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1

Standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA): technical details  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp electric potentials (EEG) and extracranial magnetic fields (MEG) are due to the primary (impressed) current density distribution that arises from neuronal post-synaptic processes. A solution to the inverse problem, i.e. the computation of images of electric neuronal activity based on extracranial measurements, would provide important information on the time course and localization of brain function. In general, there is

R. D. Pascual-Marqui

2

The adaptive pattern of the auditory N1 peak revealed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N1 peak in the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) decreases in amplitude following stimulus repetition, displaying an adaptive pattern. The present study explored the functional neural substrates that may underlie the N1 adaptive pattern using standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). Fourteen young normal hearing (NH) listeners participated in the study. Tone bursts (80dB SPL) were binaurally presented via

Fawen Zhang; Aniruddha Deshpande; Chelsea Benson; Mathew Smith; James Eliassen; Qian-Jie Fu

2011-01-01

3

The adaptive pattern of the auditory N1 peak revealed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography  

PubMed Central

The N1 peak in the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) decreases in amplitude following stimulus repetition, displaying an adaptive pattern. The present study explored the functional neural substrates that may underlie the N1 adaptive pattern using standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). Fourteen young normal hearing (NH) listeners participated in the study. Tone bursts (80 dB SPL) were binaurally presented via insert earphones in trains of ten; the inter-stimulus interval was 0.7 s and the inter-train interval was 15 s. Current source density analysis was performed for the N1 evoked by the 1st, 2nd and 10th stimuli (S1, S2 and S10) at three different timeframes that corresponded to the latency ranges of the N1 waveform subcomponents (70–100, 100–130 and 130–160 ms). The data showed that S1 activated broad regions in different cortical lobes and the activation was much smaller for S2 and S10. Response differences in the LAEP waveform and sLORETA were observed between S1 and S2, but not between the S2 and S10. The sLORETA comparison map between S1 and S2 response showed the activation was located in the parietal lobe for the 70–100 ms timeframe, the frontal and limbic lobes for the 100–130 ms timeframe, and the frontal lobe for the 130–160 ms timeframe. These sLORETA comparison results suggest a parieto-frontal network that might help to sensitize the brain to novel stimuli by filtering out repetitive and irrelevant stimuli. This study demonstrates that sLORETA may be useful for identifying generators of scalp-recorded event related potentials and for examining the physiological features of these generators. This technique could be especially useful for cortical source localization in individuals who cannot be examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging or magnetoencephalography (e.g., cochlear implant users).

Zhang, Fawen; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Benson, Chelsea; Smith, Mathew; Eliassen, James; Fu, Qian-Jie

2011-01-01

4

The adaptive pattern of the auditory N1 peak revealed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography.  

PubMed

The N1 peak in the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) decreases in amplitude following stimulus repetition, displaying an adaptive pattern. The present study explored the functional neural substrates that may underlie the N1 adaptive pattern using standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). Fourteen young normal hearing (NH) listeners participated in the study. Tone bursts (80 dB SPL) were binaurally presented via insert earphones in trains of 10; the inter-stimulus interval was 0.7s and the inter-train interval was 15s. Current source density analysis was performed for the N1 evoked by the 1st, 2nd and 10th stimuli (S(1), S(2) and S(10)) at 3 different timeframes that corresponded to the latency ranges of the N1 waveform subcomponents (70-100, 100-130 and 130-160 ms). The data showed that S(1) activated broad regions in different cortical lobes and the activation was much smaller for S(2) and S(10). Response differences in the LAEP waveform and sLORETA were observed between S(1) and S(2), but not between the S(2) and S(10). The sLORETA comparison map between S(1) and S(2) responses showed that the activation was located in the parietal lobe for the 70-100 ms timeframe, the frontal and limbic lobes for the 100-130 ms timeframe, and the frontal lobe for the 130-160 ms timeframe. These sLORETA comparison results suggest a parieto-frontal network that might help to sensitize the brain to novel stimuli by filtering out repetitive and irrelevant stimuli. This study demonstrates that sLORETA may be useful for identifying generators of scalp-recorded event related potentials and for examining the physiological features of these generators. This technique could be especially useful for cortical source localization in individuals who cannot be examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging or magnetoencephalography (e.g., cochlear implant users). PMID:21658681

Zhang, Fawen; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Benson, Chelsea; Smith, Mathew; Eliassen, James; Fu, Qian-Jie

2011-05-23

5

Spatiotemporal brain activity related to intelligence: a low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in current density between high intelligent (IQ=124), and average intelligent individuals (IQ=110), while solving two complex cognitive tasks (analytical-figural, and identification of emotions) were analyzed with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). High intelligent individuals, as compared with average ones in both tasks displayed a lesser full width at half maximum (FWHM) volume—indicating the amount of spatial dispersion of

Norbert Jaušovec; Ksenija Jaušovec

2003-01-01

6

Low-resolution electromagnetic brain tomography (LORETA) of monozygotic twins discordant for chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous work using quantified EEG has suggested that brain activity in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and normal persons differs. Our objective was to investigate if specific frequency band-pass regions and spatial locations are associated with CFS using low-resolution electromagnetic brain tomo- graphy (LORETA). Methods: We conducted a co-twin control study of 17 pairs of monozygotic twins where

Leslie Sherlin; Thomas Budzynski; Helen Kogan Budzynski; Marco Congedo; Mary E. Fischer; Dedra Buchwaldd

2006-01-01

7

EEG low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) in Huntington’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) in Huntington’s disease (HD). The aim of the present investigation\\u000a was to compare quantitatively analyzed EEGs of HD patients and controls by means of low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography\\u000a (LORETA). Further aims were to delineate the sensitivity and utility of EEG LORETA in the progression of HD, and to correlate\\u000a parameters of cognitive and

Annamaria Painold; Peter Anderer; Anna K. Holl; Martin Letmaier; Gerda M. Saletu-Zyhlarz; Bernd Saletu; Raphael M. Bonelli

2011-01-01

8

Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography in obsessive-compulsive disorder--a replication study.  

PubMed

Previous EEG source localization studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reported ambiguous results. The reason probably lies in different OCD samples included in the studies - obsessive-compulsive subjects selected based on a psychopathology questionnaire (the Symptom Checklist - Revised), drug-naïve OCD cases or patients with a long-term disorder. This study was conceived as a replication of our previous research on OCD population coming to treatment in Prague Psychiatric Centre [9]. We included 50 OCD patients (8 drug-free and 42 medicated with SSRIs) and 50 healthy controls. All subjects were different from those enrolled in the previous study. Resting state EEG was analyzed in 8 frequency bands as well as with 1 Hz frequency resolution using the standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). In OCD, sLORETA indicated low-frequency power excess at 2 and 3 Hz in the cingulate gyrus with maximal t-values in Brodmann area 24. The low-frequency activity was unrelated to the severity of clinical symptoms and illness duration but delta power in the right orbitofrontal cortex positively correlated with age of OCD onset. Our results confirm previous finding of the low-frequency excess in the cingulate gyrus in OCD and document the essential role of delta frequencies. Delta activity in the cingulate gyrus is negatively associated with reward-signalling dopamine release in the ventral striatum and increases in states connected with a need for reinforcement. Thus, delta activity could reflect a repetitive need to perform compulsive behaviour in OCD patients. PMID:23701862

Kop?ivová, Jana; Horá?ek, Ji?í; Raszka, Michal; Brunovský, Martin; Praško, Ján

2013-05-20

9

Functional imaging with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA): a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews several recent publications that have successfully used the functional brain imaging method known as LORETA. Emphasis is placed on the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical basis of the method, on the localization properties of the method, and on the validation of the method in real experimental human data. Papers that criticize LORETA are briefly discussed. LORETA publications in the

Roberto D. Pascual-marqui; Michaela Esslen; Kieko Kochi; Dietrich Lehmann

2002-01-01

10

EEG evaluation of spinocerebellar degeneration with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to search for the brain electric signature under the resting condition of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) patients and to assess the relation between cerebellum and cognitive function without the motor factor. We studied 12 SCD patients and 12 aged normal sex matched controls (NC). We recorded spontaneous eyes-closed resting EEGs to 20 locations of the international 10\\/20

Mio Arai; Hideaki Tanaka; Masaki Harada; Akinori Hozumi; Kaoru Yamazaki; Koichi Hirata

2002-01-01

11

Brain Computer Interface: The Use of Low Resolution Surface Laplacian and Linear Classifiers for the Recognition of Imagined Hand Movements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EEG-based Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) require on-line detection of mental states from spontaneous or surface Laplacian transformed EEG signals. However, accurate SL estimates require the use of many EEG electrodes, when local estimation methods are u...

F. Cincotti L. Bianchi J. del Rio Millan J. Mourinyo S. Salinari

2001-01-01

12

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and ...

W. Fong P. S. Yeh V. Sank X. Nyugen W. Xia S. Duran

2002-01-01

13

Brain Regions Activated during an Auditory Discrimination Task in Insomniac Postmenopausal Patients before and after Hormone Replacement Therapy: Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography Applied to Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical sources of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) determined by means of low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) in 48 unmedicated insomniac postmenopausal patients aged between 46 and 67 years were compared with those obtained in 48 age-matched normal female controls. Subsequently, the patients were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative, randomized 3-arm trial phase – Climodien 2\\/3 [estradiol valerate (EV) 2

Peter Anderer; Bernd Saletu; Gerda Saletu-Zyhlarz; Doris Gruber; Markus Metka; Johannes Huber; Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui

2004-01-01

14

Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.  

PubMed

Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT(2A) agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca. PMID:15179026

Riba, Jordi; Anderer, Peter; Jané, Francesc; Saletu, Bernd; Barbanoj, Manel J

2004-01-01

15

Prefrontal direct current stimulation modulates resting EEG and event-related potentials in healthy subjects: a standardized low resolution tomography (sLORETA) study.  

PubMed

Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the anode placed on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been reported to enhance working memory in healthy subjects and to improve mood in major depression. However, its putative antidepressant, cognitive and behavior action is not well understood. Here, we evaluated the distribution of neuronal electrical activity changes after anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC and cathodal tDCS of the right supraorbital region using spectral power analysis and standardized low resolution tomography (sLORETA). Ten healthy subjects underwent real and sham tDCS on separate days in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Anodal tDCS was applied for 20 min at 2 mA intensity over the left DLPFC, while the cathode was positioned over the contralateral supraorbital region. After tDCS, EEG was recorded during an eyes-closed resting state followed by a working memory (n-back) task. Statistical non-parametric mapping showed reduced left frontal delta activity in the real tDCS condition. Specifically, a significant reduction of mean current densities (sLORETA) for the delta band was detected in the left subgenual PFC, the anterior cingulate and in the left medial frontal gyrus. Moreover, the effect was strongest for the first 5 min (p<0.01). The following n-back task revealed a positive impact of prefrontal tDCS on error rate, accuracy and reaction time. This was accompanied by increased P2- and P3- event-related potentials (ERP) component-amplitudes for the 2-back condition at the electrode Fz. A source localization using sLORETA for the time window 250-450 ms showed enhanced activity in the left parahippocampal gyrus for the 2-back condition. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC and/or cathodal tDCS of the contralateral supraorbital region may modulate regional electrical activity in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in addition to improving working memory performance. PMID:21146614

Keeser, D; Padberg, F; Reisinger, E; Pogarell, O; Kirsch, V; Palm, U; Karch, S; Möller, H-J; Nitsche, M A; Mulert, C

2010-12-10

16

Medial Temporal Activation in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome Revealed by Standardized Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Mal de debarquement (MdD) literally means "sickness of disembarkation", and refers to the illusion of movement perceived as an after-effect of traveling on a boat, train, or airplane. The pathophysiology of MdD is currently unknown. Case Report A 20-year-old man presented with dizziness and swaying sensation for 3 days after a boat trip. Compared with the follow-up EEG without symptoms, the EEG recorded while having MdD symptoms disclosed a significantly decreased alpha-band current source density at the precentral gyrus of the left frontal lobe and increased beta-2 activity at the parahippocampal gyrus of right mesial temporal region. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of deranged cortical activity in MdD. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to document cortical correlates of MdD using an EEG source-localization method.

Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Jae-Moon; Kim, Ji Soo

2012-01-01

17

Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose study on the effects of ABIO-08/01, a novel anxiolytic drug, on perception and cognition, utilizing event-related potential mapping and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography.  

PubMed

Early pharmacological studies in animals demonstrated that ABIO-08/01, a new isoxazoline, exerted anxiolytic and anticonvulsant, but also cognition-enhancing properties. Thus, the aim of the present double-blind, placebo-controlled multiple-ascending-dose study was to investigate the effect of the new compound on event-related potentials (ERPs). In a randomized ascending-dose design for phase-1 studies, 16 young healthy male subjects aged 30.2 +/- 5.7 years received three ascending drug doses (10, 20, and 40 mg) and placebo for 7 days, with a washout period of 8 days in between. Auditory ERPs were recorded pre-dose and 2 h post-dose on days 1 (acute effect) and 5 (subacute and absolute superimposed effect). Descriptive statistics with one confirmatory statement on P300 latency demonstrated a significant shortening after acute, subacute, and superimposed administration of 40 mg ABIO-08/01. While ERP amplitudes showed only minor effects, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) demonstrated that ABIO-08/01 promotes more efficient information processing by reallocating perceptual and cognitive ERP resources. Thus, our ERP studies confirm early pharmacological findings in animals of a cognition-enhancing effect of ABIO-08/01, which is interesting in the context of the anxiolytic mode of action of the compound as its CNS effects are quite different from those of anxiolytic sedatives, such as benzodiazepines. PMID:18181252

Anderer, Peter; Saletu, Bernd; Wolzt, Michael; Culic, Svetlana; Assandri, Alessandro; Nannipieri, Fabrizio; Rosini, Sergio; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M

2008-04-01

18

IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

2002-04-01

19

Ab initio phasing starting from low resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-resolution phasing is important in the study of large macromolecular complexes and in the case of crystals of limited diffraction power. It allows defining molecular positions in the unit cell, molecular envelopes, and, in favorable cases, secondary structure elements. A multifiltering phasing method is discussed that is designed for the use of different weak low-resolution criteria of a phase set quality.

Lunin, Vladimir; Lunina, Natalia; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

20

Standardizing Data Collection in Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Collaboration among investigators, centers, countries, and disciplines is essential to advancing the care for traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is thus important that we “speak the same language.” Great variability, however, exists in data collection and coding of variables in TBI studies, confounding comparisons between and analysis across different studies. Randomized controlled trials can never address the many uncertainties concerning treatment approaches in TBI. Pooling data from different clinical studies and high-quality observational studies combined with comparative effectiveness research may provide excellent alternatives in a cost-efficient way. Standardization of data collection and coding is essential to this end. Common data elements (CDEs) are presented for demographics and clinical variables applicable across the broad spectrum of TBI. Most recommendations represent a consensus derived from clinical practice. Some recommendations concern novel approaches, for example assessment of the intensity of therapy in severely injured patients. Up to three levels of detail for coding data elements were developed: basic, intermediate, and advanced, with the greatest level of detail attained in the advanced version. More detailed codings can be collapsed into the basic version. Templates were produced to summarize coding formats, explanation of choices, and recommendations for procedures. Endorsement of the recommendations has been obtained from many authoritative organizations. The development of CDEs for TBI should be viewed as a continuing process; as more experience is gained, refinement and amendments will be required. This proposed process of standardization will facilitate comparative effectiveness research and encourage high-quality meta-analysis of individual patient data.

Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L.; Menon, David; Adelson, P. David; Balkin, Tom; Bullock, Ross; Engel, Doortje C.; Gordon, Wayne; Langlois-Orman, Jean; Lew, Henry L.; Robertson, Claudia; Temkin, Nancy; Valadka, Alex; Verfaellie, Mieke; Wainwright, Mark; Wright, David W.; Schwab, Karen

2011-01-01

21

Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

22

Tertiary structure of myohemerythrin at low resolution.  

PubMed Central

X-ray diffraction studies have produced a low resolution image and also located the iron atoms of a monomeric hemerythrin from muscles of a sipunculan worm. These results reveal the course of the polypeptide chain and some details of the active center. Images

Hendrickson, W A; Klippenstein, G L; Ward, K B

1975-01-01

23

The hemispheres of the brain and the learning of standard and non?standard analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students of mathematics in the first term studied calculus in two parallel courses. One course was in the standard approach, while the other was based on the non?standard (Robinson) approach. The students participated in tests of the brain's hemispheres. The scores of both mathematical courses and the results of the hemispheric tests were correlated. The results show that the standard

Uri Fidelman

1987-01-01

24

Detecting low-resolution faces in video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for the detection of faces (via skin regions) in images where faces may be low-resolution and no assumptions are made about fine facial features being visible. This type of data is challenging because changes in appearance of skin regions occur due to changes in both lighting and resolution. We present a non-parametric classification scheme based on a histogram similarity measure. By comparing performance of commonly-used colour-spaces we find that the YIQ colour space with 16 histogram bins (in both 1 and 2 dimensions) gives the most accurate performance over a wide range of imaging conditions for non-parametric skin classification. We demonstrate better performance of the non-parametric approach vs. colour thresholding and a Gaussian classifier. Face detection is subsequently achieved via a simple aspect-ratio and we show results from indoor and outdoor scenes.

Robertson, Neil; Janssen, Nils

2009-01-01

25

Developments in low-resolution biological X-ray crystallography  

PubMed Central

Despite the recent substantial technological developments in X-ray crystallography, solving and refining structures at low resolutions remain substantial challenges. Many macromolecular crystals, especially those of large molecules or multicomponent assemblies, diffract X-rays to resolutions that are worse than 3.5Å. This report summarizes several recent advances aiding low resolution crystallographic work.

2010-01-01

26

Low-resolution facial image restoration based on sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a strategy of reconstructing high resolution facial image based on that of low resolution is put forward. Rather than only relying on low resolution input image, we construct a face representation dictionary based on training high resolution facial images to compensate for the information difference between low and high resolution images. This restoration is realized through enrolling a low resolution facial image dictionary which is acquired through directly downsampling the learned high resolution dictionary. After the representation coefficient vector of a low resolution input image on low resolution dictionary is obtained through l1-optimization algorithm, this coefficient can be transplanted into high resolution dictionary directly to restore the high resolution image corresponding to input face. This approach was validated on the Extended Yale database.

Li, Yuelong; Bian, Junjie; Feng, Jufu

2011-11-01

27

A super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical character recognition is widely used for converting document images into digital media. Existing OCR algorithms and tools produce good results from high resolution, good quality, document images. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR. Two main techniques are used in our proposed approach: a document page segmentation algorithm and a modified K-means clustering algorithm. Using this approach, by exploiting coherence in the document, we reconstruct from a low resolution document image a better resolution image and improve OCR results. Experimental results show substantial gain in low resolution documents such as the ones captured from video.

Ma, Di; Agam, Gady

2013-01-01

28

Visual signature based identification of Low-resolution document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present (a) a method for identifying documents captured from low-resolution devices such as web-cams, digital cameras or mobile phones and (b) a technique for extracting their textual content without performing OCR. The first method associates a hierarchically structured visual signature to the low-resolution document image and further matches it with the visual signatures of the original

Ardhendu Behera; Denis Lalanne; Rolf Ingold

2004-01-01

29

Creating a population-averaged standard brain template for Japanese macaques ( M. fuscata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of modern digital anatomy techniques, based on structural MR brain images, have recently become applicable to the non-human primate brain. Such voxel-based quantitative techniques require a species-specific standardized brain template. Here we present a brain template for the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). The template was designed to be used as a tool for spatially normalising Japanese macaque brains

M. M. Quallo; C. J. Price; K. Ueno; T. Asamizuya; K. Cheng; R. N. Lemon; A. Iriki

2010-01-01

30

Speed control of brushless motor using low resolution sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use of low resolution sensor to achieve high performance speed control is investigated. A speed dependent feedback control is used in conjunction with an input shaper to improve the transient characteristics. The use of a shaper is particularly suitable in this application since the shaper is an open loop scheme, independent of the sensor characteristics. The

Timothy Chang; Chung Wang; Edwin Cohen

2001-01-01

31

Spectral unmixing for tracking human motion in low resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how colour/hue information can be used to track people in image sequences received from very low resolution sensors. The main colour spaces such as Normalised RGB, HSV, CIE L*a*b*and YCbCr have different advantages and disadvantages when applied to tracking in very low resolution imagery, where the objects of interest may be sub-pixel in size. Tests have been carried out to find out the best colour space or combination of colour spaces. Spectral unmixing algorithms, commonly used in remote sensing and multi-spectral image processing, were used to assist object tracking algorithms by decomposing pixel colour information into fractional contributions from backgrounds and skin.

Govinda, V.; Ralph, J. F.; Spencer, J. W.; Goulermas, J. Y.

2007-07-01

32

Spitzer Low Resolution Spectra of Nearby Seyfert Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained low-resolution, 5-40 micron spectra of 37 nearby Seyfert Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The AGNs were chosen to have a broad range of X-ray determined Hydrogen column densities from Compton thin to Compton thick. The spectral energy distributions are broadly consistent with higher Hydrogen column densities showing greater short wavelength absorption than lower Hydrogen column densities. We also

V. Gorjian; K. Cleary; N. H. DeMuth; M. W. Werner; C. R. Lawrence

2005-01-01

33

The IRAS low-resolution spectra of planetary nebulae  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the low-resolution spectra of 170 planetary nebulae observed by IRAS, most of which were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra. These have been classified into eight groups based upon the spectral morphology, with emphasis on the dust continuum rather than the spectral lines. The Low-Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) spectra are nearly evenly divided between spectra which show only a dust continuum with no lines, and spectra where there are strong lines with a dust continuum appearing longwards of about 15 microns. A study has been made of the strength of the 11.3-micron PAH emission feature as a function of the nebular C/O ratio, combining ground-based and LRS data. The C/O ratio for IC 2621 is derived from IUE spectra and used in this study. The 11.3-micron feature is present with essentially constant strength in all nebulae with C/O above about 1. Only marginal evidence exists for its presence below C/O about 1 and then at a level about 5 times lower than in carbon-rich nebulae. 48 refs.

Volk, K.; Cohen, M. (SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA))

1990-08-01

34

X-ray structure determination at low resolution  

PubMed Central

As an example of structure determination in the 3.5–4.5?Å resolution range, crystal structures of the ATPase p97/VCP, consisting of an N-terminal domain followed by a tandem pair of ATPase domains (D1 and D2), are discussed. The structures were originally solved by molecular replacement with the high-resolution structure of the N-D1 fragment of p97/VCP, whereas the D2 domain was manually built using its homology to the D1 domain as a guide. The structure of the D2 domain alone was subsequently solved at 3?Å resolution. The refined model of D2 and the high-resolution structure of the N-D1 fragment were then used as starting models for re-refinement against the low-resolution diffraction data for full-length p97. The re-refined full-length models showed significant improvement in both secondary structure and R values. The free R values dropped by as much as 5% compared with the original structure refinements, indicating that refinement is meaningful at low resolution and that there is information in the diffraction data even at ?4?Å resolution that objectively assesses the quality of the model. It is concluded that de novo model building is problematic at low resolution and refinement should start from high-resolution crystal structures whenever possible.

Brunger, Axel T.; DeLaBarre, Byron; Davies, Jason M.; Weis, William I.

2009-01-01

35

The Locust Standard Brain: A 3D Standard of the Central Complex as a Platform for Neural Network Analysis  

PubMed Central

Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008) have generated a three-dimensional (3D) standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA) procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

el Jundi, Basil; Heinze, Stanley; Lenschow, Constanze; Kurylas, Angela; Rohlfing, Torsten; Homberg, Uwe

2009-01-01

36

A study of the standard brain in Japanese children: morphological comparison with the MNI template.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies involve normalization so that the brains of different subjects can be described using the same coordinate system. However, standard brain templates, including the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template that is most frequently used at present, were created based on the brains of Western adults. Because morphological characteristics of the brain differ by race and ethnicity and between adults and children, errors are likely to occur when data from the brains of non-Western individuals are processed using these templates. Therefore, this study was conducted to collect basic data for the creation of a Japanese pediatric standard brain. Participants in this study were 45 healthy children (contributing 65 brain images) between the ages of 6 and 9 years, who had nothing notable in their perinatal and other histories and neurological findings, had normal physical findings and cognitive function, exhibited no behavioral abnormalities, and provided analyzable MR images. 3D-T1-weighted images were obtained using a 1.5-T MRI device, and images from each child were adjusted to the reference image by affine transformation using SPM8. The lengths were measured and compared with those of the MNI template. The Western adult standard brain and the Japanese pediatric standard brain obtained in this study differed greatly in size, particularly along the anteroposterior diameter and in height, suggesting that the correction rates are high, and that errors are likely to occur in the normalization of pediatric brain images. We propose that the use of the Japanese pediatric standard brain created in this study will improve the accuracy of identification of brain regions in functional brain imaging studies involving children. PMID:22669123

Uchiyama, Hitoshi T; Seki, Ayumi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Koeda, Tatsuya; Jcs Group

2012-06-04

37

Differential effects of normal aging on sources of standard N1, target N1 and target P300 auditory event-related brain potentials revealed by low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P300 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be closely related to cognitive processes. In normal aging, P300 scalp latencies increase, parietal P300 scalp amplitudes decrease and the scalp potential field shifts to a relatively more frontal distribution. Based on ERPs recorded in 172 normal healthy subjects aged between 20 and 88 years in an auditory oddball paradigm, the effects

Peter Anderer; Roberto D Pascual-Marqui; Heribert V Semlitsch; Bernd Saletu

1998-01-01

38

Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements  

SciTech Connect

Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gunnink, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G. [Ulba Metallurgical Facility, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

1998-12-01

39

Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise

Soon Cheol Chung; Do Young Choi; Gye Rae Tack; Jin Hun Sohn

2004-01-01

40

Characterizing Extra-Solar Planets with Low Resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next few years, several high contrast imaging instruments equipped with integral field spectrographs will allow the direct spectral characterization of a variety of companions, from low-mass stars to Jupiter-mass extra-solar planets, at Solar System-like separations (4-40 AU). The spectra obtained by these instruments will be low resolution (R 30-60), making detailed thermo-chemical analysis difficult. Therefore, we have developed a technique that quantitatively compares observed low-resolution spectra with a set of synthetic spectra in order to obtain physical parameters, such as temperature and surface gravity, quickly and robustly. The technique requires no assumptions about age, mass, radius or metallicity of the companion or the primary. We describe this technique and demonstrate its effectiveness with simulated and observed spectra from Project 1640, the high contrast imager and integral field spectrograph on Palomar. The technique can also be used to optimize observing efficiency by determining the ideal wavelength range (for multi-filter instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager) and signal to noise ratio for a desired precision and accuracy of inferred parameters. The current analysis uses the PHOENIX models as a basis for comparison, but the technique can be applied to any set of models and even used to quantify the differences between models created by different groups. This tool provides a necessary, fast, and comprehensive method of characterizing faint companions of stars, whether they be stellar, sub-stellar or planetary in nature.

Rice, Emily L.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Zimmerman, N.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Hinkley, S.

2012-01-01

41

No-reference image quality measurement for low-resolution images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-reference measurement for image quality, where an original error-free image is not provided as reference, plays an important role in image processing and analysis. This paper mainly investigates three no-reference image-quality metrics, which are based on the standard deviation, the maximum, and the mean of the magnitude of the intensity gradient of pixels. Each measurement metric is critically accessed using low resolution gray-scale images, which are acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles cruising over the city and aim to disclose the movement of vehicles such as a semi -truck, light colored cars, and dark colored cars, etc. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared to alternative schemes, the standard deviation based metric provides a more accurate measurement about the quality of images. In addition, standard deviation based scheme demonstrates superior correlation with alternative schemes to measure the quality of images.

Sanderson, Josh; Liang, Yu

2013-05-01

42

The Gold-Plated Leucotomy Standard and Deep Brain Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walter Freeman, the self styled neurosurgeon, became famous (or infamous) for psychosurgery. The operation of frontal leucotomy\\u000a swept through the world (with Freeman himself performing something like 18,000 cases) but it has tainted the whole idea of\\u000a psychosurgery down to the present era. Modes of psychosurgery such as Deep Brain Stimulation and other highly selective neurosurgical\\u000a procedures for neurological and

Grant Gillett

2011-01-01

43

The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed.

2011-01-01

44

Low-Resolution Photodetachment Spectroscopy of the S2^- Ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous experiments have investigated the properties and dynamics of single- atom negative ions. Similar experiments can be conducted with molecular negative ions. Laser photodetachment spectroscopy of such ions is more complicated due to rotational and vibrational structure, and often yields spectroscopic benchmarks such as rotational constants. We have conducted low-resolution photodetachment spectroscopy of the S2^- ion. The ions are created in a Penning ion trap by a two-step dissociative attachment process. The photodetachment is achieved with a tunable ring-cavity titanium:sapphire laser. Our results yield a lower-limit estimate of the minimum detachment threshold energy and exhibit structure that may be due to rotational energy levels. Future experiments will focus on high-resolution detachment spectroscopy of these and other ions with an eye toward measurement of their molecular constants.

Yukich, John N.; Joiner, Anne; Mohr, Robert

2011-06-01

45

Low-resolution refinement tools in REFMAC5  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of low-resolution macromolecular crystal structure analysis are considered: (i) the use of reference structures and structural units for provision of structural prior information and (ii) map sharpening in the presence of noise and the effects of Fourier series termination. The generation of interatomic distance restraints by ProSMART and their subsequent application in REFMAC5 is described. It is shown that the use of such external structural information can enhance the reliability of derived atomic models and stabilize refinement. The problem of map sharpening is considered as an inverse deblurring problem and is solved using Tikhonov regularizers. It is demonstrated that this type of map sharpening can automatically produce a map with more structural features whilst maintaining connectivity. Tests show that both of these directions are promising, although more work needs to be performed in order to further exploit structural information and to address the problem of reliable electron-density calculation.

Nicholls, Robert A.; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N.

