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Three-Dimensional Electroencephalographic Changes on Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) During the Sleep Onset Period.  


Electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns during sleep are markedly different from those measured during the waking state, but the process of falling asleep is not fully understood in terms of biochemical and neurophysiological aspects. We sought to investigate EEG changes that occur during the transitional period from wakefulness to sleep in a 3-dimensional manner to gain a better understanding of the physiological meaning of sleep for the brain. We examined EEG 3-dimensionally using LORETA (low-resolution electromagnetic tomography), to localize the brain region associated with changes that occur during the sleep onset period (SOP). Thirty-channel EEG was recorded in 61 healthy subjects. EEG power spectra and intracortical standardized LORETA were compared between 4 types of 30-second states, including the wakeful stage, transition stage, early sleep stage 1, and late sleep stage 1. Sleep onset began with increased delta and theta power and decreased alpha-1 power in the occipital lobe, and increased theta power in the parietal lobe. Thereafter, global reductions of alpha-1 and alpha-2 powers and greater increases of theta power in the occipito-parietal lobe occurred. As sleep became deeper in sleep stage 1, beta-2 and beta-3, powers decreased mainly in the frontal lobe and some regions of the parieto-temporo-limbic area. These findings suggest that sleep onset includes at least 3 steps in a sequential manner, which include an increase in theta waves in the posterior region of the brain, a global decrease in alpha waves, and a decrease in beta waves in the fronto-central area. PMID:25150221

Park, Doo-Heum; Ha, Jee Hyun; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yu, Jaehak; Shin, Chul-Jin



Effect of the 5HT 1A partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of 20 mg buspirone — a 5-HT1A partial agonist — on regional electrical generators within the human brain were investigated utilizing three-dimensional EEG tomography. Nineteen-channel vigilance-controlled EEG recordings were carried out in 20 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after drug intake. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA; Key Institute

Peter Anderer; Bernd Saletu; Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui



Brain Regions Activated during an Auditory Discrimination Task in Insomniac Postmenopausal Patients before and after Hormone Replacement Therapy: Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography Applied to Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical sources of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) determined by means of low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) in 48 unmedicated insomniac postmenopausal patients aged between 46 and 67 years were compared with those obtained in 48 age-matched normal female controls. Subsequently, the patients were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative, randomized 3-arm trial phase – Climodien 2\\/3 [estradiol valerate (EV) 2

Peter Anderer; Bernd Saletu; Gerda Saletu-Zyhlarz; Doris Gruber; Markus Metka; Johannes Huber; Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui



Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.  


Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT(2A) agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca. PMID:15179026

Riba, Jordi; Anderer, Peter; Jané, Francesc; Saletu, Bernd; Barbanoj, Manel J



Effects of the South American Psychoactive Beverage Ayahuasca on Regional Brain Electrical Activity in Humans: A Functional Neuroimaging Study Using Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting ?-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT2A agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which

Jordi Riba; Peter Anderer; Francesc Jané; Bernd Saletu; Manel J. Barbanoj



Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback.  


Through continuous feedback of the electroencephalogram (EEG) humans can learn how to shape their brain electrical activity in a desired direction. The technique is known as EEG biofeedback, or neurofeedback, and has been used since the late 1960s in research and clinical applications. A major limitation of neurofeedback relates to the limited information provided by a single or small number of electrodes placed on the scalp. We establish a method for extracting and feeding back intracranial current density and we carry out an experimental study to ascertain the ability of the participants to drive their own EEG power in a desired direction. To derive current density within the brain volume, we used the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Six undergraduate students (three males, three females) underwent tomographic neurofeedback (based on 19 electrodes placed according to the 10-20 system) to enhance the current density power ratio between the frequency bands beta (16-20 Hz) and alpha (8-10 Hz). According to LORETA modeling, the region of interest corresponded to the Anterior Cingulate (cognitive division). The protocol was designed to improve the performance of the subjects on the dimension of sustained attention. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) that the beta/alpha current density power ratio increased over sessions and 2) that by the end of the training subjects acquired the ability of increasing that ratio at will. Both hypotheses received substantial experimental support in this study. This is the first application of an EEG inverse solution to neurofeedback. Possible applications of the technique include the treatment of epileptic foci, the rehabilitation of specific brain regions damaged as a consequence of traumatic brain injury and, in general, the training of any spatial specific cortical electrical activity. These findings may also have relevant consequences for the development of brain-computer interfaces. PMID:15614994

Congedo, Marco; Lubar, Joel F; Joffe, David



Standardizing Data Collection in Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Collaboration among investigators, centers, countries, and disciplines is essential to advancing the care for traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is thus important that we “speak the same language.” Great variability, however, exists in data collection and coding of variables in TBI studies, confounding comparisons between and analysis across different studies. Randomized controlled trials can never address the many uncertainties concerning treatment approaches in TBI. Pooling data from different clinical studies and high-quality observational studies combined with comparative effectiveness research may provide excellent alternatives in a cost-efficient way. Standardization of data collection and coding is essential to this end. Common data elements (CDEs) are presented for demographics and clinical variables applicable across the broad spectrum of TBI. Most recommendations represent a consensus derived from clinical practice. Some recommendations concern novel approaches, for example assessment of the intensity of therapy in severely injured patients. Up to three levels of detail for coding data elements were developed: basic, intermediate, and advanced, with the greatest level of detail attained in the advanced version. More detailed codings can be collapsed into the basic version. Templates were produced to summarize coding formats, explanation of choices, and recommendations for procedures. Endorsement of the recommendations has been obtained from many authoritative organizations. The development of CDEs for TBI should be viewed as a continuing process; as more experience is gained, refinement and amendments will be required. This proposed process of standardization will facilitate comparative effectiveness research and encourage high-quality meta-analysis of individual patient data. PMID:21162610

Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L.; Menon, David; Adelson, P. David; Balkin, Tom; Bullock, Ross; Engel, Doortje C.; Gordon, Wayne; Langlois-Orman, Jean; Lew, Henry L.; Robertson, Claudia; Temkin, Nancy; Valadka, Alex; Verfaellie, Mieke; Wainwright, Mark; Wright, David W.; Schwab, Karen



IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.



Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)



Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through continuous feedback of the electroencephalogram (EEG) humans can learn how to shape their brain electrical activity in a desired direction. The technique is known as EEG biofeedback, or neurofeedback, and has been used since the late 1960s in research and clinical applications. A major limitation of neurofeedback relates to the limited information provided by a single or small number

Marco Congedo; Joel F. Lubar; David Joffe



Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography.  


Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7?Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed. PMID:25195739

Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T



Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases.  


Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID:25309417

Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A; Boline, Jyl



Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.



A super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical character recognition is widely used for converting document images into digital media. Existing OCR algorithms and tools produce good results from high resolution, good quality, document images. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR. Two main techniques are used in our proposed approach: a document page segmentation algorithm and a modified K-means clustering algorithm. Using this approach, by exploiting coherence in the document, we reconstruct from a low resolution document image a better resolution image and improve OCR results. Experimental results show substantial gain in low resolution documents such as the ones captured from video.

Ma, Di; Agam, Gady



Improved EEG source analysis using low-resolution conductivity estimation in a four-compartment finite element head model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectric source analysis in the human brain from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) sig- nals is sensitive to geometry and conductivity properties of the different head tissues. We propose a low-resolution conductivity estimation (LRCE) method using simulated annealing optimization on high-resolution finite element models that individually optimizes a realistically shaped four-layer vol- ume conductor with regard to the brain and skull compartment

Seok Lew; Carsten H. Wolters; Alfred Anwander; Scott Makeig; Rob S. MacLeod



Human mobility monitoring in very low resolution visual sensor network.  


This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

Bo, Nyan Bo; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried



Low Resolution Character Recognition by Image Quality Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character image database plays an important role for the evaluation of a character recognition system. But there is no measure which tells the level of recognition difficulty of a given database. This paper proposes a novel approach for the low resolution character recognition, which fits the input character for the appropriate character database according to the input image quality.

Chunmei Liu; Chunheng Wang; Ruwei Dai



Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

Bo Bo, Nyan; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried



Incorporating Human Body Mass in Standards of Helmet Impact Protection against Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

Impact induced traumatic brain injury (ITBI) describes brain injury from head impact not necessarily accompanied by skull fracture. For sufficiently abrupt head impact decelerations, ITBI results from brain tissue stress incurred as the brain crashes into the inside of the skull wall, displacing the surrounding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Proper helmet cushioning can damp the impact force and reduce ITBI. But force is mass times acceleration and commonly used helmet blunt impact standards are based only on acceleration thresholds. Here I show how this implies that present standards overestimate the minimum acceleration onset for ITBI by implicitly assuming that the brain is mechanically decoupled from the body. I quantify how an arbitrary orientation of the body with respect to impact direction increases the effective mass that should be used in calculating the required damping force and injury threshold accelerations. I suggest a practical method to incorporate the body mass and impact angle into ITBI helme...

Blackman, Eric G



The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed. PMID:21906305



The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Low Resolution Spectrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is a revolutionary large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located in West Texas at McDonald Observatory. First light was obtained on December 11, 1996. Scientific operations are expected in the spring of 1999. The Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS, an international collaboration between Texas, UNAM, Stanford, Munich and Goettingen) is a high throughput, imaging spectrograph which rides

G. J. Hill; P. J. MacQueen; H. Nicklas; F. J. Cobos D; C. Tejada; W. Mitsch; M. J. Wolf



Low-Resolution Radial-Velocity Monitoring of Pulsating sdBs in the Kepler Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from an ongoing spectroscopic campaign to uncover the binary status of the 18 known pulsating subdwarf B stars and the one pulsating BHB star observed with the Kepler spacecraft. During the 2010-2012 observing seasons, we have used the KP4m Mayall, NOT, and WHT telescopes to obtain low-resolution (R˜2000-2500) Balmer-line spectroscopy of our sample stars. We applied a standard cross-correlation technique to derive radial velocities, and find clear evidence for binarity in several of the pulsators, some of which were not previously known to be binaries.

Telting, J.; Östensen, R.; Reed, M.; Kiæerad, F.; Farris, L.; Baran, A.; Oreiro, R.; O'Toole, S.



Normative pediatric brain data for spatial normalization and segmentation differs from standard adult data.  


Spatial normalization and morphological studies of pediatric brain imaging data based on adult reference data may not be appropriate due to the developmental differences between the two populations. In this study, we set out to create pediatric templates and a priori brain tissue data from a large collection of normal, healthy children to compare it to standard adult data available within a widely used imaging software solution (SPM99, WDOCN, London, UK). Employing four different processing strategies, we found considerable differences between our pediatric data and the adult data. We conclude that caution should be used when analyzing pediatric brain data using adult a priori information. To assess the effects of using pediatric a priori brain information, the data obtained in this study is available to the scientific community from our website ( PMID:14523961

Wilke, M; Schmithorst, V J; Holland, S K



Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured on the PET images, and the brain height was estimated by a contour-matching procedure using the midsagittal plane. In the nonlinear warping step, individual gray matter locations were matched with those of a standard brain by maximizing correlation coefficients of regional profile curves determined between predefined stretching centers (predominantly in white matter) and the gray matter landmarks. The accuracy of the brain height estimation was compared with skull x-ray estimations, showing comparable accuracy and better reproducibility. Linear-scaling and nonlinear warping methods were validated using ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose and ({sup 15}O)water images. Regional anatomic variability on the glucose images was reduced markedly. The statistical significance of activation foci in paired water images was improved in both vibratory and visual activation paradigms. A group versus group comparison following the proposed anatomic standardization revealed highly significant glucose metabolic alterations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared with those of a normal control group. These results suggested that the method is well suited to both research and clinical settings and can facilitate pixel-by-pixel comparisons of PET images. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others



Low-resolution refinement tools in REFMAC5  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of low-resolution macromolecular crystal structure analysis are considered: (i) the use of reference structures and structural units for provision of structural prior information and (ii) map sharpening in the presence of noise and the effects of Fourier series termination. The generation of interatomic distance restraints by ProSMART and their subsequent application in REFMAC5 is described. It is shown that the use of such external structural information can enhance the reliability of derived atomic models and stabilize refinement. The problem of map sharpening is considered as an inverse deblurring problem and is solved using Tikhonov regularizers. It is demonstrated that this type of map sharpening can automatically produce a map with more structural features whilst maintaining connectivity. Tests show that both of these directions are promising, although more work needs to be performed in order to further exploit structural information and to address the problem of reliable electron-density calculation. PMID:22505260

Nicholls, Robert A.; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N.



Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System. Phase II; 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and NOAA. As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. GSFC has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). Its main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a PC as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Duran, Steve; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)



Quantification of trabecular spatial orientation from low-resolution images.  


No accepted methodology exists to assess trabecular bone orientation from clinical CT scans. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the distribution of grey values in clinical CT images is related to the underlying trabecular architecture and that this distribution can be used to identify the principal directions and local anisotropy of trabecular bone. Fourteen trabecular bone samples were extracted from high-resolution (30 ?m) micro-CT scans of seven human femoral heads. Trabecular orientations and local anisotropy were calculated using grey-level deviation (GLD), a novel method providing a measure of the three-dimensional distribution of image grey values. This was repeated for different image resolutions down to 300 ?m and for volumes of interest (VOIs) ranging from 1 to 7 mm. Outcomes were compared with the principal mechanical directions and with mean intercept length (MIL) as calculated for the segmented 30-?m images. For the 30-?m images, GLD predicted the mechanical principal directions equally well as MIL. For the 300-?m images, which are resolutions that can be obtained in vivo using clinical CT, only a small increase (3°-6°) in the deviation from the mechanical orientations was found. VOIs of 5 mm resulted in a robust quantification of the orientation. We conclude that GLD can quantify structural bone parameters from low-resolution CT images. PMID:24787095

Lenaerts, L; Wirth, A J; van Lenthe, G H



Cartography of asteroids and comet nuclei from low resolution data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution images of non-spherical objects, such as Viking images of Phobos and the anticipated Galileo images of Gaspra, lend themselves to conventional planetary cartographic procedures: control network analysis, stereophotogrammetry, image mosaicking in 2D or 3D, and airbrush mapping. There remains the problem of a suitable map projection for bodies which are extremely elongated or irregular in shape. Many bodies will soon be seen at lower resolution (5-30 pixels across the disk) in images from speckle interferometry, the Hubble Space Telescope, ground-based radar, distinct spacecraft encounters, and closer images degraded by smear. Different data with similar effective resolutions are available from stellar occultations, radar or lightcurve convex hulls, lightcurve modeling of albedo variations, and cometary jet modeling. With such low resolution, conventional methods of shape determination will be less useful or will fail altogether, leaving limb and terminator topography as the principal sources of topographic information. A method for shape determination based on limb and terminator topography was developed. It has been applied to the nucleus of Comet Halley and the jovian satellite Amalthea. The Amalthea results are described to give an example of the cartographic possibilities and problems of anticipated data sets.

Stooke, Philip J.




SciTech Connect

Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others



Alteration of Cortical Functional Connectivity as a Result of Traumatic Brain Injury Revealed by Graph Theory, ICA, and sLORETA Analyses of EEG Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to examine the cortical functional connectivity using multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. First we utilized independent component analysis (ICA) to transform multichannel EEG recordings into independent processes and then applied source reconstruction algorithm [i.e., standardize low resolution brain electromagnetic (sLORETA)] to identify the cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Second, we performed a graph

C. Cao; S. Slobounov



Investigating short wavelength correlated errors on low resolution mode altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although conventional radar altimetry products (Jason1, Jason2, LRM CRYOSAT2, etc) have a spatial resolution as high as 300 m, the observation of ocean scales smaller than 100 km is limited by the existence of a "spectral hump", i.e. a geographically coherent error. In the frame of the future altimetry missions (SAR for Cryosat -2 and Sentinel-3 missions and interferometry for the SWOT mission) it becomes crucial to investigate again and to better understand the signals obtained at small scales by conventional altimeter missions. Through an analysis of simulations, we show that heterogeneous backscattering scenes can result in the corruption of the altimeter waveforms and retracked parameters. The retrackers used in current ground processors cannot well fit the Brown model during backscattering events because this model has been designed for a homogeneous scene. The error is also propagated along-track because of the size and shape of the low resolution mode (LRM) disc-shaped footprint. The hump phenomenon is shown to be almost ubiquitous in the ocean, yet more intense at low latitudes and in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, where backscattering events are more frequent. Its overall signature could be a Gaussian-like random signal smooth for wavelengths smaller than 15 km, i.e. white noise on 1 Hz products. The analysis of current data from 5 altimetry missions highlights the influence of the instrument design and altitude, and the influence of the retracker used. The spectral hump is a systematic response to random events and it is possible to mitigate it with new processing. Simulations and geographically limited datasets from the synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) of Cryosat-2 show that the thin stripe-shaped synthetic footprint of SARM might be less sensitive to the artifact.

Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Dibarboure, Gérald; Labroue, Sylvie; Lasne, Yannick; Boy, François; Picot, Nicolas



A scoring function for docking ligands to low-resolution protein structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present a docking method,that uses a scoring function for protein–ligand docking that is designed to maximize,the docking success rate for low-resolution protein structures. We find that the resulting scoring function parameters are very different depending,on whether they were optimized for highor low-resolution protein structures. We show,that this docking,method,can be successfully applied to predict the ligand-binding site of low-resolution

Eckart Bindewald; Jeffrey Skolnick



3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity  

PubMed Central

The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity. PMID:20339482

Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim



The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.



Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards  

PubMed Central

Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. Methods Rs-fMRI scans from 59 high functioning males with ASD and 59 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were used to build a series of machine learning classifiers. Classification features were obtained using 3 sets of brain regions. Another set of classifiers was built from participants' scores on behavioral metrics. An additional age and IQ-matched cohort of 178 individuals (89 ASD; 89 TD) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access dataset ( were included for replication. Results High classification accuracy was achieved through several rs-fMRI methods (peak accuracy 76.67%). However, classification via behavioral measures consistently surpassed rs-fMRI classifiers (peak accuracy 95.19%). The class probability estimates, P(ASD|fMRI data), from brain-based classifiers significantly correlated with scores on a measure of social functioning, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), as did the most informative features from 2 of the 3 sets of brain-based features. The most informative connections predominantly originated from regions strongly associated with social functioning. Conclusions While individuals can be classified as having ASD with statistically significant accuracy from their rs-fMRI scans alone, this method falls short of biomarker standards. Classification methods provided further evidence that ASD functional connectivity is characterized by dysfunction of large-scale functional networks, particularly those involved in social information processing.

Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Martin, Alex



Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping Using Standard CPMG Sequence In A Clinical Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

Hnilicová, P.; Bittšanský, M.; Dobrota, D.




E-print Network

. Although such packages offer digital image processing and pattern recognition tools, they lackA FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC LOW-RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE INTERPRETATION BASED ON SPECTRAL, Agriculture, Automation, Knowledge base, Fuzzy Logic, Multitemporal ABSTRACT: This work proposes a framework



EPA Science Inventory

The report gives guidelines for interpreting the low resolution mass spectra (LRMS) of complex chemical mixtures, within the context of the EPA Level 1 Environmental Assessment Program. It discusses the principles underlying direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex mixtures,...


Accurate Label-Free Protein Quantitation with High- and Low-Resolution Mass Spectrometers  

PubMed Central

Label-free quantitation of proteins analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry uses either integrated peak intensity from the parent-ion mass analysis (MS1) or features from fragment-ion analysis (MS2), such as spectral counts or summed fragment-ion intensity. We directly compared MS1 and MS2 quantitation by analyzing human protein standards diluted into Escherichia coli extracts on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We found that summed MS2 intensities were nearly as accurate as integrated MS1 intensities, and both outperformed MS2 spectral counting in accuracy and linearity. We compared these results to those obtained from two low-resolution ion-trap mass spectrometers; summed MS2 intensities from LTQ and LTQ Velos instruments were similar in accuracy to those from the Orbitrap. Data from all three instruments are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000602. Abundance measurements using MS1 or MS2 intensities had limitations, however. While measured protein concentration was on average well correlated with the known concentration, there was considerable protein-to-protein variation. Moreover, not all human proteins diluted to a mole fraction of 10?3 or lower were detected, with a strong fall-off below 10?4 mole fraction. These results show that MS1 and MS2 intensities are simple measures of protein abundance that are on average accurate, but should be limited to quantitation of proteins of intermediate to higher fractional abundance. PMID:24295401

Shin, Jung-Bum; Klimek, John; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Jeffery, Erin D.; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.



Automated measurement of redshifts from mid-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining accurate redshifts from mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution (R ˜ 100) spectroscopy is challenging because the wavelength resolution is too low to detect narrow lines in most cases. Yet, the number of degrees of freedom and diversity of spectral features are too high for regular spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting techniques to be convenient. Here we present a new SED-fitting-based routine for redshift determination that is optimized for MIR low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small-scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called maximum combined pseudo-likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML approach, the MCPL approach searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a 'pseudo-likelihood' (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of the MCPL approach are demonstrated by comparing its redshift estimates to those of the regular ML approach and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra from extragalactic sources at 0 < z < 3.7. The MCPL approach achieves a redshift accuracy ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 for 78 per cent of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68 per cent for the ML approach. The rate of outliers [?(z)/(1 + z) > 0.02] is 14 per cent for the MCPL approach and 22 per cent for the ML approach. ?2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalized combined PL (?) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depend strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by active galactic nucleus continua. Nevertheless, for a given ? the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent of their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a ? > 0.15 threshold retains 79 per cent of the sources with ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8 per cent.

Hernán Caballero, Antonio



Of Primary Interest: Using Brain-Based Teaching Strategies to Create Supportive Early Childhood Environments that Address Learning Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors remind teachers that standards are not intended to fence in creative teachers or become obstacles for learners with special needs. To help teachers optimize learning for all children, they review brained-based research findings such as the importance of safe environments, the effect of emotions on learning, the use of multisensory…

Schiller, Pam; Willis, Clarissa



xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures.  


X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of D-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7?Å resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electrophysiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP. PMID:25195748

McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus



Veiling derivation from high to low resolution spectra of T Tauri stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple and efficient approach to extract the veiling from low resolution spectra (few hundreds) of T Tauri stars. The method is based on a point to point energy balance, over large scale and deep spectral structures, between the T Tauri spectrum and a template spectrum. We validate the new algorithm, with derivations of the veiling in quasi-simultaneous high resolution (~10000) and low resolution spectra (~300) of the Classical T Tauri star BP Tau. For this half veiled object the results coincides within 10%. The low resolution approach is a powerful tool which makes it possible to study variability problems in T Tauri stars, related to e.g. flare or accretion activity, in timescales as short as minutes.

Chelli, Alain



High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations  

E-print Network

High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

Melvin, Stephen



EPA Science Inventory

MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in a low resolution mass spectrum, has been found to be linearly correlated with the true molecular weights of 400 randomly selected spectra, yielding a family of parallel lines. imple exert system using MAXMASS h...



EPA Science Inventory

An empirical rule-based pattern recognition/expert system for classifying, estimating molecular weights and identifying low resolution mass spectra of toxic and other organic compounds has been developed and evaluated. he system was designed to accommodate low concentration spect...


Automatic hand-over animation for free-hand motions from low resolution input  

E-print Network

Automatic hand-over animation for free-hand motions from low resolution input Chris Kang1 , Nkenge of California, Davis Abstract. Hand-over animation is the process by which hand animation is added to existing quality free-hand mo- tion based on the capture of a specific, select small number of markers. Starting

Zordan, Victor


Recognition of low-resolution characters by a generative learning method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using appropriate training data is necessary to ro- bustly recognize low-resolution characters by the subspace method. Former learning methods used characters actu- ally captured by a camera, which required the collection of characters of all categories in various conditions. In this paper, we propose a new learning method that generates training data by a point spread function estimated before- hand

Hiroyuki Ishida; Shinsuke Yanadume; Tomokazu Takahashi; Ichiro Ide; Yoshito Mekada; Hiroshi Murase



Comparison of Hadamard imaging and compressed sensing for low resolution hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image multiplexing is the technique of using combination patterns to measure multiple pixels with one sensor. Hyperspectral imaging is acquiring images with full spectra at each pixel. Using a single point spectrometer and light modulation we perform multiplexed hyperspectral imaging. We compare two forms of multiplexing, namely Hadamard imaging and compressed sensing, at low resolution. We show that Hadamard imaging

L. Streeter; G. R. Burling-Claridge; M. J. Cree; R. Kunnemeyer




E-print Network

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS BSP-SLIM: A blind low-resolution ligand-protein docking approach using predicted protein structures Hui Sun Lee and Yang Zhang* Department of Biological binding.13,14 In the blind docking, ligand docking conformations are searched on the entire protein

Zhang, Yang


Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.



Integration of the Antennal Lobe Glomeruli and Three Projection Neurons in the Standard Brain Atlas of the Moth Heliothis Virescens  

PubMed Central

Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases (SBAs) are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, SBAs of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes (ALs) of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens SBA exclusively included the glomerular layer of the AL. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female SBA with a new model of the AL glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens AL model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the AL atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male AL was necessary. This required a new male AL atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three AL projection neurons of different preparations, the new SBA with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum. PMID:20179785

Løfaldli, Bjarte Bye; Kvello, Pål; Mustaparta, Hanna



Multi-region labeling and segmentation using a graph topology prior and atlas information in brain images.  


Medical image segmentation and anatomical structure labeling according to the types of the tissues are important for accurate diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for multi-region labeling and segmentation, which is based on a topological graph prior and the topological information of an atlas, using a modified multi-level set energy minimization method in brain images. We consider a topological graph prior and atlas information to evolve the contour based on a topological relationship presented via a graph relation. This novel method is capable of segmenting adjacent objects with very close gray level in low resolution brain image that would be difficult to segment correctly using standard methods. The topological information of an atlas are transformed to the topological graph of a low resolution (noisy) brain image to obtain region labeling. We explain our algorithm and show the topological graph prior and label transformation techniques to explain how it gives precise multi-region segmentation and labeling. The proposed algorithm is capable of segmenting and labeling different regions in noisy or low resolution MRI brain images of different modalities. We compare our approaches with other state-of-the-art approaches for multi-region labeling and segmentation. PMID:24998760

Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood Salman; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo



Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning.  


The analysis of physiological processes in brain by position emission tomography (PET) is facilitated when images are spatially normalized to a standard coordinate system. Thus, PET activation studies of human brain frequently employ the common stereotaxic coordinates of Talairach. We have developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland as identified on the average MRI template. The orthogonal planes were imposed using the line between stereotaxic zero and the optic chiasm. A series of mean MR images in the coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes were generated. To test the utility of the common coordinate system for functional imaging studies of minipig brain, we calculated cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps from normal minipigs and from minipigs with a syndrome of parkisonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-poisoning. These maps were transformed from the native space into the common stereotaxic space. After global normalization of these maps, an undirected search for differences between the groups was then performed using statistical parametric mapping. Using this method, we detected a statistically significant focal increase in CBF in the left cerebellum of the MPTP-lesioned group. We expect the present approach to be of general use in the statistical parametric mapping of CBF and other physiological parameters in living pig brain. PMID:15925140

Andersen, Flemming; Watanabe, Hideaki; Bjarkam, Carsten; Danielsen, Erik H; Cumming, Paul



EEG based brain source localization comparison of sLORETA and eLORETA.  


Human brain generates electromagnetic signals during certain activation inside the brain. The localization of the active sources which are responsible for such activation is termed as brain source localization. This process of source estimation with the help of EEG which is also known as EEG inverse problem is helpful to understand physiological, pathological, mental, functional abnormalities and cognitive behaviour of the brain. This understanding leads for the specification for diagnoses of various brain disorders such as epilepsy and tumour. Different approaches are devised to exactly localize the active sources with minimum localization error, less complexity and more validation which include minimum norm, low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), standardized LORETA, exact LORETA, Multiple Signal classifier, focal under determined system solution etc. This paper discusses and compares the ability of localizing the sources for two low resolution methods i.e., sLORETA and eLORETA respectively. The ERP data with visual stimulus is used for comparison at four different time instants for both methods (sLORETA and eLORETA) and then corresponding activation in terms of scalp map, slice view and cortex map is discussed. PMID:25359588

Jatoi, Munsif Ali; Kamel, Nidal; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Faye, Ibrahima



Low-resolution optical spectra of ultracool dwarfs with OSIRIS/GTC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of low-resolution optical spectroscopy with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and Low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) for a sample of ultracool dwarfs. For a subsample of seven objects, based on 2 Micron Sky Survey (2MASS) NIR photometric colours, a `photometric' spectral type is determined and compared to the results of the optical spectroscopy. For the stars, showing H? line in emission, equivalent widths were measured, and the ratio of H? to bolometric luminosity were calculated. We find that two dwarfs show the presence of magnetic activity over long periods, LP 326-21 - quasi-constant-like, and 2MASS J17071830+6439331 - variable.

Metodieva, Y.; Antonova, A.; Golev, V.; Dimitrov, D.; García-Álvarez, D.; Doyle, J. G.



Confidence intervals for fitting of atomic models into low-resolution densities  

PubMed Central

The fitting of high-resolution structures into low-resolution densities obtained from techniques such as electron microscopy or small-angle X-ray scattering can yield powerful new insights. While several algorithms for achieving optimal fits have recently been developed, relatively little effort has been devoted to developing objective measures for judging the quality of the resulting fits, in particular with regard to the danger of overfitting. Here, a general method is presented for obtaining confidence intervals for atomic coordinates resulting from fitting of atomic resolution domain structures into low-resolution densities using well established statistical tools. It is demonstrated that the resulting confidence intervals are sufficiently accurate to allow meaningful statistical tests and to provide tools for detecting potential overfitting. PMID:19564688

Volkmann, Niels



Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats  

PubMed Central

Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent



Simultaneous Estimation of Super-Resolved Scene and Depth Map from Low Resolution Defocused Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel technique to simultaneously estimate the depth map and the focused image of a scene, both at a super-resolution, from its defocused observations. Super-resolution refers to the generation of high spatial resolution images from a sequence of low resolution images. Hitherto, the super-resolution technique has been restricted mostly to the intensity domain. In this paper, we

Deepu Rajan; Subhasis Chaudhuri



Low resolution method using adaptive LMS scheme for moving objects detection and tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new model for adaptive filter with the least-mean-square (LMS) scheme to train the mask operation on low resolution images. The adaptive filter theory with adaptive least-mean-square scheme (ALMSS) uses the training mask for moving object detection and tracking. However, the successful moving objects detection in a real surrounding environment is a difficult task due to noise

Chih-Hsien Hsia; Yi-Ping Yeh; Tsung-Cheng Wu; Jen-Shiun Chiang; Yun-Jung Liou



Nonzero error method for improving output voltage regulation of low-resolution digital controllers for SMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for achieving tight output voltage regulation in digitally controlled low-power dc-dc switch-mode power supplies with low-resolution digital pulse-width modulators (DPWM) is introduced. By utilizing a non-zero scheme for coding the output voltage error, an inherent quasi sigma-delta modulation effect improving effective DPWM resolution is obtained. The effectiveness of the method is experimentally verified on a 400 kHz,

Zhenyu Zhao; A. Prodic



Facial identification in very low-resolution images simulating prosthetic vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.

Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.



Structural and conformational analysis of scorpion (Buthus sindicus) hemocyanin using low resolution techniques.  


Blue oxygen binding protein hemocyanin from scorpion Buthus sindicus has been investigated using low resolution techniques. The native protein is a polymer of eight different types of subunits arranged in four cubic hexameric form (4x6-mers) as previously annotated using a combination of various types of chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques. In addition, both "top face" as well as the "side view" of the native assembly has also been identified from the negatively stained specimens using transmission electron microscopy confirming the overall structural features of arthropodan hemocyanins. These results are also supported from data obtained from another low resolution technique i.e. Small Angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS results under oxygenated and deoxygenated states represent a validation case for this technique with key conformational changes of Rg 88.0 --> 86.0 A; +/- 1% (Dmax 280.0 --> 290.0 A; +/- 2%), respectively suggesting that the oxygenated hemocyanin is longer then the deoxygenated hemocyanin by almost 2 A;. Likewise, active conformations of the purified structural and functional subunit Bsin1 under oxygenated and deoxygenated states also determined by SAXS measurements revealed a Rg value of 25.2 --> 25.7 A; +/- 1% (Dmax 75.0 --> 75.5 A; +/- 2%), respectively suggesting very little or no contribution of the individual subunit in the overall conformational change in the native assembly during molecular breathing. Preliminary molecular shapes for the oxy-molecules, calculated directly from the scattering profile-alone in a model-independent procedure, superimpose well on other closely related known three-dimensional structures of the same size. Structural and functional aspects of the native as well as purified subunit and the application of these low resolution techniques like transmission electron microscopy and Small Angle X-ray scattering have been discussed. PMID:17584175

Ali, Syed Abid; Grossmann, J Günter; Abbasi, Atiya; Voelter, Wolfgang



On the categorization of uranium materials using low resolution gamma ray spectrometry.  


In order to characterize uranium materials during e.g. nuclear safeguards inspections and in initial stages of nuclear forensic investigations, hand-held low resolution gamma ray detection instruments with automatic uranium categorization capabilities may be used. In this paper, simulated response curves for a number of matrices applied on NaI(Tl) scintillation detector spectra show that the result of the categorization is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the uranium material. Recommendations on how to minimize the possibility of misclassification are discussed. PMID:23208231

Vesterlund, A; Ulvsand, T; Lidström, K; Skarnemark, G; Ekberg, C; Ramebäck, H



Autonomous Motion Segmentation of Multiple Objects in Low Resolution Video Using Variational Level Sets  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research that was done during a ten week internship in the Sapphire research group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the Summer of 2003. The goal of the study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of isolating (segmenting) moving objects in low resolution video sequences. This capability is currently being developed by the Sapphire research group as the first stage in a longer term video data mining project. This report gives a chronological account of what ideas were tried in developing the algorithm and what was learned from each attempt. The final version of the algorithm, which is described in detail, gives good results and is fast.

Moelich, M



Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 18. 3. Part 2. Low-resolution spectroscopy. Report for March-June 1953  

SciTech Connect

Low-resolution spectrographs which provided varying degrees of time resolution were operated successfully at Operation Upshot-Knothole. The data were studied to determine the time and spatial variation of fireball spectra.

Curcio, J.A.; Duncan, C.H.; Drummeter, L.F.



FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.  


Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam



Aggregation and self-assembly of hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei: low-resolution structural models.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobins are secreted fungal proteins, which have diverse roles in fungal growth and development. They lower the surface tension of water, work as adhesive agents and coatings, and function through self-assembly. One of the characteristic properties of hydrophobins is their tendency to form fibrillar or rod-like aggregates at interfaces. Their structure is still poorly known. In a step to elucidate the structure/function relation of hydrophobin self-assembly, we present the low-resolution structure of self-assembled fibrils of the class II hydrophobin HFBII from Trichoderma reesei based on small and wide-angle x-ray scattering. We first studied the solution state (10 mg/mL) of both HFBI and HFBII and showed that they formed assemblages in aqueous solution, which have a radius of gyration of ~24 A and maximum dimension of ~65 A, corresponding to the size of a tetramer. This result was supported by size-exclusion chromatography. Undried samples of HFBII fibrils had a monoclinic crystalline structure, which changed to hexagonal when the material was dried. A low-resolution structure for the HFBII fibrils is suggested. There are data in the literature based on staining properties suggesting that hydrophobins of class I form assemblies with an amyloid structure. Comparison of the HFBII data (x-ray results, staining with thioflavin T) to published data showed that the HFBII assemblages are not amyloid. PMID:12324441

Torkkeli, Mika; Serimaa, Ritva; Ikkala, Olli; Linder, Markus



Modeling shape and topology of low-resolution density maps of biological macromolecules.  

PubMed Central

In the present work we develop an efficient way of representing the geometry and topology of volumetric datasets of biological structures from medium to low resolution, aiming at storing and querying them in a database framework. We make use of a new vector quantization algorithm to select the points within the macromolecule that best approximate the probability density function of the original volume data. Connectivity among points is obtained with the use of the alpha shapes theory. This novel data representation has a number of interesting characteristics, such as 1) it allows us to automatically segment and quantify a number of important structural features from low-resolution maps, such as cavities and channels, opening the possibility of querying large collections of maps on the basis of these quantitative structural features; 2) it provides a compact representation in terms of size; 3) it contains a subset of three-dimensional points that optimally quantify the densities of medium resolution data; and 4) a general model of the geometry and topology of the macromolecule (as opposite to a spatially unrelated bunch of voxels) is easily obtained by the use of the alpha shapes theory. PMID:12124252

De-Alarcón, Pedro A; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Gupta, Amarnath; Carazo, Jose M



Method for obtaining a high resolution protein map starting from a low resolution map.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for estimating the phases of high resolution single-crystal diffraction data from proteins, by using as a starting point a set of low resolution phases (about 3 A) derived by multiple isomorphous replacement (or other) methods. The method consists in refining by least-squares the positions and thermal parameters of a set of dummy atoms placed in the initial low resolution electron density map, so as to minimize the discrepancy between the calculated scattering intensities and the scattering intensities observed in the high resolution data set. Phases calculated from these refined atomic positions are used to extend the resolution and to improve the quality of the electron density map. The success of the method depends on a new least-squares algorithm that has a radius of convergence of about 0.75 A. This large radius of convergence, together with the severe restrictions placed on the initial positions of the dummy atoms by the requirement that they lie within limited regions of the isomorphous electron density map, and the constraint imposed by the polymeric nature of a polypeptide chain account for the success of the method. The method has been successfully used to phase the structure factors of 2-zinc insulin at a resolution of 2 A and 1.5 A, starting from a set of isomorphous phases at 3-A resolution. PMID:268634

Agarwal, R C; Isaacs, N W



A concept to standardize raw biosignal transmission for brain-computer interfaces.  


With this concept we introduced the attempt of a standardized interface called TiA to transmit raw biosignals. TiA is able to deal with multirate and block-oriented data transmission. Data is distinguished by different signal types (e.g., EEG, EOG, NIRS, …), whereby those signals can be acquired at the same time from different acquisition devices. TiA is built as a client-server model. Multiple clients can connect to one server. Information is exchanged via a control- and a separated data connection. Control commands and meta information are transmitted over the control connection. Raw biosignal data is delivered using the data connection in a unidirectional way. For this purpose a standardized handshaking protocol and raw data packet have been developed. Thus, an abstraction layer between hardware devices and data processing was evolved facilitating standardization. PMID:22255797

Breitwieser, Christian; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R



Standardizing the intrinsic brain: towards robust measurement of inter-individual variation in 1000 functional connectomes.  


As researchers increase their efforts to characterize variations in the functional connectome across studies and individuals, concerns about the many sources of nuisance variation present and their impact on resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures continue to grow. Although substantial within-site variation can exist, efforts to aggregate data across multiple sites such as the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI) datasets amplify these concerns. The present work draws upon standardization approaches commonly used in the microarray gene expression literature, and to a lesser extent recent imaging studies, and compares them with respect to their impact on relationships between common R-fMRI measures and nuisance variables (e.g., imaging site, motion), as well as phenotypic variables of interest (age, sex). Standardization approaches differed with regard to whether they were applied post-hoc vs. during pre-processing, and at the individual vs. group level; additionally they varied in whether they addressed additive effects vs. additive+multiplicative effects, and were parametric vs. non-parametric. While all standardization approaches were effective at reducing undesirable relationships with nuisance variables, post-hoc approaches were generally more effective than global signal regression (GSR). Across approaches, correction for additive effects (global mean) appeared to be more important than for multiplicative effects (global SD) for all R-fMRI measures, with the exception of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Group-level post-hoc standardizations for mean-centering and variance-standardization were found to be advantageous in their ability to avoid the introduction of artifactual relationships with standardization parameters; though results between individual and group-level post-hoc approaches were highly similar overall. While post-hoc standardization procedures drastically increased test-retest (TRT) reliability for ALFF, modest reductions were observed for other measures after post-hoc standardizations-a phenomena likely attributable to the separation of voxel-wise from global differences among subjects (global mean and SD demonstrated moderate TRT reliability for these measures). Finally, the present work calls into question previous observations of increased anatomical specificity for GSR over mean centering, and draws attention to the near equivalence of global and gray matter signal regression. PMID:23631983

Yan, Chao-Gan; Craddock, R Cameron; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Milham, Michael P



Development and use of a kinetic FDG-PET dataset simulated from the MNI standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulated data is an important tool for evaluation of reconstruction and image processing algorithms in the frequent absence of ground truth, in-vivo data from living subjects. This is especially true in the case of dynamic PET studies, in which counting statistics of the volume can vary widely over the time-course of the acquisition. Realistic simulated data-sets which model anatomy and physiology, and make explicit the spatial and temporal image acquisition characteristics, facilitate experimentation with a wide range of the conditions anticipated in practice, and which can severely challenge algorithm performance and reliability. As a first example, we have developed a realistic dynamic FDG-PET data-set using the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulation code and the MNI digital brain phantom. The phantom is a three-dimensional data-set that defines the spatial distribution of different tissues. Time activity curves were calculated using an impulse response function specified by generally accepted rate constants, convolved with an input function obtained by blood sampling, and assigned to grey and white matter tissue regions. We created a dynamic PET study using PET-SORTEO configured to simulate an ECAT Exact HR+. The resulting sinograms were reconstructed with all corrections, using variations of FBP and OSEM. Having constructed the dynamic PET data-sets, we used them to evaluate the performance of intensity-based registration as part of a tool for quantifying hyper/hypo perfusion with particular application to analysis of brain dementia scans, and a study of the stability of kinetic parameter estimation.

Schottlander, David; Guimond, Alexandre; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Brady, Michael; Declerck, Jérôme; Collins, Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Reilhac, Anthonin



[The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].  


The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng



Hybrid-resolution spectral video system using low-resolution spectral sensor.  


This paper presents a prototype of a spectral video system based on hybrid resolution spectral imaging. The system consists of a commercial three-channel color camera and a low-resolution spectral sensor which captures a 68-pixel spectral image by a single snap-shot. By combining the measurement data from both devices, the system produces high-resolution spectral image data frame by frame. The accuracy of the spectral data measured by the system is evaluated at some selected regions in the image. As a result, it is confirmed that spectra can be measured with less or around 10% of normalized root mean squared error. In addition, the capture of spectral videos in 3 frame-per-second and the real-time color reproduction in the same frame rate from the spectral video are demonstrated. PMID:25321241

Murakami, Yuri; Nakazaki, Keiichiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro



Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes  

SciTech Connect

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

Rabaza, O., E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)] [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain) [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Department of Systems and Automatic Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Zeman, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic) [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Sabau-Graziati, L. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)] [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)



VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAS Low Resolution Spectra (IRAS team, 1987)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IRAS survey instrumentation included a low-resolution spectrometer which covered the wavelength range between 8 and 22 um. The spectrometer operated during the entire survey, providing spectra of the brighter point sources. For details about the spectrometer, the reader is referred to the published book, chapter IX. The spectra included in file "lrs.dat" contain 200 points each, 100 points in the 8-13um range, and 100 points in the 11-22um range. There is therefore an overlapping between the longer wavelengths of the first sample and the shorter wavelengths of the second sample. The data points are stored as scaled integer arrays in the file "lrs.dat"; the corresponding values of the wavelengths are available in the file "calib.dat" . The file "lrs.dat" includes also data taken from the IRAS point source catalog . (3 data files).

Joint IRAS Science Working Group



A model-based approach for detection of objects in low resolution passive millimeter wave images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model-based vision system to assist the pilots in landing maneuvers under restricted visibility conditions is described. The system was designed to analyze image sequences obtained from a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) imaging system mounted on the aircraft to delineate runways/taxiways, buildings, and other objects on or near runways. PMMW sensors have good response in a foggy atmosphere, but their spatial resolution is very low. However, additional data such as airport model and approximate position and orientation of aircraft are available. These data are exploited to guide our model-based system to locate objects in the low resolution image and generate warning signals to alert the pilots. Also analytical expressions were derived from the accuracy of the camera position estimate obtained by detecting the position of known objects in the image.

Kasturi, Rangachar; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva



The distribution of challenge virus standard rabies virus versus skunk street rabies virus in the brains of experimentally infected rabid skunks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal that the bizarre behavioral changes which occur during rabies infection are due to selective infection of limbic system neurons was further studied in skunks (a species important in naturally occurring disease). A detailed immunohistochemical study of brains of skunks experimentally infected with either Challenge virus standard (CVS) or street rabies virus revealed only trace amounts of viral antigen

N. L. Smart; K. M. Charlton




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical, contains a short article on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.



Dioxins in beef samples from Mexico using a low resolution GC/MS screening method.  


Dioxins in beef were quantified by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/LRMS). The analyses were performed according to the minimum requirements described in the USEPA 1613 method with some minor modifications. Levels found in the samples were in the range 1.02-8.04 pg WHO-TEQ PCDDs/PCDFs g(-1) fat. For comparison purposes, the maximum level allowed by the European Union is 3 pg WHO-TEQ PCDDs/PCDFs g(-1) fat, and some of these samples surpassed the above-mentioned limit and can be considered as contaminated food. The results confirm that a preliminary screening of dioxins in beef can be performed by GC/LRMS. As far as we know, this is the first report of dioxins in beef in Mexico. After the appropriated tests, the applied methodology could be considered as an alternative screening method for the analysis of PCDD/Fs in other food products. PMID:24785318

Naccha, Lidia; Alanis, Guadalupe; Torres, Anabel; Abad, Esteban; Ábalos, Manuela; Rivera, Josep; Heyer, Lorenzo; Morales, Alberto; Waksman, Noemí



Laplace Inversion of Low-Resolution NMR Relaxometry Data Using Sparse Representation Methods  

PubMed Central

Low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (LR-NMR) relaxometry is a powerful tool that can be harnessed for characterizing constituents in complex materials. Conversion of the relaxation signal into a continuous distribution of relaxation components is an ill-posed inverse Laplace transform problem. The most common numerical method implemented today for dealing with this kind of problem is based on L2-norm regularization. However, sparse representation methods via L1 regularization and convex optimization are a relatively new approach for effective analysis and processing of digital images and signals. In this article, a numerical optimization method for analyzing LR-NMR data by including non-negativity constraints and L1 regularization and by applying a convex optimization solver PDCO, a primal-dual interior method for convex objectives, that allows general linear constraints to be treated as linear operators is presented. The integrated approach includes validation of analyses by simulations, testing repeatability of experiments, and validation of the model and its statistical assumptions. The proposed method provides better resolved and more accurate solutions when compared with those suggested by existing tools. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 42A: 72–88, 2013. PMID:23847452

Berman, Paula; Levi, Ofer; Parmet, Yisrael; Saunders, Michael; Wiesman, Zeev



Replica Exchange Improves Sampling in Low-Resolution Docking Stage of RosettaDock  

PubMed Central

Many protein-protein docking protocols are based on a shotgun approach, in which thousands of independent random-start trajectories minimize the rigid-body degrees of freedom. Another strategy is enumerative sampling as used in ZDOCK. Here, we introduce an alternative strategy, ReplicaDock, using a small number of long trajectories of temperature replica exchange. We compare replica exchange sampling as low-resolution stage of RosettaDock with RosettaDock's original shotgun sampling as well as with ZDOCK. A benchmark of 30 complexes starting from structures of the unbound binding partners shows improved performance for ReplicaDock and ZDOCK when compared to shotgun sampling at equal or less computational expense. ReplicaDock and ZDOCK consistently reach lower energies and generate significantly more near-native conformations than shotgun sampling. Accordingly, they both improve typical metrics of prediction quality of complex structures after refinement. Additionally, the refined ReplicaDock ensembles reach significantly lower interface energies and many previously hidden features of the docking energy landscape become visible when ReplicaDock is applied. PMID:24009670

Zhang, Zhe; Lange, Oliver F.



Using Sculptor and Situs for Simultaneous Assembly of Atomic Components into Low-Resolution Shapes  

PubMed Central

We describe an integrated software system called Sculptor that combines visualization capabilities with molecular modeling algorithms for the analysis of multi-scale data sets. Sculptor features extensive special purpose visualization techniques that are based on modern GPU programming and are capable of representing complex molecular assemblies in real-time. The integration of graphics and modeling offers several advantages. The user interface not only eases the usually steep learning curve of pure algorithmic techniques, but it also permits instant analysis and post-processing of results, as well as the integration of results from external software. Here, we implemented an interactive peak-selection strategy that enables the user to explore a preliminary score landscape generated by the colores tool of Situs. The interactive placement of components, one at a time, is advantageous for low-resolution or ambiguously shaped maps, which are sometimes difficult to interpret by the fully automatic peak selection of colores. For the subsequent refinement of the preliminary models resulting from both interactive and automatic peak selection, we have implemented a novel simultaneous multi-body docking in Sculptor and Situs that softly enforces shape complementarities between components using the normalization of the cross-correlation coefficient. The proposed techniques are freely available in Situs version 2.6 and Sculptor version 2.0. PMID:21078392

Birmanns, Stefan; Rusu, Mirabela; Wriggers, Willy



High-resolution land cover classification using low resolution global data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion approach is described that combines texture features from high-resolution panchromatic imagery with land cover statistics derived from co-registered low-resolution global databases to obtain high-resolution land cover maps. The method does not require training data or any human intervention. We use an MxN Gabor filter bank consisting of M=16 oriented bandpass filters (0-180°) at N resolutions (3-24 meters/pixel). The size range of these spatial filters is consistent with the typical scale of manmade objects and patterns of cultural activity in imagery. Clustering reduces the complexity of the data by combining pixels that have similar texture into clusters (regions). Texture classification assigns a vector of class likelihoods to each cluster based on its textural properties. Classification is unsupervised and accomplished using a bank of texture anomaly detectors. Class likelihoods are modulated by land cover statistics derived from lower resolution global data over the scene. Preliminary results from a number of Quickbird scenes show our approach is able to classify general land cover features such as roads, built up area, forests, open areas, and bodies of water over a wide range of scenes.

Carlotto, Mark J.



Interpreting a Low Resolution Map of Human U1 snRNP Using Anomalous Scatterers  

PubMed Central

Summary We recently determined the crystal structure of the functional core of human U1 snRNP, consisting of nine proteins and one RNA, based on a 5.5 Å resolution electron density map. At 5–7 Å resolution, ? helices and ? sheets appear as rods and slabs, respectively, hence it is not possible to determine protein fold de novo. Using inverse beam geometry, accurate anomalous signals were obtained from weakly diffracting and radiation sensitive P1 crystals. We were able to locate anomalous scatterers with positional errors below 2 Å. This enabled us not only to place protein domains of known structure accurately into the map but also to trace an extended polypeptide chain, of previously undetermined structure, using selenomethionine derivatives of single methionine mutants spaced along the sequence. This method of Se-Met scanning, in combination with structure prediction, is a powerful tool for building a protein of unknown fold into a low resolution electron density map. PMID:19604473

Oubridge, Chris; Krummel, Daniel A. Pomeranz; Leung, Adelaine K.-W.; Li, Jade; Nagai, Kiyoshi



Spitzer/infrared spectrograph investigation of MIPSGAL 24 {\\mu}m compact bubbles : Low resolution observations  

E-print Network

We present Spitzer/IRS low resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 {\\mu}m Galactic Plane Survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories, and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid- IR. The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low excitation spectra, and their 24 {\\mu}m emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 {\\mu}m, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 {\\mu}m, [Ne III] 15.5 {\\mu}m), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50 to almost 100% of the 24 {\\mu}m emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., [WR], novae) at their centers. ...

Nowak, M; Noriega-Crespo, A; Billot, N; Carey, S J; Paladini, R; Van Dyk, S D



Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream: Identifying Stream Members from Low-resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s-1. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, ?([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth



Low resolution structure of bovine rhodopsin determined by electron cryo-microscopy.  

PubMed Central

The visual pigment rhodopsin is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. Electron cryo-microscopy was used to determine the three-dimensional structure of bovine rhodopsin from tilted two-dimensional crystals embedded in vitrified water. The effective resolution in a map obtained from the 23 best crystals was about 9.5 A horizontally and approximately 47 A normal to the plane of the membrane. Four clearly resolved tracks of density in the map correspond to four alpha-helices oriented nearly perpendicular to the plane of the membrane. One of these helices appears to be more tilted than anticipated from the projection structure published previously. The remaining three helices are presumably more highly tilted, given that they form a continuous "arc-shaped" feature and could not be resolved to the same extent. The overall density distribution in the low resolution map shows an arrangement of the helices in which the "arc-shaped" feature is extended by a fourth, less tilted helix. The band of these four tilted helices is flanked by a straight helix on the outer side and a pair of straight helices on its inner side. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 PMID:7612819

Unger, V M; Schertler, G F



Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?  


The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research. PMID:18584309

Ravid, Rivka



Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?  


The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research. PMID:17985213

Ravid, Rivka



A comparison study of tropical Pacific ocean state estimation: Low-resolution assimilation vs. high-resolution simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison study is performed to contrast the improvements in the tropical Pacific oceanic state of a low-resolution model respectively via data assimilation and by an increase in horizontal resolution. A low resolution model (LR) (1°lat by 2°lon) and a high-resolution model (HR) (0.5°lat by 0.5°lon) are employed for the comparison. The authors perform 20-yr numerical experiments and analyze the annual mean fields of temperature and salinity. The results indicate that the low-resolution model with data assimilation behaves better than the high-resolution model in the estimation of ocean large-scale features. From 1990 to 2000, the average of HR’s RMSE (root-mean-square error) relative to independent Tropical Atmosphere Ocean project (TAO) mooring data at randomly selected points is 0.97°C compared to a RMSE of 0.56°C for LR with temperature assimilation. Moreover, the LR with data assimilation is more frugal in computation. Although there is room to improve the high-resolution model, the low-resolution model with data assimilation may be an advisable choice in achieving a more realistic large-scale state of the ocean at the limited level of information provided by the current observational system.

Fu, Weiwei; Zhu, Jiang; Zhou, Guangqing; Wang, Huijun



Mediterranean region cyclone climatology and low resolution GCM capabilities in its reproduction (directly and using statistical downscaling technique)  

SciTech Connect

The present study is aimed at the investigation of the low resolution GCM of the Hydrometcentre of Russia capability to describe the climatological properties of Mediterranean cyclones. For this, we calculate certain cyclone statistics (at 500mb and surface) by empirical data and from numerical experiments (several decades both), and perform comparative analysis of climatology means and variability.

Rubinatein, K. [Hydrometcenre of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bardin, M. [Institute for Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Performance comparison between high and low resolution spectrophotometers used in a white light surface plasmon resonance sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the conclusions of earlier research, the response of a planar substrate white light surface plasmon resonance sensor was simultaneously measured with high resolution (1024 channel) and low resolution (16 channel) spectrophotometers. The sensor’s response to a series of sucrose solutions was calibrated using data from both systems. Multivariate analyses based on principle component regression and locally weighted parametric

Kyle S. Johnston; Karl S. Booksh; Timothy M. Chinowsky; Sinclair S. Yee



Simultaneous Estimation of Super-Resolved Intensity and Depth Maps from Low Resolution Defocused Observations of a Scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel technique to simultaneously estimate the depth map and the focused image of a scene, both at a super-resolution, from its defocused observations. Given a sequence of low resolution, blurred and noisy observations of a static scene, the problem is to generate a dense depth map at a resolution higher than one that can be generated

Deepu Rajan; Subhasis Chaudhuri



LRS2: the new facility low resolution integral field spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second generation Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2) is a new facility instrument for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Based on the design of the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), which is the new flagship instrument for carrying out the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), LRS2 provides integral field spectroscopy for a seeing-limited field of 12" x 6". For LRS2, the replicable design of VIRUS has been leveraged to gain broad wavelength coverage from 370 nm to 1.0 ?m, spread between two fiber-fed dual- channel spectrographs, each of which can operate as an independent instrument. The blue spectrograph, LRS2-B, covers 370 ? (nm) <= 470 and 460 <= ? (nm) <= 700 at fixed resolving powers of R = ?/?? ? 1900 and 1100, respectively, while the red spectrograph, LRS2-R, covers 650 <= ? (nm) <= 842 and 818 <= ? (nm) <= 1050 with both of its channels having R ? 1800. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the instrument's design in which we focus on the departures from the basic VIRUS framework. The primary modifications include the fore-optics that are used to feed the fiber integral field units at unity fill-factor, the cameras' correcting optics and detectors, and the volume phase holographic grisms. We also present a model of the instrument's sensitivity and a description of specific science cases that have driven the design of LRS2, including systematically studying the spatially resolved properties of extended Ly? blobs at 2 < z < 3. LRS2 will provide a powerful spectroscopic follow-up platform for large surveys such as HETDEX.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.



RESEARCH PAPER: Automated estimation of stellar fundamental parameters from low resolution spectra: the PLS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLS (Partial Least Squares regression) is introduced into an automatic estimation of fundamental stellar spectral parameters. It extracts the most correlative spectral component to the parameters (Teff, log g and [Fe/H]), and sets up a linear regression function from spectra to the corresponding parameters. Considering the properties of stellar spectra and the PLS algorithm, we present a piecewise PLS regression method for estimation of stellar parameters, which is composed of one PLS model for Teff, and seven PLS models for log g and [Fe/H] estimation. Its performance is investigated by large experiments on flux calibrated spectra and continuum normalized spectra at different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and resolutions. The results show that the piecewise PLS method is robust for spectra at the medium resolution of 0.23 nm. For low resolution 0.5 nm and 1 nm spectra, it achieves competitive results at higher SNR. Experiments using ELODIE spectra of 0.23 nm resolution illustrate that our piecewise PLS models trained with MILES spectra are efficient for O ~ G stars: for flux calibrated spectra, the systematic offsets are 3.8%, 0.14 dex, and -0.09 dex for Teff, log g and [Fe/H], with error scatters of 5.2%, 0.44 dex and 0.38 dex, respectively; for continuum normalized spectra, the systematic offsets are 3.8%, 0.12dex, and -0.13dex for Teff, log g and [Fe/H], with error scatters of 5.2%, 0.49 dex and 0.41 dex, respectively. The PLS method is rapid, easy to use and does not rely as strongly on the tightness of a parameter grid of templates to reach high precision as Artificial Neural Networks or minimum distance methods do.

Zhang, Jian-Nan; Luo, A.-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng



Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis and  

E-print Network

Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography tomography was used to compute intracerebral cur- rent density. For the control group, voxelwise analyses, Stress, Prefrontal cortex, Low resolution electro- magnetic tomography (LORETA) In recent years

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Exact likelihood evaluations and foreground marginalization in low resolution WMAP data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale anisotropies of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data have attracted a lot of attention and have been a source of controversy, with many favorite cosmological models being apparently disfavored by the power spectrum estimates at low l. All the existing analyses of theoretical models are based on approximations for the likelihood function, which are likely to be inaccurate on large scales. Here we present exact evaluations of the likelihood of the low multipoles by direct inversion of the theoretical covariance matrix for low resolution WMAP maps. We project out the unwanted galactic contaminants using the WMAP derived maps of these foregrounds. This improves over the template based foreground subtraction used in the original analysis, which can remove some of the cosmological signal and may lead to a suppression of power. As a result we find an increase in power at low multipoles. For the quadrupole the maximum likelihood values are rather uncertain and vary between 140 and 220 ?K2. On the other hand, the probability distribution away from the peak is robust and, assuming a uniform prior between 0 and 2000 ?K2, the probability of having the true value above 1200 ?K2 (as predicted by the simplest cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant) is 10%, a factor of 2.5 higher than predicted by the WMAP likelihood code. We do not find the correlation function to be unusual beyond the low quadrupole value. We develop a fast likelihood evaluation routine that can be used instead of WMAP routines for low l values. We apply it to the Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to compare the cosmological parameters between the two cases. The new analysis of WMAP either alone or jointly with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Very Small Array (VSA) data reduces the evidence for running to less than 1?, giving ?s=-0.022±0.033 for the combined case. The new analysis prefers about a 1? lower value of ?m, a consequence of an increased integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect contribution required by the increase in the spectrum at low l. These results suggest that the details of foreground removal and full likelihood analysis are important for parameter estimation from the WMAP data. They are robust in the sense that they do not change significantly with frequency, mask, or details of foreground template marginalization. The marginalization approach presented here is the most conservative method to remove the foregrounds and should be particularly useful in the analysis of polarization, where foreground contamination may be much more severe.

