; White, Chapin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study examines changes in physicians' work hours in response to a coverage expansion. Methods We use as a natural experiment the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which was established in 1997 and significantly expanded children's eligibility for public health insurance coverage. The magnitude of the CHIP expansion varied across states and over time, allowing its effects to be identified using a state-year fixed effects model. We focus on pediatricians, and we measure their self-reported work hours using multiple waves (pre- and post-CHIP) of the physician survey component of the Community Tracking Study. To address endogeneity concerns, we instrument for CHIP enrollment using key program features (income eligibility cutoffs and waiting times). Results We find a large negative relationship between the magnitude of a state's CHIP expansion and trends in pediatricians' work hours. This relationship could be due to key supply-side features of CHIP, including relatively low provider reimbursements and heavy use of managed care tools. PMID:24753962

  12. Long Working Hours and Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jokela, Markus; Ferrie, Jane E.; Batty, G. David; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    The authors aggregated the results of observational studies examining the association between long working hours and coronary heart disease (CHD). Data sources used were MEDLINE (through January 19, 2011) and Web of Science (through March 14, 2011). Two investigators independently extracted results from eligible studies. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using the I2 statistic, and the possibility of publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and Egger's test for small-study effects. Twelve studies were identified (7 case-control, 4 prospective, and 1 cross-sectional). For a total of 22,518 participants (2,313 CHD cases), the minimally adjusted relative risk of CHD for long working hours was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42, 2.29), and in the maximally (multivariate-) adjusted analysis the relative risk was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.23, 2.07). The 4 prospective studies produced a relative risk of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.72), while the corresponding relative risk in the 7 case-control studies was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.26). Little evidence of publication bias but relatively large heterogeneity was observed. Studies varied in size, design, measurement of exposure and outcome, and adjustments. In conclusion, results from prospective observational studies suggest an approximately 40% excess risk of CHD in employees working long hours. PMID:22952309

  13. Work-Family Supportiveness Organizational Perceptions: Important for the Well-Being of Male Blue-Collar Hourly Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandey, Alicia A.; Cordeiro, Bryanne L.; Michael, Judd H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study questions whether organizational perceptions of family supportiveness predict work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction for an atypical sample of male hourly workers in a manufacturing organization, and whether those relationships depend on work (number of work hours) and family (number of family roles) demands. A…

  14. Effect of work-hour restrictions and resident turnover in orthopedic trauma.

    PubMed

    Aynardi, Michael; Miller, Adam G; Orozco, Fabio; Ong, Alvin

    2012-11-01

    The resident 80-hour workweek and the July phenomenon have raised concern regarding the continuity of care of orthopedic patients in teaching institutions and its effect on postoperative complications and mortality. This study examined the effect of resident work-hour restrictions and the July phenomenon on patient outcomes after hip fracture at a large academic institution. Seven hundred twenty-two patients (mean age, 76.7 years) sustaining 319 femoral neck fractures and 403 intertrochanteric fractures between 2000 and 2010 were identified. Analysis was performed before and after July 1, 2003, as well as for the month of treatment. No difference existed in the postoperative outcome measures of delay of surgery (P=.061), complications (P=.904), and mortality (P=.981) between patients treated before and after July 1, 2003. Patients treated after July 1, 2003, had a significantly higher median number of preoperative comorbidities (4 vs 3, respectively; P<.0005). Turnover months, July and August, showed no difference in the outcome measures of delay of surgery (P=.171), complications (P=.776), and mortality (P=.524) compared with other months. This study suggests that 80-hour workweek restrictions or resident turnover months have no effect on patient care with respect to in-hospital time to surgery, complications, and mortality. This success can be attributed to ancillary staff support, physician extenders, and well-designed patient care protocols. PMID:23127459

  15. Fragmented care in the era of limited work hours: a plea for an explicit handover curriculum.

    PubMed

    Wohlauer, Max

    2012-12-01

    The current challenge in surgical residency education, preserving a sense of accountability in an era of limited work hours and multiple transitions of care, can be accomplished through the promotion of effective handovers. Approaches include increasing the transparency of handovers, enhancing the 'situational awareness' of individuals involved, and incorporating narratives and social interactions, and expanding common ground among professionals who collectively have responsibility for patient care. Done well, handovers can preserve the physician-patient relationship and provide a continuity bridge during a vulnerable time for patients. PMID:23173183

  16. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation’s teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release

  17. Wages, Hours Of Work and Overtime Pay Provisions in Selected Industries, Ontario, April 1974. Employment Information Series No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Labour, Toronto. Research Branch.

    A survey was undertaken to obtain information on a number of working conditions including straight-time hourly earnings, weekly hours of work, and initial overtime provisions for nonsupervisory employees in selected Ontario industries. The purpose of the survey was to obtain data that would permit an assessment of the direct impact of proposed…

  18. The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dembe, A; Erickson, J; Delbos, R; Banks, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the impact of overtime and extended working hours on the risk of occupational injuries and illnesses among a nationally representative sample of working adults from the United States. Methods: Responses from 10 793 Americans participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to evaluate workers' job histories, work schedules, and occurrence of occupational injury and illness between 1987 and 2000. A total of 110 236 job records were analysed, encompassing 89 729 person-years of accumulated working time. Aggregated incidence rates in each of five exposure categories were calculated for each NLSY survey period. Multivariate analytical techniques were used to estimate the relative risk of long working hours per day, extended hours per week, long commute times, and overtime schedules on reporting a work related injury or illness, after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, industry, and region. Results: After adjusting for those factors, working in jobs with overtime schedules was associated with a 61% higher injury hazard rate compared to jobs without overtime. Working at least 12 hours per day was associated with a 37% increased hazard rate and working at least 60 hours per week was associated with a 23% increased hazard rate. A strong dose-response effect was observed, with the injury rate (per 100 accumulated worker-years in a particular schedule) increasing in correspondence to the number of hours per day (or per week) in the workers' customary schedule. Conclusions: Results suggest that job schedules with long working hours are not more risky merely because they are concentrated in inherently hazardous industries or occupations, or because people working long hours spend more total time "at risk" for a work injury. Strategies to prevent work injuries should consider changes in scheduling practices, job redesign, and health protection programmes for people working in jobs involving overtime and extended hours. PMID

  19. How to increase the burden on trauma centers: implement the 80-hour work week.

    PubMed

    Schroeppel, Thomas J; Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2014-07-01

    The 80-hour week was implemented in 2003 to improve outcomes and limit errors. We hypothesize that there has been no change in outcomes postimplementation of the restrictions. Outcomes were queried from the trauma registry from 1997 to 2002 (PRE) and 2004 to 2009 (POST). Primary outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and length of stay (LOS). Patients were stratified based on demographics, blood pressure, heart rate, and injury severity (Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, base deficit). Outcomes were then compared PRE with POST. A total of 41,770 patients were admitted during the study period. The mean age was 38 years with most being male (73%) and blunt mechanism (78%). Although patients admitted in the POST period had a slightly higher blood pressure, they were older and had higher injury severity. ICU LOS, LOS, self-pay, and mortality were higher in the POST period. After adjusted analysis, admission in the POST period was no longer a predictor of mortality (odds ratio, 1.02; confidence interval, 0.92 to 1.14). Whereas patients were more slightly more injured in the POST period, the adjusted analysis shows no difference in mortality and both a longer LOS and ICU LOS. Whether the increase is the result of more severe injury in the POST period or less efficient disposition remains to be elucidated. This study adds to the mounting evidence that the implementation of the limits on work hours does not lead to better outcomes. PMID:24987896

  20. 29 CFR 794.142 - Special compensation when overtime in excess of 12 daily or 56 weekly hours is worked in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by section 7(b)(3) for hours in excess of 40, and works 60 hours in a workweek in which 10 of his... compensation in the amount of $80 for 40 hours of work and in the amount of $48 for the 20 additional hours... employee in a workweek when his hours worked do not exceed 56 in the week; and for all weekly...

  1. Incentives and Effort in the Public Sector: Have US Education Reforms Increased Teachers' Work Hours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Christiana; Kuhn, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Beyond some contracted minimum, salaried workers' hours are largely chosen at the worker's discretion and should respond to the strength of contract incentives. Accordingly, we consider the response of teacher hours to accountability and school choice laws introduced in US public schools over the past two decades. Total weekly hours of full-time…

  2. Work Hours and Self rated Health of Hospital Doctors in Norway and Germany. A comparative study on national samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between extended work hours and health is well documented among hospital doctors, but the effect of national differences in work hours on health is unexplored. The study examines the relationship between work hours and self rated health in two national samples of hospital doctors. Methods The study population consisted of representative samples of 1,260 German and 562 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 25-65 years (N = 1,822) who received postal questionnaires in 2006 (Germany) and 2008 (Norway). The questionnaires contained items on demography, work hours (number of hours per workday and on-call per month) and self rated subjective health on a five point scale - dichotomized into "good" (above average) and "average or below". Results Compared to Norway, a significantly higher proportion of German doctors exceeded a 9 hour work day (58.8% vs. 26.7%) and 60 hours on-call per month (63.4% vs. 18.3%). Every third (32.2%) hospital doctor in Germany worked more than this, while this pattern was rare in Norway (2.9%). In a logistic regression model, working in Norway (OR 4.17; 95% CI 3.02-5.73), age 25-44 years (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.29-2.14) and not exceeding 9 hour work day and 60 hours on-call per month (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03-1.77) were all independent significant predictors of good self reported health. Conclusion A lower percentage of German hospital doctors reported self rated health as "good", which is partly explained by the differences in work time pattern. Initiatives to increase doctors' control over their work time are recommended. PMID:21338494

  3. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Compensation Rules § 553.230 Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For... 28 consecutive days, no overtime compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number...

  4. 29 CFR 790.5 - Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF... Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked. (a) In the application of the...

  5. 29 CFR 790.5 - Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF... Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked. (a) In the application of the...