2012-01-01

46

A low-resolution 3D holographic volumetric display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple low resolution volumetric display is presented, based on holographic volume-segments. The display system comprises a proprietary holographic screen, laser projector, associated optics plus a control unit. The holographic screen resembles a sheet of frosted glass about A4 in size (20x30cm). The holographic screen is rear-illuminated by the laser projector, which is in turn driven by the controller, to produce simple 3D images that appear outside the plane of the screen. A series of spatially multiplexed and interleaved interference patterns are pre-encoded across the surface of the holographic screen. Each illumination pattern is capable of reconstructing a single holographic volume-segment. Up to nine holograms are multiplexed on the holographic screen in a variety of configurations including a series of numeric and segmented digits. The demonstrator has good results under laboratory conditions with moving colour 3D images in front of or behind the holographic screen.

Khan, Javid; Underwood, Ian; Greenaway, Alan; Halonen, Mikko

2010-04-01

47

Low-resolution structural studies of human Stanniocalcin-1  

PubMed Central

Background Stanniocalcins (STCs) represent small glycoprotein hormones, found in all vertebrates, which have been functionally implicated in Calcium homeostasis. However, recent data from mammalian systems indicated that they may be also involved in embryogenesis, tumorigenesis and in the context of the latter especially in angiogenesis. Human STC1 is a 247 amino acids protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27 kDa, but preliminary data suggested its di- or multimerization. The latter in conjunction with alternative splicing and/or post-translational modification gives rise to forms described as STC50 and "big STC", which molecular weights range from 56 to 135 kDa. Results In this study we performed a biochemical and structural analysis of STC1 with the aim of obtaining low resolution structural information about the human STC1, since structural information in this protein family is scarce. We expressed STC1 in both E. coli and insect cells using the baculo virus system with a C-terminal 6 × His fusion tag. From the latter we obtained reasonable amounts of soluble protein. Circular dichroism analysis showed STC1 as a well structured protein with 52% of alpha-helical content. Mass spectroscopy analysis of the recombinant protein allowed to assign the five intramolecular disulfide bridges as well as the dimerization Cys202, thereby confirming the conservation of the disulfide pattern previously described for fish STC1. SAXS data also clearly demonstrated that STC1 adopts a dimeric, slightly elongated structure in solution. Conclusion Our data reveal the first low resolution, structural information for human STC1. Theoretical predictions and circular dichroism spectroscopy both suggested that STC1 has a high content of alpha-helices and SAXS experiments revealed that STC1 is a dimer of slightly elongated shape in solution. The dimerization was confirmed by mass spectrometry as was the highly conserved disulfide pattern, which is identical to that found in fish STC1.

Trindade, Daniel M; Silva, Julio C; Navarro, Margareth S; Torriani, Iris CL; Kobarg, Jorg

2009-01-01

48

Hobby-Eberly Telescope low-resolution spectrograph: mechanical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is a revolutionary large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located in West Texas at McDonald Observatory. The Low Resolution Spectrograph [LRS, an international collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin (UT), the Instituto de Astronomia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IAUNAM), Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitat, Munich (USM), and Georg- August-Universitat, Gottingen (USG)] is a high throughput, imaging grism spectrograph which rides on the HET tracker at prime focus. The remote location and tight space and weight constraints make the LRS a challenging instrument, built on a limited budget. The mechanical design and fabrication were done in Germany, and the camera and CCD system in Texas. The LRS is a grism spectrograph with three modes of operation: imaging, longslit, and multi-object. Here we present a detailed description of the mechanical design of the LRS. Fabrication, assembly and testing of the LRS will be completed by mid 1998. First light for the LRS on the HET is expected in the summer of 1998.

Hill, Gary J.; Nicklas, Harald E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Mitsch, Wolfgang; Wellem, Walter; Altmann, Werner; Wesley, Gordon L.; Ray, Frank B.

1998-07-01

49

Discriminative metric preservation for tracking low-resolution targets.  

PubMed

Tracking low-resolution (LR) targets is a practical yet quite challenging problem in real video analysis applications. Lack of discriminative details in the visual appearance of the LR target leads to the matching ambiguity, which confronts most existing tracking methods. Although artificially enhancing the video resolution by superresolution (SR) techniques before analyzing might be an option, the high demand of computational cost can hardly meet the requirements of the tracking scenario. This paper presents a novel solution to track LR targets without explicitly performing SR. This new approach is based on discriminative metric preservation that preserves the data affinity structure in the high-resolution (HR) feature space for effective and efficient matching of LR images. In addition, we substantialize this new approach in a solid case study of differential tracking under metric preservation and derive a closed-form solution to motion estimation for LR video. In addition, this paper extends the basic linear metric preservation method to a more powerful nonlinear kernel metric preservation method. Such a solution to LR target tracking is discriminative, robust, and efficient. Extensive experiments validate the entrustments and effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed method in tracking LR targets. PMID:21908254

Jiang, Nan; Su, Heng; Liu, Wenyu; Wu, Ying

2011-09-08

50

IRAS low-resolution spectral observations of H II regions  

SciTech Connect

Abundances of neon and sulfur for 95 H II regions whose spectra were measured by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) are determined; and theoretical implications of the neon ionization level and the sulfur-to-neon abundance ratio are discussed. The abundances show a distinct gradient of Ne/H with respect to Galactocentric radius RG, and a smaller gradient for S/H. The neon ionization is high only for sources with both low neon abundance and high luminosity. It is concluded that, due to the fact that the luminosities observed are so high compared to those predicted for the zero-age main sequence star, the most luminous H II regions are probably excited by several stars or a cluster of stars. The observed ionization of neon shows that the effective temperatures of the exciting stars cannot be more than 40,000 K, with an alternative explanation that 04 and 03 stars have Lyman continuum spectra cooler than the 45,000 - 50,000 K effective temperatures that are found for their visible and UV spectra. 109 refs.

Simpson, J.P.; Rubin, R.H. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) California Univ., Los Angeles (USA))

1990-05-01

51

Pose-robust recognition of low-resolution face images.  

PubMed

Face images captured by surveillance cameras usually have poor resolution in addition to uncontrolled poses and illumination conditions, all of which adversely affect the performance of face matching algorithms. In this paper, we develop a completely automatic, novel approach for matching surveillance quality facial images to high-resolution images in frontal pose, which are often available during enrollment. The proposed approach uses multidimensional scaling to simultaneously transform the features from the poor quality probe images and the high-quality gallery images in such a manner that the distances between them approximate the distances had the probe images been captured in the same conditions as the gallery images. Tensor analysis is used for facial landmark localization in the low-resolution uncontrolled probe images for computing the features. Thorough evaluation on the Multi-PIE dataset and comparisons with state-of-the-art super-resolution and classifier-based approaches are performed to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. Experiments on surveillance imagery further signify the applicability of the framework. We also show the usefulness of the proposed approach for the application of tracking and recognition in surveillance videos. PMID:24136439

Biswas, Soma; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Flynn, Patrick J; Bowyer, Kevin W

2013-12-01

52

The Development of a Low Resolution Grating Spectrophotometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While developing a program for low resolution spectroscopy (120 Angstroms per mm) of Mira variable stars, we noted the loss of light at the spectrograph slit. The loss of light occurs because the stellar seeing disk is sometimes as large as the 3 arcsecond wide slit. In order to take spectra which can be flux calibrated, we began to investigate methods of sending light to the spectrograph by means of a 1 mm fiber optic cable. Putting a 3 arcsecond star image on a 1 mm fiber at the focus of a telescope with a scale of 30 arcseconds/mm, can be easily accomplished. However, sending the light to a slit at the opposite end of the fiber optic cable is challenging. We have begun to develop a unique lens/fiber/lens combination which has the potential to replace the spectrograph slit, and put all the starlight into the spectrograph. We will present the optical layout, and preliminary results. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-9500756. Bales, an undergraduate at East Tennessee State University, gratefully acknowledges support from the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Supplement program.

Bales, M.; Castelaz, M. W.; Luttermoser, D. G.

1997-05-01

53

Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town…

White, David J.; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B.

2012-01-01

54

A grid-enabled web service for low-resolution crystal structure refinement  

PubMed Central

Deformable elastic network (DEN) restraints have proved to be a powerful tool for refining structures from low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data sets. Unfortunately, optimal refinement using DEN restraints requires extensive calculations and is often hindered by a lack of access to sufficient computational resources. The DEN web service presented here intends to provide structural biologists with access to resources for running computationally intensive DEN refinements in parallel on the Open Science Grid, the US cyberinfrastructure. Access to the grid is provided through a simple and intuitive web interface integrated into the SBGrid Science Portal. Using this portal, refinements combined with full parameter optimization that would take many thousands of hours on standard computational resources can now be completed in several hours. An example of the successful application of DEN restraints to the human Notch1 transcriptional complex using the grid resource, and summaries of all submitted refinements, are presented as justification.

O'Donovan, Daniel J.; Stokes-Rees, Ian; Nam, Yunsun; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Schroder, Gunnar F.; Brunger, Axel T.; Sliz, Piotr

2012-01-01

55

Investigating short wavelength correlated errors on low resolution mode altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although conventional radar altimetry products (Jason1, Jason2, LRM CRYOSAT2, etc) have a spatial resolution as high as 300 m, the observation of ocean scales smaller than 100 km is limited by the existence of a "spectral hump", i.e. a geographically coherent error. In the frame of the future altimetry missions (SAR for Cryosat -2 and Sentinel-3 missions and interferometry for the SWOT mission) it becomes crucial to investigate again and to better understand the signals obtained at small scales by conventional altimeter missions. Through an analysis of simulations, we show that heterogeneous backscattering scenes can result in the corruption of the altimeter waveforms and retracked parameters. The retrackers used in current ground processors cannot well fit the Brown model during backscattering events because this model has been designed for a homogeneous scene. The error is also propagated along-track because of the size and shape of the low resolution mode (LRM) disc-shaped footprint. The hump phenomenon is shown to be almost ubiquitous in the ocean, yet more intense at low latitudes and in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, where backscattering events are more frequent. Its overall signature could be a Gaussian-like random signal smooth for wavelengths smaller than 15 km, i.e. white noise on 1 Hz products. The analysis of current data from 5 altimetry missions highlights the influence of the instrument design and altitude, and the influence of the retracker used. The spectral hump is a systematic response to random events and it is possible to mitigate it with new processing. Simulations and geographically limited datasets from the synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) of Cryosat-2 show that the thin stripe-shaped synthetic footprint of SARM might be less sensitive to the artifact.

Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Dibarboure, Gérald; Labroue, Sylvie; Lasne, Yannick; Boy, François; Picot, Nicolas

2013-04-01

56

Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured on the PET images, and the brain height was estimated by a contour-matching procedure using the midsagittal plane. In the nonlinear warping step, individual gray matter locations were matched with those of a standard brain by maximizing correlation coefficients of regional profile curves determined between predefined stretching centers (predominantly in white matter) and the gray matter landmarks. The accuracy of the brain height estimation was compared with skull x-ray estimations, showing comparable accuracy and better reproducibility. Linear-scaling and nonlinear warping methods were validated using ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose and ({sup 15}O)water images. Regional anatomic variability on the glucose images was reduced markedly. The statistical significance of activation foci in paired water images was improved in both vibratory and visual activation paradigms. A group versus group comparison following the proposed anatomic standardization revealed highly significant glucose metabolic alterations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared with those of a normal control group. These results suggested that the method is well suited to both research and clinical settings and can facilitate pixel-by-pixel comparisons of PET images. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

57

Hobby-Eberly Telescope low-resolution spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is a revolutionary large telescope of 9.2 meter aperture, located in West Texas at McDonald Observatory. First light was obtained on December 11, 1996. The start of scientific operations is expected in the late summer of 1998. The Low Resolution Spectrograph [LRS, an international collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin (UT), the Instituto de Astronomia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IAUNAM), Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitat, Munich (USM), and Georg- August-Universitat, Gottingen (USG)] is a high throughput, imaging spectrograph which rides on the HET tracker at prime focus. The LRS will be the first HET facility instrument. The remote location and the tight space and weight constraints make the LRS a challenging instrument, built on a limited budget. The optics were partially constructed in Mexico at IAUNAM, the mechanics in Germany, and the camera and CCD system in Texas. The LRS is a grism spectrograph with three modes of operation: imaging, longslit, and multi-object. The field of view of the HET is 4 arcmin in diameter, and the LRS will have a 13-slitlet Multi Object Spectroscopy (MOS) unit covering this field. The MOS unit is based on miniature components and is remotely configurable under computer control. Resolving powers between R equals (lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) approximately 600 and 3000 with a 1 arcsecond wide slit will be achieved with a variety of grisms, of which two can be carried by the instrument at any one time. The CCD is a Ford Aerospace 3072 X 1024 device with 15 micrometer pixels, and the image scale is approximately 0.25 arcsec per pixel. Here we present a detailed description of the LRS, and provide an overview of the optical and mechanical aspects of its design (which are discussed in detail elsewhere in these proceedings). Fabrication, assembly, and testing of the LRS will be completed by mid 1998. First light for the LRS on the HET is expected in the summer of 1998.

Hill, Gary J.; Nicklas, Harald E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Tejada, Carlos; Cobos Duenas, Francisco J.; Mitsch, Wolfgang

1998-07-01

58

Development of a scheme and tools to construct a standard moth brain for neural network simulations.  

PubMed

Understanding the neural mechanisms for sensing environmental information and controlling behavior in natural environments is a principal aim in neuroscience. One approach towards this goal is rebuilding neural systems by simulation. Despite their relatively simple brains compared with those of mammals, insects are capable of processing various sensory signals and generating adaptive behavior. Nevertheless, our global understanding at network system level is limited by experimental constraints. Simulations are very effective for investigating neural mechanisms when integrating both experimental data and hypotheses. However, it is still very difficult to construct a computational model at the whole brain level owing to the enormous number and complexity of the neurons. We focus on a unique behavior of the silkmoth to investigate neural mechanisms of sensory processing and behavioral control. Standard brains are used to consolidate experimental results and generate new insights through integration. In this study, we constructed a silkmoth standard brain and brain image, in which we registered segmented neuropil regions and neurons. Our original software tools for segmentation of neurons from confocal images, KNEWRiTE, and the registration module for segmented data, NeuroRegister, are shown to be very effective in neuronal registration for computational neuroscience studies. PMID:22952471

Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Kazawa, Tomoki; Namiki, Shigehiro; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Yohei; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Nishikawa, Ikuko; Kanzaki, Ryohei

2012-08-16

59

A Standardized Protocol for the Initial Evaluation and Documentation of Mild Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a protocol for the initial assessment and documentation of mild brain injury, a protocol that is used within the Department of Physical Education at the United States Military Academy. Background: Recently, much attention has been given to the assessment and management of mild brain injury by the sports medicine community. Although the classification of and management strategies for mild brain injury have been well disputed, most experts agree on the essentials of the sideline or initial evaluation. According to leading experts, if an athlete has experienced an episode of mild brain injury, the initial signs and symptoms, as well as the course of those signs and symptoms, should be documented. Description: Although many athletic training texts formerly discussed techniques for evaluating an episode of mild brain injury, few present an objective protocol to follow. Our protocol includes 3 components. The first component is the initial evaluation, which incorporates serial observations during the first 20 minutes after injury, with neurologic checks every 5 minutes. The second component includes a take-home sheet for athletes not referred to a physician for further evaluation. The third part of the protocol is a 24-hour postinjury follow-up examination for any signs or symptoms of postconcussion syndrome. Finally, we present the indications for referral to a physician for further evaluation. Clinical Advantages/Recommendations: Using a standard protocol to guide evaluation and to document the initial course of signs and symptoms after mild brain injury allows the sports medicine staff to make better management decisions. In addition, patient instructions and the course of follow-up evaluations can be improved if a standard protocol is employed. Our protocol has been developed to meet the needs both of athletes who are exposed to mild brain injury on a daily basis and of the certified athletic trainers who initially evaluate them; the protocol can be adapted to the individual needs of each athletic training setting.