Slosar, Anže; Seljak, Uroš; Makarov, Alexey



Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) can be estimated using Energy Balance models and remotely sensed data. In particular, satellite images acquired in visible, near and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum have been used with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to estimate actual evapotranspiration. This algorithm is solving the Energy Balance Equation using data from a meteorological station present in the vicinity, and assumes the meteorological conditions homogeneous over the study area. Most often, data from a representative weather station are used. This assumption may lead to substantial errors in areas with high spatial variability in weather parameters. In this paper, the ITA-MyWater algorithms (Integrated Thermodynamic Algorithms for MyWater project), an adaptation of SEBAL was merged together with spatially distributed meteorological data to increase the accuracy of ETa estimations at regional scale using MODIS satellite images. The major changes introduced to migrate from point to raster are that (i) air temperature and relative humidity maps are used for the estimation of the Energy Balance terms, including instantaneous net radiation and soil heat flux and (ii) the variability of wind speed is taken into account to generate maps of the aerodynamic resistance, sensible heat flux and difference between soil and air temperature at the boundary conditions (at dry and wet pixels). The approach was applied in the river basin of Tamega in Portugal, where actual evapotranspiration was estimated for several MODIS 8-day periods from spring to winter of the same year. The raster meteorological maps were produced by the MM5 weather forecast model. Daily reference evapotranspiration was calculated with MOHID LAND model. Using a temporal integration technique and the daily reference evapotranspiration maps, the cumulative evapotranspiration over the MODIS 8-day period was estimated and compared to the global evapotranspiration MODIS product (MOD16A2). A correlation analysis was performed at the common spatial resolution of 1km using selected homogeneous pixels (from the land cover point of view). A statistically significant correlation factor of 0.6 was found, and the RMSE was 0.92 mm/day. Using raster meteorological data the ITA-MyWater algorithms were able to catch the variability of weather patterns over the river basin and thus improved the spatial distribution of evapotranpiration estimations at low resolution. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio



Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Investigation of MIPSGAL 24 ?m Compact Bubbles: Low-resolution Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 ?m Galactic plane survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid-infrared (IR). The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low-excitation spectra, and their 24 ?m emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high-excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 ?m, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 ?m, and [Ne III] 15.5 ?m), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50% to almost 100% of the 24 ?m emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high-excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae (PNs) with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., Wolf-Rayet [WR] and novae) at their centers. The central stars of the four dust-rich MBs are all massive star candidates. Dust temperatures range from 40 to 100 K in the outer shells. We constrain the extinction along the lines of sight from the IRS spectra. We then derive distance, dust masses, and dust production rate estimates for these objects. These estimates are all consistent with the nature of the central stars. We summarize the identifications of MBs made to date and discuss the correlation between their mid-IR morphologies and natures. Candidate Be/B[e]/luminous blue variable and WR stars are mainly "rings" with mid-IR central sources, whereas PNs are mostly "disks" without mid-IR central sources. Therefore we expect that most of the 300 remaining unidentified MBs will be classified as PNs.

Nowak, M.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Billot, N.; Carey, S. J.; Paladini, R.; Van Dyk, S. D.



Extraction of High-Resolution Frame from Low-Resolution Video Sequence Using Region-Based Motion Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of recovering a high-resolution frame from a sequence of low-resolution frames is considered. In general, video frames cannot be related through global parametric transformation due to the arbitrary individual pixel movement between frame pairs. To overcome this problem, we propose to employ region-matching technique for motion estimation with a modified model for frame alignment. To do that, the reference frame is segmented into arbitrary-shaped regions which are further matched with that of the other frames. Then, the frame alignment is accomplished by optimizing the cost function that consists of L1-norm of the difference between the interpolated low-resolution (LR) frames and the simulated LR frames. The experimental results demonstrate that using region matching in motion estimation step with the modified alignment model works better than other motion models such as affine, block matching, and optical flow motion models.

Omer, Osama Ahmed; Tanaka, Toshihisa


Wnt Activation of Immortalized Brain Endothelial Cells as a Tool for Generating a Standardized Model of the Blood Brain Barrier In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Reproducing the characteristics and the functional responses of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro represents an important task for the research community, and would be a critical biotechnological breakthrough. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries provide strong demand for inexpensive and easy-to-handle in vitro BBB models to screen novel drug candidates. Recently, it was shown that canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for the induction of the BBB properties in the neonatal brain microvasculature in vivo. In the present study, following on from earlier observations, we have developed a novel model of the BBB in vitro that may be suitable for large scale screening assays. This model is based on immortalized endothelial cell lines derived from murine and human brain, with no need for co-culture with astrocytes. To maintain the BBB endothelial cell properties, the cell lines are cultured in the presence of Wnt3a or drugs that stabilize ?-catenin, or they are infected with a transcriptionally active form of ?-catenin. Upon these treatments, the cell lines maintain expression of BBB-specific markers, which results in elevated transendothelial electrical resistance and reduced cell permeability. Importantly, these properties are retained for several passages in culture, and they can be reproduced and maintained in different laboratories over time. We conclude that the brain-derived endothelial cell lines that we have investigated gain their specialized characteristics upon activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. This model may be thus suitable to test the BBB permeability to chemicals or large molecular weight proteins, transmigration of inflammatory cells, treatments with cytokines, and genetic manipulation. PMID:23940549

Paolinelli, Roberta; Artus, Cédric; Czupalla, Cathrin J.; Rudini, Noemi; Maddaluno, Luigi; Papa, Eleanna; Engelhardt, Britta; Couraud, Pierre Olivier; Liebner, Stefan; Dejana, Elisabetta



The scientifically substantiated art of teaching: A study in the development of standards in the new academic field of neuroeducation (mind, brain, and education science)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts from neuroeducation, commonly referred in the popular press as "brain-based learning," have been applied indiscreetly and inconsistently to classroom teaching practices for many years. While standards exist in neurology, psychology and pedagogy, there are no agreed upon standards in their intersection, neuroeducation, and a formal bridge linking the fields is missing. This study used grounded theory development to determine the parameters of the emerging neuroeducational field based on a meta-analysis of the literature over the past 30 years, which included over 2,200 documents. This research results in a new model for neuroeducation. The design of the new model was followed by a Delphi survey of 20 international experts from six different countries that further refined the model contents over several months of reflection. Finally, the revised model was compared to existing information sources, including popular press, peer review journals, academic publications, teacher training textbooks and the Internet, to determine to what extent standards in neuroeducation are met in the current literature. This study determined that standards in the emerging field, now labeled Mind, Brain, and Education: The Science of Teaching and Learning after the Delphi rounds, are the union of standards in the parent fields of neuroscience, psychology, and education. Additionally, the Delphi expert panel agreed upon the goals of the new discipline, its history, the thought leaders, and a model for judging quality information. The study culminated in a new model of the academic discipline of Mind, Brain, and Education science, which explains the tenets, principles and instructional guidelines supported by the meta-analysis of the literature and the Delphi response.

Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey Noel


On the utility of low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800 A Mg II lines as a stellar chromosphere indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800-A Mg II h and k lines is shown to provide a useful means for documenting chromospheric activity among relatively young dwarf stars. An index I(Mg II) has been defined which measures the integrated flux in the region 2784-2814 A relative to the flux interpolated from nearby comparison regions. Values of this index have been derived from low resolution IUE spectra for a sample of field dwarfs for which Ca II H and K line indices have been published as part of the Mount Wilson HK program. The large range in chromospheric activity among field dwarfs that is exhibited by the Mount Wilson Ca II S index is found to also be reflected by the lower resolution I(Mg II) index. Using an age calibration of Ca II emission line strengths derived by Barry, it is found that the value of I(Mg II) can be used to distinguish between dwarfs younger and older than 3 Gyr. The low resolution nature of the I(Mg II) index means that it holds potential for use as an age diagnostic for stellar population studies. Among dwarfs of age greater than 3 Gyr there is some evidence that this Mg II index is affected by line blanketing.

Smith, Graeme H.; Burstein, David; Fanelli, Michael N.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Wu, C.-C.



MCM'10: An Experiment for satellite Multispectral Crop Monitoring. From high to low resolution observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a changing climate context, it becomes increasingly important to accurately estimate the physical processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in order to predict climate changes and its impact on ecosystems. Increase of human pressure and changes in land use management contribute to alter water and energy budgets and carbon sequestration in the soils. Therefore, it is essential 1) to work towards a better understanding of the different processes governing water, carbon and energy exchanges between the continental biosphere in anthropised areas and the atmosphere, 2) to monitor land use, vegetation (crop) dynamics, soil and crop management. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the MCM'10 (Multispectral Crop Monitoring) experiment which has been conducted in 2010 (from February to November) by the CESBIO laboratory, in France. This experiment is based on the use of multispectral satellite acquisitions (radar, thermal and optical) and the associated ground measurements performed over about 400 agricultural fields located in the south west of France (43°29'36''N, 1°14'14''E). Optical data are acquired by FORMOSAT-2 and SPOT4-5 satellites. Radar data are provided by SAR sensors onboard TERRASAR-X (X-band), RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band). Thermal data come from the LANDSAT-TM 5 and 7 sensors. Low resolution data have been also collected to further study upscaling and downscaling approaches over a strongly heterogeneous landscape. Analyses of satellite data are performed by comparing them with ground data collected from local to regional scale. At the local scale, 37 fields are systematically monitored for each satellite overpass. Three of them are equipped with meteorological stations (radiations, water and carbon fluxes sensors…). Measures are performed over different soil types (clay, silt, gravels…) and for the main crops encountered in France and Europe (wheat, corn, sunflower, soybean, sorghum…). Soil conditions monitoring consists in measuring the soil surface moisture (SSM) and the soil surface roughness by using respectively a mobile theta probe sensor and a 2m profilometer. For each field, once a week, a mean of 30 SSM values are acquired and 4 roughness profiles are performed (for which correlation length, type of the autocorrelation function and rms height are estimated). For each crops, measurements consist in collecting wet and dry biomass, total water content and its vertical distribution. All these data are collected all along the growing period until harvest. At regional scale, 350 fields are monitored to identify crop species, soil management, soil tillage orientation, crops residues… providing a wide dataset of contrasted surface states. Spatio-temporal behaviours of the backscattering coefficient acquired at different frequency are analysed for different soil and vegetation conditions. First results show that multifrequency radar signal provides a wide range of applications for surface monitoring (see Fieuzal et al., 2012 submitted in this conference). An overview of future applications is given in this presentation in the framework of the following satellite missions: Sentinel and Radarsat-2 constellations, TerraSAR-L… Authors would like to thank especially Space Agencies for their support and confidence they have in this project (ESA, CSA, DLR, JAXA and CNES)

Baup, F.; Fieuzal, R.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Dejoux, J. F.; le Dantec, V.; Mordelet, P.; Claverie, M.; Demarez, V.; Hagolle, O.; Lopes, A.; Keravec, P.; Ceschia, E.; Mialon, A.; Kidd, R.



Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscoy  

SciTech Connect

In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants``, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 0.1 mrem per year to the maximally exposed individual are considered ``major`` and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method; and 15 were assessed. The most significant,result from this study was the redesignation. of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being ``minor``, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

Barnett, J.M.



Temperature evaluation of UF6 and cluster detection in nozzle expansion using low-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous supersonic expansion of pure gaseous UF6 and mixtures of UF6 with argon and nitrogen through a bidimensional nozzle was studied using low-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the Ƚ absorption band region. The experiments were carried out in order to calculate the molecular temperature of the beam and also to verify cluster formation in the expansion. The molecular beam temperature evaluation was based on the measurements of the low-resolution bandwidth, which were compared to simulated spectra results. The temperatures were also evaluated using the measured pressure at the end of the nozzle by a pitot tube. In the conditions where no cluster formation was observed the calculated theoretical temperatures using an equilibrium expansion model are in good agreement with the data obtained through the analysis of the experimental spectra and through the pitot tube pressure measurement. Cluster formation was observed for temperatures below about 120 K. In these conditions the infrared spectra showed shoulders in the region above 630 cm-1 and a shoulder or band between 616 and 600 cm-1.

Sbampato, M. E.; Antunes, L. M. D.; Miranda, S. F.; Sena, S. C.; Santos, A. M.; Santos, P. S.



Flexible Multi-scale Fitting of Atomic Structures into Low-resolution Electron Density Maps with Elastic Network Normal Mode Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is presented for the quantitative flexible docking of high-resolution structure into low-resolution maps of macromolecular complexes from electron microscopy. This method uses a linear combination of low-frequency normal modes from elastic network description of the molecular framework in an iterative manner to deform the structure optimally to conform to the low-resolution electron density map. The methodology utilizes

Florence Tama; Osamu Miyashita; Charles L. Brooks III



Location of Irritative Zone in Epileptic Brains of Schizencephalic Patients.  


Although many schizencephaly patients suffer from epilepsy, the relationship between schizencephalic lesions and epileptic foci remains unclear. Previous studies have shown that schizencephalic lesions may be associated with, rather than contain, epileptogenic zones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the current source distribution (CSD) of epileptiform discharges in schizencephalic patients and to correlate this activity with existing structural lesions. A consecutive series of 30 schizencephalic patients who were diagnosed using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were selected retrospectively and prospectively. Of the original 30 subjects selected, 13 had epilepsy, and 6 of these patients exhibited schizencephaly, epilepsy, and interictal spikes on electroencephalograms (EEG) and were enrolled in the present study investigating the current source analysis of interictal spikes. The CSDs of the initial rising phases and the peak points of the interictal spikes were obtained using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Five patients exhibited a single focus of interictal spikes, while 1 patient showed 2 foci. Relative to the structural brain lesions, 5 patients displayed extrinsically localized CSDs, while 1 patient showed a partially intrinsically localized CSD. The present findings demonstrate that the CSDs of interictal spikes in schizencephalic patients are in general anatomically distinct from the cerebral schizencephalic lesions and that these lesions may display an extrinsic epileptogenicity. PMID:25253435

Kim, Do-Hyung; Kwon, Oh-Young; Jung, Suck-Won; Jeong, Heejeong; Son, Seongnam; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kang, Heeyoung; Park, Ki-Jong; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Lim, ByeongHoon



Preoperative 3D to intraoperative low-resolution 3D and 2D sequences of MR images.  


We have developed an automatic model-based deformable registration method applicable to MR soft-tissue imaging. The registration algorithm uses a dynamic finite element (FE) continuum mechanics model of the tissue deformation to register its 3D preoperative images with intraoperative 1) 3D low-resolution or 2) 2D MR images. The registration is achieved through a filtering process that combines information from the deformation model and observation errors based on correlation ratio, mutual information or sum of square differences between images. Experimental results with a breast phantom show that the proposed method converges in few iterations in the presence of very large deformations, similar to those typically observed in breast biopsy applications. PMID:22003650

Marami, Bahram; Sirouspour, Shahin; Capson, David W



The use of EEG modifications due to motor imagery for brain-computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening of a communication channel between brain and computer [brain-computer interface (BCI)] is possible by using changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra related to the imagination of movements. In this paper, we present results obtained by recording EEG during an upper limb motor imagery task in a total of 18 subjects by using low-resolution surface Laplacian, different linear and

Febo Cincotti; Donatella Mattia; Claudio Babiloni; Filippo Carducci; Serenella Salinari; Luigi Bianchi; Maria Grazia Marciani; Fabio Babiloni



Limitations of low resolution mass spectrometry in the electron capture negative ionization mode for the analysis of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins.  


The analysis of complex mixtures of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) with short (SCCPs, C(10)-C(13)) and medium (MCCPs, C(14)-C(17)) chain lengths can be disturbed by mass overlap, if low resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS) in the electron capture negative ionization mode is employed. This is caused by CP congeners with the same nominal mass, but with five carbon atoms more and two chlorine atoms less; for example C(11)H(17)(37)Cl(35)Cl(6) ( m/ z 395.9) and C(16)H(29)(35)Cl(5) ( m/ z 396.1). This can lead to an overestimation of congener group quantity and/or of total CP concentration. The magnitude of this interference was studied by evaluating the change after mixing a SCCP standard and a MCCP standard 1+1 (S+MCCP mixture) and comparing it to the single standards. A quantification of the less abundant C(16) and C(17) congeners present in the MCCP standard was not possible due to interference from the major C(11) and C(12) congeners in the SCCPs. Also, signals for SCCPs (C(10)-C(12)) with nine and ten chlorine atoms were mimicked by MCCPs (C(15)-C(17)) with seven and eight chlorine atoms (for instance C(10)H(12)Cl(10) by C(15)H(24)Cl(8)). A similar observation was made for signals from C(15)-C(17) CPs with four and five chlorine atoms resulting from SCCPs (C(10)-C(12)) with six and seven chlorine atoms (such as C(15)H(28)Cl(4) by C(10)H(16)Cl(6)) in the S+MCCP mixture. It could be shown that the quantification of the most abundant congeners (C(11)-C(14)) is not affected by any interference. The determination of C(10) and C(15) congeners is partly disturbed, but this can be detected by investigating isotope ratios, retention time ranges and the shapes of the CP signals. Also, lower chlorinated compounds forming [M+Cl](-) as the most abundant ion instead of [M-Cl](-) are especially sensitive to systematic errors caused by superposition of ions of different composition and the same nominal mass. PMID:14997265

Reth, Margot; Oehme, Michael



A method of discriminating transuranic radionuclides from radon progeny using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy and curve-fitting techniques.  


²²²Rn (radon) and ²²?Rn (thoron) progeny are known to interfere with determining the presence of long-lived transuranic radionuclides, such as plutonium and americium, and require from several hours up to several days for conclusive results. Methods are proposed that should expedite the analysis of air samples for determining the amount of transuranic radionuclides present using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy systems available from typical alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) with multi-channel analyzer (MCA) capabilities. An alpha spectra simulation program was developed in Microsoft Excel visual basic that employed the use of Monte Carlo numerical methods and serial-decay differential equations that resembled actual spectra. Transuranic radionuclides were able to be quantified with statistical certainty by applying peak fitting equations using the method of least squares. Initial favorable results were achieved when samples containing radon progeny were decayed 15 to 30 min, and samples containing both radon and thoron progeny were decayed at least 60 min. The effort indicates that timely decisions can be made when determining transuranic activity using available alpha CAMs with alpha spectroscopy capabilities for counting retrospective air samples if accompanied by analyses that consider the characteristics of serial decay. PMID:22470000

Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard



Low-resolution Spectroscopy for the Globular Clusters with Signs of Supernova Enrichment: M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence for the presence of multiple red giant branches (RGBs) in the color-magnitude diagrams of massive globular clusters (GCs). In order to investigate the origin of this split on the RGB, we have performed new narrow-band Ca photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288. We find significant differences (more than 4?) in calcium abundance from the spectroscopic HK' index for M22 and NGC 1851. We also find more than 8? differences in CN-band strength between the Ca-strong and Ca-weak subpopulations for these GCs. For NGC 288, however, a large difference is detected only in the CN strength. The calcium abundances of RGB stars in this GC are identical to within the errors. This is consistent with the conclusion from our new Ca photometry where the RGB splits are confirmed in M22 and NGC 1851, but not in NGC 288. We also find interesting differences in the CN-CH correlations among these GCs. While CN and CH are anti-correlated in NGC 288, they show a positive correlation in M22. NGC 1851, however, shows no difference in CH between the two groups of stars with different CN strengths. We suggest that all of these systematic differences would be best explained by how strongly Type II supernovae enrichment has contributed to the chemical evolution of these GCs.

Lim, Dongwook; Han, Sang-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Roh, Dong-Goo; Sohn, Young-Jong; Chun, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Woo; Johnson, Christian I.



The Low Resolution Structure of ApoA1 in Spherical High Density Lipoprotein Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering*  

PubMed Central

Spherical high density lipoprotein (sHDL), a key player in reverse cholesterol transport and the most abundant form of HDL, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Small angle neutron scattering with contrast variation was used to determine the solution structure of protein and lipid components of reconstituted sHDL. Apolipoprotein A1, the major protein of sHDL, forms a hollow structure that cradles a central compact lipid core. Three apoA1 chains are arranged within the low resolution structure of the protein component as one of three possible global architectures: (i) a helical dimer with a hairpin (HdHp), (ii) three hairpins (3Hp), or (iii) an integrated trimer (iT) in which the three apoA1 monomers mutually associate over a portion of the sHDL surface. Cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses help to discriminate among the three molecular models and are most consistent with the HdHp overall architecture of apoA1 within sHDL. PMID:21292766

Wu, Zhiping; Gogonea, Valentin; Lee, Xavier; May, Roland P.; Pipich, Vitaliy; Wagner, Matthew A.; Undurti, Arundhati; Tallant, Thomas C.; Baleanu-Gogonea, Camelia; Charlton, Francesca; Ioffe, Alexander; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hazen, Stanley L.



Inclusion of the orientational entropic effect and low-resolution experimental information for protein-protein docking in CAPRI  

PubMed Central

Inclusion of entropy is important and challenging for protein-protein binding prediction. Here, we present a statistical mechanics-based approach to empirically consider the effect of orientational entropy. Specifically, we globally sample the possible binding orientations based on a simple shape-complementarity scoring function using an FFT-type docking method. Then, for each generated orientation we calculate the probability through the partition function of the ensemble of accessible states, which are assumed to be represented by the set of nearby binding modes. For each mode, the interaction energy is calculated from our ITScorePP scoring function that was developed in our laboratory based on principles of statistical mechanics. Using the above protocol, we present the results of our participation in Rounds 22–27 of the CAPRI (Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions) experiment for ten targets (T46-T58). Additional experimental information, such as low-resolution SAXS data, was used when available. In the prediction (or docking) experiments of the ten target complexes, we achieved correct binding modes for six targets: one with high accuracy (T47), two with medium accuracy (T48 and T57), and three with acceptable accuracy (T49, T50, and T58). In the scoring experiments of seven target complexes, we obtained correct binding modes for six targets: one with high accuracy (T47), two with medium accuracy (T49 and T50), and three with acceptable accuracy (T46, T51, and T53). PMID:24227686

Huang, Sheng-You; Yan, Chengfei; Grinter, Sam Z.; Chang, Shan; Jiang, Lin; Zou, Xiaoqin



Simultaneous multielemental determination using a low-resolution inductively coupled plasma spectrometer/diode array detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a versatile method for simultaneous multielemental analysis using detection with photodiode arrays and multivariate calibration techniques. A multidetection system based on an array of 1024 photodiodes was built and adapted to a commercial plasma emission scanning spectrometer. Spectral data were acquired at low resolution, allowing simultaneous monitoring of a broad spectral range and resulting in very informative but considerably overlapped spectra. Partial least squares and principal component regressions were employed to minimize overlapping problems. A numerical procedure for window selection was also developed. The new method was applied to the simultaneous determination of manganese, molybdenum, nickel, chromium and iron in steel samples, resulting in average relative prediction errors of 2.1% for Mn, 3.4% for Mo, 0.6% for Cr, 1.5% for Ni and 0.8% for Fe. These errors are comparable to those observed with conventional scanning detection systems and separate univariate calibrations, but the new method allows simultaneous determination of the five elements, with data acquisition significantly faster than in scanning instruments.

Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Barros Neto, Benício; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário César; Pasquini, Célio



The Effects of Improved Parameterizations for Orography, Snowcover, Surface Fluxes and Condensational Processes on the Climate of a Low Resolution GCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a low resolution, spectral general circulation model (GCM) to specification of physical processes is examined using a new version of the model with refined parameterizations. Specific refinements in parameterization include: 1) smoothing the original orography to greatly diminish undesirable topographic `ripples' occurring near high mountain ranges; 2) adding snowcover on the Tibetan plateau and representing winter snowcover

Robert G. Gallimore; Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; John E. Kutzbach



Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan



Low-resolution structures of proteins in solution retrieved from X-ray scattering with a genetic algorithm.  


Small-angle x-ray solution scattering (SAXS) is analyzed with a new method to retrieve convergent model structures that fit the scattering profiles. An arbitrary hexagonal packing of several hundred beads containing the problem object is defined. Instead of attempting to compute the Debye formula for all of the possible mass distributions, a genetic algorithm is employed that efficiently searches the configurational space and evolves best-fit bead models. Models from different runs of the algorithm have similar or identical structures. The modeling resolution is increased by reducing the bead radius together with the search space in successive cycles of refinement. The method has been tested with protein SAXS (0.001 < S < 0.06 A(-1)) calculated from x-ray crystal structures, adding noise to the profiles. The models obtained closely approach the volumes and radii of gyration of the known structures, and faithfully reproduce the dimensions and shape of each of them. This includes finding the active site cavity of lysozyme, the bilobed structure of gamma-crystallin, two domains connected by a stalk in betab2-crystallin, and the horseshoe shape of pancreatic ribonuclease inhibitor. The low-resolution solution structure of lysozyme has been directly modeled from its experimental SAXS profile (0.003 < S < 0.03 A(-1)). The model describes lysozyme size and shape to the resolution of the measurement. The method may be applied to other proteins, to the analysis of domain movements, to the comparison of solution and crystal structures, as well as to large macromolecular assemblies. PMID:9635731

Chacón, P; Morán, F; Díaz, J F; Pantos, E; Andreu, J M



The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the\\u000a standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire\\u000a 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients\\u000a prior to surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The

Jin-xiang Cheng; Bo-lin Liu; Xiang Zhang; Yong-qiang Zhang; Wei Lin; Rui Wang; Yong-qin Zhang; Hong-ying Zhang; Li Xie; Jun-li Huo



Brain mapping after prolonged cycling and during recovery in the heat  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged intensive cycling and postexercise recovery in the heat on brain sources of altered brain oscillations. After a max test and familiarization trial, nine trained male subjects (23 ± 3 yr; maximal oxygen uptake = 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min?1·kg?1) performed three experimental trials in the heat (30°C; relative humidity 43.7 ± 5.6%). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial, followed by a 30-min simulated time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), or cold water immersion (CWI) was applied for 15 min. Electroencephalography was measured at baseline and during postexercise recovery. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to accurately pinpoint and localize altered electrical neuronal activity. After CWI, PR and AR subjects completed TT2 in 761 ± 42, 791 ± 76, and 794 ± 62 s, respectively. A prolonged intensive cycling performance in the heat decreased ? activity across the whole brain. Postexercise AR and PR elicited no significant electrocortical differences, whereas CWI induced significantly increased ?3 activity in Brodmann areas (BA) 13 (posterior margin of insular cortex) and BA 40 (supramarginal gyrus). Self-paced prolonged exercise in the heat seems to decrease ? activity, hence representing decreased arousal. Postexercise CWI increased ?3 activity at BA 13 and 40, brain areas involved in somatosensory information processing. PMID:23990240

De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Maruši?, Uroš; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Knaepen, Kristel



Regularization of MR Diffusion Tensor Maps for Tracking Brain White Matter Bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new way for tracking brain white matter fiber bundles in diffusion tensor maps. Diffusion maps provide information about mobility of water protons in different directions. Assuming that diffusion is more important along axons, this information could lead to the direction of fiber bundles in white matter. Nevertheless, protocoles for diffusion image acquisition suffer from low resolutions and

Cyril Poupon; Jean-francois Mangin; Vincent Frouin; Jean Régis; Fabrice Poupon; M. Pachot-clouard; Denis Le Bihan; Isabelle Bloch



Brain activity of regular and dyslexic readers while reading Hebrew as compared to English sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine differences among ‘regular’ and dyslexic adult bilingual readers when processing reading and reading related skills in their first (L1 Hebrew) and second (L2 English) languages. Brain activity during reading Hebrew and English unexpected sentence endings was also studied. Behavioral and electrophysiological measures including event-related potentials (ERP) and low resolution electromagnetic tomography

Zvia Breznitz; Revital Oren; Shelley Shaul



The low-resolution structure of nHDL reconstituted with DMPC with and without cholesterol reveals a mechanism for particle expansion[S  

PubMed Central

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation was used to obtain the low-resolution structure of nascent HDL (nHDL) reconstituted with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in the absence and presence of cholesterol, [apoA1:DMPC (1:80, mol:mol) and apoA1:DMPC:cholesterol (1:86:9, mol:mol:mol)]. The overall shape of both particles is discoidal with the low-resolution structure of apoA1 visualized as an open, contorted, and out of plane conformation with three arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine without cholesterol (nHDLDMPC) and two arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine with cholesterol (nHDLDMPC+Chol). The low-resolution shape of the lipid phase in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol were oblate ellipsoids, and fit well within their respective protein shapes. Modeling studies indicate that apoA1 is folded onto itself in nHDLDMPC, making a large hairpin, which was also confirmed independently by both cross-linking mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry analyses. In nHDLDMPC+Chol, the lipid was expanded and no hairpin was visible. Importantly, despite the overall discoidal shape of the whole particle in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol, an open conformation (i.e., not a closed belt) of apoA1 is observed. Collectively, these data show that full length apoA1 retains an open architecture that is dictated by its lipid cargo. The lipid is likely predominantly organized as a bilayer with a micelle domain between the open apoA1 arms. The apoA1 configuration observed suggests a mechanism for accommodating changing lipid cargo by quantized expansion of hairpin structures. PMID:23349207

Gogonea, Valentin; Gerstenecker, Gary S.; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Topbas, Celalettin; Wagner, Matthew A.; Tallant, Thomas C.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Callow, Philip; Pipich, Vitaliy; Malet, Hélène; Schoehn, Guy; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.



Low-resolution structure determination of Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae by ab initio phasing and electron microscopy.  


A low-resolution structure of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae was determined by ab initio phasing and independently confirmed by electron microscopy. This multi-subunit membrane-protein complex (molecular weight 210 kDa) generates an Na(+) gradient that is essential for substrate uptake, motility, pathogenicity and efflux of antibiotics. The obtained 16 Å resolution electron density-map revealed an asymmetric particle with a central region of low electron density and a putative detergent region, and allowed the identification of the transmembrane regions of the complex. PMID:22683795

Lunin, Vladimir Y; Lunina, Natalia L; Casutt, Marco S; Knoops, Kèvin; Schaffitzel, Christiane; Steuber, Julia; Fritz, Günter; Baumstark, Manfred W



Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.



Brain components  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...


A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats  

PubMed Central

Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung



Crystal structure of a novel non-Pfam protein PF2046 solved using low resolution B-factor sharpening and multi-crystal averaging methods  

SciTech Connect

Sometimes crystals cannot diffract X-rays beyond 3.0 {angstrom} resolution due to the intrinsic flexibility associated with the protein. Low resolution diffraction data not only pose a challenge to structure determination, but also hamper interpretation of mechanistic details. Crystals of a 25.6 kDa non-Pfam, hypothetical protein, PF2046, diffracted X-rays to 3.38 {angstrom} resolution. A combination of Se-Met derived heavy atom positions with multiple cycles of B-factor sharpening, multi-crystal averaging, restrained refinement followed by manual inspection of electron density and model building resulted in a final model with a R value of 23.5 (R{sub free} = 24.7). The asymmetric unit was large and consisted of six molecules arranged as a homodimer of trimers. Analysis of the structure revealed the presence of a RNA binding domain suggesting a role for PF2046 in the processing of nucleic acids.

