Science.gov

Sample records for standardized assessment protocol

  1. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  2. Assessing transportation infrastructure impacts on rangelands: test of a standard rangeland assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.; Toledo, David

    2010-01-01

    Linear disturbances associated with on- and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable energy, and ex-urban), and recreational activities. In addition to the direct impacts of road development, the presence and use of roads may alter resilience of adjoining areas through indirect effects such as altered site hydrologic and eolian processes, invasive seed dispersal, and sediment transport. There are few standardized methods for assessing impacts of transportation-related land-use activities on soils and vegetation in arid and semi-arid rangelands. Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) is an internationally accepted qualitative assessment that is applied widely to rangelands. We tested the sensitivity of IIRH to impacts of roads, trails, and pipelines on adjacent lands by surveying plots at three distances from these linear disturbances. We performed tests at 16 randomly selected sites in each of three ecosystems (Northern High Plains, Colorado Plateau, and Chihuahuan Desert) for a total of 208 evaluation plots. We also evaluated the repeatability of IIRH when applied to road-related disturbance gradients. Finally, we tested extent of correlations between IIRH plot attribute departure classes and trends in a suite of quantitative indicators. Results indicated that the IIRH technique is sensitive to direct and indirect impacts of transportation activities with greater departure from reference condition near disturbances than far from disturbances. Trends in degradation of ecological processes detected with qualitative assessments were highly correlated with quantitative data. Qualitative and quantitative assessments employed in this study can be used to assess impacts of transportation features at the plot scale. Through integration with remote

  3. The Impact of National Standards Assessment in New Zealand, and National Testing Protocols in Norway on Indigenous Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Whitehead, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper first provides a critic of the implementation of compulsory national assessment protocols internationally, and then nationally through a review of the implementation process used for the introduction of National Standards in New Zealand, and National Testing in Norwegian mainstream schools. It then reviews the impact of these two…

  4. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  5. Secretin-Stimulated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of the Benign Pancreatic Disorders: Systematic Review and Proposal for a Standardized Protocol.

    PubMed

    Madzak, Adnan; Olesen, Søren Schou; Wathle, Gaute Kjellevold; Haldorsen, Ingfrid Salvesen; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    2016-09-01

    This systemic review summarizes the current literature and general consensus on secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) of the benign pancreatic disorders and discusses important aspects on how s-MRI is optimally performed. The aim is to provide an overview, for clinicians and radiologist, of the s-MRI protocols and the range of clinical applications. Furthermore, the review will summarize the criteria for evaluation of pancreatic morphology and function based on s-MRI.The literature search indentified 69 original articles and 15 reviews. Chronic pancreatitis was the disease that was most frequently assessed by s-MRI (33%), followed by acute pancreatitis (9%). Dynamic thick-slab 2-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was the most used imaging sequence (86%). The diameter of the main pancreatic duct (75%) and pancreatic exocrine function based on visual grading of duodenal filling (67%) were the most evaluated pancreatic features. Sufficient similarities between studies were identified to propose the most agreeable standardized s-MRI protocol for morphological and functional assessment of the pancreas. In the future, more research and increased collaboration between centers is necessary to achieve more consensus and optimization of s-MRI protocols. PMID:27171509

  6. The Evaluation of Franco-Quebec Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Mothers: The Implementation of a Standard Assessment Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John; Friedrich, William N.; Cyr, Mireille; Theriault, Chantal; Perron, Alain; And Others

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated a standard assessment protocol with 48 Franco-Quebec victims of child sexual abuse and 40 nonoffending mothers. The protocol was favorably received by child protection service workers, supervisors, mothers, and victims. Among specific results were that the rate of symptom-free children was lower (19%) and that of…

  7. Development of a Standard Protocol for the Harmonic Analysis of Radial Pulse Wave and Assessing Its Reliability in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Jiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to establish a standard protocol and to quantitatively assess the reliability of harmonic analysis of the radial pulse wave measured by a harmonic wave analyzer (TD01C system). Both intraobserver and interobserver assessments were conducted to investigate whether the values of harmonics are stable in successive measurements. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland–Altman plot were used for this purpose. For the reliability assessments of the intraobserver and the interobserver, 22 subjects (mean age 45 ± 14 years; 14 males and 8 females) were enrolled. The first eleven harmonics of the radial pulse wave presented excellent repeatability (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\text {ICCs}>0.9$ \\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\text {p}<0.001$ \\end{document}) for the intraobserver assessment and high reproducibility (ICCs range from 0.83 to 0.96 and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\text {p}<0.001$ \\end{document}) for the interobserver assessment. The Bland–Altman plot indicated that more than 90% of harmonic values fell within two standard deviations of the mean difference. Thus, we concluded that the harmonic analysis of the radial pulse wave using the TD01C system is a feasible and reliable method to assess a hemodynamic characteristic in clinical trial. PMID:27170904

  8. Standardizing the Protocol for Hemispherical Photographs: Accuracy Assessment of Binarization Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Glatthorn, Jonas; Beckschäfer, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hemispherical photography is a well-established method to optically assess ecological parameters related to plant canopies; e.g. ground-level light regimes and the distribution of foliage within the crown space. Interpreting hemispherical photographs involves classifying pixels as either sky or vegetation. A wide range of automatic thresholding or binarization algorithms exists to classify the photographs. The variety in methodology hampers ability to compare results across studies. To identify an optimal threshold selection method, this study assessed the accuracy of seven binarization methods implemented in software currently available for the processing of hemispherical photographs. Therefore, binarizations obtained by the algorithms were compared to reference data generated through a manual binarization of a stratified random selection of pixels. This approach was adopted from the accuracy assessment of map classifications known from remote sensing studies. Percentage correct () and kappa-statistics () were calculated. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed for photographs taken with automatic exposure settings (auto-exposure) and photographs taken with settings which avoid overexposure (histogram-exposure). In addition, gap fraction values derived from hemispherical photographs were compared with estimates derived from the manually classified reference pixels. All tested algorithms were shown to be sensitive to overexposure. Three of the algorithms showed an accuracy which was high enough to be recommended for the processing of histogram-exposed hemispherical photographs: “Minimum” ( 98.8%; 0.952), “Edge Detection” ( 98.1%; 0.950), and “Minimum Histogram” ( 98.1%; 0.947). The Minimum algorithm overestimated gap fraction least of all (11%). The overestimation by the algorithms Edge Detection (63%) and Minimum Histogram (67%) were considerably larger. For the remaining four evaluated algorithms (IsoData, Maximum Entropy, MinError, and Otsu) an

  9. Performance Assessment of Water Insight SpectroPhotometer with Three Channels (WISP-3) Against the Standard of Ocean Optics Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezehegn, Semhar; Ansko, Ilmar; Kuusk, Joel; Hommersom, Annelies; Laanen, Marnix

    2015-12-01

    In the FP7 project GLaSS, seven groups from different European countries co-operate on the preparation of the uptake of Sentinel data, including use cases to demonstrate the applicability of this new high-resolution data on lakes with a large range of optical properties. Within GLaSS there are work packages on validation, algorithm comparisons and atmospheric correction that require comparable and high quality in situ measurements of the lakes. Unfortunately, the type of radiometric instruments and lab techniques used by the partners are different with regard to specification, performance and sensitivity. Hence, it is very important to use standard protocols to make sure the results are comparable and requirements are fulfilled before validating results. The Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, later upgraded to “Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Colour Sensor Validation” [3] are set up to allow such harmonization. GLaSS made a start with the development of dedicated protocols for optical measurements and satellite validation for inland waters of different types. Because several GLaSS partners use the WISP-3 radiometer for reflectance measurements, extra attention is put to check the performance of this instrument with regard to the protocols.

  10. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

  11. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J

    2015-10-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. PMID:26188274

  12. Quantitative assessment of methyl-esterification and other side reactions in a standard propionylation protocol for detection of histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Paternoster, Veerle; Edhager, Anders Valdemar; Sibbersen, Christian; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2016-07-01

    Histone modifications play an important role in regulating chromatin stability and gene expression, but to date, investigating them remains challenging. In order to obtain peptides suitable for MS-based analysis, chemical derivatization of N-terminus and lysine residues by propionic anhydride is commonly performed. Several side reactions (methyl-esterification, amidation, solvolysis, overpropionylation, and missed propionylation) during propionylation protocols have been described, yet their relative abundances remain vague. Because methyl-esterification could interfere with correct interpretation of the modification pattern, it is essential to take measures to avoid it. Here we present in-depth quantitative analyses of methyl-esterification and the other side reactions in a standard propionylation protocol containing methanol, and when replacing methanol with isopropanol or acetonitrile. We show that the use of alternative solvents can eliminate methyl-esterification and that even though other side reactions are not prevented, their contribution can be kept relatively small. We also show that replacing methanol can be of importance also in other proteomics methods, such as mixed cation exchange, using methanol under acidic conditions. PMID:27080621

  13. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  14. Improved short-term toxicity test protocol to assess metal tolerance in phototrophic periphyton: toward standardization of PICT approaches.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Anne Sophie; Pesce, Stéphane; Foulquier, Arnaud; Gahou, Josiane; Coquery, Marina; Dabrin, Aymeric

    2015-03-01

    Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approaches involve comparing tolerance levels of natural communities to a particular contaminant or a contaminant mixture using short-term toxicity tests performed under controlled conditions. However, results from toxicity tests can be modulated by various environmental and experimental conditions, raising questions about their reproducibility and comparability. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the influence of exposure duration, periphyton suspension concentration, and periphyton maturation stage on the measurement of short-term effects of copper on phototrophic periphyton communities. Our results showed the very weak influence of exposure duration in the tested range (2-6 h) on toxicity level, whereas periphyton biomass in the tested suspension (in terms of both chlorophyll a concentrations and dry weight), proved a crucial determinant in toxicity assessment. Results also highlighted the potential tolerance increase with the periphyton maturation stage. This parameter conditioned the positive linear relationship between tolerance level and periphyton suspension concentration, leading to an increase in the linear regression slope with the maturation stage. This suggests that such a relationship is probably highly periphyton-dependent. Consequently, to enable data toxicity comparisons, an a priori normalization of the periphyton suspension biomass is necessary, and PICT approaches require the use, as much of possible, of periphyton with similar maturation stage. Finally, the present study clearly shows that a better standardization of PICT approaches could help to improve reproducibility. It could thus facilitate the comparison of tolerance levels measured in the same study (e.g., spatial and/or temporal and/or inter-treatment comparison) as well as the comparison obtained from different experimental and in situ research. PMID:25167827

  15. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-11-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  16. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  17. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.

    2002-01-01

    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  18. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Jenett, Arnim; Schindelin, Johannes E; Heisenberg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc.) [1]. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy) to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel) the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at [2] PMID:17196102

  19. Toward a Standard Protocol for Micelle Simulation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael A; Swope, William C; Jordan, Kirk E; Warren, Patrick B; Noro, Massimo G; Bray, David J; Anderson, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present protocols for simulating micelles using dissipative particle dynamics (and in principle molecular dynamics) that we expect to be appropriate for computing micelle properties for a wide range of surfactant molecules. The protocols address challenges in equilibrating and sampling, specifically when kinetics can be very different with changes in surfactant concentration, and with minor changes in molecular size and structure, even using the same force field parameters. We demonstrate that detection of equilibrium can be automated and is robust, for the molecules in this study and others we have considered. In order to quantify the degree of sampling obtained during simulations, metrics to assess the degree of molecular exchange among micellar material are presented, and the use of correlation times are prescribed to assess sampling and for statistical uncertainty estimates on the relevant simulation observables. We show that the computational challenges facing the measurement of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) are somewhat different for high and low CMC materials. While a specific choice is not recommended here, we demonstrate that various methods give values that are consistent in terms of trends, even if not numerically equivalent. PMID:27096611

  20. Protocol Standards for Reporting Video Data in Academic Journals.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Pamela A; Ignacio, Romeo C; de Moya, Marc A

    2016-04-01

    Editors of biomedical journals have estimated that a majority (40%-90%) of studies published in scientific journals cannot be replicated, even though an inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build on published claims. Each journal sets its own protocols for establishing "quality" in articles, yet over the past 50 years, few journals in any field--especially medical education--have specified protocols for reporting the use of video data in research. The authors found that technical and industry-driven aspects of video recording, as well as a lack of standardization and reporting requirements by research journals, have led to major limitations in the ability to assess or reproduce video data used in research. Specific variables in the videotaping process (e.g., camera angle), which can be changed or be modified, affect the quality of recorded data, leading to major reporting errors and, in turn, unreliable conclusions. As more data are now in the form of digital videos, the historical lack of reporting standards makes it increasingly difficult to accurately replicate medical educational studies. Reproducibility is especially important as the medical education community considers setting national high-stakes standards in medicine and surgery based on video data. The authors of this Perspective provide basic protocol standards for investigators and journals using video data in research publications so as to allow for reproducibility. PMID:26675190

  1. Standard protocol stack for mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    It is proposed to create a fully 'open' architectural specification for standardized space mission command and control. By being open, i.e., independent for any particular implementation, diversity and competition will be encouraged among future commercial suppliers of space equipment and systems. Customers of the new standard capability are expected to include: (1) the civil space community (e.g., NASA, NOAA, international Agencies); (2) the military space community (e.g., Air Force, Navy, intelligence); and (3) the emerging commercial space community (e.g., mobile satellite service providers).

  2. Wildlife road traffic accidents: a standardized protocol for counting flattened fauna

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, Wendy J; Parker, Daniel M; Bernard, Ric T F; Reilly, Brian K; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2014-01-01

    Previous assessments of wildlife road mortality have not used directly comparable methods and, at present, there is no standardized protocol for the collection of such data. Consequently, there are no internationally comparative statistics documenting roadkill rates. In this study, we used a combination of experimental trials and road transects to design a standardized protocol to assess roadkill rates on both paved and unpaved roads. Simulated roadkill were positioned over a 1 km distance, and trials were conducted at eight different speeds (20–100 km·h−1). The recommended protocol was then tested on a 100-km transect, driven daily over a 40-day period. This recorded 413 vertebrate roadkill, comprising 106 species. We recommend the protocol be adopted for future road ecology studies to enable robust statistical comparisons between studies. PMID:25247063

  3. Joint Architecture Standard (JAS) Reliable Data Delivery Protocol (RDDP) specification.

    SciTech Connect

    Enderle, Justin Wayne; Daniels, James W.; Gardner, Michael T.; Eldridge, John M.; Hunt, Richard D.; Gallegos, Daniel E.

    2011-05-01

    The Joint Architecture Standard (JAS) program at Sandia National Laboratories requires the use of a reliable data delivery protocol over SpaceWire. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, developed and specified a reliable protocol for its Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite known as GOES-R Reliable Data Delivery Protocol (GRDDP). The JAS program implemented and tested GRDDP and then suggested a number of modifications to the original specification to meet its program specific requirements. This document details the full RDDP specification as modified for JAS. The JAS Reliable Data Delivery Protocol uses the lower-level SpaceWire data link layer to provide reliable packet delivery services to one or more higher-level host application processes. This document specifies the functional requirements for JRDDP but does not specify the interfaces to the lower- or higher-level processes, which may be implementation-dependent.

  4. Metadata Protocols and Standards: Bringing Order to Our Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glogoff, Stuart J.; Forger, Garry J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses metadata standards that help manage and locate Web-based educational resources, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include GEM (Gateway to Educational Materials); Dublin Core protocol; national and international efforts; and MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching). (LRW)

  5. SUPPLEMENT TO: STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report supplements earlier published standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the Florida Radon Research Program. The report adds measurements of small canister radon flux and soil water potential to the section on soil measurements. It adds indo...

  6. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  7. Standardization of clinical protocols in oral malodor research.

    PubMed

    Yaegaki, Ken; Brunette, Donald M; Tangerman, Albert; Choe, Yong-Sahm; Winkel, Edwin G; Ito, Sayaka; Kitano, Tomohiro; Ii, Hisataka; Calenic, Bogdan; Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Imai, Toshio

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to standardize protocols for clinical research into oral malodor caused by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). To detect VSCs, a gas chromatograph (GC) using a flame photometric detector equipped with a bandpass filter (at 393 nm) is the gold standard (sensitivity: 5 × 10(-11) gS s(-1)). The baselines of VSC concentrations in mouth air varied considerably over a week. When the subjects refrained from eating, drinking and oral hygiene including mouth rinsing, the VSC concentrations remained constant until eating. Over a 6 h period after a meal, VSC concentrations decreased dramatically (p < 0.01). These results point to optimal times and conditions for sampling subjects. Several portable devices were compared with the measurements by the GCs. Portable GCs demonstrated capabilities similar to those of the GCs. We also applied the recommended protocols described below to clinical research testing the efficacy of ZnCl(2) products, and confirmed that using the recommended protocols in a randomized crossover design would provide very clear results. Proposed protocols include: (a) a short-term study rather than a long-term study is strongly recommended, since the VSC concentrations are constant in the short term; (b) a crossover study would be the best design to avoid the effects of individual specificities on each clinical intervention; (c) measurements of VSCs should preferably be carried out using either a GC or portable GCs. PMID:22368249

  8. The Table Access Protocol: Providing standard access to astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandrekar-Heinis, D.; Michel, L.; Louys, M.; Bonnarel, F.

    2014-11-01

    In the upcoming era of large scale, geographically distributed, varied sources of astronomical data, a standard, simple and flexible way to access this data is necessary and useful for astronomers across the globe. Most of the modern surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are available in well organized tabular formats. The Table Access Protocol (TAP) supports a standard web interface to access this kind of tabular data. Predefined queries and results formats help different data providers to implement these services. TAP also helps various software tools to access data and perform cross-matches seamlessly across different data sources. It is then possible to access data in tools that consume TAP web services. This supports further detailed data analysis on a queried slice of data. This document describes TAP and its utility for astronomers and data scientists. It also provides information on the protocol for data providers and developers.

  9. SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

  10. Automatic quality assessment protocol for MRI equipment.

    PubMed

    Bourel, P; Gibon, D; Coste, E; Daanen, V; Rousseau, J

    1999-12-01

    The authors have developed a protocol and software for the quality assessment of MRI equipment with a commercial test object. Automatic image analysis consists of detecting surfaces and objects, defining regions of interest, acquiring reference point coordinates and establishing gray level profiles. Signal-to-noise ratio, image uniformity, geometrical distortion, slice thickness, slice profile, and spatial resolution are checked. The results are periodically analyzed to evaluate possible drifts with time. The measurements are performed weekly on three MRI scanners made by the Siemens Company (VISION 1.5T, EXPERT 1.0T, and OPEN 0.2T). The results obtained for the three scanners over approximately 3.5 years are presented, analyzed, and compared. PMID:10619255

  11. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  12. Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

  13. Towards Automatic Diabetes Case Detection and ABCS Protocol Compliance Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ninad K.; Son, Roderick Y.; Arnzen, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective According to the American Diabetes Association, the implementation of the standards of care for diabetes has been suboptimal in most clinical settings. Diabetes is a disease that had a total estimated cost of $174 billion in 2007 for an estimated diabetes-affected population of 17.5 million in the United States. With the advent of electronic medical records (EMR), tools to analyze data residing in the EMR for healthcare surveillance can help reduce the burdens experienced today. This study was primarily designed to evaluate the efficacy of employing clinical natural language processing to analyze discharge summaries for evidence indicating a presence of diabetes, as well as to assess diabetes protocol compliance and high risk factors. Methods Three sets of algorithms were developed to analyze discharge summaries for: (1) identification of diabetes, (2) protocol compliance, and (3) identification of high risk factors. The algorithms utilize a common natural language processing framework that extracts relevant discourse evidence from the medical text. Evidence utilized in one or more of the algorithms include assertion of the disease and associated findings in medical text, as well as numerical clinical measurements and prescribed medications. Results The diabetes classifier was successful at classifying reports for the presence and absence of diabetes. Evaluated against 444 discharge summaries, the classifier’s performance included macro and micro F-scores of 0.9698 and 0.9865, respectively. Furthermore, the protocol compliance and high risk factor classifiers showed promising results, with most F-measures exceeding 0.9. Conclusions The presented approach accurately identified diabetes in medical discharge summaries and showed promise with regards to assessment of protocol compliance and high risk factors. Utilizing free-text analytic techniques on medical text can complement clinical-public health decision support by identifying cases and high risk

  14. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  15. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

  16. A proposed protocol for remote control of automated assessment devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kissock, P.S.

    1996-09-01

    Systems and devices that are controlled remotely are becoming more common in security systems in the US Air Force and other government agencies to provide protection of valuable assets. These systems reduce the number of needed personnel while still providing a high level of protection. However, each remotely controlled device usually has its own communication protocol. This limits the ability to change devices without changing the system that provides the communications control to the device. Sandia is pursuing a standard protocol that can be used to communicate with the different devices currently in use, or may be used in the future, in the US Air Force and other government agencies throughout the security community. Devices to be controlled include intelligent pan/tilt mounts, day/night video cameras., thermal imaging cameras, and remote data processors. Important features of this protocol include the ability to send messages of varying length, identify the sender, and more importantly, control remote data processors. As camera and digital signal processor (DSP) use expands, the DSP will begin to reside in the camera itself. The DSP can be used to provide auto-focus, frame-to- frame image registration, video motion detection (VMD), target detection, tracking, image compression, and many other functions. With the serial data control link, the actual DSP software can be updated or changed as required. Coaxial video cables may become obsolete once a compression algorithm is established in the DSP. This paper describes the proposed public domain protocol, features, and examples of use. The authors hope to elicit comments from security technology developers regarding format and use of remotely controlled automated assessment devices. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effects of tailored neck-shoulder pain treatment based on a decision model guided by clinical assessments and standardized functional tests. A study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A major problem with rehabilitation interventions for neck pain is that the condition may have multiple causes, thus a single treatment approach is seldom efficient. The present study protocol outlines a single blinded randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of tailored treatment for neck-shoulder pain. The treatment is based on a decision model guided by standardized clinical assessment and functional tests with cut-off values. Our main hypothesis is that the tailored treatment has better short, intermediate and long-term effects than either non-tailored treatment or treatment-as-usual (TAU) on pain and function. We sub-sequentially hypothesize that tailored and non-tailored treatment both have better effect than TAU. Methods/Design 120 working women with minimum six weeks of nonspecific neck-shoulder pain aged 20–65, are allocated by minimisation with the factors age, duration of pain, pain intensity and disability in to the groups tailored treatment (T), non-tailored treatment (NT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Treatment is given to the groups T and NT for 11 weeks (27 sessions evenly distributed). An extensive presentation of the tests and treatment decision model is provided. The main treatment components are manual therapy, cranio-cervical flexion exercise and strength training, EMG-biofeedback training, treatment for cervicogenic headache, neck motor control training. A decision algorithm based on the baseline assessment determines the treatment components given to each participant of T- and NT-groups. Primary outcome measures are physical functioning (Neck Disability Index) and average pain intensity last week (Numeric Rating Scale). Secondary outcomes are general improvement (Patient Global Impression of Change scale), symptoms (Profile Fitness Mapping neck questionnaire), capacity to work in the last 6 weeks (quality and quantity) and pressure pain threshold of m. trapezius. Primary and secondary outcomes will be reported for

  18. Methods to Standardize a Multicenter Acupuncture Trial Protocol to Reduce Aromatase Inhibitor-related Joint Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D.; Capodice, Jillian; Awad, Danielle; Jeffres, Anne; Unger, Joseph M.; Lew, Danika L.; Hansen, Lisa K.; Meyskens, Frank L.; Wade, James L.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Robust methods are needed to efficiently conduct large, multi-site, randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture protocols. SWOG S1200 is a randomized, controlled sham- and waitlist-controlled trial of a standardized acupuncture protocol treating aromatase inhibitor (AI)-associated arthralgias in early stage breast cancer patients (n=228). The primary objective is to determine whether true acupuncture administered twice weekly for 6 weeks compared to sham acupuncture or a waitlist control causes a reduction in AI-associated joint pain at 6 weeks as assessed by patient report. The study is conducted at 11 institutions across the US. The true acupuncture protocol was developed using a consensus-based process. Both the true acupuncture and sham acupuncture protocols consist of 12 sessions administered over 6 weeks, followed by 1 session per week for the remaining 6 weeks. The true acupuncture protocol uses standardized protocol points in addition to standardized acupoints tailored to a patient’s joint symptoms. The similarly standardized sham acupuncture protocol utilizes superficial needling of non-acupoints. Standardized methods were developed to train and monitor acupuncturists, including online and in-person training, study manuals, monthly phone calls, and remote quality assurance monitoring throughout the study period. Research staff was similarly trained using online and in-person training, and monthly phone calls. PMID:26100070

  19. Development of a standard documentation protocol for communicating exposure models.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Altenpohl, A; Fait, G; Fransman, W; Paini, A; Radovnikovic, A; Simon-Cornu, M; Suciu, N; Verdonck, F

    2016-10-15

    An important step in building a computational model is its documentation; a comprehensive and structured documentation can improve the model applicability and transparency in science/research and for regulatory purposes. This is particularly crucial and challenging for environmental and/or human exposure models that aim to establish quantitative relationships between personal exposure levels and their determinants. Exposure models simulate the transport and fate of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and may involve a large set of entities (e.g. all the media the contaminants may pass though). Such complex models are difficult to be described in a comprehensive, unambiguous and accessible way. Bad communication of assumptions, theory, structure and/or parameterization can lead to lack of confidence by the user and it may be source of errors. The goal of this paper is to propose a standard documentation protocol (SDP) for exposure models, i.e. a generic format and a standard structure by which all exposure models could be documented. For this purpose, a CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) workshop was set up with objective to agree on minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be provided on exposure models documentation along with guidelines for the structure and presentation of the information. The resulting CEN workshop agreement (CWA) was expected to facilitate a more rigorous formulation of exposure models description and the understanding by users. This paper intends to describe the process followed for defining the SDP, the standardisation approach, as well as the main components of the SDP resulting from a wide consultation of interested stakeholders. The main outcome is a CEN CWA which establishes terms and definitions for exposure models and their elements, specifies minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be documented, and proposes a structure for communicating the documentation to different

  20. Protocol for cardiac assessment of recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Ana M; Lollett, Carlos; Herrera, Hector; Passariello, Gianfranco; Wong, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a database on physical fitness is presented. As initial population to fill this database, people who practice recreational sports at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB) were chosen. The goal was studying individual physical fitness in order to structure exercise routines that gives certain benefits without risking the individual health, promoting a less sedentary way of life. Before the study, a low-cost noninvasive protocol was designed to determine the level of physical fitness. The methodology consisted of four steps: a) A review of existing protocols to propose a set of physical fitness (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), cardiovascular (heart rate variability, heart rate recovery time and arterial blood pressure), anthropomorphic, aerobic (maximum oxygen consumption) and mood state (Profile of Mood State (POMS)) measurements, which allow sketching a complete profile on the sportsman physical fitness. b) Instrumental data collection. c) Electrocardiographic signal processing. d) Data post-processing using multivariate analysis. The database was composed of 26 subject from USB. Ten subjects were soccer players, ten were mountain climbers and six were sedentary people. Results showed that the heart rate recover time after 2-3 min, IPAQ and maximum oxygen consumption have higher weights for classifying individuals according to their habitual physical activity. Heart rate variability, as well as, POMS did not contribute greatly for discriminating recreational sport from sedentary persons. PMID:23366343

  1. FALLS-protocol: lung ultrasound in hemodynamic assessment of shock.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, D

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of acute circulatory failure is a challenge in absence of solid gold standard. It is suggested that artifacts generated by lung ultrasound can be of help. The FALLS-protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) follows Weil's classification of shocks. Firstly, it searches for pericardial fluid, then right heart enlargment, lastly abolished lung sliding. In this setting, the diagnoses of pericardial tamponade, pulmonary embolism and tension pneumothorax, i.e. obstructive shock, can be schematically ruled out. Moreover, the search of diffuse lung rockets (i.e. multiple B-lines, a comet-tail artifact) is performed. Its absence excludes pulmonary edema, that in clinical practice is left cardiogenic shock (most cases). At this step, the patient (defined FALLS-responder) receives fluid therapy. He/she has usually a normal sonographic lung surface, an A-profile. Any clinical improvement suggests hypovolemic shock. The absence of improvement generates continuation of fluid therapy, eventually yielding fluid overload. This condition results in the change from A-profile to B-profile. Lung ultrasound has the advantage to demonstrate this interstitial syndrome at an early and infraclinical stage (FALLS-endpoint). The change from horizontal A-lines to vertical B-lines can be considered as a direct marker of volemia in this use. By elimination, this change indicates schematically distributive shock, while in current practice septic shock. The major limitation is the B-profile on admission generated by an initial lung disorder. FALLS-protocol, which can be associated with no drawback with traditional hemodynamic tools, uses a simple machine (without Doppler) and a suitable microconvex probe allowing for heart, lung and vein assessment. PMID:24364005

  2. Assessment and classification of protocol deviations

    PubMed Central

    Ghooi, Ravindra Bhaskar; Bhosale, Neelambari; Wadhwani, Reena; Divate, Pathik; Divate, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deviations from the approved trial protocol are common during clinical trials. They have been conventionally classified as deviations or violations, depending on their impact on the trial. Methods: A new method has been proposed by which deviations are classified in five grades from 1 to 5. A deviation of Grade 1 has no impact on the subjects’ well-being or on the quality of data. At the maximum, a deviation Grade 5 leads to the death of the subject. This method of classification was applied to deviations noted in the center over the last 3 years. Results: It was observed that most deviations were of Grades 1 and 2, with fewer falling in Grades 3 and 4. There were no deviations that led to the death of the subject (Grade 5). Discussion: This method of classification would help trial managers decide on the action to be taken on the occurrence of deviations, which would be based on their impact. PMID:27453830

  3. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  4. Covert video surveillance--an assessment of the Staffordshire protocol.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T

    1996-01-01

    An assessment of a protocol devised to guide practitioners thinking of using covert video surveillance. Such surveillance is particularly used to help identify cases of Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. The protocol in question has been written by staff at the Academic Department of Paediatrics, North Staffordshire Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent in association with their local Area Child Protection Committee and has been commended by the Department of Health to others wishing to implement covert video surveillance. PMID:8932721

  5. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This brochure summarizes the test protocols used in the NREL Hydrogen Sensor Test Laboratory for the quantitative assessment of critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Researchers at the NREL Hydrogen Safety Sensor Test Laboratory developed a variety of test protocols to quantitatively assess critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Many are similar to, but typically more rigorous than, the test procedures mandated by ISO Standard 26142 (Hydrogen Detector for Stationary Applications). Specific protocols were developed for linear range, short-term stability, and the impact of fluctuations in temperature (T), pressure (P), relative humidity (RH), and chemical environment. Specialized tests (e.g., oxygen requirement) may also be performed. Hydrogen safety sensors selected for evaluation are subjected to a thorough regimen of test protocols, as described. Sensor testing is performed at NREL on custom-built sensor test fixtures. Environmental parameters such as T, P, RH, and gas composition are rigorously controlled and monitored. The NREL evaluations are performed on commercial hydrogen detectors, on emerging sensing technologies, and for end users to validate sensor performance for specific application needs. Test results and data are shared with the manufacturer or client via summary reports, teleconference phone calls, and, when appropriate, site visits to manufacturer facilities. Client representatives may also monitor NREL's operation while their technologies are being tested. Manufacturers may use test data to illustrate the analytical capability of their technologies and, more importantly, to guide future developments. NREL uses the data to assess technology gaps and deployment considerations. Per NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory policy, test results are treated as proprietary and are not shared with other manufacturers or other entities without permission. The data may be used by NREL in open publications

  6. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H

    2000-03-01

    Humans have only a limited ability to incorporate information in decision making. In certain situations, the mismatch between this limitation and the availability of extensive information contributes to the varying performance and high error rate of clinical decision makers. Variation in clinical practice is due in part to clinicians' poor compliance with guidelines and recommended therapies. The use of decision-support tools is a response to both the information revolution and poor compliance. Computerized protocols used to deliver decision support can be configured to contain much more detail than textual guidelines or paper-based flow diagrams. Such protocols can generate patient-specific instructions for therapy that can be carried out with little interclinician variability; however, clinicians must be willing to modify personal styles of clinical management. Protocols need not be perfect. Several defensible and reasonable approaches are available for clinical problems. However, one of these reasonable approaches must be chosen and incorporated into the protocol to promote consistent clinical decisions. This reasoning is the basis of an explicit method of decision support that allows the rigorous evaluation of interventions, including use of the protocols themselves. Computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation and management of intravenous fluid and hemodynamic factors in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome provide case studies for this discussion. PMID:10691588

  7. Assessment of Signs of Anterior Blepharitis Using Standardized Color Photographs

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Vatinee Y.; Brainard, David H.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Nyberg, William; Windsor, Eliza; Pearson, Denise J.; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G.; Stone, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe a standardized technique for acquiring and viewing photographic images of eyelids, assess the reproducibility and validity of a grading protocol for signs of anterior blepharitis, and explore whether the signs depend on the eyelid or area of eyelid assessed. Methods Subjects with anterior blepharitis ranging from none to severe were examined by ophthalmologists at clinical sites. Digital images of the eyelids of subjects were acquired using a protocol that allowed calibration of color and luminance. Three ophthalmologists at a centralized reading center applied a novel protocol for grading features of anterior blepharitis from the digital images viewed on color-calibrated monitors. The agreement among graders was assessed with percent agreement and weighted kappa statistics (Kw), and the correlation of photographic and clinical gradings was assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Agreement among graders was excellent (Kw >0.80) on the number of eyelid margin vessels and was substantial (Kw between 0.61 and 0.80) for erythema, collarettes, number of engorged vessels, and number of lashes. Grading of photographic images and the clinical assessments of erythema and lid debris were moderately correlated (r =0.27 to 0.45). The grades for different features depended on whether the upper or lower eyelid, eyelid skin or lid margin, and central or lateral lid were assessed. Conclusions Application of a protocol to obtain and display calibrated digital images of eyelids supports standardized assessment of anterior blepharitis in clinical care and research studies. PMID:24055901

  8. Picture archiving and communications systems protocol based on ISO-OSI standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Nam, Jiseung; Dallas, William J.; Osada, Masakazu; McNeill, Kevin M.; Ozeki, Takeshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi

    1991-07-01

    During the last decade, the concept of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has evolved and matured to integrate digital image information in a hospital. PACS integrates various imaging devices, database archive systems, and image viewing workstations. One of the most difficult problems for integration is the standardization of communication protocols required to connect devices from different vendors. When the ACR-NEMA standard was announced for communications in digital radiology in 1985, it solved some of the problems for PACS with a hardware interface, a set of software commands, and a consistent set of data formats. However, it has been found to be inadequate for networked PACS environments, not only because of its point-to-point nature and lack of a network layer, but also because of its inflexibility to allow other services and protocols to be added in the future. Based on previous experience, the case is made for a new standard for PACS networks and a suggested approach for new protocol is presented. This paper addresses the development of a new standard for PACS protocol layers and attempts to define the protocols from a layered-systems approach. The basis for the new protocol definition is primarily the International Organization for Standardization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) protocols and the data format portion of ACR-NEMA standard. The scope and rationale of the proposed protocol, background, and relationship to PACS technology are discussed. The proposed PACS protocol covers the protocol service definition and specification for the application, presentation, session, transport, and network layers. The proposed PACS protocol is intended to facilitate the development of PACSs by several vendors capable of interfacing with each other. The new PACS protocols will also support a global PACS environment.

  9. A monitoring protocol to assess tidal restoration of salt marshes on local and regional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, H.A.; Dionne, M.D.; Burdick, D.M.; Roman, C.T.; Buchsbaum, R.; Hutchins, E.

    2002-01-01

    Assessing the response of salt marshes to tidal restoration relies on comparisons of ecosystem attributes between restored and reference marshes. Although this approach provides an objective basis for judging project success, inferences can be constrained if the high variability of natural marshes masks differences in sampled attributes between restored and reference sites. Furthermore, such assessments are usually focused on a small number of restoration projects in a local area, limiting the ability to address questions regarding the effectiveness of restoration within a broad region. We developed a hierarchical approach to evaluate the performance of tidal restorations at local and regional scales throughout the Gulf of Maine. The cornerstone of the approach is a standard protocol for monitoring restored and reference salt marshes throughout the region. The monitoring protocol was developed by consensus among nearly 50 restoration scientists and practitioners. The protocol is based on a suite of core structural measures that can be applied to any tidal restoration project. The protocol also includes additional functional measures for application to specific projects. Consistent use of the standard protocol to monitor local projects will enable pooling information for regional assessments. Ultimately, it will be possible to establish a range of reference conditions characterizing natural tidal wetlands in the region and to compare performance curves between populations of restored and reference marshes for assessing regional restoration effectiveness.

  10. Standardizing germination protocols for diverse raspberry and blackberry species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Rubus species exhibit delayed or poor germination because of a deep double dormancy. The objective of this study was to improve Rubus seed germination protocols by defining the seed characteristics of diverse Rubus species and determining scarification and germination requirements. Seeds of fie...

  11. Observer Use of Standardized Observation Protocols in Consequential Observation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Courtney A.; Yi, Qi; Jones, Nathan D.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; McLeod, Monica; Liu, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from a handful of large-scale studies suggests that although observers can be trained to score reliably using observation protocols, there are concerns related to initial training and calibration activities designed to keep observers scoring accurately over time (e.g., Bell, et al, 2012; BMGF, 2012). Studies offer little insight into how…

  12. Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers’ own packs. Methods We tested a cigarette pack labeling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers’ cigarette packs. Results Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (p<.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest a feasible pack labeling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers’ cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomized controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labeling policy. PMID:25564282

  13. NEW STANDARD PROTOCOL FOR DIAGNOSIS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) adopted recommendations on the publication of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM). This guideline produces standardized documents describing procedures and methods for the d...

  14. Clinical validation protocols for noninvasive blood pressure monitors and their recognition by regulatory authorities and professional organizations: rationale and considerations for a single unified protocol or standard.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim-Gau

    2013-10-01

    Standardized protocols for validating the clinical accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors have been available since 1987. Some of them were developed by standards bodies and others by professional organizations. They have been well-tested through use and progressively improved through multiple revisions; however, many methodological differences exist between them. In addition, for the purpose of regulatory approval or marketing clearance, some protocols are recognized in some countries but not in others; thus, manufacturers have to validate their NIBP monitors to more than one protocol in order to market them worldwide. The use of different protocols not only makes it difficult to compare one device with another but also complicates the validation, regulatory approval, marketing, and public acceptance of NIBP monitors, creating undue burden on manufacturers and unnecessary confusion among users. There is a need for protocol developers, standards bodies, and regulatory authorities to work together to develop and agree on a single unified protocol or standard, one that builds on the strengths of the various protocols that have been developed so far. It is apparent that there is already a trend toward convergence of the various protocols into two protocols, namely, the ISO 81060-2:2009 standard and the 2010 European Society of Hypertension International Protocol. With further reconciliation and consensus, it should be possible to integrate the best features of the ISO, European Society of Hypertension, and other protocols, along with further improvements, into a single unified protocol or standard. PMID:23709002

  15. TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY PROTOCOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS; WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is the proceedings of a workshop held in Corvallis, Oregon, during November 1978, to discuss potential tests for inclusion in, and make recommendations for, a terrestrial ecology bioassay testing protocol for use in EPA/IERTL-RTP's environmental assessment programs. Th...

  16. A standardized protocol for repeated social defeat stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sam A; Covington, Herbert E; Berton, Olivier; Russo, Scott J

    2011-08-01

    A major impediment to novel drug development has been the paucity of animal models that accurately reflect symptoms of affective disorders. In animal models, prolonged social stress has proven to be useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying affective-like disorders. When considering experimental approaches for studying depression, social defeat stress, in particular, has been shown to have excellent etiological, predictive, discriminative and face validity. Described here is a protocol whereby C57BL/6J mice that are repeatedly subjected to bouts of social defeat by a larger and aggressive CD-1 mouse results in the development of a clear depressive-like syndrome, characterized by enduring deficits in social interactions. Specifically, the protocol consists of three important stages, beginning with the selection of aggressive CD-1 mice, followed by agonistic social confrontations between the CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice, and concluding with the confirmation of social avoidance in subordinate C57BL/6J mice. The automated detection of social avoidance allows a marked increase in throughput, reproducibility and quantitative analysis. This protocol is highly adaptable, but in its most common form it requires 3-4 weeks for completion. PMID:21799487

  17. EPA Traceability Protocol for Assay and Certification of Gaseous Calibration Standards (2012 Revision)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, revised its 1993 version of its traceability protocol for the assay and certification of compressed gas and permeation-device calibration standards. The protocol allows producers o...

  18. An Assessment of the IPDA/PDAP protocol to access Planetary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, M.; Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Jacquey, C.; Berthier, J.; Bourrel, N.; André, N.; Pallier, E.; Aboudarham, J.; Capria, M. T.; Khodachenko, M.; Manaud, N.; Schmidt, W.; Schmitt, B.; Topf, F.; Trautan, F.; Sarkissian, A.

    2011-10-01

    In EuroPlaNet-RI, JRA4 must prepare essential tools allowing the planetary science community to interrogate some selected data centres, access and process data and visualize the results. The first requirement for enabling access to different data centres is to use a standard protocol. This protocol, PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) has been defined by an international consortium the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) to enable standard access to PDS (Planetary Data system, NASA) and PSA (Planetary Science Archive, ESA) data archives. In this paper, we present an assessment of this protocol, conducted jointly by the CDPP and VOParis Data Center, and a proposal for improvements and extensions to the current version , in order to fulfill the user requirements gathered by members of the Europlanet-RI JRA4 Team. We also demonstrate that other protocols like TAP (Table Access Protocol), issued by astronomers in the frame of the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) may be used instead of PDAP for some queries in the Solar System domain that cannot be fully taken into account within PDAP.