Cameron, Kenneth L.; Yunker, Craig A.; Austin, Marchell C.

1999-01-01

60

FitEM2EM---Tools for Low Resolution Study of Macromolecular Assembly and Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value

Ziv Frankenstein; Joseph Sperling; Ruth Sperling; Miriam Eisenstein; Che John Connon

2008-01-01

61

Hundreds of brain maps in one atlas: registering coordinate-independent primate neuro-anatomical data to a standard brain.  

PubMed

Non-invasive measuring methods such as EEG/MEG, fMRI and DTI are increasingly utilised to extract quantitative information on functional and anatomical connectivity in the human brain. These methods typically register their data in Euclidean space, so that one can refer to a particular activity pattern by specifying its spatial coordinates. Since each of these methods has limited resolution in either the time or spatial domain, incorporating additional data, such as those obtained from invasive animal studies, would be highly beneficial to link structure and function. Here we describe an approach to spatially register all cortical brain regions from the macaque structural connectivity database CoCoMac, which contains the combined tracing study results from 459 publications (http://cocomac.g-node.org). Brain regions from 9 different brain maps were directly mapped to a standard macaque cortex using the tool Caret (Van Essen and Dierker, 2007). The remaining regions in the CoCoMac database were semantically linked to these 9 maps using previously developed algebraic and machine-learning techniques (Bezgin et al., 2008; Stephan et al., 2000). We analysed neural connectivity using several graph-theoretical measures to capture global properties of the derived network, and found that Markov Centrality provides the most direct link between structure and function. With this registration approach, users can query the CoCoMac database by specifying spatial coordinates. Availability of deformation tools and homology evidence then allow one to directly attribute detailed anatomical animal data to human experimental results. PMID:22521477

Bezgin, Gleb; Vakorin, Vasily A; van Opstal, A John; McIntosh, Anthony R; Bakker, Rembrandt

2012-04-14

62

Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) neuroimaging analysis techniques based on voxel-wise statistics, such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional MRI, are widely applied to cognitive brain research in both human subjects and in non-human primates. Recent developments in imaging have enabled the evaluation of smaller animal models with sufficient spatial resolution. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate species, has been widely used in neuroscience research, to which voxel-wise statistics could be extended with a species-specific brain template. Here, we report, for the first time, a tissue-segmented, population-averaged standard template of the common marmoset brain. This template was created by using anatomical T(1)-weighted images from 22 adult marmosets with a high-resolution isotropic voxel size of (0.2 mm)(3) at 7-Tesla and DARTEL algorithm in SPM8. Whole brain templates are available at International Neuroinformatics Japan Node website, http://brainatlas.brain.riken.jp/marmoset/. PMID:21044887

Hikishima, K; Quallo, M M; Komaki, Y; Yamada, M; Kawai, K; Momoshima, S; Okano, H J; Sasaki, E; Tamaoki, N; Lemon, R N; Iriki, A; Okano, H

2010-10-29

63

Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

2004-04-01

64

Alteration of Cortical Functional Connectivity as a Result of Traumatic Brain Injury Revealed by Graph Theory, ICA, and sLORETA Analyses of EEG Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to examine the cortical functional connectivity using multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. First we utilized independent component analysis (ICA) to transform multichannel EEG recordings into independent processes and then applied source reconstruction algorithm [i.e., standardize low resolution brain electromagnetic (sLORETA)] to identify the cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Second, we performed a graph

C. Cao; S. Slobounov

2010-01-01

65

CARMENES. IV. Preliminary low-resolution spectroscopic characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our project consists in the characterisation of M dwarfs to define the input catalogue of CARMENES, a next-generation instrument to be built for the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto. We have used the CAFOS spectrograph at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for observing over 300 stars from our initial sample with a spectral resolution R ˜ 1500. We have performed a spectral-type classification of the targets by comparing their acquired spectra with those of spectral-type standard stars observed during the same observing runs, and using spectral indices well calibrated for M dwarfs, such as TiO5, CaH2 and CaH3. We have also derived chromospheric activity indicators (e.g. H?). Our final goal will be to choose the best candidates to be observed with this future exoplanet hunter and prepare the CARMENCITA (CARMENES Cool star Information and daTa Archive) database.

Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Klutsch, A.; Morales, J. C.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Carmenes Consortium

2013-05-01

66

Hyaluronidase additional to standard chemotherapy improves outcome for children with malignant brain tumors.  

PubMed

Ex vivo experiments with vital brain tumor samples show that hyaluronidase enhances the permeation of carboplatin into tumor tissue with a matrix rich in hyaluronic acid. We achieved long-lasting second remissions for children with relapsed malignant brain tumors treated with carboplatin, etoposide and this enzyme. Thereafter, we initiated a pilot study where we added hyaluronidase to the first line standard therapy to prevent the deadly relapses right from the beginning. All 19 patients with malignant brain tumors admitted to our pediatric neurooncological center from 1992 to 1994 were included in the study. Kaplan-Meier estimation of event-free survival and overall survival after 3 years follow-up indicates a significantly better outcome for the hyaluronidase-treated group. The children receiving supportive hyaluronidase suffered significantly less relapses (P = 0.034) and had a significantly better chance for survival (P = 0.045) compared to the historical control of 21 children treated with the same standard regimen but without supportive hyaluronidase (product limit analysis and the log-rank test, P < 0.05). Children aged >3 years receiving hyaluronidase together with primary treatment seemed to gain the most benefit. PMID:9839624

Pillwein, K; Fuiko, R; Slavc, I; Czech, T; Hawliczek, G; Bernhardt, G; Nirnberger, G; Köller, U

1998-09-11

67

Crowding in the Focal Plane of the Low-Resolution Spectrograph of GAIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the performance of a low-resolution spectrograph in crowded regions of the sky, where stellar spectra in the focal plane overlap, and compare it with the results for a medium-band photometric system.

Bressan, A.; Bertelli, G.; Chiosi, C.; Vallenari, A.

68

High-performance current sensorless drive for synchronous motors with only low-resolution position sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the current sensorless drive system with only low-resolution position sensor in order to simplify the synchronous motor drive system. The high-performance current vector control can be achieved in the proposed drive system, where the current sensors are eliminated but the simulated currents based on motor model are used for current control. The low-resolution position sensor, which has

Shigeo Morimoto; Masayuki Sanada; Yoji Takeda

2002-01-01

69

Estimation of Radiation Exposure for Brain Perfusion CT: Standard Protocol Compared With Deviations in Protocol.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to measure the organ doses and estimate the effective dose for the standard brain perfusion CT protocol and erroneous protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS. An anthropomorphic phantom with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors was scanned on a 64-MDCT scanner. Protocol 1 used a standard brain perfusion protocol with 80 kVp and fixed tube current of 200 mA. Protocol 2 used 120 kVp and fixed tube current of 200 mA. Protocol 3 used 120 kVp with automatic tube current modulation (noise index, 2.4; minimum, 100 mA; maximum, 520 mA). RESULTS. Compared with protocol 1, the effective dose was 2.8 times higher with protocol 2 and 7.8 times higher with protocol 3. For all protocols, the peak dose was highest in the skin, followed by the brain and calvarial marrow. Compared with protocol 1, the peak skin dose was 2.6 times higher with protocol 2 and 6.7 times higher with protocol 3. The peak skin dose for protocol 3 exceeded 3 Gy. The ocular lens received significant scatter radiation: 177 mGy for protocol 2 and 435 mGy for protocol 3, which were 4.6 and 11.3 times the dose for protocol 1, respectively. CONCLUSION. Compared with the standard protocol, erroneous protocols of increasing the tube potential from 80 kVp to 120 kVp will lead to a three- to fivefold increase in organ doses, and concurrent use of high peak kilovoltage with incorrectly programmed tube current modulation can increase dose to organs by 7- to 11-fold. Tube current modulation with a low noise index can lead to doses to the skin and ocular lens that are close to thresholds for tissue reactions. PMID:24063388

Hoang, Jenny K; Wang, Chu; Frush, Donald P; Enterline, David S; Samei, Ehsan; Toncheva, Greta; Lowry, Carolyn; Yoshizumi, Terry T

2013-09-24

70

3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity  

PubMed Central

The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

2009-01-01

71

Estimating low resolution gravity fields at short time intervals to reduce temporal aliasing errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has been estimating temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field since its launch in 2002. While it is not yet fully resolved what the limiting source of error is for GRACE, studies on future missions have shown that temporal aliasing errors due to undersampling signals of interest (such as hydrological variations) and errors in atmospheric, ocean, and tide models will be a limiting source of error for missions taking advantage of improved technologies (flying drag-free with a laser interferometer). This paper explores the option of reducing the effects of temporal aliasing errors by directly estimating low degree and order gravity fields at short time intervals, ultimately resulting in data products with improved spatial resolution. Three potential architectures are considered: a single pair of polar orbiting satellites, two pairs of polar orbiting satellites, and a polar orbiting pair of satellites coupled with a lower inclined pair of satellites. Results show that improvements in spatial resolution are obtained when one estimates a low resolution gravity field every two days for the case of a single pair of satellites, and every day for the case of two polar pairs of satellites. However, the spatial resolution for these cases is still lower than that provided by simply destriping and smoothing the solutions via standard GRACE post-processing techniques. Alternately, estimating daily gravity fields for the case of a polar pair of satellites coupled with a lower inclined pair results in solutions with superior spatial resolution than that offered by simply destriping and smoothing the solutions.

Wiese, David N.; Visser, Pieter; Nerem, Robert S.

2011-09-01

72

Face super-resolution reconstruction from real low-resolution video sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of high-resolution face image is crucial to detect suspect from low-resolution surveillance videos. Though previously published super-resolution image reconstruction techniques could produce a qualified high-resolution image from a set of simulated low-resolution images, but the reconstructed image from real low-resolution videos is always blurring. Two main reasons contribute for this: the process of image registration is ill-posed in nature and the sub-pixel information provided by the real video sequences is far less sufficient. In this paper, a joint image registration and face pattern-based high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm was proposed to tackle these two problems. Experimental results are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Zhang, Di; He, Jiazhong; Peng, Hong

2009-10-01

73

Calibrated IUE LWR low resolution spectra of G-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An example is presented of the main features of the Atlas of calibrated IUE LWR low resolution spectra of nonsupergiant G-type stars whose preparation is now in progress. The source of references for the relevant astrophysical data is the Set of Identifications, Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data.

Malagnini, M. L.; Morossi, C.; Valente, T.; Rossi, L.

74

DETERMINING RNA THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES USING LOW-RESOLUTION DATA  

PubMed Central

Knowing the 3-D structure of an RNA is fundamental to understand its biological function. Nowadays X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are systematically applied to newly discovered RNAs. However, the application of these high-resolution techniques is not always possible, and thus scientists must turn to lower resolution alternatives. Here, we introduce a pipeline to systematically generate atomic resolution 3-D structures that are consistent with low-resolution data sets. We compare and evaluate the discriminative power of a number of low-resolution experimental techniques to reproduce the structure of the Escherichia coli tRNAVAL and P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron. We test single and combinations of the most accessible low-resolution techniques, i.e. hydroxyl radical footprinting (OH), methidiumpropyl-EDTA (MPE), multiplexed hydroxyl radical cleavage (MOHCA), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We show that OH-derived constraints are accurate to discriminate structures at the atomic level, whereas EDTA-based constraints apply to global shape determination. We provide a guide for choosing which experimental techniques or combination of thereof is best in which context. The pipeline represents an important step towards high-throughput low-resolution RNA structure determination.

Parisien, Marc; Major, Francois

2012-01-01

75

EXPERT SYSTEM FOR ESTIMATING MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA  

EPA Science Inventory

MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in a low resolution mass spectrum, has been found to be linearly correlated with the true molecular weights of 400 randomly selected spectra, yielding a family of parallel lines. imple exert system using MAXMASS h...

76

Sea ice motion from low-resolution satellite sensors: An alternative method and its validation in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retrieval of sea ice motion with the Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) method from low-resolution (10-15 km) spaceborne imaging sensors is challenged by a dominating quantization noise as the time span of displacement vectors is shortened. To allow investigating shorter displacements from these instruments, we introduce an alternative sea ice motion tracking algorithm that builds on the MCC method but relies on a continuous optimization step for computing the motion vector. The prime effect of this method is to effectively dampen the quantization noise, an artifact of the MCC. It allows for retrieving spatially smooth 48 h sea ice motion vector fields in the Arctic. Strategies to detect and correct erroneous vectors as well as to optimally merge several polarization channels of a given instrument are also described. A test processing chain is implemented and run with several active and passive microwave imagers (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E), Special Sensor Microwave Imager, and Advanced Scatterometer) during three Arctic autumn, winter, and spring seasons. Ice motion vectors are collocated to and compared with GPS positions of in situ drifters. Error statistics are shown to be ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 km (standard deviation for components of the vectors) depending on the sensor, without significant bias. We discuss the relative contribution of measurement and representativeness errors by analyzing monthly validation statistics. The 37 GHz channels of the AMSR-E instrument allow for the best validation statistics. The operational low-resolution sea ice drift product of the EUMETSAT OSI SAF (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility) is based on the algorithms presented in this paper.

Lavergne, T.; Eastwood, S.; Teffah, Z.; Schyberg, H.; Breivik, L.-A.