  6. 29 CFR 790.5 - Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF... Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked. (a) In the application of the...

  7. 29 CFR 790.5 - Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF... Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked. (a) In the application of the...

  8. Cascadia's Staggering Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Vogt, B.

    2001-05-01

    Recent worldwide earthquakes have resulted in staggering losses. The Northridge, California; Kobe, Japan; Loma Prieta, California; Izmit, Turkey; Chi-Chi, Taiwan; and Bhuj, India earthquakes, which range from magnitudes 6.7 to 7.7, have all occurred near populated areas. These earthquakes have resulted in estimated losses between \\3 and \\300 billion, with tens to tens of thousands of fatalities. Subduction zones are capable of producing the largest earthquakes. The 1939 M7.8 Chilean, the 1960 M9.5 Chilean, the 1964 M9.2 Alaskan, the 1970 M7.8 Peruvian, the 1985 M7.9 Mexico City and the 2001 M7.7 Bhuj earthquakes are damaging subduction zone quakes. The Cascadia fault zone poses a tremendous hazard in the Pacific Northwest due to the ground shaking and tsunami inundation hazards combined with the population. To address the Cascadia subduction zone threat, the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries conducted a preliminary statewide loss study. The 1998 Oregon study incorporated a M8.5 quake, the influence of near surface soil effects and default building, social and economic data available in FEMA's HAZUS97 software. Direct financial losses are projected at over \\$12 billion. Casualties are estimated at about 13,000. Over 5,000 of the casualties are estimated to result in fatalities from hazards relating to tsunamis and unreinforced masonry buildings.

  9. Long working hours and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.; Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Marmot, Michael G.; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Background Although long working hours are common in working populations, little is known about the effect of long working hours on mental health. Method We examined the association between long working hours and onset of depressive and anxiety symptoms in middle-aged employees. Participants were 2960 full-time employees aged 44 to 66 (2248 men, 712 women) from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study of British civil servants. Working hours, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and covariates were measured at baseline (1997–1999) followed by two subsequent measurements of depressive and anxiety symptoms (2001 and 2002–2004). Results In prospective analysis of participants with no depressive symptoms (n=2549) or anxiety symptoms (n=2618) at baseline, Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for baseline covariates showed a 1.66-fold (95% CI 1.06–2.61) risk of depressive symptoms and a 1.74-fold (1.15–2.61) risk of anxiety symptoms among employees working more than 55 hours a week compared with employees working 35–40 hours a week. Sex-stratified analysis showed an excess risk of depression and anxiety associated with long working hours among women [hazard ratios 2.67 (1.07–6.68) and 2.84 (1.27–6.34)] but not men [1.30 (0.77–2.19) and 1.43 (0.89–2.30)]. Conclusions Working long hours is a risk factor for development of depressive and anxiety symptoms in women. PMID:21329557

  10. 29 CFR 5.15 - Limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under the Contract Work Hours and Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trainee's regular duties. (d) Variations. (1) In the event of failure or refusal of the contractor or any... Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act by virtue of failure to pay the overtime wages required...

  11. Long working hours and health in Europe: Gender and welfare state differences in a context of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Benavides, Fernando G; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Vargas, Hernán; Borrell, Carme

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the relationship between moderately long working hours and health status in Europe. A cross-sectional study based on data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (13,518 men and 9381 women) was performed. Working moderately long hours was consistently associated with poor health status and poor psychological wellbeing in countries with traditional family models, in both sexes in Liberal countries and primarily among women in Continental and Southern European countries. A combination of economic vulnerability, increasing labour market deregulation and work overload related to the combination of job and domestic work could explain these findings. PMID:27341274

  12. Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project: Off Base 10, Working with Hours, Minutes, Seconds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Fern S.; Kingston, Neldon

    Developed by the Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project, the manual presents an instructional program to teach mainstreamed handicapped elementary school students how to tell and compute time in terms of hours, minutes, and seconds. In addition to the basic time facts, the lessons cover carrying or borrowing with off-base-10 time facts, and…

  13. Long working hours and occupational stress-related cardiovascular attacks among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehata, T

    1991-12-01

    Two hundred and three Karoshi victims who suffered cardiovascular attacks and for whom workers' compensations was claimed were surveyed. These cases were 196 males and 7 females in middle age, and comprised 123 strokes, 50 acute cardiac failures, 27 myocardial infarctions and 4 aortic ruptures. As a sociomedical background, it was shown that two-thirds of them were working for long hours such as more than 60 hr per week, more than 50 hr overtime per month, or more than half of their fixed holidays before the attack. Moreover, among the white-collar workers, these long working hours were accompanied with other stressful work issues such as career problems, excessive business trips, strident norms, and changes of work places; among the blue-collar workers, they were accompanied with those such as irregular midnight work, insufficient manpower and long-distance driving, etc. On the other hand, eighty-eight cases of them experienced several minor and sudden events including work-related emotional anxiety or excitement, rapid increase of workload, unexpected work trouble or environmental changes of work places anticipated at least within 24 hr directly before the attack. It was concluded that Karoshi, meaning fatal attacks by overload, was one of the work-related diseases mainly triggered by long working hours. PMID:1842961

  14. Working Long Hours is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Diabetes in Urban Male Chinese Workers: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage  = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (<45, 45-54 and ≥55), and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted with diabetes as the dependent variable. Subjects with a HbA1c of 6.5% or above or those prescribed anti-diabetic medications were defined as having diabetes. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio for having diabetes was found to be significantly higher for those who worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked <45 h per week, but only for men. This finding indicates that working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. PMID:24789310

  15. Schedule Control, Supervisor Support and Work Engagement: A Winning Combination for Workers in Hourly Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; McKechnie, Sharon P.; Ojha, Mamta U.; James, Jacquelyn B.

    2011-01-01

    The changing natures of both work and the lives of the U.S. workforce have created an array of challenges for organizations attempting to foster work engagement. To accommodate the work and family needs of an increasingly diverse workforce, many firms are offering flexible work solutions to employees. However, the distribution of these types of…

  16. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original] PMID:26995870

  17. Changing work ethic and welfare dependence through welfare reform. The 100-hour rule waiver experiment for AFDC-U.

    PubMed

    Lewin, A C

    2001-06-01

    Assumptions about welfare dependency and work are examined in a randomized experiment that tested the impact of the 100-hour rule waiver for two-parent welfare families: Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Unemployed (AFDC-U). The 100-hour rule was waived for the experiment group, allowing the primary wage earners in these families to work more than 100 hours a month without losing welfare eligibility. The analysis uses county administrative data, unemployment insurance records, and Medicaid data, and compares regression adjusted least squares means for the control and experiment group. The results from the impact analysis indicate that waiving the 100-hour rule has no effect on primary wage earners' work activity and earnings. The 100-hour rule waiver also has little effect on time on aid and AFDC-U payments, and does not have an effect in reducing marital dissolution. The results cast doubts about the validity of the assumptions underlying some of the recent welfare reform initiatives. PMID:11393872

  18. Cardiovascular effects of social support in the work place: twenty-four-hour ECG monitoring of men and women.

    PubMed

    Undén, A L; Orth-Gomér, K; Elofsson, S

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demand, work control, and social support at work, have been shown to be related to the development of coronary heart disease in epidemiological studies. However, the mechanisms which mediate the social and psychological effects on the cardiovascular system are not known. We have studied the direct cardiovascular effects of psychosocial work environment characteristics in 148 working men and women, representing seven different occupational groups (physicians, teachers, musicians, policemen, train engineers, prison personnel, and saw mill workers). Besides standardized measures of work demand, work control, and social support, ambulatory 24-hour monitoring of electrocardiograms in the customary work and home environment was performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured as well as other standard physiologic risk factors for coronary heart disease. Mean heart rates were found to be significantly higher in persons reporting low social support at work. This effect was maintained during working hours as well as during leisure time and rest. Of the other related physiologic risk factors, systolic, but not diastolic blood pressure was found to be higher in persons reporting low social support. Smoking, alcohol consumption and relative body mass index were not related to social support at work. Controlling for age, sex and physical strain at work, strengthened the association of low social support with elevated heart rates. PMID:2011650

  19. The transition to parenthood and well-being: the impact of partner status and work hour transitions.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Renske; Dykstra, Pearl A; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2010-08-01

    Using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study for 338 women and 262 men, we examine the consequences of making the transition to parenthood for life satisfaction, loneliness, positive affect, negative affect, and partnership satisfaction. We extend previous work by taking transitions in partner status and work hours into account. Results show a moderate impact of becoming a parent on well-being. In so far as effects of making the transition to parenthood emerge, they are attributable to changes in partner status and work hours. First, the decrease in negative affect upon making the transition to motherhood is attributable to the group of women who increase their working hours. Second, the detrimental impact of making the transition to motherhood on partnership satisfaction is attributable to the group of new mothers who quit their job. Third, the detrimental impact of making the transition to fatherhood on loneliness is attributable to the group of new fathers who become married. There is one exception to this pattern of partner status and work hours as mechanisms for changes in well-being. Men who become fathers remain less satisfied with their partnership, even when transitions in partner status and work hours have been taken into account. In the discussion-section, we consider the possible underestimation of negative effects because of the focus on the continuously partnered. We also reflect on our results in the light of the high incidence of part-time work in the Netherlands and Dutch policies aimed at supporting new parents. PMID:20731489

  20. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  1. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  2. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  3. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  4. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  5. Cross-National Differences in the Association between Parental Work Hours and Time with Children in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses…

  6. Have restricted working hours reduced junior doctors’ experience of fatigue? A focus group and telephone interview study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Carter, Madeline; Illing, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of the UK Working Time Regulations (WTR) on trainee doctors’ experience of fatigue. Design Qualitative study involving focus groups and telephone interviews, conducted in Spring 2012 with doctors purposively selected from Foundation and specialty training. Final compliance with a 48 h/week limit had been required for trainee doctors since August 2009. Framework analysis of data. Setting 9 deaneries in all four UK nations; secondary care. Participants 82 doctors: 53 Foundation trainees and 29 specialty trainees. 36 participants were male and 46 female. Specialty trainees were from a wide range of medical and surgical specialties, and psychiatry. Results Implementation of the WTR, while acknowledged as an improvement to the earlier situation of prolonged excessive hours, has not wholly overcome experience of long working hours and fatigue. Fatigue did not only arise from the hours that were scheduled, but also from an unpredictable mixture of shifts, work intensity (which often resulted in educational tasks being taken home) and inadequate rest. Fatigue was also caused by trainees working beyond their scheduled hours, for reasons such as task completion, accessing additional educational opportunities beyond scheduled hours and staffing shortages. There were also organisational, professional and cultural drivers, such as a sense of responsibility to patients and colleagues and the expectations of seniors. Fatigue was perceived to affect efficiency of skills and judgement, mood and learning capacity. Conclusions Long-term risks of continued stress and fatigue, for doctors and for the effective delivery of a healthcare service, should not be ignored. Current monitoring processes do not reflect doctors’ true working patterns. The effectiveness of the WTR cannot be considered in isolation from the culture and context of the workplace. On-going attention needs to be paid to broader cultural issues, including the relationship between

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them...