  19. Assessing impacts of roads: Application of a standard assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts of network impacts on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...

  20. 45 CFR 155.270 - Use of standards and protocols for electronic transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT General Functions of an Exchange § 155.270 Use of standards and protocols for electronic... rules, and code sets adopted by the Secretary in 45 CFR parts 160 and 162. (b) HIT enrollment...

  1. 45 CFR 155.270 - Use of standards and protocols for electronic transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT General Functions of an Exchange § 155.270 Use of standards and protocols for electronic... rules, and code sets that are adopted by the Secretary in 45 CFR parts 160 and 162 or that are...

  2. 45 CFR 155.270 - Use of standards and protocols for electronic transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT General Functions of an Exchange § 155.270 Use of standards and protocols for electronic... rules, and code sets that are adopted by the Secretary in 45 CFR parts 160 and 162 or that are...

  3. 78 FR 45096 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission proposes to incorporate by reference in its regulations Version 003 of the Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities adopted by the Wholesale Electric Quadrant (WEQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB). These standards modify NAESB's WEQ Version 002 and Version 002.1...

  4. 75 FR 20901 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... participants in the NAESB process can use these standards to identify those elements for which standardization... NAESB's WEQ process can use to identify those elements for which standardization would be beneficial... Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities, Order No. 676-E, Final Rule, 74...

  5. Serial link protocol design: a critique of the X. 25 standard, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1983-10-25

    There are certain technical design principles for link communication protocols which, if followed, result in a protocol that is less complex in both concept and implementation, but at the same time provides better service, than if the principles are not followed. These principles include modularization into subprotocols, symmetry between the nodes on the link, and use of the state-exchange model of a conversation rather than the command-response model. The principles are described, the extent to which they are followed by the standard protocol X.25, level 2, is examined, and a protocol adhering to them is presented.

  6. Incremental threshold loading: a standard protocol and establishment of a reference range in naive normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Cowley, A J; Kinnear, W J

    1997-12-01

    Incremental threshold loading (ITL) has been proposed as a test of inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. To date, however, there has been no standardized protocol for an ITL test, and no reference range, with different investigators using a variety of different pressure increments in small numbers of subjects. We developed an ITL test using the weighted plunger (WP) principle, which uses standard increments of pressure. In our protocol subjects inspire through the WP generating an initial threshold opening pressure of 10 cmH2O. This pressure is raised at 2 min intervals in increments of 5 cmH2O until they fail to lift the plunger on two consecutive attempted breaths. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) aged 20-80 yrs performed the ITL test. Twelve subjects (six females and six males) performed the test twice to assess reproducibility and repeatability. Using stepwise multiple linear regression, we regressed the maximum threshold pressure sustained for a full 2 min (Pmax) against age, height, weight and static maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP). Pmax was significantly related to age but not to either height or weight, the regression equation for males was Pmax (cmH2O)=103.8 - (1.0 x age in years), and for females was Pmax (cmH2O)=93.7 - (1.0 x age in years). The within-subject standard deviation for those repeating the ITL test was 5.4 cmH2O. Incremental threshold loading is a simple technique with good reproducibility, which most naive subjects can use without difficulty. By using standard pressure increments and performing the test in a large number of naive subjects, we have established a reference range that should be applicable wherever similar pressure increments are used. PMID:9493675

  7. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S. Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined.

  8. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content, performance, and…

  9. Standard Care versus Protocol Based Therapy for New Onset Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Treggiari, Miriam M.; Konstan, Michael W.; Retsch-Bogart, George; Morgan, Wayne; Wagener, Jeff; Gibson, Ronald L.; Khan, Umer; Emerson, Julia; Thompson, Valeria; Elkin, Eric P.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The Early Pseudomonal Infection Control (EPIC) randomized trial rigorously evaluated the efficacy of different antibiotic regimens for eradication of newly identified Pseudomonas (Pa) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Protocol based therapy in the trial was provided based on culture positivity independent of symptoms. It is unclear whether outcomes observed in the clinical trial were different than those that would have been observed with historical standard of care driven more heavily by respiratory symptoms than culture positivity alone. We hypothesized that the incidence of Pa recurrence and hospitalizations would be significantly reduced among trial participants as compared to historical controls whose standard of care preceded the widespread adoption of tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) as initial eradication therapy at the time of new isolation of Pa. Methods Eligibility criteria from the trial were used to derive historical controls from the Epidemiologic Study of CF (ESCF) who received standard of care treatment from 1995 to 1998, before widespread availability of TIS. Pa recurrence and hospitalization outcomes were assessed over a 15-month time period. Results As compared to 100% of the 304 trial participants, only 296/608 (49%) historical controls received antibiotics within an average of 20 weeks after new onset Pa. Pa recurrence occurred among 104/298 (35%) of the trial participants as compared to 295/549 (54%) of historical controls (19% difference, 95% CI: 12%, 26%, p<0.001). No significant differences in the incidence of hospitalization were observed between cohorts. Conclusions Protocol-based antimicrobial therapy for newly acquired Pa resulted in a lower rate of Pa recurrence but comparable hospitalization rates as compared to a historical control cohort less aggressively treated with antibiotics for new onset Pa. PMID:23818295

  10. A Chlorhexidine- Agar Plate Culture Medium Protocol to Complement Standard Broth Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, Shady; Chatellier, Sonia; Mirande, Caroline; van Belkum, Alex; Canard, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium and a liquid broth provides the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here, we evaluated a chlorhexidine decontamination-MOD9 solid medium protocol versus the standard NALC-NaOH-Bactec 960 MGIT protocol for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by culture. Three-hundred clinical specimens comprising 193 sputa, 30 bronchial aspirates, 10 broncho-alveolar lavages, 47 stools, and 20 urines were prospectively submitted for the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis. The contamination rates were 5/300 (1.7%) using the MOD9 protocol and 17/300 (5.7%) with the Bactec protocol, respectively (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Of a total of 50 Mycobacterium isolates (48 M. tuberculosis and two Mycobacterium abscessus) were cultured. Out of these 50, 48 (96%) isolates were found using the MOD9 protocol versus 35 (70%) when using the Bactec protocol (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). The time to positivity was 10.1 ± 3.9 days versus 14.7 ± 7.3 days, respectively, (P < 0.05, Student’s t-test). These data confirmed the usefulness of parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium with broth for the recovery of M. tuberculosis in agreement with current recommendations. More specifically, chlorhexidine decontamination and inoculation of the MOD9 solid medium could be proposed to complement the standard Bactec 960 MGIT broth protocol. PMID:26834733

  11. A Chlorhexidine- Agar Plate Culture Medium Protocol to Complement Standard Broth Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Shady; Chatellier, Sonia; Mirande, Caroline; van Belkum, Alex; Canard, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium and a liquid broth provides the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here, we evaluated a chlorhexidine decontamination-MOD9 solid medium protocol versus the standard NALC-NaOH-Bactec 960 MGIT protocol for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by culture. Three-hundred clinical specimens comprising 193 sputa, 30 bronchial aspirates, 10 broncho-alveolar lavages, 47 stools, and 20 urines were prospectively submitted for the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis. The contamination rates were 5/300 (1.7%) using the MOD9 protocol and 17/300 (5.7%) with the Bactec protocol, respectively (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Of a total of 50 Mycobacterium isolates (48 M. tuberculosis and two Mycobacterium abscessus) were cultured. Out of these 50, 48 (96%) isolates were found using the MOD9 protocol versus 35 (70%) when using the Bactec protocol (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). The time to positivity was 10.1 ± 3.9 days versus 14.7 ± 7.3 days, respectively, (P < 0.05, Student's t-test). These data confirmed the usefulness of parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium with broth for the recovery of M. tuberculosis in agreement with current recommendations. More specifically, chlorhexidine decontamination and inoculation of the MOD9 solid medium could be proposed to complement the standard Bactec 960 MGIT broth protocol. PMID:26834733

  12. A standardized protocol to reduce cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network Quality Improvement Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kestle, John R. W.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Wellons, John C.; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Whitehead, William E.; Walker, Marion L.; Oakes, W. Jerry; Drake, James M.; Luerssen, Thomas G.; Simon, Tamara D.; Holubkov, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Object Quality improvement techniques are being implemented in many areas of medicine. In an effort to reduce the ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection rate, a standardized protocol was developed and implemented at 4 centers of the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN). Methods The protocol was developed sequentially by HCRN members using the current literature and prior institutional experience until consensus was obtained. The protocol was prospectively applied at each HCRN center to all children undergoing a shunt insertion or revision procedure. Infections were defined on the basis of CSF, wound, or pseudocyst cultures; wound breakdown; abdominal pseudocyst; or positive blood cultures in the presence of a ventriculoatrial shunt. Procedures and infections were measured before and after protocol implementation. Results Twenty-one surgeons at 4 centers performed 1571 procedures between June 1, 2007, and February 28, 2009. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. The Network infection rate decreased from 8.8% prior to the protocol to 5.7% while using the protocol (p = 0.0028, absolute risk reduction 3.15%, relative risk reduction 36%). Three of 4 centers lowered their infection rate. Shunt surgery after external ventricular drainage (with or without prior infection) had the highest infection rate. Overall protocol compliance was 74.5% and improved over the course of the observation period. Based on logistic regression analysis, the use of BioGlide catheters (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% CI 1.19–3.05; p = 0.007) and the use of antiseptic cream by any members of the surgical team (instead of a formal surgical scrub by all members of the surgical team; OR 4.53, 95% CI 1.43–14.41; p = 0.01) were associated with an increased risk of infection. Conclusions The standardized protocol for shunt surgery significantly reduced shunt infection across the HCRN. Overall protocol compliance was good. The protocol has established a common baseline within the Network, which will

  13. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    PubMed

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-01

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. PMID:26612859

  14. Constantly evolving safety assessment protocols for GM foods.

    PubMed

    Sesikeran, B; Vasanthi, Siruguri

    2008-01-01

    he introduction of GM foods has led to the evolution of a food safety assessment paradigm that establishes safety of the GM food relative to its conventional counterpart. The GM foods currently approved and marketed in several countries have undergone extensive safety testing under a structured safety assessment framework evolved by international organizations like FAO, WHO, Codex and OECD. The major elements of safety assessment include molecular characterization of inserted genes and stability of the trait, toxicity and allergenicity potential of the expressed substances, compositional analysis, potential for gene transfer to gut microflora and unintentional effects of the genetic modification. As more number and type of food crops are being brought under the genetic modification regime, the adequacy of existing safety assessment protocols for establishing safety of these foods has been questioned. Such crops comprise GM crops with higher agronomic vigour, nutritional or health benefit/ by modification of plant metabolic pathways and those expressing bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals. The safety assessment challenges of these foods are the potential of the methods to detect unintentional effects with higher sensitivity and rigor. Development of databases on food compositions, toxicants and allergens is currently seen as an important aid to development of safety protocols. With the changing global trends in genetic modification technology future challenge would be to develop GM crops with minimum amount of inserted foreign DNA so as to reduce the burden of complex safety assessments while ensuring safety and utility of the technology. PMID:18296346

  15. A standardized sampling protocol for channel catfish in prairie streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Three alternative gears—an AC electrofishing raft, bankpoles, and a 15-hoop-net set—were used in a standardized manner to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in three prairie streams of varying size in three seasons. We compared these gears as to time required per sample, size selectivity, mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) among months, mean CPUE within months, effect of fluctuating stream stage, and sensitivity to population size. According to these comparisons, the 15-hoop-net set used during stable water levels in October had the most desirable characteristics. Using our catch data, we estimated the precision of CPUE and size structure by varying sample sizes for the 15-hoop-net set. We recommend that 11–15 repetitions of the 15-hoop-net set be used for most management activities. This standardized basic unit of effort will increase the precision of estimates and allow better comparisons among samples as well as increased confidence in management decisions.

  16. Standardized cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) protocols, society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance: board of trustees task force on standardized protocols

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christopher M; Barkhausen, Jorg; Flamm, Scott D; Kim, Raymond J; Nagel, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Index 1. General techniques 1.1. Stress and safety equipment 1.2. Left ventricular (LV) structure and function module 1.3. Right ventricular (RV) structure and function module 1.4. Gadolinium dosing module. 1.5. First pass perfusion 1.6. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) 2. Disease specific protocols 2.1. Ischemic heart disease 2.1.1. Acute myocardial infarction (MI) 2.1.2. Chronic ischemic heart disease and viability 2.1.3. Dobutamine stress 2.1.4. Adenosine stress perfusion 2.2. Angiography: 2.2.1. Peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) 2.2.2. Thoracic MRA 2.2.3. Anomalous coronary arteries 2.2.4. Pulmonary vein evaluation 2.3. Other 2.3.1. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy 2.3.2. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) 2.3.3. Congenital heart disease 2.3.4. Valvular heart disease 2.3.5. Pericardial disease 2.3.6. Masses PMID:18605997

  17. Using the CAS Standards in Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the use of professional standards of practice in assessment and of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). It outlines a model for conducting program self-studies and discusses the importance of implementing change based on assessment results.

  18. Shifting Gears: Standards, Assessments, Curriculum, & Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    This book is designed to help educators move from a system that measures students against students to one that values mastery of central concepts and skills, striving for proficiency in publicly acknowledged standards of academic performance. It aims to connect the operative parts of standards-based education (standards, assessment, curriculum,…

  19. Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Primary Rectal Cancer-Standard Protocol and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Papanikolaou, Nickolas

    2016-08-01

    New-generation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners with optimal phased-array body coils have contributed to obtainment of high-resolution T2-weighted turbo spin echo images in which visualization of anatomical details such as the mesorectal fascia and the bowel wall layers is feasible. Preoperative, locoregional staging of rectal cancer with MRI, considered standard of care nowadays, relies on these images for stratification of high-risk patients for local recurrence, patients most likely to benefit from neoadjuvant therapy, as well as patients who exhibit imaging features indicative of a high risk of metastatic disease. Functional imaging, including optimized for rectal cancer diffusion-weighted imaging and more recently use of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, combined with radiologists׳ rising level of familiarity regarding the assessment of reactive changes postchemoradiation treatment, have shown to increase MRI staging accuracy after neoadjuvant treatment. Our intention is to review already established standard protocols for primary rectal cancer and go through potential additional promising imaging tools. PMID:27342896

  20. Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, Heidrun; Jelzow, Alexander; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Steinkellner, Oliver; Macdonald, Rainer; Milej, Daniel; Żołek, Norbert; Kacprzak, Michal; Sawosz, Piotr; Maniewski, Roman; Liebert, Adam; Magazov, Salavat; Hebden, Jeremy; Martelli, Fabrizio; Di Ninni, Paola; Zaccanti, Giovanni; Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The nEUROPt protocol is one of two new protocols developed within the European project nEUROPt to characterize the performances of time-domain systems for optical imaging of the brain. It was applied in joint measurement campaigns to compare the various instruments and to assess the impact of technical improvements. This protocol addresses the characteristic of optical brain imaging to detect, localize, and quantify absorption changes in the brain. It was implemented with two types of inhomogeneous liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink with well-defined optical properties. First, small black inclusions were used to mimic localized changes of the absorption coefficient. The position of the inclusions was varied in depth and lateral direction to investigate contrast and spatial resolution. Second, two-layered liquid phantoms with variable absorption coefficients were employed to study the quantification of layer-wide changes and, in particular, to determine depth selectivity, i.e., the ratio of sensitivities for deep and superficial absorption changes. We introduce the tests of the nEUROPt protocol and present examples of results obtained with different instruments and methods of data analysis. This protocol could be a useful step toward performance tests for future standards in diffuse optical imaging. PMID:25121480

  1. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  2. State Standards and Assessment Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    High-quality state assessment systems are the cornerstone of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), making it possible for school systems to collect data on student achievement to diagnose where students are doing well and where they are doing poorly. This provides information that teachers, administrators, and policymakers can use to customize and improve…

  3. ACR/NEMA Digital Image Interface Standard (An Illustrated Protocol Overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. Robert

    1985-09-01

    The American College of Radiologists (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have sponsored a joint standards committee mandated to develop a universal interface standard for the transfer of radiology images among a variety of PACS imaging devicesl. The resulting standard interface conforms to the ISO/OSI standard reference model for network protocol layering. The standard interface specifies the lower layers of the reference model (Physical, Data Link, Transport and Session) and implies a requirement of the Network Layer should a requirement for a network exist. The message content has been considered and a flexible message and image format specified. The following Imaging Equipment modalities are supported by the standard interface... CT Computed Tomograpy DS Digital Subtraction NM Nuclear Medicine US Ultrasound MR Magnetic Resonance DR Digital Radiology The following data types are standardized over the transmission interface media.... IMAGE DATA DIGITIZED VOICE HEADER DATA RAW DATA TEXT REPORTS GRAPHICS OTHERS This paper consists of text supporting the illustrated protocol data flow. Each layer will be individually treated. Particular emphasis will be given to the Data Link layer (Frames) and the Transport layer (Packets). The discussion utilizes a finite state sequential machine model for the protocol layers.

  4. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...) to Appendix A of ] its Respiratory Protection Standard (see 69 FR 46986). OSHA also published on... qualitative fit-testing protocol (see 72 FR 72971). Subsequently, OSHA withdrew, without prejudice, this fit... further research addressing issues described in the withdrawal notice (see 74 FR 30250). II. Summary...

  5. Behavior Intervention for Students with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Primary-Level Standard Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the efficacy of a primary-level, standard-protocol behavior intervention for students with externalizing behavioral disorders. Elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment (behavior intervention) or control (business as usual) conditions, and K-3 students were screened for externalizing behavior risk status. The…

  6. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  7. Delivered dose estimate to standardize airway hyperresponsiveness assessment in mice.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Annette; Fereydoonzad, Liah; Schuessler, Thomas F

    2015-04-15

    Airway hyperresponsiveness often constitutes a primary outcome in respiratory studies in mice. The procedure commonly employs aerosolized challenges, and results are typically reported in terms of bronchoconstrictor concentrations loaded into the nebulizer. Yet, because protocols frequently differ across studies, especially in terms of aerosol generation and delivery, direct study comparisons are difficult. We hypothesized that protocol variations could lead to differences in aerosol delivery efficiency and, consequently, in the dose delivered to the subject, as well as in the response. Thirteen nebulization patterns containing common protocol variations (nebulization time, duty cycle, particle size spectrum, air humidity, and/or ventilation profile) and using increasing concentrations of methacholine and broadband forced oscillations (flexiVent, SCIREQ, Montreal, Qc, Canada) were created, characterized, and studied in anesthetized naïve A/J mice. A delivered dose estimate calculated from nebulizer-, ventilator-, and subject-specific characteristics was introduced and used to account for protocol variations. Results showed that nebulization protocol variations significantly affected the fraction of aerosol reaching the subject site and the delivered dose, as well as methacholine reactivity and sensitivity in mice. From the protocol variants studied, addition of a slow deep ventilation profile during nebulization was identified as a key factor for optimization of the technique. The study also highlighted sensitivity differences within the lung, as well as the possibility that airway responses could be selectively enhanced by adequate control of nebulizer and ventilator settings. Reporting results in terms of delivered doses represents an important standardizing element for assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. PMID:25637610

  8. Does paramedic-base hospital contact result in beneficial deviations from standard prehospital protocols?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, J. R.; Luo, J.; Schriger, D. L.; Silver, L.

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed written and audio records of paramedic-base hospital radio contact to determine whether care differed from that suggested in standard prehospital care protocols. Records of all 659 contacts for seizure, syncope, abdominal pain, or altered mental state during 1987 (28.4% of all contacts) were scored for the use of standard therapies (such as intravenous access, oxygen, naloxone hydrochloride) and unanticipated therapies (intubation, nitroglycerin). Cases that involved unanticipated treatments were reviewed to determine whether they could have been prospectively identified by simple clinical findings. Standard therapies were used in the majority of patients. Unanticipated therapies were administered to 13 patients, all of whom had abnormal vital signs, diaphoresis, respiratory distress, or a second prominent symptom. Data suggest that protocols could replace radio contact for most patients and that the few who might benefit from radio contact can be easily identified. A 90% reduction in radio contacts in Los Angeles county could save $3 million each year. PMID:2219893

  9. Protocol for exercise hemodynamic assessment: performing an invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Natalia C.; Manyoo, Agarwal; Oldham, William M.; Stephens, Thomas E.; Goldstein, Ronald H.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Tracy, Julie A.; Leary, Peter J.; Leopold, Jane A.; Kinlay, Scott; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Systrom, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) combines full central hemodynamic assessment with continuous measurements of pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation to help in understanding the pathophysiology underpinning unexplained exertional intolerance. There is increasing evidence to support the use of iCPET as a key methodology for diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension as occult causes of exercise limitation, but there is little information available outlining the methodology to use this diagnostic test in clinical practice. To bridge this knowledge gap, the operational protocol for iCPET at our institution is discussed in detail. In turn, a standardized iCPET protocol may provide a common framework to describe the evolving understanding of mechanism(s) that limit exercise capacity and to facilitate research efforts to define novel treatments in these patients. PMID:26697168

  10. Protocol for exercise hemodynamic assessment: performing an invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Berry, Natalia C; Manyoo, Agarwal; Oldham, William M; Stephens, Thomas E; Goldstein, Ronald H; Waxman, Aaron B; Tracy, Julie A; Leary, Peter J; Leopold, Jane A; Kinlay, Scott; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Systrom, David M; Maron, Bradley A

    2015-12-01

    Invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) combines full central hemodynamic assessment with continuous measurements of pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation to help in understanding the pathophysiology underpinning unexplained exertional intolerance. There is increasing evidence to support the use of iCPET as a key methodology for diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension as occult causes of exercise limitation, but there is little information available outlining the methodology to use this diagnostic test in clinical practice. To bridge this knowledge gap, the operational protocol for iCPET at our institution is discussed in detail. In turn, a standardized iCPET protocol may provide a common framework to describe the evolving understanding of mechanism(s) that limit exercise capacity and to facilitate research efforts to define novel treatments in these patients. PMID:26697168

  11. Setting Standards for Assessing Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Joan E.; Jacobs, Paul I.

    Doubts and misgivings have resulted from the rapid growth and diversity of experiential programs and the use of experiential learning assessment as a recruiting and marketing device. The Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning (CAEL) is the body examining what is being done about setting standards for the assessment of experiential…

  12. The Missing Link: Standards, Assessment, "and" Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Over a two-year period, the teachers at John Adams Middle School wrote and administered eight common assessments across content areas and met to discuss the results of each. By linking standards, assessments, and instruction, teachers were able to identify areas of need for specific students and address those needs. Educators across the country…

  13. Toward the use of a standardized assessment for young children with autism: current assessment practices in the UK.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil T; Bibby, Peter; Mudford, Oliver C; Eikeseth, Svein

    2003-09-01

    Little is known about the progress of autistic children following specific interventions in England. Nor do we know how frequently standardized assessments are used to monitor progress or to evaluate specific educational interventions. The reports of 75 children with autism, for whom special educational provision had been determined by a local education authority, were reviewed. Parents were interviewed and educational psychologists were contacted for details of any norm-referenced assessments. Of these children, 39 percent had no standardized assessments before education authorities determined their provision, and only 9 percent had follow-up assessments that could be used to evaluate progress. Children with autism in the UK rarely have sufficient assessments to allow an objective evaluation of their progress. There is currently no standardized assessment protocol to prescribe a specific educational intervention, to evaluate the progress of children or to make comparisons between interventions. We recommend the development of such a protocol. PMID:14516063

  14. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Zachary R; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Williams, Gareth J; Sandin, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data. PMID:27111085

  15. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Zachary R.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Williams, Gareth J.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods–belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher’s home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data. PMID:27111085

  16. Standardization of infrared breast thermogram acquisition protocols and abnormality analysis of breast thermograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Das, Kakali; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Majumdar, Gautam

    2016-05-01

    The non-invasive, painless, radiation-free and cost-effective infrared breast thermography (IBT) makes a significant contribution to improving the survival rate of breast cancer patients by early detecting the disease. This paper presents a set of standard breast thermogram acquisition protocols to improve the potentiality and accuracy of infrared breast thermograms in early breast cancer detection. By maintaining all these protocols, an infrared breast thermogram acquisition setup has been established at the Regional Cancer Centre (RCC) of Government Medical College (AGMC), Tripura, India. The acquisition of breast thermogram is followed by the breast thermogram interpretation, for identifying the presence of any abnormality. However, due to the presence of complex vascular patterns, accurate interpretation of breast thermogram is a very challenging task. The bilateral symmetry of the thermal patterns in each breast thermogram is quantitatively computed by statistical feature analysis. A series of statistical features are extracted from a set of 20 thermograms of both healthy and unhealthy subjects. Finally, the extracted features are analyzed for breast abnormality detection. The key contributions made by this paper can be highlighted as -- a) the designing of a standard protocol suite for accurate acquisition of breast thermograms, b) creation of a new breast thermogram dataset by maintaining the protocol suite, and c) statistical analysis of the thermograms for abnormality detection. By doing so, this proposed work can minimize the rate of false findings in breast thermograms and thus, it will increase the utilization potentiality of breast thermograms in early breast cancer detection.

  17. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined. PMID:27487345

  18. A Standardized and Reproducible Urine Preparation Protocol for Cancer Biomarkers Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Beretov, Julia; Wasinger, Valerie C; Schwartz, Peter; Graham, Peter H; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    A suitable and standardized protein purification technique is essential to maintain consistency and to allow data comparison between proteomic studies for urine biomarker discovery. Ultimately, efforts should be made to standardize urine preparation protocols. The aim of this study was to develop an optimal analytical protocol to achieve maximal protein yield and to ensure that this method was applicable to examine urine protein patterns that distinguish disease and disease-free states. In this pilot study, we compared seven different urine sample preparation methods to remove salts, and to precipitate and isolate urinary proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles showed that the sequential preparation of urinary proteins by combining acetone and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) alongside high speed centrifugation (HSC) provided the best separation, and retained the most urinary proteins. Therefore, this approach is the preferred method for all further urine protein analysis. PMID:25452700

  19. A Standardized Protocol for the Treatment of Early Postoperative Stiffness following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Werner, Steven; Jacofsky, Marc; Kocisky, Sarah; Jacofsky, David

    2015-10-01

    Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) and continuous passive motion (CPM) are commonly used to optimize range of motion (ROM) for the treatment of early stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The addition of systemic glucocorticoid as an adjunct to a standardized protocol of MUA and aggressive CPM treatment is outlined. Results demonstrate an average postoperative increase in knee ROM of 45 degrees in 78 TKAs at 10 weeks from MUA procedure with no complications reported. PMID:26030262

  20. Characterizing College Science Assessments: The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol.

    PubMed

    Laverty, James T; Underwood, Sonia M; Matz, Rebecca L; Posey, Lynmarie A; Carmel, Justin H; Caballero, Marcos D; Fata-Hartley, Cori L; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E; Cooper, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of "three-dimensional learning" is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not. PMID:27606671

  1. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  2. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  3. Accountability Systems: Performance Standards and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Mikala L.; Holmes, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    This monograph provides a status report on issues related to accountability, including standards and assessments, data systems, and the role of incentives for schools, teachers, and students in improving student achievement. Using information gathered from the literature and interviews with state administrators of vocational education, this paper…

  4. Protocol for Assessing Antifouling Activities of Macroalgal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Trepos, Rozenn; Aguila-Ramírez, R Noemí; Hernández-Guerrero, Claudia J

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel environmentally friendly antifouling (AF) solutions is a very active field in fundamental and applied research. An attractive option in producing such material resides in biomimetic studies: living organisms have evolved well-adapted structures and materials over geological times through natural selection. In this chapter, we explain the experimental procedure to be followed for the preparation of macroalgal extracts and to assess their AF efficiency towards key species. All bioassays described here have the advantage of being fast, reliable, and standardized. PMID:26108522

  5. Systematic Review Checklist: A Standardized Technique for Assessing and Reporting Reviews of Life Cycle Assessment Data

    PubMed Central

    Zumsteg, Jennifer M.; Cooper, Joyce S.; Noon, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Systematic review, including meta-analysis, is increasingly utilized in life cycle assessment (LCA). There are currently no widely recognized guidelines for designing, conducting, or reporting systematic reviews in LCA. Other disciplines such as medicine, ecology, and software engineering have both recognized the utility of systematic reviews and created standardized protocols for conducting and reporting systematic reviews. Based largely on the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, which updated the preferred format for reporting of such reviews in biomedical research, we provide an introduction to the topic and a checklist to guide the reporting of future LCA reviews in a standardized format. The standardized technique for assessing and reporting reviews of LCA (STARR-LCA) checklist is a starting point for improving the utility of systematic reviews in LCA. PMID:26069437

  6. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  7. Strategies for standards-based assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, E.K.

    1994-12-31

    New Standards is a multi-faceted partnership working together to develop a system of assessment that allows partners to judge students` work against national content standards. The central metaphor for New Standards is the best version of the science fair, where the student has investigated a question of interest; was coached by teachers and the community scientists, but takes responsibility for the project; interacts with experts who probe for understanding and capacity to elaborate the findings; and is publicly recognized. New Standards is committed to quality science education for all students. The science fair experience will have to be transformed from its extracurricular status to a central place in the curriculum, from participation by a few to all, from a system of ranking to one of certifying.

  8. A consensus protocol for the standardization of cerebrospinal fluid collection and biobanking.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, C E; Petzold, A; Bennett, J L; Berven, F S; Brundin, L; Comabella, M; Franciotta, D; Frederiksen, J L; Fleming, J O; Furlan, R; Hintzen, R Q; Hughes, S G; Johnson, M H; Krasulova, E; Kuhle, J; Magnone, M C; Rajda, C; Rejdak, K; Schmidt, H K; van Pesch, V; Waubant, E; Wolf, C; Giovannoni, G; Hemmer, B; Tumani, H; Deisenhammer, F

    2009-12-01

    There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because of the lack of sufficient samples that can be obtained in single-center studies. Therefore, collaboration between investigators is needed to establish large biobanks of well-defined samples. Standardized protocols for biobanking are a prerequisite to ensure that the statistical power gained by increasing the numbers of CSF samples is not compromised by preanalytical factors. Here, a consensus report on recommendations for CSF collection and biobanking is presented, formed by the BioMS-eu network for CSF biomarker research in multiple sclerosis. We focus on CSF collection procedures, preanalytical factors, and high-quality clinical and paraclinical information. The biobanking protocols are applicable for CSF biobanks for research targeting any neurologic disease. PMID:19949037

  9. Strategies to assess the validity of recommendations: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) become quickly outdated and require a periodic reassessment of evidence research to maintain their validity. However, there is little research about this topic. Our project will provide evidence for some of the most pressing questions in this field: 1) what is the average time for recommendations to become out of date?; 2) what is the comparative performance of two restricted search strategies to evaluate the need to update recommendations?; and 3) what is the feasibility of a more regular monitoring and updating strategy compared to usual practice?. In this protocol we will focus on questions one and two. Methods The CPG Development Programme of the Spanish Ministry of Health developed 14 CPGs between 2008 and 2009. We will stratify guidelines by topic and by publication year, and include one CPG by strata. We will develop a strategy to assess the validity of CPG recommendations, which includes a baseline survey of clinical experts, an update of the original exhaustive literature searches, the identification of key references (reference that trigger a potential recommendation update), and the assessment of the potential changes in each recommendation. We will run two alternative search strategies to efficiently identify important new evidence: 1) PLUS search based in McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service (PLUS) database; and 2) a Restrictive Search (ReSe) based on the least number of MeSH terms and free text words needed to locate all the references of each original recommendation. We will perform a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan-Meier method and we will use the log-rank test to analyse differences between survival curves according to the topic, the purpose, the strength of recommendations and the turnover. We will retrieve key references from the exhaustive search and evaluate their presence in the PLUS and ReSe search results. Discussion Our project, using a highly structured and transparent

  10. EPA Traceability Protocol for Assay and Certification of Gaseous Calibration Standards (EPA/600/R-12/531, May 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, revised its 1993 version of its traceability protocol for the assay and certification of compressed gas and permeation-device calibration standards. The protocol allows producers of...

  11. SILEC: a protocol for generating and using isotopically labeled coenzyme A mass spectrometry standards

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sankha S; Blair, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by essential nutrients in cell culture (SILEC) was recently developed to generate isotopically labeled coenzyme A (CoA) and short-chain acyl-CoA thioesters. This was accomplished by modifying the widely used technique of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture to include [13C315N]-pantothenate (vitamin B5), a CoA precursor, instead of the isotopically labeled amino acids. The lack of a de novo pantothenate synthesis pathway allowed for efficient and near-complete labeling of the measured CoA species. This protocol provides a step-by-step approach for generating stable isotope-labeled short-chain acyl-CoA internal standards in mammalian and insect cells as well as instructions on how to use them in stable isotope dilution mass spectrometric-based analyses. Troubleshooting guidelines, as well as a list of unlabeled and labeled CoA species, are also included. This protocol represents a prototype for generating stable isotope internal standards from labeled essential nutrients such as pantothenate. The generation and use of SILEC standards takes approximately 2–3 weeks. PMID:22157971

  12. A CAD system and quality assurance protocol for bone age assessment utilizing digital hand atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertych, Arakadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Ferrara, Benjamin; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Determination of bone age assessment (BAA) in pediatric radiology is a task based on detailed analysis of patient's left hand X-ray. The current standard utilized in clinical practice relies on a subjective comparison of the hand with patterns in the book atlas. The computerized approach to BAA (CBAA) utilizes automatic analysis of the regions of interest in the hand image. This procedure is followed by extraction of quantitative features sensitive to skeletal development that are further converted to a bone age value utilizing knowledge from the digital hand atlas (DHA). This also allows providing BAA results resembling current clinical approach. All developed methodologies have been combined into one CAD module with a graphical user interface (GUI). CBAA can also improve the statistical and analytical accuracy based on a clinical work-flow analysis. For this purpose a quality assurance protocol (QAP) has been developed. Implementation of the QAP helped to make the CAD more robust and find images that cannot meet conditions required by DHA standards. Moreover, the entire CAD-DHA system may gain further benefits if clinical acquisition protocol is modified. The goal of this study is to present the performance improvement of the overall CAD-DHA system with QAP and the comparison of the CAD results with chronological age of 1390 normal subjects from the DHA. The CAD workstation can process images from local image database or from a PACS server.

  13. Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufactured-nanoparticle exposure. Therefore, this report aims to provide a standard method for assessing nanoparticle exposure, including the identification of nanoparticle emission, the assessment of worker exposure, and the evaluation of exposure mitigation actions in nanomaterial-handling workplaces or research institutes. PMID:24278552

  14. Histopathological alterations of the heart in fish: proposal for a standardized assessment.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Christoph; Kroupová, Hana Kocour; Wahli, Thomas; Klicnarová, Jana; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2016-03-30

    Histopathological alterations in the heart are often reported in fish as a result of exposure to a variety of chemical compounds. However, researchers presently lack a standardized method for the evaluation of histopathological alterations in the cardiovascular system of fish and the calculation of an 'organ index'. Therefore, we designed a method for a standardized assessment and evaluation of histopathological alterations in the heart of fish. As a model species, we used rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the protocol was also successfully applied to other fish species belonging to different taxonomic orders. To test the protocol, we re-evaluated sections of atenolol-exposed and unexposed rainbow trout obtained in a previous study. The results were in accordance with those previously published, demonstrating the applicability of the protocol. The protocol provides a universal method for the comparative evaluation of histopathological changes in the heart of fish. PMID:27025306

  15. Original Protocol Using Computed Tomographic Angiography for Diagnosis of Brain Death: A Better Alternative to Standard Two-Phase Technique?

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Marcin; Sołek-Pastuszka, Joanna; Jurczyk, Krzysztof; Skrzywanek, Piotr; Guziński, Maciej; Czajkowski, Zenon; Mańko, Witold; Burzyńska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Walecka, Anna; Rowiński, Olgierd; Walecki, Jerzy; Bohatyrewicz, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The application of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of brain death (BD) is limited because of the low sensitivity of the commonly used two-phase method consisting of assessing arterial and venous opacification at the 60th second after contrast injection. The hypothesis was that a reduction in the scanning delay might increase the sensitivity of the test. Therefore, an original technique using CTA was introduced and compared with catheter angiography as a reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter trial, 84 clinically brain-dead patients were examined using CTA and catheter angiography. The sensitivities of original CTA technique, involving an arterial assessment at the 25th second and a venous assessment at the 40th second, and the standard CTA, involving an arterial and venous assessment at the 60th second, were compared to catheter angiography. RESULTS Catheter angiography results were consistent with the clinical diagnosis of BD in all cases. In comparison to catheter angiography, the sensitivity of original CTA technique was 0.93 (95%CI, 0.85-0.97; p<0.001) and 0.57 (95%CI, 0.46-0.68; p<0.001) for the standard protocol. The differences were statistically significant (p=0.03 for original CTA and p<0.001 for standard CTA). Decompressive craniectomy predisposes to a false-negative CTA result with a relative risk of 3.29 (95% CI, 1.76-5.81; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our original technique using CTA for the assessment of the cerebral arteries during the arterial phase and the deep cerebral veins with a delay of 15 seconds is a highly sensitive test for the diagnosis of BD. This method may be a better alternative to the commonly used technique. PMID:26250464

  16. Evaluation of a new standardized enzymatic isolation protocol for human umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Buyl, Karolien; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Desmae, Terry; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; Najar, Mehdi; De Kock, Joery

    2015-09-01

    The umbilical cord (UC) represents an important source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These human UC-derived MSC (UC-MSC) have already been isolated using a protocol based on the migratory and plastic adhesive properties of MSC (UC-MSC-Mig). The UC-MSC-Mig isolation method, however, is difficult to standardize. Therefore, we developed an enzymatic isolation protocol (UC-MSC-Enz) to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. First, we investigated the UC-MSC-Enz for their MSC properties. We found that UC-MSC-Enz express the MSC markers CD73, CD90 and CD105 and are able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts fulfilling the MSC criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy. Previously we found that UC-MSC-Mig are unique among MSCs due to their significant expression of several hepatic (progenitor) markers. Therefore, we also investigated the expression of hepatic transcription factors and other hepatic markers in UC-MSC-Enz at both the mRNA and protein level. We found that the expression of hepatic transcription factors (GATA4, GATA6, SOX9 and SOX17) and hepatic markers (AFP, DPP4, CX43, DKK1, DSG2, KRT18 and KRT19) in UC-MSC-Enz was not significantly different from those of UC-MSC-Mig. Consequently, this optimized enzyme-based method represents a fast, robust and standardized way to isolate UC-MSC for a broad range of applications. PMID:25541070

  17. Prevention of laser hazards through curricular interventions and standard protocols for safety in educational environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, Fred P.

    2005-10-01

    The use of lasers continues to grow in education, prompting widespread and well-founded concerns about the risks involved, and how they may best be used in a manner that is both safe and effective for instruction. Two methods are supported for first-line prevention of laser hazards in educational environments that would reduce injuries and risks both to the educational institution and student, but also for employers and workers when students become employed. The first intervention includes proper awareness of hazards, including biological effects of lasers and other non-ionizing radiation. Discussion regarding appropriate methods and content for varying age-levels is presented with an emphasis on technician education. The Scientific and Technological Education in Photonics (STEP) project funded by the National Science Foundation provides quantitative evidence that students can and do learn the source for hazards and how to avoid them. Second, standard protocols such as the ANSI Z-136.5 Standard for Laser Safety in Educational Institutions are provided and discussed in this paper. Laser safety concise protocols for student behavior and practice can be implemented with a great deal of success to reduce hazards and risks in the educational environment.

  18. Consensus recommendations for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Bendszus, Martin; Boxerman, Jerrold; Barboriak, Daniel; Erickson, Bradley J; Smits, Marion; Nelson, Sarah J; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Alexander, Brian; Goldmacher, Gregory; Wick, Wolfgang; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weller, Michael; Galanis, Evanthia; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Shankar, Lalitha; Jacobs, Paula; Pope, Whitney B; Yang, Dewen; Chung, Caroline; Knopp, Michael V; Cha, Soonme; van den Bent, Martin J; Chang, Susan; Yung, W K Al; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Wen, Patrick Y; Gilbert, Mark R

    2015-09-01

    A recent joint meeting was held on January 30, 2014, with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), clinical scientists, imaging experts, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, clinical trials cooperative groups, and patient advocate groups to discuss imaging endpoints for clinical trials in glioblastoma. This workshop developed a set of priorities and action items including the creation of a standardized MRI protocol for multicenter studies. The current document outlines consensus recommendations for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol (BTIP), along with the scientific and practical justifications for these recommendations, resulting from a series of discussions between various experts involved in aspects of neuro-oncology neuroimaging for clinical trials. The minimum recommended sequences include: (i) parameter-matched precontrast and postcontrast inversion recovery-prepared, isotropic 3D T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo; (ii) axial 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo acquired after contrast injection and before postcontrast 3D T1-weighted images to control timing of images after contrast administration; (iii) precontrast, axial 2D T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; and (iv) precontrast, axial 2D, 3-directional diffusion-weighted images. Recommended ranges of sequence parameters are provided for both 1.5 T and 3 T MR systems. PMID:26250565

  19. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    for activities undertaken by all Parties in Antarctica. The Protocol gives clear and strong guidance for protection of specific, valued antarctic environmental resources including intrinsic wilderness and aesthetic values, and the value of Antarctica as an area for scientific research. That guidance requires a higher standard of environmental protection for Antarctica than is required in other parts of the world. This paper shows that taken together NEPA and the Protocol call for closer examination of proposed actions and a more rigorous consideration of environmental impacts than either would alone. Three areas are identified where the EIA provisions of the Protocol could be strengthened to improve its effectiveness. First, the thresholds defined by the Protocol need to be clarified. Specifically, the meanings of the terms "minor" and "transitory" are not clear in the context of the Protocol. The use of "or" in the phrase "minor or transitory" further confuses the meaning. Second, cumulative impact assessment is called for by the Protocol but is not defined. A clear definition could reduce the chance that cumulative impacts would be given inadequate consideration. Finally, the public has limited opportunities to comment on or influence the preparation of initial or comprehensive environmental evaluations. Experience has shown that public input to environmental documents has a considerable influence on agency decision making and the quality of EIA that agencies perform.KEY WORDS: Environment; Impact assessment; Antarctica; NEPA; Protocol; Antarctic Treatyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n1p13.html PMID:10341059

  20. A comparison of single and multiple stressor protocols to assess acute stress in a coastal shark species, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae.