2010-10-01

77

The Modern Brain Tumor Operating Room: from Standard Essentials to Current State-of-the-Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is just over a century since successful brain tumor resection. Since then the diagnosis, imaging, and management of brain tumors have improved, in large part due to technological advances. Similarly, the operating room (OR) for brain tumor surgery has increased in complexity and specificity with multiple forms of equipment now considered necessary as technical adjuncts. It is evident that

Gene H. Barnett; Narendra Nathoo

2004-01-01

78

Automated construction of low-resolution, texture-mapped, class-optimal meshes.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a framework for the groupwise processing of a set of meshes in dense correspondence. Such sets arise when modeling 3D shape variation or tracking surface motion over time. We extend a number of mesh processing tools to operate in a groupwise manner. Specifically, we present a geodesic-based surface flattening and spectral clustering algorithm which estimates a single class-optimal flattening. We also show how to modify an iterative edge collapse algorithm to perform groupwise simplification while retaining the correspondence of the data. Finally, we show how to compute class-optimal texture coordinates for the simplified meshes. We present alternative algorithms for topologically symmetric data which yield a symmetric flattening and low-resolution mesh topology. We present flattening, simplification, and texture mapping results on three different data sets and show that our approach allows the construction of low-resolution 3D morphable models. PMID:22241283

Patel, Ankur; Smith, William A P

2012-03-01

79

Dynamic allocation of fires and sensors (DAFS): a low-resolution simulation for rapid modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution combat models have become so complex that the time necessary to create and analyze a scenario has become unacceptably long. A lower resolution approach to entity-level simulation can complement such models. This paper presents Dynamic Allocation of Fires and Sensors (DAFS), a low-resolution, constructive entity-level simula- tion framework, that can be rapidly configured and exe- cuted. Through the use

Arnold H. Buss; Darryl K. Ahner

2006-01-01

80

Dynamic Allocation of Fires and Sensors (DAFS): A Low-Resolution Simulation for Rapid Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution combat models have become so complex that the time necessary to create and analyze a scenario has become unacceptably long. A lower resolution approach to entity-level simulation can complement such models. This paper presents dynamic allocation of fires and sensors (DAFS), a low-resolution, constructive entity-level simulation framework, that can be rapidly configured and executed. Through the use of a

Arnold H. Buss; Darryl K. Ahner

2006-01-01

81

Low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of GRBs 991216, 011211 and 021211  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of the afterglow of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 991216, 011211 and 021211. Our spectrum of GRB 991216 is the only optical spectrum for this afterglow. It shows two probable absorption systems at z=0.80 and z=1.02, where the highest redshift most likely reflects the distance to the host galaxy. A third system may be detected at

P. M. Vreeswijk; A. Smette; A. S. Fruchter; E. Palazzi; E. Rol; R. A. M. J. Wijers; C. Kouveliotou; L. Kaper; E. Pian; N. Masetti; F. Frontera; J. Hjorth; J. Gorosabel; L. Piro; J. P. U. Fynbo; P. Jakobsson; D. Watson; P. T. O'Brien; C. Ledoux

2006-01-01

82

Real-time Hand Pose Recognition Using Low-Resolution Depth Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gesture recognition methods based on intensity or color images often suffer from low efficiency and lack of robust- ness. In this paper, we employ a new laser-based cam- era that produces reliable low-resolution depth images at video rates. By decomposing and recognizing hand poses as finger states (finger poses and finger inter-relations), we achieve robust hand pose recognition in real-time

Zhenyao Mo; Ulrich Neumann

2006-01-01

83

Predictability of low-frequency planetary waves in a simple low-resolution model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-resolution global spectral model truncated at zonal wavenumber 5 and meridional mode 15 is developed to simulate the low-frequency variability of planetary-scale atmospheric motions. The effects of unresolved time and space scales on the slow evolution of the flow are deduced by analyzing their contribution to the tendencies of low-pass-filtered planetary-scale modes in a higher-resolution (R15 truncation) version of

Douglas A. Stewart

1994-01-01

84

A real aperture radar for low resolution mapping at low costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the results obtained in the course of the trade-off analysis activity of low cost scatterometers based on real aperture measurement. This has been carried out at Alenia Aerospazio-Space Division in the frame of internal research activities and of the European Space Agency (ESA) “Modest Resolution Radar for Radar\\/Radiometer Applications” contract. The idea of low resolution radar

F. Impagnatiello; G. Angino; G. Leggeri

1997-01-01

85

Phase retrieval for a complex-valued object by using a low-resolution image  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to reconstruct an image of a complex-valued object from the modulus of its Fourier transform (i.e., retrieve the Fourier phase) except in some special cases. By using additionally a low-resolution intensity image from a telescope with a small aperture, a fine-resolution image of a general object can be reconstructed in a two-step approach. First the Fourier phase

J. R. Fienup; A. M. Kowalczyk

1990-01-01

86

A pulsed low resolution NMR study on crystallization and melting processes of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed low resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to measure the «melting» curves of different series of\\u000a cocoa butter samples. The samples were prepared from completely liquid phase by cooling and tempering them at different temperatures\\u000a Tc for varying time ?t. The «melting» curves were measured while keeping the sample at a fixed temperature Tm. The complex shape of

E. Brosio; F. Conti; A. Di Nola; S. Sykora

1980-01-01

87

Development of a low noise microwave frequency-synthesizer with low resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an easy approach to realize a SMF X-band frequency synthesizer with a low resolution of 20 KHz. In a slightly modified mix-divide (Winchell 1980) approach, a comb-generator is used to work like a pre-scalar in the X-band, The noise content in the output is comparable with instrumentation synthesizers, though our approach has been developed using commerically available

V. P. SINGH; ATIS D. MlTRA

1984-01-01

88

Nonzero error method for improving output voltage regulation of low-resolution digital controllers for SMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for achieving tight output voltage regulation in digitally controlled low-power dc-dc switch-mode power supplies with low-resolution digital pulse-width modulators (DPWM) is introduced. By utilizing a non-zero scheme for coding the output voltage error, an inherent quasi sigma-delta modulation effect improving effective DPWM resolution is obtained. The effectiveness of the method is experimentally verified on a 400 kHz,

Zhenyu Zhao; A. Prodic

2008-01-01

89

Facial identification in very low-resolution images simulating prosthetic vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.

Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.

2012-08-01

90

Fast and precise iris localization for low-resolution facial images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast and precise iris localization is a vital technique for face recognition, eye tracking, and gaze estimation. Low-resolution images bring about great difficulties for locating the iris precisely by traditional methods. In this paper, a fast and robust method to precisely detect the position and contour of the irises in low-resolution facial images is presented. A three-step coarse-to-fine strategy is employed. First, a gradient integral projection function is proposed to roughly detect the eye region, and the vertical integral projection function is adopted to select several possible vertical boundaries of the irises. Second, we have proposed a novel rectangular integro-variance operator to precisely locate both of the irises. Finally, the localization results are verified by two simple heuristic rules. A novel and more rigorous criterion is also proposed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Comparison experiments on images from the FERET and the Extended YaleB databases demonstrate that our method is more robust than traditional methods to scale variation, illumination changes, part occlusion, and limited changes of head poses in low-resolution facial images.

Meng, Chun-Ning; Zhang, Tai-Ning; Zhang, Pin; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

2012-07-01

91

Peptide charge state determination of tandem mass spectra from low-resolution collision induced dissociation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Charge states of tandem mass spectra from low-resolution collision induced dissociation can not be determined by mass spectrometry. As a result, such spectra with multiple charges are usually searched multiple times by assuming each possible charge state. Not only does this strategy increase the overall database search time, but also yields more false positives. Hence, it is advantageous to determine charge states of such spectra before database search. Results We propose a new approach capable of determining the charge states of low-resolution tandem mass spectra. Four novel and discriminant features are introduced to describe tandem mass spectra and used in Gaussian mixture model to distinguish doubly and triply charged peptides. By testing on three independent datasets with known validity, the results have shown that this method can assign charge states to low-resolution tandem mass spectra more accurately than existing methods. Conclusions The proposed method can be used to improve the speed and reliability of peptide identification.

2011-01-01

92

Implications of Extubation Delay in Brain-Injured Patients Meeting Standard Weaning Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that variation in extubating brain injured pa- tients would affect the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, length of stay, and hospital charges. In a prospective cohort of consecutive, intubated brain-injured patients, we evaluated daily: intubation status, spontaneous ventilatory parameters, gas ex- change, neurologic status, and specific outcomes listed above. Of 136 patients, 99 (73%) were extubated within 48 h

WILLIAM M. COPLIN; DAVID J. PIERSON; KATHY D. COOLEY; DAVID W. NEWELL; GORDON D. RUBENFELD

93

Integration of the Antennal Lobe Glomeruli and Three Projection Neurons in the Standard Brain Atlas of the Moth Heliothis Virescens  

PubMed Central

Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases (SBAs) are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, SBAs of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes (ALs) of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens SBA exclusively included the glomerular layer of the AL. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female SBA with a new model of the AL glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens AL model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the AL atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male AL was necessary. This required a new male AL atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three AL projection neurons of different preparations, the new SBA with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum.

L?faldli, Bjarte Bye; Kvello, Pal; Mustaparta, Hanna

2010-01-01

94

Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain\\/Tissue\\/Bio) banking: what is still missing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional\\u000a concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain\\/Tissue\\/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each\\u000a of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and\\u000a the legal regulations and

Rivka Ravid

2008-01-01

95

De Novo Correction of Mass Measurement Error in Low Resolution Tandem MS Spectra for Shotgun Proteomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an algorithm designed for the calibration of low resolution peptide mass spectra. Our algorithm is implemented in a program called FineTune, which corrects systematic mass measurement error in 1 min, with no input required besides the mass spectra themselves. The mass measurement accuracy for a set of spectra collected on an LTQ-Velos improved 20-fold from -0.1776 ± 0.0010 m/z to 0.0078 ± 0.0006 m/z after calibration (avg ± 95 % confidence interval). The precision in mass measurement was improved due to the correction of non-linear variation in mass measurement accuracy across the m/z range.

Egertson, Jarrett D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Bereman, Michael S.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Merrihew, Gennifer E.; MacCoss, Michael J.

2012-12-01

96

On the categorization of uranium materials using low resolution gamma ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

In order to characterize uranium materials during e.g. nuclear safeguards inspections and in initial stages of nuclear forensic investigations, hand-held low resolution gamma ray detection instruments with automatic uranium categorization capabilities may be used. In this paper, simulated response curves for a number of matrices applied on NaI(Tl) scintillation detector spectra show that the result of the categorization is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the uranium material. Recommendations on how to minimize the possibility of misclassification are discussed. PMID:23208231

Vesterlund, A; Ulvsand, T; Lidström, K; Skarnemark, G; Ekberg, C; Ramebäck, H

2012-11-02

97

Remarks on Gender/Race Classification from Low Resolution Facial Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates which feature of the face is focused on by human and/or computer in the classifi-cation of attributes, such as gender and human race, from facial image. The classification experiments withhuman subjects and/or artificial neural networks are carried out using the center of the face as the stimulus and/or input image. The experimental results show that human and the artificial neural network can classify the attributes from low resolution facial images and the feature parts are good agreement between human and the artificial neural network.

Takahashi, Kazuhiko

98

TGS[underscore]FIT: Image reconstruction software for quantitative, low-resolution tomographic assays  

SciTech Connect

We developed the computer program TGS[underscore]FIT to aid in researching the tomographic gamma scanner method of nondestructive assay. This software, written in C-programming, language, implements a full Beer's Law attenuation correction in reconstructing low-resolution emission tomograms. The attenuation coefficients for the corrections are obtained by reconstructing a transmission tomogram of the same resolution. The command-driven interface, combined with (crude) simulation capabilities and command file control, allows design studies to be performed in a semi-automated manner.

Estep, R.J.

1993-01-01

99

Aggregation and self-assembly of hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei: low-resolution structural models.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobins are secreted fungal proteins, which have diverse roles in fungal growth and development. They lower the surface tension of water, work as adhesive agents and coatings, and function through self-assembly. One of the characteristic properties of hydrophobins is their tendency to form fibrillar or rod-like aggregates at interfaces. Their structure is still poorly known. In a step to elucidate the structure/function relation of hydrophobin self-assembly, we present the low-resolution structure of self-assembled fibrils of the class II hydrophobin HFBII from Trichoderma reesei based on small and wide-angle x-ray scattering. We first studied the solution state (10 mg/mL) of both HFBI and HFBII and showed that they formed assemblages in aqueous solution, which have a radius of gyration of ~24 A and maximum dimension of ~65 A, corresponding to the size of a tetramer. This result was supported by size-exclusion chromatography. Undried samples of HFBII fibrils had a monoclinic crystalline structure, which changed to hexagonal when the material was dried. A low-resolution structure for the HFBII fibrils is suggested. There are data in the literature based on staining properties suggesting that hydrophobins of class I form assemblies with an amyloid structure. Comparison of the HFBII data (x-ray results, staining with thioflavin T) to published data showed that the HFBII assemblages are not amyloid.

Torkkeli, Mika; Serimaa, Ritva; Ikkala, Olli; Linder, Markus

2002-01-01

100

Cosmological parameters from a re-analysis of the WMAP 7 year low-resolution maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological parameters from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data are re-analysed by substituting a pixel-based likelihood estimator to the one delivered publicly by the WMAP team. Our pixel-based estimator handles exactly intensity and polarization in a joint manner, allowing us to use low-resolution maps and noise covariance matrices in T, Q, U at the same resolution, which in this work is 3.6°. We describe the features and the performances of the code implementing our pixel-based likelihood estimator. We perform a battery of tests on the application of our pixel-based likelihood routine to WMAP publicly available low-resolution foreground-cleaned products, in combination with the WMAP high-? likelihood, reporting the differences on cosmological parameters evaluated by the full WMAP likelihood public package. The differences are not only due to the treatment of polarization, but also to the marginalization over monopole and dipole uncertainties present in the WMAP pixel likelihood code for temperature. The credible central value for the cosmological parameters change below the 1? level with respect to the evaluation by the full WMAP 7 year likelihood code, with the largest difference in a shift to smaller values of the scalar spectral index nS.

Finelli, F.; De Rosa, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Paoletti, D.

2013-06-01

101

A Comparison of Electron Density Profiles Derived from the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) Ultraviolet Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectroscopy (HIRAAS) experiment was launched from Vandenberg AFB, CA aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) on 23 February 1999 at 2:29:55 AM Pacific Standard Time. The ARGOS is in a sun synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 843 Km. The HIRAAS experiment contains the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS). The LORAAS gathers limb scans over the 750-100 Km altitude range, covering the 800-1700 Å passband at 17 Å resolution. We report our measurements of the daytime electron density derived by analysis of the O II 834 Å, O I 1356 Å, and O I 911 Å. We present the retrieved electron density profiles inferred from the limb intensities of the ultraviolet emissions and compare them with peak heights and peak densities measured during ionosonde overflights. We find that all three techniques produce accurate electron density profiles as our retrievals are in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements.

Dymond, K. F.; Budzien, S. A.; Thonnard, S. E.; Nicholas, A. C.; McCoy, R. P.; Thomas, R. J.