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 5.5(a)(3) implementing the Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute. (2) The Contractor and its... laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to work over... basic payroll records for all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them...

  11. A Case-Crossover Study of Sleep and Work Hours and the Risk of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Francesca; Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Marchetti, Riccardo; Sbrojavacca, Rodolfo; Barbone, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleepiness, prolonged wakefulness, and extended work hours have been associated with increased risk of injuries and road accidents. The authors' objective was to study the relation between those factors and road accidents using a case-crossover design, effective in estimating the risk of acute events associated with transient, short effect exposures. Design: Five hundred seventy-four injured drivers presenting for care after road accidents to the Emergency Room of Udine, Italy, were enrolled in the study from March 2007 to March 2008. Sleep, work, and driving patterns in the 48 h before the accident were assessed through an interview. Measurements and Results: The relative risk (RR) of accident associated with each exposure was estimated using the case-crossover matched pair interval approach. Sleeping ≥ 11 h daily was associated with a decrease of the RR, as was sleeping less than usual. Being awake ≥ 16 h and, possibly, working > 12 h daily were associated with increases in the RR. Conclusions: Extended work hours and prolonged wakefulness increase the risk of road accidents and suggest that awareness should be raised among drivers. The findings regarding acute sleep amount are less clear, possibly due to an effect of chronic sleep loss. Citation: Valent F; Di Bartolomeo S; Marchetti R; Sbrojavacca R; Barbone F. A case-crossover study of sleep and work hours and the risk of road traffic accidents. SLEEP 2010;33(3):349-354. PMID:20337193

  12. Determinants of work hours among a cohort of male and female farmers 50 years and older in Kentucky and South Carolina (2002-2005).

    PubMed

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Browning, Steven R; Reed, Deborah B; Charnigo, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The average age of United States farmers has been increasing for 20 years. The objective is to examine the factors associated with hours worked among farmers age 50 and older. A cohort of Kentucky and South Carolina farmers (n = 1394) over age 50 were surveyed annually during 2002-2005. Of those that reported any farm work, males worked 24 mean hours/week and females worked 14 mean hours/week. Greater satisfaction and more experience farming, increased acreage, and presence of animals significantly increased estimated hours farmed, whereas chronic health problems, although prevalent, had a minor role in determining work hours. PMID:21728868

  13. When Twenty-Four Hours Is Not Enough: Time Poverty of Working Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Andrew S.; Mukhopadhyay, Arun K.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals can be money poor, time poor or both. While income is the most used indicator of poverty, broader indexes including non-monetary aspects of deprivation have been proposed and measured. As one such measure, our study focuses on the element of deprivation arising from the time deficit of many working people. The usual poverty threshold…

  14. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  15. Maternal Work Hours and Adolescents' School Outcomes among Low-Income Families in Four Urban Counties. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #07-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennetian, Lisa A.; Lopoo, Leonard M.; London, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how changes in maternal work hours affect adolescent children's school participation and performance outcomes using data from interviews in 1998 and 2001 with 1,700 women who in May 1995 were welfare-reliant, single mothers of adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods in four urban counties. We find unfavorable effects of…

  16. Income Guarantees and the Working Poor: The Effect of Income Maintenance Programs on the Hours of Work of Male Family Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David H.; Kosters, Marvin

    An empirical analysis of the effects of alternative income maintenance programs, The Survey of Economic Opportunity, was used to obtain estimates of the labor supply parameters required to assess the implications of these programs for hours of work of male family heads. Labor supply response to changes in the family heads' net wages and in family…

  17. 29 CFR 794.141 - Workweeks when hours worked do not exceed 12 in any day or 56 in the week; compensation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hours worked do not exceed 12 in any day or 56 in the week; compensation requirements. (a) The overtime pay exemption provided by section 7(b)(3) is “limited to 12 hours a day and 56 hours a week” in any... previously discussed in this part in any workweek when his hours of work do not exceed 12 in any day or 56...

  18. Nurses' labor supply: participation, hours of work, and discontinuities in the supply function.

    PubMed

    Phillips, V L

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a formal labor supply model for nurses in Great Britain. It corrects for misspecification and sample selection bias which affected earlier research on women's labor supply generally in the United Kingdom and tests for the existence of discontinuities in the supply curve of nurses. Estimates of labor market participation elasticities with respect to the wage rate, non-labor income, and to the costs incurred through work are reported for nurses, qualified and unqualified. Participation is found to be highly responsive to wage changes and some discontinuity is found in the supply function. PMID:10156502

  19. Effects of pay resets following drug use on attendance and hours worked in a therapeutic workplace.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    This secondary data analysis examined effects of an abstinence contingency on participation in a therapeutic workplace. Participants exposed to a pay reset after drug use did not differ in overall attendance from participants who were not exposed to a pay reset after drug use; however, they initially worked less after a pay reset than participants who did not receive a pay reset, and their attendance increased as their pay increased. Overall participation was not influenced by the abstinence contingency, but transient decreases in attendance occurred. PMID:26990530

  20. Stiffness of the extrafibrillar phase in staggered biological arrays.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Benny; Wagner, H Daniel

    2012-08-17

    A number of important biological tissues such as nacre, tendon, and bone consist of staggered structural arrays as universal motifs. Such arrays usually include stiff fibril-like (or plateletlike, or needlelike) elements embedded in an extrafibrillar (XF) phase. This work discusses the effect of the stiffness of such an XF matrix on the elastic properties of the resulting staggered composite. In the case of most biological composites, this XF stiffness is hardly accessible and very little data are available. We develop an analysis based on previous analytical formulation that results in a relation between the XF modulus and the deformations of the staggered particles. This analysis is then used to back-calculate the yet unmeasured modulus of the XF phase from experimental deformation data, thereby providing a simple alternative to potentially complex direct measurements. This is demonstrated and validated for parallel-fiber bone tissue. PMID:23006404

  1. Effect of Long Working Hours on Self-reported Hypertension among Middle-aged and Older Wage Workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have reported an association between overwork and hypertension. However, research on the health effects of long working hours has yielded inconclusive results. The objective of this study was to identify an association between overtime work and hypertension in wage workers 45 years and over of age using prospective data. Methods Wage workers in Korea aged 45 years and over were selected for inclusion in this study from among 10,254 subjects from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Workers with baseline hypertension and those with other major diseases were excluded. In the end, a total of 1,079 subjects were included. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios and adjust for baseline characteristics such as sex, age, education, income, occupation, form of employment, body mass index, alcohol habit, smoking habit, regular exercise, and number of working days per week. Additional models were used to calculate hazard ratios after gender stratification. Results Among the 1,079 subjects, 85 workers were diagnosed with hypertension during 3974.2 person-months. The average number of working hours per week for all subjects was 47.68. The proportion of overtime workers was 61.0% (cutoff, 40 h per week). Compared with those working 40 h and less per week, the hazard ratio of subjects in the final model, which adjusted for all selected variables, working 41-50 h per week was 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–4.06), that of subjects working 51-60 h per week was 2.40 (95% CI, 1.07–5.39), and that of subjects working 61 h and over per week was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.33–6.20). In gender stratification models, the hazard ratio of the females tended to be higher than that of the males. Conclusion As the number of working hours per week increased, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of hypertension significantly increased. This result suggests a positive association between overtime work and the risk of hypertension. PMID

  2. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  3. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns. PMID:19021859

  4. Reply to 'Comment on ''t Hooft vertices, partial quenching, and rooted staggered QCD''

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-10-01

    We reply to Creutz's comments on our paper ''t Hooft vertices, partial quenching, and rooted staggered QCD'. We show that his criticisms are incorrect and result from a misunderstanding both of our work, and of the related work of Adams.