    PubMed

    Hoffmayer, Eric R; Hendon, Jill M; Parsons, Glenn R; Driggers, William B; Campbell, Matthew D

    2015-10-01

    Elasmobranch stress responses are traditionally measured in the field by either singly or serially sampling an animal after a physiologically stressful event. Although capture and handling techniques are effective at inducing a stress response, differences in protocols could affect the degree of stress experienced by an individual, making meaningful comparisons between the protocols difficult, if not impossible. This study acutely stressed Atlantic sharpnose sharks, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, by standardized capture (rod and reel) and handling methods and implemented either a single or serial blood sampling protocol to monitor four indicators of the secondary stress response. Single-sampled sharks were hooked and allowed to swim around the boat until retrieved for a blood sample at either 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 min post-hooking. Serially sampled sharks were retrieved, phlebotomized, released while still hooked, and subsequently resampled at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals post-hooking. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit, and plasma glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels. Although both single and serial sampling protocols resulted in an increase in glucose, no significant difference in glucose level was found between protocols. Serially sampled sharks exhibited cumulatively heightened levels for lactate and osmolality at all time intervals when compared to single-sampled animals at the same time. Maximal concentration differences of 217.5, 9.8, and 41.6 % were reported for lactate, osmolality, and glucose levels, respectively. Hematocrit increased significantly over time for the single sampling protocol but did not change significantly during the serial sampling protocol. The differences in resultant blood chemistry levels between implemented stress protocols and durations are significant and need to be considered when assessing stress in elasmobranchs. PMID:26026297

  1. EuroFlow standardization of flow cytometer instrument settings and immunophenotyping protocols

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, T; Flores-Montero, J; van der Velden, V H J; Martin-Ayuso, M; Böttcher, S; Ritgen, M; Almeida, J; Lhermitte, L; Asnafi, V; Mendonça, A; de Tute, R; Cullen, M; Sedek, L; Vidriales, M B; Pérez, J J; te Marvelde, J G; Mejstrikova, E; Hrusak, O; Szczepański, T; van Dongen, J J M; Orfao, A

    2012-01-01

    The EU-supported EuroFlow Consortium aimed at innovation and standardization of immunophenotyping for diagnosis and classification of hematological malignancies by introducing 8-color flow cytometry with fully standardized laboratory procedures and antibody panels in order to achieve maximally comparable results among different laboratories. This required the selection of optimal combinations of compatible fluorochromes and the design and evaluation of adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs) for instrument setup, fluorescence compensation and sample preparation. Additionally, we developed software tools for the evaluation of individual antibody reagents and antibody panels. Each section describes what has been evaluated experimentally versus adopted based on existing data and experience. Multicentric evaluation demonstrated high levels of reproducibility based on strict implementation of the EuroFlow SOPs and antibody panels. Overall, the 6 years of extensive collaborative experiments and the analysis of hundreds of cell samples of patients and healthy controls in the EuroFlow centers have provided for the first time laboratory protocols and software tools for fully standardized 8-color flow cytometric immunophenotyping of normal and malignant leukocytes in bone marrow and blood; this has yielded highly comparable data sets, which can be integrated in a single database. PMID:22948490

  2. The effectiveness of an abuse assessment protocol in public health prenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiist, W H; McFarlane, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated whether incorporation of an abuse assessment protocol into the routine procedures of the prenatal clinics of a large urban public health department led to increased referral for and assessment, identification, and documentation of abuse. METHODS: Evaluation was conducted at 3 matched prenatal clinics serving a total of 12,000 maternity patients per year. Two clinics used the abuse protocol and 1 did not. An audit was performed at the clinics on a randomly selected sample of 540 maternity patient charts for the 15 months before the protocol was initiated and of 540 records for the 15 months after the protocol was introduced. Ninety-six percent of the patients represented in the sample were Latina. RESULTS: At the clinics using the protocol, abuse assessment increased from 0 to 88%. Detection of abuse increased from 0.8% to 7%. There were no changes at the comparison clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of an abuse assessment protocol into the routine procedures of public health department prenatal clinics increases the assessment, identification, and documentation of and referral for abuse among pregnant women. An abuse protocol should be a routine part of maternity care. PMID:10432909

  3. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  4. Improved (and Singular) Disinfectant Protocol for Indirectly Assessing Organic Precursor Concentrations of Trihalomethanes and Dihaloacetonitriles.

    PubMed

    Do, Thien D; Chimka, Justin R; Fairey, Julian L

    2015-08-18

    Measurements of disinfection byproduct (DBP) organic precursor concentrations (OPCs) are crucial to assess and improve DBP control processes. Typically, formation potential tests - specified in Standard Methods (SM) 5710-B/D - are used to measure OPCs. Here, we highlight several limitations of this protocol for dihaloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes and validate a novel Alternative Method (AM). The effects of pH, disinfectant type (free chlorine and monochloramine), and chlor(am)ine residual (CR) were examined on DBP formation in a suite of waters. Using the SM, DHAN decreased 43-47% as the CR increased from 3 to 5 mg L(-1) as Cl2, compromising OPC assessments. In contrast, a high monochloramine dose (250 mg L(-1) as Cl2) at pH 7.0 (the AM) accurately reflected OPCs. The two methods were compared for assessing DBP precursor removal through three granular activated carbon (GAC) columns in series. Breakthrough profiles assessed using the AM only showed DBP precursor sorption occurred in each column that decreased over time (p = 0.0001). Similarly, the AM facilitated ranking of three types of GAC compared in parallel columns, whereas the SM produced ambiguous results. Fluorescence intensity of a humic-like fluorophore (i.e., I345/425) correlated strongly to precursor removal in the GAC columns. The practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:26167626

  5. A consensus protocol for the standardization of cerebrospinal fluid collection and biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, C E.; Petzold, A; Bennett, J L.; Berven, F S.; Brundin, L; Comabella, M; Franciotta, D; Frederiksen, J L.; Fleming, J O.; Furlan, R; Hintzen, MD, R Q.; Hughes, S G.; Johnson, M H.; Krasulova, E; Kuhle, J; Magnone, M C.; Rajda, C; Rejdak, K; Schmidt, H K.; van Pesch, V; Waubant, E; Wolf, C; Giovannoni, G; Hemmer, B; Tumani, H; Deisenhammer, F

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in CSF are being used in clinical practice. One of the most critical factors in CSF biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies because of the lack of sufficient samples that can be obtained in single-center studies. Therefore, collaboration between investigators is needed to establish large biobanks of well-defined samples. Standardized protocols for biobanking are a prerequisite to ensure that the statistical power gained by increasing the numbers of CSF samples is not compromised by preanalytical factors. Here, a consensus report on recommendations for CSF collection and biobanking is presented, formed by the BioMS-eu network for CSF biomarker research in multiple sclerosis. We focus on CSF collection procedures, preanalytical factors, and high-quality clinical and paraclinical information. The biobanking protocols are applicable for CSF biobanks for research targeting any neurologic disease. GLOSSARY CIS = clinically isolated syndrome; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; IgG = immunoglobulin G; MALDI-TOF = matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight; MS = multiple sclerosis; MSFC = Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite; SPMS = secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. PMID:19949037

  6. Audit of a 5-year radiographic protocol for assessment of mandibular third molars before surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schou, S; Christensen, J; Hintze, H; Wenzel, A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To perform an audit of a three-step protocol for radiographic examination of mandibular third molars before surgery. Methods: 1769 teeth underwent surgery. A standardized three-step radiographic protocol was followed: (1) panoramic imaging (PAN), (2) stereoscanography (SCAN) and (3) CBCT. If there was overprojection between the tooth and the canal in PAN, SCAN was performed. If the tooth was determined to be in close contact with the canal in SCAN, CBCT was performed. Close contact between the tooth and the canal was assessed in all images, and patient-reported sensory disturbances from the alveolar inferior nerve were recorded after surgery. The relation between the final radiographic examination and sensory disturbances was determined. Logistic regression analysis tested whether signs for a close contact in PAN/SCAN could predict no bony separation between the tooth and canal in CBCT. Results: 46% of teeth underwent PAN, 31% underwent SCAN and 23% underwent CBCT as the final examination. 21% underwent all three radiographic examinations. 53/76% of teeth with close relation to the canal in PAN/SCAN showed no bony separation in CBCT; if there was close relation in PAN/SCAN, there was 1.6/4.3 times higher probability that no bony separation existed in CBCT. 16 cases of sensory disturbances were recorded: 4 operations were based on PAN, 8 on SCAN and 4 on CBCT. Conclusions: The radiographic protocol was in general followed. SCAN was superior to PAN in predicting no bony separation between the tooth and the canal in CBCT, and there was no relation between sensory disturbances and radiographic method. PMID:25216077

  7. A Systematic Review of Protocols for the Three-Dimensional Morphologic Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Computed Tomographic Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatwary, Tamer M. H.; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Loftus, Ian M.; Morgan, Robert; Thompson, Matt M.; Holt, Peter J. E.

    2013-02-15

    The morphology of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) directly influences the perioperative outcome and long-term durability of endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of methods have been proposed for the characterization of AAA morphology using reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. At present, there is lack of consensus as to which of these methods is most applicable to clinical practice or research. The purpose of this review was to evaluate existing protocols that used 3D CT images in the assessment of various aspects of AAA morphology. An electronic search was performed, from January 1996 to the end of October 2010, using the Embase and Medline databases. The literature review conformed to PRISMA statement standards. The literature search identified 604 articles, of which 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Only 15 of 31 studies objectively assessed reproducibility. Existing published protocols were insufficient to define a single evidence-based methodology for preoperative assessment of AAA morphology. Further development and expert consensus are required to establish a standardized and validated protocol to determine precisely how morphology relates to outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair.

  8. Assessing an improved protocol for plasma microRNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Moret, Inés; Sánchez-Izquierdo, Dolors; Iborra, Marisa; Tortosa, Luis; Navarro-Puche, Ana; Nos, Pilar; Cervera, José; Beltrán, Belén

    2013-01-01

    The first step in biomarkers discovery is to identify the best protocols for their purification and analysis. This issue is critical when considering peripheral blood samples (plasma and serum) that are clinically interesting but meet several methodological problems, mainly complexity and low biomarker concentration. Analysis of small molecules, such as circulating microRNAs, should overcome these disadvantages. The present study describes an optimal RNA extraction method of microRNAs from human plasma samples. Different reagents and commercially available kits have been analyzed, identifying also the best pre-analytical conditions for plasma isolation. Between all of them, the column-based approaches were shown to be the most effective. In this context, miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit (from Qiagen) rendered more concentrated RNA, that was better suited for microarrays studies and did not require extra purification steps for sample concentration and purification than phenol based extraction methods. We also present evidences that the addition of low doses of an RNA carrier before starting the extraction process improves microRNA purification while an already published carrier dose can result in significant bias over microRNA profiles. Quality controls for best protocol selection were developed by spectrophotometry measurement of contaminants and microfluidics electrophoresis (Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer) for RNA integrity. Selected donor and patient plasma samples and matched biopsies were tested by Affymetrix microarray technology to compare differentially expressed microRNAs. In summary, this study defines an optimized protocol for microRNA purification from human blood samples, increasing the performance of assays and shedding light over the best way to discover and use these biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:24376572

  9. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Assessment: Literature Review and Laboratory Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R. Scott; Reid, Douglas J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Sullivan, Greg; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of NILM technologies, a literature review was conducted to identify any test protocols or standardized testing approaches currently in use. The literature review indicated that no consistent conventions were currently in place for measuring the accuracy of these technologies. Consequently, PNNL developed a testing protocol and metrics to provide the basis for quantifying and analyzing the accuracy of commercially available NILM technologies. This report discusses the results of the literature review and the proposed test protocol and metrics in more detail.

  10. Assessing standards of vascular access device care.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Rose

    Vascular access devices (VADs) are essential in health care as they provide vital access for treatment including the infusion of medication, fluids, blood products and nutritional supplements. However, their invasive nature predisposes patients to potential complications, primarily bloodstream infections. This article examines the current standards of VAD care and assesses compliance with current guidelines (national and trust policy) in one hospital setting utilising a practice audit. The audit was conducted in a 500-bed district general hospital over 6 non-consecutive week days. The medical division where the audit took place had 13 wards with 288 beds. A total of 120 VADs were audited, averaging n=9.2 per ward (with a range of 4-18 on each ward). The results demonstrated a collective non-compliance rate of 48%. Although overall compliance was 52%, a poor standard of care was highlighted across the division for all components of the care elements. The post-insertion care of VADs is an essential component of a comprehensive strategy to prevent complications. Consequently, initiatives such as audit, education and feedback should be used in an effort to improve practice and maintain optimal care. PMID:25904534

  11. Using GLOBE Plant Phenology Protocols To Meet the "National Science Education Standards."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombaugh, Ruth; Sparrow, Elena; Mal, Tarun

    2003-01-01

    Describes how high school biology teachers can use the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program protocols and data in their classrooms. Includes background information on plant phenology, an overview of GLOBE phenology protocols and materials, and implications for protocols with both deciduous trees and grasses…

  12. Standardization and Optimization of Computed Tomography Protocols to Achieve Low-Dose

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D.; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Kofler, James M.; Krishnam, Mayil S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper we summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures comprising the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety in Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing-tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose. PMID:24589403

  13. A Protocol for the Global Sensitivity Analysis of Impact Assessment Models in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Borgonovo, E; Heijungs, R

    2016-02-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework has established itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Several works have established the need of integrating the LCA and risk analysis methodologies, due to the several common aspects. One of the ways to reach such integration is through guaranteeing that uncertainties in LCA modeling are carefully treated. It has been claimed that more attention should be paid to quantifying the uncertainties present in the various phases of LCA. Though the topic has been attracting increasing attention of practitioners and experts in LCA, there is still a lack of understanding and a limited use of the available statistical tools. In this work, we introduce a protocol to conduct global sensitivity analysis in LCA. The article focuses on the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and particularly on the relevance of global techniques for the development of trustable impact assessment models. We use a novel characterization model developed for the quantification of the impacts of noise on humans as a test case. We show that global SA is fundamental to guarantee that the modeler has a complete understanding of: (i) the structure of the model and (ii) the importance of uncertain model inputs and the interaction among them. PMID:26595377

  14. USE OF BROMOERGOCRYPTINE IN THE VALIDATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MECHANISMS OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Validated protocols for evaluating maternally mediated mechanisms of early pregnancy failure in rodents are needed for use in the risk assessment process. To supplement previous efforts in the validation of a panel of protocols assembled for this purpose, bromoergocryptine (BEC) ...

  15. Is a New Protocol for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Research or Standard Therapy?

    PubMed

    Dekking, Sara A S; van der Graaf, Rieke; de Vries, Martine C; Bierings, Marc B; van Delden, Johannes J M; Kodish, Eric; Lantos, John D

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, doctors generally develop new cancer chemotherapy for children by testing innovative chemotherapy protocols against existing protocols in prospective randomized trials. In the Netherlands, children with leukemia are treated by protocols that are agreed upon by the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group. Periodically, the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group revises its protocols. Sometimes, these revisions are categorized as research, sometimes as treatment. In this Ethics Rounds, we analyze whether enrollment in a new protocol ought to be considered research and, if so, we discuss the implications of that designation. Our discussion highlights the different ways different countries approach complex issues of research ethics. PMID:26283776

  16. Is a New Protocol for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Research or Standard Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Dekking, Sara A. S.; van der Graaf, Rieke; de Vries, Martine C.; Bierings, Marc B.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Kodish, Eric; Lantos, John D.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, doctors generally develop new cancer chemotherapy for children by testing innovative chemotherapy protocols against existing protocols in prospective randomized trials. In the Netherlands, children with leukemia are treated by protocols that are agreed upon by the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group. Periodically, the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group revises its protocols. Sometimes, these revisions are categorized as research, sometimes as treatment. In this Ethics Rounds, we analyze whether enrollment in a new protocol ought to be considered research and, if so, we discuss the implications of that designation. Our discussion highlights the different ways different countries approach complex issues of research ethics. PMID:26283776

  17. Assessing the Effect of a Contouring Protocol on Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy Clinical Target Volumes and Interphysician Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darren M.; Perry, Lesley; Smith, Steve; Elliott, Tony; Wylie, James P.; Cowan, Richard A.; Livsey, Jacqueline E.; Logue, John P.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To compare postprostatectomy clinical target volume (CTV) delineation before and after the introduction of a contouring protocol and to investigate its effect on interphysician variability Methods and Materials: Six site-specialized radiation oncologists independently delineated a CTV on the computed tomography (CT) scans of 3 patients who had received postprostatectomy radiotherapy. At least 3 weeks later this was repeated, but with the physicians adhering to the contouring protocol from the Medical Research Council's Radiotherapy and Androgen Deprivation In Combination After Local Surgery (RADICALS) trial. The volumes obtained before and after the protocol were compared and the effect of the protocol on interphysician variability assessed. Results: An increase in mean CTV for all patients of 40.7 to 53.9cm{sup 3} was noted as a result of observing the protocol, with individual increases in the mean CTV of 65%, 15%, and 24% for Patients 1, 2, and 3 respectively. A reduction in interphysician variability was noted when the protocol was used. Conclusions: Substantial interphysician variation in target volume delineation for postprostatectomy radiotherapy exists, which can be reduced by the use of a contouring protocol. The RADICALS contouring protocol increases the target volumes when compared with those volumes typically applied at our center. The effect of treating larger volumes on the therapeutic ratio and resultant toxicity should be carefully monitored, particularly if the same dose-response as documented in radical prostate radiotherapy applies to the adjuvant and salvage setting. Prostate cancer, Postprostatectomy, Radiotherapy, Target volume.

  18. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Anders H; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward; Hutchinson, James; Vogt, Katrin; Boës, David; Niemann, Nadja; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20-84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The "ONE Study" panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells. Males and females showed different dynamics in age-dependent T cell activation and differentiation, indicating faster immunosenescence in males. Importantly, although both cohorts consisted of a small sample size, our standardized approach enabled validation of age-dependent changes with the second cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27144459

  19. The National Standards Assessment: Implications for California Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Elaine

    1995-01-01

    Questions what assessment strategies are appropriate for the National Standards and how they might differ from more traditional assessments. Provides guidelines for standards-based assessments and several sets of sample questions. Suggests the adoption of performance assessment strategies for material requiring evaluative thinking. (MJP)

  20. Defining standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schukken, Y H; Rauch, B J; Morelli, J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to define standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The standardized protocols describe the selection of cows and herds and define the critical points in performing experimental exposure, performing bacterial culture, evaluating the culture results, and finally performing statistical analyses and reporting of the results. The protocols define both negative control and positive control trials. For negative control trials, the protocol states that an efficacy of reducing new intramammary infections (IMI) of at least 40% is required for a teat disinfectant to be considered effective. For positive control trials, noninferiority to a control disinfectant with a published efficacy of reducing new IMI of at least 70% is required. Sample sizes for both negative and positive control trials are calculated. Positive control trials are expected to require a large trial size. Statistical analysis methods are defined and, in the proposed methods, the rate of IMI may be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. The efficacy of the test product can be evaluated while controlling for important covariates and confounders in the trial. Finally, standards for reporting are defined and reporting considerations are discussed. The use of the defined protocol is shown through presentation of the results of a recent trial of a test product against a negative control. PMID:23415529

  1. Students' Attitudes toward a Group Coursework Protocol and Peer Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraes, Caroline; Michaelidou, Nina; Canning, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a knowledge gap by presenting an empirical investigation of a group coursework protocol and peer assessment system (GCP&PAS) used in a UK university to support postgraduate marketing students in their assessed group activities. The aim of the research was to examine students' understanding of the GCP&PAS and their…

  2. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. The protocol, which highlights key points and motivates farmers to achieve improvements, has received much attention from interested parties. Abstract Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfare on the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype including animal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up. The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing the prototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptability among stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status, based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to the first contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimal handling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfare problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individual evaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported by an effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goat app. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfare conditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol may be a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrument for

  3. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  4. Validity and responsiveness of the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). A methodological study

    PubMed Central

    Andriesse, Hanneke; Roos, Ewa M; Hägglund, Gunnar; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt

    2006-01-01

    Background The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP) is a multi dimensional instrument designed for longitudinal follow up of the clubfoot deformity during growth. Item reliability has shown to be sufficient. In this article the CAP's validity and responsiveness is studied using the Dimeglio classification scoring as a gold standard. Methods Thirty-two children with 45 congenital clubfeet were assessed prospectively and consecutively at ages of new-born, one, two, four months and two years of age. For convergent/divergent construct validity the Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated. Discriminate validity was evaluated by studying the scores in bilateral clubfeet. The floor-ceiling effects at baseline (untreated clubfeet) and at two years of age (treated clubfeet) were evaluated. Responsiveness was evaluated by using effect sizes (ES) and by calculating if significant changes (Wilcoxons signed test) had occurred between the different measurement occasions. Results High to moderate significant correlation were found between CAP mobility I and morphology and the Dimeglio scores (rs = 0.77 and 0.44 respectively). Low correlation was found between CAP muscle function, mobility II and motion quality and the Dimeglio scoring system (rs = 0.20, 0.09 and 0.06 respectively). Of 13 children with bilateral clubfeet, 11 showed different CAP mobility I scores between right and left foot at baseline (untreated) compared with 5 with the Dimeglio score. At the other assessment occasions the CAP mobility I continued to show higher discrimination ability than the Dimeglio. No floor effects and low ceiling effects were found in the untreated clubfeet for both instruments. High ceiling effects were found in the CAP for the treated children and low for the Dimeglio. Responsiveness was good. ES from untreated to treated ranged from 0.80 to 4.35 for the CAP subgroups and was 4.68 for the Dimeglio. The first four treatment months, the CAP mobility I had generally higher ES

  5. A Linguistic Feature Analysis of Verbal Protocols Associated with Pupil Responses to Standardized Measures of Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, M. Victoria

    This study was designed to collect and analyze the verbal protocols of students involved in introspection as they responded to standardized measures of reading comprehension, for the purpose of learning more about the reading process. Eleven seventh grade students from an urban public school were randomly chosen from 61 subjects who met the…

  6. A Linguistic Feature Analysis of Verbal Protocols Associated with Pupil Responses to Standardized Measures of Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, M. Victoria

    The major purpose of this study was to provide insights into some of the reasoning strategies that may be used by students in obtaining meaning from the printed page. The study was designed to collect and analyze the verbal protocols of 11 seventh grade students involved in introspection as they responded to standardized measures of reading…

  7. Implementing Istanbul Protocol standards for forensic evidence of torture in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations. PMID:25623194

  8. Wireless networking for the dental office: current wireless standards and security protocols.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Arora, Sarika

    2004-11-15

    Digital radiography has gained immense popularity in dentistry today in spite of the early difficulty for the profession to embrace the technology. The transition from film to digital has been happening at a faster pace in the fields of Orthodontics, Oral Surgery, Endodontics, Periodontics, and other specialties where the radiographic images (periapical, bitewing, panoramic, cephalometric, and skull radiographs) are being acquired digitally, stored within a server locally, and eventually accessed for diagnostic purposes, along with the rest of the patient data via the patient management software (PMS). A review of the literature shows the diagnostic performance of digital radiography is at least comparable to or even better than that of conventional radiography. Similarly, other digital diagnostic tools like caries detectors, cephalometric analysis software, and digital scanners were used for many years for the diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. The introduction of wireless charged-coupled device (CCD) sensors in early 2004 (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY) has moved digital radiography a step further into the wireless era. As with any emerging technology, there are concerns that should be looked into before adapting to the wireless environment. Foremost is the network security involved in the installation and usage of these wireless networks. This article deals with the existing standards and choices in wireless technologies that are available for implementation within a contemporary dental office. The network security protocols that protect the patient data and boost the efficiency of modern day dental clinics are enumerated. PMID:15558101

  9. Standardized hypnosis treatment for irritable bowel syndrome: the North Carolina protocol.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2006-01-01

    The North Carolina protocol is a seven-session hypnosis-treatment approach for irritable bowel syndrome that is unique in that the entire course of treatment is designed for verbatim delivery. The protocol has been tested in two published research studies and found to benefit more than 80% of patients. This article describes the development, content, and testing of the protocol, and how it is used in clinical practice. PMID:16316883

  10. A Protocol for the Assessment and Treatment of School Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth

    This paper addresses the problem of school phobia, one of the most common childhood anxiety disorders. It presents four case studies of preadolescent school phobia involving two girls and two boys in grades four through seven. Several features of effective strategies for the assessment and treatment of school phobia which have emerged from the…

  11. Divided Timed and Continuous Timed Assessment Protocols and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perucca, David.

    2013-01-01

    Children from a low socioeconomic status (SES) are exposed to numerous stress factors that are negatively associated with sustained attention and academic performance. This association suggests that the timed component of lengthy assessments may be unfair for students from such backgrounds, as they may have an inability to sustain attention during…

  12. Toward an HRD Auditing Protocol: Assessing HRD Risk Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Even though HRD-related programs and activities carry risks that should be monitored and assessed, there is little literature on how auditing applies to the HRD function; the existing literature on the topic defines HRD auditing in widely different ways. The nature of risk for organizational process is discussed, followed by a review of the…

  13. Protocol - realist and meta-narrative evidence synthesis: Evolving Standards (RAMESES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in theory-driven, qualitative and mixed-method approaches to systematic review as an alternative to (or to extend and supplement) conventional Cochrane-style reviews. These approaches offer the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. However, the quality of such reviews can be difficult to assess. This study aims to produce methodological guidance, publication standards and training resources for those seeking to use the realist and/or meta-narrative approach to systematic review. Methods/design We will: [a] collate and summarise existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist and meta-narrative systematic review; [b] consider the extent to which these principles have been followed by published and in-progress reviews, thereby identifying how rigour may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; [c] using an online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of experts from academia and policy, produce a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; [d] produce training materials with learning outcomes linked to these steps; [e] pilot these standards and training materials prospectively on real reviews-in-progress, capturing methodological and other challenges as they arise; [f] synthesise expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into more definitive guidance and standards; [g] disseminate outputs to audiences in academia and policy. The outputs of the study will be threefold: 1. Quality standards and methodological guidance for realist and meta-narrative reviews for use by researchers, research sponsors, students and supervisors 2. A 'RAMESES' (Realist and Meta-review Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards) statement (comparable to CONSORT or PRISMA) of publication standards for such reviews, published in an open-access academic journal. 3. A

  14. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1289 Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1249 - Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Preanalytic Systems § 493.1249 Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1299 - Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Postanalytic Systems § 493.1299 Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  17. Common Core State Standards Assessments: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were created in response to the shortcomings of No Child Left Behind era standards and assessments. Among those failings were the poor quality of content standards and assessments and the variability in content expectations and proficiency targets across states, as well as concerns related to the economic…

  18. Utility of a standardized protocol for submitting clinically suspected endometrial polyps to the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nida S; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess whether a protocol for submitting clinically suspected endometrial polyps will improve the detection rate of polyps and evaluation of the background endometrium. A retrospective review from 1999 to 2015 was performed. Cases were divided into (1) polyps and curettings placed in 2 containers (separate, n=61) and (2) polyps and curettings placed in 1 container (combined, n=80). Polyps were identified in 100% of cases in the separate compared with 95% in the combined group (P=.62). The background endometrium was evaluable in 79% of cases in the combined compared to 90% in the separate group (P=.07). The frequency of hyperplasia without atypia, atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma was 4.4%, 3.6%, and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the enhanced rate of polyp detection and evaluation of the background endometrium in the separate group is minimal. This supports the recommendation of submitting endometrial polyps and curettings combined in 1 container. PMID:27402220

  19. Utility of a Standardized Protocol for Submitting Clinically Suspected Endometrial Polyps to the Pathology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nida S.; Giannico, Giovanna; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess whether a protocol for submitting clinically suspected endometrial polyps will improve the detection rate of polyps and evaluation of the background endometrium. A retrospective review from 1999– 2015 was performed. Cases were divided into: 1) polyps and curetting placed in 2 containers (separate, n=61) and 2) polyps and curettings placed in one container (combined, n=80). Polyps were identified in 100% of cases in the separate compared to 95% in the combined group (p=0.62). The background endometrium was evaluable in 79% in the combined compared to 90% in the separate group (p=0.07). The frequency of hyperplasia without atypia, atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma was 4.4%, 3.6% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the enhanced rate of polyp detection and evaluation of the background endometrium in the separate group is minimal. This supports the recommendation of submitting endometrial polyps and curetting combined in one container. PMID:27402220

  20. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The CHAMPS Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field based settings. The development of the CHAMPS (Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study) Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP) included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large epidemiological studies. Following pilot work, 297 children (3-5 years old) from 22 preschools were tested using the final version of the CMSP and the TGMD-2. Reliability of the CMSP and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass correlation procedures (ICC; ANOVA). Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare the CMSP to the original Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd Edition) (TGMD-2). Results indicated that test reliability, interobserver reliability and validity coefficients were all high, generally above R/r = 0.90. Significant age differences were found. Outcomes indicate that the CMSP is an appropriate tool for assessing motor development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in field-based settings that are consistent with large-scale trials. PMID:21532999

  1. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  2. 42 CFR 493.1235 - Standard: Personnel competency assessment policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Personnel competency assessment policies... Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1235 Standard: Personnel competency assessment policies... written policies and procedures to assess employee and, if applicable, consultant competency....

  3. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  4. Water-quality sampling by the U.S. Geological Survey-Standard protocols and procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2010-01-01

    Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (1.0 MB) The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops the sampling procedures and collects the data necessary for the accurate assessment and wise management of our Nation's surface-water and groundwater resources. Federal and State agencies, water-resource regulators and managers, and many organizations and interested parties in the public and private sectors depend on the reliability, timeliness, and integrity of the data we collect and the scientific soundness and impartiality of our data assessments and analysis. The standard data-collection methods uniformly used by USGS water-quality personnel are peer reviewed, kept up-to-date, and published in the National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/).

  5. Evaluation of Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program's potential for national nutrition and health surveys12345

    PubMed Central

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Kinsella, Michael; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Tian, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Lucey, Alice; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary F; Sempos, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing procedures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measurement in National Health/Nutrition Surveys to promote 25(OH)D measurements that are accurate and comparable over time, location, and laboratory procedure to improve public health practice. Objective: We applied VDSP protocols to existing ELISA-derived serum 25(OH)D data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) as a case-study survey and evaluated their effectiveness by comparison of the protocol-projected estimates with those from a reanalysis of survey serums by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–tandem MS). Design: The VDSP reference system and protocols were applied to ELISA-based serum 25(OH)D data from the representative NANS sample (n = 1118). A reanalysis of 99 stored serums by using standardized LC–tandem MS and resulting regression equations yielded predicted standardized serum 25(OH)D values, which were then compared with LC–tandem MS reanalyzed values for all serums. Results: Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30, <40, and <50 nmol/L were 6.5%, 21.9%, and 40.0%, respectively, via original ELISA measurements and 11.4%, 25.3%, and 43.7%, respectively, when VDSP protocols were applied. Differences in estimates at <30- and <40-nmol/L thresholds, but not at the <50-nmol/L threshold, were significant (P < 0.05). A reanalysis of all serums by using LC–tandem MS confirmed prevalence estimates as 11.2%, 27.2%, and 45.0%, respectively. Prevalences of serum 25(OH)D concentrations >125 nmol/L were 1.2%, 0.3%, and 0.6% by means of ELISA, VDSP protocols, and LC–tandem MS, respectively. Conclusion: VDSP protocols hold a major potential for national nutrition and health surveys in terms of the standardization of serum 25(OH)D data. PMID:23615829

  6. Hyperthermic tissue sealing devices: a proposed histopathologic protocol for standardizing the evaluation of thermally sealed vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Ryan H.; Vos, Jeffrey A.; Coad, James E.

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermic tissue sealing devices are advancing modern laparoscopy and other minimally invasive surgical approaches. Histopathologic evaluation of thermally sealed vessels can provide important information on their associated tissue effects and reactions. However, a standardized systematic approach has not been historically used in the literature. This paper proposes a histologic approach for the analysis of thermally sealed vessels and their basis of hemostasis, including thermal tissue changes, healing, and thrombosis. Histologic evaluation during the first week (Days 3-7) can assess the seal's primary tissue properties. These parameters include the thermal seal's length, architecture, tissue layers involved, adventitial collagen denaturation length, entrapped vapor or blood pockets, tissue homogenization and thermal tissue injury zones. While the architectural features can be assessed in Day 0-3 specimens, the latter thermal injury zones are essentially not assessable in Day 0-3 specimens. Day 14 specimens can provide information on the early healing response to the sealed vessel. Day 30 and longer specimens can be used to evaluate the seal's healing reactions. Assessment of the healing response should include seal site inflammation, granulation tissue, necrosis resorption, fibroproliferative scar healing, and thrombus organization. In order to accurately evaluate these parameters, careful specimen orientation, embedding and multiple histologic sections across the entire seal width are required. When appropriate in vivo post-treatment times are used, thermal vessel seals can be evaluated with routine light microscopy and common histologic staining methods.

  7. Evaluation of Updated Standard Operating Proceduresfor Residential Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Operating Procedures for Residential Exposure Assessment (i.e., Residential SOPs) is a set of standard instructions for estimating exposure resulting from various non-occupational pesticide uses including lawn and garden care, foggers, and pet treatments.

  8. State Standards, Assessments and Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher; Wilson, Michael

    This digest describes a program used by two New Jersey educators to help teachers improve instruction through a deeper understanding of state standards and test specifications. Understanding how standards-based tests are constructed is the first step in being able to use them to guide and improve instruction. This digest recommends, as the route…

  9. Whose Standards? (B) Reaching the Assessment Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polimeni, John M.; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.

    2009-01-01

    Love it or hate it, assessment has become the new reality on college and university campuses. Although measuring student achievement of course outcomes is not an easy task, assessment does not need to be a complex or painful experience. This paper describes the methods used to assess student achievement of the stated course outcomes in…

  10. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats' welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers. PMID:26479477

  11. Using Simple Linear Regression to Assess the Success of the Montreal Protocol in Reducing Atmospheric Chlorofluorocarbons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Following the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) recommendation to use real data, an example is presented in which simple linear regression is used to evaluate the effect of the Montreal Protocol on atmospheric concentration of chlorofluorocarbons. This simple set of data, obtained from a public archive, can…

  12. Treatment Integrity Assessment in the Schools: An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol (TIPP) provides a structured process for collaboratively creating a treatment integrity assessment within a consultation framework. The authors evaluated the effect of the TIPP on the implementation of an intervention designed to improve the consistency of students' mathematics performance. Treatment…

  13. UAF RADIORESPIROMETRIC PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING HYDROCARBON MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the EXXON Valdez Oil Spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. he use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanu...

  14. VALIDATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR ASSESSING EARLY PREGNANCY FAILURE IN THE RAT: CLOMIPHENE CITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the assembly of a battery of protocols for the assessment of maternally-mediated toxicity during early pregnancy, the validation of this battery for its utility in detecting and defining mechanisms of early pregnancy failure is ongoing. his report describes the use of c...

  15. Training Organizations in Use of a Modified Stream Visual Assessment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Yergeau, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP) was evaluated as a means to increase watershed surveys in New Jersey. Groups were trained in an SVAP modified for New Jersey streams. Participants in three training workshops were surveyed to determine the usefulness of SVAP as a cost-effective method to evaluate watershed health. Many respondents found…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL. T.E. Stoker1, J. Ferrell1, J.M. Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1 and S.C. Laws1. 1 Reprod. Tox. Div., 2 Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    P...

  17. Development and Use of an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lois A.; Weitzman, Lauren M.; Mountain, Lisa M.; Nelson, Kris L.; Oakley, Danielle R.; Smith, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling centers have been challenged to effectively treat the growing number of college students who struggle with disordered eating. In response to this critical issue, an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol (EDATP) was developed to assist clinical disposition in the counseling center setting and identify treatment guidelines…

  18. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. Methods A descriptive, comparative (6 months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Results Over the 12 -month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS–EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6 min from 35 to 29 min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in β-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). Conclusions The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. PMID:24136123

  19. B-Mode Sonographic Assessment of the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery: The SPI-US Protocol-A Technical Procedure in 4 Steps.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils

    2016-05-01

    Elite overhead athletes are at risk of vascular injury due to repetitive abduction and external rotation of the dominant arm. The posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) is prone to degeneration, aneurysm formation, and thrombosis in elite volleyball players and baseball pitchers. The prevalence of PCHA-related thromboembolic complications is unknown in this population. However, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischemia is 31% in elite volleyball players. A standardized noninvasive imaging tool will aid in early detection of PCHA injury, prevention of thromboembolic complications, and measurement reproducibility. A standardized vascular sonographic protocol for assessment of the proximal PCHA (SPI-US protocol [Shoulder PCHA Pathology and Digital Ischemia-Ultrasound protocol]) is presented. PMID:27072158

  20. Multicenter study using standardized protocols and reagents for evaluation of reproducibility of PCR-based fingerprinting of Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, H J; Towner, K J; Dijkshoorn, L; Gerner-Smidt, P; Maher, M; Seifert, H; Vaneechoutte, M

    1997-01-01

    Seven laboratories in six European countries examined 40 isolates belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex to investigate whether standardized protocols and quality-controlled reagents could produce reliable, discriminatory, and reproducible PCR-based fingerprinting results. Four PCR protocols with different primers (primers DAF4, ERIC-2, M13, and REP1 + REP2) were used. The epidemiological conclusions reached by the participating laboratories were substantially correct, with 96.4% of the total isolate grouping allocations agreeing with the consensus view. All laboratories identified the main epidemiological clusters, and each laboratory also identified two non-outbreak-related isolates. There were no significant differences between the isolate grouping results obtained by the different protocols and with the different primers. Visual comparison indicated that the standardized protocols and reagents yielded reproducible fingerprint patterns, but with some variations in particular band intensities. Minor variations in fingerprint profiles were detected, but computer-assisted analysis of PCR fingerprints obtained on agarose gels demonstrated that 88.3 to 91.6% (depending on the source of DNA) of the patterns clustered correctly, while 96.4 to 98.9% of the patterns clustered correctly following automated high-resolution laser fluorescence analysis. Correlation of the patterns for isogenic isolates ranged from 83.3 to 86.6% but was slightly better (mean correlation, 87.1%) for centrally prepared DNA extracts than for DNA extracts prepared by individual laboratories (mean correlation, 84.7%). It was concluded that independently produced PCR fingerprint patterns can be obtained reproducibly for Acinetobacter spp. at the practical level if (i) quality-controlled reagents, (ii) standardized extraction of DNA, and (iii) standardized amplification conditions are used. PMID:9399496

  1. Depression Awareness and Self-Management Through the Internet: Protocol for an Internationally Standardized Approach

    PubMed Central

    Koburger, Nicole; Larkin, Celine; Karwig, Gillian; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Harris, Fiona; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; van Audenhove, Chantal; Sisask, Merike; Alexandrova-Karamanova, Anna; Perez, Victor; Purebl, György; Cebria, Annabel; Palao, Diego; Costa, Susana; Mark, Lauraliisa; Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Gecheva, Marieta; Ibelshäuser, Angela; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression incurs significant morbidity and confers increased risk of suicide. Many individuals experiencing depression remain untreated due to systemic and personal barriers to care. Guided Internet-based psychotherapeutic programs represent a promising means of overcoming such barriers and increasing the capacity for self-management of depression. However, existing programs tend to be available only in English and can be expensive to access. Furthermore, despite evidence of the effectiveness of a number of Internet-based programs, there is limited evidence regarding both the acceptability of such programs and feasibility of their use, for users and health care professionals. Objective This paper will present the protocol for the development, implementation, and evaluation of the iFightDepression tool, an Internet-based self-management tool. This is a cost-free, multilingual, guided, self-management program for mild to moderate depression cases. Methods The Preventing Depression and Improving Awareness through Networking in the European Union consortium undertook a comprehensive systematic review of the available evidence regarding computerized cognitive behavior therapy in addition to a consensus process involving mental health experts and service users to inform the development of the iFightDepression tool. The tool was implemented and evaluated for acceptability and feasibility of its use in a pilot phase in 5 European regions, with recruitment of users occurring through general practitioners and health care professionals who participated in a standardized training program. Results Targeting mild to moderate depression, the iFightDepression tool is based on cognitive behavioral therapy and addresses behavioral activation (monitoring and planning daily activities), cognitive restructuring (identifying and challenging unhelpful thoughts), sleep regulation, mood monitoring, and healthy lifestyle habits. There is also a tailored version of the tool for

  2. Biorepository standards and protocols for collecting, processing, and storing human tissues.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput assays for gene expression (genomics), proteins (proteomics), and metabolites (metabolomics) have engendered a parallel need for well-annotated human biological samples. Samples from both diseased and unaffected normal tissues are often required. Biorepositories consist of a specimen bank linked to a database of information. Assuring chain of custody and annotation of samples with relevant clinical information is required. The value of samples to end users is generally commensurate with the quality and extent of relevant clinical data included with the samples. Procurement of tissues is often done with parallel pre- and/or post-treatment venipuncture to obtain blood and tissue samples from the same subject. Biorepositories must also process, preserve, and distribute samples to end users. Like traditional libraries, biorepositories are meant to be used, and they are most useful when the needs of end users (researchers) are considered in the planning and development process. Ethics review and an awareness of regulatory requirements for storage, transport, and distribution are required. In the USA, Institutional Review Boards are the local regulatory entities that review protocols for banking of human biological tissues. Governmental and professional agencies and organizations provide some guidelines for standard operating procedures. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers For Disease Control (CDC), and professional organizations such as the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB), the American Association of Blood Banks, The International Red Cross, International Society for Biological Repositories (ISBER) and other organizations provide guidelines for biorepositories and banking of human tissues (see Table 1). To date, these guidelines are directed largely toward procurement, banking, and distribution of human tissues for therapeutic uses. In the international setting, the World Health Organization provides ethical

  3. The standardization of nonsterile compounding: a study in quality control and assessment for hormone compounding.

    PubMed

    Wiley, T S; Odegard, R D; Raden, J; Haraldsen, J T

    2014-01-01

    Sterile and nonsterile compounding of medication has attracted much attention over the last few years due to the onset of various infections and negative compounding practices. This paper reports on the standardization of compounded hormones utilizing the Wiley Protocol, which provides nonsynthetic bioidentical estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone in a transdermal topical cream base for women and men in a standardized dosing regimen. Here, we present data from 2008 through 2012, which details the process of standardization and quality testing of the hormones through submission of random compounded samples for quality control and assessment. Pharmacies delivering the Wiley Protocol were required to follow the same compounding formulation, as well as submit random samples for quarterly testing. Sample concentrations were tested using high-performance liquid chromatography. We found that pharmacies that submitted samples had a 91% passing rating with a percent of target of 98.6% +/- 8.4%. It was also determined that pharmacies that prepared more compounded cream had a higher passing rating than those that prepared limited quantities. We found that standardization across multiple pharmacies could be achieved through quarterly testing of submitted samples by a third-party laboratory when following necessary procedures as defined by the Wiley Protocol. It was also determined that experience and training were a critical factor in the mixing of compounded prescriptions, with high consistency and accuracy providing patient safety. PMID:24881121

  4. Effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy on pain and functioning compared to a standard exercise protocol in patients presenting with clinical signs of subacromial impingement syndrome. A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shoulder impingement syndrome is a common musculoskeletal complaint leading to significant reduction of health and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first choice of treatment although its effectiveness is still under debate. Systematic reviews in this field highlight the need for more high quality trials to investigate the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will investigate the effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy in patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of subacromial impingement, involving 90 participants aged 18-75. Participants are recruited from outpatient physiotherapy clinics, general practitioners, and orthopaedic surgeons in Germany. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to either individualized physiotherapy or to a standard exercise protocol using central randomization. The control group will perform the standard exercise protocol aiming to restore muscular deficits in strength, mobility, and coordination of the rotator cuff and the shoulder girdle muscles to unload the subacromial space during active movements. Participants of the intervention group will perform the standard exercise protocol as a home program, and will additionally be treated with individualized physiotherapy based on clinical examination results, and guided by a decision tree. After the intervention phase both groups will continue their home program for another 7 weeks. Outcome will be measured at 5 weeks and at 3 and 12 months after inclusion using the shoulder pain and disability index and patients' global impression of change, the generic patient-specific scale, the average weekly pain score, and patient satisfaction with treatment. Additionally, the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire, the pain catastrophizing scale, and patients' expectancies of treatment effect are assessed. Participants' adherence to the protocol, use

  5. Biosafety assessment protocols for new organisms in New Zealand: Can they apply internationally to emerging technologies?