2001-12-01

102

Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

Gardner, Robin P.; Ai, Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

2011-10-01

103

High-performance current-sensorless drive for PMSM and SynRM with only low-resolution position sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the current-sensorless drive system with only low-resolution position sensor in order to simplify the synchronous motor drive system. The high-performance current vector control can be achieved in the proposed drive system, where the current sensors are eliminated but the simulated currents based on motor model are used for current control. The low-resolution position sensor, which has a

Shigeo Morimoto; Masayuki Sanada; Yoji Takeda

2003-01-01

104

Autopsy consent, brain collection, and standardized neuropathologic assessment of ADNI participants: The essential role of the Neuropathology Core  

PubMed Central

Background Our objectives are to facilitate autopsy consent, brain collection, and perform standardized neuropathologic assessments of all Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants who come to autopsy at the 58 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada. Methods Building on the expertise and resources of the existing Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, a Neuropathology Core (NPC) to serve ADNI was established with one new highly motivated research coordinator. The ADNI-NPC coordinator provides training materials and protocols to assist clinicians at ADNI sites in obtaining voluntary consent for brain autopsy in ADNI participants. Secondly, the ADNI-NPC maintains a central laboratory to provide uniform neuropathologic assessments using the operational criteria for the classification of AD and other pathologies defined by the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center (NACC). Thirdly, the ADNI-NPC maintains a state-of-the-art brain bank of ADNI-derived brain tissue to promote biomarker and multi-disciplinary clinicopathologic studies. Results During the initial year of funding of the ADNI Neuropathology Core, there was notable improvement in the autopsy rate to 44.4%. In the most recent year of funding (September 1st, 2008 to August 31st 2009), our autopsy rate improved to 71.5%. Although the overall numbers to date are small, these data demonstrate that the Neuropathology Core has established the administrative organization with the participating sites to harvest brains from ADNI participants who come to autopsy. Conclusions Within two years of operation, the Neuropathology Core has: (1) implemented a protocol to solicit permission for brain autopsy in ADNI participants at all 58 sites who die and (2) to send appropriate brain tissue from the decedents to the Neuropathology Core for a standardized, uniform, and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. Prior to the establishment of the NPC in September 2007, there were 6 deaths but no autopsies in ADNI participants. Subsequent to the establishment of the Core there have been 17 deaths of ADNI participants and 10 autopsies. Hence, the autopsy rate has gone from 0% to 59%. The third major accomplishment is the detection of co-existent pathologies with AD in the autopsied cases. It is possible that these co-morbidities may contribute to any variance in ADNI data.

Cairns, Nigel J.; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Morris, John C.

2010-01-01

105

Metastatic melanoma to the brain: surgery and radiation is still the standard of care.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma with brain metastases remains a difficult disease to treat. Patients presenting with disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) have a poor prognosis. Treatment depends on a number of factors, including the size and number of lesions, performance status, comorbidities, and presenting symptoms. Physicians and patients must weigh risks and benefits of treatments, with the main goal of palliating symptoms and decreasing the risk of neurological death. Opinions throughout the country vary, but first-line treatment for brain metastases is local therapy involving either craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using CyberKnife or Gamma Knife, with or without whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Clinical trials remain another option for patients, with chemotherapy reserved for patients who have exhausted other options. There has been a recent surge in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of metastatic melanoma leading to recent FDA approval in 2011 of new drugs: ipilimumab, a novel immune therapy, and vemurafenib, which blocks the MAP Kinase pathway. These drugs have the potential to treat patients with metastatic melanoma to the brain but are still undergoing clinical investigation. Despite these recent advances, the prognosis is poor, with few patients able to achieve durable and long-lasting response. Treatment for patients with brain metastases continues to lag behind treatment of other diseases, partly due to their exclusion from early clinical trials. PMID:23504304

Nicholas, Sarah; Mathios, Dimitrios; Jackson, Christopher; Lim, Michael

2013-06-01

106

Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats  

PubMed Central

Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Beatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent

2013-01-01

107

Distinguishing fissions of ^239Pu and ^235U with low-resolution detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ^239Pu and ^235U undergo thermal neutron-induced fission, both produce significant numbers of ?-delayed gamma rays with energies in the several MeV range. Experiments using high energy-resolution germanium detectorsootnotetextR. E. Marrs et al., Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A (in press). have shown that it is possible to distinguish the fission of ^239Pu from that of ^235U. Using differences in the temporal behavior and in the shapes of the gamma-ray energy spectra, we show that these two isotopes can also be differentiated using low-resolution plastic or liquid scintillators. It is likely this method could be extended to homeland security applications, such as screening of cargo containers for ^235U and ^239Pu, using a neutron source and such scintillators.

Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Prussin, S. G.; Shugart, H.; Browne, E.

2008-10-01

108

Using Sensor Noise to Identify Low Resolution Compressed Videos from YouTube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Photo Response Non-Uniformity acts as a digital fingerprint that can be used to identify image sensors. This characteristic has been used in previous research to identify scanners, digital photo cameras and digital video cameras. In this paper we use a wavelet filter from Lukáš et al [1] to extract the PRNU patterns from multiply compressed low resolution video files originating from webcameras after they have been uploaded to YouTube. The video files were recorded with various resolutions, and the resulting video files were encoded with different codecs. Depending on video characteristics (e.g. codec quality settings, recording resolution), it is possible to correctly identify cameras based on these videos.

van Houten, Wiger; Geradts, Zeno

109

Document region classification using low-resolution images: a human visual perception approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of a document region classifier. The regions of a document are classified as large text regions, LTR, and non-LTR. The foundations of the classifier are derived from human visual perception theories. The theories analyzed are texture discrimination based on textons, and perceptual grouping. Based on these theories, the classification task is stated as a texture discrimination problem and is implemented as a preattentive process. Once the foundations of the classifier are defined, engineering techniques are developed to extract features for deciding the class of information contained in the regions. The feature derived from the human visual perception theories is a measurement of periodicity of the blobs of the text regions. This feature is used to design a statistical classifier based on the minimum probability of error criterion to perform the classification of LTR and non-LTR. The method is test on free format low resolution document images achieving 93% of correct recognition.

Chacon Murguia, Mario I.; Jordan, Jay B.

1999-10-01

110

Increasing specificity in a low-resolution ion-mobility spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel methodology has been developed that simultaneously improves sensitivity and specificity of a low-resolution ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) sensor. Wavelet transforms have been applied to IMS spectra in order to de-noise and enhance spectral features. Next, trigger metrics of the spectra were derived using a statistical evaluator (SE) and optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA). The combination of wavelets, SE, and GA has been demonstrated to differentiate between background, analyte, interferent, and a binary mixture of analyte and interferent. This results in an overall increase in resolving power. The new system is less sensitive to false positives due to increased selectivity, shows the ability to yield quantitative data at ultra-low concentrations for low level toxicity, has the ability to detect binary mixtures of compounds, and shows great potential in significantly improving chemical warfare detection capabilities under field conditions.

Fulton, Jack; Griffin, Matthew T.; Gao, Rong; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

2002-06-01

111

Vulcan - A low-resolution spectrophotometer for measuring the integrated colors of galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in fiber optics, holographic gratings, and blue CCD sensitivity have been combined to develop a low-resolution spectrophotometer. Combining the principles of aperture photometry and spectroscopy, this device is designed specifically to measure the light from galaxies with low contrast to the sky brightness (i.e., low surface brightness galaxies). The instrument consists of two large apertures (up to several arcmin) with fast-field lens for imaging the entrance pupil onto a fiber-optics cable. The circular configuration for the input end of the fiber cable is modified to a rectangular slit at the output end. The output is then imaged onto a concave holographic grating producing a spectrum from 3200 A to 7600 A with a resolution of 140 A. The main purpose of this instrument is to obtain narrow-band optical colors for low surface brightness galaxies, which can then be applied to the study of stellar populations in these galaxies. 11 refs.

Rakos, K.D.; Weiss, W.W.; Mueller, S.; Pressberger, R.; Wachtler, P. (Wien Universitaet, Vienna (Austria))

1990-06-01

112

Low-resolution structures of thyroid hormone receptor dimers and tetramers in solution.  

PubMed

High-resolution X-ray structures of thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) DNA and ligand binding domains (DBD and LBD) have yielded significant insights into TR action. Nevertheless, the TR DBD and LBD act in concert to mediate TH effects upon gene expression, and TRs form multiple oligomers; however, structures of full-length TRs or DBD-LBD constructs that would clarify these influences are not available. Here, we report low-resolution X-ray structures of the TRbeta DBD-LBD construct in solution which define the shape of dimers and tetramers and likely positions of the DBDs and LBDs. The holo TRbeta DBD-LBD construct forms a homodimer with LBD-DBD pairs in close contact and DBDs protruding from the base in the same direction. The DBDs are connected to the LBDs by crossed extended D domains. The apo hTRbeta DBD-LBD construct forms tetramers that resemble bulged cylinders with pairs of LBD dimers in a head-to-head arrangement with DBD pairs packed tightly against the LBD core. Overall, there are similarities with our previous low-resolution structures of retinoid X receptors, but TRs exhibit two unique features. First, TR DBDs are closely juxtaposed in the dimer and tetramer forms. Second, TR DBDs are closely packed against LBDs in the tetramer, but not the dimer. These findings suggest that TRs may be able to engage in hitherto unknown interdomain interactions and that the D domain must rearrange in different oligomeric forms. Finally, the data corroborate our suggestion that apo TRs form tetramers in solution which dissociate into dimers upon hormone binding. PMID:17260956

Figueira, Ana Carolina Migliorini; Neto, Mario de Oliveira; Bernardes, Amanda; Dias, Sandra Martha Gomes; Craievich, Aldo F; Baxter, John D; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

2007-02-01

113

A Proposal of New Reference System for the Standard Axial, Sagittal, Coronal Planes of Brain Based on the Serially-Sectioned Images  

PubMed Central

Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radiological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48 bit color and obtained axial, sagittal, and coronal images based on the proposed reference system. This reference system consists of one principal reference point and two ancillary reference points. The two ancillary reference points are the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure. And the principal reference point is the midpoint of two ancillary reference points. It resides in the center of whole brain. From the principal reference point, Cartesian coordinate of x, y, z could be made to be the standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes.

Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyo Seok; Shin, Dong Sun; Har, Dong-Hwan; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Jae-Yong; Chi, Je-Geun

2010-01-01

114

Quantitative tandem mass spectrometric imaging of endogenous acetyl-L-carnitine from piglet brain tissue using an internal standard.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) based mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is increasingly being used as an analytical tool to evaluate the molecular makeup of tissue samples. From the direct analysis of a tissue section, the physical integrity of sample is preserved; thus, spatial information of a compound's distribution may be determined. One limitation of the technique, however, has been the inability to determine the absolute concentration from a tissue sample. Here we report the development of a quantitative MSI technique in which the distribution of acetyl-L-carnitine (AC) in a piglet brain sample is quantified with MALDI MSI. An isotopically labeled internal standard was applied uniformly beneath the tissue section, and wide-isolation tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Normalizing the analyte ion signal by the internal standard ion signal resulted in significant improvements in MS images, signal reproducibility, and calibration curve linearity. From the improved MS images, the concentration of AC was determined and plotted producing a concentration-scaled image of the distribution of AC in the piglet brain section. PMID:21942933

Pirman, David A; Yost, Richard A

2011-10-17

115

Near-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy of Pleiades L-type brown dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The fundamental properties of brown dwarfs evolve with age. Models describing the evolution of luminosities and effective temperatures, among other physical parameters, can be empirically constrained using brown dwarfs of various masses in star clusters of well-determined age and metallicity. Aims: We aim to carry out a spectroscopic and photometric characterization of low-mass brown dwarfs in the ~120 Myr old Pleiades open cluster. Methods: We obtained low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of the J = 17.4-18.8 mag candidate L-type brown dwarfs PLIZ 28 and 35, BRB 17, 21, 23, and 29, which are Pleiades members by photometry and proper motion. We also obtained spectra of the well-known J = 15.4-16.1 mag late M-type cluster members PPl 1, Teide 1, and Calar 3. Results: We find that the first six objects have early- to mid-L spectral types and confirm previously reported M-types for the three other objects. The spectra of the L0-type BRB 17 and PLIZ 28 present a triangular H-band continuum shape, indicating that this peculiar spectral feature persists until at least the age of the Pleiades. We add to our sample 36 reported M5-L0-type cluster members and collect their IC- and UKIDSS ZYJHK-band photometry. We confirm a possible interleaving of the Pleiades and field L-type sequences in the JHK absolute magnitude versus spectral type diagrams, and quantify marginally redder Pleiades J-K colours, by 0.11 ± 0.20 mag, possibly related to both reddening and youth. Using field dwarf bolometric correction - and effective temperature - spectral type relations, we obtain the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the Pleiades sample. Theoretical models reproduce the spectral sequence at M5.5-9, but appear to overestimate the luminosity or underestimate the effective temperature at L0-5. Conclusions: We classify six faint Pleiades brown dwarfs as early to mid L-type objects using low-resolution near-infrared spectra. We compare their properties to field dwarfs and theoretical models and estimate their masses to be in the range 0.025-0.035 M?.

Bihain, G.; Rebolo, R.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Caballero, J. A.

2010-09-01

116

Replica Exchange Improves Sampling in Low-Resolution Docking Stage of RosettaDock  

PubMed Central

Many protein-protein docking protocols are based on a shotgun approach, in which thousands of independent random-start trajectories minimize the rigid-body degrees of freedom. Another strategy is enumerative sampling as used in ZDOCK. Here, we introduce an alternative strategy, ReplicaDock, using a small number of long trajectories of temperature replica exchange. We compare replica exchange sampling as low-resolution stage of RosettaDock with RosettaDock's original shotgun sampling as well as with ZDOCK. A benchmark of 30 complexes starting from structures of the unbound binding partners shows improved performance for ReplicaDock and ZDOCK when compared to shotgun sampling at equal or less computational expense. ReplicaDock and ZDOCK consistently reach lower energies and generate significantly more near-native conformations than shotgun sampling. Accordingly, they both improve typical metrics of prediction quality of complex structures after refinement. Additionally, the refined ReplicaDock ensembles reach significantly lower interface energies and many previously hidden features of the docking energy landscape become visible when ReplicaDock is applied.

Zhang, Zhe; Lange, Oliver F.

2013-01-01

117

Using Sculptor and Situs for simultaneous assembly of atomic components into low-resolution shapes.  

PubMed

We describe an integrated software system called Sculptor that combines visualization capabilities with molecular modeling algorithms for the analysis of multi-scale data sets. Sculptor features extensive special purpose visualization techniques that are based on modern GPU programming and are capable of representing complex molecular assemblies in real-time. The integration of graphics and modeling offers several advantages. The user interface not only eases the usually steep learning curve of pure algorithmic techniques, but it also permits instant analysis and post-processing of results, as well as the integration of results from external software. Here, we implemented an interactive peak-selection strategy that enables the user to explore a preliminary score landscape generated by the colors tool of Situs. The interactive placement of components, one at a time, is advantageous for low-resolution or ambiguously shaped maps, which are sometimes difficult to interpret by the fully automatic peak selection of colors. For the subsequent refinement of the preliminary models resulting from both interactive and automatic peak selection, we have implemented a novel simultaneous multi-body docking in Sculptor and Situs that softly enforces shape complementarities between components using the normalization of the cross-correlation coefficient. The proposed techniques are freely available in Situs version 2.6 and Sculptor version 2.0. PMID:21078392

Birmanns, Stefan; Rusu, Mirabela; Wriggers, Willy

2010-11-13

118

Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream: Identifying Stream Members from Low-resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s-1. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, ?([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

2013-02-01

119

Long-term stability of N1 sources using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of auditory N1 sources using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Data collected from 72 electrodes in ten young adult female participants were analyzed. For each participant, N1 peak amplitude and latency values at Cz (referred to M2) were compared for right, left, and bilateral stimulation across three separate recording sessions. Further, sources calculated by LORETA were analyzed in three regions of interest: right temporal, left temporal, and frontal. Peak amplitude and latency measurements were stable across session and ear of stimulation. Three-way RM-ANOVAs revealed relatively stable source amplitudes and stable three-dimensional locations of the sources in each region of interest with shifts of up to 2 cm around the mean locations. The 2 cm variability may be attributable both to normal hemispheric asymmetries and electrode placement variability. These results suggest that N1 scalp activity and its underlying sources are stable. PMID:16977489

Atcherson, Samuel R; Gould, Herbert Jay; Pousson, Monique A; Prout, Tina M

2006-01-01

120

Phanerozoic paleoclimate simulations: A comparison of the parametric climate model and the low resolution climate model  

SciTech Connect

Computer models are increasingly being used to simulate past climatic conditions. All of these climatic models require, as a necessary boundary condition, a paleogeography that describes the latitudinal configuration of the continents and the distribution of mountains, land, and shallow seas for the time interval being modeled. Slight differences in paleogeography, especially the placement and height of mountains, will give significantly different results. Consequently, when comparing the results of different climate modeling programs it is often difficult to determine whether the differences are model dependent, or whether they are due to different paleogeographies. In this poster session, the authors compare 10 paleoclimatic simulations produced using the Parametric Climate Model (PCM, Scotese and Ross) with results from the Low Resolution Climate Model (LRM, Otto-Bleisner). Both models use the same paleogeographies (PALEOMAP Project), so any disparities in the results can be attributed to different modeling algorithms. The LRM is similar to the Community Climate Model and takes into account the dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of the atmosphere and oceans. The PCM, in contrast, uses parameterized values of temperature and pressure to estimate past climatic conditions. Both simulations illustrate the distribution of high and low pressure cells, prevailing wind directions, relative wetness/dryness, zones of coastal upwelling, and the pole to equator temperature gradient.