  5. An improved failure criterion for biological and engineered staggered composites.

    PubMed

    Barthelat, Francois; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Rabiei, Reza

    2013-02-01

    High-performance biological materials such as nacre, spider silk or bone have evolved a staggered microstructure consisting of stiff and strong elongated inclusions aligned with the direction of loading. This structure leads to useful combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, and it is therefore increasingly mimicked in bio-inspired composites. The performance of staggered composites can be tuned; for example, their mechanical properties increase when the overlap between the inclusions is increased. However, larger overlaps may lead to excessive tensile stress and fracture of the inclusions themselves, a highly detrimental failure mode. Fracture of the inclusions has so far only been predicted using highly simplified models, which hinder our ability to properly design and optimize engineered staggered composites. In this work, we develop a new failure criterion that takes into account the complex stress field within the inclusions as well as initial defects. The model leads to an 'optimum criterion' for cases where the shear tractions on the inclusions is uniform, and a 'conservative' criterion for which the tractions are modelled as point forces at the ends of the overlap regions. The criterion can therefore be applied for a wide array of material behaviour at the interface, even if the details of the shear load transfer is not known. The new criterion is validated with experiments on staggered structures made of millimetre-thick alumina tablets, and by comparison with data on nacre. Formulated in a non-dimensional form, our new criterion can be applied on a wide variety of engineered staggered composites at any length scale. It also reveals new design guidelines, for example high aspect ratio inclusions with weak interfaces are preferable over inclusions with low aspect ratio and stronger interfaces. Together with existing models, this new criterion will lead to optimal designs that harness the full potential of bio-inspired staggered composites. PMID

  6. An improved failure criterion for biological and engineered staggered composites

    PubMed Central

    Barthelat, Francois; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Rabiei, Reza

    2013-01-01

    High-performance biological materials such as nacre, spider silk or bone have evolved a staggered microstructure consisting of stiff and strong elongated inclusions aligned with the direction of loading. This structure leads to useful combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, and it is therefore increasingly mimicked in bio-inspired composites. The performance of staggered composites can be tuned; for example, their mechanical properties increase when the overlap between the inclusions is increased. However, larger overlaps may lead to excessive tensile stress and fracture of the inclusions themselves, a highly detrimental failure mode. Fracture of the inclusions has so far only been predicted using highly simplified models, which hinder our ability to properly design and optimize engineered staggered composites. In this work, we develop a new failure criterion that takes into account the complex stress field within the inclusions as well as initial defects. The model leads to an ‘optimum criterion’ for cases where the shear tractions on the inclusions is uniform, and a ‘conservative’ criterion for which the tractions are modelled as point forces at the ends of the overlap regions. The criterion can therefore be applied for a wide array of material behaviour at the interface, even if the details of the shear load transfer is not known. The new criterion is validated with experiments on staggered structures made of millimetre-thick alumina tablets, and by comparison with data on nacre. Formulated in a non-dimensional form, our new criterion can be applied on a wide variety of engineered staggered composites at any length scale. It also reveals new design guidelines, for example high aspect ratio inclusions with weak interfaces are preferable over inclusions with low aspect ratio and stronger interfaces. Together with existing models, this new criterion will lead to optimal designs that harness the full potential of bio-inspired staggered composites

  7. Self-Reported Recovery from 2-Week 12-Hour Shift Work Schedules: A 14-Day Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Merkus, Suzanne L.; Holte, Kari Anne; Huysmans, Maaike A.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recovery from fatigue is important in maintaining night workers' health. This study compared the course of self-reported recovery after 2-week 12-hour schedules consisting of either night shifts or swing shifts (i.e., 7 night shifts followed by 7 day shifts) to such schedules consisting of only day work. Methods Sixty-one male offshore employees—20 night workers, 16 swing shift workers, and 25 day workers—rated six questions on fatigue (sleep quality, feeling rested, physical and mental fatigue, and energy levels; scale 1–11) for 14 days after an offshore tour. After the two night-work schedules, differences on the 1st day (main effects) and differences during the follow-up (interaction effects) were compared to day work with generalized estimating equations analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, significant main effects were found for sleep quality for night workers (1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.89) and swing shift workers (1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.94) when compared to day workers; their interaction terms were not statistically significant. For the remaining fatigue outcomes, no statistically significant main or interaction effects were found. Conclusion After 2-week 12-hour night and swing shifts, only the course for sleep quality differed from that of day work. Sleep quality was poorer for night and swing shift workers on the 1st day off and remained poorer for the 14-day follow-up. This showed that while working at night had no effect on feeling rested, tiredness, and energy levels, it had a relatively long-lasting effect on sleep quality. PMID:26929834

  8. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Background Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Methods Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Results Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09–1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11–1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks’ experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6–8 hours of nighttime sleep. Conclusion In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated. PMID:26080022

  9. Associations of Work Hours, Job Strain, and Occupation with Endothelial Function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Landsbergis, Paul; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Baron, Sherry; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Fujishiro, Kaori; Foy, Capri G.; Andrew, Michael E.; Roux, Ana V. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of work hours, job control, job demands, job strain, and occupational category with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 1,499 MESA participants. Methods FMD was obtained using high-resolution ultrasound. Mean values of FMD were examined across categories of occupation, work hours, and the other exposures using regression analyses. Results Occupational category was significantly associated with FMD overall, with blue-collar workers showing the lowest mean values: Management/professional=4.97±0.22%; sales/office=5.19±0.28%; services=4.73 ± 0.29%; and blue-collar workers=4.01±0.26% (adjusted P <0.001). There was evidence of effect modification by gender (interaction P=0.031): significant associations were observed among women (adjusted P =0.002) and nearly significant results among men (adjusted P=0.087). Other exposures were not significantly associated with FMD. Conclusions Differences in endothelial function may account for some of the variation in cardiovascular disease across occupational groups. PMID:25376409

  10. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability. PMID:26250870

  11. The Way to Wealth and the Way to Leisure: The Impact of College Education on Graduates' Earnings and Hours of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic return of college education up to 10 years after college education and further examines the impact of college education on graduates' hours of work. The results suggest that variation in hours of work explains a portion of earnings differentials among college graduates. Graduates from high-quality…

  12. Do regulated resident working hours affect medical graduate education? Trends in the American psychiatry board pass rates pre- and post-2003 duty hours regulations.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Dzara, Kristina; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Punwani, Manisha

    2014-12-01

    Aims and method To assess trends of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examination pass rates before and after the 2003 duty hours regulations (DHR). We obtained the pass rates for part I and II for years 2000-2010. Data were divided pre-DHR (2000-2003) and post-DHR (2007-2010). Results During the pre-DHR period, first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 80.7% and 39.0% which changed in the post-DHR period to 89.7% and 39.1% respectively. Similarly for the part II exam, the pre-DHR first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 60.2% and 43.5% respectively, which increased to 78.7% and 53.8%, among the post-DHR group. Overall, there was a significant increase in the first-attempt candidates pass rates for parts I and II, whereas multiple-attempt candidates did not benefit as strongly. Clinical implications The results suggest that the 2003 DHR may have had a positive impact on examination-based medical knowledge in psychiatry. PMID:25505632

  13. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  14. 45 CFR 261.60 - What hours of participation may a State report for a work-eligible individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Verification Plan. (e) A State may count supervised homework time and up to one hour of unsupervised homework time for each hour of class time. Total homework time counted for participation cannot exceed the...

  15. 45 CFR 261.60 - What hours of participation may a State report for a work-eligible individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Verification Plan. (e) A State may count supervised homework time and up to one hour of unsupervised homework time for each hour of class time. Total homework time counted for participation cannot exceed the...

  16. 45 CFR 261.60 - What hours of participation may a State report for a work-eligible individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Verification Plan. (e) A State may count supervised homework time and up to one hour of unsupervised homework time for each hour of class time. Total homework time counted for participation cannot exceed the...

  17. 45 CFR 261.60 - What hours of participation may a State report for a work-eligible individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Verification Plan. (e) A State may count supervised homework time and up to one hour of unsupervised homework time for each hour of class time. Total homework time counted for participation cannot exceed the...

  18. 45 CFR 261.60 - What hours of participation may a State report for a work-eligible individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Verification Plan. (e) A State may count supervised homework time and up to one hour of unsupervised homework time for each hour of class time. Total homework time counted for participation cannot exceed the...

  19. [24-hour work: the interaction of stress and changes in the sleep-wake cycle in the police force].

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep. Consequently, excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most frequent health and safety hazards that police officers have to deal with. Sleep deprivation affects performance outcomes through a wide range of cognitive domains. Sleepiness and fatigue, caused by sleep loss, extended work and wakefulness, circadian misalignment and sleep disorders are major causes of workplace human errors, incidents, and accidents. Therefore, prevention of sleep loss, high levels of stress and fatigue is a key factor to consider when assessing emergency intervention. In order to combat fatigue and sleepiness, a 30-90 minutes nap before night shift could be a viable option. PMID:25558741

  20. Working hours, sleep, salivary cortisol, fatigue and neuro-behavior during Mars analog mission: five crews study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Foing, Bernard H; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-05-16

    The buoyancy of humans in exploring extreme space environments has been established during missions to the moon. Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity. Astronauts will encounter both physiological and psychological extremes during this trip. Very few studies are conducted on effect of long duration work and sleepiness on cognitive performance. So, this study was planned to find out effects of leadership responsibility, sleepiness and long duration working hours on cognitive performance. The 30 members (leadership: normal; 10:20) were selected from MDRS crews (Mars Desert Research Station, USA). Neurobehavioral test performance, self-ratings of fatigue and sleepiness, and salivary cortisol levels were evaluated during first day, mid and end day of mission. The leadership group did not show any signs of reduced test performance, even in elevated fatigue and sleepiness. The leadership group had faster reaction times on end of mission as compared to first and after 7 day of mission. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in leadership group as compared to normal group. The results suggest that long duration work and sleepiness does not affect the cognitive performance of crew member. Further study is required while taking into account all factors and large sample size to prove this fact. PMID:22487731

  1. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  2. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  3. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  4. Staggered spin susceptibility and chiral phase transition in thermal QED3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hong-tao; Zhou, Yu-qing; Yin, Pei-Lin; Zong, Hong-shi

    2013-12-01

    Based on the truncated Dyson-Schwinger equation, we first study the influence of the vertex correction on the staggered spin susceptibility χs. The numerical results show that the vertex correction plays an important role in the study of the staggered spin susceptibility. We then generalize the above work to the case of finite temperature. It is found for the first time that, as the temperature increases, the chiral condensate vanishes at the phase transition point where χs reveals an obvious skip, and therefore as a physical observable, the staggered spin susceptibility could be regarded as the order parameter of chiral phase transition in QED3.