    SciTech Connect

    Barratt, B.I.P. . E-mail: barbara.barratt@agresearch.co.nz; Moeed, A.; Malone, L.A.

    2006-05-15

    An analysis of established biosafety protocols for release into the environment of exotic plants and biological control agents for weeds and arthropod pests has been carried out to determine whether such protocols can be applied to relatively new and emerging technologies intended for the primary production industries, such as transgenic plants. Example case studies are described to indicate the scope of issues considered by regulators who make decisions on new organism releases. No transgenic plants have been released to date in New Zealand, but two field test approvals are described as examples. An analysis of the biosafety protocols has shown that, while many of the risk criteria considered for decision-making by regulators are similar for all new organisms, a case-by-case examination of risks and potential impacts is required in order to fully assess risk. The value of post-release monitoring and validation of decisions made by regulators is emphasised.

  6. Assessment and risk classification protocol for patients in emergency units1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Michele de Freitas Neves; Oliveira, Gabriela Novelli; Pergola-Marconato, Aline Maino; Marconato, Rafael Silva; Bargas, Eliete Boaventura; Araujo, Izilda Esmenia Muglia

    2014-01-01

    Objective to develop, validate the contents and verify the reliability of a risk classification protocol for an Emergency Unit. Method the content validation was developed in a University Hospital in a country town located in the state of Sao Paulo and was carried out in two stages: the first with the individual assessment of specialists and the second with the meeting between the researchers and the specialists. The use of the protocol followed a specific guide. Concerning reliability, the concordance or equivalent method among observers was used. Results the protocol developed showed to have content validity and, after the suggested changes were made, there were excellent results concerning reliability. Conclusion the assistance flow chart was shown to be easy to use, and facilitate the search for the complaint in each assistance priority. PMID:26107828

  7. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  8. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    PubMed Central

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to care for people with diabetes

  9. Under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety - Where is the Roadmap for Risk Assessment Taking Us?

    PubMed

    Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes the history of the development of the guidance on risk assessment, including the roadmap under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety since 2008 until now. The aim and the contents of the roadmap for risk assessment of living modified organisms (LMOs) are described, in particular the five steps in the risk assessment process. After several rounds of discussions at the expert and political level, the guidance including the roadmap is currently revised taking into account the results of an in-depth practical testing process by the Parties, Non-Parties, and relevant organizations. The aim is to provide an improved version of the guidance for endorsement and broad support by the next meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol in December 2016. PMID:26835448

  10. Under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety – Where is the Roadmap for Risk Assessment Taking Us?

    PubMed Central

    Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The paper summarizes the history of the development of the guidance on risk assessment, including the roadmap under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety since 2008 until now. The aim and the contents of the roadmap for risk assessment of living modified organisms (LMOs) are described, in particular the five steps in the risk assessment process. After several rounds of discussions at the expert and political level, the guidance including the roadmap is currently revised taking into account the results of an in-depth practical testing process by the Parties, Non-Parties, and relevant organizations. The aim is to provide an improved version of the guidance for endorsement and broad support by the next meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol in December 2016. PMID:26835448

  11. Development and application of an assessment protocol for monitoring watery quality using benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.H.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Waller, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    The inability to accurately assess water quality using benthic macroinvertebrate communities, due to invalid sampling regimes and tenuous assessment endpoints, has led to confusion among the scientific community and the public as to the condition of the nation`s surface waters. Identifying a suite of reliable indicators (metrics) and a statistically valid sampling strategy should be a priority. In 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP) to provide guidance in this area. However, several of these metrics have come under scrutiny of late. Excessive variability and redundancy of information have been the major criticisms. This study statistically evaluates the RBP metrics for their overall usefulness as indicators of water quality, using previously compiled data from a reference stream in the ecoregion in which the study site is contained. Endpoints with a high degree of variability and/or an inability to generate unique and pertinent information were not included in the assessment protocol. In addition, power analysis was conducted on these metrics to determine the number of samples necessary to detect differences at ecologically relevant values. The metrics which met the criteria of low variability and the ability to provide unique and pertinent information were then applied to three small urban streams to assess the condition of these systems. It is the contention that only when a proven assessment protocol is employed, like the one presented here, can benthic macroinvertebrates reliably be used to evaluate water quality.

  12. Summary Report Panel 1: The Need for Protocols and Standards in Research on Underwater Noise Impacts on Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Ainslie, Michael A; de Jong, Christ A F; Racca, Roberto; Stocker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As concern about anthropogenic noise and its impacts on marine fauna is increasing around the globe, data are being compared across populations, species, noise sources, geographic regions, and time. However, much of the raw and processed data are not comparable due to differences in measurement methodology, analysis and reporting, and a lack of metadata. Common protocols and more formal, international standards are needed to ensure the effectiveness of research, conservation, regulation and practice, and unambiguous communication of information and ideas. Developing standards takes time and effort, is largely driven by a few expert volunteers, and would benefit from stakeholders' contribution and support. PMID:26611096

  13. A Web Resource for Standardized Benchmark Datasets, Metrics, and Rosetta Protocols for Macromolecular Modeling and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pache, Roland A.; Ollikainen, Noah; Kundert, Kale; O'Meara, Matthew J.; Smith, Colin A.; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The development and validation of computational macromolecular modeling and design methods depend on suitable benchmark datasets and informative metrics for comparing protocols. In addition, if a method is intended to be adopted broadly in diverse biological applications, there needs to be information on appropriate parameters for each protocol, as well as metrics describing the expected accuracy compared to experimental data. In certain disciplines, there exist established benchmarks and public resources where experts in a particular methodology are encouraged to supply their most efficient implementation of each particular benchmark. We aim to provide such a resource for protocols in macromolecular modeling and design. We present a freely accessible web resource (https://kortemmelab.ucsf.edu/benchmarks) to guide the development of protocols for protein modeling and design. The site provides benchmark datasets and metrics to compare the performance of a variety of modeling protocols using different computational sampling methods and energy functions, providing a “best practice” set of parameters for each method. Each benchmark has an associated downloadable benchmark capture archive containing the input files, analysis scripts, and tutorials for running the benchmark. The captures may be run with any suitable modeling method; we supply command lines for running the benchmarks using the Rosetta software suite. We have compiled initial benchmarks for the resource spanning three key areas: prediction of energetic effects of mutations, protein design, and protein structure prediction, each with associated state-of-the-art modeling protocols. With the help of the wider macromolecular modeling community, we hope to expand the variety of benchmarks included on the website and continue to evaluate new iterations of current methods as they become available. PMID:26335248

  14. A Web Resource for Standardized Benchmark Datasets, Metrics, and Rosetta Protocols for Macromolecular Modeling and Design.

    PubMed

    Ó Conchúir, Shane; Barlow, Kyle A; Pache, Roland A; Ollikainen, Noah; Kundert, Kale; O'Meara, Matthew J; Smith, Colin A; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The development and validation of computational macromolecular modeling and design methods depend on suitable benchmark datasets and informative metrics for comparing protocols. In addition, if a method is intended to be adopted broadly in diverse biological applications, there needs to be information on appropriate parameters for each protocol, as well as metrics describing the expected accuracy compared to experimental data. In certain disciplines, there exist established benchmarks and public resources where experts in a particular methodology are encouraged to supply their most efficient implementation of each particular benchmark. We aim to provide such a resource for protocols in macromolecular modeling and design. We present a freely accessible web resource (https://kortemmelab.ucsf.edu/benchmarks) to guide the development of protocols for protein modeling and design. The site provides benchmark datasets and metrics to compare the performance of a variety of modeling protocols using different computational sampling methods and energy functions, providing a "best practice" set of parameters for each method. Each benchmark has an associated downloadable benchmark capture archive containing the input files, analysis scripts, and tutorials for running the benchmark. The captures may be run with any suitable modeling method; we supply command lines for running the benchmarks using the Rosetta software suite. We have compiled initial benchmarks for the resource spanning three key areas: prediction of energetic effects of mutations, protein design, and protein structure prediction, each with associated state-of-the-art modeling protocols. With the help of the wider macromolecular modeling community, we hope to expand the variety of benchmarks included on the website and continue to evaluate new iterations of current methods as they become available. PMID:26335248

  15. KCTCS Kentucky Manufacturing Skill Standards Assessment Center/Assessment Provider Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Community and Technical Coll. System, Lexington.

    This document describes the Kentucky Manufacturing Skill Standards (KMSS) development process. The Manufacturing Standards project is divided into three phases: standards, assessment, and curriculum. The vision of this project is to identify a standards-driven assessment process and determine the level of competency and understanding. This data…

  16. Optimization and standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol for serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Y L; Wright, P F; Larivière, S

    1992-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol has been optimized with special emphasis given to assay standardization and quality control. Technical aspects such as choice of a microplate, antigen immobilization, buffer composition, optimal screening dilution of sera, and kinetics of the enzymatic reaction were studied and evaluated in order to design a standard protocol offering maximal analytical sensitivity and specificity, as well as to obtain minimal within- and between-plate variability. Among the 27 plates tested, the Nunc 475-094 and 269-620 immunoplates were found to be the best in terms of high positive-to-negative ratio and low variability. No significant differences in antigen immobilization were found by using buffers of various compositions or pHs; however, the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+; 0.02 M) resulted in a twofold increase in nonspecific background. An optimal screening dilution of sera was established at 1:200. A 1-h incubation period for test serum was found to be optimal. Maximum enzymatic activity for peroxidase was obtained by adjusting both substrate (H2O2) and hydrogen donor [2,2' -azinobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline sulfonic acid)] concentrations to 4 and 1 mM, respectively. To control between-plate variability, a timing protocol was adopted. Within-plate variability was also controlled by using a sample placement configuration pattern. Sliding scales were determined by repeated testing of a cross section of samples to set acceptance limits for both within- and between-plate variability. These limits were used in a quality control program to monitor assay performance. The results obtained suggest that this standardized protocol might be useful in the serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. PMID:1734068

  17. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream. PMID:23618466

  18. Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice: Development of a Standardized Clinical Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempster, Gail B.; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Hillman, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the development of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) following a consensus conference on perceptual voice quality measurement sponsored by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Special Interest Division 3, Voice and Voice Disorders. The CAPE-V protocol and recording form were…

  19. Does an In-Season Only Neuromuscular Training Protocol Reduce Deficits Quantified by the Tuck Jump Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Klugman, Madelyn F.; Brent, Jensen L.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female athletes are 4–6 times more likely to suffer an ACL injury than males in comparable sports. A link between landing biomechanics and ACL injury has led to the development of injury prevention focused training protocols. It is often difficult to measure the protocols’ efficacy of different protocols on reduction of ACL injury-related factors. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to test the effects of in-season neuromuscular training on a field-based evaluation used to help identify athletes at risk for ACL injuries. The hypothesis was that the ACL injury prevention training program included with an in-season soccer program would demonstrate increased improvement in the Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA) scores at post-season follow-up testing relative to standard in-season soccer training. METHODS Forty-nine female soccer players were tested with TJA before and after participation in either in-season injury prevention training (IN) or standard in-season soccer training (CTRL). Participants were filmed performing the TJA with digital video cameras and scored by two separate raters, each viewing randomized videos. The groups received neuromuscular training synthesized from previous protocols demonstrated to decrease ACL injury. A mixed design (2X2; group by time) repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the interaction and main effects of group (ACL intervention training in-season vs. standard soccer in-season training) and time (pre vs. post-season) on dynamic TJA scores. RESULTS There was a significant main effect of time on TJA score (p=0.04) for athletes measured at pre- and post-season. The IN group reduced measured landing and jumping deficits from 5.4 ± 1.6 to 4.9 ± 1.0 points following training. CTRL showed a 14% reduction in TJA deficit points following the soccer season. CONCLUSIONS The tested hypothesis that the in-season ACL intervention training can be utilized to reduce measured TJA deficits above and beyond a standard in-season soccer

  20. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W., Ed.; Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Koenig, Judith A., Ed.; Beatty, Alexandra S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role in the classroom. "Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" develops an approach to science assessment to meet the vision of science education for the future as it has been elaborated in "A Framework…

  1. Web-Based Assessment of Physical Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell

    2012-01-01

    Why would a school district consider implementing a district-wide, web-based assessment of student achievement of physical education standards? Why should any school or school district assume the expense, both in terms of time and money, of adopting an online assessment tool for physical education to assess students' cognitive and motor skills?…

  2. The edaphic quantitative protargol stain: a sampling protocol for assessing soil ciliate abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Mercado, Dimaris; Lynn, Denis H

    2003-06-01

    It has been suggested that species loss from microbial groups low in diversity that occupy trophic positions close to the base of the detrital food web could be critical for terrestrial ecosystem functioning. Among the protozoans within the soil microbial loop, ciliates are presumably the least abundant and of low diversity. However, the lack of a standardized method to quantitatively enumerate and identify them has hampered our knowledge about the magnitude of their active and potential diversity, and about the interactions in which they are involved. Thus, the Edaphic Quantitative Protargol Staining (EQPS) method is provided to simultaneously account for ciliate species richness and abundance in a quantitative and qualitative way. This direct method allows this rapid and simultaneous assessment by merging the Non-flooded Petri Dish (NFPD) method [Prog. Protistol. 2 (1987) 69] and the Quantitative Protargol Stain (QPS) method [Montagnes, D.J.S., Lynn, D.H., 1993. A quantitative protargol stain (QPS) for ciliates and other protists. In: Kemp, P.F., Sherr, B.F., Sherr, E.B., Cole, J.J. (Eds.), Handbook of Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 229-240]. The abovementioned protocols were refined by experiments examining the spatial distribution of ciliates under natural field conditions, sampling intensity, the effect of storage, and the use of cytological preparations versus live observations. The EQPS could be useful in ecological studies since it provides both a "snapshot" of the active and effective diversity and a robust estimate of the potential diversity. PMID:12689714

  3. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards

    PubMed Central

    Lontok, Katherine S.; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards. PMID:26222583

  4. 78 FR 14654 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... a report informing the Commission that it had adopted an initial set of business practice standards...&V Standards).\\9\\ As mentioned above, the NAESB report recognized that adoption of these standards... and verification of demand response products and services in RTO and ISO areas. \\9\\ Report,...

  5. Optimization of Saanen sperm genes amplification: evaluation of standardized protocols in genetically uncharacterized rural goats reared under a subtropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Saade, Maya F; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Hamadeh, Shady K; Mouneimne, Youssef; Kassaifi, Zeina; Kayali, Ghazi; Harakeh, Steve; Jaber, Lina S; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to optimize quantitatively the amplification of specific sperm genes in reference genomically characterized Saanen goat and to evaluate the standardized protocols applicability on sperms of uncharacterized genome of rural goats reared under subtropical environment for inclusion in future selection programs. The optimization of the protocols in Saanen sperms included three production genes (growth hormone (GH) exons 2, 3, and 4, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), and α-lactalbumin) and two health genes (MHC class II DRB and prion (PrP)). The optimization was based on varying the primers concentrations and the inclusion of a PCR cosolvent (Triton X). The impact of the studied variables on statistically significant increase in the yield of amplicons was noticed in four out of five (80%) optimized protocols, namely in those related to GH, CSN1S1, α-lactalbumin, and PrP genes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the yield of amplicons related to MHC class II DRB gene, regardless of the variables used (P > 0.05). The applicability of the optimized protocols of Saanen sperm genes on amplification of uncharacterized rural goat sperms revealed a 100% success in tested individuals for amplification of GH, CSN1S1, α-lactalbumin, and MHC class II DRB genes and a 75% success for the PrP gene. The significant success in applicability of the Saanen quantitatively optimized protocols to other uncharacterized genome of rural goats allows for their inclusion in future selection, targeting the sustainability of this farming system in a subtropical environment and the improvement of the farmers livelihood. PMID:22350811

  6. Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized protocol for subtyping isolates of Cronobacter species.

    PubMed

    Brengi, Silvina P; O'Brien, Stephen B; Pichel, Mariana; Iversen, Carol; Arduino, Matthew; Binsztein, Norma; Jensen, Bette; Pagotto, Franco; Ribot, Efrain M; Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Cooper, Kara; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-09-01

    Cronobacter (formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a genus comprising seven species regarded as opportunistic pathogens that can be found in a wide variety of environments and foods, including powdered infant formula (PIF). Cronobacter sakazakii, the major species of this genus, has been epidemiologically linked to cases of bacteremia, meningitis in neonates, and necrotizing enterocolitis, and contaminated PIF has been identified as an important source of infection. Robust and reproducible subtyping methods are required to aid in the detection and investigation, of foodborne outbreaks. In this study, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and validated for subtyping Cronobacter species. It was derived from an existing modified PulseNet protocol, wherein XbaI and SpeI were the primary and secondary restriction enzymes used, generating an average of 14.7 and 20.3 bands, respectively. The PFGE method developed was both reproducible and discriminatory for subtyping Cronobacter species. PMID:22891917

  7. Effects of a standardized anesthetic protocol on hematologic variables in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Epp, Tasha Y; Taylor, Susan M; Carr, Anthony P; Dickinson, Ryan M; Leis, Marina L

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an anesthetic protocol using intravenous ketamine and midazolam, and intramuscular buprenorphine on hematologic variables in cats. Twelve healthy adult cats had blood collected for a complete blood count before and after the induction of anesthesia. There were significant decreases in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits after the induction of anesthesia. On average, red blood cell counts and hematocrits decreased by 25%, and hemoglobin concentrations decreased by 24%. Based on hematocrit, 3/12 samples (25%) taken while the cats were anesthetized would have been interpreted as belonging to anemic patients while none of the cats would have been considered anemic before anesthesia. This study suggests that a complete blood count performed on blood taken under anesthesia with this anesthetic protocol should be interpreted cautiously in order to not make a false diagnosis of anemia. PMID:22577050

  8. Identification of Geotrichum candidum at the species and strain level: proposal for a standardized protocol.

    PubMed

    Gente, S; Sohier, D; Coton, E; Duhamel, C; Gueguen, M

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the M13 primer was used to distinguish Geotrichum candidum from the anamorphic and teleomorphic forms of other arthrospore-forming species (discriminatory power = 0.99). For intraspecific characterization, the GATA4 primer showed the highest level of discrimination for G. candidum among the 20 microsatellite primers tested. A molecular typing protocol (DNA concentration, hybridization temperature and type of PCR machine) was optimized through a series of intra- and interlaboratory trials. This protocol was validated using 75 strains of G. candidum, one strain of G. capitatum and one strain of G. fragrans, and exhibited a discrimination score of 0.87. This method could therefore be used in the agro-food industries to identify and to evaluate biodiversity and trace strains of G. candidum. The results show that the GATA4 primer might be used to differentiate strains according to their ecological niche. PMID:16855820

  9. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  10. Field Test Protocol. Standard Internal Load Generation for Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  11. ASTM assessment standards garner nods, some warnings from information vendors

    SciTech Connect

    Prickett, D.S. )

    1993-08-01

    The American Society for Testing of Materials ASTM; (Philadelphia) early this year adopted standards for Phase I real estate site assessments. Many in the real estate, banking and lending communities have welcomed the standards as a partial solution to uncertainties associated with environmental due diligence requirements under CERCLA. Some, however, view the standards as minimum criteria for exercising due diligence, rather than a panacea for potential CERCLA liability problems. The author discusses the new standards with a descriptive statement prepared by ASTM, two essentially favorable views on the ASTM criteria and a cautionary statement about use of the standards in practice.

  12. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  13. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    PubMed

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P < 0.001), and 'good health' (P = 0.005). Four of the 10 welfare criteria scores were, or tended to be, higher on Brazilian than Belgian farms: 'absence of prolonged thirst' (P < 0.001), 'ease of movement' (P < 0.001), 'absence of injuries' (P = 0.002), and 'positive emotional state' (P = 0.055). The only criteria with a higher score for the Belgian farms than their Brazilian counterparts were 'absence of prolonged hunger' (P = 0.048) and 'good human-animal relationship' (P = 0.002). Application of the Welfare Quality protocol has raised several concerns about the validity, reliability, and discriminatory potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare

  14. Design and application of an assessment protocol for electromagnetic tracking systems.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Johann B; Bax, Michael R; Figl, Michael L; Kang, Yan; Maurer, Calvin; Birkfellner, Wolfgang W; Bergmann, Helmar; Shahidi, Ramin

    2005-07-01

    This paper defines a simple protocol for competitive and quantified evaluation of electromagnetic tracking systems such as the NDI Aurora (A) and Ascension microBIRD with dipole transmitter (B). It establishes new methods and a new phantom design which assesses the reproducibility and allows comparability with different tracking systems in a consistent environment. A machined base plate was designed and manufactured in which a 50 mm grid of holes was precisely drilled for position measurements. In the center a circle of 32 equispaced holes enables the accurate measurement of rotation. The sensors can be clamped in a small mount which fits into pairs of grid holes on the base plate. Relative positional/orientational errors are found by subtracting the known distances/ rotations between the machined locations from the differences of the mean observed positions/ rotation. To measure the influence of metallic objects we inserted rods made of steel (SST 303, SST 416), aluminum, and bronze into the sensitive volume between sensor and emitter. We calculated the fiducial registration error and fiducial location error with a standard stylus calibration for both tracking systems and assessed two different methods of stylus calibration. The positional jitter amounted to 0.14 mm(A) and 0.08 mm(B). A relative positional error of 0.96 mm +/- 0.68 mm, range -0.06 mm; 2.23 mm(A) and 1.14 mm +/- 0.78 mm, range -3.72 mm; 1.57 mm(B) for a given distance of 50 mm was found. The relative rotation error was found to be 0.51 degrees (A)/0.04 degrees (B). The most relevant distortion caused by metallic objects results from SST 416. The maximum error 4.2 mm(A)/ > or = 100 mm(B) occurs when the rod is close to the sensor(20 mm). While (B) is more sensitive with respect to metallic objects, (A) is less accurate concerning orientation measurements. (B) showed a systematic error when distances are calculated. PMID:16121595

  15. Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinardy, Scott; Crawford, Jerry, II.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of…

  16. Peer Review of Assessment Network: Supporting Comparability of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara; Beckett, Jeff; Saunders, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the need in the Australian higher education (HE) sector for a national network for the peer review of assessment in response to the proposed HE standards framework and propose a sector-wide framework for calibrating and assuring achievement standards, both within and across disciplines, through the establishment of…

  17. TDA Assessment of Recommendations for Space Data System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.; Stevens, R.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is participating in the development of international standards for space data systems. Recommendations for standards thus far developed are assessed. The proposed standards for telemetry coding and packet telemetry provide worthwhile benefit to the DSN; their cost impact to the DSN should be small. Because of their advantage to the NASA space exploration program, their adoption should be supported by TDA, JPL, and OSTDS.

  18. A cross-platform survey of CT image quality and dose from routine abdomen protocols and a method to systematically standardize image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favazza, Christopher P.; Duan, Xinhui; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M.; Bruesewitz, Michael R.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-11-01

    Through this investigation we developed a methodology to evaluate and standardize CT image quality from routine abdomen protocols across different manufacturers and models. The influence of manufacturer-specific automated exposure control systems on image quality was directly assessed to standardize performance across a range of patient sizes. We evaluated 16 CT scanners across our health system, including Siemens, GE, and Toshiba models. Using each practice’s routine abdomen protocol, we measured spatial resolution, image noise, and scanner radiation output (CTDIvol). Axial and in-plane spatial resolutions were assessed through slice sensitivity profile (SSP) and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements, respectively. Image noise and CTDIvol values were obtained for three different phantom sizes. SSP measurements demonstrated a bimodal distribution in slice widths: an average of 6.2  ±  0.2 mm using GE’s ‘Plus’ mode reconstruction setting and 5.0  ±  0.1 mm for all other scanners. MTF curves were similar for all scanners. Average spatial frequencies at 50%, 10%, and 2% MTF values were 3.24  ±  0.37, 6.20  ±  0.34, and 7.84  ±  0.70 lp cm-1, respectively. For all phantom sizes, image noise and CTDIvol varied considerably: 6.5-13.3 HU (noise) and 4.8-13.3 mGy (CTDIvol) for the smallest phantom; 9.1-18.4 HU and 9.3-28.8 mGy for the medium phantom; and 7.8-23.4 HU and 16.0-48.1 mGy for the largest phantom. Using these measurements and benchmark SSP, MTF, and image noise targets, CT image quality can be standardized across a range of patient sizes.

  19. USE OF BROMO-ERGOCRYPTINE IN THE VALIDATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MECHANISMS OF EARLY PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Validated protocols for evaluating maternally mediated mechanisms of early pregnancy failure in rodents are needed for use in the risk assessment process. o supplement previous efforts in the validation of a panel of protocols assembled for this purpose, bromo-ergocryptine was us...

  20. Design and Evaluation of a Protocol to Assess Electronic Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Else M.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.; van der Velde, Hanneke; Pinkster, J. Christiaan; Kooijman, Aart C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a protocol that was developed to assess how beneficial electronic travel aids are for persons who are visually impaired. Twenty persons with visual impairments used an electronic travel device (Trekker) for six weeks to conform to the protocol, which proved useful in identifying successful users of the device. (Contains 2…

  1. Leading the Transition from the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards to the General Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rieke, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    Schools are facing many changes in the ways that teaching, learning, and assessment take place. Most states are moving from individual state standards to the new Common Core State Standards, which will be fewer, higher, and more rigorous than most current state standards. As the next generation of assessments used for accountability are rolled…

  2. Average recovery time from a standardized intravenous sedation protocol and standardized discharge criteria in the general dental practice setting.

    PubMed Central

    Lepere, A. J.; Slack-Smith, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed. PMID:15384295

  3. [Ultrasonographic examination of the stifle joint in the dog. Part 1: ultrasonographic anatomy, standardized scanning protocol and common indications].

    PubMed

    Nayseh, K; Kramer, M; Ondreka, N

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a cost-effective, non-invasive technique, which can be performed in conscious dogs. It frequently contributes valuable and even crucial diagnostic information in cases with hind limb lameness originating from the stifle joint. The first part of the article introduces the technical requirements and limitations as well as the standardized scanning protocol and ultrasonographic anatomy of the stifle joint. Ultrasonographic features encountered in common pathologies of the stifle joint (joint effusion, cranial cruciate ligament rupture and meniscal pathologies) are presented. Sonographic diagnostics of other pathologies of the canine stifle joint will be described in the second part of this article. PMID:25812809

  4. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    PubMed

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  5. Enhancing the interpretation of stated choice analysis through the application of a verbal protocol assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, K.L.; Marion, J.L.; Lawson, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    A stated choice survey was employed to evaluate the relative importance of resource, social, and management attributes by asking visitors to select preferred configurations of these attributes. A verbal protocol assessment was added to consider how respondents interpret and respond to stated choice questions applied to hikers of a popular trail at Acadia National Park. Results suggest that visitors are sensitive to changes in public access to the trail and its ecological conditions, with level of encounters least important. Verbal protocol results identified considnations made by respondents that provide insight to their evaluations of alternative recreation setting configurations. These insights help clarify issues important to visitors that stated choice results on their own do not provide.

  6. The Assessment of Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabl, Gail K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A multistation clinical examination using standardized patients was used over 4 years to assess the interpersonal skills of 346 fourth year medical students, 51 internal medicine residents, and 71 foreign medical graduates seeking admission to graduate study. Results indicate that a reliable assessment of interpersonal skills can be achieved this…

  7. TEST‐RETEST CONSISTENCY OF A POSTURAL SWAY ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL FOR ADOLESCENT ATHLETES MEASURED WITH A FORCE PLATE

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Hugentobler, Jason A.; Kurowski, Brad G.; Myer, Gregory D.; Riley, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Postural control assessments can provide a powerful means of detecting concussion‐related neurophysiological abnormalities and are considered an important part of the concussion management processes. Studies with college athletes indicate that postural sway analyzed using complexity metrics may provide a sensitive and novel way to detect post‐concussion postural control impairments. The purpose of this study was to determine if a postural sway assessment protocol (PSAP) measured using a force plate system can serve as a reliable assessment tool for adolescent athletes. Methods: The short‐term and long‐term test‐retest reliability of the PSAP was examined in a group of adolescent female athletes under eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Detrended fluctuation analysis was used to evaluate the complexity of the times series data (i.e., degree of self‐similarity across time scales). Conventional measures of standard deviation and total path length (distance traveled by the center‐of‐pressure) were also assessed. Results: The complexity and conventional measures generally demonstrated good reliability coefficients for short‐term and long‐term test‐retest reliability with both eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Intra‐class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) values ranged from .38‐.90 The highest ICC values corresponded with the short‐term reliability for the eyes open condition, while the lower ICC values corresponded with the long‐term reliability for the eyes closed condition. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the PSAP demonstrated good short‐term and long‐term test‐retest reliability. In addition, no evidence of learning effects was elicited through this study. Future studies should further explore the validity and feasibility of the use of this protocol for different age groups, different types of athletes, and longitudinal evaluations of post‐concussion impairments. Clinical Relevance: This

  8. A standard operating protocol (SOP) and minimum data set (MDS) for nursing and medical handover: considerations for flexible standardization in developing electronic tools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Wong, Ming Chao; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2009-01-01

    As part of Australia's participation in the World Health Organization, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) is the leading federal government technical agency involved in the area of clinical handover improvement. The ACSQHC has funded a range of handover improvement projects in Australia including one at the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH), Tasmania. The RHH project aims to investigate the potential for generalizable and transferable clinical handover solutions throughout the medical and nursing disciplines. More specifically, this project produced an over-arching minimum data set (MDS) and over-arching standardized operating protocol (SOP) based on research work on nursing and medical shift-to-shift clinical handover in general medicine, general surgery and emergency medicine. The over-arching MDS consists of five headings: situational awareness, patient identification, history and information, responsibility and tasks and accountability. The over-arching SOP has five phases: preparation; design; implementation; evaluation; and maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the project and the approach taken. It considers the implications of these standardized operating protocols and minimum data sets for developing electronic clinical handover support tools. Significantly, the paper highlights a human-centred design approach that actively involves medical and nursing staff in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and systems design. This approach reveals the dangers of info-centrism when considering electronic tools, as information emerges as the only factor amongst many others that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical handover. PMID:19380983

  9. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  10. 77 FR 24427 - Standards for Business Practices and Communication Protocols for Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... \\45\\ Regulations Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act, Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec... electricity markets. NAESB adopted the measurement and verification of demand response standards in response... response and energy efficiency resources participating in organized wholesale electricity...

  11. Assessing transportation infrastructure impacts on rangelands: Test of a standard rangeland assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linear disturbances associated with on and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable ene...

  12. Metabolomics Workbench: An international repository for metabolomics data and metadata, metabolite standards, protocols, tutorials and training, and analysis tools

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Manish; Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Azam, Kenan; Vadivelu, Ilango; Burant, Charles; Edison, Arthur; Fiehn, Oliver; Higashi, Richard; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Sumner, Susan; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2016-01-01

    The Metabolomics Workbench, available at www.metabolomicsworkbench.org, is a public repository for metabolomics metadata and experimental data spanning various species and experimental platforms, metabolite standards, metabolite structures, protocols, tutorials, and training material and other educational resources. It provides a computational platform to integrate, analyze, track, deposit and disseminate large volumes of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of metabolomics studies including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) data spanning over 20 different species covering all the major taxonomic categories including humans and other mammals, plants, insects, invertebrates and microorganisms. Additionally, a number of protocols are provided for a range of metabolite classes, sample types, and both MS and NMR-based studies, along with a metabolite structure database. The metabolites characterized in the studies available on the Metabolomics Workbench are linked to chemical structures in the metabolite structure database to facilitate comparative analysis across studies. The Metabolomics Workbench, part of the data coordinating effort of the National Institute of Health (NIH) Common Fund's Metabolomics Program, provides data from the Common Fund's Metabolomics Resource Cores, metabolite standards, and analysis tools to the wider metabolomics community and seeks data depositions from metabolomics researchers across the world. PMID:26467476

  13. Reproducibility of microbial mutagenicity assays. I. Tests with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli using a standardized protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkel, V.C.; Zeiger, E.; Brusick, D.; McCoy, E.; McGregor, D.; Mortelmans, K.; Rosenkranz, H.S.; Simmon, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmonella/microsome test developed by Ames and his coworkers has been widely used in the evaluation of chemicals for genotoxic potential. Although the value of this assay is well recognized, there have been no comprehensive studies on the interlaboratory reproducibility of the method using a standardized protocol. A program was therefore initiated to compare the results obtained in four laboratories from testing a series of coded mutagens and nonmutagens using a standardized protocol. Additional objectives of this study were to compare male Fisher 344 rat, B6C3F1 mouse, and Syrian hamster liver S-9 preparations for the activation of chemicals; to compare Aroclor 1254-induced liver S-9 from all three species with the corresponding non-induced liver S-9's; and to compare the response of Escherichia coli WP-2 uvrA with the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains recommended by Ames. Since a primary use of in vitro microbial mutagenesis tests is the identification of potential carcinogens by their mutagenicity, the authors decided to compare the animal species and strains used by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program (NCI/NTP) for animal carcinogenicity studies.

  14. Metabolomics Workbench: An international repository for metabolomics data and metadata, metabolite standards, protocols, tutorials and training, and analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Sud, Manish; Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Azam, Kenan; Vadivelu, Ilango; Burant, Charles; Edison, Arthur; Fiehn, Oliver; Higashi, Richard; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Sumner, Susan; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2016-01-01

    The Metabolomics Workbench, available at www.metabolomicsworkbench.org, is a public repository for metabolomics metadata and experimental data spanning various species and experimental platforms, metabolite standards, metabolite structures, protocols, tutorials, and training material and other educational resources. It provides a computational platform to integrate, analyze, track, deposit and disseminate large volumes of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of metabolomics studies including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) data spanning over 20 different species covering all the major taxonomic categories including humans and other mammals, plants, insects, invertebrates and microorganisms. Additionally, a number of protocols are provided for a range of metabolite classes, sample types, and both MS and NMR-based studies, along with a metabolite structure database. The metabolites characterized in the studies available on the Metabolomics Workbench are linked to chemical structures in the metabolite structure database to facilitate comparative analysis across studies. The Metabolomics Workbench, part of the data coordinating effort of the National Institute of Health (NIH) Common Fund's Metabolomics Program, provides data from the Common Fund's Metabolomics Resource Cores, metabolite standards, and analysis tools to the wider metabolomics community and seeks data depositions from metabolomics researchers across the world. PMID:26467476

  15. Assessment of an extraction protocol to detect the major mastitis-causing pathogens in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cressier, B; Bissonnette, N

    2011-05-01

    Despite all efforts to control its spread, mastitis remains the most costly disease for dairy farmers worldwide. One key component of better control of this disease is identification of the causative bacterial agent during udder infections in cows. Mastitis is complex, however, given the diversity of pathogens that must be identified. Development of a rapid and efficient bacterial species identification tool is thus necessary. This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of bacterial DNA extraction for the automated molecular detection of major mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples to complement traditional microbiological identification. Extraction and detection procedures were designed and optimized to achieve detection in a respectable time frame, at a reasonable cost, and with a high throughput capacity. The following species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Klebsiella spp. (including Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The detection procedure includes specific genomic DNA amplification by multiplex PCR for each species, separation by capillary electrophoresis, and laser-assisted automated detection. The specificity of the primers was assessed with a panel of bacteria representing mastitis-negative control species. The extraction protocol comprised multiple steps, starting with centrifugation for fat removal, followed by heating in the presence of a cation exchange resin to trap divalent ions. The analytical sensitivity was 100 cfu/mL for milk samples spiked with Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli, with a tendency for K. pneumoniae. The detection limit was 500 cfu/mL for Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae. The overall diagnostic sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (97.3%) were determined in a double-blind randomized assay by processing 172 clinical milk samples with microbiological characterization as the

  16. Assessing Urban Walking Trail Use and Changes in the Trail Environment Using Systematic Observational Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Duncan C.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kugler, Kassandra A.; Colabianchi, Natalie; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Reed, Julian; Schmidt, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which two systematic observation protocols which were modified for underserved communities (low income, minorities) could be utilized to reliably assess a) use of walking trails and b) physical environmental features of these trails. This study was a supplement to the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) walking trial. The modified tools were shown to be reliable methods for a) measuring trail use and b) assessing physical features of the trail in underserved environments. Reliability data for measuring trail use were found to be high (ICC = .98, p < .01). Reliabilities for measuring features of the trail ranged from fair to highly reliable (κ = .77 - 1.00; ICC = .34 - 1.00). The observation tools that were customized for this study were shown to be reliable instruments for measuring trail use and assessing physical features of walking trails in underserved communities. PMID:22795357

  17. Using broadband spatially resolved NIRS to assess muscle oxygenation during altered running protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukourakis, Georg; Vafiadou, Maria; Steimers, André; Geraskin, Dmitri; Neary, Patrick; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    We used spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) to assess calf and thigh muscle oxygenation during running on a motor-driven treadmill. Two protocols were used: An incremental speed protocol (velocity = 6 - 12 km/h, ▵v = 2 km/h) was performed in 3 minute stages, while a pacing paradigm modulated step frequency alternatively (2.3 Hz [SLow]; 3.3 Hz [SHigh]) during a constant velocity for 2 minutes each. A SRS-NIRS broadband system (600 - 1000 nm) was used to measure total haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (SO2). An accelerometer was placed on the hip joints to measure limb acceleration through the experiment. The data showed that the calf (SO2 58 to 42%) desaturated to a significantly lower level than the thigh (61 to 54%). During the pacing protocol, SO2 was significantly different between the SLow vs. SHigh trials. Additionally, physiological data as measured by spirometry were different between the SLow vs. SHigh pacing trials (VO2 (2563+/- 586 vs. 2503 +/- 605 mL/min). Significant differences in VO2 at the same workload (speed) indicate alterations in mechanical efficiency. These data suggest that SRS broadband NIRS can be used to discern small changes in muscle oxygenation, making this device useful for metabolic exercise studies in addition to spirometry and movement monitoring by accelerometers.