Ross, M.I. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology); Scotese, C.R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. (Univ. Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. Geology)

1992-01-01

121

Low-resolution structure of a vesicle disrupting ?-synuclein oligomer that accumulates during fibrillation  

PubMed Central

One of the major hallmarks of Parkinson disease is aggregation of the protein ?-synuclein (?SN). Aggregate cytotoxicity has been linked to an oligomeric species formed at early stages in the aggregation process. Here we follow the fibrillation process of ?SN in solution over time using small angle X-ray scattering and resolve four major coexisting species in the fibrillation process, namely monomer, dimer, fibril and an oligomer. By ab initio modeling to fit the data, we obtain a low-resolution structure of a symmetrical and slender ?SN fibril in solution, consisting of a repeating unit with a maximal distance of 900 ? and a diameter of ?180 ?. The same approach shows the oligomer to be shaped like a wreath, with a central channel and with dimensions corresponding to the width of the fibril. The structure, accumulation and decay of this oligomer is consistent with an on-pathway role for the oligomer in the fibrillation process. We propose an oligomer-driven ?SN fibril formation mechanism, where the fibril is built from the oligomers. The wreath-shaped structure of the oligomer highlights its potential cytotoxicity by simple membrane permeabilization. This is confirmed by the ability of the purified oligomer to disrupt liposomes. Our results provide the first structural description in solution of a potentially cytotoxic oligomer, which accumulates during the fibrillation of ?SN.

Giehm, Lise; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Otzen, Daniel E.; Vestergaard, Bente

2011-01-01

122

Low resolution models of self-assembled histone fibers from X-ray diffraction studies.  

PubMed Central

X-ray diffraction data from self-assembled histone fibers are presented for three systems: H4, H3-H4, and the four core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. These data have been obtained under conditions of high ionic strength and high protein concentration which are thought to promote histone conformation similar to that found in intact chromatin. The low angle equatorial scattering (R less than .05 A-1) is analysed, and, with additional constraints imposed by electron microscopy data, four low resolution fibrillar models are derived. Two features common to all the possible models are a maximum outer diameter of approximately 60 A and a subfibril diameter of approximately 25 A. It is the interference of the protein subfibrils across a central region of low electron density - a 10 A "hole" - which gives rise to the characteristic diffraction peak at 36 A. Possible relationships of the models of the histone fibers to the structure of the histone component of chromatin are suggested. Images

Wachtel, E J; Sperling, R

1979-01-01

123

Gold nanoparticle fluorescent molecular beacon for low-resolution DQ2 gene HLA typing.  

PubMed

Coeliac disease is an inflammation of the small intestine triggered by gluten ingestion. We present a fluorescent genosensor, exploiting molecular-beacon-functionalized gold nanoparticles, for the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 gene, a key genetic factor in coeliac disease. Optimization of sensor performance was achieved by tuning the composition of the oligonucleotide monolayer immobilized on the gold nanoparticle and the molecular beacon design. Co-immobilization of the molecular beacon with a spacing oligonucleotide (thiolated ten-thymine oligonucleotide) in the presence of ten-adenine oligonucleotides resulted in a significant increase of the sensor response owing to improved spacing of the molecular beacons and extension of the distance from the nanoparticle surface, which renders them more available for recognition. Further increase in the response (approximately 40%) was shown to be achievable when the recognition sequence of the molecular beacon was incorporated in the stem. Improvement of the specificity of the molecular beacons was also achieved by the incorporation within their recognition sequence of a one-base mismatch. Finally, gold nanoparticles functionalized with two molecular beacons targeting the DQA1*05* and DQB1*02* alleles allowed the low-resolution typing of the DQ2 gene at the nanomolar level. PMID:22086396

Beni, Valerio; Zewdu, Taye; Joda, Hamdi; Katakis, Ioanis; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

2011-11-16

124

Hemispherical power asymmetries in the WMAP 7-year low-resolution temperature and polarization maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the hemispherical power asymmetry of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7-year low-resolution temperature and polarization maps. We consider two natural estimators for such an asymmetry and exploit our implementation of an optimal angular power spectrum estimator for all the six cosmic microwave background spectra. By scanning the whole sky through a sample of 24 directions, we search for asymmetries in the power spectra of the two hemispheres, comparing the results with Monte Carlo simulations drawn from the WMAP 7-year best-fitting model. Our analysis extends previous results to the polarization sector. The level of asymmetry on the internal linear combination temperature map is found to be compatible with previous results, whereas no significant asymmetry on the polarized spectra is detected. We show that our results are only weakly affected by the a posteriori choice of the maximum multipole considered for the analysis. We also forecast the capability to detect dipole modulation by our methodology at Planck sensitivity.

Paci, F.; Gruppuso, A.; Finelli, F.; De Rosa, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.

2013-10-01

125

A brain-computer interface as input channel for a standard assistive technology software.  

PubMed

Recently brain-computer interface (BCI) control was integrated into the commercial assistive technology product QualiWORLD (QualiLife Inc., Paradiso-Lugano, CH). Usability of the first prototype was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (information transfer rate and subjective workload/NASA Task Load Index) and user satisfaction (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology, QUEST 2.0) by four end-users with severe disabilities. Three assistive technology experts evaluated the device from a third person perspective. The results revealed high performance levels in communication and internet tasks. Users and assistive technology experts were quite satisfied with the device. However, none could imagine using the device in daily life without improvements. Main obstacles were the EEG-cap and low speed. PMID:22208121

Zickler, Claudia; Riccio, Angela; Leotta, Francesco; Hillian-Tress, Sandra; Halder, Sebastian; Holz, Elisa; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Desideri, Lorenzo; Mattia, Donatella; Kübler, Andrea

2011-10-01

126

Temperature evaluation of UF6 and cluster detection in nozzle expansion using low-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous supersonic expansion of pure gaseous UF6 and mixtures of UF6 with argon and nitrogen through a bidimensional nozzle was studied using low-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the Ƚ absorption band region. The experiments were carried out in order to calculate the molecular temperature of the beam and also to verify cluster formation in the expansion. The molecular beam temperature

M. E. Sbampato; L. M. D. Antunes; S. F. Miranda; S. C. Sena; A. M. Santos; P. S. Santos

1998-01-01

127

Expert System for Estimates of Molecular Weights of Volatile Organic Compounds from Low-Resolution Mass Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in a low resolution mass spectrum, has been found to be linearly correlated with the true molecular weights of 400 randomly selected spectra, yielding a family of parellel lines. A simple ...

D. R. Scott

1991-01-01

128

Application of the Reeb Graph Technique to Vehicle Occupant's Head Detection in Low-resolution Range Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (3), a low-resolution range sensor was investigated for an occupant classification system that distinguish per- son from child seats or an empty seat. The optimal deploy- ment of vehicle airbags for maximum protection moreover requires information about the occupant's size and positio n. The detection of occupant's position involves the detectio n and localization of occupant's head. This is

Pandu Ranga Rao Devarakota; Marta Castillo-franco; Romuald Ginhoux; Bruno Mirbach; Björn E. Ottersten

2007-01-01

129

Performance comparison between high and low resolution spectrophotometers used in a white light surface plasmon resonance sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the conclusions of earlier research, the response of a planar substrate white light surface plasmon resonance sensor was simultaneously measured with high resolution (1024 channel) and low resolution (16 channel) spectrophotometers. The sensor’s response to a series of sucrose solutions was calibrated using data from both systems. Multivariate analyses based on principle component regression and locally weighted parametric

Kyle S. Johnston; Karl S. Booksh; Timothy M. Chinowsky; Sinclair S. Yee

1999-01-01

130

A Convenient Low-Resolution NMR Method for the Determination of the Molecular Weight of Soybean Oil-Based Polymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

By studying a series of soybean oil based polymers, using low resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, an easy method to study molecular weight was developed. The relationship between a polymer’s molecular weight and the instrument’s response can be correlated in a linear relations...

131

Argon cluster ion source evaluation on lipid standards and rat brain tissue samples.  

PubMed

Argon cluster ion sources for sputtering and secondary ion mass spectrometry use projectiles consisting of several hundreds of atoms, accelerated to 10-20 keV, and deposit their kinetic energy within the top few nanometers of the surface. For organic materials, the sputtering yield is high removing material to similar depth. Consequently, the exposed new surface is relatively damage free. It has thus been demonstrated on model samples that it is now really possible to perform dual beam depth profiling experiments in organic materials with this new kind of ion source. Here, this possibility has been tested directly on tissue samples, 14 ?m thick rat brain sections, allowing primary ion doses much larger than the so-called static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) limit and demonstrating the possibility to enhance the sensitivity of time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS biological imaging. However, the depth analyses have also shown some variations of the chemical composition as a function of depth, particularly for cholesterol, as well as some possible matrix effects due to the presence or absence of this compound. PMID:23875833

Bich, Claudia; Havelund, Rasmus; Moellers, Rudolf; Touboul, David; Kollmer, Felix; Niehuis, Ewald; Gilmore, Ian S; Brunelle, Alain

2013-08-07

132

HETDEX: Developing the HET's Second Generation Low Resolution Spectrograph for Probing Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HETDEX will map the power spectrum of 0.8 million blindly discovered Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAE) using a revolutionary new array of massively replicated fiber-fed spectrographs dubbed the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). In the era of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade and VIRUS, the current Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) must be replaced with a fiber instrument. We discuss the development of the second generation LRS (LRS2), which is a multi-channel instrument based on the VIRUS design. In its current design phase, it is fed by a 287 fiber microlens coupled integral field unit that covers 7” x 12” with 0.62” resolution. The instrument covers 3720 Å to 4700 Å at R ? 1900 and 4600 Å to 7000 Å at R ?1200. With the purpose of making the instrument ideal for follow-up observations of LAE in the HETDEX survey, we discuss the science drivers for selecting the instrument's spectral resolution. We test the utility of the instrument and pilot a future study with LRS2 by presenting R ? 2000 spectra taken with the VIRUS prototype spectrograph (VIRUS-P) in a high-resolution mode at the McDonald Observatory Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope. These LAE were originally discovered in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and their Lyman-alpha line profiles are constrained by near-infrared observations of rest-frame optical emission lines that set the systemic redshift of the galaxies. We discuss the velocity offsets of the Lyman-alpha line from the systemic line center and compare the line profiles to theoretical predictions and to similar observations for Lyman-break galaxies. Our observations provide an example of how LRS2 can be used to probe Lyman-alpha emission in 2 < z < 3 star forming galaxies.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, G. J.; Lee, H.; Tuttle, S. E.; Vattiat, B. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Adams, J. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

133

Multi-object spectroscopy on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope low-resolution spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low resolution spectrograph (LRS) is the first facility instrument on the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The LRS has three operational modes: imaging, long-slit spectroscopy and multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). We present the design and early operations performance of the LRS MOS unit, which provides 13 slitless, each 1.3 arcsec by 15 arcsec, on 19.6 arcsec centers, within the 4 arcmin field of view of the HET. This type of remotely configurable unit was chosen over the more conventional slit masks due to the queue scheduling of the HET, and the instrument's remote location at the prime focus of the telescope. A restricted envelope around the HET focus at the LRS port forced a very compact design. The MOS unit has miniature mechanisms base don custom cross- roller stages and 0.25 mm pitch lead-screws. Geared stepper motors with 10 mm diameters drive the 13 axes at 0.8 micron per step. The precision of the mechanism is far greater than required by the HET plate scale of 205 microns per arcsec, but result in a robust unit. The slitlets were fabricated at the University of Texas by shadow-masking the slit area with a wire and vacuum depositing aluminum onto the silica substrates. Both sides are then coated with MgF2 which serves as an antireflection coating and a protective layer. Web-based software is available for optimizing the orientation of the MOS unit and the placement of slitlets on objects in the field. These setup scan be down loaded to the unit for configuration outside of the beam while the HET is slewing to its next target in the queue, or while the LRS is used in imaging mode for setup on faint objects. The preliminary results presented here are from one commissioning run with the MOS, where the unit appears to be meeting performance specifications.

Wolf, Marsha J.; Hill, Gary J.; Mitsch, Wolfgang; Hessman, Frederic V.; Altmann, Werner; Thompson, Keith L.

2000-08-01

134

Low resolution spectroscopy of ISOGAL sources: Search for early-type stars with infrared excess  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of low resolution spectra and infrared data of 29 ISOGAL-DENIS sources with mid-IR excess is presented. Eight ISOGAL sources from our sample with 7-15 mu m excesses are found to be B and A-type stars, some of them with emission lines. Two ISOGAL sources, J175614.4-240831 (B3-4IIIe) and J173845.3-312403 (B7IIIe), show a bump between 5000 and 6000 Å which may be attributed to extended red emission (ERE). Some of the B, A and F-type giants with a large infrared excess might be in the post-AGB phase. For about 50% of the sources in this preliminary study, a nearby second (or even multiple) component was found. Such sources, in particular two B-stars, are not discussed when the probability of the optical spectrum being associated with the ISOGAL source is low. These results confirm that the DENIS-ISOGAL I-J/K-[15] diagram is the most suitable diagram to distinguish between early (AB) and late spectral types (KM). It provides the most useful tool to systematically search for nearby early-type stars with an infrared excess among the background of distant AGB stars in ISOGAL fields of the Galactic disk. This is paper No. 9 in a refereed journal based on data from the ISOGAL project. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile (63.L-0319).

Schultheis, M.; Parthasarathy, M.; Omont, A.; Cohen, M.; Ganesh, S.; Sevre, F.; Simon, G.

2002-05-01

135

Implementation of pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive neurons in a standardized atlas of the brain of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae.  