  5. EFFECTS OF LONG-TIME COMMUTING AND LONG-HOUR WORKING ON LIFESTYLE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TOKYO, JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Marino; Hara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-time commuting and long-hour working on lifestyle including sleeping, physical exercise, breakfast, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 146 school teachers in Tokyo. The binary associations of commuting time and working hours with lifestyle, mental stress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress coping measured by the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scores were examined. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Our results indicated that the mean commuting time and working hours per week of the respondents were 42.1 (SD 22.5) minutes and 50.4 (SD 8.6) hours, respectively. Longer commuting time was significantly associated with shorter working hours (p = 0.023), less physical exercise (p < 0.001) and shorter sleeping hours (p = 0.001). Longer working hours were significantly associated with more frequent working on holidays (p = 0.001), higher SOC scores (p = 0.001) and more smoking (p = 0.028). The negative association between GHQ and SOC scores was also significant (p < 0.001). Our findings revealed that long-time commuters were more likely to sleep less, exercise less and work less long. Long-hour workers were more likely to commute shorter, work on holidays more frequently, smoke more and their stress coping potentials were higher. Some kinds of strategies are required to improve the healthy lifestyle for long-time com- muters or long-hour workers. Key words: stress; stress coping; general health questionnaire; sense of coherence PMID:27281916

  6. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  7. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  8. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  9. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  10. Excessive working hours and health complaints among hospital physicians: a study based on a national sample of hospital physicians in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Gerber, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine correlations between excessively long working hours and subjectively experienced somatic health complaints among hospital physicians. Methods: Quantitative data were collected as part of the survey “Working life, Lifestyle and Health of Hospital Physicians in Germany 2006” using self-reporting questionnaires. The individually experienced health was assessed on the basis of Zerssen’s [1] list of somatic complaints. The indicator of excessively long working hours was defined as 10 or more working hours per working day and 6 or more on-call shifts a month among full-time employees. The net sample consisted of 3295 randomly selected physicians from 515 hospitals. Results: The response rate was 58% (n=1917). Physicians with excessively long working hours (19%) had significantly higher sum score of health complaints (p=0.0001) and significantly increased mental and physical fatigue symptoms (feeling faint, languor, uneasiness, heavy legs, excessive need for sleep, trembling; p=0.0001 to 0.047), mood changes (irritability, brooding; p=0.008 to 0.014), gastrointestinal (nausea, loss of weight; p=0.0001 to 0.014) and heart disorders (lumpy sensation in the throat, chest pain; p=0.0001 to 0.042). When the sum score of health complaints was controlled for selected confounders, being female (B=-3.44, p=0.0001) and having excessively long working hours (B=2.76, p=0.0001) were significantly correlated with health complaints. In a separate gender analysis, being exposed to excessively long working hours remained a significant predictor for health complaints among both females (B=3.78, p=0.001) and males (B=2.28, p=0.004). Conclusions: Excessively long working hours are associated with an increased risk of health complaints. Reducing working hours may be the first step to improving physicians' health. PMID:19675717

  11. Effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury among full-time male employees of small- and medium-scale businesses.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury. A total of 1891 male employees, aged 18-79 years (mean 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses in a suburb of Tokyo were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire during August-December 2002. Work hours and sleep characteristics, including daily sleep hours, subjective sleep sufficiency, sleep quality and easiness to wake up in the morning, were evaluated. Information on workplace injury in the past 1-year period was self-reported. The risk of workplace injury associated with work hours and poor sleep was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of associations. Compared with those working 6-8 h day(-1) with good sleep characteristics, positive interactive effects for workplace injury were found between long work hours (>8-10 h day(-1) or >10 h day(-1) ) and short sleep duration (<6 h) [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.27-1.54], subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.94-1.99), sleep poorly at night (aOR, 2.23-2.49) and difficulty waking up in the morning (aOR, 1.56-1.59). Long work hours (aOR, 1.31-1.48), subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.49) and sleeping poorly at night (aOR, 1.72) were also independently associated with workplace injury. This study suggests that long work hours coupled with poor sleep characteristics are synergistically associated with increased risk of workplace injury. Greater attention should be paid to manage/treat poor sleep and reduce excessive work hours to improve safety at the workplace. PMID:21294800

  12. 29 CFR 778.412 - Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours employee may be expected to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... workweeks. In both Walling v. A. H. Belo Co., 316 U.S. 624 and Walling v. Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship between amount guaranteed and range of hours...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT...

  13. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  14. Incentives and Effort in the Public Sector: Have U.S. Education Reforms Increased Teachers' Work Hours? NBER Working Paper No. 11970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Christiana; Kuhn, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Beyond some contracted minimum, salaried workers' hours are largely chosen at the worker's discretion and should respond to the strength of contract incentives. Accordingly, we consider the response of teacher hours to accountability and school choice laws introduced in U.S. public schools over the past two decades. Total weekly hours of full-time…

  15. Different Views about Work-Hour Limitations in Medicine: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Surgeons', Lawyers', and Pilots' Positive and Negative Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Businger, Adrian P.; Kaderli, Reto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots. Methods An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the question of what arguments speak in favour of or against work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was sent to a random sample of board-certified surgeons, lawyers in labour law, and pilots from SWISS International Airlines Ltd. Results In all, 279/497 (56%) of the respondents answered the survey: 67/117 surgeons, 92/226 lawyers, and 120/154 pilots. Support for work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was present and higher among lawyers and pilots than it was in surgeons (p<0.001). The latter agreed more with work-hour limitations in general than in medicine (p<0.001). The most often cited arguments in favour of work-hour limitations were “quality and patient safety,” “health and fitness,” and “leisure and work-family balance,” whereas the lack of “flexibility” was the most important argument against. Surgeons expected more often that their “education” and the “quality of their work” would be threatened (p<0.001). Conclusions Work-hour limitations should be supported in medicine also, but a way must be found to reduce problems resulting from discontinuity in patient care and to minimise the work in medicine, which has no education value. PMID:25419712

  16. [A study of preventive medicine in relation to mental health among middle-management employees (Part 2)--effects of long working hours on lifestyles, perceived stress and working-life satisfaction among white-collar middle-management employees].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, S; Kohno, K; Morimoto, K

    1995-10-01

    Recently, we have introduced the holistic method into health care of workers and aimed at improvement of Quality of Life (QOL). It has been made clear that primary prevention of diseases needs lifestyle appraisal. Therefore, we studied the daily working hours and the effects of long working hours on lifestyles, perceived stress and working-life satisfaction, which we used as a subjective index of Quality of Life (QOL), based on data obtained from a survey of 1,026 department chiefs and 2,902 section chiefs in 110 large companies in Japan in 1990. The results are summarized as follows. (1) The percentage of those working 10 hours per day was 41.6% for department chiefs and 40.4% for section chiefs, and for 11 or more working hours it was 24.1% in department chiefs and 30.9% in section chiefs. The younger both department and section chiefs, the longer their working hours. (2) Both department and section chiefs had a significant relationship between long working hours and poor sleeping habits, poor physical exercise, feeling busy, irregularity of daily life and irregularity of daily meals. The department chiefs had a significant relationship between long working hours and unbalanced nutrition or no hobbies. The section chiefs had a significant relationship between long working hours and drinking many cups of tea or coffee, taking a lot of salt or ill physical condition during the past six months. PMID:8538058

  17. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? 286.90 Section 286.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

  18. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  19. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  20. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  1. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  2. To Leave or to Lie? Are Concerns about a Shift-Work Mentality and Eroding Professionalism as a Result of Duty-Hour Rules Justified?

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Julia E; Brooks, Joanna Veazey; Volpp, Kevin G; Bosk, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Medical educators worry that the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour rules (DHR) have encouraged a “shift work” mentality among residents and eroded their professionalism by forcing them either to abandon patients when they have worked for eighty hours or lie about the number of hours worked. In this qualitative study, we explore how medical and surgical residents perceive and respond to DHR by examining the “local” organizational culture in which their work is embedded. Methods: In 2008, we conducted three months of ethnographic observation of internal medicine and general surgery residents as they went about their everyday work in two hospitals affiliated with the same training program, as well as in-depth interviews with seventeen residents. Field notes and interview transcripts were analyzed for perceptions and behaviors in regard to beginning and leaving work, reporting duty hours, and expressing opinions about DHR. Findings: The respondents did not exhibit a “shift work” mentality in relation to their work. We found that residents: (1) occasionally stay in the hospital in order to complete patient care tasks even when, according to the clock, they are required to leave, because the organizational culture stresses performing work thoroughly, (2) do not blindly embrace noncompliance with DHR but are thoughtful about the tradeoffs inherent in the regulations, and (3) express nuanced and complex reasons for erroneously reporting duty hours, suggesting that reporting hours worked is not a simple issue of lying or truth telling. Conclusions: Concerns about DHR and the erosion of resident professionalism resulting from the development of a “shift work” mentality likely have been overstated. Instead, the influence of DHR on professionalism is more complex than the conventional wisdom suggests and requires additional assessment. PMID:20860575

  3. Staggered heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2008-03-01

    Although taste violations significantly affect the results of staggered calculations of pseudoscalar and heavy-light mesonic quantities, those entering staggered calculations of baryonic quantities have not been quantified. Here I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light-quark baryon sector by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. For 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons are calculated to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory. To this order the expansion includes the leading chiral logarithms, which come from loops with virtual decuplet-like states, as well as terms of O(mπ3), which come from loops with virtual octet-like states. Taste violations enter through the meson propagators in loops and tree-level terms of O(a2). The pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting degeneracies and mixings are discussed in detail. The resulting chiral forms are appropriate to lattice results obtained with operators already in use and could be used to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit. I assume that the fourth root of the fermion determinant can be incorporated in staggered chiral perturbation theory using the replica method.