  18. Mercury Assessment and Monitoring Protocol for the Bear Creek Watershed, Colusa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suchanek, Thomas H.; Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Yee, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the known information on the occurrence and distribution of mercury (Hg) in physical/chemical and biological matrices within the Bear Creek watershed. Based on these data, a matrix-specific monitoring protocol for the evaluation of the effectiveness of activities designed to remediate Hg contamination in the Bear Creek watershed is presented. The monitoring protocol documents procedures for collecting and processing water, sediment, and biota for estimation of total Hg (TotHg) and monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) in the Bear Creek watershed. The concurrent sampling of TotHg and MMeHg in biota as well as water and sediment from 10 monitoring sites is designed to assess the relative bioavailability of Hg released from Hg sources in the watershed and identify environments conducive to Hg methylation. These protocols are designed to assist landowners, land managers, water quality regulators, and scientists in determining whether specific restoration/mitigation actions lead to significant progress toward achieving water quality goals to reduce Hg in Bear and Sulphur Creeks.

  19. Protocol standards and implementation within the digital engineering laboratory computer network (DELNET) using the universal network interface device (UNID). Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phister, P. W., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    Development of the Air Force Institute of Technology's Digital Engineering Laboratory Network (DELNET) was continued with the development of an initial draft of a protocol standard for all seven layers as specified by the International Standards Organization's (ISO) Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnections. This effort centered on the restructuring of the Network Layer to perform Datagram routing and to conform to the developed protocol standards and actual software module development of the upper four protocol layers residing within the DELNET Monitor (Zilog MCZ 1/25 Computer System). Within the guidelines of the ISO Reference Model the Transport Layer was developed utilizing the Internet Header Format (IHF) combined with the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) to create a 128-byte Datagram. Also a limited Application Layer was created to pass the Gettysburg Address through the DELNET. This study formulated a first draft for the DELNET Protocol Standard and designed, implemented, and tested the Network, Transport, and Application Layers to conform to these protocol standards.

  20. Assessment of the ability of wheelchair subjects with spinal cord injury to perform a specific protocol of shoulder training: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Filippi, Maria Vittoria; De Santis, Elisa; Alpi, Daniele; Magrini, Paola; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: a regular program of exercises in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) can contribute to reduce the risk of upper extremities injuries. Methods: in this prospective laboratory study we tested the hypothesis that a training machine developed for able-body users is suitable for a shoulder training protocol in 11 paraplegic subjects with SCI. Overall subjects were assessed with the SCIM III, CS, DASH and standard shoulder examination. We set a protocol of shoulder exercises performed with a training machine. Overall subjects were able to perform the protocol but 2 did not complete the exercises n° 6 and 7. The position of the wheelchair during each exercise was recorded. Wheelchair position/loading level were significantly correlated with the protocol n° 2, 3 and 5 as well as BMI/loading level for the exercises n° 5 and 9 and age/loading level for the exercise n° 7. Clinical scores were neither correlated with loading nor with anthropometric data. Results/Conclusions: from the analysis of data collected in this study arised that: 1) the training machine needs some adjustments for paraplegic subjects, 2) the training protocol was appropriate except for the exercises needing a torso-rotation and 3) the template for wheelchair position may be a valid guide for an optimal paraplegic shoulder training. PMID:25332931

  1. Importance of sunscreen products spreading protocol and substrate roughness for in vitro sun protection factor assessment.

    PubMed

    Fageon, L; Moyal, D; Coutet, J; Candau, D

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of substrate roughness and of product spreading method on in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) measurement and to define the experimental conditions most appropriate to reach the best level of correlation to in vivo SPF. In vitro SPF assessment was carried out on 13 products (including different formulation types with SPF from 20 to 75) using various in vitro SPF protocols and comparing related predictive potential regarding in vivo SPF. In the first part, two spreading methods were compared on two types of PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate plate with different roughness. The impact of a second spreading step after product drying was also evaluated. From the various investigated parameters, it was shown that (i) a higher roughness (Ra = 4, 5 microm) was preferred for O/W formulations (ii) using a defined sequence of light linear and circular strokes was more adequate than monitoring product spreading in terms of time and pressure (iii) both correlation to in vivo SPF and results variability were improved when a second spreading step was added. The altered protocol showed a good predictive potential regarding in vivo SPF values for O/W formulations (correlation coefficient 0.92, correlation curve slope 0.98) and coefficient of variation of in vitro results (14% of the mean SPF value) close to what is usually obtained in vivo. The repeatability of the protocol was also demonstrated. In the second part, we evaluated the impact of PMMA plate pre-treatment with paraffinum liquidum before spreading the product to get a better correlation between in vivo and in vitro SPF values for W/O formulations. This allowed us to define a protocol suitable for both O/W and W/O formulations. PMID:19627381

  2. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV) inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU). Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001). Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001) in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52), cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55), and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0) after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3), bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001) up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59), pass box (from 12.13±2

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of refractometer and Brix refractometer to assess failure of passive transfer in calves: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Chigerwe, M; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-06-01

    Calves are highly dependent of colostrum (and antibody) intake because they are born agammaglobulinemic. The transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed directly by dosing immunoglobulin G (IgG) or by refractometry or Brix refractometry. The latter are easier to perform routinely in the field. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of refractometry or Brix refractometry versus dosage of IgG as a reference standard test. With this review protocol we aim to be able to report refractometer and Brix refractometer accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity as well as to quantify the impact of any study characteristic on test accuracy. PMID:27427188

  4. Use of standardized visual assessments of riparian and stream condition to manage riparian bird habitat in eastern Oregon.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Hilary A; Zack, Steve

    2009-07-01

    The importance of riparian vegetation to support stream function and provide riparian bird habitat in semiarid landscapes suggests that standardized assessment tools that include vegetation criteria to evaluate stream health could also be used to assess habitat conditions for riparian-dependent birds. We first evaluated the ability of two visual assessments of woody vegetation in the riparian zone (corridor width and height) to describe variation in the obligate riparian bird ensemble along 19 streams in eastern Oregon. Overall species richness and the abundances of three species all correlated significantly with both, but width was more important than height. We then examined the utility of the riparian zone criteria in three standardized and commonly used rapid visual riparian assessment protocols--the USDI BLM Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessment, the USDA NRCS Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), and the U.S. EPA Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet (HAFDS)--to assess potential riparian bird habitat. Based on the degree of correlation of bird species richness with assessment ratings, we found that PFC does not assess obligate riparian bird habitat condition, SVAP provides a coarse estimate, and HAFDS provides the best assessment. We recommend quantitative measures of woody vegetation for all assessments and that all protocols incorporate woody vegetation height. Given that rapid assessments may be the only source of information for thousands of kilometers of streams in the western United States, incorporating simple vegetation measurements is a critical step in evaluating the status of riparian bird habitat and provides a tool for tracking changes in vegetation condition resulting from management decisions. PMID:18574622

  5. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  6. Conformal radiotherapy, reduced boost volume, hyperfractionated radiotherapy, and online quality control in standard-risk medulloblastoma without chemotherapy: Results of the French M-SFOP 98 protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Carrie, Christian . E-mail: carrie@lyon.fnclcc.fr; Muracciole, Xavier; Gomez, Frederic

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Between December 1998 and October 2001, patients <19 years old were treated for standard-risk medulloblastoma according to the Medulloblastome-Societe Francaise d'Oncologie Pediatrique 1998 (M-SFOP 98) protocol. Patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy (36 Gy in 36 fractions) to the craniospinal axis, a boost with conformal therapy restricted to the tumor bed (to a total dose of 68 Gy in 68 fractions), and no chemotherapy. Records of craniospinal irradiation were reviewed before treatment start. Results: A total of 48 patients were considered assessable. With a median follow-up of 45.7 months, the overall survival and progression-free survival rate at 3 years was 89% and 81%, respectively. Fourteen major deviations were detected and eight were corrected. No relapses occurred in the frontal region and none occurred in the posterior fossa outside the boost volume. Nine patients were available for volume calculation without reduction of the volume irradiated. We observed a reduction in the subtentorial volume irradiated to >60 Gy, but a slight increase in the volume irradiated to 40 Gy. No decrease in intelligence was observed in the 22 children tested during the first 2 years. Conclusion: This hyperfractionated radiotherapy protocol with a reduced boost volume and without chemotherapy was not associated with early relapses in children. Moreover, intellectual function seemed to be preserved. These results are promising.

  7. Revised Recommendations of the Consortium of MS Centers Task Force for a Standardized MRI Protocol and Clinical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Traboulsee, A; Simon, J H; Stone, L; Fisher, E; Jones, D E; Malhotra, A; Newsome, S D; Oh, J; Reich, D S; Richert, N; Rammohan, K; Khan, O; Radue, E-W; Ford, C; Halper, J; Li, D

    2016-03-01

    An international group of neurologists and radiologists developed revised guidelines for standardized brain and spinal cord MR imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of MS. A brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended for the diagnosis of MS. A spinal cord MR imaging is recommended if the brain MR imaging is nondiagnostic or if the presenting symptoms are at the level of the spinal cord. A follow-up brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended to demonstrate dissemination in time and ongoing clinically silent disease activity while on treatment, to evaluate unexpected clinical worsening, to re-assess the original diagnosis, and as a new baseline before starting or modifying therapy. A routine brain MR imaging should be considered every 6 months to 2 years for all patients with relapsing MS. The brain MR imaging protocol includes 3D T1-weighted, 3D T2-FLAIR, 3D T2-weighted, post-single-dose gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and a DWI sequence. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy surveillance protocol includes FLAIR and DWI sequences only. The spinal cord MR imaging protocol includes sagittal T1-weighted and proton attenuation, STIR or phase-sensitive inversion recovery, axial T2- or T2*-weighted imaging through suspicious lesions, and, in some cases, postcontrast gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. The clinical question being addressed should be provided in the requisition for the MR imaging. The radiology report should be descriptive, with results referenced to previous studies. MR imaging studies should be permanently retained and available. The current revision incorporates new clinical information and imaging techniques that have become more available. PMID:26564433

  8. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:222-229. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC. PMID:26108565

  9. Development of a simplified and standardized protocol with potential for high-throughput for sperm cryopreservation in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiping; Carmichael, Carrie; Varga, Zoltan M; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-07-15

    Sperm cryopreservation offers potential for long-term storage of genetic resources. However, the current protocols for zebrafish Danio rerio are cumbersome and poorly reproducible. Our objective was to facilitate adoption of cryopreservation by streamlining methods from sperm collection through thawing and use. First, sperm activation was evaluated, and motility was completely inhibited when osmolality of the extender was >/=295-300mOsmol/kg. To evaluate cryoprotectant toxicity, sperm were incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA), methanol, or glycerol at 5, 10, and 15% concentrations. Based on motility, DMSO, DMA, and methanol (standardized sperm cryopreservation, and established a protocol using French straws as a freezing container and an extender without powdered milk. This protocol can be readily adapted for high-throughput application using automated equipment, and motility and fertility comparable to previous reports were obtained. Male variability and sperm quality remain important considerations for future work, especially in mutant and inbred lines. PMID:17544099

  10. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  11. Focused Anecdotal Records Assessment: A Tool for Standards-Based, Authentic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Batstone, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the tension between standards-based assessment on a macro level and authentic assessment on a micro level. Content standards arguably supply systematic criteria for quantitative measures to report trends and establish policy. Qualitative measures, such as rubrics, student profiles, and observational records, fill in the gaps…

  12. Making Use of the New Student Assessment Standards To Enhance Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Describes the student assessment standards outlined in "Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards," a companion to the "Standards for Technological Literacy." Discusses how the standards apply to everyday teaching practices. (JOW)

  13. Guiding the practitioner through the caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) protocol.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Aizenbud, Dror; Gutmacher, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the approach for treating caries was mainly symptomatic and involved removal of caries, teeth restoration, oral hygiene instructions, and fluoride applications in cases that presented with significant disease. As the bacterial component of the disease was revealed, questions emerged concerning the significance of each strain present and intervention in the process of caries development. This article reviews the evidence that supports the implementation of the current caries risk assessment and management protocol (CAMBRA). It details the current risk factors, techniques and devices for assessing them and, interventions that should be considered in order to address the risk. The paper defines specific guidelines for managing risks related to caries. Intervention should be customized according to the risk determined for each specific patient. PMID:22686101

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR STANDARD PROTOCOL FOR CLEANING LABORATORY AND FIELD SAMPLING APPARATUS (UA-L-5.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the standard approach used for cleaning glassware and plasticware during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: lab; equipment; cleaning.

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) is a federal interagency...

  15. Syntheses of Isoxazoline-Carbocyclic Nucleosides and Their Antiviral Evaluation: A Standard Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, Paolo; Vazquez Martinez, Naiara; Scrocchi, Roberto; Corsaro, Antonino; Pistarà, Venerando

    2014-01-01

    The current synthesis of racemic purine and pyrimidine isoxazoline-carbocyclic nucleosides is reported, detailing the key-steps for standard and reliable preparations. Improved yields were obtained by the proper tuning of the single synthetic steps, opening the way for the preparation of a variety of novel compounds. Some of the obtained compounds were also evaluated against a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses including HIV. No specific antiviral activity was observed in the cases at hand. Novel compounds were prepared for future biological tests. PMID:25544956

  16. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    PubMed

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and

  17. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Credibility Assessment Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babula, Maria; Bertch, William J.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hale, Joseph P.; Mosier, Gary E.; Steele, Martin J.; Woods, Jody

    2009-01-01

    As one of its many responses to the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA decided to develop a formal standard for models and simulations (M&S). Work commenced in May 2005. An interim version was issued in late 2006. This interim version underwent considerable revision following an extensive Agency-wide review in 2007 along with some additional revisions as a result of the review by the NASA Engineering Management Board (EMB) in the first half of 2008. Issuance of the revised, permanent version, hereafter referred to as the M&S Standard or just the Standard, occurred in July 2008. Bertch, Zang and Steeleiv provided a summary review of the development process of this standard up through the start of the review by the EMB. A thorough recount of the entire development process, major issues, key decisions, and all review processes are available in Ref. v. This is the second of a pair of papers providing a summary of the final version of the Standard. Its focus is the Credibility Assessment Scale, a key feature of the Standard, including an example of its application to a real-world M&S problem for the James Webb Space Telescope. The companion paper summarizes the overall philosophy of the Standard and an overview of the requirements. Verbatim quotes from the Standard are integrated into the text of this paper, and are indicated by quotation marks.

  18. Standardization of protocols to test wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for reaction to blast in a biocontainment laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth medium, spore age, and inoculum density are essential factors for determining host responses to a plant pathogen. The standardization of these factors is important to obtain adequate and reproducible disease assessments. We are testing US wheat cultivars for reaction to the exotic disease bla...

  19. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section 1572.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT...

  20. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5 Section 1572.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT...

  1. Examination of Curricula, Teaching Practices, and Assessment through National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Weiyun

    2005-01-01

    This study examined to what degree the existing curricula, teaching practices, and assessments in 15 elementary physical education programs were aligned with the National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 1995) in the USA. Fifteen elementary physical education teachers voluntarily participated in this study. Data were gathered through…

  2. Assessing the Readability of Government Accounting Standards: The Cloze Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Raymond J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Argues the cloze procedure is the appropriate method of assessing the readability of business writing. Uses this procedure to determine the readability of a statement issued by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB). Finds one important GASB statement unreadable by college-level readers. (NH)

  3. Guidelines for Assessing Michigan Standards in Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Ronald J.

    This document presents Michigan's standards in industrial technology education and details assessment procedures that will enable Michigan industrial technology teachers to analyze, upgrade, and justify their current programs. The introductory section contains the following materials: a discussion of supportive organizations; an overview of…

  4. 75 FR 79354 - Assessment Technology Standards Request for Information (RFI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...The purpose of this RFI is to collect information relating to assessment technology standards. Toward that end, we are posing a series of questions to which we invite interested members of the public to respond. The Department anticipates making use of this information in the following ways. First of all, we expect to use this information to help determine the appropriate interoperability......

  5. New Teacher Standards and Learner Diversity: Ideas for Authentic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John; Benton, Janet

    Changing views about learning and schooling affect teacher preparation programs. The paper examines how Kentucky's standards for new teachers relate to addressing learner diversity, explaining how the Kentucky Education Reform Act is a model for affecting statewide change, particularly regarding methods of assessment and examination of learner…

  6. Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach α = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool. PMID:24383978

  7. [Post-traumatic anosmia: description of a clinical case, proposal of a standardized protocol and medico-legal comments].

    PubMed

    Miani, C; Bracale, A M Bergamin; Moreschi, C; Codarini, M; Ortolani, F

    2002-06-01

    Man's olfactory perception is considerably limited compared to that of other animals; this sense is, however, extremely important in our social lives: it helps us to "savour" our food, it enables us to appreciate perfumes and, even more important, to pick up smells that signal a danger, such as a gas leak or a fire. We describe the clinical case of a patient with anosmia and hypogeusia that appeared immediately after suffering a concussive head injury. We go through the diagnostic protocol for medico-legal assessment of hypoanosmias previously described in the literature, which includes a clinical and an imaging section. In 9% of all anosmic patients, a traumatic event precedes the onset of the disorder, with repercussions on the olfactory channels and centres of the peripherical and/or central nervous system. The overall rate of anosmia following head injury is estimated to be around 7.5%. Among the principal causes of anosmia, those of medico-legal interest constitute 35% of the total. On the basis of our personal experience and of clinical studies conducted by other Authors, we propose that a bioptic investigation of the olfactory mucosa be added to the existing protocol. The olfactory neuroepithelium of patients suffering from post-traumatic anosmia, in fact, evidences some characteristic degenerative aspects. In conclusion, we report several comments regarding the quantification of the reduction of the olfactory function in different areas of medico-legal interest. PMID:12173284

  8. Timeline and Approach to Standards and Assessments. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The following profiles address the basic decisions and actions that state education policy-makers--in the state departments of education, unless otherwise noted--are taking to foster successful statewide implementation of the new standards and aligned assessments in 15 states. These profiles provide a descriptive overview of each state's…

  9. Timeline and Approach to Standards and Assessments. State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The following profiles address decisions and actions that state education policy-makers--in the state departments of education, unless otherwise noted--are taking to foster successful statewide implementation of their states' new college- and career-readiness standards and aligned assessments. These profiles provide a descriptive overview of each…

  10. A Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) Protocol for Upper Limb Function

    PubMed Central

    Zoghi, Maryam; Galea, Mary; Morgan, David

    2013-01-01

    The Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) protocol is a surface electromyography (sEMG)-based measure of motor output from central nervous system during a variety of reflex and voluntary motor tasks performed under strictly controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BMCA protocol for upper limb with the addition of shoulder voluntary tasks. The voluntary response index (VRI) was calculated from quantitative analysis of sEMG data during defined voluntary movement in neurologically intact people for comparison with that of patients after neurological injuries. The BMCA protocol included one bilateral and 4 unilateral voluntary tasks at different joints of both arms. The VRI, measured from 19 neurologically intact participants, comprises the total muscle activity recorded for the voluntary motor task (magnitude). The calculated similarity index (SI) for each phase of each task show the similarity of “the distribution of activity across the recorded muscles” for that task in this group off participants. Results: The VRI magnitude values from right and left sides for different tasks showed no significant difference (ANOVA: FSide: 0.09, P = 0.77). Therefore these values were pooled before calculating SI. SI values were higher for tasks against gravity: elbow flexion (0.99±0.03), wrist flexion with palm up (0.98±0.03) and wrist extension with palm down (0.97±0.07). On the other hand, the SI values were the lowest for bilateral shoulder abduction (0.84±0.08) and shoulder adduction (0.84±0.08). Conclusion: To validate this index for clinical use, serial studies on patients with neurological impairments should be performed. Tasks involving movement against gravity may be more suitable in future BMCAs. PMID:24223953

  11. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Abrams, Annah N; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family resources, family/social support, previous history/premorbid functioning, and family structure/function. Descriptive quantitative studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses (n = 149) were reviewed and evaluated using grading of recommendations, assessment development, and evaluation (GRADE) criteria. There is high quality evidence to support a strong recommendation for multifaceted, systematic assessments of psychosocial health care needs of youth with cancer and their families as a standard of care in pediatric oncology. PMID:26700916

  12. A Video Recording and Viewing Protocol for Student Group Presentations: Assisting Self-Assessment through a Wiki Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to firstly develop a protocol for video recording student group oral presentations, for later viewing and self-assessment by student group members. Secondly, evaluations of students' experiences of this process were undertaken to determine if this self-assessment method was a positive experience for them in gaining…

  13. Assessing Overwater Structure-Related Predation on Juvenile Salmon: A Field Study and Protocol for Weighing the Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Thom, Ronald M.; Southard, John A.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Shreffler, David K.; Stamey, Mark T.

    2004-02-03

    Large overwater structures have often been cited as potential migratory barriers and areas of increased predation for juvenile salmon migrating along shallow shoreline habitats, although conclusive evidence has not been demonstrated to date in situ. To help resolve this issue, Washington State Ferries (WSF) sponsored directed research to determine whether WSF terminals affect predation on juvenile salmon. We used a combination of standardized surveys, stomach content analyses, and new observational technologies to assess fish, avian, and mammal predation on salmon fry at ferry terminals and paired reference sites during periods of pre- (early April) and peak (May) outmigration. We observed no significant aggregation of potential bird or mammal predators at six ferry terminal study sites. Few potential fish predators were documented in SCUBA surveys, beach seines, or with a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) camera at Mukilteo, our single underwater study location. Only one instance of salmon predation by fish (staghorn sculpin ? Leptocottus armatus) was confirmed, and this was at the corresponding reference site. A tiered protocol (Minimum/ Recommended/ Preferred actions) was developed for assessing potential predation at other overwater structures. Likewise, recommendations were developed for incorporating design features into WSF terminal improvement projects that could minimize future impacts.

  14. Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 1: basic instrumental performance protocol.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, Heidrun; Taubert, Dieter Richard; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Steinkellner, Oliver; Jelzow, Alexander; Macdonald, Rainer; Milej, Daniel; Sawosz, Piotr; Kacprzak, Michał; Liebert, Adam; Cooper, Robert; Hebden, Jeremy; Pifferi, Antonio; Farina, Andrea; Bargigia, Ilaria; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Zucchelli, Lucia; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    Performance assessment of instruments devised for clinical applications is of key importance for validation and quality assurance. Two new protocols were developed and applied to facilitate the design and optimization of instruments for time-domain optical brain imaging within the European project nEUROPt. Here, we present the "Basic Instrumental Performance" protocol for direct measurement of relevant characteristics. Two tests are discussed in detail. First, the responsivity of the detection system is a measure of the overall efficiency to detect light emerging from tissue. For the related test, dedicated solid slab phantoms were developed and quantitatively spectrally characterized to provide sources of known radiance with nearly Lambertian angular characteristics. The responsivity of four time-domain optical brain imagers was found to be of the order of 0.1 m² sr. The relevance of the responsivity measure is demonstrated by simulations of diffuse reflectance as a function of source-detector separation and optical properties. Second, the temporal instrument response function (IRF) is a critically important factor in determining the performance of time-domain systems. Measurements of the IRF for various instruments were combined with simulations to illustrate the impact of the width and shape of the IRF on contrast for a deep absorption change mimicking brain activation. PMID:25121479

  15. A real-time, quantitative PCR protocol for assessing the relative parasitemia of Leucocytozoon in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew M; Schmutz, Joel; Apelgren, Chloe; Ramey, Andrew M

    2015-04-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears can be effective at diagnosing and quantifying hematozoa infections. However, this method requires highly trained observers, is time consuming, and may be inaccurate for detection of infections at low levels of parasitemia. To develop a molecular methodology for identifying and quantifying Leucocytozoon parasite infection in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes), we designed a real-time, quantitative PCR protocol to amplify Leucocytozoon mitochondrial DNA using TaqMan fluorogenic probes and validated our methodology using blood samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska during late summer and autumn (n=105). By comparing our qPCR results to those derived from a widely used nested PCR protocol, we determined that our assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood samples. Additionally, results of a linear regression revealed significant correlation between the raw measure of parasitemia produced by our qPCR assay (Ct values) and numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R(2)=0.694, P=0.003), indicating that our assay can reliably determine the relative parasitemia levels among samples. This methodology provides a powerful new tool for studies assessing effects of haemosporidian infection in wild avian species. PMID:25655779

  16. A real-time, quantitative PCR protocol for assessing the relative parasitemia of Leucocytozoon in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Matthew M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Apelgren, Chloe; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears can be effective at diagnosing and quantifying hematozoa infections. However, this method requires highly trained observers, is time consuming, and may be inaccurate for detection of infections at low levels of parasitemia. To develop a molecular methodology for identifying and quantifying Leucocytozoon parasite infection in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes), we designed a real-time, quantitative PCR protocol to amplify Leucocytozoon mitochondrial DNA using TaqMan fluorogenic probes and validated our methodology using blood samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska during late summer and autumn (n = 105). By comparing our qPCR results to those derived from a widely used nested PCR protocol, we determined that our assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood samples. Additionally, results of a linear regression revealed significant correlation between the raw measure of parasitemia produced by our qPCR assay (Ct values) and numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R2 = 0.694, P = 0.003), indicating that our assay can reliably determine the relative parasitemia levels among samples. This methodology provides a powerful new tool for studies assessing effects of haemosporidian infection in wild avian species.

  17. A new protocol for ecotoxicological assessment of seawater using nauplii of Tisbe biminiensis (Copepoda:Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Lavorante, Beatriz R B O; Oliveira, Deloar D; Costa, Bruno V M; Souza-Santos, Lília P

    2013-09-01

    Copepods are largely used in toxicity tests. The nauplii of these organisms are more sensitive to contaminants than the adult stage. The aim of the present study was to test a protocol for the use of nauplii of the copepod Tisbe biminiensis in the ecotoxicological assessment of seawater. The sensitivity of these organisms to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4·7H2O) was also determined. The following conditions were established for the protocol based on the best development of nauplii to copepodites: 72-h duration, the microalga Chaetocerus gracilis at 2.5×10(5)cellsmL(-1) as feed and incubation temperature of 28°C. In the zinc sulphate sensitivity tests, EC50-72 h and LC50/72 h were 3.25±0.59 mg L(-1) and 3.46±0.72 mg L(-1), respectively, as estimated by the final number of copepodites and total number of live animals in relation to the mean number of inoculated nauplii. The estimated NOEC was 2.0 mg L(-1). The test developed is fast and not labour intensive. T. biminiensis nauplii exhibit sensitivity to zinc sulphate similar to that of other species of copepods employed in water toxicity tests, demonstrating the usefulness of these organisms in ecotoxicological studies involving samples of environmental seawater. PMID:23769123

  18. Pantak Therapax SXT 150: performance assessment and dose determination using IAEA TRS-398 protocol.

    PubMed

    Jurado, D; Eudaldo, T; Carrasco, P; Jornet, N; Ruiz, A; Ribas, M

    2005-08-01

    The performance assessment and beam characteristics of the Therapax SXT 150 unit, which encompass both low and medium-energy beams, were evaluated. Dose determination was carried out by implementing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS-398 protocol and measuring all the dosimetric parameters in order to have a solid, consistent and reliable data set for the unit. Mechanical movements, interlocks and applicator characteristics agreed with specifications. The timer exhibited good accuracy and linearity. The output was very stable, with good repeatability, long-term reproducibility and no dependence on tube head orientation. The measured dosimetric parameters included beam first and second half-value layers (HVLs), absorbed dose rate to water under reference conditions, central axis depth dose distributions, output factors and beam profiles. Measured first HVLs agreed with comparable published data, but the homogeneity coefficients were low in comparison with typical values found in the literature. The timer error was significant for all filters and should be taken into consideration for the absorbed dose rate determination under reference conditions as well as for the calculation of treatment times. Percentage depth-dose (PDD) measurements are strongly recommended for each filter-applicator combination. The output factor definition of the IAEA TRS-398 protocol for medium-energy X-ray qualities involves the use of data that is difficult to measure. Beam profiles had small penumbras and good symmetry and flatness except for the lowest energy beam, for which a heel effect was observed. PMID:16046424

  19. Recommendations for Standardizing Validation Procedures Assessing Physical Activity of Older Persons by Monitoring Body Postures and Movements

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Aminian, Kamiar; Chastin, Sebastien F.M.; de Bruin, Eling D.; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Bussmann, Johannes B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of health and well-being in older persons and contributes to their social participation and quality of life. Hence, assessment tools are needed to study this physical activity in free-living conditions. Wearable motion sensing technology is used to assess physical activity. However, there is a lack of harmonisation of validation protocols and applied statistics, which make it hard to compare available and future studies. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to formulate recommendations for assessing the validity of sensor-based activity monitoring in older persons with focus on the measurement of body postures and movements. Validation studies of body-worn devices providing parameters on body postures and movements were identified and summarized and an extensive inter-active process between authors resulted in recommendations about: information on the assessed persons, the technical system, and the analysis of relevant parameters of physical activity, based on a standardized and semi-structured protocol. The recommended protocols can be regarded as a first attempt to standardize validity studies in the area of monitoring physical activity. PMID:24434881

  20. Low kV settings CT angiography (CTA) with low dose contrast medium volume protocol in the assessment of thoracic and abdominal aorta disease: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Talei Franzesi, C; Fior, D; Bonaffini, P A; Minutolo, O; Sironi, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic quality of low dose (100 kV) CT angiography (CTA), by using ultra-low contrast medium volume (30 ml), for thoracic and abdominal aorta evaluation. Methods: 67 patients with thoracic or abdominal vascular disease underwent multidetector CT study using a 256 slice scanner, with low dose radiation protocol (automated tube current modulation, 100 kV) and low contrast medium volume (30 ml; 4 ml s−1). Density measurements were performed on ascending, arch, descending thoracic aorta, anonymous branch, abdominal aorta, and renal and common iliac arteries. Radiation dose exposure [dose–length product (DLP)] was calculated. A control group of 35 patients with thoracic or abdominal vascular disease were evaluated with standard CTA protocol (automated tube current modulation, 120 kV; contrast medium, 80 ml). Results: In all patients, we correctly visualized and evaluated main branches of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. No difference in density measurements was achieved between low tube voltage protocol (mean attenuation value of thoracic aorta, 304 HU; abdominal, 343 HU; renal arteries, 331 HU) and control group (mean attenuation value of thoracic aorta, 320 HU; abdominal, 339; renal arteries, 303 HU). Radiation dose exposure in low tube voltage protocol was significantly different between thoracic and abdominal low tube voltage studies (490 and 324 DLP, respectively) and the control group (thoracic DLP, 1032; abdomen, DLP 1078). Conclusion: Low-tube-voltage protocol may provide a diagnostic performance comparable with that of the standard protocol, decreasing radiation dose exposure and contrast material volume amount. Advances in knowledge: Low-tube-voltage-setting protocol combined with ultra-low contrast agent volume (30 ml), by using new multidetector-row CT scanners, represents a feasible diagnostic tool to significantly reduce the radiation dose delivered to patients and to preserve renal function

  1. Standards to support learning and assessment in practice.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-01-27

    This is the first article in a series of 11 that will offer guidance to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to develop in their role and help them to gather a portfolio of evidence that meets the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). This article provides background to the development of the standards and outlines the SSLAP, including the four main stages of the framework, the eight domains and outcomes, and the five principles required for the roles of mentor, sign-off mentor and practice teacher. The requirements for maintaining the mentor and practice teacher roles are explored. PMID:26967885

  2. The first protocol of stable isotope ratio assessment in tumor tissues based on original research.

    PubMed

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Toma; Kamiński, Rafal; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Kobos, Jozef; Paneth, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Thanks to proteomics and metabolomics, for the past several years there has been a real explosion of information on the biology of cancer, which has been achieved by spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry. These modern techniques can provide answers to key questions about tissue structure and mechanisms of its pathological changes. However, despite the thousands of spectroscopic studies in medicine, there is no consensus on issues ranging from the choice of research tools, acquisition and preparation of test material to the interpretation and validation of the results, which greatly reduces the possibility of transforming the achieved knowledge to progress in the treatment of individual patients. The aim of this study was to verify the utility of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the evaluation of tumor tissues. Based on experimentation on animal tissues and human neoplasms, the first protocol of stable isotope ratio assessment of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in tumor tissues was established. PMID:26619108

  3. ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS: DURABILITY OF PERFORMANCE OF A HOME RADON REDUCTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook contains protocols that compare the immediate performance of subslab depressurization (SSD) mitigation system with performance months or years later. hese protocols provide a methodology to test SSD radon mitigation systems in situ to determine long-term performance...

  4. Perioperative Standard Oral Nutrition Supplements Versus Immunonutrition in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection in an Enhanced Recovery (ERAS) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Pedro; Soriano-Irigaray, Leticia; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Garcea, Alessandro; Blasco, Olga; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Brugiotti, Carlo; Miranda, Elena; Arroyo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare immunonutrition versus standard high calorie nutrition in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program. Despite progress in recent years in the surgical management of patients with colorectal cancer (ERAS programs), postoperative complications are frequent. Nutritional supplements enriched with immunonutrients have recently been introduced into clinical practice. However, the extent to which the combination of ERAS protocols and immunonutrition benefits patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery is unknown. The SONVI study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with 2 parallel treatment groups receiving either the study product (an immune-enhancing feed) or the control supplement (a hypercaloric hypernitrogenous supplement) for 7 days before colorectal resection and 5 days postoperatively. A total of 264 patients were randomized. At baseline, both groups were comparable in regards to age, sex, surgical risk, comorbidity, and analytical and nutritional parameters. The median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5 days with no differences between the groups. A decrease in the total number of complications was observed in the immunonutrition group compared with the control group, primarily due to a significant decrease in infectious complications (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.0007). Of the infectious complications, wound infection differed significantly between the groups (16.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.0008). Other infectious complications were lower in the immunonutrition group but were not statistically significantly different. The implementation of ERAS protocols including immunonutrient-enriched supplements reduces the complications of patients undergoing colorectal resection. This study is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02393976. PMID:27227930

  5. Evolutionary cognitive therapy versus standard cognitive therapy for depression: a protocol for a blinded, randomized, superiority clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is estimated to become the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Despite existing efficacious treatments (both medical and psychotherapeutic), a large proportion of patients do not respond to therapy. Recent insights from evolutionary psychology suggest that, in addition to targeting the proximal causes of depression (for example, targeting dysfunctional beliefs by cognitive behavioral therapy), the distal or evolutionary causes (for example, inclusive fitness) should also be addressed. A randomized superiority trial is conducted to develop and test an evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy protocol for depression, and to compare its efficacy against standard cognitive therapy for depression. Methods/design Romanian-speaking adults (18 years or older) with elevated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>13), current diagnosis of major depressive disorder or major depressive episode (MDD or MDE), and MDD with comorbid dysthymia, as evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), are included in the study. Participants are randomized to one of two conditions: 1) evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy (ED-CT) or 2) cognitive therapy (CT). Both groups undergo 12 psychotherapy sessions, and data are collected at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and the 3-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology and a categorical diagnosis of depression post-treatment. Discussion This randomized trial compares the newly proposed ED-CT with a classic CT protocol for depression. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to integrate insights from evolutionary theories of depression into the treatment of this condition in a controlled manner. This study can thus add substantially to the body of knowledge on validated treatments for depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64664414 The trial was registered in June 2013. The first participant was enrolled on October 3, 2012. PMID

  6. Proposal for the standardization of flow cytometry protocols to detect minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valério; Beltrame, Miriam Perlingeiro; Ferreira, Silvia Inês Alejandra Cordoba Pires; Souto, Elizabeth Xisto; Malvezzi, Mariester; Yamamoto, Mihoko

    2015-01-01

    Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. PMID:26670404

  7. UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Brown, E J; Resnick, S M; Rebstock, C; Luong, H V; Lindstrom, J

    1991-01-01

    Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments. PMID:1368153

  8. UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.J.; Resnick, S.M.; Rebstock, C.; Luong, H.V.; Lindstrom, J.

    1992-01-01

    Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments.

  9. Standards in biological dosimetry: A requirement to perform an appropriate dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Every year, many countries perform a significant number of investigations based on biological radiation dose assessment to check suspected or true overexposure by irradiation of radiation workers and individuals of the general population. The scoring of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes has gradually become the "gold standard" for the biodosimetry-based assessment of accidental situations. Nevertheless, other "classical" biodosimetric methods such as micronuclei, prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) and FISH translocations are relevant in some exposure situations, also for surveillance of groups of populations at risk. Historical international intercomparison studies have shown discrepancies among dose-effect curves used to estimate doses from blood samples irradiated between 0 and 4Gy. Recent experimental work performed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has shown the impact of some blood harvesting parameters on the mitotic index, and consequently on the quality of dose assessment. Therefore, it was relevant to define the best Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) criteria to harmonize protocols among biodosimetry laboratories. Complementary with several editions of an IAEA technical manual, ISO standards were written with the view of considering the most used chromosome aberrations assays: dicentrics and micronuclei. An important feature of these standards is to address the organization of population triage and laboratories networking that would be required in case of a large nuclear event or malicious act involving radioactive material. These ISO standards are relevant and helpful to implement a coordinated response of several biodosimetry networks in Europe, Japan, Canada, and to support European programs such as MULTIBIODOSE and RENEB. A new important ISO standard on the use of FISH translocations in retrospective dosimetry is now being drafted. PMID:26520381

  10. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

  11. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

  12. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    PubMed

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA. PMID:27478731

  13. Use of Standardized Visual Assessments of Riparian and Stream Condition to Manage Riparian Bird Habitat in Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Hilary A.; Zack, Steve

    2009-07-01

    The importance of riparian vegetation to support stream function and provide riparian bird habitat in semiarid landscapes suggests that standardized assessment tools that include vegetation criteria to evaluate stream health could also be used to assess habitat conditions for riparian-dependent birds. We first evaluated the ability of two visual assessments of woody vegetation in the riparian zone (corridor width and height) to describe variation in the obligate riparian bird ensemble along 19 streams in eastern Oregon. Overall species richness and the abundances of three species all correlated significantly with both, but width was more important than height. We then examined the utility of the riparian zone criteria in three standardized and commonly used rapid visual riparian assessment protocols—the USDI BLM Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessment, the USDA NRCS Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), and the U.S. EPA Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet (HAFDS)—to assess potential riparian bird habitat. Based on the degree of correlation of bird species richness with assessment ratings, we found that PFC does not assess obligate riparian bird habitat condition, SVAP provides a coarse estimate, and HAFDS provides the best assessment. We recommend quantitative measures of woody vegetation for all assessments and that all protocols incorporate woody vegetation height. Given that rapid assessments may be the only source of information for thousands of kilometers of streams in the western United States, incorporating simple vegetation measurements is a critical step in evaluating the status of riparian bird habitat and provides a tool for tracking changes in vegetation condition resulting from management decisions.

  14. The clubfoot assessment protocol (CAP); description and reliability of a structured multi-level instrument for follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Andriesse, Hanneke; Hägglund, Gunnar; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt

    2005-01-01

    Background In most clubfoot studies, the outcome instruments used are designed to evaluate classification or long-term cross-sectional results. Variables deal mainly with factors on body function/structure level. Wide scorings intervals and total sum scores increase the risk that important changes and information are not detected. Studies of the reliability, validity and responsiveness of these instruments are sparse. The lack of an instrument for longitudinal follow-up led the investigators to develop the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The aim of this article is to introduce and describe the CAP and evaluate the items inter- and intra reliability in relation to patient age. Methods The CAP was created from 22 items divided between body function/structure (three subgroups) and activity (one subgroup) levels according to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF). The focus is on item and subgroup development. Two experienced examiners assessed 69 clubfeet in 48 children who had a median age of 2.1 years (range, 0 to 6.7 years). Both treated and untreated feet with different grades of severity were included. Three age groups were constructed for studying the influence of age on reliability. The intra- rater study included 32 feet in 20 children who had a median age of 2.5 years (range, 4 months to 6.8 years). The Unweighted Kappa statistics, percentage observer agreement, and amount of categories defined how reliability was to be interpreted. Results The inter-rater reliability was assessed as moderate to good for all but one item. Eighteen items had kappa values > 0.40. Three items varied from 0.35 to 0.38. The mean percentage observed agreement was 82% (range, 62 to 95%). Different age groups showed sufficient agreement. Intra- rater; all items had kappa values > 0.40 [range, 0.54 to 1.00] and a mean percentage agreement of 89.5%. Categories varied from 3 to 5. Conclusion The CAP contains more detailed information than previous

  15. Getting Started on Assessment: Developing a Voluntary System of Assessment and Certification Based on Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Skill Standards Board (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides practical advice for voluntary partnerships that, since 1994, are part of the effort to build a voluntary national system of skill standards, assessment, and certification. Intended to be used with guidance from the National Skill Standards Board, it is designed for the voluntary partnerships that have completed the standards…

  16. Development of a first-contact protocol to guide assessment of adult patients in rehabilitation services networks

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana A. P.; Ferreira, Fabiane R.; César, Cibele C.; Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Coster, Wendy J.; Mancini, Marisa C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the development of the Protocol for Identification of Problems for Rehabilitation (PLPR), a tool to standardize collection of functional information based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Development of the protocol: The PLPR was developed for use during the initial contact with adult patients within a public network of rehabilitation services. Steps to develop the protocol included: survey of the ICF codes most used by clinical professionals; compilation of data from functional instruments; development and pilot testing of a preliminary version in the service settings; discussion with professionals and development of the final version. The final version includes: user identification; social and health information; brief functional description (BFD); summary of the BFD; and PLPR results. Further testing of the final version will be conducted. Conclusions: The protocol standardizes the first contact between the user and the rehabilitation service. Systematic use of the protocol could also help to create a functional database that would allow comparisons between rehabilitation services and countries over time. PMID:26786075

  17. Comparison of Standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T Optimized Protocols in Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate. A Serial MRI Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zivadinov, Robert; Hojnacki, David; Hussein, Sara; Bergsland, Niels; Carl, Ellen; Durfee, Jacqueline; Dwyer, Michael G.; Kennedy, Cheryl; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA, 20 mg) on lesion activity using the 1.5 T standard MRI protocol (single dose gadolinium [Gd] and 5-min delay) or optimized 3 T protocol (triple dose of Gd, 20-min delay and application of an off-resonance saturated magnetization transfer pulse). A 15-month, phase IV, open-label, single-blinded, prospective, observational study included 12 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who underwent serial MRI scans (Days −45, −20, 0; the minus ign indicates the number of days before GA treatment; and on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 270 and 360 during GA treatment) on 1.5 T and 3 T protocols. Cumulative number and volume of Gd enhancing (Gd-E) and T2 lesions were calculated. At Days −45 and 0, there were higher number (p < 0.01) and volume (p < 0.05) of Gd-E lesions on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. However, at 180 and 360 days of the study, no significant differences in total and cumulative number of new Gd-E and T 2 lesions were found between the two protocols. Compared to pre-treatment period, at Days 180 and 360 a significantly greater decrease in the cumulative number of Gd-E lesions (p = 0.03 and 0.021, respectively) was found using the 3 T vs. the 1.5 T protocol (p = NS for both time points). This MRI mechanistic study suggests that GA may exert a greater effect on decreasing lesion activity as measured on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. PMID:22754322

  18. Comparison of standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T optimized protocols in patients treated with glatiramer acetate. A serial MRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Hojnacki, David; Hussein, Sara; Bergsland, Niels; Carl, Ellen; Durfee, Jacqueline; Dwyer, Michael G; Kennedy, Cheryl; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA, 20 mg) on lesion activity using the 1.5 T standard MRI protocol (single dose gadolinium [Gd] and 5-min delay) or optimized 3 T protocol (triple dose of Gd, 20-min delay and application of an off-resonance saturated magnetization transfer pulse). A 15-month, phase IV, open-label, single-blinded, prospective, observational study included 12 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who underwent serial MRI scans (Days -45, -20, 0; the minus ign indicates the number of days before GA treatment; and on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 270 and 360 during GA treatment) on 1.5 T and 3 T protocols. Cumulative number and volume of Gd enhancing (Gd-E) and T2 lesions were calculated. At Days -45 and 0, there were higher number (p < 0.01) and volume (p < 0.05) of Gd-E lesions on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. However, at 180 and 360 days of the study, no significant differences in total and cumulative number of new Gd-E and T 2 lesions were found between the two protocols. Compared to pre-treatment period, at Days 180 and 360 a significantly greater decrease in the cumulative number of Gd-E lesions (p = 0.03 and 0.021, respectively) was found using the 3 T vs. the 1.5 T protocol (p = NS for both time points). This MRI mechanistic study suggests that GA may exert a greater effect on decreasing lesion activity as measured on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. PMID:22754322

  19. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrby, N. E. Sverker

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolutionefficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on.