Su, Jing; Li, Yang; Shaw, Neil; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Min; Xu, Hao; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Jie (Ankara); (Nankai); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (Georgia)



Low-resolution structure of the soluble domain GPAA1 (yGPAA170–247) of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit GPAA1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) transamidase complex catalyses the attachment of GPI anchors to eukaryotic proteins in the lumen of ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPI transamidase complex consists of the subunits yPIG-K (Gpi8p), yPIG-S (Gpi17p), yPIG-T (Gpi16p), yPIG-U (CDC91/GAB1) and yGPAA1. We present the production of the two recombinant proteins yGPAA170–247 and yGPAA170–339 of the luminal domain of S. cerevisiae GPAA1, covering the amino acids 70–247 and 70–339 respectively. The secondary structural content of the stable and monodisperse yGPAA170–247 has been determined to be 28% ?-helix and 27% ?-sheet. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) data showed that yGPAA170–247 has an Rg (radius of gyration) of 2.72±0.025 nm and Dmax (maximum dimension) of 9.14 nm. These data enabled the determination of the two domain low-resolution solution structure of yGPAA170–247. The large elliptical shape of yGPAA170–247 is connected via a short stalk to the smaller hook-like domain of 0.8 nm in length and 3.5 nm in width. The topological arrangement of yGPAA170–247 will be discussed together with the recently determined low-resolution structures of yPIG-K24–337 and yPIG-S38–467 from S. cerevisiae in the GPI transamidase complex. PMID:23458223

Saw, Wuan Geok; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Grüber, Gerhard



Multiscale brain modelling  

PubMed Central

A central difficulty of brain modelling is to span the range of spatio-temporal scales from synapses to the whole brain. This paper overviews results from a recent model of the generation of brain electrical activity that incorporates both basic microscopic neurophysiology and large-scale brain anatomy to predict brain electrical activity at scales from a few tenths of a millimetre to the whole brain. This model incorporates synaptic and dendritic dynamics, nonlinearity of the firing response, axonal propagation and corticocortical and corticothalamic pathways. Its relatively few parameters measure quantities such as synaptic strengths, corticothalamic delays, synaptic and dendritic time constants, and axonal ranges, and are all constrained by independent physiological measurements. It reproduces quantitative forms of electroencephalograms seen in various states of arousal, evoked response potentials, coherence functions, seizure dynamics and other phenomena. Fitting model predictions to experimental data enables underlying physiological parameters to be inferred, giving a new non-invasive window into brain function that complements slower, but finer-resolution, techniques such as fMRI. Because the parameters measure physiological quantities relating to multiple scales, and probe deep structures such as the thalamus, this will permit the testing of a range of hypotheses about vigilance, cognition, drug action and brain function. In addition, referencing to a standardized database of subjects adds strength and specificity to characterizations obtained. PMID:16087447

Robinson, P. A; Rennie, C. J; Rowe, D. L; O'Connor, S. C; Gordon, E



Optimized Brain Extraction for Pathological Brains (optiBET)  

PubMed Central

The study of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data has greatly benefitted from the development of sophisticated and efficient algorithms aimed at automating and optimizing the analysis of brain data. We address, in the context of the segmentation of brain from non-brain tissue (i.e., brain extraction, also known as skull-stripping), the tension between the increased theoretical and clinical interest in patient data, and the difficulty of conventional algorithms to function optimally in the presence of gross brain pathology. Indeed, because of the reliance of many algorithms on priors derived from healthy volunteers, images with gross pathology can severely affect their ability to correctly trace the boundaries between brain and non-brain tissue, potentially biasing subsequent analysis. We describe and make available an optimized brain extraction script for the pathological brain (optiBET) robust to the presence of pathology. Rather than attempting to trace the boundary between tissues, optiBET performs brain extraction by (i) calculating an initial approximate brain extraction; (ii) employing linear and non-linear registration to project the approximate extraction into the MNI template space; (iii) back-projecting a standard brain-only mask from template space to the subject’s original space; and (iv) employing the back-projected brain-only mask to mask-out non-brain tissue. The script results in up to 94% improvement of the quality of extractions over those obtained with conventional software across a large set of severely pathological brains. Since optiBET makes use of freely available algorithms included in FSL, it should be readily employable by anyone having access to such tools. PMID:25514672

Lutkenhoff, Evan S.; Rosenberg, Matthew; Chiang, Jeffrey; Zhang, Kunyu; Pickard, John D.; Owen, Adrian M.; Monti, Martin M.



Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brains parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.



Brain surgery  


Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... Before surgery, the hair on part of the scalp is shaved and the area is cleaned. The doctor makes ...


HermiteFit: fast-fitting atomic structures into a low-resolution density map using three-dimensional orthogonal Hermite functions.  


HermiteFit, a novel algorithm for fitting a protein structure into a low-resolution electron-density map, is presented. The algorithm accelerates the rotation of the Fourier image of the electron density by using three-dimensional orthogonal Hermite functions. As part of the new method, an algorithm for the rotation of the density in the Hermite basis and an algorithm for the conversion of the expansion coefficients into the Fourier basis are presented. HermiteFit was implemented using the cross-correlation or the Laplacian-filtered cross-correlation as the fitting criterion. It is demonstrated that in the Hermite basis the Laplacian filter has a particularly simple form. To assess the quality of density encoding in the Hermite basis, an analytical way of computing the crystallographic R factor is presented. Finally, the algorithm is validated using two examples and its efficiency is compared with two widely used fitting methods, ADP_EM and colores from the Situs package. HermiteFit will be made available at or upon request from the authors. PMID:25084327

Derevyanko, Georgy; Grudinin, Sergei



Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT  

E-print Network

A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy



The SpeX Prism Library: 1000+ low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SpeX Prism Library (SPL) is a uniform compilation of low-resolution (?/?? ? 75-120), near-infrared (0.8--2.5 ?m) spectra spanning a decade of observations with the IRTF SpeX spectrograph. Primarily containing ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs, this spectral library has been used in over 100 publications to date, facilitating a broad range of science on low mass stars, exoplanets, high redshift sources and instrument/survey design. I summarize the contents of the SPL and highlight a few of the key scientific results that have made use of this resource, as well as applications in education, outreach and art. I also outline the future plans of the SPL, which include a reanalysis of early data, better integration and dissemination of source and spectral metadata, conversion to Virtual Observatory formats, development of a Python software package for community analysis, and a design for a node-based visual programming platform that can facilitate citizen science and project-based learning in stellar spectroscopy.

Burgasser, Adam J.


Herbal Therapy for Brain Cancer

In this trial, patients with high-grade glioma will be randomly assigned to take an herbal preparation of Boswellia serrata (frankincense) and undergo standard treatment for six months or undergo standard treatment alone for six months. Researchers want to see the addition of herbal therapy can help relieve brain swelling in these patients.


Brain Week!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)



Brain Fog  


... friendships and relationships. • Take your body to the gym and don’t forget to visit the “BRAIN SPA” – both will improve brain function. • Recent scientific data show that longevity is associated with the successful management of chronic diseases, such as Sjögren’s syndrome, not ...


Plastic brains.  


Memories fade, alas, and more rapidly with age, though the aging brain holds more tenaciously to the longer past. Or does it? The brain may be continually editing those seemingly clear memories. That the immature brain constructs, "sculpts" itself by configuring its neural linkages to make best use of the sensory input received in early life has been known for decades. The more recent news is that mature brains also re-arrange these linkages as sensory inputs change. So what? Well, by some estimates inadequate stimulation in early childhood leaves 25% of Canadians neurally challenged by the modern world. Countries with systematic early child development programs show better results. Are there also opportunities for exploiting the plasticity of adult brains? (Or is that already happening, all around us?). PMID:19305751

Evans, Robert G



Brain tissue oxygen tension monitoring in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury Part 1: Relationship with outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management are the current standards to guide care of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, brain hypoxia and secondary brain injury can occur despite optimal ICP and CPP. In this study, we used brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) monitoring to examine the association between multiple patient factors, including PbtO2, and

Anthony A. Figaji; Eugene Zwane; Crispin Thompson; A. Graham Fieggen; Andrew C. Argent; Peter D. Le Roux; Jonathan C. Peter



Anatomy of the Brain  


... org Donate Now Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors ... Email: Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors ...


Brain investigation and brain conceptualization  

PubMed Central

Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.


Brand Standards Brand StandardsBrand Standards  

E-print Network

Brand Standards 6.6.11 #12;Brand StandardsBrand Standards VISUAL IDENTITY AND BRANDING INITIATIVE, the signature building on the University/UMMC campus. The new brand identity provides a simplified & UMMC) and the public on May 12, 2011. #12;Brand StandardsBrand Standards Logos, marks, seals, colors

Weber, David J.


Brain Basics  


... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC ... a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control ...


Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H



Conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease is predicted by sources and coherence of brain electroencephalography rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Can quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) predict the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD)?Methods. Sixty-nine subjects fulfilling criteria for MCI were enrolled; cortical connectivity (spectral coherence) and (low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) sources of EEG rhythms (?=2–4 Hz; ?=4–8 Hz; ? 1=8–10.5 Hz; ? 2=10.5–13 Hz: ? 1=13–20 Hz; ? 2=20–30 Hz; and ?=30–40) were evaluated at

P. M. Rossini; C. Del Percio; P. Pasqualetti; E. Cassetta; G. Binetti; G. Dal Forno; F. Ferreri; G. Frisoni; P. Chiovenda; C. Miniussi; L. Parisi; M. Tombini; F. Vecchio; C. Babiloni



Brain imaging and brain function  

SciTech Connect

This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

Sokoloff, L.



Brain Basics: Know Your Brain  


... frontal lobes. Whether you appreciate symphonies or rock music, your brain responds through the activity of these ... forming and retrieving memories, including those associated with music. Other parts of this lobe seem to integrate ...


Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination\\u000a of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements\\u000a for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of Neurology published evidence-based\\u000a practice parameters for

Katharina M. Busl; David M. Greer



Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options  


Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms ...


Brain Tumor Diagnosis  


... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...


Brain Tumor Statistics  


... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Statistics SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Close Finish Home > About Us > News > Brain Tumor Statistics Listen Brain Tumors do not discriminate. Primary brain ...


Understanding Brain Tumors  


... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...


Brain surgery - discharge  


Craniotomy - discharge; Surgery - brain - discharge; Neurosurgery - discharge; Craniectomy - discharge; Stereotactic craniotomy - discharge; Stereotactic brain biopsy - discharge; Endoscopic craniotomy - discharge


The Marine Mammal Brain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. In this unique standards-based activity, students compare the brains and behaviors of dolphins, sea lions, and manatees in a game-like format.

Jr., Archibald J.; Johnson, John I.; Morris, Lee G.; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.



Vision's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)

Miller, Julie Ann



Spinning Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spinning Brains, an article from NASA, explains the Coriolis force and how humans can adapt to it. The article discusses the concept of rotating spaceships and the research being done to determine if humans could function on those ships. Also, the site includes a video demonstrating the Coriolis force with a merry-go-round.



Dolphin Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins and other marine mammals have pretty big brains compared to the size of their bodies. That's one indication of high intelligence, and anyone who has seen them perform at an aquarium or zoo can attest to that fact. Science reporter Bob Hirshon introduces us to one scientist who's trying to find out how dolphins got so brainy.

Science Update (;)



8.SP Animal Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Is there an association between the weight of an animalâs body and the weight of the animalâs brain? 1. Make a scatterplot using the following data. Bo...


Mouse brain imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) provides structural and functional information when used in small animal brain imaging. Acoustic distortion caused by bone structures largely limits the deep brain image quality. In our work, we present ex vivo PACT images of freshly excised mouse brain, intending that can serve as a gold standard for future PACT in vivo studies on small animal brain imaging. Our results show that structures such as the striatum, hippocampus, ventricles, and cerebellum can be clearly di erentiated. An artery feature called the Circle of Willis, located at the bottom of the brain, can also be seen. These results indicate that if acoustic distortion can be accurately accounted for, PACT should be able to image the entire mouse brain with rich structural information.

Lou, Yang; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.



Brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

Bradshaw, J.R.



The development and investigation of a prototype three-dimensional compensator for whole brain radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard treatment for patients with brain metastases, and is often used in conjunction with stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with a limited number of brain metastases, as well as prophylactic cranial irradiation. The use of open fields (conventionally used for WBRT) leads to higher doses to the brain periphery if dose is prescribed to

Paul Keall; Isti Arief; Sofia Shamas; Elisabeth Weiss; Steven Castle



Fun Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library is provided by the Family Education Network, which is described as the Web's leading source of educational content; resources; and shopping for parents, teachers, and kids. Offering separate areas for kids, teachers, and parents, the Web site provides educational games, quizzes, homework help, and more. Science subjects covered include elements, colors of light, astronomy, chemistry, physics, geology, and more. One example is a game that allows kids to learn about famous and infamous scientists throughout the ages called "Who is That?" The site contains a lot of interesting and fun educational material and online resources, making it well worth visiting. [JAB




T2-weighted (T2w) sequences are commonly relied upon in magnetic resonance imaging protocols for the detection of brain lesions in dogs. Previously, the effect of fluid suppression via fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) has been compared to T2-weighting with mixed results. Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) has been reported to increase the detection of some CNS lesions in people. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of fat suppression on brain parenchymal contrast resolution and lesion detection in dogs. We compared three sequences: T2w images, STIR, and T2w FLAIR with chemical fat suppression (T2-FLAIR-FS) in dogs with meningoencephalitis. Dogs with meningoencephalitis and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy were retrospectively identified and anonymized. Evaluators recorded the presence or absence of lesions within 12 predetermined brain regions on randomized sequences, viewing and scoring each sequence individually. Additionally, signal-to-noise ratios, contrast-to-noise ratios, and relative contrast (RC) were measured in a reference population. Short tau inversion recovery sequences had the highest RC between gray and white matter. While descriptively more lesions were identified by evaluators on T2-FLAIR-FS images, there was no statistical difference in the relative sensitivity of lesion detection between the sequences. Nor was there a statistical difference in false lesion detection within our reference population. Short tau inversion recovery may be favored for enhanced anatomic contrast depiction in brain imaging. No benefit of the inclusion of a fat-suppressed T2-FLAIR sequence was found. PMID:25395066

Young, Benjamin D; Mankin, Joseph M; Griffin, John F; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fowler, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M



Science Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has created a Web site that offers English translations of the academic standards of Asian countries. This is a good way to compare U.S. science standards to Asian and Asia Pacific countries. Science standards are typically organized into three content areas: Earth and space sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. Standards may also develop desired abilities or performance skill strands such as conceptual understanding, theorizing and analyzing, solving problems, communicating, and using tools, processes and procedures. This site allows for comparison of science standards between Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and the United States.



Brain-Controlled Prosthetics  


... neuroscientists have significantly advanced brain-computer interface (BCI) technology to the point where severely physically disabled people ... a brain-computer interface (BCI), scientists have developed technology that enables communication between brain activity and an ...


Brain-based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

Weiss, Ruth Palombo



American Brain Tumor Association  


... Overcome Resistance in Brain Tumors Going Viral: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells with a Wound-Healing Drug Read More ABTA News February 10, 2015 American Brain Tumor Association to Host Free Educational Meetings for ...


Brain templates and atlases.  


The core concept within the field of brain mapping is the use of a standardized, or "stereotaxic", 3D coordinate frame for data analysis and reporting of findings from neuroimaging experiments. This simple construct allows brain researchers to combine data from many subjects such that group-averaged signals, be they structural or functional, can be detected above the background noise that would swamp subtle signals from any single subject. Where the signal is robust enough to be detected in individuals, it allows for the exploration of inter-individual variance in the location of that signal. From a larger perspective, it provides a powerful medium for comparison and/or combination of brain mapping findings from different imaging modalities and laboratories around the world. Finally, it provides a framework for the creation of large-scale neuroimaging databases or "atlases" that capture the population mean and variance in anatomical or physiological metrics as a function of age or disease. However, while the above benefits are not in question at first order, there are a number of conceptual and practical challenges that introduce second-order incompatibilities among experimental data. Stereotaxic mapping requires two basic components: (i) the specification of the 3D stereotaxic coordinate space, and (ii) a mapping function that transforms a 3D brain image from "native" space, i.e. the coordinate frame of the scanner at data acquisition, to that stereotaxic space. The first component is usually expressed by the choice of a representative 3D MR image that serves as target "template" or atlas. The native image is re-sampled from native to stereotaxic space under the mapping function that may have few or many degrees of freedom, depending upon the experimental design. The optimal choice of atlas template and mapping function depend upon considerations of age, gender, hemispheric asymmetry, anatomical correspondence, spatial normalization methodology and disease-specificity. Accounting, or not, for these various factors in defining stereotaxic space has created the specter of an ever-expanding set of atlases, customized for a particular experiment, that are mutually incompatible. These difficulties continue to plague the brain mapping field. This review article summarizes the evolution of stereotaxic space in term of the basic principles and associated conceptual challenges, the creation of population atlases and the future trends that can be expected in atlas evolution. PMID:22248580

Evans, Alan C; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Baillet, Sylvain



Undertanding Brain Aneurysm Videos  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

BAF Publications Webinars Videos Articles Web Resources Books Publications on BAF Funded Research Projects Glossary GTranslate Educational Resources : Video Brain Aneurysm Symptoms - Early Detection of Brain Aneurysms ...


INTRODUCTION Hominid Brain  

E-print Network

CHAPTERS INTRODUCTION Hominid Brain Evolution P Thomas Schoenemann U nderstanding brain evolution believes the most important inputs for this arc somatosensory (touch, pain, heat, body position), which

Schoenemann, P. Thomas


A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases.  


The complication of multiple brain metastases in breast cancer patients is a life threatening condition with limited success following standard therapies. The arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway appears to play a role in brain tumor growth as well as inhibition of apoptosis in in-vitro studies. The down regulation of these arachidonate lipoxygenase growth stimulating products therefore appeared to be a worthwhile consideration for testing in brain metastases not responding to standard therapy. Boswellia serrata, a lipoxygenase inhibitor was applied for this inhibition. Multiple brain metastases were successfully reversed using this method in a breast cancer patient who had not shown improvement after standard therapy. The results suggest a potential new area of therapy for breast cancer patients with brain metastases that may be useful as an adjuvant to our standard therapy. PMID:17001517

Flavin, D F



Evaluation of zebrafish brain development using optical coherence tomography.  


The zebrafish is a well-established model system used to study and understand various human biological processes. The present study used OCT to investigate growth of the adult zebrafish brain. Twenty zebrafish were studied, using their standard lengths as indicators of their age. Zebrafish brain aging was evaluated by analyzing signal attenuation rates and texture features in regions of interest (ROIs). Optical scattering originates from light interaction with biological structures. During development, the zebrafish brain gains cells. Signal attenuation rate, therefore, increases with increasing zebrafish brain age. This study's analyses of texture features could not identify aging in zebrafish brain. These results, therefore, indicated that the OCT signal attenuation rate can indicate zebrafish brain aging, and its analysis provides a more effective means of observing zebrafish brain aging than texture features analysis. Using OCT system could further increase the technique's potential for recognition and monitoring of zebrafish brain development. PMID:22961725

Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Cheng



Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.  


Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain. PMID:25382446

Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao



Standard Scores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chapter, the authors will discuss the following types of standard scores: percentile ranks , z-scores , and T-scores . All are based on concepts--such as the mean, the normal distribution, and the standard deviation--already

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.



Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia



Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data  

SciTech Connect

Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL



Training Standardization  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

Agnihotri, Newal



Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew


Split My Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Omarzu, Julia



Brain SPECT quantitation in clinical diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Methods to quantitate SPECT data for clinical diagnosis should be chosen so that they take advantage of the lessons learned from PET data. This is particularly important because current SPECT high-resolution brain imaging systems now produce images that are similar in resolution to those generated by the last generation PET equipment (9 mm FWHM). These high-resolution SPECT systems make quantitation of SPECT more problematic than earlier. Methodology validated on low-resolution SPECT systems may no longer be valid for data obtained with the newer SPECT systems. For example, in patients with dementia, the ratio of parietal to cerebellar activity often was studied. However, with new instruments, the cerebellum appears very different: discrete regions are more apparent. The large cerebellar regions usually used with older instrumentation are of an inappropriate size for the new equipment. The normal range for any method of quantitation determined using older equipment probably changes for data obtained with new equipment. It is not surprising that Kim et al. in their simulations demonstrated that because of the finite resolution of imaging systems, the ability to measure pure function is limited, with {open_quotes}anatomy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}function{close_quotes} coupled in a {open_quotes}complex nonlinear way{close_quotes}. 11 refs.

Hellman, R.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States)



Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)



Spitzer IRS low-resolution spectra for four candidate Seyfert 1-like objects from ULIRGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and 6dF Galaxy Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the Spitzer IRS low-resolution observation for four candidates of Seyfert 1-like objects of ULIRGs from the SDSS-2dF-6dF sample. It is found that they are all real Seyfert 1-like objects because their infrared spectra are similar to that for Seyfert 1 source indicative of AGN nature, i.e. their spectra all show high-ionization lines of [NeV] at 14.32 ?m and/or [SIV] at 10.51 ?m in the mid-infrared. On the other hand, it is found that they also show PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.25 ?m indicative of star formation activity. In addition, it is found that they all show the silicate feature in absorption around 10 ?m indicative of heavily material obscured these sources. Furthermore, some correlations among the far infrared colors, the line ratios, the equivalent widths (EWs) of PAH feature and the Silicate strengths are also discussed for these sources.

Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G.; Liu, J. Y.



Networking standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

Davies, Mark



Standards Organizations

Health Level Screen (HL7)Founded in 1987, Health Level Seven, Inc., is a not-for-profit, ANSI-accredited, standards developing organization that provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that supports clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services. Its 2,200 members represent over 500 corporations, including 90 percent of the largest information systems vendors serving healthcare.


Pediatric minor traumatic brain injury.  


The literature surrounding minor traumatic brain injury is complex, methodologically challenging, and controversial. Although we lack a consistent standardized definition, the annual rate is likely in excess of 200 per 100,000 children. The proportion of children with minor traumatic brain injury who will require neurosurgery is certainly <1%. Several studies are underway that have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the specific risk factors for intracranial injury and more specifically neurosurgical injury. The mortality within children is very low, with estimates of 0% to 0.25%. Virtually all studies of the prognosis of minor brain injury in children have reported no long-term behavioral or cognitive sequelae as a specific result of the brain injury. Symptoms fall in 4 domains: somatic, cognitive, sleep/fatigue, and affective. Limited pediatric studies are available to assist clinicians in the prognosis or in optimizing recovery. Until further studies are available, a conservative approach is recommended. Children with suspected concussions should be removed from activity and observed. Children with symptomatic concussions must be limited to no physical activity. Adolescents and families need to self-monitor symptoms and limit environments or circumstances that exacerbate any symptoms. When symptoms resolve, a gradual progressive return to play is currently recommended. The recurrence risk for subsequent concussions is elevated, but there is limited documentation of the effectiveness of preventative efforts. Much remains to be learned. PMID:17178354

Gordon, Kevin E



Individualized rTMS neuronavigated according to regional brain metabolism ((18)FGD PET) has better treatment effects on auditory hallucinations than standard positioning of rTMS: a double-blind, sham-controlled study.  


Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) of the left temporo-parietal cortex (LTPC) has been proposed as a useful therapeutic method for auditory hallucinations (AHs). Stereotactic neuronavigation enables the magnetic coil to be targeted according to the individual parameters obtained from neuroimaging. Individualized rTMS neuronavigated according to 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) allows us to focus the coil explicitly on a given area with detected maxima of specific abnormalities, thus presuming a higher therapeutic effect of the method. The objective of this study is to test clinical efficacy of neuronavigated LF-rTMS administered according to the local maxima of (18)FDG PET uptake of LTPC and to compare it with treatment effects of standard and sham rTMS. In a double-blind, sham-controlled design, patients with AHs underwent a 10-day series of LF-rTMS using (1) (18)FDG PET-guided "neuronavigation," (2) "standard" anatomically guided positioning, and (3) sham coil. The effect of different rTMS conditions was assessed by the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Fifteen patients were randomized to a treatment sequence and ten of them completed all three treatment conditions. The intention-to-treat analysis of AHRS score change revealed superiority of the (18)FDG PET-guided rTMS over both the standard and the sham rTMS. The analyses of the PANSS scores failed to detect significant difference among the treatments. Our data showed acute efficacy of (18)FDG PET-guided rTMS in the treatment of AHs. Neuronavigated rTMS was found to be more effective than standard, anatomically guided rTMS. PMID:22983355

Klirova, Monika; Horacek, Jiri; Novak, Tomas; Cermak, Jan; Spaniel, Filip; Skrdlantova, Lucie; Mohr, Pavel; Höschl, Cyril



Neuropsychological Test Performance of Successful Brain Injury Simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provided an examination of the performance characteristics of successful brain injury simulators (SBIS). Coached (n = 56) and uncoached (n = 35) brain injury simulators received instructions to fake cognitive impairment; controls were asked to do their best. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) was administered along with standard neuropsychological measures (e.g., Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). The TOMM identified 80% of uncoached

John W. DenBoer; Stuart Hall



Prior Knowledge Driven Multiscale Segmentation of Brain MRI  

E-print Network

Prior Knowledge Driven Multiscale Segmentation of Brain MRI Ayelet Akselrod-Ballin1 , Meirav Galun1 structures in brain MRI. The algorithm which is derived from algebraic multigrid, uses a graph representation standard MRI show the benefit of our approach. 1 Introduction Segmentation of anatomical structures


Whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost for brain metastases in patients with malignant melanoma–a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with malignant melanoma may develop brain metastases during the course of the disease, requiring radiotherapeutic treatment. In patients with 1–3 brain metastases, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option besides surgery. For patients with 4 or more brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment. In certain patients with brain metastases, radiation treatment using whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost and hippocampal-sparing may improve prognosis of these patients. Methods/Design The present prospective, randomized two-armed trial aims to exploratory investigate the treatment response to conventional whole brain radiotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions versus whole brain helical Tomotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions with an integrated boost of 50 Gy to the brain metastases as well as hippocampal-sparing in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. The main inclusion criteria include magnetic resonance imaging confirmed brain metastases from a histopathologically confirmed malignant melanoma in patients with a minimum age of 18 years. The main exclusion criteria include a previous radiotherapy of the brain and not having recovered from acute high-grade toxicities of prior therapies. The primary endpoint is treatment-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints include imaging response, local and loco-regional progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life. Trial registration Trial ID: DRKS00005127 PMID:24112545



Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

PubMed Central

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.



Extending the viability of acute brain slices.  


The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W



Brain death and bioelectrical brain activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mechanical vibration and light stimulation on the ongoing and evoked bioelectrical activity was studied in two cases with clinically defined brain death and two other patients with severe head injury, one of them with an isoelectric EEG. The importance of such stimulation sequences for the definition of brain death is discussed, with particular emphasis on mechanical vibration.

G. Pfurtscheller; G. Schwarz; W. List



Understanding brain networks and brain organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal “true” subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different “slices” of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

Pessoa, Luiz



Optogenetic Brain Interfaces  

E-print Network

The brain is a large network of interconnected neurons where each cell functions as a nonlinear processing element. Unraveling the mysteries of information processing in the complex networks of the brain requires versatile ...

Pashaie, Ramin


Brain and Addiction  


... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ... is addiction. What Factors Increase the Risk for Addiction? Although we know what happens to the brain ...


Traumatic Brain Injury  


... Resilience, Mental Health Resources The Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress at the Uniformed Services University ... on PTSD, TBI DOD Establishes Tissue Bank to Study Brain Injuries Defense Brain Injury Center, Two Decades ...


Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  


... Discoveries Basic Facts &Epidemiology Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)is a devastating, aggressive brain tumor of childhood. ... approximately 10-15% of all pediatric brain tumors. DIPG is the… Read more... Tweet Researchers 2015 Grant ...


Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert


Mechanisms of brain ventricle development  

E-print Network

The brain ventricles are a conserved system of fluid-filled cavities within the brain that form during the earliest stages of brain development. Abnormal brain ventricle development has been correlated with neurodevelopmental ...

Lowery, Laura Anne



Your Brain and Nervous System  


... coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum! Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing — and More Another brain part that's small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and ...


Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.  


Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

Corballis, Michael C



Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function  

PubMed Central

Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

Thut, Gregor



Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies  

PubMed Central

Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

Corballis, Michael C.



Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.  


The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969

Hines, Terence




E-print Network

C C C A A A A G A G G D D D D D F D F F F H H H E E E E FHE E B B B C E B NAVIGATING THE BRAIN of the brain-- one that shows its complex trafficking across trillions of neuronal connections. Addressing: outlining "the next great American project," the BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative


Understanding of Brain Function Multivariate Pattern Analysis  

E-print Network

of multivariate pattern analysis techniques to fMRI datasets is in- troduced. PyMVPA makes use of Python's ability goals of functional brain imaging. Standard univariate fMRI analysis methods, which correlate cognitive analyses of fMRI data. This in turn prevents the adoption of these methods by a large number of research

Bucci, David J.


A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans  

E-print Network

A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans and Health Information Department of Radiology Abstract. Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover

Chervenak, Ann


Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology  

E-print Network

Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology Peter of the brain in MR and CT clearly con- veying the whole surface topology. For the comparison of the provided with direct volume rendering. Considering brain information exclusively, and ensuring a standardized

Blanz, Volker


Studying brain function with near-infrared spectroscopy concurrently with electroencephalography  

E-print Network

Studying brain function with near-infrared spectroscopy concurrently with electroencephalography Y an electroencephalography (EEG) standard multi-channel cap, we can perform functional brain mapping of hemodynamic response-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, evoked potentials, brain imaging 1. INTRODUCTION NIRS and EEG are non

Fantini, Sergio


4 th Year Project Machine Learning Approaches for Brain-Computer  

E-print Network

4 th Year Project Machine Learning Approaches for Brain-Computer Interfacing Lyndsey Pickup May 4 of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). Following investigation of standard HMM decoding algorithms, a new#12;ers are shown to be able to detect movement from the brain data alone. 1 #12; Contents 1

Roberts, Stephen


Cross-Validation of Deformable Registration With Field Maps in Functional Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of brain functional activity with respect to brain anatomy requires registration between a functional image and a reference high-resolution anatomical image. The fast functional magnetic resonance brain images acquired via echo planar imaging (EPI) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suffer from local geometric distortions. After performing standard rigid or affine registration, local nonlinear distortions of up to

Ali Gholipour; Nasser Kehtarnavaz; Kaundinya Gopinath; Richard Briggs



Addiction and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the structure of the human brain and how it is affected by drugs of abuse. Use the resources below to 1) List at least 10 structures in the brain, and explain their function. Be sure to include the reward pathway. 2) Make your own sketch of the brain and show the location of the 10 structures above. ...