  4. Working Longer Makes Students Stronger? The Effects of Ninth Grade Classroom Hours on Ninth Grade Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite much discussion on the role of education policy on school and student performance, we know little about the effects of school spending at the margin on student cognitive achievement beyond the effects of class size. Purpose: The paper examines the effects of annual ninth grade classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth…

  5. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:23140062

  6. Social support and the working hours of employed mothers in Europe: The relevance of the state, the workplace, and the family.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Anja-Kristin; van der Lippe, Tanja; Maas, Ineke

    2012-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of state, workplace, and family support on the working hours of employed mothers and how these different support sources interact. Data taken from the European Social Survey 2004/2005 as well as country-specific information were used to estimate several hierarchical models. We find evidence that the availability of supportive workplace arrangements and family support positively impact the working hours of employed mothers and that state policies facilitating the traditional family have a negative effect. There is weak support for a positive relationship between state policies facilitating the dual-earner family and working hours of employed mothers. In addition, most of the sources of support appear to be complementary. Supportive family role models and supportive workplace arrangements have a reinforcing relationship, as do publicly funded child care and supportive workplace arrangements. PMID:23017794

  7. 29 CFR 790.5 - Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or a part of this travel, or if there is a custom or practice to the same effect of the kind... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of Portal-to-Portal Act on determination of hours... GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT...

  8. From 40 to 35 Hours: Reduction and Flexibilisation of the Working Week in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Reviews developments in the shortened work week in the Federal Republic of Germany. Discusses collective agreements and examines the methods used to implement the shorter working week at enterprise level and possible developments in the reunited Germany. (JOW)

  9. The Labour Market Status of Australian Students: Who Is Unemployed, Who Is Working and for How Many Hours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the factors associated with the decision by school students in Australia to work part-time. I find substantial variation in the probability of working across the eight Australian states and territories, as well as by remoteness. Those who live in households with low income are less likely to work. A person's ancestry is also…

  10. Staggered Multiple-PRF Ultrafast Color Doppler.

    PubMed

    Posada, Daniel; Poree, Jonathan; Pellissier, Arnaud; Chayer, Boris; Tournoux, Francois; Cloutier, Guy; Garcia, Damien

    2016-06-01

    Color Doppler imaging is an established pulsed ultrasound technique to visualize blood flow non-invasively. High-frame-rate (ultrafast) color Doppler, by emissions of plane or circular wavefronts, allows severalfold increase in frame rates. Conventional and ultrafast color Doppler are both limited by the range-velocity dilemma, which may result in velocity folding (aliasing) for large depths and/or large velocities. We investigated multiple pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) emissions arranged in a series of staggered intervals to remove aliasing in ultrafast color Doppler. Staggered PRF is an emission process where time delays between successive pulse transmissions change in an alternating way. We tested staggered dual- and triple-PRF ultrafast color Doppler, 1) in vitro in a spinning disc and a free jet flow, and 2) in vivo in a human left ventricle. The in vitro results showed that the Nyquist velocity could be extended to up to 6 times the conventional limit. We found coefficients of determination r(2) ≥ 0.98 between the de-aliased and ground-truth velocities. Consistent de-aliased Doppler images were also obtained in the human left heart. Our results demonstrate that staggered multiple-PRF ultrafast color Doppler is efficient for high-velocity high-frame-rate blood flow imaging. This is particularly relevant for new developments in ultrasound imaging relying on accurate velocity measurements. PMID:26780789

  11. Scalar meson spectroscopy with lattice staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; DeTar, Carleton; Fu Ziwen; Prelovsek, Sasa

    2007-11-01

    With sufficiently light up and down quarks the isovector (a{sub 0}) and isosinglet (f{sub 0}) scalar meson propagators are dominated at large distance by two-meson states. In the staggered-fermion formulation of lattice quantum chromodynamics, taste-symmetry breaking causes a proliferation of two-meson states that further complicates the analysis of these channels. Many of them are unphysical artifacts of the lattice approximation. They are expected to disappear in the continuum limit. The staggered-fermion fourth-root procedure has its purported counterpart in rooted staggered chiral perturbation theory (rS{chi}PT). Fortunately, the rooted theory provides a strict framework that permits the analysis of scalar meson correlators in terms of only a small number of low-energy couplings. Thus the analysis of the point-to-point scalar meson correlators in this context gives a useful consistency check of the fourth-root procedure and its proposed chiral realization. Through numerical simulation we have measured correlators for both the a{sub 0} and f{sub 0} channels in the 'Asqtad' improved staggered-fermion formulation in a lattice ensemble with lattice spacing a=0.12 fm. We analyze those correlators in the context of rS{chi}PT and obtain values of the low-energy chiral couplings that are reasonably consistent with previous determinations.

  12. 45 CFR 261.31 - How many hours must a work-eligible individual participate for the family to count in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours must a work-eligible individual participate for the family to count in the numerator of the overall rate? 261.31 Section 261.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  13. 45 CFR 261.32 - How many hours must work-eligible individuals participate for the family to count in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours must work-eligible individuals participate for the family to count in the numerator of the two-parent rate? 261.32 Section 261.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND...

  14. Care of critically ill surgical patients using the 80-hour Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education work-week guidelines: a survey of current strategies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chad R; Axelrad, Alex; Alexander, James B; Dellinger, R Phillip; Ross, Steven E

    2006-06-01

    As a result of the recently mandated work-hour restrictions, it has become more difficult to provide 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) in-house coverage by the general surgical residents. To assess the current state of providing appropriate continuous care to surgical critical care patients during the era of resident work-hour constraints, a national survey was conducted by the Association of Program Directors of Surgery. The results revealed that 37 per cent of programs surveyed have residents other than general surgery housestaff providing cross-coverage and writing orders for surgical ICU patients. Residents in emergency medicine, anesthesia, family medicine, otorhinolaryngology, obstetrics/gynecology, internal medicine, urology, and orthopedic surgery have provided this cross-coverage. Some found it necessary to use physician extenders (i.e., nurse practitioners or physician assistants), thereby decreasing the burden of surgical housestaff coverage. The results indicated that 30 per cent use physician extenders to help cover the ICU during daytime hours and 11 per cent used them during nighttime hours. In addition, 24 per cent used a "night-float" system in an attempt to maintain continuous care, yet still adhere to the mandated guidelines. In conclusion, our survey found multiple strategies, including the use of physician extenders, a "night-float" system, and the use of nongeneral surgical residents in an attempt to provide continuous coverage for surgical ICU patients. The overall outcome of these new strategies still needs to be assessed before any beneficial results can be demonstrated. PMID:16808201

  15. 45 CFR 261.61 - How must a State document a work-eligible individual's hours of participation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... individual who is self-employed, the documentation must comport with standards set forth in the State's approved Work Verification Plan. Self-reporting by a participant without additional verification is not... study expectations of the educational program....

  16. 45 CFR 261.61 - How must a State document a work-eligible individual's hours of participation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual who is self-employed, the documentation must comport with standards set forth in the State's approved Work Verification Plan. Self-reporting by a participant without additional verification is not... study expectations of the educational program....

  17. 45 CFR 261.61 - How must a State document a work-eligible individual's hours of participation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual who is self-employed, the documentation must comport with standards set forth in the State's approved Work Verification Plan. Self-reporting by a participant without additional verification is not... study expectations of the educational program....

  18. Staggered solution procedures for multibody dynamics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.; Downer, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The numerical solution procedure for multibody dynamics (MBD) systems is termed a staggered MBD solution procedure that solves the generalized coordinates in a separate module from that for the constraint force. This requires a reformulation of the constraint conditions so that the constraint forces can also be integrated in time. A major advantage of such a partitioned solution procedure is that additional analysis capabilities such as active controller and design optimization modules can be easily interfaced without embedding them into a monolithic program. After introducing the basic equations of motion for MBD system in the second section, Section 3 briefly reviews some constraint handling techniques and introduces the staggered stabilized technique for the solution of the constraint forces as independent variables. The numerical direct time integration of the equations of motion is described in Section 4. As accurate damping treatment is important for the dynamics of space structures, we have employed the central difference method and the mid-point form of the trapezoidal rule since they engender no numerical damping. This is in contrast to the current practice in dynamic simulations of ground vehicles by employing a set of backward difference formulas. First, the equations of motion are partitioned according to the translational and the rotational coordinates. This sets the stage for an efficient treatment of the rotational motions via the singularity-free Euler parameters. The resulting partitioned equations of motion are then integrated via a two-stage explicit stabilized algorithm for updating both the translational coordinates and angular velocities. Once the angular velocities are obtained, the angular orientations are updated via the mid-point implicit formula employing the Euler parameters. When the two algorithms, namely, the two-stage explicit algorithm for the generalized coordinates and the implicit staggered procedure for the constraint Lagrange

  19. Investigation of deformation mechanisms of staggered nanocomposites using molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiazhagan, S.; Anup, S.

    2016-08-01

    Biological materials with nanostructure of regularly or stair-wise staggered arrangements of hard platelets reinforced in a soft protein matrix have superior mechanical properties. Applications of these nanostructures to ceramic matrix composites could enhance their toughness. Using molecular dynamics simulations, mechanical behaviour of the bio-inspired nanocomposites is studied. Regularly staggered model shows better flow behaviour compared to stair-wise staggered model due to the symmetrical crack propagation along the interface. Though higher stiffness and strength are obtained for stair-wise staggered models, rapid crack propagation reduces the toughness. Arresting this crack propagation could lead to superior mechanical properties in stair-wise staggered models.

  20. Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.

  1. Superconductors with Staggered Non-centrosymmetricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Manfred; Agterberg, Daniel F.; Fischer, Mark H.; Goryo, Jun; Loder, Florian; Rhim, Sung-Hyon; Maruyama, Daisuke; Yanase, Youichi; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Youn, Suk Joo

    2014-06-01

    Non-centrosymmetric superconductors have attracted much interest in the context of heavy Fermion and interface superconductivity. Here we show that a sublattice structure of staggered subunits without inversion center can have important implications for superconductivity even in a globally centrosymmetric system. After discussing general aspects of systems with alternating non-centrosymmetric layers, two concrete examples are studied: (1) the artificially grown superlattices of CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 and (2) the pnictide superconductor SrPtAs. For example (1) implications on the upper critical field are analysed and novel phases in a magnetic field are explored. Example (2) realizes likely a chiral d-wave phase for which a few implications of staggered non-centrosymmetricity are discussed.