  20. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Norrby, N E

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test configurations and approval limits, respectively: 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolution efficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on. PMID:21060604

  1. Assessing daily fluctuations in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and substance use with Interactive Voice Response technology: protocol compliance and reactions.

    PubMed

    Possemato, Kyle; Kaier, Emily; Wade, Michael; Lantinga, Larry J; Maisto, Stephen A; Ouimette, Paige

    2012-05-01

    PTSD symptoms and substance use commonly co-occur, but information is limited regarding their interplay. We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture fluctuations in PTSD symptoms and drinking within and across days. Fifty Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans completed four daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) assessments of PTSD and substance use with cell phones for 28 days. The aims of this study were to (1) describe participant compliance and reactions to the protocol and (2) identify participant characteristics and protocol reactions that predict compliance. Protocol compliance was high, with participants completing an average of 96 out of a total of 112 IVR assessments (86%). While some participants perceived that the IVR assessments increased their drinking (21%) and PTSD symptoms (60%), self-report measures showed significant decreases in PTSD symptoms and nonsignificant decreases in drinking over the assessment period. Analyses revealed demographic (e.g., older than 24, full-time employment, more education), clinical (e.g., less binge drinking, less avoidance symptoms), and perceived benefit from participation predicted better protocol compliance. Results can guide future research on participant predictors of compliance with intensive EMA methods. PMID:22662732

  2. The recent findings of the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010" and the World Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. A.; Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol

    2011-12-01

    The ozone layer is the Earth's natural sunscreen, blocking harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland proposed that the ozone layer could be depleted by chlorine released from human-produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Follow-up science investigations supported this hypothesis, leading to the landmark 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer). One of the Montreal Protocol provisions is that science assessments on ozone depletion be written and submitted to the signatory Parties every 4 years. In this talk, I will primarily focus on the science findings from the recently published "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010". This assessment is written and reviewed (multiple times) by the international science community. The 2010 assessment is the latest in a long series of reports that provide the science foundation for the Montreal Protocol. This assessment demonstrates that the Montreal Protocol is working, and that there are early signs that ozone is beginning to respond to decreasing CFC levels. There are now state-of-the-art simulations that show that the ozone layer would have been largely destroyed if CFCs had not been regulated, and therefore extreme levels of UV radiation have been avoided. The 2010 assessment also spotlights new insights into the impact of ozone depletion on surface climate, and climate impacts on ozone. However, the assessment also reveals that greenhouse gases are modifying the stratosphere and that the ozone layer will evolve into a different state than its pre-industrial values - you can't go home again.

  3. Calcified coronary artery plaque measurement with cardiac CT in population-based studies: standardized protocol of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Carr, J Jeffrey; Nelson, Jennifer Clark; Wong, Nathan D; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Arad, Yadon; Jacobs, David R; Sidney, Stephan; Bild, Diane E; Williams, O Dale; Detrano, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Calcified coronary artery plaque, measured at cardiac computed tomography (CT), is a predictor of cardiovascular disease and may play an increasing role in cardiovascular disease risk assessment. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute are population-based studies in which calcified coronary artery plaque was measured with electron-beam and multi-detector row CT and a standardized protocol in 6814 (MESA) and 3044 (CARDIA study) participants. The studies were approved by the appropriate institutional review board from the study site or agency, and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Participation in the CT examination was high, image quality was good, and agreement for the presence of calcified plaque was high (kappa = 0.92, MESA; kappa = 0.77, CARDIA study). Extremely high agreement was observed between and within CT image analysts for the presence (kappa > 0.90, all) and amount (intraclass correlation coefficients, >0.99) of calcified plaque. Measurement of calcified coronary artery plaque with cardiac CT is well accepted by participants and can be implemented with consistently high-quality results with a standardized protocol and trained personnel. If predictive value of calcified coronary artery plaque for cardiovascular events proves sufficient to justify screening a segment of the population, then a standardized cardiac CT protocol is feasible and will provide reproducible results for health care providers and the public. PMID:15618373

  4. Combined use of rapid bioassessment protocols and sediment quality triad to assess stream quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Bogenrieder, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological conditions at five stations on a small southeastern stream were evaluated using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP) and the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) to assess potential biological impacts of a municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) on downstream resources. Physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish assemblages were impaired at Stations 1 and 2 (upstream of the WWTF), suggesting that the degraded physical habitat was adversely impacting the fish and benthic populations. The SQT also demonstrated that Stations 1 and 2 were degraded, but the factors responsible for the impaired conditions were attributed to the elevated concentrations of polycylclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals (Mn, Pb) in the sediments. The source of contaminants to the upper reaches of the stream appears to be storm-water runoff from the city center. Increased discharge and stabilized base flow contributed by the WWTF appeared to benefit the physically-altered stream system. Although the two assessment procedures demonstrated biological impairment at the upstream stations, the environmental factors identified as being responsible for the impairment were different: the RBP provided insight into contributions associated with the physical habitat and the SQT contributed information on contaminants and sediment quality. Both procedures are important in the identification of physical and chemical factors responsible for environmental impairment and together they provide information critical to the development of appropriate management options for mitigation.

  5. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  6. Assessing Outside the Bubble: Performance Assessment for Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jesica M.; Bristow, Lora J.; Coriell, Bryn P.; Jensen, Mark E.; Johnson, Leif E.; Luring, Sara R.; Lyons-Tinsley, Mary Ann; Mefford, Megan M.; Neu, Gwen L.; Samulski, Emerson T.; Warner, Timothy D.; White, Mathew F.

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of Common Core State Standards has increased the need for assessments capable of measuring more performance-based outcomes. This monograph brings together the current literature and resources for the development and implementation of performance assessment. The text was written as part of a project-based graduate course and has…

  7. A Self-Paced Intermittent Protocol on a Non-Motorised Treadmill: A Reliable Alternative to Assessing Team-Sport Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tofari, Paul J.; McLean, Blake D.; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT). Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials). The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV)] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV < 5%, and < 6% for each 10-min activity block. All power variables exhibited a CV < 7.5%, except walking (CV 8.3-10.1%). The most reliable variables were maximum and mean sprint speed (CV < 2%). All variables produced a CV% greater than the SWC. A self-paced, team-sport running protocol performed on a NMT produces reliable speed/distance and power data. Importantly, a single familiarisation session allowed for adequate test-retest reliability. The self-paced design provides an ecologically-valid alternative to externally-paced team-sport running simulations. Key points Self-paced team-sport running protocols on a curved NMT that closely match the locomotor demands of competition deliver reliable test-retest measures of speed, distance and power. Such protocols may be sensitive to changes in running profile following an intervention that may not be detectable during externally-paced protocols. One familiarisation session is adequate to ensure test-retest reliability. PMID:25729291

  8. [Development of telepathology systems between different types of terminals based on the standard for image collaboration command protocol].

    PubMed

    Tofukuji, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Shuji; Suzuki, Akitoshi; Saito, Makoto; Hara, Shigeji; Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Shiraishi, Taizo; Ooshiro, Mariko; Sawai, Takashi; Kaihara, Shigekoto

    2003-01-01

    In Japan telepathology systems have been developed in medical or pathological environment such as a shortage and an uneven distribution of pathologists. More than 100 telepathology terminals are working mainly for intraoperative quick diagnosis. They cannot communicate with different types each other. In March 2000 the Medical Information System Development Center(MEDIS-DC) successfully demonstrated the interconnection between different types of telepathology terminals based on the Standard for Image Collaboration Command Protocol (SICCP). Nikon, NTTdata and Olympus had joined the development. In February 2002 MEDIS-DC examined these systems for pathological consultations in the fields of Okinawa-Kyoto, Kyoto-Mie and Mie-Okinawa. These successful examinations let us know that telepathology systems need new observation methodologies for telecytology and teleconsultation in addition to the flow for intraoperative quick diagnosis, new GUI guidelines for telepathology terminal design and, education and support for users of their smooth operation. Outcomes of MEDIS-DC activities encourageed us to challenge the next generation telepathology. We found some new trends in telepathology or pathology informatics such as virtual slide technologies and the internet applications in US and Europe. In order to keep Japanese priority, MEDIS-DC telepathology comittee has started investigations to construct a strategy for development of Japanese next generation telepathology. PMID:12832859

  9. Clinical Applicability and Cutoff Values for an Unstructured Neuropsychological Assessment Protocol for Older Adults with Low Formal Education

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. Methods and Results A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Conclusion The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education. PMID:24066031

  10. Implications of Stein's Paradox for Environmental Standard Compliance Assessment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Song S; Stow, Craig A; Cha, YoonKyung

    2015-05-19

    The implications of Stein's paradox stirred considerable debate in statistical circles when the concept was first introduced in the 1950s. The paradox arises when we are interested in estimating the means of several variables simultaneously. In this situation, the best estimator for an individual mean, the sample average, is no longer the best. Rather, a shrinkage estimator, which shrinks individual sample averages toward the overall average is shown to have improved overall accuracy. Although controversial at the time, the concept of shrinking toward overall average is now widely accepted as a good practice for improving statistical stability and reducing error, not only in simple estimation problems, but also in complicated modeling problems. However, the utility of Stein's insights are not widely recognized in the environmental management community, where mean pollutant concentrations of multiple waters are routinely estimated for management decision-making. In this essay, we introduce Stein's paradox and its modern generalization, the Bayesian hierarchical model, in the context of environmental standard compliance assessment. Using simulated data and nutrient monitoring data from wadeable streams around the Great Lakes, we show that a Bayesian hierarchical model can improve overall estimation accuracy, thereby improving our confidence in the assessment results, especially for standard compliance assessment of waters with small sample sizes. PMID:25867542

  11. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  12. Assessment of opacimeter calibration according to International Standard Organization 10155.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration method for opacimeters issued by the International Standard Organization (ISO) 10155 with the manual reference method for determination of dust content in stack gases. ISO 10155 requires at least nine operational measurements, corresponding to three operational measurements per each dust emission range within the stack. The procedure is assessed by comparison with previous calibration methods for opacimeters using only two operational measurements from a set of measurements made at stacks from pulp mills. The results show that even if the international standard for opacimeter calibration requires that the calibration curve is to be obtained using 3 x 3 points, a calibration curve derived using 3 points could be, at times, acceptable in statistical terms, provided that the amplitude of individual measurements is low. PMID:11218423

  13. Public School Finance Assessment Project Aligned with ELCC Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risen, D. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This is a detailed description of an assessment that can be used in a graduate level of study in the area of public school finance. This has been approved by NCATE as meeting all of the stipulated ELCC standards for which it is designed (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3.). This course of…

  14. Modifying the Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) protocol for rapid assessment of streambank erosion in northeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Newton, Sara E; Drenten, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the source of pollution in a stream is vital to preserving, restoring, and maintaining the stream's function and habitat it provides. Sediments from highly eroding streambanks are a major source of pollution in a stream system and have the potential to jeopardize habitat, infrastructure, and stream function. Watershed management practices throughout the Cleveland Metroparks attempt to locate and inventory the source and rate the risk of potential streambank erosion to assist in formulating effect stream, riparian, and habitat management recommendations. The Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI), developed by David Rosgen of Wildland Hydrology is a fluvial geomorphic assessment procedure used to evaluate the susceptibility of potential streambank erosion based on a combination of several variables that are sensitive to various processes of erosion. This protocol can be time consuming, difficult for non-professionals, and confined to specific geomorphic regions. To address these constraints and assist in maintaining consistency and reducing user bias, modifications to this protocol include a "Pre-Screening Questionnaire", elimination of the Study Bank-Height Ratio metric including the bankfull determination, and an adjusted scoring system. This modified protocol was used to assess several high priority streams within the Cleveland Metroparks. The original BEHI protocol was also used to confirm the results of the modified BEHI protocol. After using the modified assessment in the field, and comparing it to the original BEHI method, the two were found to produce comparable BEHI ratings of the streambanks, while significantly reducing the amount of time and resources needed to complete the modified protocol. PMID:25742064

  15. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    PubMed

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential. PMID:25167825

  16. State trends in ecological risk assessment and standard setting

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M R; Fowler, K M; Bilyard, G R

    1993-02-01

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to identify key states' activities and plans related to setting cleanup standards using the ecological risk assessment process, and (2) to discuss the impacts these actions may have on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental restoration program. This report is prepared as part of a larger task, the purpose of which is to identify and assess state regulatory trends and legal developments that may impact DOE's environmental restoration program. Results of this task are intended to provide DOE with advance notice of potentially significant regulatory developments so as to enhance DOE's ability to influence these developments and to incorporate possible regulatory and policy changes into its planning process.

  17. Comparison of mRNA Splicing Assay Protocols across Multiple Laboratories: Recommendations for Best Practice in Standardized Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Phillip J.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Thomassen, Mads; Becker, Alexandra; Brandão, Rita; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Montagna, Marco; Menéndez, Mireia; Quiles, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; De Leeneer, Kim; Tenés, Anna; Montalban, Gemma; Tserpelis, Demis; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Tirapo, Carole; Raponi, Michela; Caldes, Trinidad; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Guidugli, Lucia; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Wong, Ming; Tancredi, Mariella; Fachal, Laura; Ding, Yuan Chun; Kruse, Torben; Lattimore, Vanessa; Kwong, Ava; Chan, Tsun Leung; Colombo, Mara; De Vecchi, Giovanni; Caligo, Maria; Baralle, Diana; Lázaro, Conxi; Couch, Fergus; Radice, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C.; Neuhausen, Susan; Houdayer, Claude; Fackenthal, Jim; Van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Vega, Ana; Diez, Orland; Blok, Rien; Claes, Kathleen; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Walker, Logan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Brown, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. Methods We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design. Results PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Δ19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1g>t Δ5q and Δ3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp). Conclusions We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants. PMID:24212087

  18. Assessing the Fecal Microbiota: An Optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA Gene-Based Analysis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Sanchez, Borja; Martín, Rebeca; Gueimonde, Miguel; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota. PMID:23869230

  19. The CAP cancer protocols – a case study of caCORE based data standards implementation to integrate with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Jonathan; Chilukuri, Ram; Komatsoulis, George A; Mohanty, Sambit; Sioutos, Nicholas; Warzel, Denise B; Wright, Lawrence W; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2006-01-01

    Background The Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) is a network of individuals and institutions, creating a world wide web of cancer research. An important aspect of this informatics effort is the development of consistent practices for data standards development, using a multi-tier approach that facilitates semantic interoperability of systems. The semantic tiers include (1) information models, (2) common data elements, and (3) controlled terminologies and ontologies. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) cancer protocols and checklists are an important reporting standard in pathology, for which no complete electronic data standard is currently available. Methods In this manuscript, we provide a case study of Cancer Common Ontologic Representation Environment (caCORE) data standard implementation of the CAP cancer protocols and checklists model – an existing and complex paper based standard. We illustrate the basic principles, goals and methodology for developing caBIG™ models. Results Using this example, we describe the process required to develop the model, the technologies and data standards on which the process and models are based, and the results of the modeling effort. We address difficulties we encountered and modifications to caCORE that will address these problems. In addition, we describe four ongoing development projects that will use the emerging CAP data standards to achieve integration of tissue banking and laboratory information systems. Conclusion The CAP cancer checklists can be used as the basis for an electronic data standard in pathology using the caBIG™ semantic modeling methodology. PMID:16787533

  20. An information manager for the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, E H; Richards, T B; Christenson, G M; Taylor, M S; Eyster, J

    1994-12-01

    The Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEXPH) is a method for comprehensive public health planning that can be implemented by state and local health departments. Many local health departments have limited resources for the data analysis and synthesis needed for APEXPH. To facilitate the implementation of APEXPH in Michigan, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Epi Info software package to develop an APEXPH information manager (CDC-AIM) for use by the 50 local health departments in that state. This report describes our methods for formatting, compressing, and presenting data. Examples of tables are provided for demographics by age and sex, numbers of deaths, years of potential life lost, crude mortality rates, and perinatal indicators such as low birthweight. Areas where additional work is needed to further improve CDC-AIM are discussed. Our experience in Michigan suggests that CDC-AIM potentially is an extremely helpful tool to assist state and local health departments in working with their communities to establish public health program plans based on mortality, morbidity, and risk-factor data. PMID:7870657

  1. Assessment of a sequential extraction protocol by examining solution chemistry and mineralogical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maubec, Nicolas; Pauwels, Hélène; Noël, Hervé; Bourrat, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of heavy metals, such as copper and zinc in sediments, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. The mobility of these metals, which may be harmful to the environment, depends directly on their concentration and speciation , which in turn depend on physico-chemical parameters such as mineralogy of the sediment fraction, pH, redox potential, salinity etc ... (Anderson et al., 2000; Sterckeman et al., 2004; Van Oort et al., 2008). Several methods based on chemical extractions are currently applied to assess the behavior of heavy metals in soils and sediments. Among them, sequential extraction procedure is widely used in soil and sediment science and provides details about the origin, biological and physicochemical availability, mobilization and transports of trace metals elements. It is based on the use of a series of extracting reagents to extract selectively heavy metals according to their association within the solid phase (Cornu and Clozel, 2000) including the following different fraction : exchangeable, bound to carbonates, associated to oxides (reducible fraction), linked to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable fraction) as well as silicate minerals so called residual fraction (Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; Tessier et al., 1979). Consequently sequential extraction method is expected to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions (Arey et al., 1999; Brannon and Patrick, 1987; Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; La Force et al., 1999; Tessier et al., 1979). For three decades, a large number of protocols has been proposed, characterized by specific reagents and experimental conditions (concentrations, number of steps, extraction orders and solid/solution ratio) (Das et al., 1995; Gomez Ariza et al., 2000; Quevauviller et al., 1994; Rauret, 1998; Tack and Verloo, 1995), but it appeared that several of them suffer from a lack of selectivity of applied reagents: besides target ones, some

  2. Assessment of Alternative [U] and [Th] Zircon Standards for SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K.; Moore, G. M.; Boyce, J. W.; Hervig, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The quality of in situ (U-Th)/He zircon dates is dependent upon the accuracy and precision of spatially distributed [U] and [Th] measurements on often complexly zoned zircon crystals. Natural zircon standards for SIMS traditionally have been used to obtain precise U-Pb ages rather than precise U and Th concentration. [U] and [Th] distributions within even the most homogeneous U-Pb age standards are not sufficient to make good microbeam standards (i.e., yield good precision: 2σ < 5%) for (U-Th)/He dates. In the absence of sufficiently homogeneous natural zircon crystals, we evaluate the use of the NIST 610 glass standard and a synthetic polycrystalline solid “zircon synrock” made by powdering and pressing natural zircon crystals at 2 GPa and 1100°C within a 13 mm piston cylinder for 24 hours. SIMS energy spectra and multiple spot analyses help assess the matrix-dependence of secondary ion emission and [U] and [Th] homogeneity of these materials. Although spot analyses on NIST 610 glass yielded spatially consistent ratios of 238U/30Si and 232Th/30Si (2σ = 2%, n = 14), comparison of energy spectra collected on glass and zircon reveal significant differences in U, UO, Th, and ThO ion intensities over the range of initial kinetic energies commonly used for trace element analyses. Computing [U] and [Th] in zircon using NIST glass yields concentrations that vary by more than 10% for [U] and [Th], depending on the initial kinetic energy and ion mass (elemental, oxide, or sum of elemental and oxide) used for the analysis. The observed effect of chemistry on secondary ion energy spectra suggests that NIST glass cannot be used as a standard for trace [U] and [Th] in zircon without a correction factor (presently unknown). Energy spectra of the zircon synrock are similar to those of natural zircon, suggesting matrix compatibility and therefore potential for accurate standardization. Spot analyses on the zircon powder pellets, however, show that adequate homogeneity of [U

  3. Instruments for Assessment of Instructional Practices in Standards-Based Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Camille L.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the development of two forms of an instrument used as a classroom observation protocol, designed to document the impact of reform-based professional development with undergraduate mathematics and science faculty and its impact on the resultant preparation of teachers (PreK 12). A rationale for the development and utilization of this instrument (known as the OTOP, or the Oregon Teacher Observation Protocol) is provided. Constructed upon review of the research on teaching and standards documents in mathematics and science, the protocol formed the basis for data collection in a three-year longitudinal study of teaching practice among early career teachers as well as undergraduate college faculty. In addition, this paper suggests further applications of the observation protocol beyond the original research study purpose. One prominent use for the protocol is in supervisor observations of mathematics and science student teachers.

  4. Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becheler, Ronan; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Noel, Philippe; Mouchel, Olivier; Morrison, Cheryl; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6–7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.

  5. Assessing change in patient-reported quality of life after elective surgery: protocol for an observational comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Kronzer, Vanessa L.; Jerry, Michelle R.; Avidan, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their widespread use, the two main methods of assessing quality of life after surgery have never been directly compared. To support patient decision-making and study design, we aim to compare these two methods. The first of these methods is to assess quality of life before surgery and again after surgery using the same validated scale. The second is simply to ask patients whether or not they think their post-operative quality of life is better, worse, or the same. Our primary objective is to assess agreement between the two measures. Secondary objectives are to calculate the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and to describe the variation across surgical specialties. To accomplish these aims, we will administer surveys to patients undergoing elective surgery, both before surgery and again 30 days after surgery. This protocol follows detailed guidelines for observational study protocols.

  6. Development of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    Considerable effort in the astronomy education research (AER) community over the past several years has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing the AER discipline so that researchers could establish the initial knowledge state of students as well as to attempt measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Unfortunately, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. This was not done in oversight, but rather as a result of the relative youth of AER as a discipline. Now that several important science education reform documents exist and are generally accepted by the AER community, we are in a position to develop, validate, and disseminate a new assessment instrument which is tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. In response, researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science & Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) have designed a criterion-referenced assessment tool, called the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Through iterative development, this instrument has a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to help measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of our community.

  7. A Comparison Study of Continuous Insulin Infusion Protocols in the Medical Intensive Care Unit: Computer-Guided Vs. Standard Column-Based Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christopher A.; Smiley, Dawn; Bode, Bruce W.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Davidson, Paul C.; Jacobs, Sol; Steed, R. Dennis; Stentz, Frankie; Peng, Limin; Mulligan, Patrick; Freire, Amado X.; Temponi, Angel; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the safety and efficacy of continuous insulin infusion (CII) via a computer-guided and a standard paper form protocol in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS Multicenter randomized trial of 153 ICU patients randomized to CII using the Glucommander (n = 77) or a standard paper protocol (n = 76). Both protocols used glulisine insulin and targeted blood glucose (BG) between 80 mg/dL and 120 mg/dL. RESULTS The Glucommander resulted in a lower mean BG value (103 ± 8.8 mg/dL vs. 117 ± 16.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and in a shorter time to reach BG target (4.8 ± 2.8 vs.7.8 hours ± 9.1 hours, P < 0.01), and once at target resulted in a higher percentage of BG readings within target (71.0 ± 17.0% vs. 51.3 ± 19.7%, P < 0.001) than the standard protocol. Mean insulin infusion rate in the Glucommander was similar to the standard protocol (P = 0.12). The percentages of patients with ≥1 episode of BG <40 mg/dL and <60 mg/dL were 3.9% and 42.9% in the Glucommander and 5.6% and 31.9% in the standard, respectively [P = not significant (NS)]. Repeated measures analyses show that the probabilities of BG reading <40 mg/dL or <60 mg/dL were not significantly different between groups (P = 0.969, P = 0.084) after accounting for within-patient correlations with or without adjusting for time effect. There were no differences between groups in the length of hospital stay (P = 0.704), ICU stay (P = 0.145), or inhospital mortality (P = 0.561). CONCLUSION Both treatment algorithms resulted in significant improvement in glycemic control in critically ill patients in the medical ICU. The computer-based algorithm resulted in tighter glycemic control without an increased risk of hypoglycemic events compared to the standard paper protocol. PMID:20945468

  8. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

  9. QUANTITATIVE PLANAR AND VOLUMETRIC CARDIAC MEASUREMENTS USING 64 MDCT AND 3T MRI VS. STANDARD 2D AND M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: DOES ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL MATTER?

    PubMed

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Munoz Del Rio, Alejandro; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P = 1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  10. Quantitative planar and volumetric cardiac measurements using 64 MDCT and 3T MRI versus standard 2D and M-mode echocardiography: Does anesthetic protocol matter?

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Rio, Alejandro Munoz Del; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P=1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  11. Assessment of and standardization for quantitative nondestructive test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuschaefer, R. W.; Beal, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Present capabilities and limitations of nondestructive testing (NDT) as applied to aerospace structures during design, development, production, and operational phases are assessed. It will help determine what useful structural quantitative and qualitative data may be provided from raw materials to vehicle refurbishment. This assessment considers metal alloys systems and bonded composites presently applied in active NASA programs or strong contenders for future use. Quantitative and qualitative data has been summarized from recent literature, and in-house information, and presented along with a description of those structures or standards where the information was obtained. Examples, in tabular form, of NDT technique capabilities and limitations have been provided. NDT techniques discussed and assessed were radiography, ultrasonics, penetrants, thermal, acoustic, and electromagnetic. Quantitative data is sparse; therefore, obtaining statistically reliable flaw detection data must be strongly emphasized. The new requirements for reusable space vehicles have resulted in highly efficient design concepts operating in severe environments. This increases the need for quantitative NDT evaluation of selected structural components, the end item structure, and during refurbishment operations.

  12. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  13. Development and evaluation of multispecies test protocols for assessing chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Suter, G.W. II; Blaylock, B.G.

    1985-06-01

    Toxicity testing is a well-recognized tool to assist in evaluating the hazards of chemicals to individual biological species. Multispecies toxicity tests, however, are now well developed. Three test systems were examined: the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for N-fixation, soil microbial populations, and algal multispecies interactions. Test protocols were to be developed and tested using several different chemicals. Test protocols for the legume-Rhizobium and soil microorganisms systems were developed and are presented. The algal multispecies system will require more research, and thus no protocol was recommended at this time. Separate abstracts were prepared for each test system. (ACR)

  14. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish

  15. Assessment of Teachers: A View from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz-Snowden, Joan

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the teacher assessment system of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). The article explains the NBPTS policy on assessment and describes the NBPTS assessment model, which includes school site and assessment center modules. The assessment system leads to rigorous standards, national board certification, and…

  16. Assessing Spectral Simulation Protocols for the Amide I Band of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Ana V; Bondarenko, Anna S; Jansen, Thomas L C

    2016-08-01

    We present a benchmark study of spectral simulation protocols for the amide I band of proteins. The amide I band is widely used in infrared spectroscopy of proteins due to the large signal intensity, high sensitivity to hydrogen bonding, and secondary structural motifs. This band has, thus, proven valuable in many studies of protein structure-function relationships. We benchmark spectral simulation protocols using two common force fields in combination with several electrostatic mappings and coupling models. The results are validated against experimental linear absorption and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy for three well-studied proteins. We find two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to be much more sensitive to the simulation protocol than linear absorption and report on the best simulation protocols. The findings demonstrate that there is still room for ideas to improve the existing models for the amide I band of proteins. PMID:27348022

  17. Characterization of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gislason, S R; Hassenkam, T; Nedel, S; Bovet, N; Eiriksdottir, E S; Alfredsson, H A; Hem, C P; Balogh, Z I; Dideriksen, K; Oskarsson, N; Sigfusson, B; Larsen, G; Stipp, S L S

    2011-05-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions. PMID:21518890

  18. Characterization of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, S. R.; Hassenkam, T.; Nedel, S.; Bovet, N.; Eiriksdottir, E. S.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Hem, C. P.; Balogh, Z. I.; Dideriksen, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Sigfusson, B.; Larsen, G.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions. PMID:21518890

  19. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies. Purpose The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems. Methods Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions. Results Participants identify weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols were interruptions in the pharmacy. Some participants found it difficult to remember to continue verbalizing during think aloud sessions. Conclusion The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing not based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information and also a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign. PMID:24860689

  20. The tarnished gold standard for GM risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Henry I

    2010-01-01

    The American public's assessment of the accuracy of news stories is now at its lowest level in more than two decades, and their views of media bias and independence now match previous lows, according to a September 2009 Pew Research Center survey.  Only 29% of Americans say that news organizations usually get the facts right, while 63% say that news stories often are inaccurate.  Although there are no similar survey data for "peer-reviewed journals" -- which submit articles to review by independent experts before they are accepted for publication and which have long been considered science's "gold standard" - it is not uncommon for articles that are egregiously, obviously flawed to find their way into prominent international scientific publications. If the articles have policy implications, misinformation is quickly and widely propagated; feeds the propagandizing of opportunistic, anti-technology activists, and can have dire consequences. PMID:21865872

  1. Assessing the HIPAA standard in practice: PHR privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Inmaculada; Alemán, José Luis Fernández; Toval, Ambrosio

    2011-01-01

    Health service providers are starting to become interested in providing PHRs (Personal Health Records). With PHRs, access to data is controlled by the patient, and not by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. A number of benefits can be achieved with PHRs, but important challenges related to security and privacy must be addressed. This paper presents a review of the privacy policies of 20 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics were extracted and assessed according to the HIPAA standard. The results show a number of important differences in the characteristics analyzed. Some improvements can be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the audit and management of access to users' PHRs. A questionnaire has been defined to assist PHR designers in this task. PMID:22254820

  2. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select

  3. Regorafenib assessment in refractory advanced colorectal cancer: RegARd-C study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hendlisz, Alain; Deleporte, Amélie; Vandeputte, Caroline; Charette, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Guiot, Thomas; Garcia, Camilo; Flamen, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Regorafenib was recently approved for patients with pretreated advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC), despite a moderate improvement of the patients’ outcome, and significant toxicities. Based on previous studies showing that early fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-based metabolic response assessment (MRA) might adequately select patients unlikely to benefit from treatment, the RegARd-C trial uses early MRA to identify likely non-responders to regorafenib in a population of patients with aCRC and guide a comprehensive evaluation of genomic and epigenetic determinants of resistance to treatment. Methods and analysis RegARd-C is a multicentric prospective study. Its primary objective is to identify non-benefitters from regorafenib given at 160 mg/day, 3 weeks out of 4 in a population of patients with pretreated aCRC. Baseline PET is repeated at day 14 of the first treatment course. MRA is blinded for the investigators. Overall survival (OS) is the primary end point and will be correlated with metabolic parameters and (epi)genetic alterations assessed from tumour and serial blood samples. A target sample size of 105 evaluable patients (70 as derivation set and 35 as validation set), is considered as sufficient to validate an expected HR for OS of metabolic responders compared to metabolic non-responders significantly <1 (with 80% power and 1-sided 5% α in case of a true HR≤0.59 and a responders rate of 47%). Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Institut Jules Bordet's competent ethics committee and complies with the Helsinki declaration or the Belgian laws and regulations, whichever provides the greatest protection for the patient, and follows the International Conference on Harmonisation E 6 (R1) Guideline for Good Clinical Practice, reference number CPMP/ICH/135/95. The protocol and the trials results, even inconclusive, will be presented at international oncology congresses, and published in peer

  4. Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

  5. Understanding barriers to evidence-based assessment: Clinician attitudes toward standardized assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Hawley, Kristin M.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of evidence-based practice, why are clinicians not typically engaged in evidence-based assessment? To begin to understand this issue, a national multidisciplinary survey was conducted to examine clinician attitudes toward standardized assessment tools. 1442 child clinicians provided opinions about the psychometric qualities of these tools, their benefit over clinical judgment alone, and their practicality. Doctoral-level clinicians and psychologists expressed more positive ratings in all three domains than master’s-level clinicians and non-psychologists respectively, although only the disciplinary differences remained significant when predictors were examined simultaneously. All three attitude scales were predictive of standardized assessment tool use, although practical concerns were the strongest and only independent predictor of use. PMID:21058134

  6. Training in Vocational Assessment: Preparing Rehabilitation Counselors and Meeting the Requirements of the CORE Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, Timothy N.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment represents a foundational component of rehabilitation counseling services. The revised Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards implemented in 2004 resulted in the redesign of the knowledge and outcomes under the Assessment standard. The author reviews the current CORE standard for training in assessment within the context…

  7. Standards and Assessment Resource Bank, Version 2.5 [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado "Standards and Assessment Resource Bank" on CD-ROM contains updated information about the Colorado Student Assessment Program, the text of the "Standards-Based Classroom Operator's Manual," and a bank of standards-based units, assessments, and staff development materials submitted by Colorado teachers and school district…

  8. Assessment of a sequential extraction protocol by examining solution chemistry and mineralogical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maubec, Nicolas; Pauwels, Hélène; Noël, Hervé; Bourrat, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of heavy metals, such as copper and zinc in sediments, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. The mobility of these metals, which may be harmful to the environment, depends directly on their concentration and speciation , which in turn depend on physico-chemical parameters such as mineralogy of the sediment fraction, pH, redox potential, salinity etc ... (Anderson et al., 2000; Sterckeman et al., 2004; Van Oort et al., 2008). Several methods based on chemical extractions are currently applied to assess the behavior of heavy metals in soils and sediments. Among them, sequential extraction procedure is widely used in soil and sediment science and provides details about the origin, biological and physicochemical availability, mobilization and transports of trace metals elements. It is based on the use of a series of extracting reagents to extract selectively heavy metals according to their association within the solid phase (Cornu and Clozel, 2000) including the following different fraction : exchangeable, bound to carbonates, associated to oxides (reducible fraction), linked to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable fraction) as well as silicate minerals so called residual fraction (Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; Tessier et al., 1979). Consequently sequential extraction method is expected to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions (Arey et al., 1999; Brannon and Patrick, 1987; Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; La Force et al., 1999; Tessier et al., 1979). For three decades, a large number of protocols has been proposed, characterized by specific reagents and experimental conditions (concentrations, number of steps, extraction orders and solid/solution ratio) (Das et al., 1995; Gomez Ariza et al., 2000; Quevauviller et al., 1994; Rauret, 1998; Tack and Verloo, 1995), but it appeared that several of them suffer from a lack of selectivity of applied reagents: besides target ones, some

  9. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  10. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands - an update.

    PubMed

    Zajkowski, Piotr; Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  11. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    PubMed

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  12. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H.; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R.; Willig, Michael R.; Winarni, Nurul L.; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3–8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  13. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass—Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Elbrecht, Vasco; Leese, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads). Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I). Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II). Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR-based metabarcoding

  14. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass--Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol.

    PubMed

    Elbrecht, Vasco; Leese, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads). Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I). Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II). Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR-based metabarcoding

  15. DOE-Nuclear Energy Standards Program annual assessment, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.L. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    To meet the objectives of the programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a nuclear standards program and related activities and fosters the development and application of standards. This standards program is carried out in accordance with the principle in DOE Order 1300.2, Department of Energy Standards Program, December 18, 1980. The purposes of this effort, as set forth in three subtasks, are to (1) manage the NE Standards Program, (2) manage the development and maintenance of NE standards, and (3) operate an NE Standards Information Program.

  16. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended. PMID:25647488

  17. Screening for (anti)androgenic properties using a standard operation protocol based on the human stably transfected androgen sensitive PALM cell line. First steps towards validation.

    PubMed

    Freyberger, A; Witters, H; Weimer, M; Lofink, W; Berckmans, P; Ahr, H-J

    2010-08-01

    Despite more than a decade of research in the field of endocrine active compounds targeting the androgen receptor (AR), and although suitable cell lines can be obtained, no validated human stably transfected androgen sensitive transactivation assay is available. Bayer Schering Pharma (BSP) and the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), partners within the EU-sponsored 6th framework project ReProTect, made first steps towards such a validation. A standard operation protocol (SOP) developed at BSP based on the androgen sensitive PALM cell line was transferred to VITO and its performance and transferability were thoroughly studied. The investigation followed a generic protocol prepared for all reporter gene assays evaluated within ReProTect, and in both laboratories at least three independent experiments were performed. The highest concentration to be tested was limited to 10 microM, if needed. A few compounds, 17alpha-methyltestosterone (17alpha-MT), vinclozolin and linuron, were studied using a real world scenario, i.e., assuming that their interaction with the AR was not known: A prescreening for agonism and true, competitive antagonism was used to select conditions such as the appropriate mode of action, and the working range excluding cytotoxicity for the final screening. All other compounds were tested according to the generic protocol: Compounds screened for agonism were the reference androgen 17alpha-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT), levonorgestrel, norethynodrel, progesterone, o,p'-DDT, and dibutylphthalate (DBP), while compounds screened for antagonism were the reference anti-androgen flutamide, prochloraz, o,p'-DDT, progesterone, norethynodrel, and DBP. Cytotoxicity was assessed in parallel as lactate dehydrogenase release. The prescreen classified 17alpha-MT as androgenic, vinclozolin and linuron as anti-androgenic and compounds were tested accordingly. In the absence of cytotoxicity, appropriate androgenic properties of reference and test

  18. Assessing the Effectiveness of the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol when Interviewing French-Speaking Alleged Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; Lamb, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the flexibly structured NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol for child sexual abuse (CSA) investigative interviews by police officers and mental health workers in Quebec. The NICHD Protocol was designed to operationalize "best practice" guidelines and to help forensic interviewers…

  19. Standardization of tumor markers - priorities identified through external quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from <5% for the structurally relatively simple α-fetoprotein (AFP) to >25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Improving the standardization of tumor marker measurements is particularly important for three reasons. The primary use of tumor markers is in monitoring cancer patients over long periods of time. Clinical interpretation of trends may consequently be affected if results are obtained in different laboratories using different methods or if a laboratory has to change method. Differences in results may have major implications for adoption of area-wide decision cut-offs and make implementation of these difficult. Method-related differences also make it difficult to compare clinical studies. Improving comparability of tumor marker results requires broad international agreement about which molecular forms of the measurand have clinical utility, identifying and adopting pure molecular forms as calibrants, and defining antibody specificities for their optimal detection. These aims have been achieved to varying extents for the most frequently measured serum tumor markers as described in this paper. PMID:27542005

  20. The use of a Stream Visual Assessment Protocol to determine ecosystem integrity in an urban watershed in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús-Crespo, Rebeca; Ramirez, Alonso

    The growing need to protect stream ecosystems in Puerto Rico requires the development of monitoring procedures that help determine management priorities. Physical habitat assessments have been used to make quick evaluations that are cost efficient and easy conduct, yet they need to be studied further to understand their accuracy at predicting stream health. This study evaluated the efficiency of the Hawaii Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (HSVAP) at determining integrity of streams within the highly urbanized Rio Piedras watershed in Puerto Rico. To validate the protocol we compared results from HSVAP assessments conducted at 16 reaches with water quality and macroinvertebrate data collected at the same sites. Results from linear regressions between the water quality measures and HSVAP scores showed that there was no significant relationships ( R2 = 0.48; p = 0.08). This implies that the protocol is not supported by the water quality data. However, results from regressions between macroinvertebrate diversity and the number of families per site showed a significant positive relation with HSVAP scores ( R2 = 0.30; p = 0.02; R2 = 0.24; p = 0.05). In addition, a significant negative relation was observed between HSVAP scores and the Family Biotic Index (FBI) ( R2 = 0.32; p = 0.02). Comparisons between ratings obtained from the FBI and HSVAP scores suggest that the HSVAP classified sites as having higher quality than the biological metric. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the HSVAP is a good tool for a general assessment of the physical characteristics of a stream, but it needs modifications to accurately assess ecological quality of streams in Puerto Rico.