Dr. Eve



Brain-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) technology is to augment human capabilities by enabling people to interact with a computer through a conscious and spontaneous modulation of their brainwaves after a short training period. Indeed, by analyzing brain electrical activity online, several groups have designed brain-actuated systems that provide alternative channels for communication, entertainment and control. Thus, a person can

José Del R. Millán



Confirming the brain death diagnosis using brain CT angiography: experience in Tokat State Hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: Fourteen brain death cases diagnosed in Mart 2012-May 2013 period in Tokat State Hospital were studied retrospectively. CT angiography experience about those cases was shared, and use of CT angiography in confirmation of brain death was discussed. Material and Methods: All 14 cases were patients on mechanical ventilator, who did not respond to medical and surgical treatments at intensive care unit and were diagnosed clinically with brain death. All of these patients had CT angiography as a confirmatory test using a 4-slice CT scanner in Radiology department in Tokat State Hospital. Findings: Six of the patients were female and eight were male. All of them were referred from intensive care unit and had clinical brain death diagnosis before CT angiography. In the evaluation of CTA, four-point scoring involving opacification loss in both ICVs and cortical segments of MCA was used. CTA examinations confirmed brain death diagnoses in all patients who had clinical brain death diagnoses, and no confliction between CTA findings and clinical diagnoses was observed. Conclusion: Demonstrating the lack of cerebral circulation is a necessity for confirmation of brain death diagnosis. While conventional angiography remains the standard method, CTA emerged as an alternative method. In parallel to increase in prevalence of organ implants, CTA, a fast and efficient method, has been increasingly used in confirmation of brain death diagnoses. PMID:25126174

Karaku?, Kayhan; Demirci, Seden; Cengiz, Aysun Yakut; Atalar, Mehmet Haydar



Brain size, sex, and the aging brain.  


This study was conducted to examine the statistical influence of brain size on cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar compartmental volumes. This brain size influence was especially studied to delineate interactions with Sex and Age. Here, we studied 856 healthy subjects of which 533 are classified as young and 323 as old. Using an automated segmentation procedure cortical (gray and white matter [GM and WM] including the corpus callosum), cerebellar (GM and WM), and subcortical (thalamus, putamen, pallidum, caudatus, hippocampus, amygdala, and accumbens) volumes were measured and subjected to statistical analyses. These analyses revealed that brain size and age exert substantial statistical influences on nearly all compartmental volumes. Analyzing the raw compartmental volumes replicated the frequently reported Sex differences in compartmental volumes with men showing larger volumes. However, when statistically controlling for brain size Sex differences and Sex × Age interactions practically disappear. Thus, brain size is more important than Sex in explaining interindividual differences in compartmental volumes. The influence of brain size is discussed in the context of an allometric scaling of the compartmental volumes. Hum Brain Mapp, 36:150-169, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25161056

Jäncke, Lutz; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen



Brain: The Inside Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brain is quite flexible and resilient, and this online exhibit from the American Museum of Natural History explores both of these traits, along with looking at current research into how the brain works. This website offers a nice complement to the in situ exhibit, and visitors can make their way through five sections, including "Your Sensing Brain", "Your Emotional Brain", and "Your 21st Century Brain". Each of these sections includes short answers to crucial questions about the brain's functions and activities, such as "Why do memories exist?" In the "Videos" area, found on the right hand side of any page, visitors can check out six different clips that document the creation of the physical exhibit as well as topics that include "Thinking in Symbols". Finally, the site is rounded out by a section of materials for educators that include lesson plans and bulletins with titles like "Inside the Teenage Brain".


1michigan state university brand STandardS BRAND STANDARDS  

E-print Network

1michigan state university brand STandardS BRAND STANDARDS VERSION 4, APRIL 30, 2012 #12;2michigan state university brand STandardS TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 brand baSicS 5 The Michigan STaTe UniverSiTy brandUrTher gUidance #12;3michigan state university brand STandardS 1. BrANd BASICS 1a whaT iS a brand? We build


An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation and to alleviate motor impairments. In this paper, an adaptive brain-computer interface system intended for application to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device is developed as an experimental test bed for augmenting rehabilitation with a brain-computer interface. The system's performance is improved throughout rehabilitation by passive user feedback and reinforcement learning. By continuously adapting to the user's brain activity, similar adaptive systems could be used to support clinical brain-computer interface neurorehabilitation over multiple days. PMID:25565945

Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.



An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation.  


For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation and to alleviate motor impairments. In this paper, an adaptive brain-computer interface system intended for application to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device is developed as an experimental test bed for augmenting rehabilitation with a brain-computer interface. The system's performance is improved throughout rehabilitation by passive user feedback and reinforcement learning. By continuously adapting to the user's brain activity, similar adaptive systems could be used to support clinical brain-computer interface neurorehabilitation over multiple days. PMID:25565945

Roset, Scott A; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C



Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate that the Activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis Has an Elongated Shape Which Allows Its Interaction with Both N- and M-Domains of Hsp90  

PubMed Central

The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins’ interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

Seraphim, Thiago V.; Alves, Marina M.; Silva, Indjara M.; Gomes, Francisco E. R.; Silva, Kelly P.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Borges, Júlio C.



A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.  


Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M; Mortrud, Marty T; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Phillips, John W; Hohmann, John G; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Zeng, Hongkui



The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION  

E-print Network

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

Barrett, Lisa Feldman


[Standard rhinoplasty].  


Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly - most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections. PMID:25156432

Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S



A new method for determining blood–brain barrier integrity based on intracardiac perfusion of an Evans Blue–Hoechst cocktail  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for determining brain regions with blood–brain barrier (BBB) alterations is described. In this method, mice were perfused intracardially with Evans Blue (EB) and Hoechst tracers added in a standard formaldehyde fixative solution. This cocktail method was tested after a localized cryolesion induced in the brain had produced an edematous brain region with disrupted BBB in the animals.

Jaume del Valle; Antoni Camins; Mercè Pallàs; Jordi Vilaplana; Carme Pelegrí



Experimental brain death  

PubMed Central

The morphological characteristics of brain death were examined in baboons and cats after artificial cerebral ischaemia. All animals showed autolytic changes in the brain, ischaemic neuronal changes, midbrain haemorrhages, focal necrosis of the brain-stem, demarcation at C 1/C 2 cord segment, and displacement of cerebellar tissue. Ultrastructural examination revealed extreme brain oedema, autolytic changes, and complete obstruction of capillaries by astrocytic and endothelial swelling and intravascular blebs. These data indicate that brain death develops in several stages. If the process starts in the supratentorial space it first leads to a breakdown of the cerebral circulation and to transtentorial herniation. As a result, midbrain haemorrhages develop and the infratentorial pressure begins to rise. The second stage is terminated by demarcation of the brain. The circulatory arrest is initially caused by venous compression but becomes irreversible when vascular obstruction develops. Images PMID:4199913

Matakas, F.; Cervos-Navarro, J.; Schneider, H.



3D brain anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive model of the brain, users can learn about its parts and specific functions. The model consists of side-by-side image and text areas. Users can employ a variety of control options. For example, they can click on a colorized area of the brain to call up information about it and to alter the position of the three-dimensional brain so that it features the selected part. There are also buttons for rotating the brain and for zooming. In addition, users can select from pop-up menus to learn about a specific brain area such as the corpus callosum and brain functions such as speech. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

David Grubin Productions



The Brain Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientific Learning Corporation maintains the Brain Connection, a Web site "dedicated to providing accessible, high-quality information about how the brain works and how people learn." This extensive site has descriptions, pictures, animations, puzzles, quizzes and much more on nearly every aspect of the human brain. Everyone from kids to adults will find hours of interesting and fun exploration at this well-constructed Web site.



Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of this population are available; however, the data highlight significant deficiencies with few treatment standards or guidelines. Considering the limited availability of resources, it is necessary to define realistic goals. Attention should be given to injury prevention, developing standardized pediatric admission

Brian T. Jankowitz; P. David Adelson



Brunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness Week A series of public lectures all about the brain  

E-print Network

Brunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness WeekBrunel Brain Awareness Week A series of public lectures all about the brain Tuesday 15Tuesday 15Tuesday 15Tuesday 15 13:10 - 13:45 Dr. Daniel Bishop Watching You, Watching Me: A system in the brain for understanding

Royal Holloway, University of London


Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity  

PubMed Central

Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph



Neuromodulation of Brain States  

PubMed Central

Switches between different behavioral states of the animal are associated with prominent changes in global brain activity, between sleep and wakefulness or from inattentive to vigilant states. What mechanisms control brain states, and what are the functions of the different states? Here we summarize current understanding of the key neural circuits involved in regulating brain states, with a particular emphasis on the subcortical neuromodulatory systems. At the functional level, arousal and attention can greatly enhance sensory processing, whereas sleep and quiet wakefulness may facilitate learning and memory. Several new techniques developed over the past decade promise great advances in our understanding of the neural control and function of different brain states. PMID:23040816

Lee, Seung-Hee; Dan, Yang



BrainAligner: 3D Registration Atlases of Drosophila Brains  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Drosophila neural expression patterns in thousands of 3D image stacks of individual brains requires registering them into a canonical framework based on a fiducial reference of neuropil morphology. Given a target brain labeled with predefined landmarks, the BrainAligner program automatically finds the corresponding landmarks in a subject brain and maps it to the coordinate system of the target brain via a deformable warp. Using a neuropil marker (the antibody nc82) as a reference of the brain morphology and a target brain that is itself a statistical average of 295 brains, we achieved a registration accuracy of 2µm on average, permitting assessment of stereotypy, potential connectivity, and functional mapping of the adult fruitfly brain. We used BrainAligner to generate an image pattern atlas of 2,954 registered brains containing 470 different expression patterns that cover all the major compartments of the fly brain. PMID:21532582

Peng, Hanchuan; Chung, Phuong; Long, Fuhui; Qu, Lei; Jenett, Arnim; Seeds, Andrew M.; Myers, Eugene W.; Simpson, Julie H.



Standard atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.

Gregg, Willis Ray



Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer's disease brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease and can be definitively diagnosed after death through an examination of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in several brain regions. It is to be expected that changes in the concentration and/or localization of low-molecular-weight molecules are linked to the pathological changes that occur in AD, and determining their identity would provide valuable information regarding AD processes. Here, we propose definitive brain metabolic profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The acquired data were subjected to principal components analysis to differentiate the frontal and parietal lobes of the AD/Control groups. Significant differences in the levels of spermine and spermidine were identified using S-plot, mass spectra, databases and standards. Based on the investigation of the polyamine metabolite pathway, these data establish that the downstream metabolites of ornithine are increased, potentially implicating ornithine decarboxylase activity in AD pathology.

Inoue, Koichi; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Toyo'Oka, Toshimasa



Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots  

E-print Network

The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a qu...

Pessa, Eliano



High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

McWilliam, Erica



T Dwarfs Model Fits for Spectral Standards at Low Spectral Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present model fits to the T dwarf spectral standards which cover spectral types from T0 to T8. For a complete spectral range analysis, we have included a T9 object which is not considered a spectral standard. We have low-resolution (R~120) SpeX Prism spectra and a variety of higher resolution (R~1,000-25,000) spectra for all nine of these objects. The synthetic spectra are from the BT-SETTL 2013 models. We compare the best fit parameters from low resolution spectra to results from the higher resolution fits of prominent spectral type dependent features, where possible. Using the T dwarf standards to calibrate the effective temperature and gravity parameters for each spectral type, we will expand our analysis to a larger, more varied sample, which includes over one hundred field T dwarfs, for which we have a variety of low, medium, and high resolution spectra from the SpeX Prism Library and the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey. This sample includes a handful of peculiar and red T dwarfs, for which we explore the causes of their non-normalcy.

Giorla, Paige; Rice, Emily L.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Martin, Emily C.; Logsdon, Sarah E.



Inside the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

Drury, Stacy S.



Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)



Traumatic Brain Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)



Metastatic brain tumor  


... Bladder cancer Breast cancer Certain sarcomas Germ cell tumors Kidney cancer Leukemia Lung cancer Lymphoma Melanoma Some types of cancer rarely spread to the brain, such as colon cancer and ... rare cases, a tumor can spread to the brain from an unknown ...


Drugs and the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.


Brain imaging in psychiatry  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

Morihisa, J.M.



Electromagnetic brain mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been tremendous advances in our ability to produce images of human brain function. Applications of functional brain imaging extend from improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cognitive processes to better characterization of pathologies that impair normal function. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) (MEG\\/EEG) localize neural electrical activity using noninvasive measurements of external electromagnetic signals. Among the

S. Baillet; J. C. Mosher; R. M. Leahy



Brain Aneurysm: Recovery  


... a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the patient needs to know for improved recovery" presented by Dr. Aaron Cohen-Gadol. ©2015 Brain Aneurysm Foundation Footer menu Site Map Disclaimer Contact: office (888) 272-4602 ...


Shadows in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the processing of an object shadow occurs implicitly, that is without conscious awareness, and where physically within the human brain shadows are processed. Here we present neurological evidence, obtained from studies of brain-injured patients with visual neglect, that shadows are implicitly processed and that this processing may take place within

Umberto Castiello; Dean Lusher; Carol Burton; Peter Disler



The Emerging Scholarly Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

Kurtz, Michael J.


Brain is a Computer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the similarities between the human brain and its engineering counterpart, the computer. Since students work with computers routinely, this comparison strengthens their understanding of both how the brain works and how it parallels that of a computer. Students are also introduced to the "stimulus-sensor-coordinator-effector-response" framework for understanding human and robot actions.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...


Imaging the Working Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

Swithenby, S. J.



The Busy Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to understand how the brain receives and sends signals to the body. Until third grade, children view organs of the body as individual parts, e.g. the eyes are for seeing; the stomach digests food. At this level students are ready to start viewing the body as one whole system. One way to ease into this view is to study systems within the body such as the digestive system, circulatory system or the nervous system. This lesson introduces the brain, but not just the brain. It emphasizes how the brain interacts with the rest of the body. Students will learn about this by understanding 'messages' that go from parts of the body to the brain, and vice versa.

Science Netlinks;



Spatiotemporal brain imaging and modeling  

E-print Network

This thesis integrates hardware development, data analysis, and mathematical modeling to facilitate our understanding of brain cognition. Exploration of these brain mechanisms requires both structural and functional knowledge ...

Lin, Fa-Hsuan, 1972-



Intraoperative virtual brain counseling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando




PubMed Central

Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a “reactive” personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a “proactive” personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration. PMID:24359469

Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva JP; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas; Morrow, E



Breast cancer brain metastases: new directions in systemic therapy  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer continues to be a major clinical challenge. The standard initial therapeutic approach depends upon the size, location, and number of metastatic lesions and includes consideration of surgical resection, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. As systemic therapies for control of extracranial disease improve, patients are surviving long enough to experience subsequent progression events in the brain. Therefore, there is an increasing need to identify both more effective initial treatments as well as to develop multiple lines of salvage treatments for patients with breast cancer brain metastases. This review summarises the clinical experience to date with respect to cytotoxic and targeted systemic therapies for the treatment of brain metastases, highlights ongoing and planned trials of novel approaches and identifies potential targets for future investigation. PMID:23662165

Lin, Nancy U



Environmental Standardization for Sustainability  

E-print Network

process requirements - process requirements for standardization activities that prescribe normative goals standard or narrow family of related standards. Coordination problem ­ challenge under game theoretic

Bagby, John


Autism brain tissue banking.  


One avenue of progress toward understanding the neurobiological basis of autism is through the detailed study of the post-mortem brain from affected individuals. The primary purpose of autism brain tissue banking is to make well-characterized and optimally preserved post-mortem brain tissue available to the neuroscience research community. In this paper we discuss our current understanding of the criteria for optimal characterization and preservation of post-mortem brain tissue; the pitfalls associated with inadequate clinical and neuropathological characterization and the advantages and disadvantages of post-mortem studies of the brain. We then describe the current status of the brain tissue bank supported by the Autism Tissue Program, including the demographic characteristics of the tissue donors, post-mortem interval, sex, age and the method of preservation. Finally, we provide information on the policies and procedures that govern the distribution of brain specimens by this bank and the nature of the studies that are currently being supported directly by this program. PMID:17919127

Haroutunian, Vahram; Pickett, Jane



International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain  

E-print Network

EA 4272 International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework DocumentdeTravail WorkingPaper hal-00421166,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 International Human Capital Formation for examining the interrelation between brain drain, brain gain and the location of human capital formation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Brain Imaging and Behavioral Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review explores the cellular pathology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to neurobehavioral outcomes, the relationship of brain imaging findings to underlying pathology, brain imaging techniques, various image analysis procedures and how they relate to neuropsychological testing, and the importance of brain imaging…

Bigler, Erin D.



Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.


Psychotherapy and brain plasticity  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of consciousness; an emphasis which may usefully complement what can be learnt from more specific methodologies. PMID:24046752

Collerton, Daniel



Advances in brain tumor chemosensitivity.  


Despite advances in surgery and radiation, most malignant central nervous system tumours recur. Chemotherapy has assumed an important role in treatment, particularly for responsive tumors such as primary central nervous system lymphoma and oligodendrogliomas. The design of sound chemotherapeutic trials for brain tumors requires an understanding of drug resistance. Drug sensitivity may be improved in a variety of ways: through the use of agents at higher than conventional doses or in new treatment schedules, through the use of localized resistance to modulators, and even through genetic manipulation of malignant cells. As treatment with chemotherapy for central nervous system tumors becomes more successful, new measurements of tumor response may need to be developed to replace or complement standard criteria. PMID:9619354

Balmaceda, C



Traumatic Brain Injuries. Guidelines Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on traumatic brain injuries begins with statistics on the incidence of the disorder, especially as they relate to Colorado. Traumatic brain injury is then defined, and problems caused by traumatic brain injury are discussed. The components of effective programming for students with traumatic brain injuries are described, followed by the…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.


Computational analysis of brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain injury has been of continuing interest to researchers in impact biomechanics. It is a frequent cause of fatalities and of permanent disability among survivors. However, the etiology of many types of brain injury is still unknown. The current research investigates brain response in terms of stress, stain, stain energy, intracranial pressure, and brain\\/skull relative displacement, using finite element modeling

Aiman Sharef Al-Bsharat



Brain Research: Implications for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to examine the research of split-brain, hemispheric specialization, and brain function, as it pertains to handwriting, brain wave patterns, and lateral differences. Studies are reviewed which point to asymmetric differentiated functions and capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres in split-brain patients and in normal…

Crouch-Shinn, Jenella; Shaughnessy, Michael F.


Partial volume correction of brain perfusion estimates using the inherent signal data of time-resolved arterial spin labeling.  


Quantitative perfusion MRI based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) is hampered by partial volume effects (PVEs), arising due to voxel signal cross-contamination between different compartments. To address this issue, several partial volume correction (PVC) methods have been presented. Most previous methods rely on segmentation of a high-resolution T1 -weighted morphological image volume that is coregistered to the low-resolution ASL data, making the result sensitive to errors in the segmentation and coregistration. In this work, we present a methodology for partial volume estimation and correction, using only low-resolution ASL data acquired with the QUASAR sequence. The methodology consists of a T1 -based segmentation method, with no spatial priors, and a modified PVC method based on linear regression. The presented approach thus avoids prior assumptions about the spatial distribution of brain compartments, while also avoiding coregistration between different image volumes. Simulations based on a digital phantom as well as in vivo measurements in 10 volunteers were used to assess the performance of the proposed segmentation approach. The simulation results indicated that QUASAR data can be used for robust partial volume estimation, and this was confirmed by the in vivo experiments. The proposed PVC method yielded probable perfusion maps, comparable to a reference method based on segmentation of a high-resolution morphological scan. Corrected gray matter (GM) perfusion was 47% higher than uncorrected values, suggesting a significant amount of PVEs in the data. Whereas the reference method failed to completely eliminate the dependence of perfusion estimates on the volume fraction, the novel approach produced GM perfusion values independent of GM volume fraction. The intra-subject coefficient of variation of corrected perfusion values was lowest for the proposed PVC method. As shown in this work, low-resolution partial volume estimation in connection with ASL perfusion estimation is feasible, and provides a promising tool for decoupling perfusion and tissue volume. PMID:25066601

Ahlgren, André; Wirestam, Ronnie; Petersen, Esben Thade; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Knutsson, Linda



Brain Wake-Ups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.


Scanning the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from The Human Spark, host Alan Alda learns how Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines employ powerful magnetic fields to show what parts of the brain are active while doing different tasks.



Brain and Nervous System  


... everything it does, the human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. Its many folds and ... sensory cells called taste buds that react to chemicals in foods. Taste buds react to sweet, sour, ...


Brain Coral Christmas  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Christmas tree worms have made their home on a brain coral. Tropical corals reefs are complex ecosystems, but are rapidly being lost to bleaching and disease, linked to increasing water temperatures....



Mind and Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research findings concerning the biological foundations of conscious memory and other attributes of the mind. Includes vignettes and diagrams depicting brain structure and how neurons communicate. (MCO)

Fischbach, Gerald D.



Deep brain stimulation  


... opening (incision), usually just below the collarbone and implants the neurostimulator. (Sometimes it is placed under the ... the brain, in the wound, or in the skull Problems with speech, memory, muscle weakness, balance, vision, ...


Vortices in Brain Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions by mutual excitation in neural populations in human and animal brains create a mesoscopic order parameter that is recorded in brain waves (electroencephalogram, EEG). Spatially and spectrally distributed oscillations are imposed on the background activity by inhibitory feedback in the gamma range (30-80 Hz). Beats recur at theta rates (3-7 Hz), at which the order parameter transiently approaches zero and microscopic activity becomes disordered. After these null spikes, the order parameter resurges and initiates a frame bearing a mesoscopic spatial pattern of gamma amplitude modulation that governs the microscopic activity, and that is correlated with behavior. The brain waves also reveal a spatial pattern of phase modulation in the form of a cone. Using the formalism of the dissipative many-body model of brain, we describe the null spike as a singularity, the following amplitude pattern as a ground state, and the phase cone as the manifestation of a stabilizing vortex.

Freeman, Walter J.; Vitiello, Giuseppe


Brain Stimulation Therapies  


... involve activating or touching the brain directly with electricity, magnets, or implants to treat depression and other ... past, a "sine wave" was used to administer electricity in a constant, high dose. However, studies have ...


Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)  


... appointed director of NICHD’s National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research NICHD Co-Sponsors White House Disability Summit NICHD Funds Research on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) All related news Home Accessibility Contact Disclaimer ...


The Thermodynamic Brain  

E-print Network

The Thermodynamic Brain Joseph Donnelly, MBChB1, Marek Czosnyka1,2, PhD; 1. Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 2. Institute of Electronic Systems... ’ in the skull; namely the vascular, parenchymal, and CSF compartments. The question then arises, which component of ICP (there are three: vascular, CSF circulatory and brain-volumetric) does temperature affect? The vascular component is the obvious choice...

Donnelly, Joseph; Czosnyka, Marek



Effect of Music Therapy on Mood and Social Interaction Among Individuals With Acute Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of music therapy techniques as an aid in improving mood and social interaction after traumatic brain injury or stroke. Design: Eighteen individuals with traumatic brain injury or stroke were assigned either standard rehabilitation alone or standard rehabilitation along with music therapy (3 treatments per week for up to 10 treatments). Measures: Pretreatment and posttreatment

Sangeetha Nayak; Barbara L. Wheeler; Samuel C. Shiflett; Sandra Agostinelli



Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility  

PubMed Central

Background An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated. Methods Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death. Results As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66–2.37), but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels. Conclusion With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure. PMID:25493437

Collins, James J.; Bender, Thomas John; Bonner, Eileen M.; Bodner, Kenneth M.; Kreft, Alisa M.



Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)  

SciTech Connect

We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by (125I)-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei.

Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.



What happens to the brain in weightlessness? A first approach by EEG tomography.  


Basic changes in environmental conditions are fundamental to understanding brain cortical mechanisms. Several studies have reported impairment of central nervous processes during weightlessness. There is ongoing debate as to whether these impairments are attributable to primary physiological effects or secondary psychological effects of the weightlessness environment. This study evaluates the physiological effects of changed gravity conditions on brain cortical activity. In a first experiment, EEG activity of seven participants was recorded at normal, increased and zero gravity during a parabolic flight. Additionally an EEG under normal gravity conditions preflight was recorded. In a second experiment, 24 participants were exposed to a supine, seated and 9 degree head-down tilt position while EEG was recorded. Data were analysed using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Beta-2 EEG activity (18-35 Hz) was found to be increased in the right superior frontal gyrus under normal gravity conditions inflight. By exposure to weightlessness a distinct inhibition of this activity within the same areas could be noticed. As the tilt experiment showed changes in the left inferior temporal gyrus in supine and tilted positions we conclude that the observed changes under weightlessness are not explainable by hemodynamic changes but rather reflect emotional processes related to the experience of weightlessness. These findings suggest that weightlessness has a major impact on electro cortical activity and may affect central nervous and adaptation processes. PMID:18606233

Schneider, Stefan; Brümmer, Vera; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam; Askew, Christopher D; Strüder, Heiko K



[Brain development and glutamate].  


The involvement of glutamate in early brain development has been somewhat controversial. A large body of in vitro evidences indicates that the neurotransmitter glutamate influences early developmental events such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Paradoxically, loss-of-function mouse models of glutamatergic signaling that are generated by genetic deletion of receptors or the process of glutamate release exhibit normal brain development. The absence of an effect following genetic disruption of glutamatergic signaling might reflect compensation from other neurotransmitters such as GABA and glycine, both of which can depolarize immature neurons similar to glutamate. To overcome this potential confusion, we examined the direct consequences of extracellular glutamate buildup on brain development by reducing the levels of glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1. GLAST/GLT1 double knockout mice (DKO) exhibit multiple brain defects, including cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar disorganization with perinatal mortality. Several essential aspects of neuronal development, such as stem cell proliferation, radial migration, and neuronal differentiation were impaired in these mutants. The deletion of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1 subunit in DKO mice almost completely rescued multiple brain defects. These results provide direct in vivo evidence that glutamatergic activity through NMDA receptors does indeed modulate early brain developmental processes. PMID:24101424

Tanaka, Kohichi



Surgery for brain edema.  


Brain edema is a common pathophysiological process seen in many neurosurgical conditions. It can be localized in relation to focal lesions or generalized in diffuse types of brain injury. In addition to local adverse effects occurring at a cellular level, brain edema is associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and both phenomena contribute to poor outcome in patients. One of the goals in treating patients with acute neurosurgical conditions in intensive care is to control brain edema and maintain ICP below target levels. The mainstay of treatment is medical therapy to reduce edema, but in certain patients--for example, those with diffuse severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction--such treatment is not effective. In these patients, opening the skull (decompressive craniectomy) to reduce ICP is a potential option. In this review the authors discuss the role of decompressive craniectomy as a surgical option in patients with brain edema in the context of a variety of pathological entities. They also address the current evidence for the technique (predominantly observational series) and the ongoing randomized studies of decompressive craniectomy in TBI and ischemic stroke. PMID:17613232

Hutchinson, Peter; Timofeev, Ivan; Kirkpatrick, Peter



Abnormal electroretinogram associated with developmental brain anomalies.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: We have encountered abnormal ERGs associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, macular, optic nerve and chorioretinal colobomata and developmental brain anomalies. Brain anomalies include cortical dysgenesis, lissencephaly, porencephaly, cerebellar and corpus callosum hypoplasia. We describe six exemplar cases. METHODS: Scotopic and photopic ERGs adherent to international standards were performed as well as photopic ERGs to long-duration stimuli. CT or MRI studies were also done. The ERGs were compared to age-matched normal control subjects. RESULTS: ERG changes include reduced amplitude b-waves to blue and red stimuli under scotopic testing conditions. Implicit times were often delayed. The photopic responses also showed reduced amplitude a- and b-waves with implicit time delays. The long-duration photopic ERG done in one case shows attenuation of both ON- and OFF-responses. CONCLUSIONS: Common underlying developmental genetic or environmental unifying casualties are speculated to be at fault in causing these cases of associated retinal and brain abnormalities. No single etiology is expected. Multiple potential causes acting early in embryogenesis effecting neuronal induction, migration and differentiation are theorized. These occur at a time when brain and retinal cells are sufficiently undifferentiated to be similarly effected. We call these cases examples of Brain Retina Neuroembryodysgenesis (BRNED). Homeobox and PAX genes with global neuronal developmental influences are gene candidates to unify the observed disruption of brain and retinal cell development. The ERG can provide a valuable clinical addition in understanding and ultimately classifying these disorders. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8719676

Cibis, G W; Fitzgerald, K M



Perioperative hemodynamic heterogeneity of brain dead organ donors.  


Brain death is accompanied by a loss of homeostatic mechanisms leading to physiologic changes which have been shown to be detrimental to donor organs prior to procurement. The management of the brain dead organ donor (BDOD) is frequently left to transplant coordinators, often registered nurses, who follow standardized protocols for that management. The use of a standardized protocol assumes that these donors display homogeneity. To investigate this assumption, the anesthesiology fellows and faculty involved in multiorgan transplantation at the Baylor University Medical Center/UTSWMC conducted a study into the perioperative hemodynamics of the BDOD. PMID:14621918

Duke, P K; Ramsay, M A; Gunning, T C; Paulsen, A W; Roberts, L C



Determination of Gastrodin and Ligustrazine Hydrochloride in Plasma and Brain Dialysate by LC–Tandem MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of\\u000a gastrodin and ligustrazine hydrochloride in rat plasma and brain dialysates. Zolpidem was used as internal standard. For plasma\\u000a samples, solid-phase extraction was used and the brain dialysates were collected from freely moving rats using brain microdialysis.\\u000a Both were followed by HPLC separation and positive

Yun-Feng Lv; Xin Hu; Wei-Ming Cheng; Ying-Lan Nie; Kai-Shun Bi



Imaging brain plasticity after trauma  

PubMed Central

The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the field is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treatment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plasticity investigation. PMID:25206874

Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin



New Antioxidant Drugs for Neonatal Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

The brain injury concept covers a lot of heterogeneity in terms of aetiology involving multiple factors, genetic, hemodynamic, metabolic, nutritional, endocrinological, toxic, and infectious mechanisms, acting in antenatal or postnatal period. Increased vulnerability of the immature brain to oxidative stress is documented because of the limited capacity of antioxidant enzymes and the high free radicals (FRs) generation in rapidly growing tissue. FRs impair transmembrane enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase activity resulting in persistent membrane depolarization and excessive release of FR and excitatory aminoacid glutamate. Besides being neurotoxic, glutamate is also toxic to oligodendroglia, via FR effects. Neuronal cells die of oxidative stress. Excess of free iron and deficient iron/binding metabolising capacity are additional features favouring oxidative stress in newborn. Each step in the oxidative injury cascade has become a potential target for neuroprotective intervention. The administration of antioxidants for suspected or proven brain injury is still not accepted for clinical use due to uncertain beneficial effects when treatments are started after resuscitation of an asphyxiated newborn. The challenge for the future is the early identification of high-risk babies to target a safe and not toxic antioxidant therapy in combination with standard therapies to prevent brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment.

Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe



Compact dynamical model of brain activity.  


A compact physiologically based mean-field formulation of brain dynamics is proposed to model observed brain activity and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In contrast to existing formulations, which are more detailed and complicated, our model is described by a single second-order delay differential equation that encapsulates salient aspects of the physiology. The model captures essential features of activity mediated by fast corticocortical connections and delayed feedbacks via extracortical pathways and external stimuli. In the linear regime, these features can be simply expressed by three coefficients derived from the properties of these physiological pathways and explicit nonlinear approximations are also derived. This compact model successfully reproduces the main features of experimental EEG's and the predictions of previous models, including resonance peaks in EEG spectra and nonlinear dynamics. As an illustration, key features of the dynamics of epileptic seizures are shown to be reproduced by the model. Due to its compact form, the model will facilitate insight into nonlinear brain dynamics via standard nonlinear techniques and will guide analysis and investigation of more complex models. It is thus a useful tool for analyzing complex brain activity, especially when it exhibits low-dimensional dynamics. PMID:17500726

Kim, J W; Robinson, P A



Compact dynamical model of brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact physiologically based mean-field formulation of brain dynamics is proposed to model observed brain activity and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In contrast to existing formulations, which are more detailed and complicated, our model is described by a single second-order delay differential equation that encapsulates salient aspects of the physiology. The model captures essential features of activity mediated by fast corticocortical connections and delayed feedbacks via extracortical pathways and external stimuli. In the linear regime, these features can be simply expressed by three coefficients derived from the properties of these physiological pathways and explicit nonlinear approximations are also derived. This compact model successfully reproduces the main features of experimental EEG’s and the predictions of previous models, including resonance peaks in EEG spectra and nonlinear dynamics. As an illustration, key features of the dynamics of epileptic seizures are shown to be reproduced by the model. Due to its compact form, the model will facilitate insight into nonlinear brain dynamics via standard nonlinear techniques and will guide analysis and investigation of more complex models. It is thus a useful tool for analyzing complex brain activity, especially when it exhibits low-dimensional dynamics.

Kim, J. W.; Robinson, P. A.



Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Regulation of brain aquaporins.  


Emerging evidence suggests that brain aquaporins (AQP) play important roles for the dynamic regulation of brain water homeostasis and for the regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production. This review deals with the short- and long-term regulation of AQP4 and AQP9, both expressed in astrocytes, and of AQP1, expressed in the choroid plexus. AQP1 and 4 have in other cell types been shown to be regulated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation affects the gating of AQP4 and the trafficking and insertion into membrane of AQP1. Mercury inhibits the water permeability of AQP1 and AQP9, but not AQP4. The permeability of AQP4 is increased by lead. AQP4 is also regulated by protein-protein interaction. The assembly between AQP4 and syntrophin is required for the proper localization of AQP4 in the astrocyte plasma membrane that faces capillaries. There is evidence from studies on peripheral tissues that steroid hormones regulate the expression of AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9. There is also evidence that the expression of AQP1 can be regulated by ubiquitination, and that osmolality can regulate the expression of AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9. Further insight into the mechanisms by which brain AQPs are regulated will be of utmost clinical importance, since perturbed water flow via brain AQPs has been implicated in many neurological diseases and since, in brain edema, water flow via AQP4 may have a harmful effect. PMID:15561410

Gunnarson, E; Zelenina, M; Aperia, A



Ipilimumab and whole brain radiation therapy for melanoma brain metastases.  


Brain metastases (BM) frequently develop in patients with melanoma and are associated with a poor prognosis. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is a standard intervention for intracranial disease, particularly in patients with multiple BM. Ipilimumab improves survival in patients with advanced melanoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of concurrent WBRT and ipilimumab. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 13 consecutive patients treated with WBRT within 30 days of ipilimumab administration. Radiographic response, as measured by serial magnetic resonance imaging scans post-treatment, was graded by modified World Health Organization (mWHO) and immune-related response criteria (irRC) in the 9 patients with follow-up imaging. Treatment-related toxicity was prospectively assessed during treatment. Four of nine patients (44 %) experienced partial response or stable central nervous system (CNS) disease as measured by mWHO criteria. This number increased to 5 patients (56 %) when irRC criteria were used. Rates of treatment-related neurologic toxicity were low with only one patient experiencing grade 3-4 neurologic toxicity. There was a high rate of intratumoral hemorrhage in this patient population, with 10 of 10 patients with post-treatment imaging demonstrating new or increased intratumoral bleeding after WBRT. This retrospective study demonstrates that the primary pattern of CNS response to WBRT and ipilimumab is stable disease and not regression of BM. Furthermore, while the combination of WBRT and ipilimumab may offer promising efficacy, prospective studies are needed to further assess efficacy and toxicity. PMID:25273687

Gerber, Naamit K; Young, Robert J; Barker, Christopher A; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chan, Timothy A; Yamada, Yoshiya; Friguglietti, Leigh; Beal, Kathryn



Music and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the relationship between the brain and music? That very question animates the Library of Congress' Music and the Brain series, and their website allows interested parties to listen in on some of the conversations, lectures, and symposia. Noted psychologist Kay Redfield Jamison chairs the initiative, and the programs bring together physicians, theorists, composers, and performers. Visitors can listen to some of these recent conversations via this website, and they can also sign up to receive new podcasts via iTunes. Currently, there are five different podcasts available. They include talks with Dr. Charles J. Limb ("Your Brain on Jazz"), Jessica Krash ("Dangerous Music"), and Dr. Aniruddh D. Patel on "The Music of Language and the Language of Music".


Brain Science Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding how the brain works is a fascinating and engaging question, worth ruminating every day, if possible. The Brain Science Podcast does just that. Dr. Ginger Campbell, an experienced emergency room physician, has a long standing interest in mind-body medicine, the brain, and consciousness. As host, she features the latest books about neuroscience along with interviews with scientists from all over the world. Visitors can click on the Latest Show to listen in on her latest conversation or click on Past Episodes to dive on into her past ruminations. Here they can take advantage of conversations discussing the pre-frontal lobes, gut feelings, and neurophilosophy. Additionally, visitors can look over the Free Transcripts area to read through complete transcripts of all the programs on her site. The site is rounded out by a place to leave feedback, an FAQ area, and a link to her RSS feed.

Campbell, Virginia


Brain serotonergic circuitries  

PubMed Central

Brain serotonergic circuitries interact with other neurotransmitter systems on a multitude of different molecular levels. In humans, as in other mammalian species, serotonin (5-HT) plays a modulatory role in almost every physiological function. Furthermore, serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be implicated in several psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. We describe the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of brain serotonergic circuitries. The contribution of emergent in vivo imaging methods to the regional localization of binding site receptors and certain aspects of their functional connectivity in correlation to behavior is also discussed. 5-HT cell bodies, mainly localized in the raphe nuclei, send axons to almost every brain region. It is argued that the specificity of the local chemocommunication between 5-HT and other neuronal elements mainly depends on mechanisms regulating the extracellular concentration of 5-HT, the diversity of high-affinity membrane receptors, and their specific transduction modalities. PMID:21319493

Charnay, Yves; Leger, Lucienne



Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the Department of Physiology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, this site offers images and information from "one of the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains." The site features photos of brains of over 100 different species of mammals, representing 17 mammalian orders. Users can browse the collection by common or scientific name; view serial sections of selected specimens (including human and chimpanzee), some of which are also available as QuickTime movies; read about the importance and history of the collections; and learn about brain evolution (this last section still under construction). Additional resources include a collection of related links and an internal search engine.


The Metastable Brain  

PubMed Central

Neural ensembles oscillate across a broad range of frequencies and are transiently coupled or “bound” together when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, think and act. This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, with parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time. But how is it done? The theory of Coordination Dynamics proposes a mechanism called metastability, a subtle blend of integration and segregation. Tendencies for brain regions to express their individual autonomy and specialized functions (segregation, modularity) coexist with tendencies to couple and coordinate globally for multiple functions (integration). Although metastability has garnered increasing attention, it has yet to be demonstrated and treated within a fully spatiotemporal perspective. Here, we illustrate metastability in continuous neural and behavioral recordings, and we discuss theory and experiments at multiple scales suggesting that metastable dynamics underlie the real-time coordination necessary for the brain's dynamic cognitive, behavioral and social functions. PMID:24411730

Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott



Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)



Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer.  


Brain metastases are less common than bone or visceral metastases in patients with breast cancer. The overall prognosis of breast cancer patients with brain metastases remains poor, and these metastases are less responsive to systemic therapies. Brain metastasis is associated with a reduced quality of life due to progressive neurologic impairments. Recently, a trend of increased incidence of brain metastases in breast cancer has been noted. Reasons for this increased incidence include the more frequent use of sensitive detection methods such as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and increased awareness of brain metastasis among patients and clinicians. Adjuvant and systemic therapy with drugs that have a low blood-brain barrier penetrance can lead to an increased risk of brain metastases in breast cancer patients. Molecular subtype is a predictive factor for overall survival after developing brain metastases. Patients who do not have a poor prognosis based on previously identified prognostic factors should be treated with radiation therapy to control symptoms. Whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic irradiation and surgery are tools for the local treatment of brain metastases. Novel molecular target therapy, including HER2-targeted therapy, has demonstrated an antitumor effect on brain metastases. In this review, we provide a practical algorithm for the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases. This review provides an overview of the incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, prognostic factors and current and potential future management strategies of breast cancer brain metastases. PMID:25320339

Niikura, Naoki; Saji, Shigehira; Tokuda, Yutaka; Iwata, Hiroji



BrainCAT - a tool for automated and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging brain connectivity analysis  

PubMed Central

Multimodal neuroimaging studies have recently become a trend in the neuroimaging field and are certainly a standard for the future. Brain connectivity studies combining functional activation patterns using resting-state or task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography have growing popularity. However, there is a scarcity of solutions to perform optimized, intuitive, and consistent multimodal fMRI/DTI studies. Here we propose a new tool, brain connectivity analysis tool (BrainCAT), for an automated and standard multimodal analysis of combined fMRI/DTI data, using freely available tools. With a friendly graphical user interface, BrainCAT aims to make data processing easier and faster, implementing a fully automated data processing pipeline and minimizing the need for user intervention, which hopefully will expand the use of combined fMRI/DTI studies. Its validity was tested in an aging study of the default mode network (DMN) white matter connectivity. The results evidenced the cingulum bundle as the structural connector of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the medial frontal cortex, regions of the DMN. Moreover, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values along the cingulum extracted with BrainCAT showed a strong correlation with FA values from the manual selection of the same bundle. Taken together, these results provide evidence that BrainCAT is suitable for these analyses. PMID:24319419

Marques, Paulo; Soares, José M.; Alves, Victor; Sousa, Nuno



Traumatic Brain Injury in Sports: A Review  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical diagnosis of neurological dysfunction following head trauma, typically presenting with acute symptoms of some degree of cognitive impairment. There are an estimated 1.7 to 3.8 million TBIs each year in the United States, approximately 10 percent of which are due to sports and recreational activities. Most brain injuries are self-limited with symptom resolution within one week, however, a growing amount of data is now establishing significant sequelae from even minor impacts such as headaches, prolonged cognitive impairments, or even death. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment according to standardized guidelines are crucial when treating athletes who may be subjected to future head trauma, possibly increasing their likelihood of long-term impairments. PMID:22848836

Sahler, Christopher S.; Greenwald, Brian D.



Psychological outcome in children treated for brain tumor.  


The cognitive and psychosocial functions of 16 children with brain tumor, treated with wholebrain or local radiotherapy, were studied. Fifteen nonirradiated children with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) served as a comparison group. Mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised Full Scale IQ score and mean Visual-Motor Integration Test (Beery VMI) standard score were significantly decreased in the brain tumor group. The Achenbach checklists were filled in by mothers (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL) and teachers (Teacher's Report Form). Overall adjustment was rated lower in the children with brain tumor. Although most of the children in the ALL group were well adapted, one third of them had low CBCL Social Competence scores relative to nonclinical norms. On a visual analog scale a significantly decreased tempo was assessed by mothers and teachers in the children with brain tumor, and low speed and hypoactivity seemed to limit the majority of these children in school and daily life activities. PMID:9842641

Fossen, A; Abrahamsen, T G; Storm-Mathisen, I



Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images  

E-print Network

Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio



Teaching Creativity for Right Brain and Left Brain Thinkers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Right brain and left brain dominant people process information differently and need different techniques to learn how to become more creative. Various exercises can help students take advantage of both sides of their brains. Students must feel comfortable and unthreatened to reach maximal creativity, and a positive personal relationship with…

Geske, Joel


Confirmation of Brain Death Using Brain Radionuclide Perfusion Imaging Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the reliability of radionuclide cerebral blood perfusion imaging in confirming brain death irrespective of continued heartbeat. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-eight patients (19 male and 9 female, aged 17–63 years) with severe brain injury and fully supported until the final cardiac asystole were included in the study. Two sets of clinical tests aimed at ascertaining brain death in

S. Al-Shammri; M. Al-Feeli



Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain.  


Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39 ?m isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78 ?m isotropic voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain. Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We have applied a spatial reference system based on internal brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard, previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore connected this spatial reference system to the widely used stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using contrast given by the active staining technique applied to the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical location, and planning and guidance of experimental procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and related infrastructures will connect the atlas to interoperable resources and services for multi-level data integration and analysis across reference spaces. PMID:24726336

Papp, Eszter A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Calabrese, Evan; Johnson, G Allan; Bjaalie, Jan G



Prior information for brain parcellation  

E-print Network

To better understand brain disease, many neuroscientists study anatomical differences between normal and diseased subjects. Frequently, they analyze medical images to locate brain structures influenced by disease. Many of ...

Pohl, Kilian Maria



Radiation Injury to the Brain  


RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. This means where normal ... accurate treatment is still with one session radiosurgery. RADIATION THERAPY: Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) may target ...



EPA Science Inventory

The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...


Brain science, addiction and drugs  

E-print Network

Brain science, addiction and drugs Delivering public services A burning issue re Establishedresearchthemes Theme: Neuroscience Brain science, addiction and drugs Other established research themes our efforts on effectively building o

Bristol, University of


Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts  


... Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Statistics and Facts An estimated ... in the United States have an unruptured brain aneurysm, or 1 in 50 people. The annual rate ...


Implicit Brain Imaging Facundo Memoli  

E-print Network

subjects, individual brain datasets (M) are often mapped to a neu- roanatomical template or brain atlas (N of surface-based signals, such as fMRI data (see paper by Faugeras et al. in this issue) or cortical

Thompson, Paul


Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images  

PubMed Central

Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (, which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ? 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten “major representative” functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions. PMID:22973224

Lancaster, Jack L.; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Martinez, Michael J.; Fox, P. Mickle; Fox, Peter T.



Brain Wave Biofeedback: Benefits of Integrating Neurofeedback in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with the "2009 Standards" of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, counselors must understand neurobiological behavior in individuals of all developmental levels. This requires understanding the brain and strategies for applying neurobiological concepts in counseling practice, training, and…

Myers, Jane E.; Young, J. Scott



A general framework for brain-computer interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research community has acknowledged that researchers are experiencing difficulties when they try to compare the BCI techniques described in the literature. In response to this situation, the community has stressed the need for objective methods to compare BCI technologies. Suggested improvements have included the development and use of benchmark applications and standard data sets. However, as

Steven G. Mason; Gary E. Birch



Specific Ways Brain SPECT Imaging Enhances Clinical Psychiatric Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to ascertain in a prospective case series how often brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) neuroimaging adds relevant information for diagnosis and\\/or treatment beyond current standard assessment tools in complex psychiatric cases. Charts of 109 consecutively evaluated outpatients from four psychiatrics clinics that routinely utilize SPECT imaging for complex cases were analyzed in two stages. In

Daniel G. Amen; Diane Highum; Robert Licata; Joseph A. Annibali; Lillian Somner; H. Edmund Pigott; Derek V. Taylor; Manuel Trujillo; Andrew Newberg; Theodore Henderson; Kristen Willeumier



Your Child's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that early childhood experiences with processes as diverse as language, mathematics, emotion, and music determine which neurons grow and remain active in the brain. Early exposure to these processes results in receptive programming. Discusses the implications for schools, teachers, and parents. (MJP)

Begley, Sharon



Imaging of brain metastases  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Imaging is used to detect metastases in patients with known malignancies and new neurological signs or symptoms, as well as to screen for CNS involvement in patients with known cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of brain metastases. In difficult cases, such as newly diagnosed solitary enhancing brain lesions in patients without known malignancy, advanced imaging techniques including proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may aid in arriving at the correct diagnosis. This image-rich review discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with suspected intracranial involvement and malignancy, describes typical imaging findings of parenchymal brain metastasis on CT and MRI, and provides clues to specific histological diagnoses such as the presence of hemorrhage. Additionally, the role of advanced imaging techniques is reviewed, specifically in the context of differentiating metastasis from high-grade glioma and other solitary enhancing brain lesions. Extra-axial CNS involvement by metastases, including pachymeningeal and leptomeningeal metastases is also briefly reviewed. PMID:23717792

Fink, Kathleen R.; Fink, James R.



Mind & Brain Gender Difference  

E-print Network

See Also: Mind & Brain Gender Difference· Relationships· Fossils & Ruins Evolution· Early Related Stories In Matters Of Sex And Death, Men Are An Essential Part Of The Equation (Aug. 29, 2007

Lummaa, Virpi


Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ignited by the efficacy and commercial success of cardiac devices, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and biomedical engineers are collaborating to develop implantable brain devices to arrest, contain, and preempt seizures before they cause clinical symptoms. New devices in development deliver electrical stimulation or pharmacologic agents locally to the epileptic focus or deep nuclei to modulate seizure activity. \\

Brian Litt; Gordon Baltuch



Brain Games for Babies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)

Silberg, Jackie




PubMed Central

The Human Brain Project consortium continues to struggle with effective sharing of tools. To facilitate reuse of its tools, the Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory (SPNL) has developed BrainImageJ, a new software framework in Java. The framework consists of two components—a set of four programming interfaces and an application front end. The four interfaces define extension pathways for new data models, file loaders and savers, algorithms, and visualization tools. Any Java class that implements one of these interfaces qualifies as a BrainImageJ plug-in—a self-contained tool. After automatically detecting and incorporating new plug-ins, the application front end transparently generates graphical user interfaces that provide access to plug-in functionality. New plug-ins interoperate with existing ones immediately through the front end. BrainImageJ is used at the Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory to develop image-analysis algorithms and three-dimensional visualization tools. It is the goal of our development group that, once the framework is placed in the public domain, it will serve as an interlaboratory platform for designing, distributing, and using interoperable tools. PMID:11522764

Ng, Yi-Ren; Shiffman, Smadar; Brosnan, Thomas J.; Links, Jonathan M.; Beach, Leu S.; Judge, Nicholas S.; Xu, Yirong; Kelkar, Uma V.; Reiss, Allan L.



Brain and Spinal Tumors  


... be used to diagnose or monitor a particular disorder) of CNS tumors. Other researchers are testing different drugs and molecules to see if they can modulate the normal activity of the blood-brain barrier and better target ... Headache: Hope Through Research Information ...


Coping with brain damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

Waring, W.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

BrainU is a grant-funded professional development program for science teachers in grades 5-12. Website content includes easy-to-follow instructions for hands-on activities, student and teacher guides, handouts, and educational videos and cartoons.


Reverse engineering the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

What do fruit-fly brains have in common with microchips? That's not the setup for a bad joke; it's David Adler's life. Under Adler's ultrasophisticated electron beam microscopes, advanced microprocessors with transistors far smaller than red blood cells have been reduced to their wiring diagrams. Now the noggin of the humble Drosophila melanogaster is next, as Adler is being courted by

Sally Adee



Ben's Plastic Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares a story of Ben who as a result of his premature birth, suffered a brain hemorrhage resulting in cerebral palsy, which affected his left side (left hemiparesis) and caused learning disabilities. Despite these challenges, he graduated from college and currently works doing information management for a local biotech start-up…

Kaplan, Susan L.



Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 250 per 100,000 of the population sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually (Cassidy et al., 2004), making it the most commonly occurring neurological condition. Of these 102 per 100,000 are hospitalised (Chesnut, Carney, Maynard, Patterson, Mann, & Helfand, 1998). Because of advances in trauma care these individuals are surviving injuries that would previously have been fatal (Klimczak, Donovick, &

Janet M. Leathem; Muriel Christianson


Manganese action in brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese, an essential trace metal, is supplied to the brain via both the blood–brain and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barriers. There are some mechanisms in this process and transferrin may be involved in manganese transport into the brain. A large portion of manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins, especially glutamine synthetase in astrocytes. A portion of manganese probably exists in the

Atsushi Takeda



Complex Systems and Brain Sciences  

E-print Network

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Charles E. Schmidt College of Science #12;Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Our Mission The mission of the Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences is to understand the principles and mechanisms underlying complex behavior

Fernandez, Eduardo


Brain Injury Association of America  


... TO THANK OUR SPONSORS... Brain Injury Preferred Attorneys Brain Injury Rehabilitation Services Seek medical attention if you are experiencing: Numbness Excessive drowsiness Severe Headache Weakness in your arms or legs Dizziness or loss of vision Slurred speech Loss of ... © 2014 Brain Injury ...


A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans  

PubMed Central

We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the “sender”) and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the “receiver”). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender’s signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means. PMID:25372285

Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Stocco, Andrea; Bryan, Matthew; Sarma, Devapratim; Youngquist, Tiffany M.; Wu, Joseph; Prat, Chantel S.



Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen



Standards for holdup measurement  

SciTech Connect

Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

Zucker, M.S.



Technology Standards for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many states technology standards for students have focused on basic computer skills, but more standards are beginning to focus on identifying technology skills that students need for school and the workplace. In most states in the Southern Region, technology standards for students are based on the National Educational Technology Standards for…

Burke, Jennifer


Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009



International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

Cromwell, Ronita L.



Acoustical standards news.  


American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes catalogs of Acoustical Standards, both National and International. To receive copies of the latest Standards catalogs, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National and International Catalogs of Acoustical Standards, and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: PMID:25618085

Blaeser, Susan B; Schomer, Paul D



The blue-collar brain.  


Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian



The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian



The elephant brain in numbers.  


What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R



The elephant brain in numbers  

PubMed Central

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R.



Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.  


Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research. PMID:25211508

Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat



Quantification of brain perfusion with tracers retained by the brain  

SciTech Connect

Almost a decade ago, tracers, labelled with {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc, that are retained by the brain, started to be used for studies of regional brain perfusion (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF). To date, these tracers have been used for brain perfusion imaging with SPECT in brain disorders as well as for physiological activation protocols. Only seldom, however, have they been used in protocols that quantitatively measure rCBF. Nevertheless, comparative studies with perfusion reference tracers have repeatedly demonstrated that the brain uptake of these brain-retained tracers is correlated to perfusion, the major determinant of the distribution of these tracers in the brain. The brain kinetics of {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO, which is the tracer most commonly used, was described with a two-compartment tissue model. The theoretical approach, which is, in itself, sufficient for modeling quantitative measurements with {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO, initially suggested the possibility of empirically narrowing the distance between the brain`s regional uptake of the tracer and rCBF with a linearization algorithm which uses the cerebellum as the reference region. The value of this empirical method is hampered by the fact that the cerebellum can be involved in cerebrovascular disease (i.e. cerebellar diaschisis) as well as in several other brain disorders (e.g. anxiety, and dementia of the Alzheimer type). It also was proposed that different reference regions (occipital, whole slice, or whole brain) should be selected in relation to the brain disorder under study. However, this approach does not solve the main problem because it does not equip us with a reliable tool to evaluate rCBF with a high predictive value, and, at the same time, to reduce intersubject variability. The solution would be to measure a quantitative parameter which directly reflects rCBF, such as the unidirectional influx constant of the freely diffusible flow-limited tracers. 45 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Pupi, A.; Bacciottini, L.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Formiconi, A.R.; Castagnoli, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)



Whole-brain radiotherapy and tumor bed radiosurgery following resection of solitary brain metastases.  


A standard approach to solitary brain metastases is resection followed by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Despite WBRT, the tumor bed remains a common site of failure. We reviewed outcomes following adjuvant WBRT with tumor bed radiosurgery (SRS). We retrospectively identified patients having undergone neurosurgical resection of a single brain metastasis followed by adjuvant WBRT and tumor bed SRS. SRS dose selection was independent of target volume (10 Gy peripheral dose). Outcomes were calculated actuarially. Patients were censured for local control at the time of last imaging. From 2005 to 2008, 27 patients were treated with WBRT and tumor bed SRS. Median age was 58.7 years, median KPS 80%. The primary malignancy was non-small cell lung cancer in 70%. Median follow-up was 9.7 months. Following the combination of surgery, WBRT and SRS the median overall survival was 17.6 months. Actuarial 2-year local control was 94%. The SRS boost was well tolerated with one patient (4%) requiring reoperation for symptomatic radiation necrosis 16 months post treatment. Radiosurgery can be safely added to WBRT as an adjuvant treatment following resection of a single brain metastasis. In our retrospective series, this combination treatment produced a high rate of local control. PMID:19381439

Roberge, David; Petrecca, Kevin; El Refae, Munir; Souhami, Luis



WebBrain (Beta)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by, a visual information management software company, this new site offers a nifty way of browsing the Open Directory Project (ODP) (see the November 20, 1998 Scout Report). With WebBrain's animated interface, users can view their search and browsing results as a dynamic diagram instead of a long list. As with any other site that accesses the ODP, users can browse the Directory's 1.7 million sites by category or search by keyword. Due to the visual effects, however, faster connections and newer browsers are a must. Although the Beta claims it does not support Mac browsers, we were able to use the site, though with noticeably better performance from IE 5.5 compared to Netscape.


The Learning Brain: Neuroscience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The very well-maintained BioEd Online website from the Baylor College of Medicine was recently overhauled and now it's better than ever. This particular resource collection brings together videos, teacher guides, digital slides, video presentations, and related content. The topics covered include brain structure, neurons and the nervous system, human senses and movement, learning and memory, diseases of the nervous system, and the effects of drugs on the brain and body. The entire collection is part of the National Institute of Health's Blueprint for Neuroscience Education program and is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other partners. Visitors should not miss the Individual Lessons area, which has excellent segments on What is a Neuron?, Hormones and Stress, and seven other topics. [KMG


Brain-Computer Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The theoretical groundwork of the 1930’s and 1940’s and the technical advance of computers in the following decades provided the basis for dramatic increases in human efficiency. While computers continue to evolve, and we can still expect increasing benefits from their use, the interface between humans and computers has begun to present a serious impediment to full realization of the potential payoff. This article is about the theoretical and practical possibility that direct communication between the brain and the computer can be used to overcome this impediment by improving or augmenting conventional forms of human communication. It is about the opportunity that the limitations of our body’s input and output capacities can be overcome using direct interaction with the brain, and it discusses the assumptions, possible limitations, and implications of a technology that I anticipate will be a major source of pervasive changes in the coming decades. PMID:18310804

Schalk, Gerwin



Brain metastasis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Despite major therapeutic advances in the management of patients with systemic malignancies, management of brain metastases remains a significant challenge. These patients often require multidisciplinary care that includes surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Complex decisions about the sequencing of therapies to control extracranial and intracranial disease require input from neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical/neuro-oncologists. With advances in understanding of the biology of brain metastases, molecularly defined disease subsets and the advent of targeted therapy as well as immunotherapeutic agents offer promise. Future care of these patients will entail tailoring treatment based on host (performance status and age) and tumor (molecular cytogenetic characteristics, number of metastases, and extracranial disease status) factors. Considerable work involving preclinical models and better clinical trial designs that focus not only on effective control of tumor but also on quality of life and neurocognition needs to be done to improve the outcome of these patients. PMID:25580268

Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Vogelbaum, Michael V.; Chao, Samuel T.




PubMed Central

Many yogic methods emphasis control and suspension of breath as important components of the path to transcendence. However, the Pranayamas are varied and their role of both improve the physical aspects of breathing and for calming the mind, the latter being very important in the management of many phycosomatic disorders. Different types of Pranayama seem to influence the brain functioning in specific ways. Since the breath seems to link the body and the mind, it is possible to study this link by studying the effect of Pranayama on some brain functioning. This report document some of the recent observations of EEG changes during different types of Pranayama and their significance in health and diseases. PMID:22556548

Srinivasan, T. M.



Probabilistic MRI brain anatomical atlases based on 1,000 Chinese subjects.  


Brain atlases are designed to provide a standard reference coordinate system of the brain for neuroscience research. Existing human brain atlases are widely used to provide anatomical references and information regarding structural characteristics of the brain. The majority of them, however, are derived from one paticipant or small samples of the Western population. This poses a limitation for scientific studies on Eastern subjects. In this study, 10 new Chinese brain atlases for different ages and genders were constructed using MR anatomical images based on HAMMER (Hierarchical Attribute Matching Mechanism for Elastic Registration). A total of 1,000 Chinese volunteers ranging from 18 to 70 years old participated in this study. These population-specific brain atlases represent the basic structural characteristics of the Chinese population. They may be utilized for basic neuroscience studies and clinical diagnosis, including evaluation of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, in Chinese patients and those from other Eastern countries. PMID:23341878

Wang, Xing; Chen, Nan; Zuo, ZhenTao; Xue, Rong; Jing, Luo; Yan, Zhuo; Shen, DingGang; Li, KunCheng



Probabilistic MRI Brain Anatomical Atlases Based on 1,000 Chinese Subjects  

PubMed Central

Brain atlases are designed to provide a standard reference coordinate system of the brain for neuroscience research. Existing human brain atlases are widely used to provide anatomical references and information regarding structural characteristics of the brain. The majority of them, however, are derived from one paticipant or small samples of the Western population. This poses a limitation for scientific studies on Eastern subjects. In this study, 10 new Chinese brain atlases for different ages and genders were constructed using MR anatomical images based on HAMMER (Hierarchical Attribute Matching Mechanism for Elastic Registration). A total of 1,000 Chinese volunteers ranging from 18 to 70 years old participated in this study. These population-specific brain atlases represent the basic structural characteristics of the Chinese population. They may be utilized for basic neuroscience studies and clinical diagnosis, including evaluation of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, in Chinese patients and those from other Eastern countries. PMID:23341878

ZhenTao, Zuo; Rong, Xue; Luo, Jing; Zhuo, Yan; DingGang, Shen; KunCheng, Li



Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning  

SciTech Connect

Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF.

Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.



Brain representations of writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Functional neuroimaging,has been,used to map,the brain structures involved in the execution and guidance of arm and hand movements during writing, in the learning of writing movements,and,in relation to the linguistic components,of written speech production. It was shown that handwriting, like other visuospatial motor tasks, involves motor and premotor cortical areas as well as dorsal stream areas of sensory processing,

Rüdiger J. Seitz


Culture-brain interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the philosophical problems in neuroscience is seeing the trees before the forest. Indeed, it is essential to know how\\u000a local events fit into the whole picture, but we must also look beyond correlations between stimuli and neural responses in\\u000a one sensory nucleus. A lifelong dialogue between the environment and human brain begins at birth. Different environments enable\\u000a different

John G. Bruhn



Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) pose an enormous clinical, emotional, and intellectual challenge to rehabilitation\\u000a professionals. For public policymakers, the cost of care for approximately 6 million survivors of TBI is measured in the billions\\u000a of dollars. In addition to the motor, sensory, and language deficits commonly seen in nontraumatic etiologies, the patient\\u000a with TBI often experiences cognitive and\\/or

Ramnik Singh; Michael W. O’Dell


Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James



Iron quantification of microbleeds in postmortem brain.  


Brain microbleeds (BMB) are associated with chronic and acute cerebrovascular disease and present a source of pathologic iron to the brain proportional to extravasated blood. Therefore, BMB iron content is potentially a valuable biomarker. We tested noninvasive phase image methods to quantify iron content and estimate true source diameter (i.e., unobscured by the blooming effect) of BMB in postmortem human tissue. Tissue slices containing BMB were imaged using a susceptibility weighted imaging protocol at 11.7T. BMB lesions were assayed for iron content using atomic absorption spectrometry. Measurements of geometric features in phase images were related to lesion iron content and source diameter using a mathematical model. BMB diameter was estimated by image feature geometry alone without explicit relation to the magnetic susceptibility. A strong linear relationship (R(2) = 0.984, P < 0.001) predicted by theory was observed in the experimental data, presenting a tentative standardization curve where BMB iron content in similar tissues could be calculated. In addition, we report BMB iron mass measurements, as well as upper bound diameter and lower bound iron concentration estimates. Our methods potentially allows the calculation of brain iron load indices based on BMB iron content and classification of BMB by size unobscured by the blooming effect. PMID:21590801

McAuley, Grant; Schrag, Matthew; Barnes, Samuel; Obenaus, Andre; Dickson, April; Holshouser, Barbara; Kirsch, Wolff



Morpholino studies in Xenopus brain development.  


Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) have become a valuable method to knock down protein levels, to block mRNA splicing, and to interfere with miRNA function. MOs are widely used to alter gene expression during development of Xenopus and zebra fish, where they are typically injected into the fertilized egg or blastomeres. Here, we present methods to use electroporation to target delivery of MOs to the central nervous system of Xenopus laevis or Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles. Briefly, MO electroporation is accomplished by injecting MO solution into the brain ventricle and driving the MOs into cells in the brain with current passing between two platinum plate electrodes, positioned on either side of the target brain area. The method is straightforward and uses standard equipment found in many neuroscience labs. A major advantage of electroporation is that it allows spatial and temporal control of MO delivery and therefore knockdown. Co-electroporation of MOs with cell-type specific fluorescent protein expression plasmids allows morphological analysis of cellular phenotypes. Furthermore, co-electroporation of MOs with rescuing plasmids allows assessment of specificity of the knockdown and phenotypic outcome. By combining MO-mediated manipulations with sophisticated assays of neuronal function, such as electrophysiological recording, behavioral assays, or in vivo time-lapse imaging of neuronal development, the functions of specific proteins and miRNAs within the developing nervous system can be elucidated. These methods can be adapted to apply antisense morpholinos to study protein and RNA function in a variety of complex tissues. PMID:24048933

Bestman, Jennifer E; Cline, Hollis T



Compact continuum brain model for human electroencephalogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-dimensional, compact brain model has recently been developed based on physiologically based mean-field continuum formulation of electric activity of the brain. The essential feature of the new compact model is a second order time-delayed differential equation that has physiologically plausible terms, such as rapid corticocortical feedback and delayed feedback via extracortical pathways. Due to its compact form, the model facilitates insight into complex brain dynamics via standard linear and nonlinear techniques. The model successfully reproduces many features of previous models and experiments. For example, experimentally observed typical rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are reproduced in a physiologically plausible parameter region. In the nonlinear regime, onsets of seizures, which often develop into limit cycles, are illustrated by modulating model parameters. It is also shown that a hysteresis can occur when the system has multiple attractors. As a further illustration of this approach, power spectra of the model are fitted to those of sleep EEGs of two subjects (one with apnea, the other with narcolepsy). The model parameters obtained from the fittings show good matches with previous literature. Our results suggest that the compact model can provide a theoretical basis for analyzing complex EEG signals.

Kim, J. W.; Shin, H.-B.; Robinson, P. A.



[Therapeutic hypothermia for severe traumatic brain injury].  


Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is considered a standard of care in the post-resuscitation phase of cardiac arrest. In experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), TH was found to have neuroprotective properties. However, TH failed to demonstrate beneficial effects on neurological outcome in patients with TBI. The absence of benefits of TH uniformly applied in TBI patients should not question the use of TH as a second-tier therapy to treat elevated intracranial pressure. The management of all the practical aspects of TH is a key factor to avoid side effects and to optimize the potential benefit of TH in the treatment of intracranial hypertension. Induction of TH can be achieved with external surface cooling or with intra-vascular devices. The therapeutic target should be set at a 35°C using brain temperature as reference, and should be maintained at least during 48 hours and ideally over the entire period of elevated intracranial pressure. The control of the rewarming phase is crucial to avoid temperature overshooting and should not exceed 1°C/day. Besides its use in the management of intracranial hypertension, therapeutic cooling is also essential to treat hyperthermia in brain-injured patients. In this review, we will discuss the benefit-risk balance and practical aspects of therapeutic temperature management in TBI patients. PMID:24138767

Bouzat, P; Francony, G; Oddo, M; Payen, J-F



Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer's disease brains  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease and can be definitively diagnosed after death through an examination of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in several brain regions. It is to be expected that changes in the concentration and/or localization of low-molecular-weight molecules are linked to the pathological changes that occur in AD, and determining their identity would provide valuable information regarding AD processes. Here, we propose definitive brain metabolic profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The acquired data were subjected to principal components analysis to differentiate the frontal and parietal lobes of the AD/Control groups. Significant differences in the levels of spermine and spermidine were identified using S-plot, mass spectra, databases and standards. Based on the investigation of the polyamine metabolite pathway, these data establish that the downstream metabolites of ornithine are increased, potentially implicating ornithine decarboxylase activity in AD pathology. PMID:23917584

Inoue, Koichi; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa



Iron in the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied. Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and GP, but less than half of this in Hip. ELISA studies showed that the H/L ratio of ferritin in SN and GP is also similar, but is about three times higher in Hip. These results suggest that the role of iron in SN and GP may be different from that in Hip. Electron microscopy shows that the diameters of the ferritin iron cores in the brain are smaller that in the liver (3.5 ± 0.5 nm vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 nm). Mössbauer studies yield the ratio between the concentration of iron in control and parkinsonian SN as 1.00 ± 0.13.

Galazka-Friedman, Jolanta; Friedman, Andrzej; Bauminger, Erika R.



The cooperative brain.  


Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making. PMID:23300215

Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G



Brain and conscious experience.  


There is a deep belief that we can attain not only a neuroscience of consciousness but a neuroscience of human consciousness. It is as if something terribly new and complex happens as the brain enlarges to its human form. Whatever this is, it triggers our capacity for self-reflection, for ennui, and for lingering moments, I would like to propose a simple, three-step suggestion. First, we should focus on what we mean when we talk about conscious experience. It is merely the awareness we have of our capacities as a species, but not the capacities themselves--only the awareness or feelings we have about them. The brain is clearly not a general purpose computing device but is a collection of circuits devoted to quite specific capacities. This is true for all brains, but what is wonderful about the human brain is that we have untold numbers of these capacities. We have more than the chimp, which has more than the monkey, which has more than the cat, which runs circles around the rat. Because we have so many specialized systems and because they can frequently do things they were not designed to do, it appears our brains have a single, general computing device. But we do not. Thus, step 1 requires that we recognize we are a collection of adaptations and, furthermore, we recognize the distinction between a species' capacities and its feelings about those capacities. Now consider step 2. Can there be any doubt that a rat at the moment of copulation is as sensorially fulfilled as a human? Of course it is. Do you think a cat does not enjoy a good piece of cod? Of course it does. Or, a monkey does not enjoy a spectacular swing? Again, it has to be true. Each species is aware of its special capacities. So, what is human consciousness? It is the very same awareness, save for the fact that we can be aware of so much more, so many wonderful things. A circuit--perhaps a single system or one duplicated over and over again--is associated with each brain capacity. The more systems a brain possesses, the greater the awareness of capacities. Think of the variations in capacity within our own species; they are not unlike the vast differences between species. Years of split-brain research have informed us that the left hemisphere has many more mental capacities than the right one. The left is capable of logical feats that the right hemisphere cannot manage. Although the right has capacities such as facial recognition systems, it is a distant second with problem-solving skills. In short, the right hemisphere's level of awareness is limited. It knows precious little about a lot of things, but the limits to human capacity are everywhere in the population. No one need be offended to realize that just as someone with normal intelligence can understand Ohm's law, others, like yours truly, are clueless about Kepler's laws. I am ignorant about them and will remain so. I am unable to be aware about what they mean for the universe. The circuits that enable me to understand these things are not present in my brain. By emphasizing specialized circuits that arise from natural selection, we see that the brain is not a unified neural net that supports a general problem-solving device. With this being understood, we can concentrate on the possibility that smaller, more manageable circuits produce awareness of a species' capacities. Holding fast to the notion of a unified neural net means we can understand human conscious experience only by figuring out the interactions of billions of neurons. That task is hopeless. My scheme is not. Hence step 3. The very same split-brain research that exposed shocking differences between the two hemispheres also showed that the human left hemisphere has the interpreter. The left brain interpreter's job is to interpret our behavior and our responses, whether cognitive or emotional, to environmental challenges. It constantly establishes a running narrative of our actions, emotions, thoughts, and dreams. It is the glue that keeps our PMID:9709824

Gazzaniga, M S



Imaging the Alzheimer Brain  

PubMed Central

This supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease contains more than half of the chapters from The Handbook of Imaging the Alzheimer Brain, which was first presented at the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease in Paris, in July, 2011. While the Handbook contains 27 chapters that are modified articles from 2009, 2010, and 2011 issues of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, this supplement contains the 31 new chapters of that book and an introductory article drawn from the introductions to each section of the book. The Handbook was designed to provide a multilevel overview of the full field of brain imaging related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Handbook, as well as this supplement, contains both reviews of the basic concepts of imaging, the latest developments in imaging, and various discussions and perspectives of the problems of the field and promising directions. The Handbook was designed to be useful for students and clinicians interested in AD as well as scientists studying the brain and pathology related to AD. PMID:21971448

Ashford, J. Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad; Furst, Ansgar; Bayley, Peter; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Sabri, Osama; Adamson, Maheen M.; Coburn, Kerry L.; Olichney, John; Schuff, Norbert; Spielman, Daniel; Edland, Steven D.; Black, Sandra; Rosen, Allyson; Kennedy, David; Weiner, Michael; Perry, George



Brain amino acid sensing.  


The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K



Variations in brain DNA  

PubMed Central

It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain) of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain. PMID:25505410

Avila, Jesús; Gómez-Ramos, Alberto; Soriano, Eduardo



Feasibility of an Operational Standardized Checklist for Movement Disorder Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the clinical success of deep brain stimulation (DBS), it remains to be elucidated where within the work process the surgical result could diverge from the surgical plan. We sought to determine this. We implemented a standardized checklist to detect and remediate procedural errors. A consecutive series of 13 patients was studied. Revisions, explantations and thermal lesions were excluded. We

Patrick J. Connolly; Michaux Kilpatrick; Jurg L. Jaggi; Ephraim Church; Gordon H. Baltuch



A dynamic 4D probabilistic atlas of the developing brain.  


Probabilistic atlases are widely used in the neuroscience community as a tool for providing a standard space for comparison of subjects and as tissue priors used to enhance the intensity-based classification of brain MRI. Most efforts so far have focused on static brain atlases either for adult or pediatric cohorts. In contrast to the adult brain the rapid growth of the neonatal brain requires an age-specific spatial probabilistic atlas to provide suitable anatomical and structural information. In this paper we describe a 4D probabilistic atlas that allows dynamic generation of prior tissue probability maps for any chosen stage of neonatal brain development between 29 and 44 gestational weeks. The atlas is created from the segmentations of 142 neonatal subjects at different ages using a kernel-based regression method and provides prior tissue probability maps for six structures - cortex, white matter, subcortical grey matter, brainstem, cerebellum and cerebro-spinal fluid. The atlas is publicly available at PMID:20969966

Kuklisova-Murgasova, Maria; Aljabar, Paul; Srinivasan, Latha; Counsell, Serena J; Doria, Valentina; Serag, Ahmed; Gousias, Ioannis S; Boardman, James P; Rutherford, Mary A; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel



Quantitative autoradiography of angiotensin II receptors in the SHR brain  

SciTech Connect

Several lines of evidence indicate brain angiotensin II is associated with the elevation of blood pressure seen in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). These include an increased pressor response to intracerebroventricularly administered angiotensin II and a reduction of blood pressure in response to centrally administered angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography, we have detected greater angiotensin II receptor binding in a number of discrete brain nuclei of the 6-week-old SHR when compared to age-matched Wistar-Kyoto controls. Tissue sections from various brain regions were labeled with (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II according to a previously described method. Autoradiograms were generated by apposing the labeled tissue sections to LKB Ultrofilm along with brain paste standards which contained known amounts of (/sup 125/I). Quantitation of the binding, utilizing computer-assisted microdensitometry, indicated greater (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding in several brain areas implicated in cardiovascular control including the subfornical organ, nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, locus coeruleus, supraoptic nucleus and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Scatchard analysis of the binding in the nucleus of the solitary tract indicated an increased receptor number (Bmax) was responsible for the change while binding in two forebrain structures, the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus, showed alterations in receptor number and affinity (Kd). Several other brain regions, unrelated to cardiovascular control, exhibited no change in (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding.

Gehlert, D.R.; Speth, R.C.; Wamsley, J.K.



Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis often is characterized by an acute brain dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is highly complex, resulting from both inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, which may induce significant alterations in vulnerable areas of the brain. Important mechanisms include excessive microglial activation, impaired cerebral perfusion, blood–brain-barrier dysfunction, and altered neurotransmission. Systemic insults, such as prolonged inflammation, severe hypoxemia, and persistent hyperglycemia also may contribute to aggravate sepsis-induced brain dysfunction or injury. The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in sepsis relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as EEG and neuroimaging. A brain MRI should be considered in case of persistent brain dysfunction after control of sepsis and exclusion of major confounding factors. Recent MRI studies suggest that septic shock can be associated with acute cerebrovascular lesions and white matter abnormalities. Currently, the management of brain dysfunction mainly consists of control of sepsis and prevention of all aggravating factors, including metabolic disturbances, drug overdoses, anticholinergic medications, withdrawal syndromes, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Modulation of microglial activation, prevention of blood–brain-barrier alterations, and use of antioxidants represent relevant therapeutic targets that may impact significantly on neurologic outcomes. In the future, investigations in patients with sepsis should be undertaken to reduce the duration of brain dysfunction and to study the impact of this reduction on important health outcomes, including functional and cognitive status in survivors. PMID:23718252



Epilepsy and brain inflammation.  


During the last decade, experimental research has demonstrated a prominent role of glial cells, activated in brain by various injuries, in the mechanisms of seizure precipitation and recurrence. In particular, alterations in the phenotype and function of activated astrocytes and microglial cells have been described in experimental and human epileptic tissue, including modifications in potassium and water channels, alterations of glutamine/glutamate cycle, changes in glutamate receptor expression and transporters, release of neuromodulatory molecules (e.g. gliotransmitters, neurotrophic factors), and induction of molecules involved in inflammatory processes (e.g. cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, complement factors, cell adhesion molecules) (Seifert et al., 2006; Vezzani et al., 2011; Wetherington et al., 2008). In particular, brain injury or proconvulsant events can activate microglia and astrocytes to release a number of proinflammatory mediators, thus initiating a cascade of inflammatory processes in brain tissue. Proinflammatory molecules can alter neuronal excitability and affect the physiological functions of glia by paracrine or autocrine actions, thus perturbing the glioneuronal communications. In experimental models, these changes contribute to decreasing the threshold to seizures and may compromise neuronal survival (Riazi et al., 2010; Vezzani et al., 2008). In this context, understanding which are the soluble mediators and the molecular mechanisms crucially involved in glio-neuronal interactions is instrumental to shed light on how brain inflammation may contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in epilepsy. This review will report the clinical observations in drug-resistant human epilepsies and the experimental findings in adult and immature rodents linking brain inflammation to the epileptic process in a causal and reciprocal manner. By confronting the clinical evidence with the experimental findings, we will discuss the role of specific soluble inflammatory mediators in the etiopathogenesis of seizures, reporting evidence for both their acute and long term effects on seizure threshold. The possible contribution of these mediators to co-morbidities often described in epilepsy patients will be also discussed. Finally, we will report on the anti-inflammatory treatments with anticonvulsant actions in experimental models highlighting possible therapeutic options for treating drug-resistant seizures and for prevention of epileptogenesis. PMID:21985866

Vezzani, Annamaria; Aronica, Eleonora; Mazarati, Andrey; Pittman, Quentin J



SPECT study of low intensity He-Ne laser intravascular irradiation therapy for brain infarction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in brain perfusion imaging to study the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral function in brain infarction patients treated with intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB). 17 of 35 patients with brain infarction were admitted to be treated by ILIB on the base of standard drug therapy, and SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after ILIB therapy with self-comparison. The results were analyzed in quantity with brain blood flow function change rate (BFCR%) model. Effect of ILIB during the therapy process in the other 18 patients were also observed. In the 18 patients, SPECT indicated an improvement of rCBF (both in focus and in total brain) and cerebral function after a 30 min-ILIB therapy. And the 17 patients showed an enhancement of total brain rCBF and cerebral function after ILIB therapy in comparison with that before, especially for the focus side of the brain. The enhancement for focus itself was extremely obvious with a higher significant difference (P<0.0001). The mirror regions had no significant change (P>0.05). BFCR% of foci was prominently higher than that of mirror regions (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the ILIB therapy can improve rCBF and cerebral function and activate brain cells of patients with brain infarction. The results denote new evidence of ILIB therapy for those patients with cerebral ischemia.

Xiao, Xue-Chang; Dong, Jia-Zheng; Chu, Xiao-Fan; Jia, Shao-Wei; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Zheng, Xi-Yuan; Zhou, Ci-Xiong



Masonry Program Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains statewide standards for the masonry program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program structure…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.


Brain-machine and brain-computer interfaces.  


The idea of connecting the human brain to a computer or machine directly is not novel and its potential has been explored in science fiction. With the rapid advances in the areas of information technology, miniaturization and neurosciences there has been a surge of interest in turning fiction into reality. In this paper the authors review the current state-of-the-art of brain-computer and brain-machine interfaces including neuroprostheses. The general principles and requirements to produce a successful connection between human and artificial intelligence are outlined and the authors' preliminary experience with a prototype brain-computer interface is reported. PMID:15486335

Friehs, Gerhard M; Zerris, Vasilios A; Ojakangas, Catherine L; Fellows, Mathew R; Donoghue, John P



Scaling brain size, keeping timing: evolutionary preservation of brain rhythms.  


Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025

Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf



Data Standards ? Data Quality  

PubMed Central

The relationship between data quality and data standards has not been clearly articulated. While some directly state that data standards increase data quality, others claim the opposite. Depending on the type of data standard and the aspects of data quality considered, both arguments may in fact be correct. We deconstruct a typology of data standards and apply a dimensional definition of data quality to clearly articulate the relationship between the two, providing a framework for data quality planning. PMID:23920982

Nahm, Meredith; Hammond, W. Ed



Songbirds and the Revised Avian Brain Nomenclature  

PubMed Central

It has become increasingly clear that the standard nomenclature for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures of the avian brain is based on flawed once-held assumptions of homology to mammalian brain structures, greatly hindering functional comparisons between avian and mammalian brains. This has become especially problematic for those researchers studying the neurobiology of birdsong, the largest single group within the avian neuroscience community. To deal with the many communication problems this has caused among researchers specializing in different vertebrate classes, the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum, held at Duke University from July 18–20, 2002, set out to develop a new terminology for the avian telencephalon and some allied brainstem cell groups. In one major step, the erroneous conception that the avian telencephalon consists mainly of a hypertrophied basal ganglia has been purged from the telencephalic terminology, and the actual parts of the basal ganglia and its brainstem afferent cell groups have been given new names to reflect their now-evident homologies. The telencephalic regions that were incorrectly named to reflect presumed homology to mammalian basal ganglia have been renamed as parts of the pallium. The prefixes used for the new names for the pallial subdivisions have retained most established abbreviations, in an effort to maintain continuity with the pre-existing nomenclature. Here we present a brief synopsis of the inaccuracies in the old nomenclature, a summary of the nomenclature changes, and details of changes for specific songbird vocal and auditory nuclei. We believe this new terminology will promote more accurate understanding of the broader neurobiological implications of song control mechanisms and facilitate the productive exchange of information between researchers studying avian and mammalian systems. PMID:15313771




Library Technician Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.


Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-print Network

LBNL 4591E Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide


Standards and Certification. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic issues…



Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James



Arizona Adult Education Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006



Ketosis proportionately spares glucose utilization in brain  

PubMed Central

The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, as occurs with fasting, starvation, or chronic feeding of a ketogenic diet. The relationship between changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and degree or duration of ketosis remains uncertain. To investigate if CMRglc decreases with chronic ketosis, 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination with positron emission tomography, was applied in anesthetized young adult rats fed 3 weeks of either standard or ketogenic diets. Cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (?mol/min per 100?g) was determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum using Gjedde–Patlak analysis. The average CMRglc significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex (23.0±4.9 versus 32.9±4.7) and cerebellum (29.3±8.6 versus 41.2±6.4) with increased plasma ketone bodies in the ketotic rats compared with standard diet group. The reduction of CMRglc in both brain regions correlates linearly by ?9% for each 1?mmol/L increase of total plasma ketone bodies (0.3 to 6.3?mmol/L). Together with our meta-analysis, these data revealed that the degree and duration of ketosis has a major role in determining the corresponding change in CMRglc with ketosis. PMID:23736643

Zhang, Yifan; Kuang, Youzhi; Xu, Kui; Harris, Donald; Lee, Zhenghong; LaManna, Joseph; Puchowicz, Michelle A



Brain Tuberculomas: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: An unusual incidence of tuberculosis in different parts of the body is called tuberculomas. The rate of brain tuberculosis is rare. Case Presentation: The following case of tuberculamas of the brain, presented by enhancing rings of meninges, is reported because of its rarity. It was a case of brain tuberculomas in a 15-year-old girl with primary symptoms of headache and general weakness, and no signs of primary pulmonary infection. Discussion: The subject underwent computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Microbiological tests (acid fast bacilli smear-AFB, and culture of biopsy specimen) were applied subsequently. According to the results, the problem was diagnosed as brain tuberculomas. After operation she was completely treated with anti-TB drugs. Although brain tuberculosis is rare, it was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and the patient's successful response to anti-tuberculous drug treatment. PMID:25368795

Saleh, Maryam; Saeedi, Ali Asghar; Ali Pooran, Ali



Nature's experiments in brain diversity.  


This special issue of The Anatomical Record originates from a symposium on the evolution of neurobiological specializations in mammals held at the American Association of Anatomists annual meeting in San Diego in April 2005. The symposium, co-organized by Patrick R. Hof and Lori Marino, provided the impetus for extending the discussion to a greater range of species. This special issue is the product of that goal and is fueled by the philosophy that it is largely against a backdrop of brain diversity that we can extract the higher-order commonalities across brains that may lead us to uncovering general higher-order principles of brain and behavioral evolution. Several major themes emerge from this issue. These are that there are no simple brains, that brains reflect ecology, and that brain evolution is a detective story. The 12 articles in this issue are outstanding reflections of these themes. PMID:16200645

Marino, Lori; Hof, Patrick R



The stolen brain of Einstein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed an autopsy on Einstein after his death in 1955. During the autopsy Harvey removed Einstein's brain, took pictures of it and then cut it into several pieces. A lot of scientific attention has been devoted to Einstein' brain, and it still comes up once in a while. We've all heard something or other about Einstein's brain, as it has become somewhat of a folk lore. What is less known is that Harvey in actuality did not have the permission to remove the brain. Only later Harvey convinced Einstein's Hans Albert Einstein son that this was for a good purpose. The brain would only be used for scientific purpose, which will be published reputable journals. I will try to describe in some detail the long journey this brain has taken in last fifty two years.

Modi, Kavan



Radiotracers for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

The rapid growth of nuclear medicine 25 years ago was in large part related to the success of brain tumor imaging using radiopharmaceuticals designed to detect changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The success of computed tomography, and more recently nuclear magnetic resonance, in imaging these lesions has all but eliminated the use of radioactive agents for brain tumor detection. But, in recent years there has been a new wave of interest in isotope studies of the brain. The recent emphasis has been on agents which enter the brain across the BBB and are designed to provide functional data ranging from regional perfusion and metabolism to the distribution of binding sites for neuroactive compounds. While none of these new radiopharmaceuticals has yet come into widespread clinical application, the research results already achieved clearly indicate that brain imaging will again be an important aspect of nuclear medicine practice. 51 references.

Blau, M.



Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. During the process of attaining this mission, BTEC plans to mentor junior investigators or investigators who are new to brain tumor epidemiologic research.


Brain development, experience, and behavior.  


Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. This review examines the literature on how early experiences alter brain development, including environmental events such as sensory stimuli, early stress, psychoactive drugs, parent-child relationships, peer relationships, intestinal flora, diet, and radiation. This sensitivity of the brain to early experiences has important implications for understanding neurodevelopmental disorders as well as the effect of medical interventions in children. PMID:24376085

Kolb, Bryan; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Gibb, Robbin



Volumetric Transformation of Brain Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents diffeomorphic transformations of three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical image data of the macaque occipital lobe and whole brain cryosection imagery and of deep brain structures in human brains as imaged via magnetic reso- nance imagery. These transformations are generated in a hierar- chical manner, accommodating both global and local anatomical detail. The initial low-dimensional registration is accomplished by constraining

Gary E. Christensen; Sarang C. Joshi; Michael I. Miller



Web Intelligence Meets Brain Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we outline a vision of Web Intelligence (WI) research from the viewpoint of Brain Informatics (BI), a new\\u000a interdisciplinary field that systematically studies the mechanisms of human information processing from both the macro and\\u000a micro viewpoints by combining experimental cognitive neuroscience with advanced information technology. BI studies human brain\\u000a from the viewpoint of informatics (i.e., human brain

Ning Zhong; Jiming Liu; Yiyu Yao; Jing-long Wu; Shengfu Lu; Yulin Qin; Kuncheng Li; Benjamin W. Wah



Hematogenous pasteurella haemolytica brain abscess  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella infections are common in domestic animals and very rare in human. We report a hematogenously acquired Pasteurella haemolytica brain abscess, mimicking brain tumor on magnetic resonance imaging, in an 18-year-old female patient known with cardiac interventricular communication, without recent history of animal contact. The outcome was good after abscess complete removal and antimicrobials therapy for 6 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of P. haemolytica brain abscess. PMID:25002776

Darmoul, Mehdi; Nsir, Atef Ben; Kilani, Mohamed; Hattab, Mohamed Nejib



Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. RESULTS: The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven are in the USA, three are in Germany, two are in France, and there is one institute in India. Research interests including urology and nephrology, clinical neurology, as well as rehabilitation are involved in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors studies. CONCLUSION: Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors remains a highly active area of research and development.

Yan, Ying; Guo, Zhanwen; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ying



Permanent Turbidity-Standards  

PubMed Central

Permanent turbidity reference standards suitable for measurement of microbial suspensions were prepared by suspending finely divided titanium dioxide in aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde or methylstyrene resins. Turbidities of these standards, adjusted to a useful range for microbiological and immunological studies, were compared with other reference standards in use today. Tube holders for a Coleman Photonephelometer and a Nepho-Colorimeter were modified to eliminate the water well and to allow use of optically standardized 10-, 16-, or 18-mm test tubes. The standards and the tube holders have been used satisfactorily for more than 12 years. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6077410

Roessler, William G.; Brewer, Carl R.



National Information Standards Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1939, the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) is the premier contact organization responsible for identifying, developing, maintaining, and publishing technical standards "to manage information in our changing and ever-more digital environment". Their standards apply to both traditional and new technologies to the full range of information needs, such as storage, metadata, and preservation, to name but a few. On their site, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, peruse their annual report, and take a look at their various standards, including those that are still being developed. Visitors may also elect to download the current NISO standards if they so desire. The "Standards in Development" section is a nice place to take a look at, as it contains helpful notes and working documents on the development of such standards as technical metadata for digital still images and those for controlled vocabularies and thesauri.


Mild traumatic brain injury.  


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can have a profoundly negative effect on the injured person's quality of life, producing cognitive, physical, and psychological symptoms; impeding postinjury family reintegration; creating psychological distress among family members; and often having deleterious effects on spousal and parental relationships. This article reviews the most commonly reported signs and symptoms of mTBI, explores the condition's effects on both patient and family, and provides direction for developing nursing interventions that promote patient and family adjustment. PMID:25319524

Hyatt, Kyong S



Standard and non-standard primordial neutrinos  

E-print Network

The standard cosmological model predicts the existence of a cosmic neutrino background with a present density of about 110 cm^{-3} per flavour, which affects big-bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background anisotropies, and the evolution of large scale structures. We report on a precision calculation of the cosmic neutrino background properties including the modification introduced by neutrino oscillations. The role of a possible neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry and the impact of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions on the relic neutrinos are also briefly discussed.