  2. Hadron spectrum with staggered dynamical quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bitar, K.M.; Kennedy, A.D.; Liu, Weiqiang . Supercomputer Computations Research Inst.); DeGrand, T.A. . Dept. of Physics); Gottlieb, S. ); Kogut, J.B.; Renken, R.L. . Dept. of Physics); Ogilvie, M.C. . Dept. of Physic

    1989-01-01

    We describe a recent calculation of the hadron spectrum with two flavors of staggered dynamical quarks with a gauge coupling 6/g{sup 2} = 5.60 and quark masses of 0.025 and 0.01. The gauge fields were generated using the hybrid algorithm on a 12{sup 4} lattice that was doubled or quadrupoled to calculate hadron propagators. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. [Longer working hours of pharmacists in the ward resulted in lower medication-related errors--survey of national university hospitals in Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazuo; Toyama, Akira; Satoh, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Awaya, Toshio; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Horiuchi, Ryuya

    2011-04-01

    It is obvious that pharmacists play a critical role as risk managers in the healthcare system, especially in medication treatment. Hitherto, there is not a single multicenter-survey report describing the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists in preventing medical errors from occurring in the wards in Japan. Thus, we conducted a 1-month survey to elucidate the relationship between the number of errors and working hours of pharmacists in the ward, and verified whether the assignment of clinical pharmacists to the ward would prevent medical errors between October 1-31, 2009. Questionnaire items for the pharmacists at 42 national university hospitals and a medical institute included the total and the respective numbers of medication-related errors, beds and working hours of pharmacist in 2 internal medicine and 2 surgical departments in each hospital. Regardless of severity, errors were consecutively reported to the Medical Security and Safety Management Section in each hospital. The analysis of errors revealed that longer working hours of pharmacists in the ward resulted in less medication-related errors; this was especially significant in the internal medicine ward (where a variety of drugs were used) compared with the surgical ward. However, the nurse assignment mode (nurse/inpatients ratio: 1 : 7-10) did not influence the error frequency. The results of this survey strongly indicate that assignment of clinical pharmacists to the ward is critically essential in promoting medication safety and efficacy. PMID:21467804

  4. Relationship between Working Hours and Power of Attention, Memory, Fatigue, Depression and Self-Efficacy One Year after Diagnosis of Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H.; Gilhuis, H. Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G.; Brands, Augustina M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of cognitive domain dysfunction with respect to vocational changes in persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (eRRMS) is insufficiently known. We investigated thirty-three patients - 14 CIS, 19 eRRMS -, mean (standard deviation [SD]) time since diagnosis 13.5 (4.8) months and mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1.3 (1.1). Patients were assessed on the CDR System, a set of automated tests of cognitive function, which yielded scores for Power of Attention (ms), Continuity of Attention (#), Working Memory (SI), Episodic Memory (#) and Speed of Memory (ms). Work-related items and the confounding variables fatigue, depression, disease impact and self-efficacy, were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Patients had poorer Power of Attention compared to normative data (1187 [161.5] vs. 1070 [98.6]; P<0.0001) and slower Speed of Memory (4043 [830.6]) vs. 2937 [586.1]; P<0.0001). Power of Attention (Pearson r = −0.42; P<0.04), Working Memory (r = 0.42; P<0.04) and depression r = −0.41; P<0.05) correlated with number of days worked per week. Fatigue (r = −0.56; P<0.005), self-efficacy (r = 0.56; P<0.005) and disease impact (r = −0.46; P<0.05) correlated with number of hours worked per week. Persons who wished to work less had poorer Power of Attention (1247 vs. 1116 ms; P<0.02), those who wished to change job had poorer Episodic Memory (1.35 vs. 1.57; p<0.03). People who reduced working hours within 12 months after diagnosis had higher fatigue and disease impact, and lower self-efficacy. The findings of this pilot study indicate that one year after the diagnosis of CIS and RRMS Power of Attention and Speed of Memory are reduced, that Power of Attention and Memory are associated with a capability of working less hours, and that fatigue, depression and disease impact may negatively, and self-efficacy positively affect working hours. PMID:24787714

  5. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Findings During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10 000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (≥55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35–40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89–1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10 000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I2=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06–1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10 000 person-years, I2=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80–1·25, incidence difference zero per 10 000 person-years, I2=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low

  6. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  7. Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan

    2011-07-14

    The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.

  8. Staggering of subunits in NMDAR channels.

    PubMed Central

    Sobolevsky, Alexander I; Rooney, LeeAnn; Wollmuth, Lonnie P

    2002-01-01

    Functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heteromultimers formed by NR1 and NR2 subunits. The M3 segment, as contributed by NR1, forms the core of the extracellular vestibule, including binding sites for channel blockers, and represents a critical molecular link between ligand binding and channel opening. Taking advantage of the substituted cysteine accessibility method along with channel block and multivalent coordination, we studied the contribution of the M3 segment in NR2C to the extracellular vestibule. We find that the M3 segment in NR2C, like that in NR1, contributes to the core of the extracellular vestibule. However, the M3 segments from the two subunits are staggered relative to each other in the vertical axis of the channel. Compared to NR1, homologous positions in NR2C, including those in the highly conserved SYTANLAAF motif, are located about four amino acids more externally. The staggering of subunits may represent a key structural feature underlying the distinct functional properties of NMDARs. PMID:12496098

  9. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  10. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  11. Thermal Protection System with Staggered Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); Robinson, Michael J. (Inventor); Andrews, Thomas L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The thermal protection system disclosed herein is suitable for use with a spacecraft such as a reentry module or vehicle, where the spacecraft has a convex surface to be protected. An embodiment of the thermal protection system includes a plurality of heat resistant panels, each having an outer surface configured for exposure to atmosphere, an inner surface opposite the outer surface and configured for attachment to the convex surface of the spacecraft, and a joint edge defined between the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint edges of adjacent ones of the heat resistant panels are configured to mate with each other to form staggered joints that run between the peak of the convex surface and the base section of the convex surface.

  12. A Lagrangian staggered grid Godunov-like approach for hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Lipnikov, Konstantin N.; Burton, Donald E.; Kenamond, Mark A.

    2014-02-01

    Much research in Lagrangian staggered-grid hydrodynamics (SGH) has focused on explicit viscosity models for adding dissipation to a calculation that has shocks. The explicit viscosity is commonly called “artificial viscosity”. Recently, researchers have developed hydrodynamic algorithms that incorporate approximate Riemann solutions on the dual grid [28,29,35,30,2,3]. This approach adds dissipation to the calculation via solving a Riemann-like problem. In this work, we follow the works of [28,29,35,30] and solve a multidirectional Riemann-like problem at the cell center. The Riemann-like solution at the cell center is used in the momentum and energy equations. The multidirectional Riemann-like problem used in this work differs from previous work in that it is an extension of the cell-centered hydrodynamics (CCH) nodal solution approach in [7]. Incorporating the multidirectional Riemann-like problem from [7] into SGH has merits such as the ability to resist mesh instabilities like hourglass null modes and chevron null modes. The approach is valid for complex multidimensional flows with strong shocks. Numerical details and test problems are presented.

  13. The possibility for a short-period hybrid staggered undulator.

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; Experimental Facilities Division

    2005-01-01

    A short-period hybrid-type staggered undulator is proposed. A proper combination of vanadium Permendur (VP) pole and NdFeB magnet provide approximately 40% larger peak field strength than a conventional staggered undulator. The peak field of a 15-mm-period hybrid staggered undulator exceeds 0.8 T at a gap of 6 mm. Also, by using dysprosium as a pole and PrFeB as a magnet at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K), even higher peak field ({approx} 0.94 T) can be achieved at the same gap.

  14. Investigating the influences of two position (non-staggered and staggered) of wind turbine arrays to produce power in a wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Kamal, Samsul; Purnomo, Sarjiya

    2016-06-01

    This investigation was conducted to identify the influences of the two positions (non-staggered and staggered) of wind turbine arrays. Identification on down-scaled size wind turbine arrays was carried out in an open circuit, suction-type wind tunnel. Based on the results of the experiment, empirical relations for the centreline velocity deficit, tipline velocity deficit and wake radius are proposed. The non-staggered position results are larger power generated than that of the staggered position, this influenced by the trend deficit in velocity that makes wind turbine generated power difference between staggered position and non-stagger position. The area used non-staggered position larger than staggered position. Result staggered position has become one of the solutions to harness wind farms confined areas.