  1. Large-scale hydrological simulations using the soil water assessment tool, protocol development, and application in the danube basin.

    PubMed

    Pagliero, Liliana; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Willems, Patrick; Diels, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive of the European Union requires member states to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. A harmonized pan-European assessment of water resources availability and quality, as affected by various management options, is necessary for a successful implementation of European environmental legislation. In this context, we developed a methodology to predict surface water flow at the pan-European scale using available datasets. Among the hydrological models available, the Soil Water Assessment Tool was selected because its characteristics make it suitable for large-scale applications with limited data requirements. This paper presents the results for the Danube pilot basin. The Danube Basin is one of the largest European watersheds, covering approximately 803,000 km and portions of 14 countries. The modeling data used included land use and management information, a detailed soil parameters map, and high-resolution climate data. The Danube Basin was divided into 4663 subwatersheds of an average size of 179 km. A modeling protocol is proposed to cope with the problems of hydrological regionalization from gauged to ungauged watersheds and overparameterization and identifiability, which are usually present during calibration. The protocol involves a cluster analysis for the determination of hydrological regions and multiobjective calibration using a combination of manual and automated calibration. The proposed protocol was successfully implemented, with the modeled discharges capturing well the overall hydrological behavior of the basin. PMID:25602548

  2. A Protocol for Functional Assessment of Whole-Protein Saturation Mutagenesis Libraries Utilizing High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Stiffler, Michael A; Subramanian, Subu K; Salinas, Victor H; Ranganathan, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has long been used as a method to interrogate protein structure, function and evolution. Recent advances in massively-parallel sequencing technology have opened up the possibility of assessing the functional or fitness effects of large numbers of mutations simultaneously. Here, we present a protocol for experimentally determining the effects of all possible single amino acid mutations in a protein of interest utilizing high-throughput sequencing technology, using the 263 amino acid antibiotic resistance enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase as an example. In this approach, a whole-protein saturation mutagenesis library is constructed by site-directed mutagenic PCR, randomizing each position individually to all possible amino acids. The library is then transformed into bacteria, and selected for the ability to confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The fitness effect of each mutation is then determined by deep sequencing of the library before and after selection. Importantly, this protocol introduces methods which maximize sequencing read depth and permit the simultaneous selection of the entire mutation library, by mixing adjacent positions into groups of length accommodated by high-throughput sequencing read length and utilizing orthogonal primers to barcode each group. Representative results using this protocol are provided by assessing the fitness effects of all single amino acid mutations in TEM-1 at a clinically relevant dosage of ampicillin. The method should be easily extendable to other proteins for which a high-throughput selection assay is in place. PMID:27403811

  3. Implementing the CAS Standards: The Implementation of the CAS Standards in Student Affairs as a Comprehensive Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jesse A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of the CAS standards as a comprehensive assessment approach in divisions of student affairs necessitates a more in-depth understanding of how the CAS standards are being implemented in these settings. In response to increasing calls for improvement, accountability and professionalism in student affairs (Bresciani, 2006; Cooper…

  4. The Reliability and Validity of Protocols for the Assessment of Endurance Sports Performance: An Updated Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christopher John; Dascombe, Ben James

    2015-01-01

    Sports performance testing is one of the most common and important measures used in sport science. Performance testing protocols must have high reliability to ensure any changes are not due to measurement error or inter-individual differences. High validity is also important to ensure test performance reflects true performance. Time-trial…

  5. Towards standardized assessment of endoscope optical performance: geometric distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanzeng; Desai, Viraj N.; Ngo, Ying Z.; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Pfefer, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances in endoscopes, such as capsule, ultrathin and disposable devices, promise significant improvements in safety, clinical effectiveness and patient acceptance. Unfortunately, the industry lacks test methods for preclinical evaluation of key optical performance characteristics (OPCs) of endoscopic devices that are quantitative, objective and well-validated. As a result, it is difficult for researchers and developers to compare image quality and evaluate equivalence to, or improvement upon, prior technologies. While endoscope OPCs include resolution, field of view, and depth of field, among others, our focus in this paper is geometric image distortion. We reviewed specific test methods for distortion and then developed an objective, quantitative test method based on well-defined experimental and data processing steps to evaluate radial distortion in the full field of view of an endoscopic imaging system. Our measurements and analyses showed that a second-degree polynomial equation could well describe the radial distortion curve of a traditional endoscope. The distortion evaluation method was effective for correcting the image and can be used to explain other widely accepted evaluation methods such as picture height distortion. Development of consensus standards based on promising test methods for image quality assessment, such as the method studied here, will facilitate clinical implementation of innovative endoscopic devices.

  6. Using the mini-VIDAS(®) Easy Salmonella protocol to assess contamination in transitional and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M J; Martins, K; Garcia, D; Ferreira, S M F; Gonçalves, S C; Mendes, S; Lemos, M F L

    2016-07-01

    Classical methodologies for Salmonella detection may be too long in time to assure public safety. Presently, one of the fastest assays for Salmonella detection using the mini-VIDAS(®) system is the Easy Salmonella protocol. This assay, developed for food matrixes analysis, was here assessed for the applicability on the detection of these bacteria in transitional and saltwaters. The presence of Salmonella was detected in 4.2 % of the samples studied. In these transitional waters, the proposed protocol presented an efficiency of 79.1 %, due to a high false positive rate (20.8 %), and a false negative rate of 0 %-implying reducing analysis time, the use of enrichment broths, and making it more cost effective. Despite the multitude of samples nature, the method here described revealed to be an efficient and promising tool for transitional waters analysis. PMID:26994914

  7. Assessment and Next Generation Standards: An Interview with Olivia Gude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of an interview with Olivia Gude, member of the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Writing Team. In the interview, Gude provides an overview of the process for writing the new visual arts standards.

  8. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  9. Standardized protocols for plasma clearance of iohexol are not appropriate for determination of glomerular filtration rates in anesthetized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie E; Gulland, Frances M D; Braselton, W Emmett

    2010-03-01

    Abstract: Plasma clearance of iohexol was evaluated in eight anesthetized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), without evidence of renal dysfunction, to determine if the one-compartment model and the sample protocol used in dogs and cats could be applied to this species. Nonlinearity between samples in 75% (6/8) of sea lions voided those results. An additional two anesthetized sea lions were sampled at 5, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 360 min post iohexol injection and semi-logarithmic curves calculated. Plasma iohexol clearance values calculated by one-, two-, and noncompartment models were in poor agreement, suggesting that the standardized protocol described for dogs and cats cannot simply be applied to California sea lions, probably due to the effects of the dive reflex induced during anesthesia. PMID:20722269

  10. Formative Assessment for the Common Core Literacy Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calfee, Robert; Wilson, Kathleen M.; Flannery, Brian; Kapinus, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: As implementation of the Common Core Literacy Standards moves ahead, teachers, students, and schools are discovering that the standards demand a great deal of them in order to achieve the vision of college, career, and citizenship in the global-digital world outlined in the standards. To accomplish the goals and high…

  11. Standardization of Test for Assessment and Comparing of Students' Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadebe, Patrick U.

    2014-01-01

    The study Standardized Economics Achievement Test for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The standardized test in Economics was first constructed by an expert as a valid and reliable instrument. The test was then used for standardization in this study. That is, ensuring that the Economics…

  12. Using Microsoft Excel to Assess Standards: A "Techtorial". Article #2 in a 6-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    Standards-based assessment is a term currently being used quite often in educational reform discussions. The philosophy behind this initiative is to utilize "standards" or "benchmarks" to focus instruction and assessments of student learning. The National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 2004) provide a framework to guide this process for…

  13. Two Models for Evaluating Alignment of State Standards and Assessments: Competing or Complementary Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…

  14. Implementing Standards-Based Assessment Effectively: Incorporating Discussion of Exemplars into Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Graham D.; Armstrong, Susan; Bromberger, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Many universities are moving to greater use of standards-based assessment to support effective student learning. Implementing a standards-based approach includes involving academic staff in writing descriptions of standards for assessment tasks both to guide the marking process and clarify staff expectations for students. However, recent research…

  15. Protocol for the Assessment of Common Core Teaching: The Impact of Instructional Inclusion on Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen L.; Odozi, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The quality of instruction in the classroom is the most powerful leverage point for school improvement because it is the only thing over which educators have a significant degree of control. As student assessments change to reflect the higher expectations of Common Core State Standards (CCSS), it is important that the assessment and development of…

  16. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Part 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The appendices to Volume I of the report are contained in this document.

  17. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The results from the peer review are contained in this document.

  18. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  19. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  20. A low-dose, dual-phase cardiovascular CT protocol to assess left atrial appendage anatomy and exclude thrombus prior to left atrial intervention.

    PubMed

    Lazoura, Olga; Ismail, Tevfik F; Pavitt, Christopher; Lindsay, Alistair; Sriharan, Mona; Rubens, Michael; Padley, Simon; Duncan, Alison; Wong, Tom; Nicol, Edward

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the left atrial appendage (LAA) for thrombus and anatomy is important prior to atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and LAA exclusion. The use of cardiovascular CT (CCT) to detect LAA thrombus has been limited by the high incidence of pseudothrombus on single-pass studies. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a two-phase protocol incorporating a limited low-dose delayed contrast-enhanced examination of the LAA, compared with a single-pass study for LAA morphological assessment, and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the exclusion of thrombus. Consecutive patients (n = 122) undergoing left atrial interventions for AF were assessed. All had a two-phase CCT protocol (first-past scan plus a limited, 60-s delayed scan of the LAA) and TEE. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for the detection of true thrombus on first-pass and delayed scans, using TEE as the gold standard. Overall, 20/122 (16.4 %) patients had filling defects on the first-pass study. All affected the full delineation of the LAA morphology; 17/20 (85 %) were confirmed as pseudo-filling defects. Three (15 %) were seen on late-pass and confirmed as true thrombi on TEE; a significant improvement in diagnostic performance relative to a single-pass scan (McNemar Chi-square 17, p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV was 100, 85.7, 86.1, 15.0 and 100 % respectively for first-pass scans, and 100 % for all parameters for the delayed scans. The median (range) additional radiation dose for the delayed scan was 0.4 (0.2-0.6) mSv. A low-dose delayed scan significantly improves the identification of true LAA anatomy and thrombus in patients undergoing LA intervention. PMID:26420491

  1. Effects of standard training in the use of closed-circuit televisions in visually impaired adults: design of a training protocol and a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reading problems are frequently reported by visually impaired persons. A closed-circuit television (CCTV) can be helpful to maintain reading ability, however, it is difficult to learn how to use this device. In the Netherlands, an evidence-based rehabilitation program in the use of CCTVs was lacking. Therefore, a standard training protocol needed to be developed and tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to provide an evidence-based training program in the use of this device. Methods/Design To develop a standard training program, information was collected by studying literature, observing training in the use of CCTVs, discussing the content of the training program with professionals and organizing focus and discussion groups. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated in an RCT, to obtain an evidence-based training program. Dutch patients (n = 122) were randomized into a treatment group: normal instructions from the supplier combined with training in the use of CCTVs, or into a control group: instructions from the supplier only. The effect of the training program was evaluated in terms of: change in reading ability (reading speed and reading comprehension), patients' skills to operate the CCTV, perceived (vision-related) quality of life and tasks performed in daily living. Discussion The development of the CCTV training protocol and the design of the RCT in the present study may serve as an example to obtain an evidence-based training program. The training program was adjusted to the needs and learning abilities of individual patients, however, for scientific reasons it might have been preferable to standardize the protocol further, in order to gain more comparable results. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, identifier: NTR1031 PMID:20219120

  2. Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2011-01-01

    The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…

  3. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Brian T; Willig, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs) have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season) to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition) differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar estimates of species

  4. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols

    PubMed Central

    Willig, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs) have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season) to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition) differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar estimates of species

  5. A Novel Staining Protocol for Multiparameter Assessment of Cell Heterogeneity in Phormidium Populations (Cyanobacteria) Employing Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Tashyreva, Daria; Elster, Josef; Billi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial populations display high heterogeneity in viability and physiological activity at the single-cell level, especially under stressful conditions. We demonstrate a novel staining protocol for multiparameter assessment of individual cells in physiologically heterogeneous populations of cyanobacteria. The protocol employs fluorescent probes, i.e., redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, ‘dead cell’ nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green, and DNA-specific fluorochrome 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, combined with microscopy image analysis. Our method allows simultaneous estimates of cellular respiration activity, membrane and nucleoid integrity, and allows the detection of photosynthetic pigments fluorescence along with morphological observations. The staining protocol has been adjusted for, both, laboratory and natural populations of the genus Phormidium (Oscillatoriales), and tested on 4 field-collected samples and 12 laboratory strains of cyanobacteria. Based on the mentioned cellular functions we suggest classification of cells in cyanobacterial populations into four categories: (i) active and intact; (ii) injured but active; (iii) metabolically inactive but intact; (iv) inactive and injured, or dead. PMID:23437052

  6. Assessment of a self-designed protocol on patients with adverse reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    González, J; Guerra, F; Moreno, C; Miguel, R; Daza, J C; Sánchez Guijo, P

    1992-01-01

    Suspected adverse reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics are the most frequent reason for consultation in relation WMH drug allergy. Because of their therapeutical usefulness and wide use, we developed a protocol for confirmation or exclusion of this type of allergy. The proposed protocol is based on clinical, causal and laboratory criteria that are used to assign scores from 0 to 9 points. Patients with scores between 0 and 3 are considered to be highly prone to beta-lactam antibiotic allergy and are given an alternative therapy that is selected by applying skin provocation tests (SPT). Those with a score of 9 points are excluded. Finally, those with scores between 4 and 8 are subjected to skin tests with 5 antigens (penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin, Penkit PPL and Penkit MDM); if they give negative results they are subsequently subjected to oral provocation with beta-lactam antibiotics. In this work we report the results obtained from 150 patients analysed for 28 variables altogether. The results allowed us to rule out adverse reactions in 94 patients. Only 9 individuals yielded positive skin tests, and only one gave a positive oral provocation (bronchospasm, 6 hours after subjection to the test). The usefulness of the proposed protocol, the profitability of the test applied and the mechanisms involved are assessed. PMID:1292326

  7. lower limbs kinematic assessment of the effect of a gym and hydrotherapy rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lovecchio, Nicola; Sciumè, Luciana; Zago, Matteo; Panella, Lorenzo; Lopresti, Maurizio; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To quantitatively assess the effect of a personalized rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis. [Subject and Methods] The gait patterns of a 33-year-old male patient with knee synovial sarcoma were assessed by a computerized analysis before and after 40 rehabilitation sessions. [Results] The rehabilitation protocol improved the gait pattern. After rehabilitation, hip flexion was nearly symmetric, with normalized affected limb hip flexion, and improved ankle flexion. Ankle in/eversion was asymmetric and did not improve after physiotherapy. Before physiotherapy, the hip flexion on the affected side anticipated the movement but nearly normalized in the follow-up assessment. Hip abduction range of motion increased, with wider movements and good balance. Knee range of motion nearly symmetrized, but maintained an anticipated behavior, without shock absorption at heel-strike. [Conclusion] Instrumental gait analysis allowed us to gain evidence about the training and how to expand rehabilitative interventions to improve efficacy. In particular, we recommend quadriceps and gastrocnemius eccentric contraction training (to improve the shock absorption phase, preventing early failures of the prosthesis); one-leg standing performance (to improve the support phase of the affected limb); adductor strength training (to aid in hip control during the swing phase); and peroneus strength training (to increase ankle joint stabilization). PMID:27134413

  8. lower limbs kinematic assessment of the effect of a gym and hydrotherapy rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lovecchio, Nicola; Sciumè, Luciana; Zago, Matteo; Panella, Lorenzo; Lopresti, Maurizio; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To quantitatively assess the effect of a personalized rehabilitation protocol after knee megaprosthesis. [Subject and Methods] The gait patterns of a 33-year-old male patient with knee synovial sarcoma were assessed by a computerized analysis before and after 40 rehabilitation sessions. [Results] The rehabilitation protocol improved the gait pattern. After rehabilitation, hip flexion was nearly symmetric, with normalized affected limb hip flexion, and improved ankle flexion. Ankle in/eversion was asymmetric and did not improve after physiotherapy. Before physiotherapy, the hip flexion on the affected side anticipated the movement but nearly normalized in the follow-up assessment. Hip abduction range of motion increased, with wider movements and good balance. Knee range of motion nearly symmetrized, but maintained an anticipated behavior, without shock absorption at heel-strike. [Conclusion] Instrumental gait analysis allowed us to gain evidence about the training and how to expand rehabilitative interventions to improve efficacy. In particular, we recommend quadriceps and gastrocnemius eccentric contraction training (to improve the shock absorption phase, preventing early failures of the prosthesis); one-leg standing performance (to improve the support phase of the affected limb); adductor strength training (to aid in hip control during the swing phase); and peroneus strength training (to increase ankle joint stabilization). PMID:27134413

  9. Validation of the automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre (ALTAIR): a prospective study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose I; Maderuelo-Fernández, Jose A; Chamoso-Santos, Pablo; Rodríguez-González, Sara; de Paz-Santana, Juan F; Merchan-Cifuentes, Miguel A; Corchado-Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The fundus examination is a non-invasive evaluation of the microcirculation of the retina. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate (reliability and validity) the ALTAIR software platform (Automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre) in order to analyse its utility in different clinical environments. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study in the first phase and a prospective observational study in the second with 4 years of follow-up. The study will be performed in a primary care centre and will include 386 participants. The main measurements will include carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity by Sphygmocor, cardio-ankle vascular index through the VASERA VS-1500, cardiac evaluation by a digital ECG and renal injury by microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration. The retinal vascular evaluation will be performed using a TOPCON TRCNW200 non-mydriatic retinal camera to obtain digital images of the retina, and the developed software (ALTAIR) will be used to automatically calculate the calibre of the retinal vessels, the vascularised area and the branching pattern. For software validation, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability, the concurrent validity of the vascular structure and function, as well as the association between the estimated retinal parameters and the evolution or onset of new lesions in the target organs or cardiovascular diseases will be examined. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. Validation of this tool will provide greater reliability to the analysis of retinal vessels by decreasing the intervention of the observer and will result in increased validity through the use of additional information, especially

  10. Assessment of equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. Methods and analysis The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs—benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Results Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and

  11. Cross-cultural validity and reliability testing of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Bolton, P

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cross-culture validity and reliability of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without the usual "gold standards." Normally criterion validity testing requires comparison with such a standard--usually another instrument or a professional diagnosis. Instead local informants identified persons with and without "agahinda gakabije" (a locally described grief syndrome) who were then asked if they thought they had this syndrome and also interviewed using the depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL). To assess criterion validity, interviews where respondent and informant agreed on the presence or absence of agahinda gakabije were compared with depression diagnosis using the DHSCL. We also assessed construct validity (using factor analysis), internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and test-retest reliability using results from a subsequent community-based survey employing the DHSCL. We found a similar relationship between depression and agahinda gakabije as between depression and grief in western countries, which supports criterion validity. Construct validity and internal reliability were good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Test-retest reliability of a DHSCL-based scale was less adequate (0.67). Although not replacing the usual gold standards for testing criterion validity, this approach may prove useful where these standards are unavailable. As this includes much of the developing world, this could result in more accurate mental health assessments among populations for whom this has hitherto not been possible. PMID:11339319

  12. Social Moderation, Assessment and Assuring Standards for Accounting Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watty, Kim; Freeman, Mark; Howieson, Bryan; Hancock, Phil; O'Connell, Brendan; de Lange, Paul; Abraham, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidencing student achievement of standards is a growing imperative worldwide. Key stakeholders (including current and prospective students, government, regulators and employers) want confidence that threshold learning standards in an accounting degree have been assured. Australia's new higher education regulatory environment requires that…

  13. SEDIMENT TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: COMPARISON OF STANDARD AND NEW TESTING DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard methods of sediment toxicity testing are fairly well accepted; however, as with all else, evolution of these methods is inevitable. We compared a standard ASTM 10-day amphipod toxicity testing method with smaller, 48- and 96-h test methods using very toxic and reference ...

  14. Standards, Assessments, and Accountability. Education Policy White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie, Ed.; Hannaway, Jane, Ed.; Baker, Eva, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Standards-based education reform has a more than 20-year history. A standards-based vision was enacted in federal law under the Clinton administration with the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and carried forward under the Bush administration with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. In a recent…

  15. Tying Together the Common Core of Standards, Instruction, and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Vicki; Wong, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Clear, high standards will enable us to develop an education system that ensures that high school graduates are ready for college. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been working with other organizations to develop a Common Core of Standards. The partners working with the foundation are developing tools that will show teachers what is…

  16. Standards, Assessments, and Students: Encouraging Both Equity and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Jim

    1995-01-01

    We must determine national standards, an acceptable degree of student achievement, and ways to guarantee equity while encouraging excellence. Any school can increase its graduation rate by decree through social promotion and lowered grading scales. The shift to standards means a shift to measurable outcomes, true learning, and a quality product.…

  17. Population Dynamics P System (PDP) Models: A Standardized Protocol for Describing and Applying Novel Bio-Inspired Computing Tools

    PubMed Central

    Colomer, Maria Àngels; Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Today, the volume of data and knowledge of processes necessitates more complex models that integrate all available information. This handicap has been solved thanks to the technological advances in both software and hardware. Computational tools available today have allowed developing a new family of models, known as computational models. The description of these models is difficult as they can not be expressed analytically, and it is therefore necessary to create protocols that serve as guidelines for future users. The Population Dynamics P systems models (PDP) are a novel and effective computational tool to model complex problems, are characterized by the ability to work in parallel (simultaneously interrelating different processes), are modular and have a high computational efficiency. However, the difficulty of describing these models therefore requires a protocol to unify the presentation and the steps to follow. We use two case studies to demonstrate the use and implementation of these computational models for population dynamics and ecological process studies, discussing briefly their potential applicability to simulate complex ecosystem dynamics. PMID:23593284

  18. Towards Enhanced Second Language Reading Comprehension Assessment: Computerized versus Manual Scoring of Written Recall Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Second language (L2) reading comprehension assessment has long relied upon classical quantitative, product-oriented measurement techniques (i.e., multiple-choice and cloze) in both research and classroom assessment. As Bernhardt (1991) clearly demonstrated, these traditionally employed assessment methods are unable to capture the complex processes…

  19. Calibration of the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol to a Comprehensive Measure of Wetland Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of monitoring and assessment to the management and protection of wetlands has been recognized, and research in recent years has made progress in the development of wetland monitoring and assessment tools. Wetland assessments are made at multiple levels of intensit...

  20. Determinants and Functions of Standardized Assessment Use Among School Mental Health Clinicians: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Bergstrom, Alex; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated why and how school mental health clinicians use standardized assessment tools in their work with youth and families. Quantitative and qualitative (focus group) data were collected prior to and following a training and consultation sequence as part of a trial program to assess school clinician's (n = 15) experiences administering standardized tools to youth on their caseloads (n = 191). Findings indicated that, although assessment use was initially somewhat low, clinicians used measures to conduct initial assessments with the bulk of their caseloads (average = 62.2%) during the implementation period. Clinicians also reported on factors influencing their use of assessments at the client, provider, and system levels; perceived functions of assessment; student responses to assessment use; and use of additional sources of clinically-relevant information (primarily educational data) for the purposes of assessment and progress monitoring. Implications for the contextual appropriateness of standardized assessment and training in assessment tools are discussed. PMID:25875325

  1. Reenvisioning Assessment for the Academy and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's Standards Revision Process

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Kuba, Sarah E.; Mason, Holly L.; Mueller, Bruce A.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Seaba, Hazel H.; Soliman, Suzanne R.; Sweet, Burgunda V.; Yee, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment has become a major aspect of accreditation processes across all of higher education. As the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) plans a major revision to the standards for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) education, an in-depth, scholarly review of the approaches and strategies for assessment in the PharmD program accreditation process is warranted. This paper provides 3 goals and 7 recommendations to strengthen assessment in accreditation standards. The goals include: (1) simplified standards with a focus on accountability and improvement, (2) institutionalization of assessment efforts; and (3) innovation in assessment. Evolving and shaping assessment practices is not the sole responsibility of the accreditation standards. Assessment requires commitment and dedication from individual faculty members, colleges and schools, and organizations supporting the college and schools, such as the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Therefore, this paper also challenges the academy and its members to optimize assessment practices. PMID:24052644

  2. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  3. DESIGN OF NIDA CTN PROTOCOL 0047: SCREENING, MOTIVATIONAL ASSESSMENT, REFERRAL, AND TREATMENT IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS (SMART-ED)

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Adinoff, Bryon; Crandall, Cameron; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Lindblad, Robert; Mandler, Raul N.; Oden, Neal; Perl, Harold I.; Walker, Robrina

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical settings such as emergency departments (EDs) present an opportunity to identify and provide services for individuals with substance use problems who might otherwise never receive any form of assessment, referral, or intervention. Although Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) models have been extensively studied and are considered effective for individuals with alcohol problems presenting in emergency departments and other medical settings, the efficacy of such interventions has not been established for drug users presenting in EDs. Objectives This paper describes the design of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network protocol testing the efficacy of an SBIRT model in medical EDs, highlighting considerations that that are pertinent to the design of other studies targeting substance use behaviors in medical treatment settings. Methods The protocol is described, and critical design decisions are discussed. Results Design challenges included defining treatment conditions, study population, and site characteristics; developing the screening process; choosing the primary outcome; balancing brevity and comprehensiveness of assessment; and selecting the strategy for statistical analysis. Conclusion Many of the issues arising in the design of this study will be relevant to future studies of interventions for addictions in medical settings. Scientific Significance Optimal trial design is critical to determining how best to integrate substance abuse interventions into medical care. PMID:21854285

  4. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... should continue to be interim certified or certified. In conducting the performance assessment, the FHEO... continue receiving funding under the FHAP. (d) At a minimum, the performance assessment will consider the... a charge has been issued, the agency will, to the extent feasible, continue to attempt...

  5. Portfolios for Prior Learning Assessment: Caught between Diversity and Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweygers, Annelies; Soetewey, Kim; Meeus, Wil; Struyf, Elke; Pieters, Bert

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, procedures have been established in Flanders for "Prior Learning Assessment" (PLA) outside the formal learning circuit, of which the portfolio is a regular component. In order to maximize the possibilities of acknowledgement of prior learning assessment, the Flemish government is looking for a set of common criteria and principles…

  6. Location Knowledge: Assessment, Spatial Thinking, and New National Geography Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Location knowledge is typically assessed using outline maps. A new set of questions reflect spatial thinking research and helps to assess student location knowledge. A small group (145) of first-year college students helped to refine the items. Question styles include: open-response, multiple-choice, listing, labeling, and sketching. Topics…

  7. Impact of joint contractures on functioning and social participation in older individuals – development of a standard set (JointConFunctionSet): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Joint contractures are frequent in older individuals in geriatric care settings. Even though they are used as indicator of quality of care, there is neither a common standard to describe functioning and disability in patients nor an established standardized assessment to describe and quantify the impact of joint contractures on patients’ functioning. Thus, the aim of our study is (1) to develop a standard set for the assessment of the impact of joint contractures on functioning and social participation in older individuals and (2) to develop and validate a standardized assessment instrument for describing and quantifying the impact of joint contractures on the individuals’ functioning. Methods The standard set for joint contractures integrate the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development of this set follows the methodology to develop an International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set and involves a formal decision-making and consensus process. Evidence from four preparatory studies will be integrated including qualitative interviews with patients, a systematic review of the literature, a survey with health professionals, and a cross sectional study with patients affected by joint contractures. The assessment instrument will be developed using item-response-theory models. The instrument will be validated. Discussion The standard set for joint contractures will provide a list of aspects of functioning and health most relevant for older individuals in geriatric care settings with joint contractures. This list will describe body functions, body structures, activities and participation and related environmental factors. This standard set will define what aspects of functioning should be assessed in individuals with joint contractures and will be the basis of the new assessment instrument to evaluate the impact of joint contractures on

  8. Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perichon, N.; Rapp, B.; Denoziere, M.; Daures, J.; Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.-M.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol.

  9. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  10. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Selection, Installation, and Documentation of Wells, and Collection of Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Koterba, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for well installation and documentation are included in a 1989 report written for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Pilot Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols were reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the National Water-Quality Assessment Program and the Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and procedures discussed are well selection, installation of monitoring wells, documentation, and the collection of water level and additional hydrogeologic and geologic data.

  11. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I.; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials. Methods and Findings We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants) submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were “bothersome,” a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal), which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc

  12. Integrating Authentic Assessment with Competence-Based Learning in Vocational Education: The Protocol Portfolio Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Straetmans, Gerard J. J. M.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how competence-based learning (CBL) can be organised in vocational education by integrating elements from a holistic instructional design model with recent ideas on assessment. A curriculum based on this model is pre-eminently suitable for an assessment approach emphasising that proof of competence is gathered by having…

  13. Screening and Assessing Adolescents for Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    This TIP is designed to teach juvenile justice, health services, education, and substance abuse treatment personnel about how to identify, screen, and assess people 11-to-21 years old who may be experiencing substance-related problems. It details warning signs of substance use disorders, when to screen, when to assess, what domains besides…

  14. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can provide a substantial benefit in spacecraft systems, reducing launch weight and providing unprecedented flexibility by allowing instrumentation capabilities to grow and change over time. Achieving data transport reliability on par with that of wired systems, however, can prove extremely challenging in practice. Fortunately, much progress has been made in developing standard WSN radio protocols for applications from non-critical home automation to mission-critical industrial process control. The relative performances of candidate protocols must be compared in representative aerospace environments, however, to determine their suitability for spaceflight applications. In this paper, we will present the results of a rigorous laboratory analysis of the performance of two standards-based, low power, low data rate WSN protocols: ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a. Both are based on IEEE 802.15.4 and augment that standard's specifications to build complete, multi-hop networking stacks. ZigBee Pro targets primarily the home and office automation markets, providing an ad-hoc protocol that is computationally lightweight and easy to implement in inexpensive system-on-a-chip components. As a result of this simplicity, however, ZigBee Pro can be susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference. ISA100.11a, on the other hand, targets the industrial process control market, providing a robust, centrally-managed protocol capable of tolerating a significant amount of RF interference. To achieve these gains, a coordinated channel hopping mechanism is employed, which entails a greater computational complexity than ZigBee and requires more sophisticated and costly hardware. To guide future aerospace deployments, we must understand how well these standards relatively perform in analog environments under expected operating conditions. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating goodput -- application level throughput -- in a representative crewed environment

  15. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF PROPOSED PROTOCOLS FOR IN VITRO SCREENING ASSAYS AND QSAR FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening EDCs for androgenic and antiandrogenic activities was recommended by the EDSTAC Committee in it Final Report. This research will develop in vitro approaches to assess estrogen receptor binding, develop cell lines that stably express estrogen receptor for screening EDC...

  16. Changing the Practice of Teacher Education. Standards and Assessment as a Lever for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Mary E., Ed.

    This volume presents a collection of papers on teacher education reform, discussing the impact of standards and assessment on teacher education. Targeting policymakers, researchers, and teacher educators, the volume describes seven teacher education institutions that have used standards and assessment to guide their reform. Part 1, "The Role of…

  17. Customized versus Standardized Exams for Learning Outcomes Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Amy L.; Spangler, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A standardized exam for program-level assessment can take the form of 1) a customized exam developed in-house by faculty and linked explicitly to program-level learning goals; or 2) a standardized exam developed externally by assessment experts and linked to a set of somewhat broader and more generalizable learning goals. This article discusses…

  18. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  19. Towards Improving Public Understanding of Judgement Practice in Standards-Referenced Assessment: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Val

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum and standards-referenced assessment reform in accountability contexts are increasingly dominated by the use of testing, evidence, comparative analyses of achievement data and policy as numbers all of which have given rise to a set of related developments. Internationally these developments towards the use of standards for assessment and…

  20. Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…

  1. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. End of Course Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that students were required to answer as part of the SOL End-of-Course assessments. These questions are…

  2. The Role of Assessment in Meeting the NASPE Physical Education Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Glenna; Kokinakis, C. Lee; Kuntzleman, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Describes the essential link among content standards, curriculum, instruction, professional development, and assessment in elementary physical education, discussing the National Association for Sport and Physical Education standards for physical education and emphasizing the importance of assessment in monitoring student progress, improving…

  3. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 8 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 79,000 students in grade 8 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  4. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 3 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) Assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 83,000 students in grade 3 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  5. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 5 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 80,000 students in grade 5 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  6. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE NBS (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS) SEDIMENT BY THE MRI (MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE) SLUDGE PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extraction technique, involving homogenization of a sediment sample with dichloromethane at dual pH and phase separation by centrifugation, was used in the determination of fifty-one organic priority pollutants as identified in a standard reference sediment sample. The extract...

  8. 25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment. 36.50 Section 36.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Evaluation of Educational Standards...

  9. Detailed protocol to assess in vivo and ex vivo myeloperoxidase activity in mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease using hydroethidine.

    PubMed

    Talib, Jihan; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Cheng, David; Stocker, Roland

    2016-08-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity contributes to arterial inflammation, vascular dysfunction and disease, including atherosclerosis. Current assessment of MPO activity in biological systems in vivo utilizes 3-chlorotyrosine (3-Cl-Tyr) as a biomarker of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and other chlorinating species. However, 3-Cl-Tyr is formed in low yield and is subject to further metabolism. Recently, we reported a method to selectively assess MPO-activity in vivo by measuring the conversion of hydroethidine to 2-chloroethidium (2-Cl-E(+)) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (J. Biol. Chem., 289, 2014, pp. 5580-5595). The hydroethidine-based method has greater sensitivity for MPO activity than measurement of 3-Cl-Tyr. The current methods paper provides a detailed protocol to determine in vivo and ex vivo MPO activity in arteries from mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease by utilizing the conversion of hydroethidine to 2-Cl-E(+). Procedures for the synthesis of standards, preparation of tissue homogenates and the generation of 2-Cl-E(+) are also provided in detail, as are the conditions for LC-MS/MS detection of 2-Cl-E(+). PMID:27184954

  10. SU-C-17A-02: Sirius MRI Markers for Prostate Post-Implant Assessment: MR Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Kudchadker, R; Stafford, R; Bathala, T; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Frank, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently, CT is used to visualize prostate brachytherapy sources, at the expense of accurate structure contouring. MRI is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but the sources appear as voids on MRI images. Previously we have developed Sirius MRI markers (C4 Imaging) to replace spacers to assist source localization on MRI images. Here we develop an MRI pulse sequence protocol that enhances the signal of these markers to enable MRI-only post-implant prostate dosimetric analysis. Methods: To simulate a clinical scenario, a CIRS multi-modality prostate phantom was implanted with 66 markers and 86 sources. The implanted phantom was imaged on both 1.5T and 3.0T GE scanners under various conditions, different pulse sequences (2D fast spin echo [FSE], 3D balanced steadystate free precession [bSSFP] and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo [FSPGR]), as well as varying amount of padding to simulate various patient sizes and associated signal fall-off from the surface coil elements. Standard FSE sequences from the current clinical protocols were also evaluated. Marker visibility, marker size, intra-marker distance, total scan time and artifacts were evaluated for various combinations of echo time, repetition time, flip angle, number of excitations, bandwidth, slice thickness and spacing, fieldof- view, frequency/phase encoding steps and frequency direction. Results: We have developed a 3D FSPGR pulse sequence that enhances marker signal and ensures the integrity of the marker shape while maintaining reasonable scan time. For patients contraindicated for 3.0T, we have also developed a similar sequence for 1.5T scanners. Signal fall-off with distance from prostate to coil can be compensated mainly by decreasing bandwidth. The markers are not visible using standard FSE sequences. FSPGR sequences are more robust for consistent marker visualization as compared to bSSFP sequences. Conclusion: The developed MRI pulse sequence protocol for Sirius MRI markers assists source

  11. Outcomes Following Low-Energy Civilian Gunshot Wound Trauma to the Lower Extremities: Results of a Standard Protocol at an Urban Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Abghari, Michelle; Monroy, Alexa; Schubl, Sebastian; Davidovitch, Roy; Egol, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower extremity injuries secondary to low-energy gunshot wounds are frequently seen in the civilian populations of urban areas. Although these wounds have fewer complications than high-energy gunshot injuries, the functional and psychological damage is still significant making appropriate timely orthopaedic treatment and follow-up imperative. Purpose The purpose of this study is to present our outcomes in the treatment of low-energy gunshot wounds in a civilian population at an urban, level one trauma center in patients treated by a standard protocol. Methods One hundred and thirty three patients who sustained 148 gunshot wound injuries were treated at our level one trauma center between January 1st, 2009 and October 1st, 2011. Following IRB approval, we extracted information from medical records regarding hospital course, length of stay and type of operative or non-operative treatment. If available, injury and post-operative radiographs were also reviewed. Patients were contacted by telephone to obtain Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) surveys, pain on a scale of 0–10 and for the determination of any adverse events related to their shooting. Results There were 125 men (94.0%) and 8 women (6.0%) with an average age of 27.1 years (range 15.2–56.3). Seventy-six patients (57.1%) did not have any health insurance upon admission. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4.5 days (range 0.0–88.0). Fifty-one gun shots (34.5%) resulted in fractures of the lower extremities. Patients underwent a total of 95 lower extremity-related procedures during their hospitalization. Twenty-two patients (16.5%) experienced a complication related to their gunshot wounds. 38% of the cohort was available for long-term functional assessment At a mean 23.5 months (range 8–48) of follow up, patients reported mean Functional and Bothersome SMFA scores of 19.6 (SD 15.9) and 10.9 (SD 15.6) suggesting that these patients have poorer function scores than the

  12. Personal Exposure Monitoring Wearing Protocol Compliance: An Initial Assessment of Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure sampling provides the most accurate and representative assessment of exposure to a pollutant, but only if measures are implemented to minimize exposure misclassification and reduce confounders that may cause misinterpretation of the collected data. Poor complian...

  13. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  14. A protocol for assessing the effectiveness of oil spill dispersants in stimulating the biodegradation of oil.

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C; Butler, Josh D

    2014-01-01

    Dispersants are important tools in oil spill response. Taking advantage of the energy in even small waves, they disperse floating oil slicks into tiny droplets (<70 μm) that entrain in the water column and drift apart so that they do not re-agglomerate to re-form a floating slick. The dramatically increased surface area allows microbial access to much more of the oil, and diffusion and dilution lead to oil concentrations where natural background levels of biologically available oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus are sufficient for microbial growth and oil consumption. Dispersants are only used on substantial spills in relatively deep water (usually >10 m), conditions that are impossible to replicate in the laboratory. To date, laboratory experiments aimed at following the biodegradation of dispersed oil usually show only minimal stimulation of the rate of biodegradation, but principally because the oil in these experiments disperses fairly effectively without dispersant. What is needed is a test protocol that allows comparison between an untreated slick that remains on the water surface during the entire biodegradation study and dispersant-treated oil that remains in the water column as small dispersed oil droplets. We show here that when this is accomplished, the rate of biodegradation is dramatically stimulated by an effective dispersant, Corexit 9500. Further development of this approach might result in a useful tool for comparing the full benefits of different dispersants. PMID:23943003

  15. Assessing the Dynamics of Bittorrent Swarms Topologies Using the Peer Exchange Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzie, Mohamad Dikshie; Thamrin, Achmad Husni; van Meter, Rodney; Murai, Jun

    Bittorrent is one of the most popular and successful applications in the current Internet. However, we still have little knowledge about the topology of real Bittorrent swarms, how dynamic the topology is, and how it affects overall behavior. This paper describes an experimental study of the overlay topologies of real-world Bittorrent networks, focusing on the activity of the nodes of its P2P topology and especially their dynamic relationships. Peer Exchange Protocol (PEX) messages are analyzed to infer topologies and their properties, capturing the variations of their behavior. Our measurements, verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test and the likelihood ratio test and confirmed via simulation, show that a power-law with exponential cutoff is a more plausible model than a pure power-law distribution. We also found that the average clustering coefficient is very low, supporting this observation. Bittorrent swarms are far more dynamic than has been recognized previously, potentially impacting attempts to optimize the performance of the system as well as the accuracy of simulations and analyses.

  16. Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards: Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Harold; Anderman, Lynley

    2008-01-01

    To improve teaching and assessment for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities and to truly ensure that state accountability systems address the performance of these students, a better understanding of the instructional effects of accountability systems as perceived by school leaders (i.e., principals) is critically important.…

  17. ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS - DURABILITY OF PERFORMANCE OF A HOME RADON REDUCTION SYSTEM FOR SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZA- TION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook contains protocols that compare the immediate performance of subslab depressurization (SSD) mitigation system with performance months or years later. These protocols provide a methodology to test SSD radon mitigation systems in situ to determine long-term performanc...