P. D. Serpico



Brain Hemisphere Dominance: Building the Whole-Brain Singer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of brain hemisphere dominance serves as the basis for many educational learning theories. The dominant brain hemisphere guides the learning process, but both hemispheres are necessary for true learning to take place. This treatise outlines and analyzes the dominance factor, a learning theory developed by Dr. Carla Hannaford, which…

Boyd, Amanda R.



Genetic links between brain development and brain evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most defining biological attribute of Homo sapiens is its enormous brain size and accompanying cognitive prowess. How this was achieved by means of genetic changes over the course of human evolution has fascinated biologists and the general public alike. Recent studies have shown that genes controlling brain development — notably those implicated in microcephaly (a congenital defect that is

Sandra L. Gilbert; William B. Dobyns; Bruce T. Lahn



Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla



Right Brain Versus Left Brain in Assessing Verbal Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on divergent thinking (mental activity directed to open-end problems for which there is no one correct answer) indicates that the characteristics associated with divergency (fluency of thinking, flexibility of thinking, originality, redefinition, and elaborating) are right brain functions. To assess right brain function and verbal…

Turner, Yvonne L.


Organization of brain tissue - Is the brain a noisy processor.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some thoughts on functional organization in cerebral tissue. 'Spontaneous' wave and unit firing are considered as essential phenomena in the handling of information. Various models are discussed which have been suggested to describe the pseudorandom behavior of brain cells, leading to a view of the brain as an information processor and its role in learning, memory, remembering and forgetting.

Adey, W. R.



Working Memory Brain Activation Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that brain activation during performance of working memory (WM) tasks under high memory loads is altered in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to uninjured subjects (Perlstein et al., 2004; Scheibel et al., 2003). Our study attempted to equate TBI patients and orthopedically injured (OI) subjects on performance of an N-Back

Mary R. Newsome; Randall S. Scheibel; Joel L. Steinberg; Maya Troyanskaya; Rajkumar G. Sharma; Ronald A. Rauch; Xioaqi Li; Harvey S. Levin



Brain Structure and Meditation How Spiritual Practice Shapes the Brain  

E-print Network

Brain Structure and Meditation How Spiritual Practice Shapes the Brain Ulrich Ott (1), Britta K Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, U.S.A. Abstract Meditation practices can meditators with matched controls. While meditation types and meas- ures differed between studies, results

Lazar, Sara


Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.



Autoradiographic analysis of iodoamphetamine redistribution in experimental brain ischemia  

SciTech Connect

The pathophysiologic significance of iodoamphetamine (IMP) redistribution was analyzed using a double radionuclide autoradiography technique in experimental brain ischemia in the rat. Within 4 hr after unilateral arterial occlusion, IMP almost completely redistributed at 150 min postinjection in the affected areas. At 2 min postinjection, both a remarkable decrease of IMP accumulation and histopathologic change of diminished staining were observed in these areas. The redistribution amplitude was higher in the affected hemisphere, especially in the regions surrounding the ischemic core than in the unaffected hemisphere. These findings were consistent with computer simulation studies of the time course of brain activity based on the standard diffusible tracer model. The results suggest that IMP redistribution in the ischemic area is due to differences of the temporal changes of the brain activity between the unaffected and affected areas and that it is a physical phenomenon (only flow related) rather than a biologic one.

Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Shiba, K.; Terada, H.; Kinuya, K.; Mori, H.; Sumiya, H.; Hisada, K. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))



New strategies to deliver anticancer drugs to brain tumors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Malignant brain tumors are among the most challenging to treat and at present there are no uniformly successful treatment strategies. Standard treatment regimens consist of maximal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The limited survival advantage attributed to chemotherapy is partially due to low CNS penetration of antineoplastic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to review recent approaches to deliver anticancer drugs into primary brain tumors. METHODS Both preclinical and clinical strategies to circumvent the BBB are considered that includes chemical modification and colloidal carriers. CONCLUSION Analysis of the available data indicates that novel approaches may be useful for CNS delivery, yet an appreciation of pharmacokinetic issues, and improved knowledge of tumor biology will be needed to significantly impact drug delivery to the target site. PMID:19732031

Laquintana, Valentino; Trapani, Adriana; Denora, Nunzio; Wang, Fan; Gallo, James M.; Trapani, Giuseppe



NASA Technical Standards Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the Domain and the Public Domain.

Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)



NASA Technical Standards Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the Domain and the Public Domain.

Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.



NDTA narcotics standard development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick



Collimator selection for SPECT brain imaging: the advantage of high resolution  

SciTech Connect

We compared a prototype long-bore (LB) high-resolution collimator with a low-energy, general-purpose collimator (LEGP) using 99mTc and /sup 123/I. The LB collimator provided a 56% improvement in tomographic resolution (autocorrelation width) over the LEGP for 99mTc; for /sup 123/I, the gain was 79%, providing substantially improved contrast for small structures. The sensitivity of the LB collimator, however, is only 32% of that of the LEGP. The imaging tasks to be performed on (/sup 123/I)IMP brain scans involve localization and discrimination of small, high-contrast brain structures and detection of abnormalities in shape, size, or uptake, rather than simple detection of lesions. Observer performance in such higher-order imaging tasks is known to depend on high spatial resolution, even at the cost of sensitivity. Patient studies confirmed that, for resolution-limited tasks, the increase in resolution outweighs the increased noise due to a loss in sensitivity. When the tomographic resolution of the LB collimator was degraded by smoothing to that of the LEGP, the noise in the LB images was lower than that of the LEGP by a factor of 2.9 for the same imaging time, demonstrating the advantage of high-resolution detectors and a smooth reconstruction filter over low-resolution detectors without smoothing. Therefore, collimators designed for high resolution, even at substantial cost in sensitivity, are expected to yield significant improvements for brain SPECT. Geometric calculations show that commercially available low-energy, high-resolution cast collimators promise to meet these requirements.

Mueller, S.P.; Polak, J.F.; Kijewski, M.F.; Holman, B.L.



How brains make decisions  

E-print Network

This chapter, dedicated to the memory of Mino Freund, summarizes the Quantum Decision Theory (QDT) that we have developed in a series of publications since 2008. We formulate a general mathematical scheme of how decisions are taken, using the point of view of psychological and cognitive sciences, without touching physiological aspects. The basic principles of how intelligence acts are discussed. The human brain processes involved in decisions are argued to be principally different from straightforward computer operations. The difference lies in the conscious-subconscious duality of the decision making process and the role of emotions that compete with utility optimization. The most general approach for characterizing the process of decision making, taking into account the conscious-subconscious duality, uses the framework of functional analysis in Hilbert spaces, similarly to that used in the quantum theory of measurements. This does not imply that the brain is a quantum system, but just allows for the simplest and most general extension of classical decision theory. The resulting theory of quantum decision making, based on the rules of quantum measurements, solves all paradoxes of classical decision making, allowing for quantitative predictions that are in excellent agreement with experiments. Finally, we provide a novel application by comparing the predictions of QDT with experiments on the prisoner dilemma game. The developed theory can serve as a guide for creating artificial intelligence acting by quantum rules.

V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette



Brain monitoring in neonates.  


Continuous EEG monitoring with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) has become a part of the routine neurological care in the neonatal unit, especially in full-term infants with hypoxia-ischemia and in infants suspected of seizures. Its prognostic value after birth asphyxia is well established and seizure detection has improved with the new digital aEEG devices with access to the "real" EEG, and even with seizure detection in some devices. Recent experience shows that aEEG monitoring also appears to be very helpful in premature infants. One has to be aware of possible artefacts, like ECG or movement artefacts, which can lead to misinterpretation of the background pattern. Cerebral oximetry records regional saturation of the brain using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and provides a non-invasive method to continuously monitor brain oxygen imbalance. Cerebral oximetry is increasingly being used as a trend monitor in critically ill neonates. Its usefulness has been assessed in cardiac surgery, patent ductus arteriosus, hypoxia-ischemia and ventilation with high mean airway pressures. A combination of both monitoring modalities will probably become the future for neonatal neuromonitoring. PMID:19150756

Toet, Mona C; Lemmers, Petra M A



Brain Energy Metabolism During Experimental Neonatal Seizures  

E-print Network

produces neuronal death in the immature brain. Neuroscienceinduced neuronal death in the immature brain. In: Sutula T,death [1, 9, 10, 35, 43], and seizures take far longer to generate adverse effects in the developing brain

Wasterlain, Claude G.; Thompson, Kerry W.; Suchomelova, Lucie; Niquet, Jerome



Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan


Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment.  


We have developed smaller, lighter hardware (MCA and shielded detectors) that has been successfully transferred to the commercial sector. We have developed software that has received limited testing, the next release should be sufficiently robust for wide release to the general public. We have had initial success with more sophisticated analysis methods. We are pursuing medium-resolution tors and response function fitting in the expectation that both will cause significant improvements in this measurement technique. PMID:9463875

Sprinkle, J K; Christiansen, A; Cole, R; Collins, M L; Hsue, S T; Knepper, P L; McKown, T O; Siebelist, R



Technical Evaluation Report "The Low Resolution 230L Grating  

E-print Network

-05 Prepared By: J. Morse, COS Project Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Release THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO Name Date At Boulder Drawn: J. Morse 8-17-99 The Center Grating for the COS NUV Channel" Size Code Indent No. Document No. Rev A COS-11-0006 - Scale: N/A #12;COS

Colorado at Boulder, University of


Cartography of asteroids and comet nuclei from low resolution data  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution images of non-spherical objects, such as Viking images of Phobos and the anticipated Galileo images of Gaspra, lend themselves to conventional planetary cartographic procedures: control network analysis, stereophotogrammetry, image mosaicking in 2D or 3D, and airbrush mapping. There remains the problem of a suitable map projection for bodies which are extremely elongated or irregular in shape. Many bodies

Philip J. Stooke



How the Gifted Brain Learns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help teachers turn research on the brain function of intellectually and artistically advanced students into practical classroom activities and strategies. Following an introduction that discuses the myths and realities about giftedness, chapter 1 discusses basic brain structures and their functions. Chapter 2 looks at…

Sousa, David A.


Brain lesions and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses.Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded.Results: Although simple

R Uher; J Treasure




E-print Network

CHAPTER 6: EVOLUTION OF THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR #12;Process: adaptive response of the CNS #12;Salmo (a nonspecialized species) Gnathonemus (a mormyrid fish) Process and pattern in brain structure Pattern: the same divisions of the CNS are found in all vertebrates. Process: specializations have

Cooper, Brenton G.


Organization of the Human Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the work on patients who have undergone partial or complete brain bisection and addresses the concept of modularity from three different perspectives: (1) structure-function correlations; (2) modular components of cognitive processes; and (3) integration of modular processes. Several brain pictures and diagrams are presented.…

Gazzaniga, Michael S.




E-print Network

NEUROSCIENCE SCIENCE OF THE BRAIN AN INTRODUCTION FOR YOUNG STUDENTS British Neuroscience of the British Neuroscience Association and the European Dana Alliance for the Brain by Richard Morris in the Division of Neuroscience, particularly Victoria Gill, and others in the neuroscience community in Edinburgh

Hull, Elaine


Genetics of human brain oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms

Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz



for the brain SPRING 2012  

E-print Network Replacement parts for the brain ­ are they possible? And do we want them? · 32Plug-ins for the brain SPRING · 2012 NATURE'S SOLARCELLS Learning from diatoms · 28 HANNIBAL'S HEAD IS SCHEDULED FOR AUTUMN 2012. SINTEF is the largest independent research institution in Scandinavia

Malinnikova, Eugenia


Metabolic Profiles of Brain Metastases  

PubMed Central

Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile of brain metastases of different origin using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to correlate the metabolic profiles to clinical and pathological information. Biopsy samples of human brain metastases (n = 49) were investigated. A significant correlation between lipid signals and necrosis in brain metastases was observed (p < 0.01), irrespective of their primary origin. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that brain metastases from malignant melanomas cluster together, while lung carcinomas were metabolically heterogeneous and overlap with other subtypes. Metastatic melanomas have higher amounts of glycerophosphocholine than other brain metastases. A significant correlation between microscopically visible lipid droplets estimated by Nile Red staining and MR visible lipid signals was observed in metastatic lung carcinomas (p = 0.01), indicating that the proton MR visible lipid signals arise from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. MRS-based metabolomic profiling is a useful tool for exploring the metabolic profiles of metastatic brain tumors. PMID:23340650

Sjøbakk, Torill E.; Vettukattil, Riyas; Gulati, Michel; Gulati, Sasha; Lundgren, Steinar; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Torp, Sverre H.; Bathen, Tone F.



Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.



Brain Research: Implications for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.


Brain Health Fitness: Beyond Retirement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest accomplishment of the 20th century--the doubling of the human lifespan--has brought issues related to brain health to the forefront of public health policy. Given that our bodies are outlasting our minds, maximizing brain health is the scientific cause of this millennium. In this paper, we address three major issues related to…

Anand, Raksha; Chapman, Sandra B.; Rackley, Audette; Zientz, Jennifer



Visualizing Complexity in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the human brain work? The challenge presented by this question has motivated countless philosophers and scientists throughout history to study the brain and the nature of intelligence, in search of the organizing principles of human thought and perception. Yet, despite the enormous funding of the neurosciences and tremendous advances in technology in the latter half of the twentieth

Lloyd Watts


Maximizing Teaching through Brain Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and parents who read about the brain on the Internet should do so critically to determine fact from opinion. Are the assertions real about certain methods/strategies that claim to be based on brain research? Will they make a difference in their teaching and in achievement levels? Turning theory into fact take time and replication of solid…

Pattridge, Gregory C.



The stolen brain of Einstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed an autopsy on Einstein after his death in 1955. During the autopsy Harvey removed Einstein's brain, took pictures of it and then cut it into several pieces. A lot of scientific attention has been devoted to Einstein' brain, and it still comes up once in a while. We've all heard something or other about Einstein's

Kavan Modi



Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain  

PubMed Central

In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

Lorger, Mihaela



Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen



Building Codes and Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief document from David Cohan includes some information on building codes and standards. The purpose of building codes and standards is defined, and how they relate to energy and sustainability topics is also explored. This document would be useful for instructors looking for some notes on how to incorporate building codes and standards into their class work, or for students looking to learn more about the topic. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cohan, David


Nevada Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nevada Department of Education Career & Technical Ed webpage hosts downloadable skills standards for various areas. Some areas of interest for the manufacturing industry are:Automotive Technology Computer-Aided Drafting & Design Metalworking Skills Standards Welding Skills Standards This resource is based on the Advanced Manufacturing Competency Model. A detailed description of the model is located at:



Learned self-regulation of the lesioned brain with epidural electrocorticography  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Different techniques for neurofeedback of voluntary brain activations are currently being explored for clinical application in brain disorders. One of the most frequently used approaches is the self-regulation of oscillatory signals recorded with electroencephalography (EEG). Many patients are, however, unable to achieve sufficient voluntary control of brain activity. This could be due to the specific anatomical and physiological changes of the patient’s brain after the lesion, as well as to methodological issues related to the technique chosen for recording brain signals. Methods: A patient with an extended ischemic lesion of the cortex did not gain volitional control of sensorimotor oscillations when using a standard EEG-based approach. We provided him with neurofeedback of his brain activity from the epidural space by electrocorticography (ECoG). Results: Ipsilesional epidural recordings of field potentials facilitated self-regulation of brain oscillations in an online closed-loop paradigm and allowed reliable neurofeedback training for a period of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Epidural implants may decode and train brain activity even when the cortical physiology is distorted following severe brain injury. Such practice would allow for reinforcement learning of preserved neural networks and may well provide restorative tools for those patients who are severely afflicted. PMID:25538591

Gharabaghi, Alireza; Naros, Georgios; Khademi, Fatemeh; Jesser, Jessica; Spüler, Martin; Walter, Armin; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Birbaumer, Niels



The Basics of Brain Development  

PubMed Central

Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the basic stages and mechanisms of mammalian brain development. Studies elucidating the neurobiology of brain development span the levels of neural organization from the macroanatomic, to the cellular, to the molecular. Together this large body of work provides a picture of brain development as the product of a complex series of dynamic and adaptive processes operating within a highly constrained, genetically organized but constantly changing context. The view of brain development that has emerged from the developmental neurobiology literature presents both challenges and opportunities to psychologists seeking to understand the fundamental processes that underlie social and cognitive development, and the neural systems that mediate them. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of some very basic principles of brain development, drawn from contemporary developmental neurobiology, that may be of use to investigators from a wide range of disciplines. PMID:21042938

Stiles, Joan



Blood-brain barrier regulation  

PubMed Central

The existence of a barrier between the central nervous system (CNS) and the systemic circulation has been described over one hundred years ago. Since the discovery that this barrier was instigated by the barrier properties of the brain endothelial cells, research has focused on the identification of pathways how the brain endothelial cells are instructed to form the highly specialized blood-brain barrier (BBB). Even though our current understanding of BBB development is far from complete, recent literature shows a rise in knowledge of CNS-specific cues that can drive BBB development.   In this commentary, we will provide a brief overview of brain selective factors that are critical in the development of barrier properties in the brain endothelium; in particular the role of retinoic acid will be discussed. PMID:24868496

Mizee, Mark Ronald; de Vries, Helga Eveline



Standard NIM instrumentation system  

SciTech Connect

NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

Not Available



Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.



Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.  


Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant. Positively, we show that novel machine learning techniques employing high-dimensional inference can nonetheless accurately converge on the true locus. We conclude that current inferences about human brain function and deficits based on lesion mapping must be re-evaluated with methodology that adequately captures the high-dimensional structure of lesion data. PMID:24974384

Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev



Opportunity Knocks! Inquiry, the New National Social Studies and Science Standards, and You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be recognized and adopted, the promise and potential of national standards must validate the instructional role of the school librarian and build formative knowledge through authentic process and products. Inquiry is a direct link to those dimensions. Standards that are rigorous and relevant optimize the developing brain's affinity for…

Ratzer, Mary Boyd



Clinical applications of choline PET/CT in brain tumors.  


Malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors are the most common forms of brain tumors. From a clinical perspective, neuroimaging plays a significant role, in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. To date MRI is considered the current clinical gold standard for imaging, however, despite providing superior structural detail it features poor specificity in identifying viable tumors in brain treated with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. In the last years functional neuroimaging has become largely widespread thanks to the use of molecular tracers employed in cellular metabolism which has significantly improved the management of patients with brain tumors, especially in the post-treatment phase. Despite the considerable progress of molecular imaging in oncology its use in the diagnosis of brain tumors is still limited by a few wellknown technical problems. Because 18F-FDG, the most common radiotracer used in oncology, is avidly accumulated by normal cortex, the low tumor/background signal ratio makes it difficult to distinguish the tumor from normal surrounding tissues. By contrast, radiotracers with higher specificity for the tumor are labeled with a short half-life isotopes which restricts their use to those centers equipped with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy facility. 11C-choline has been reported as a suitable tracer for neuroimaging application. The recent availability of choline labeled with a long half-life radioisotope as 18F increases the possibility of studying this tracer's potential role in the staging of brain tumors. The present review focuses on the possible clinical applications of PET/CT with choline tracers in malignant brain tumors and brain metastases, with a special focus on malignant gliomas. PMID:25225894

Giovannini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Milano, Amalia; Gaeta, Maria Chiara; Ciarmiello, Andrea



BrainBrowser: distributed, web-based neurological data visualization.  


Recent years have seen massive, distributed datasets become the norm in neuroimaging research, and the methodologies used to analyze them have, in response, become more collaborative and exploratory. Tools and infrastructure are continuously being developed and deployed to facilitate research in this context: grid computation platforms to process the data, distributed data stores to house and share them, high-speed networks to move them around and collaborative, often web-based, platforms to provide access to and sometimes manage the entire system. BrainBrowser is a lightweight, high-performance JavaScript visualization library built to provide easy-to-use, powerful, on-demand visualization of remote datasets in this new research environment. BrainBrowser leverages modern web technologies, such as WebGL, HTML5 and Web Workers, to visualize 3D surface and volumetric neuroimaging data in any modern web browser without requiring any browser plugins. It is thus trivial to integrate BrainBrowser into any web-based platform. BrainBrowser is simple enough to produce a basic web-based visualization in a few lines of code, while at the same time being robust enough to create full-featured visualization applications. BrainBrowser can dynamically load the data required for a given visualization, so no network bandwidth needs to be waisted on data that will not be used. BrainBrowser's integration into the standardized web platform also allows users to consider using 3D data visualization in novel ways, such as for data distribution, data sharing and dynamic online publications. BrainBrowser is already being used in two major online platforms, CBRAIN and LORIS, and has been used to make the 1TB MACACC dataset openly accessible. PMID:25628562

Sherif, Tarek; Kassis, Nicolas; Rousseau, Marc-Étienne; Adalat, Reza; Evans, Alan C



BrainBrowser: distributed, web-based neurological data visualization  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen massive, distributed datasets become the norm in neuroimaging research, and the methodologies used to analyze them have, in response, become more collaborative and exploratory. Tools and infrastructure are continuously being developed and deployed to facilitate research in this context: grid computation platforms to process the data, distributed data stores to house and share them, high-speed networks to move them around and collaborative, often web-based, platforms to provide access to and sometimes manage the entire system. BrainBrowser is a lightweight, high-performance JavaScript visualization library built to provide easy-to-use, powerful, on-demand visualization of remote datasets in this new research environment. BrainBrowser leverages modern web technologies, such as WebGL, HTML5 and Web Workers, to visualize 3D surface and volumetric neuroimaging data in any modern web browser without requiring any browser plugins. It is thus trivial to integrate BrainBrowser into any web-based platform. BrainBrowser is simple enough to produce a basic web-based visualization in a few lines of code, while at the same time being robust enough to create full-featured visualization applications. BrainBrowser can dynamically load the data required for a given visualization, so no network bandwidth needs to be waisted on data that will not be used. BrainBrowser's integration into the standardized web platform also allows users to consider using 3D data visualization in novel ways, such as for data distribution, data sharing and dynamic online publications. BrainBrowser is already being used in two major online platforms, CBRAIN and LORIS, and has been used to make the 1TB MACACC dataset openly accessible. PMID:25628562

Sherif, Tarek; Kassis, Nicolas; Rousseau, Marc-Étienne; Adalat, Reza; Evans, Alan C.



Brain cancer probed by native fluorescence and stokes shift spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical biopsy spectroscopy was applied to diagnosis human brain cancer in vitro. The spectra of native fluorescence, Stokes shift and excitation spectra were obtained from malignant meningioma, benign, normal meningeal tissues and acoustic neuroma benign tissues. The wide excitation wavelength ranges were used to establish the criterion for distinguishing brain diseases. The alteration of fluorescence spectra between normal and abnormal brain tissues were identified by the characteristic fluorophores under the excitation with UV to visible wavelength range. It was found that the ratios of the peak intensities and peak position in both spectra of fluorescence and Stokes shift may be used to diagnose human brain meninges diseases. The preliminary analysis of fluorescence spectral data from cancer and normal meningeal tissues by basic biochemical component analysis model (BBCA) and Bayes classification model based on statistical methods revealed the changes of components, and classified the difference between cancer and normal human brain meningeal tissues in a predictions accuracy rate is 0.93 in comparison with histopathology and immunohistochemistry reports (gold standard).

Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; He, Yong; Pu, Yang; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.



Brain reorganization, not relative brain size, primarily characterizes anthropoid brain evolution  

PubMed Central

Comparative analyses of primate brain evolution have highlighted changes in size and internal organization as key factors underlying species diversity. It remains, however, unclear (i) how much variation in mosaic brain reorganization versus variation in relative brain size contributes to explaining the structural neural diversity observed across species, (ii) which mosaic changes contribute most to explaining diversity, and (iii) what the temporal origin, rates and processes are that underlie evolutionary shifts in mosaic reorganization for individual branches of the primate tree of life. We address these questions by combining novel comparative methods that allow assessing the temporal origin, rate and process of evolutionary changes on individual branches of the tree of life, with newly available data on volumes of key brain structures (prefrontal cortex, frontal motor areas and cerebrocerebellum) for a sample of 17 species (including humans). We identify patterns of mosaic change in brain evolution that mirror brain systems previously identified by electrophysiological and anatomical tract-tracing studies in non-human primates and functional connectivity MRI studies in humans. Across more than 40 Myr of anthropoid primate evolution, mosaic changes contribute more to explaining neural diversity than changes in relative brain size, and different mosaic patterns are differentially selected for when brains increase or decrease in size. We identify lineage-specific evolutionary specializations for all branches of the tree of life covered by our sample and demonstrate deep evolutionary roots for mosaic patterns associated with motor control and learning. PMID:23536600

Smaers, J. B.; Soligo, C.



The culture ready brain  

PubMed Central

In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409



Adaptive Brain Interfaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Adaptive Brain Interfaces (ABI) project, sponsored by the European Union information technologies program known as ESPRIT, looks at artificial neural networks. The objective of the ABI project is to use electroencephalogram (EEG) signals as an alternative means of interacting with computers, where the human and the computer learn from each other. One application of this technology would be assisting persons with disabilities. The ABI project has provided this site containing a project overview, graphs of experimental EEG outputs, a list of research papers (some hyperlinked), and video clips of virtual keyboard operations. Links to research partners (Institute for Systems, Informatics and Safety, IRCCS Ospedale di Riabilitazione S. Lucia, Fase Sistemi Srl, Italy, Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland) are also given. Anyone who is concerned with providing equal access to information will enjoy the ABI site.


Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical  


A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula 1 is administered to one animal: as given in figure in patent wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R[sub 3] is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R[sub 4] is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R[sub 4] is not isopropyl and when R[sub 4] is methyl, R[sub 3] is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen. 2 figs.

Sargent, T.W. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Mathis, C.A.



Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical  


A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula I is administered to one animal: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R.sub.3 is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R.sub.4 is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R.sub.4 is not isopropyl and when R.sub.4 is methyl, R.sub.3 is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen.

Sargent, III, Thornton W. (Berkeley, CA); Shulgin, Alexander T. (Lafayette, CA); Mathis, Chester A. (Oakland, CA)



Behavioral & Brain Sciences (BBS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Cambridge University Press, Behavioral & Brain Sciences (BBS) is an international, interdisciplinary journal of "open peer commentary." This interesting Website highlights "open science" in a way that many practitioners will find inspiring. Specifically, the Website offers full-text of important and controversial interdisciplinary "target articles" in psychology, neuroscience, behavioral biology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and philosophy. These "target articles" are "unedited penultimate drafts of BBS target articles that have been accepted for publication" or are already published (since 1993), accompanied by 1,000-word commentaries (analytical critiques) that are co-published with each article, along with the author's response to each. Users may search target articles by subject (BBS keyword) and browse full-text of all returns. Final published versions of target articles and their accompanying commentaries and author responses are available through Cambridge University Press.


Brain tumor immunotherapy: seeing the brain in the body.  


Brain tumor immunotherapy is often interpreted in terms of immune privilege and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but a broader view is warranted. The delicate regulatory balance of the immune system is relevant at any site, as are the heterogeneity and plasticity of tumor growth. Criteria for tumor antigens, and often the antigens themselves, cut across tumor types. Here, this broader view, complemented by current understanding of privilege and the BBB, provides the context for review. Future success is likely to exploit simplified methods, used in combination; and similarities - more than differences - between the brain and other sites. PMID:23195329

Lampson, Lois A



Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.  


Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B



The injured brain: TBI, mTBI, the immune system, and infection: connecting the dots.  


Traumatic brain injury or stroke causes profound suppression of the cellular immune system and short- and long-term psychological sequelae. Infection is also a common result and is likely caused by bacterial translocation from the gut. Both the bacterial translocation from the gut and the ensuing pneumonia and sepsis are ameliorated by adoptive immune therapy. Huge health care costs are incurred by brain trauma and its sequelae in our soldiers, athletes, and general population. Diffusion tensor imaging and adoptive immune therapy should become standards of care to follow the injured brain serially as it heals and as the immune suppression and infections are overcome. Brain infrastructure healing is retarded by a suppressed immune system, and the blood-brain barrier's response to trauma offers opportunity for adoptive immune therapy to enhance microglial-directed neuronal repair and maintenance. PMID:21539156

Griffin, Gerald Dieter



Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy  

PubMed Central

Surgery is an essential component in the treatment of brain tumors. However, delineating tumor from normal brain remains a major challenge. Here we describe the use of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy for differentiating healthy human and mouse brain tissue from tumor-infiltrated brain based on histoarchitectural and biochemical differences. Unlike traditional histopathology, SRS is a label-free technique that can be rapidly performed in situ. SRS microscopy was able to differentiate tumor from non-neoplastic tissue in an infiltrative human glioblastoma xenograft mouse model based on their different Raman spectra. We further demonstrated a correlation between SRS and H&E microscopy for detection of glioma infiltration (?=0.98). Finally, we applied SRS microscopy in vivo in mice during surgery to reveal tumor margins that were undetectable under standard operative conditions. By providing rapid intraoperative assessment of brain tissue, SRS microscopy may ultimately improve the safety and accuracy of surgeries where tumor boundaries are visually indistinct. PMID:24005159

Ji, Minbiao; Orringer, Daniel A.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Liu, Xiaohui; Lau, Darryl; Golby, Alexandra J.; Norton, Isaiah; Hayashi, Marika; Agar, Nathalie Y.R.; Young, Geoffrey S.; Spino, Cathie; Santagata, Sandro; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ligon, Keith L.; Sagher, Oren; Xie, X. Sunney



New Source Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.



Universal software safety standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the minimum subset required for a truly universal safety-critical software standard. This universal software standard could be used in but is not limited to the following application domains: commercial, military and space aviation; medical diagnostic and therapeutic instruments; automotive and transportation systems; industrial process control and robotics; nuclear power plants and weapons control; commercial appliances and ride

Praful V. Bhansali



High Standard Alidade  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This alidade consists of straightedges with a rigidly-mounted telescope that can be rotated through the vertical angle ±30. The telescope is set on a high standard or post (4 inches in height) to raise it above the table. The telescope for the high standard is 16 power, inverting type with internal ...



Illinois Early Learning Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Illinois Early Learning Standards were developed by the Illinois State Board of Education with the assistance of hundreds of educators. The goal of the standards is to provide teachers and caregivers useful information that is directly needed as part of their daily classroom work. Based on comments from educators, parents, and various experts…