  15. A survey-based cross-sectional study of doctors’ expectations and experiences of non-technical skills for Out of Hours work

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Michael; Shaw, Dominick; Sharples, Sarah; Jeune, Ivan Le; Blakey, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The skill set required for junior doctors to work efficiently and safely Out of Hours (OoH) in hospitals has not been established. This is despite the OoH period representing 75% of the year and it being the time of highest mortality. We set out to explore the expectations of medical students and experiences of junior doctors of the non-technical skills needed to work OoH. Design Survey-based cross-sectional study informed by focus groups. Setting Online survey with participants from five large teaching hospitals across the UK. Participants 300 Medical Students and Doctors Outcome measure Participants ranked the importance of non-technical skills, as identified by literature review and focus groups, needed for OoH care. Results The focus groups revealed a total of eight non-technical skills deemed to be important. In the survey ‘Task Prioritisation’ (mean rank 1.617) was consistently identified as the most important non-technical skill. Stage of training affected the ranking of skills, with significant differences for ‘Communication with Senior Doctors’, ‘Dealing with Clinical Isolation’, ‘Task Prioritisation’ and ‘Communication with Patients’. Importantly, there was a significant discrepancy between the medical student expectations and experiences of doctors undertaking work. Conclusions Our findings suggest that medical staff particularly value task prioritisation skills; however, these are not routinely taught in medical schools. The discrepancy between expectations of students and experience of doctors reinforces the idea that there is a gap in training. Doctors of different grades place different importance on specific non-technical skills with implications for postgraduate training. There is a pressing need for medical schools and deaneries to review non-technical training to include more than communication skills. PMID:25687899

  16. Perturbative Corrections for Staggered Fermion Bilinears

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Apoorva; Sharpe, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We calculate the perturbative corrections to fermion bilinears that are used in numerical simulations when extracting weak matric elements using staggered fermions.This extends previous calculations of Golterman and Smit, and Daniel and Sheard.In particular, we calculate the corrections for non-local bilinears defined in Landau gauge with gauge links excluded.We do this for the simplest operators, i.e. those defined on a 2^4 hypercube, and for tree level improved operators which live on 4^4 hypercubes.We also consider gauge invariant operators in which the "tadpole" contributions are suppressed by projecting the sums of products of gauge links back in to the gauge group.In all cases, we find that the variation in the size of the perturbative corrections is smaller than those with the gauge invariant unimproved operators.This is most strikingly true for the smeared operators.We investigate the efficacy of the mean-field method of Lepage and Mackenzie at summing up tadpole

  17. Optimal Designs of Staggered Dean Vortex Micromixers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Chen, Chun Huei; Shie, Shian Ruei

    2011-01-01

    A novel parallel laminar micromixer with a two-dimensional staggered Dean Vortex micromixer is optimized and fabricated in our study. Dean vortices induced by centrifugal forces in curved rectangular channels cause fluids to produce secondary flows. The split-and-recombination (SAR) structures of the flow channels and the impinging effects result in the reduction of the diffusion distance of two fluids. Three different designs of a curved channel micromixer are introduced to evaluate the mixing performance of the designed micromixer. Mixing performances are demonstrated by means of a pH indicator using an optical microscope and fluorescent particles via a confocal microscope at different flow rates corresponding to Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 0.5 to 50. The comparison between the experimental data and numerical results shows a very reasonable agreement. At a Re of 50, the mixing length at the sixth segment, corresponding to the downstream distance of 21.0 mm, can be achieved in a distance 4 times shorter than when the Re equals 1. An optimization of this micromixer is performed with two geometric parameters. These are the angle between the lines from the center to two intersections of two consecutive curved channels, θ, and the angle between two lines of the centers of three consecutive curved channels, ϕ. It can be found that the maximal mixing index is related to the maximal value of the sum of θ and ϕ, which is equal to 139.82°. PMID:21747691

  18. Rail coal transportation under the Staggers Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stagger's Act of 1980 offered railroads the opportunity to accelerate growth along with the coal industry in efforts to increase market for both the product (coal) and the service provided. It provides for cost recovery indexing allowing railroads to stay abreast of inflation and flexibility in setting and changing rates. It also allows railroads to enter directly into contract agreements with shippers. Railroads have used extreme caution in implementing these liberties so that the coal industry would not be severely impacted by these changes. They could have raised rates by as much as 52.3% under the new guidelines, but only raised them by 31.6% in the Eastern market and by 21.3% for export coal. The president of CSX Railroads stresses the symbiotic relationship existing between railroads and the coal industry. He suggests that separate sectors of the coal industry stop pointing fingers at one another and join hands to solve coal's competitive problems in the overseas export market. He calls for the formation of a blue-ribbon panel representing all of the parties with a stake in coal to implement such a cooperative effort. (DMC)

  19. Efficiency and optimal allocation in the staggered entry design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The staggered entry design for survival analysis specifies that r left-truncated samples are to be used in estimation of a population survival function. The ith sample is taken at time Bi, from the subpopulation of individuals having survival time exceeding Bi. This paper investigates the performance of the staggered entry design relative to the usual design in which all samples have a common time origin. The staggered entry design is shown to be an attractive alternative, even when not necessitated by logistical constraints. The staggered entry design allows for increased precision in estimation of the right tail of the survival function, especially when some of the data may be censored. A trade-off between the range of values for which the increased precision occurs and the magnitude of the increased precision is demonstrated.

  20. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jaymen L.; Lal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP) regulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males) of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects’ BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI) and fatigue severity (FSS) were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively). Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers’ systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to increase significantly across the shift (p < 0.001), but with no change found in females’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Finally, higher pre and post-shift SBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.25, p = 0.001, respectively) and DBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.26, p = 0.001, respectively) were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies must be

  1. A staggered-grid convolutional differentiator for elastic wave modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weijia; Zhou, Binzhong; Fu, Li-Yun

    2015-11-01

    The computation of derivatives in governing partial differential equations is one of the most investigated subjects in the numerical simulation of physical wave propagation. An analytical staggered-grid convolutional differentiator (CD) for first-order velocity-stress elastic wave equations is derived in this paper by inverse Fourier transformation of the band-limited spectrum of a first derivative operator. A taper window function is used to truncate the infinite staggered-grid CD stencil. The truncated CD operator is almost as accurate as the analytical solution, and as efficient as the finite-difference (FD) method. The selection of window functions will influence the accuracy of the CD operator in wave simulation. We search for the optimal Gaussian windows for different order CDs by minimizing the spectral error of the derivative and comparing the windows with the normal Hanning window function for tapering the CD operators. It is found that the optimal Gaussian window appears to be similar to the Hanning window function for tapering the same CD operator. We investigate the accuracy of the windowed CD operator and the staggered-grid FD method with different orders. Compared to the conventional staggered-grid FD method, a short staggered-grid CD operator achieves an accuracy equivalent to that of a long FD operator, with lower computational costs. For example, an 8th order staggered-grid CD operator can achieve the same accuracy of a 16th order staggered-grid FD algorithm but with half of the computational resources and time required. Numerical examples from a homogeneous model and a crustal waveguide model are used to illustrate the superiority of the CD operators over the conventional staggered-grid FD operators for the simulation of wave propagations.

  2. Effective field theories for QCD with rooted staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal

    2008-04-01

    Even highly improved variants of lattice QCD with staggered fermions show significant violations of taste symmetry at currently accessible lattice spacings. In addition, the 'rooting trick' is used in order to simulate with the correct number of light sea quarks, and this makes the lattice theory nonlocal, even though there is good reason to believe that the continuum limit is in the correct universality class. In order to understand scaling violations, it is thus necessary to extend the construction of the Symanzik effective theory to include rooted staggered fermions. We show how this can be done, starting from a generalization of the renormalization-group approach to rooted staggered fermions recently developed by one of us. We then explain how the chiral effective theory follows from the Symanzik action, and show that it leads to 'rooted' staggered chiral perturbation theory as the correct chiral theory for QCD with rooted staggered fermions. We thus establish a direct link between the renormalization-group based arguments for the correctness of the continuum limit and the success of rooted staggered chiral perturbation theory in fitting numerical results obtained with the rooting trick. In order to develop our argument, we need to assume the existence of a standard partially-quenched chiral effective theory for any local partially-quenched theory. Other technical, but standard, assumptions are also required.

  3. On preservation of symmetry in r-z staggered Lagrangian schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Váchal, Pavel; Wendroff, Burton

    2016-02-01

    In the focus of this work are symmetry preservation, conservation of energy and volume, and other important properties of staggered Lagrangian hydrodynamic schemes in cylindrical (r-z) geometry. It is well known that on quadrilateral cells in r-z, preservation of spherical symmetry, perfect satisfaction of the Geometrical Conservation Law (GCL), and total energy conservation are incompatible even on conforming grids. This paper suggests a novel staggered grid approach that preserves symmetry, conserves total energy by construction and tries to do its best by diminishing the GCL error to the order of entropy error. In particular, the forces from an existing volume consistent scheme are corrected so that spherical symmetry is preserved. The incorporation of subcell pressure mechanism to reduce spurious grid deformations is described and the relation of the new scheme to popular area-weighted and control volume approaches studied.

  4. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy alsomore » eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Lastly, our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.« less

  5. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy also eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.

  6. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy alsomore » eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.« less

  7. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Spectral Collocation for the Burgers' and Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  8. How Many Hours per Week Are Full-Time Community College Counselors Expected to Work? Evidence Indicates That in California No Uniform Load Exists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Donald L.

    The purpose of this study was to discover the workload policy for full-time counselors at each California community college and to compare them to see what variability existed. The response rate to questionnaires sent to all California community colleges was 79 per cent. Workloads were found to range from 15 to 40 hours per week. It is believed…

  9. Effects of Hourly, Low-Incentive, and High-Incentive Pay on Simulated Work Productivity: Initial Findings with a New Laboratory Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oah, Shezeen; Lee, Jang-Han

    2011-01-01

    The failures of previous studies to demonstrate productivity differences across different percentages of incentive pay may be partially due to insufficient simulation fidelity. The present study compared the effects of different percentages of incentive pay using a more advanced simulation method. Three payment methods were tested: hourly,…

  10. Staggered fermions, zero modes, and flavor-singlet mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, Gordon C; Davies, Christine T.H.; Follana, Eduardo; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2011-09-12

    We examine the taste structure of eigenvectors of the staggered-fermion Dirac operator. We derive a set of conditions on the eigenvectors of modes with small eigenvalues (near-zero modes), such that staggered fermions reproduce the 't Hooft vertex in the continuum limit. We also show that, assuming these conditions, the correlators of flavor-singlet mesons are free of contributions singular in 1/m, where m is the quark mass. This conclusion holds also when a single flavor of sea quark is represented by the fourth root of the staggered-fermion determinant. We then test numerically, using the HISQ action, whether these conditions hold on realistic lattice gauge fields. We find that the needed structure does indeed emerge.