  18. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  19. Treatment protocol based on assessment of clot quality during endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke using the Trevo stent retriever

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kojiro; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Nishihori, Masahiro; Imai, Tasuku; Goto, Shunsaku; Yamamoto, Taiki; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The optional endovascular approach for acute ischemic stroke is unclear. The Trevo stent retriever can be used as first-line treatment for fast mechanical recanalization. The authors developed a treatment protocol for acute ischemic stroke based on the assessment of clot quality during clot removal with the Trevo. This prospective single-center study included all patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke between July 2014 and February 2015, who underwent emergency endovascular treatment. According to the protocol, the Trevo was used for first-line treatment. Immediately after the Trevo was deployed, the stent delivery wire was pushed to open the stent by force (ACAPT technique). Clot quality was assessed on the basis of the perfusion status after deployment of the Trevo; continued occlusion or immediate reopening either reoccluded or maintained after the stent retriever had been in place for 5 min. If there was no obvious clot removal after the first pass with the Trevo, according to the quality of the clot, either a second pass was performed or another endovascular device was selected. Twelve consecutive patients with acute major cerebral artery occlusion were analyzed. Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b and 3 was achieved in 11 patients (91.7%) and 9 (75%) had a good clinical outcome after 90 days based on a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient (8.3%). The overall mortality rate was 8.3%. Endovascular thrombectomy using the Trevo stent retriever for first-line treatment is feasible and effective. PMID:27578909

  20. Treatment protocol based on assessment of clot quality during endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke using the Trevo stent retriever.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kojiro; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Nishihori, Masahiro; Imai, Tasuku; Goto, Shunsaku; Yamamoto, Taiki; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-08-01

    The optional endovascular approach for acute ischemic stroke is unclear. The Trevo stent retriever can be used as first-line treatment for fast mechanical recanalization. The authors developed a treatment protocol for acute ischemic stroke based on the assessment of clot quality during clot removal with the Trevo. This prospective single-center study included all patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke between July 2014 and February 2015, who underwent emergency endovascular treatment. According to the protocol, the Trevo was used for first-line treatment. Immediately after the Trevo was deployed, the stent delivery wire was pushed to open the stent by force (ACAPT technique). Clot quality was assessed on the basis of the perfusion status after deployment of the Trevo; continued occlusion or immediate reopening either reoccluded or maintained after the stent retriever had been in place for 5 min. If there was no obvious clot removal after the first pass with the Trevo, according to the quality of the clot, either a second pass was performed or another endovascular device was selected. Twelve consecutive patients with acute major cerebral artery occlusion were analyzed. Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b and 3 was achieved in 11 patients (91.7%) and 9 (75%) had a good clinical outcome after 90 days based on a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient (8.3%). The overall mortality rate was 8.3%. Endovascular thrombectomy using the Trevo stent retriever for first-line treatment is feasible and effective. PMID:27578909

  1. CAATS--Comprehensive Assessments Aligned with Teacher Standards: A Five Step Design Model for Assessing Teachers Validly and Reliably

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve

    2005-01-01

    NCATE (2002) requires the measurement of knowledge, skills, and dispositions as part of its accreditation requirements for teacher education programs (Standard 1) and the use of unit assessment systems to aggregate and analyse data with a view toward program improvement (Standard 2). Data must indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and…

  2. Distance Education Assessment Infrastructure and Process Design Based on International Standard 23988

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is an important part of distance education (DE). As class sizes get larger and workloads increase, the IT infrastructure and processes used for DE assessments become more of an issue. Using the BS ISO/IEC 23988:2007 Standard for the use of technology in the delivery of assessments as a guide, this paper describes a rational approach to…

  3. Setting Performance Standards for the VAL-ED: Assessment of Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; Goldring, Ellen; Elliott, Stephen; Murphy, Joseph; Polikoff, Morgan; Cravens, Xiu

    2008-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360 assessment of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. The instrument was designed to provide formative and summative assessment to principals on the leadership behaviors most important to student learning. The purpose of this report is to describe the standard-setting…

  4. Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2008. Synthesis Report 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Cormier, Damien

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, Federal No Child Left Behind regulations were finalized that provided states with additional flexibility for assessing some students with disabilities. The regulations allowed states to offer another assessment option, alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). States are not required to have…

  5. Competitive assessments of pulmonary embolism: Noninvasiveness versus the golden standard.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxia; Yan, Shi; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Dong-Tang

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) is crucial as undiagnosed and over-diagnosis can both lead to serious consequences. Contemporary diagnostic approach of PE is a sequential combination assessment beginning with clinical assessment, validated with D-dimer measurement and confirmed with pulmonary angiography or imaging. Since the invasive pulmonary angiography is risky and costly, imaging is a warranted tool in the diagnosis procedure. CT pulmonary angiography is a less-invasive method with general availability, studies provide favorable evidences for CT pulmonary angiography as a stand-alone test for excluding PE, and it has become the first choice of tests in emergency department for suspected PE in most centers. Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission CT signifies a new era in nuclear medicine. It has excellent sensitivity and specificity, fast procedure, low radiation exposure, few complications and contradictions. Besides, MR angiography is another possible and promising approach for diagnosis of suspected PE with much safer contrast agents than CT and no ionizing radiation. With wide availability and less invasive effects, imaging becomes a firsthand tool to obtain optimal accuracy in the diagnosis work up in clinic nowadays. This review summarizes the current methods in diagnosing PE and the update of imaging assessments of the disease. PMID:26038123

  6. Toward a Best-Practice Protocol for Assessment of Sensory Features in ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Lane, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory difficulties are a commonly occurring feature of autism spectrum disorders and are now included as one manifestation of the "restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities" diagnostic criteria of the DSM5 necessitating guidelines for comprehensive assessment of these features. To facilitate the development…

  7. A retrospective, longitudinal study to evaluate healing lower extremity wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus and ischemia using standard protocols of care and platelet-rich plasma gel in a Japanese wound care program.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Junichi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Handa, Kazuyoshi; Uchino, Takashi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Higashita, Ryuji; Tsuno, Norio; Hiyoshi, Toru; Morimoto, Shuhei; Rinoie, Chugo; Saito, Natsuko

    2012-04-01

    Chronic wounds, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), are a major health challenge in Japan. The goal of wound care centers (WCCs) in Japan is to facilitate healing and prevent lower extremity amputations (LEAs) using standardized protocols of patient and wound care. The standard treatment algorithm includes a complete patient and wound assessment, history, physical exam, and a variety of diagnostic tests that determine the need for infection control intervention, revascularization, excision and debridement, growth factor/platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel therapy, skin graft/ flap, wound protection, and education. All patient and wound data are entered in a secure central database for all WCCs. To evaluate the outcomes of standard care regimens compared to the use of a topical PRP gel treatment in patients with a variety of complex wounds, a retrospective, longitudinal study was conducted. Wound outcomes from 39 patients with 40 chronic, nonhealing, lower extremity wounds were evaluated between two time periods: between first presentation at the WCC (T1) and after using standard topical treatments (T2) and between T2 and after using the PRP gel treatment (T3). Patient average age was 66.8 years (SD: 10.60) and mean wound duration was 99.7 days before treatment (SD: 107.73); and the majority of patients (85%) had DM. Wounds were classified as ischemic diabetic (n = 24), diabetic (n = 10), ischemic (n = 5), and pressure ulcer (n = 1). DFUs were Wagner III (77%) and lV (23%). Of those, 60% were in patients with arteriosclerotic obliterans (ASO). Infection (abscess, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and/or gangrene) was present in all wounds and treated using debridement, antibiotic therapy, and surgery as deemed appropriate. During the first treatment period (T1 to T2) of 75.3 days, which included revascularization and/or debridement along with standard of care, none of the wounds healed and the average wound area, depth, and volume increased. Following topical

  8. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  9. Comparison of size modulation and conventional standard automated perimetry with the 24-2 test protocol in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study compared test results of size modulation standard automated perimetry (SM-SAP) performed with the Octopus 600 and conventional SAP (C-SAP) performed with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) in glaucoma patients. Eighty-eight eyes of 88 glaucoma patients underwent SM-SAP and C-SAP tests with the Octopus 600 24-2 Dynamic and HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard, respectively. Fovea threshold, mean defect, and square loss variance of SM-SAP were significantly correlated with the corresponding C-SAP indices (P < 0.001). The false-positive rate was slightly lower, and false-negative rate slightly higher, with SM-SAP than C-SAP (P = 0.002). Point-wise threshold values obtained with SM-SAP were moderately to strongly correlated with those obtained with C-SAP (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients of the central zone were significantly lower than those of the middle to peripheral zone (P = 0.031). The size and depth of the visual field (VF) defect were smaller (P = 0.039) and greater (P = 0.043), respectively, on SM-SAP than on C-SAP. Although small differences were observed in VF sensitivity in the central zone, the defect size and depth and the reliability indices between SM-SAP and C-SAP, global indices of the two testing modalities were well correlated. PMID:27149561

  10. Comparison of size modulation and conventional standard automated perimetry with the 24-2 test protocol in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study compared test results of size modulation standard automated perimetry (SM-SAP) performed with the Octopus 600 and conventional SAP (C-SAP) performed with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) in glaucoma patients. Eighty-eight eyes of 88 glaucoma patients underwent SM-SAP and C-SAP tests with the Octopus 600 24-2 Dynamic and HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard, respectively. Fovea threshold, mean defect, and square loss variance of SM-SAP were significantly correlated with the corresponding C-SAP indices (P < 0.001). The false-positive rate was slightly lower, and false-negative rate slightly higher, with SM-SAP than C-SAP (P = 0.002). Point-wise threshold values obtained with SM-SAP were moderately to strongly correlated with those obtained with C-SAP (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients of the central zone were significantly lower than those of the middle to peripheral zone (P = 0.031). The size and depth of the visual field (VF) defect were smaller (P = 0.039) and greater (P = 0.043), respectively, on SM-SAP than on C-SAP. Although small differences were observed in VF sensitivity in the central zone, the defect size and depth and the reliability indices between SM-SAP and C-SAP, global indices of the two testing modalities were well correlated. PMID:27149561

  11. Assessment of acquisition protocols for routine imaging of Y-90 using PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the early theoretical prediction of the 0+-0+ transition of 90Zr, 90Y-PET underwent only recently a growing interest for the development of imaging radioembolization of liver tumors. The aim of this work was to determine the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of 90Y by PET imaging and the impact of time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction on detectability and quantitative accuracy according to the lesion size. Methods The study was conducted using a Siemens Biograph® mCT with a 22 cm large axial field of view. An IEC torso-shaped phantom containing five coplanar spheres was uniformly filled to achieve sphere-to-background ratios of 40:1. The phantom was imaged nine times in 14 days over 30 min. Sinograms were reconstructed with and without TOF information. A contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) index was calculated using the Rose criterion, taking partial volume effects into account. The impact of reconstruction parameters on quantification accuracy, detectability, and spatial localization of the signal was investigated. Finally, six patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and four patients included in different 90Y-based radioimmunotherapy protocols were enrolled for the evaluation of the imaging parameters in a clinical situation. Results The highest CNR was achieved with one iteration for both TOF and non-TOF reconstructions. The MDA, however, was found to be lower with TOF than with non-TOF reconstruction. There was no gain by adding TOF information in terms of CNR for concentrations higher than 2 to 3 MBq mL−1, except for infra-centimetric lesions. Recovered activity was highly underestimated when a single iteration or non-TOF reconstruction was used (10% to 150% less depending on the lesion size). The MDA was estimated at 1 MBq mL−1 for a TOF reconstruction and infra-centimetric lesions. Images from patients treated with microspheres were clinically relevant, unlike those of patients who received systemic injections of 90Y. Conclusions Only

  12. Assessment of the standard forensic procedure for the evaluation of psychological injury in intimate-partner violence.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Francisca; Arce, Ramón; Vilariño, Manuel; Novo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    In judicial terms, a victim refers to any person who has suffered injury arising from an action or omission of an action that constitutes an offence, and the burden of proof lies with the prosecution. A review of Spanish judicial judgements underscored that the lack of evidence of psychological injury in cases of intimate-partner violence (IPV) accounted for approximately 40% of acquittals. Thus, the Spanish standard of proof for the forensic evaluation of psychological injury i.e., the MMPI-2 and the unstructured interview were assessed in order to determine if they met the statutory requirement for the assessment of psychological injury and the differential diagnosis of feigning. The results of the comparison of 51 women victims of IPV with firm convictions against their aggressors, and 54 women mock victims of IPV showed that the F, K, Fb, Fp and Ds scales, and the F-K index discriminated significantly and with medium and large effect sizes, between adjudicated and mock victims. However, the results did not provide a valid decision criterion for forensic settings i.e., false negatives (identifying feigner as honest protocols) were not classified correctly. In conclusion, the standard forensic procedure for the evaluation of psychological injury in cases of IPV did not constitute valid proof for judges who acquitted defendants on the grounds of not proven due to the lack of evidence of psychological injury. PMID:25011979

  13. A Standardized Tool for Assessing the Quality of Classroom-Based Shared Reading: Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in shared-reading experiences is associated with children's language and literacy outcomes, yet few standardized assessments of shared-reading quality exist. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric characteristics of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR), an observational tool designed to characterize…

  14. Need for a standardized protocol for stress echocardiography in provoking subaortic and valvular gradient in various cardiac conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    (Semi) supine exercise testing has an established role in the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease and can help clinical decision making. Stress echocardiography has the advantages of its wide availability, low cost, and versatility for the assessment of disease severity. However, exercise-induced changes in valve hemodynamics, left ventricular outflow obstruction and pulmonary artery pressure depended on load variation. Changing position from supine to upright rapidly decreases load conditions for the ventricles. Therefore several cardiac centers have proposed exercise stress echocardiography in the upright position with gradient monitoring sometimes also in post-exercise recovery. Doppler measurement of subaortic gradient has been a very helpful and informative examination in several heart diseases (especially in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, valve heart diseases, prosthesis dysfunction). PMID:25017422

  15. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  16. Touch screen computer health assessment in Australian general practice patients: a cross-sectional study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mariko Leanne; Sanson-Fisher, Robert William; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Makeham, Meredith; Paul, Christine Louise; Inder, Kerry Jane; D'Este, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are leading causes of death globally. Early detection of cancer and risk factors for CVD may improve health outcomes and reduce mortality. General practitioners (GPs) are accessed by the majority of the population and play a key role in the prevention and early detection of chronic disease risk factors. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the acceptability of an electronic method of data collection in general practice patients. The study will describe the proportion screened in line with guidelines for CVD risk factors and cancer as well as report the prevalence of depression, lifestyle risk factors, level of provision of preconception care, cervical cancer vaccination and bone density testing. Lastly, the study will assess the level of agreement between GPs and patients perception regarding presence of risk factors and screening. Methods and analysis The study has been designed to maximise recruitment of GPs by including practitioners in the research team, minimising participation burden on GPs and offering remuneration for participation. Patient recruitment will be carried out by a research assistant located in general practice waiting rooms. Participants will be asked regarding the acceptability of the touch screen computer and to report on a range of health risk and preventive behaviours using the touch screen computer. GPs will complete a one-page survey indicating their perception of the presence of risk behaviours in their patients. Descriptive statistics will be generated to describe the acceptability of the touch screen and prevalence of health risk behaviours. Cohen's κ will be used to assess agreement between GP and patient perception of presence of health risk behaviours. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the human research committees in participating universities. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations as well as practice

  17. Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers.

    PubMed

    Crook, J M; Raymond, Y; Salhani, D; Yang, H; Esche, B

    1995-10-01

    From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins. PMID:8539455

  18. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  19. Study of Optimal Replacement of Thyroxine in the ElDerly (SORTED): protocol for a mixed methods feasibility study to assess the clinical utility of lower dose thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The population of the UK is ageing. There is compelling evidence that thyroid stimulating hormone distribution levels increase with age. Currently, in UK clinical practice elderly hypothyroid patients are treated with levothyroxine to lower their thyroid stimulating hormone levels to a standard non-age-related range. Evidence suggests that mortality is negatively associated with thyroid stimulating hormone levels. We report the protocol of a feasibility study working towards a full-scale randomized controlled trial to test whether lower dose levothyroxine has beneficial cardiovascular outcomes in the oldest old. Methods/design SORTED is a mixed methods study with three components: SORTED A: A feasibility study of a dual-center single-blinded randomized controlled trial of elderly hypothyroid patients currently treated with levothyroxine. Setting: Patients will be recruited from 20 general practices and two hospital trust endocrine units in Northumberland, Tyne and Wear. Participants: Target recruitment of 50 elderly hypothyroid patients currently treated with levothyroxine, identified in both primary and secondary care settings. Intervention: Reduced dose of levothyroxine to achieve an elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (target range 4.1 to 8.0 mU/L) versus standard levothyroxine replacement (target range 0.4 to 4.0 mU/L). Randomization: Using random permuted blocks, in a ratio of 1:1, randomization will be carried out by Newcastle Clinical Trials Unit. Outcomes: Study feasibility (recruitment and retention rates and medication compliance), acceptability of the trial design, assessment of mobility and falls risk, and change in cardiovascular risk factors. SORTED B: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews to understand patients’ willingness to take part in a randomized controlled trial and participants’ experience of the intervention. SORTED C: Retrospective cohort study of 400 treated hypothyroid patients aged 80 years or over

  20. Assessment of Risk in Chronic Airways Disease Evaluation (ARCADE): Protocol and preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nichola S; Albarrati, Ali M; Munnery, Margaret M; Munnery, Iain C; Irfan, Mujammil; Bolton, Charlotte E; Rambaran, Curtis N; Singer, Ruth M Tal; Cockcroft, John R; Shale, Dennis J

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multisystem disease. Established comorbidities include cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, loss of muscle mass and function, depression, and impaired quality of life. The natural history is not well understood. The Assessment of Risk in Chronic Airways Disease Evaluation (ARCADE) is a longitudinal study of comorbidities in COPD. The primary aims are to delineate the progression and interrelationships of cardiovascular disease and associated comorbidities. Each year ARCADE aims to recruit 250 patients diagnosed with COPD and 50 comparators (free from respiratory disease). Assessments include spirometry, body composition, blood pressure, aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)), noninvasive measures of cardiac output, systemic inflammatory mediators, blood and urine biochemistry, and physical and health outcomes. These will be repeated at 2 and 5 years. In the first year of recruitment, 350 patients and 100 comparators were recruited. The reproducibility of aortic PWV, cardiac output, stroke volume, and cardiac index was evaluated and accepted in 30 patients free from overt cardiovascular disease. The preliminary data from ARCADE have demonstrated acceptable reproducibility of hemodynamic outcome measures. Further longitudinal data collection will increase knowledge of the progression and interactions between cardiovascular risk factors and other comorbidities in COPD. PMID:25159833

  1. Incorporating Standardized Colleague Simulations in a Clinical Assessment Course and Evaluating the Impact on Interprofessional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Brianne; Blake, Elizabeth; Phillips, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of incorporating standardized colleague simulations on pharmacy students’ confidence and interprofessional communication skills. Design. Four simulations using standardized colleagues portraying attending physicians in inpatient and outpatient settings were integrated into a required course. Pharmacy students interacted with the standardized colleagues using the Situation, Background, Assessment, Request/Recommendation (SBAR) communication technique and were evaluated on providing recommendations while on simulated inpatient rounds and in an outpatient clinic. Additionally, changes in student attitudes and confidence toward interprofessional communication were assessed with a survey before and after the standardized colleague simulations. Assessment. One hundred seventy-one pharmacy students participated in the simulations. Student interprofessional communication skills improved after each simulation. Student confidence with interprofessional communication in both inpatient and outpatient settings significantly improved. Conclusion. Incorporation of simulations using standardized colleagues improves interprofessional communication skills and self-confidence of pharmacy students. PMID:26089566

  2. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  3. Exploring a New Simulation Approach to Improve Clinical Reasoning Teaching and Assessment: Randomized Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Ahmed; Loye, Nathalie; Charlin, Bernard; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor's input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Simulation with Iterative Discussions versus the classical approach of simulation in developing reasoning skills of General Pediatrics and Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine residents. Methods This will be a prospective exploratory, randomized study conducted at Sainte-Justine hospital in Montreal, Qc, between January and March 2016. All post-graduate year (PGY) 1 to 6 residents will be invited to complete one SID or classical simulation 30 minutes audio video-recorded complex high-fidelity simulations covering a similar neonatology topic. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires will be completed and a semistructured interview will be conducted after each simulation. Data analyses will use SPSS and NVivo softwares. Results This study is in its preliminary stages and the results are expected to be made available by April, 2016. Conclusions

  4. Assessment of fully automated antibody homology modeling protocols in molecular operating environment

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Johannes K X; Labute, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The success of antibody-based drugs has led to an increased demand for predictive computational tools to assist antibody engineering efforts surrounding the six hypervariable loop regions making up the antigen binding site. Accurate computational modeling of isolated protein loop regions can be quite difficult; consequently, modeling an antigen binding site that includes six loops is particularly challenging. In this work, we present a method for automatic modeling of the FV region of an immunoglobulin based upon the use of a precompiled antibody x-ray structure database, which serves as a source of framework and hypervariable region structural templates that are grafted together. We applied this method (on common desktop hardware) to the Second Antibody Modeling Assessment (AMA-II) target structures as well as an experimental specialized CDR-H3 loop modeling method. The results of the computational structure predictions will be presented and discussed. PMID:24715627

  5. Assessment of fully automated antibody homology modeling protocols in molecular operating environment.

    PubMed

    Maier, Johannes K X; Labute, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The success of antibody-based drugs has led to an increased demand for predictive computational tools to assist antibody engineering efforts surrounding the six hypervariable loop regions making up the antigen binding site. Accurate computational modeling of isolated protein loop regions can be quite difficult; consequently, modeling an antigen binding site that includes six loops is particularly challenging. In this work, we present a method for automatic modeling of the FV region of an immunoglobulin based upon the use of a precompiled antibody x-ray structure database, which serves as a source of framework and hypervariable region structural templates that are grafted together. We applied this method (on common desktop hardware) to the Second Antibody Modeling Assessment (AMA-II) target structures as well as an experimental specialized CDR-H3 loop modeling method. The results of the computational structure predictions will be presented and discussed. PMID:24715627

  6. Assessing the Immunogenic Response of a Single Center's Pneumococcal Vaccination Protocol in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Myers, Leann; Kanter, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hematologic disorder in the United States. Patients with SCD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease and are reliant on both early penicillin prophylaxis and antipneumococcal vaccination for prevention of infection. Although studies examining vaccine response have demonstrated a drop-off of titer response after 3 years, an optimal vaccination regimen has not been identified. Our study sought to assess the immunogenicity of our center's pneumococcal vaccination strategy, which included Prevnar (PCV-7) (before the introduction of PCV-13) followed by Pneumovax (PPV-23) given routinely at 2 and 5 years of age and then every 5 years thereafter. Our goal was to assess vaccine response in a population of patients with SCD who had received vaccines according to this regimen using multiplex bead analysis. Our study demonstrated a significant percentage of persons with SCD do not maintain a sufficient vaccination response to PPV-23 for 5 years. Our study revealed that only 36% of patients had protective levels of antipneumococcal antibody titers at an average of 37 months after vaccination. Most alarmingly, within the group of patients with subtherapeutic titers, 64% demonstrated vaccine response to <25% of the tested serotypes. These findings were significantly associated with duration of time since last vaccine administration, but the mean age of lack of response was below the 3-year window where vaccine response was previously reported to wane. Our results indicate antipneumococcal immunity may not be optimally maintained using this vaccination strategy in patients with SCD leaving them vulnerable to invasive pneumococcal disease. Many pediatric hematologists stop prophylactic penicillin at 5 years of age making these results alarming. We recommend further investigation into an optimal vaccine schedule and monitoring of antipneumococcal titers in at-risk patients. PMID:26886376

  7. Empirical evaluation of the Q-Genie tool: a protocol for assessment of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Sohani, Z N; Sarma, S; Alyass, A; de Souza, R J; Robiou-du-Pont, S; Li, A; Mayhew, A; Yazdi, F; Reddon, H; Lamri, A; Stryjecki, C; Ishola, A; Lee, Y K; Vashi, N; Anand, S S; Meyre, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meta-analyses of genetic association studies are affected by biases and quality shortcomings of the individual studies. We previously developed and validated a risk of bias tool for use in systematic reviews of genetic association studies. The present study describes a larger empirical evaluation of the Q-Genie tool. Methods and analysis MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health and the Human Genome Epidemiology Network will be searched for published meta-analyses of genetic association studies. Twelve reviewers in pairs will apply the Q-Genie tool to all studies in included meta-analyses. The Q-Genie will then be evaluated on its ability to (i) increase precision after exclusion of low quality studies, (ii) decrease heterogeneity after exclusion of low quality studies and (iii) good agreement with experts on quality rating by Q-Genie. A qualitative assessment of the tool will also be conducted using structured questionnaires. Discussion This systematic review will quantitatively and qualitatively assess the Q-Genie's ability to identify poor quality genetic association studies. This information will inform the selection of studies for inclusion in meta-analyses, conduct sensitivity analyses and perform metaregression. Results of this study will strengthen our confidence in estimates of the effect of a gene on an outcome from meta-analyses, ultimately bringing us closer to deliver on the promise of personalised medicine. Ethics and dissemination An updated Q-Genie tool will be made available from the Population Genomics Program website and the results will be submitted for a peer-reviewed publication. PMID:27288371

  8. Fitness for purpose study of the Field Assessment Conditioning Tool (FACT): a research protocol

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Ralph James; Kennedy, Chris; Doherty, Catherine; Shepherd, Michael; Cole, Joanne; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As part of a programme of research aiming to improve the outcomes of traumatically injured children, a multisource healthcare advocacy tool has been developed to allow trauma team members and hospital governance administrators to reflect and to act on complex trauma team-hospital systems interactions. We have termed this tool a Field Assessment Conditioning Tool (FACT). The FACT draws on quantitative data including clinical care points in addition to self-reflective qualitative data. The FACT is designed to provide feedback on this assessment data both horizontally across fellow potential team members and vertically to the hospital/organisation governance structure, enabling process gap identification and allowing an agenda of improvements to be realised. The aim of the study described in this paper is to explore the perceived fitness for purpose of the FACT to provide an opportunity for healthcare advocacy by healthcare professionals caring for traumatically injured children. Methods and analysis The FACT will be implemented and studied in three district hospitals, each around a major trauma centre in the UK, USA and New Zealand. Using a qualitative approach with standardised semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis we will explore the following question: Is the FACT fit for purpose in terms of providing a framework to evaluate, reflect and act on the individual hospital's own performance (trauma team—hospital interactions) in terms of readiness to receive traumatically injured children? Ethics and dissemination Ethics opinion was sought for each research host organisation participating and deemed not required. The results will be disseminated to participating sites, networks and published in high-impact journals. PMID:25869682

  9. A multi-parametric assessment of decontamination protocols for the subglacial Lake Ellsworth probe.

    PubMed

    Magiopoulos, I; McQuillan, J S; Burd, C L; Mowlem, M; Tsaloglou, M-N

    2016-04-01

    Direct measurement and sampling of pristine environments, such as subglacial lakes, without introducing contaminating microorganisms and biomolecules from the surface, represents a significant engineering and microbiological challenge. In this study, we compare methods for decontamination of titanium grade 5 surfaces, the material extensively used to construct a custom-made probe for reaching, measuring and sampling subglacial Lake Ellsworth in West Antarctica. Coupons of titanium were artificially contaminated with Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and then exposed to a number of decontamination procedures. The most effective sterilants were (i) hydrogen peroxide vapour, and (ii) Biocleanse™, a commercially available, detergent-based biocidal solution. After each decontamination procedure the bacteria were incapable of proliferation, and showed no evidence of metabolic activity based on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The use of ultraviolet irradiation or ethyl alcohol solution was comparatively ineffective for sterilisation. Hydrogen peroxide vapour and ultraviolet irradiation, which directly damage nucleic acids, were the most effective methods for removing detectable DNA, which was measured using 16S rRNA gene copy number and fluorescence-based total DNA quantification. Our results have not only been used to tailor the Ellsworth probe decontamination process, but also hold value for subsequent engineering projects, where high standards of decontamination are required. PMID:26892386

  10. Standardizing Assessment of Competences and Competencies of Oncology Nurses Working in Ambulatory Care.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Clara; Magnan, Morris A; Henderson, Denise; DeRose, Patricia; Carolin, Kathleen; Bepler, Gerold

    2016-01-01

    A nursing quality consortium standardized nursing practice across 17 independently functioning ambulatory oncology sites. Programs were developed to validate both competences and competencies. One program assessed nine competences needed to develop systems of care to detect and treat treatment-related side effects. A second program was developed to assess competencies needed to prevent harm to oncology patients. This manuscript describes a successful approach to standardizing nursing practice across geographically distant academic and community sites. PMID:26985750

  11. Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m), and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group) at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups), but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects. PMID:22458507

  12. Development of a standard methodology for assessing the satiating effect of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No standard methodology is currently utilized for assessing the relative satiating value of food items. Our goal was to evaluate the validity and reliability of satiety responses in order to develop a standardized methodology for determining the relative satiating capacity of specific food items. A ...

  13. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  14. Putting the CAS Standards to Work. Training Manual for the CAS Self Assessment Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Jean M.; Miller, Theodore K., Ed.

    These 18 self-assessment guides and training manual from the Council for the Advancement of Standards (CAS) for Student Services/Development Programs translate the CAS Standards and Guidelines of 1986 into a format for self-study purposes. These self-study guides allow an institution to assure compliance with minimally-acceptable practice, gain an…

  15. Interpretation of Standards with Bloom's Revised Taxonomy: A Comparison of Teachers and Assessment Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasstrom, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    In education, standards have to be interpreted, for planning of teaching, for development of assessments and for alignment analysis. In most cases, it is important that there is an agreement between individuals and organizations about how to interpret standards. However, there is a lack of studies of how consistent different group of judges are…

  16. Performance Assessment and Renewing Teacher Education: The Possibilities of the NBPTS Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    simple wedge with its tip made of durable, clear, and appropriate teaching standards forged in the furnace of science and theory widens to bring the materials and processes of art and practice to bear on the work of strengthening and renewing all of teaching by applying the national board's standards and assessment processes. With this model,…

  17. Child Development Functionality Assessment Guide: Standards and Requirements for Developing Most Efficient Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    As part of its cost containment efforts, the U.S. Navy continues to evaluate its child development program to expand availability without compromising the high quality standards required by the 1989 Military Child Care Act. This manual provides guidelines for conducting Functionality Assessments (FA) and delineates the standards and requirements…

  18. Developing Student Understanding of Assessment Standards: A Nested Hierarchy of Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Berry; Price, Margaret; Rust, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of approaches to sharing meaningful knowledge of assessment standards amongst an academic community, particularly students. Presented as a nested hierarchy, these approaches encompass: a "laissez faire" approach in which students' knowledge of standards is acquired in ad hoc and serendipitous ways; an "explicit"…

  19. External Peer Review of Assessment: An Effective Approach to Verifying Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Hudson, Jane; den Outer, Birgit; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    There is growing international concern to regulate and assure standards in higher education. External peer review of assessment, often called external examining, is a well-established approach to assuring standards. Australian higher education is one of several systems without a history of external examining for undergraduate programmes that is…

  20. Smoothed Standardization Assessment of Testlet Level DIF on a Math Free-Response Item Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyu, C. Felicia; And Others

    A smoothed version of standardization, which merges kernel smoothing with the traditional standardization differential item functioning (DIF) approach, was used to examine DIF for student-produced response (SPR) items on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) I mathematics test at both the item and testlet levels. This nonparametric technique avoids…

  1. Standards-Based Curriculum, Differentiated Instruction, and End of Course Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnell, Benjamin Jeffry

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated instruction, standards-based curriculum, and end of course assessments (ECAs) are not mandated in most high schools across the United States. As such, classroom grades do not accurately reflect district report cards. In particular, grades at the study site, a suburban high school, do not show the specific standards and benchmarks…

  2. Assessing MBA Student Teamwork under the AACSB Assurance of Learning Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procino, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2003 release of the AACSB's Assurance of Learning standards, outcomes assessment has been a required practice for business schools wishing to receive their endorsement. While most accredited institutions had been dabbling with the measurement of student learning, the new standards raised the bar considerably. It is now necessary to…

  3. Linking School and Work: Roles for Standards and Assessment. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B., Ed.; Wirt, John G., Ed.

    This book contains 12 papers commissioned by the Secretary's Commission for Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to develop the SCANS recommendations concerning the role of standards and assessment in the transition from school to work. "The Changing Workplace" (Lauren B. Resnick, John G. Wirt) offers a summary of the 12 papers. "Skills Standards,…

  4. Common Core State Standards in 2014: District Implementation of Consortia-Developed Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Later this school year, states that have adopted the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are scheduled to begin testing students' progress in learning the content of the standards in mathematics and English language arts (ELA). Many of these states belong to one of two consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and the…

  5. 25 CFR 36.12 - Standard III-Program needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard III-Program needs assessment. 36.12 Section 36.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS...

  6. 25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment. 36.50 Section 36.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR...

  7. Standards, Assessment, and Readiness: Addressing Postsecondary Transition Issues across State Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes major challenges ahead for states, institutions, and most importantly, students as the standards and assessments from the Common Core Standards (CCSS) are implemented. It also offers recommendations to create a network structure that would assist K-12 and higher education leaders in addressing those challenges. To begin the…

  8. The cultural appropriateness and diagnostic usefulness of standardized language assessments for Indigenous Australian children.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Wendy M; Williams, Cori

    2013-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists experience uncertainty about how to interpret standardized assessment results for Indigenous Australian children. There are risks for inappropriate diagnosis: both over- and under-diagnosis of language impairment may occur due to a convergence of linguistic features which causes difficulty in distinguishing between impairment and difference. While the literature suggests that standardized assessments are inappropriate for Indigenous Australian children, there is an absence of empirical documentation to show how Indigenous children perform on standardized tests of language ability. This study examined the performance of 19 Indigenous Australian children, aged 8;01-13;08, from one school on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, Australian Standardized Edition. Standardized scores were compared with teacher ratings of children's oral language skills. Analysis showed poor alignment between teacher ratings and language assessment, and assessment scores were negatively influenced by features of Aboriginal English. Children rated with above average language skills presented with different linguistic profiles from the children rated with average and below average language abilities. The inappropriateness of current standardized language assessments for Indigenous children and the need for further research to guide appropriate assessment are discussed. PMID:23384157

  9. Protocol of the baseline assessment for the Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) Wales cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health is a result of influences operating at multiple levels. For example, inadequate housing, poor educational attainment, and reduced access to health care are clustered together, and are all associated with reduced health. Policies which try to change individual people's behaviour have limited effect when people have little control over their environment. However, structural environmental change and an understanding of the way that influences interact with each other, has the potential to facilitate healthy choices irrespective of personal resources. The aim of Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) is to investigate the impact of gestational and postnatal environments on health, and to examine where structural change can be brought about to optimise health outcomes. The baseline assessment will focus on birth outcomes and maternal and infant health. Methods/Design EHL is a longitudinal birth cohort study. We aim to recruit 1000 pregnant women in the period April 2010 to March 2013. We will examine the impact of the gestational environment (maternal health) and the postnatal environment (housing and neighbourhood conditions) on subsequent health outcomes for the infants born to these women. Data collection will commence during the participants' pregnancy, from approximately 20 weeks gestation. Participants will complete a questionnaire, undergo anthropometric measurements, wear an accelerometer, compile a food diary, and have environmental measures taken within their home. They will also be asked to consent to having a sample of umbilical cord blood taken following delivery of their baby. These data will be complemented by routinely collected electronic data such as health records from GP surgeries, hospital admissions, and child health and development records. Thereafter, participants will be visited annually for follow-up of subsequent exposures and child health outcomes. Discussion The baseline assessment of EHL will provide information concerning

  10. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A.; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research. PMID:27445902

  11. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and PMID:27445902

  12. One- or Two-Legged Standing: What Is the More Suitable Protocol to Assess the Postural Effects of the Rigid Ankle Orthosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rougier, Patrice; Genthon, Nicolas; Gallois-Montbrun, Thibault; Brugiere, Steve; Bouvat, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To highlight the capacity of one- and two-legged standing protocols when assessing postural behavior induced by a rigid ankle orthosis, 14 healthy individuals stood upright barefoot and wore either an elastic stocking on the preferred leg or a rigid orthosis with or without additional taping in one- or two-legged (TL) conditions. Traditional…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES (TEXOMA PROJECT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project funded through Ecosystem Restoration internal solicitation within NRMRL. This project will focus on Lake Texoma (located on the Oklahoma/Texas border) and the surrounding watershed to develop methods and protocols for assessing SAC, and to evaluate its potential for use ...

  14. Study protocol for the World Health Organization project to develop a Quality of Life assessment instrument (WHOQOL).

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has undertaken a project to develop an instrument (the WHOQOL) for measuring quality of life. Quality of life is defined as an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It is a broad ranging concept affected in a complex way by the person's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. The instrument will be developed in the framework of a collaborative project involving numerous centres in different cultural settings. In addition, it will have proven psychometric properties of validity, responsiveness and reliability and will be sensitive to the cultural setting in which it is applied, whilst maintaining comparability of scores across different cultural settings. This paper outlines the characteristics of the planned instrument and the study protocol governing work on its development. To date steps 1 through 5 have been completed and work is progressing on step 6. It is anticipated that the instrument will be available for piloting in July 1993 and a final version available for use in June 1994. PMID:8518769

  15. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exercises in STroke Rehabilitation (EVREST): Rationale, Design, and Protocol of a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Assessing the Wii Gaming System

    PubMed Central

    Saposnik, G.; Mamdani, M.; Bayley, M.; Thorpe, K.E.; Hall, J.; Cohen, L.G.; Teasell, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that increasing intensity of rehabilitation results in better motor recovery. Limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of an interactive virtual reality gaming system for stroke rehabilitation. EVREST was designed to evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of using the Nintendo Wii gaming virtual reality (VRWii) technology to improve arm recovery in stroke patients. Methods Pilot randomized study comparing, VRWii versus recreational therapy (RT) in patients receiving standard rehabilitation within six months of stroke with a motor deficit of ≥3 on the Chedoke-McMaster Scale (arm). In this study we expect to randomize 20 patients. All participants (age 18–85) will receive customary rehabilitative treatment consistent of a standardized protocol (eight sessions, 60 min each, over a two-week period). Outcome measures The primary feasibility outcome is the total time receiving the intervention. The primary safety outcome is the proportion of patients experiencing intervention-related adverse events during the study period. Efficacy, a secondary outcome measure, will be measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test, Box and Block Test, and Stroke Impact Scale at the four-week follow-up visit. From November, 2008 to September, 2009 21 patients were randomized to VRWii or RT. Mean age, 61 (range 41–83) years. Mean time from stroke onset 25 (range 10–56) days. Conclusions EVREST is the first randomized parallel controlled trial assessing the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of virtual reality using Wii gaming technology in stroke rehabilitation. The results of this study will serve as the basis for a larger multicentre trial. ClinicalTrials.gov registration# NTC692523 PMID:20088994

  16. A model-based framework for the quality assessment of surface albedo in situ measurement protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jennifer; Gobron, Nadine; Widlowski, Jean-Luc; Mio, Corrado

    2016-09-01

    Satellite-based retrievals of land surface albedo are essential for climate and environmental modelling communities. To be of use, satellite-retrievals are required to comply to given accuracy requirements, mainly achieved through comparison with in situ measurements. Differences between in situ and satellite-based retrievals depend on their actual difference and their associated uncertainties. It is essential that these uncertainties can be computed to properly understand the differences between satellite-based and in situ measurements of albedo, however quantifying the individual contributions of uncertainty is difficult. This study introduces a model-based framework for assessing the quality of in situ albedo measurements. A 3D Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model is used to simulate field measurements of surface albedo, and is able to identify and quantify potential sources of error in the field measurement. Compliance with the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) requirement for 3% accuracy is tested. 8 scenarios were investigated, covering a range of ecosystem types and canopy structures, seasons, illumination angles and tree heights. Results indicate that height of measurement above the canopy is the controlling factor in accuracy, with each canopy scenario reaching the WMO requirement at different heights. Increasing canopy heterogeneity and tree height noticeably reduces the accuracy, whereas changing seasonality from summer to winter in a deciduous forest increases accuracy. For canopies with a row structure, illumination angle can significantly impact accuracy as a result of shadowing effects. Tests were made on the potential use of multiple in situ measurements, indicating considerably increased accuracy if two or more in situ measurements can be made.

  17. An updated protocol to assess arm swimming power in front crawl.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Castells, R; Izquierdo, M; Arellano, R

    2013-04-01

    Mechanical power output is a reliable predictor of swim speed in front crawl. However, a complete power curve (power vs. load) has not been described for swimming, and intra-cycle power has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to examine intra-cycle power output at propulsive phases and to determine maximum swimming power, the corresponding load and swimming speed. 18 swimmers (age 22.10±4.31years, height 1.79±0.07 m, arm span 1.85±0.08 m and body mass 76.74±9.00 kg) performed a swim power test. It consisted of 12.5 m all-out swims with only the arms, with a load attached to the swimmer. A linear encoder and a load cell recorded intra-cycle speed and force in each trial. The test was recorded with 2 underwater cameras. Intra-cycle power was obtained for propulsive stroke phases (pull: 60.32±18.87 W; push: 71.21±21.06 W). Peak power was 114.37±33.16 W. Mean maximum swim power was 66.49 W (0.86 W/kg), which was reached at a swimming velocity of 0.75 m/s with a 47.07% of the individual maximal load. Significant positive correlation (r=0.76, p<0.01) between maximum swim power and maximum swim speed was observed. These results suggest that the proposed test may be a training tool that is relatively simple to implement and would provide swimmers and coaches with quick feedback. PMID:23065661

  18. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  19. Using Standardized Clients to Train Social Workers in Intimate Partner Violence Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…

  20. Standardized Testing for Outcome Assessment: Analysis of the Educational Testing Systems MBA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of standardized tests for outcome assessment has grown dramatically in recent years. Two driving factors have been the No Child Left Behind legislation, and the increase in outcome assessment measures by accrediting agencies such as AACSB, the international accrediting body for business schools. Despite the growth in usage, little effort…