PubMed

The cockroach Leucophaea maderae is an established model in circadian rhythm research. Its circadian clock is located in the accessory medulla of the brain. Pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive (PDF-ir) neurons of the accessory medulla act as circadian pacemakers controlling locomotor activity rhythms. To characterize the neuronal network of the circadian system in L. maderae, the PDF-ir neurons were implemented into a standardized three-dimensional atlas of the cockroach brain. Serial confocal images from 20 wholemount brains were used for the construction of the atlas comprising 21 neuropils. Two different standardization protocols were employed: the iterative shape averaging (ISA) procedure using an affine transformation followed by iterative non-rigid registrations, and the virtual insect brain (VIB) protocol employing local non-rigid transformations after global and local rigid transformations. Quantitative analysis of the 20 brains revealed that volumes of the accessory medulla are directly correlated with the volumes of the medulla, the protocerebral bridge, and the upper division of the central body, suggesting functional connections among these neuropils. For a standardized reconstruction of the circadian pacemaker network, the ISA protocol was used to register PDF-ir neurons in the standard cockroach brain. The registration revealed that two PDF-ir arborization areas in the brain are highly interconnected with other PDF-ir projection sites and appear to be contacted both by fibers in the posterior and the anterior optic commissures. The distances between PDF-ir branching areas show specific numerical relationships that might be physiologically relevant for temporal encoding. PMID:20878779

Wei, Hongying; el Jundi, Basil; Homberg, Uwe; Stengl, Monika

2010-10-15

136

Towards on-chip integration of brain imaging photodetecors using standard CMOS process.  

PubMed

The main effects of on-chip integration on the performance and efficiency of silicon avalanche photodiode (SiAPD) and photodetector front-end is addressed in this paper based on the simulation and fabrication experiments. Two different silicon APDs are fabricated separately and also integrated with a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) front-end using standard CMOS technology. SiAPDs are designed in p+/n-well structure with guard rings realized in different shapes. The TIA front-end has been designed using distributed-gain concept combined with resistive-feedback and common-gate topology to reach low-noise and high gain-bandwidth product (GBW) characteristics. The integrated SiAPDs show higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity and detection efficiency comparing to the separate SiAPDs. The integration does not show a significant effect on the gain and preserves the low power consumption. Using APDs with p-well guard-ring is preferred due to the higher observed efficiency after integration. PMID:24110276

Kamrani, Ehsan; Lesage, Frederic; Sawan, Mohamad

2013-07-01

137

Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) can be estimated using Energy Balance models and remotely sensed data. In particular, satellite images acquired in visible, near and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum have been used with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to estimate actual evapotranspiration. This algorithm is solving the Energy Balance Equation using data from a meteorological station present in the vicinity, and assumes the meteorological conditions homogeneous over the study area. Most often, data from a representative weather station are used. This assumption may lead to substantial errors in areas with high spatial variability in weather parameters. In this paper, the ITA-MyWater algorithms (Integrated Thermodynamic Algorithms for MyWater project), an adaptation of SEBAL was merged together with spatially distributed meteorological data to increase the accuracy of ETa estimations at regional scale using MODIS satellite images. The major changes introduced to migrate from point to raster are that (i) air temperature and relative humidity maps are used for the estimation of the Energy Balance terms, including instantaneous net radiation and soil heat flux and (ii) the variability of wind speed is taken into account to generate maps of the aerodynamic resistance, sensible heat flux and difference between soil and air temperature at the boundary conditions (at dry and wet pixels). The approach was applied in the river basin of Tamega in Portugal, where actual evapotranspiration was estimated for several MODIS 8-day periods from spring to winter of the same year. The raster meteorological maps were produced by the MM5 weather forecast model. Daily reference evapotranspiration was calculated with MOHID LAND model. Using a temporal integration technique and the daily reference evapotranspiration maps, the cumulative evapotranspiration over the MODIS 8-day period was estimated and compared to the global evapotranspiration MODIS product (MOD16A2). A correlation analysis was performed at the common spatial resolution of 1km using selected homogeneous pixels (from the land cover point of view). A statistically significant correlation factor of 0.6 was found, and the RMSE was 0.92 mm/day. Using raster meteorological data the ITA-MyWater algorithms were able to catch the variability of weather patterns over the river basin and thus improved the spatial distribution of evapotranpiration estimations at low resolution. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio

2013-04-01

138

Automated alignment of MRI brain scan by anatomic landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to automate acquisition of MR brain scans to allow consistent alignment of diagnostic images for patient follow-up, and to depict standardized anatomy for all patients. The algorithm takes as input a low-resolution acquisition that depicts the patient position within the scanner. The mid-sagittal plane dividing the brain hemispheres is automatically detected, as are bony landmarks at the front and back of the skull. The orientation and position of a subsequent diagnostic, high resolution scan is then aligned based on these landmarks. The method was tested on 91 data sets, and was completely successful in 93.4% of cases, performed acceptably in 4.4% of cases, and failed for 1.1%. We conclude that the method is suitable for clinical use and should prove valuable for improving consistency of acquisitions.

Zhang, Li; Xu, Qing; Chen, Chong; Novak, Carol L.

2009-02-01

139

An Efficient Low-Resolution NIR Classification Scheme for M, L, and T dwarfs and Its Application to Young BDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results of a programme aimed at defining a low-resolution near-infrared spectral classification scheme for faint M, L, and T-dwarfs. The method is based on the global shape of R˜100 complete near-infrared spectra from 0.8 to 2.4?m as obtained through a high-throughput prism-based optical element, the Amici device, mounted inside the NICS instrument at the TNG 3.5m telescope (Baffa et al. 2001; Oliva 2000). The aim of our project is to provide an efficient classification scheme based on very low-resolution near infrared spectroscopy, which can be carried on at a 4m-class telescope.

Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Baffa, C.; Comoretto, G.; Gennari, S.; Ghinassi, F.; Licandro, J.; Magazzù, A.; Oliva, E.; D'Antona, F.

2003-06-01

140

Assays and screening of alpha contaminated soils using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy of thick soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to estimating concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants (e.g. U, Th, Ra, Pu, Am) in soil samples has been evaluated. The Victoreen Alpha Activity Monitor has been designed to empirically assay soil samples using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy, of thick soil samples. Pre-processing of the soil samples is minimal, involving only drying the soils and milling them to reduce inhomoceneities.

K. E. Meyer; A. C. Lucas; S. Padovan

1995-01-01

141

Utilization of chirp-z transform to improve the performance of target number detection of low resolution radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is difficult to resolve formation flight targets for low resolution radar, several signal processing methods are proposed to solve the problem. All these methods need to first obtain the I\\/Q data of the range gate containing the formation targets. In this paper, chirp-z transform (CZT) is proposed to be used in obtaining peak I\\/Q data of range gate,

Wang Yang; Jin Lin; Liu Zhong

2006-01-01

142

Temperature evaluation of UF6 and cluster detection in nozzle expansion using low-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

6   and mixtures of UF6 with argon and nitrogen through a bidimensional nozzle was studied using low-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the ?3 absorption band region. The experiments were carried out in order to calculate the molecular temperature of the beam and\\u000a also to verify cluster formation in the expansion. The molecular beam temperature evaluation was based on the measurements\\u000a of the

M. E. Sbampato; L. M. D. Antunes; S. F. Miranda; S. C. Sena; A. M. Santos; P. S. Santos

1998-01-01

143

Use of knowledge-based restraints in phenix.refine to improve macromolecular refinement at low resolution  

PubMed Central

Traditional methods for macromolecular refinement often have limited success at low resolution (3.0–3.5?Å or worse), producing models that score poorly on crystallographic and geometric validation criteria. To improve low-resolution refinement, knowledge from macromolecular chemistry and homology was used to add three new coordinate-restraint functions to the refinement program phenix.refine. Firstly, a ‘reference-model’ method uses an identical or homologous higher resolution model to add restraints on torsion angles to the geometric target function. Secondly, automatic restraints for common secondary-structure elements in proteins and nucleic acids were implemented that can help to preserve the secondary-structure geometry, which is often distorted at low resolution. Lastly, we have implemented Ramachandran-based restraints on the backbone torsion angles. In this method, a ?,? term is added to the geometric target function to minimize a modified Ramachandran landscape that smoothly combines favorable peaks identified from non­redundant high-quality data with unfavorable peaks calculated using a clash-based pseudo-energy function. All three methods show improved MolProbity validation statistics, typically complemented by a lowered R free and a decreased gap between R work and R free.

Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Chen, Vincent B.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Adams, Paul D.

2012-01-01

144

On the utility of low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800 A Mg II lines as a stellar chromosphere indicator  

SciTech Connect

Low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800-A Mg II h and k lines is shown to provide a useful means for documenting chromospheric activity among relatively young dwarf stars. An index I(Mg II) has been defined which measures the integrated flux in the region 2784-2814 A relative to the flux interpolated from nearby comparison regions. Values of this index have been derived from low resolution IUE spectra for a sample of field dwarfs for which Ca II H and K line indices have been published as part of the Mount Wilson HK program. The large range in chromospheric activity among field dwarfs that is exhibited by the Mount Wilson Ca II S index is found to also be reflected by the lower resolution I(Mg II) index. Using an age calibration of Ca II emission line strengths derived by Barry, it is found that the value of I(Mg II) can be used to distinguish between dwarfs younger and older than 3 Gyr. The low resolution nature of the I(Mg II) index means that it holds potential for use as an age diagnostic for stellar population studies. Among dwarfs of age greater than 3 Gyr there is some evidence that this Mg II index is affected by line blanketing. 27 refs.

Smith, G.H.; Burstein, D.; Fanelli, M.N.; O'Connell, R.W.; Wu, C.C. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA) Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA) Computer Sciences Corp., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1991-02-01

145

MCM'10: An Experiment for satellite Multispectral Crop Monitoring. From high to low resolution observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a changing climate context, it becomes increasingly important to accurately estimate the physical processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in order to predict climate changes and its impact on ecosystems. Increase of human pressure and changes in land use management contribute to alter water and energy budgets and carbon sequestration in the soils. Therefore, it is essential 1) to work towards a better understanding of the different processes governing water, carbon and energy exchanges between the continental biosphere in anthropised areas and the atmosphere, 2) to monitor land use, vegetation (crop) dynamics, soil and crop management. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the MCM'10 (Multispectral Crop Monitoring) experiment which has been conducted in 2010 (from February to November) by the CESBIO laboratory, in France. This experiment is based on the use of multispectral satellite acquisitions (radar, thermal and optical) and the associated ground measurements performed over about 400 agricultural fields located in the south west of France (43°29'36''N, 1°14'14''E). Optical data are acquired by FORMOSAT-2 and SPOT4-5 satellites. Radar data are provided by SAR sensors onboard TERRASAR-X (X-band), RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band). Thermal data come from the LANDSAT-TM 5 and 7 sensors. Low resolution data have been also collected to further study upscaling and downscaling approaches over a strongly heterogeneous landscape. Analyses of satellite data are performed by comparing them with ground data collected from local to regional scale. At the local scale, 37 fields are systematically monitored for each satellite overpass. Three of them are equipped with meteorological stations (radiations, water and carbon fluxes sensors…). Measures are performed over different soil types (clay, silt, gravels…) and for the main crops encountered in France and Europe (wheat, corn, sunflower, soybean, sorghum…). Soil conditions monitoring consists in measuring the soil surface moisture (SSM) and the soil surface roughness by using respectively a mobile theta probe sensor and a 2m profilometer. For each field, once a week, a mean of 30 SSM values are acquired and 4 roughness profiles are performed (for which correlation length, type of the autocorrelation function and rms height are estimated). For each crops, measurements consist in collecting wet and dry biomass, total water content and its vertical distribution. All these data are collected all along the growing period until harvest. At regional scale, 350 fields are monitored to identify crop species, soil management, soil tillage orientation, crops residues… providing a wide dataset of contrasted surface states. Spatio-temporal behaviours of the backscattering coefficient acquired at different frequency are analysed for different soil and vegetation conditions. First results show that multifrequency radar signal provides a wide range of applications for surface monitoring (see Fieuzal et al., 2012 submitted in this conference). An overview of future applications is given in this presentation in the framework of the following satellite missions: Sentinel and Radarsat-2 constellations, TerraSAR-L… Authors would like to thank especially Space Agencies for their support and confidence they have in this project (ESA, CSA, DLR, JAXA and CNES)

Baup, F.; Fieuzal, R.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Dejoux, J. F.; le Dantec, V.; Mordelet, P.; Claverie, M.; Demarez, V.; Hagolle, O.; Lopes, A.; Keravec, P.; Ceschia, E.; Mialon, A.; Kidd, R.

2012-04-01

146

High-Resolution Iris Image Reconstruction from Low-Resolution Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We investigate the use of a novel multi-lens imaging system in the context of biometric identification, and more specifically, for iris recognition. Multi-lenslet cameras oer a number of significant advantages over standard single-lens camera systems, including thin form-factor and wide angle of view. By using appropriate lenslet spacing relative to the detector pixel pitch, the resulting ensemble of images

R. Barnard; G. Behrmann; J. Chung; J. Gracht; S. Mathews; M. Mirotznik; James Nagy; V. Pauca; R. Plemmons; S. Prasad; T. Torgersen

147

Holographic combination of low-resolution Shack-Hartmann sensor and holography-based modal Zernike wavefront sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linearity and accuracy of holography-based modal wavefront sensing (HMWS) is reduced when large aberrations are present in the incoming wavefront. In this contribution, a combination of HMWS and a low-resolution Shack- Hartmann sensor (LRSHS) is introduced to extend the dynamic range of HMWS via a compact holographic design. The typically dominating low-order modes in the incoming wavefront are first corrected by the LRSHS. The system then switches to HMWS after one or two corrections to obtain better sensor sensitivity and accuracy. First experimental results are shown for validating the method.

Dong, Shihao; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang; Ruppel, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

2012-07-01

148

SAXS-WAXS studies of the low-resolution structure in solution of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and conformation of molecule of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus in solution (at pH 6 and 7.6; with and without the substrate) has been studied by small- and wide-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS-WAXS). On the basis of the SAXS-WAXS data, the low-resolution structure in solution has been reconstructed using ab inito methods. A comparison of the models of glucose isomerase shows only small differences between the model in solution and the crystal structure.

Kozak, Maciej; Taube, Micha?

2009-10-01

149

Low-Resolution Spectroscopy of Hot Post-AGB Candidates II. LS, LSS, LSE Stars and Additional IRAS Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot (OB) post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars are immediate progenitors of planetary nebulae (PNe). Very few hot post-AGB stars are known. Detecting new hot post-AGB candidates and follow-up multiwavelength studies will enable us to further understand the processes during the post-AGB evolution that lead to the formation of PNe. Case-Hamburg OB star surveys and their extension (LS, LSS, and LSE catalogues) and IRAS (point source) catalogues are good sources for detecting new hot post-AGB candidates from low-resolution spectroscopy. Spectral types are determined from low-resolution optical spectra of 44 stars selected from the LS, LSS, and LSE catalogues. Unlike the stars mentioned in the first paper, the stars discussed in this paper were selected using criteria other than positional coincidence with an IRAS source with far-IR (IRAS) colours similar to post-AGB supergiants and planetary nebulae. These included high galactic latitude, spectral types of O, B, A supergiants, emission lines in the spectrum and known spectral peculiarity. From the present study we find that LSS 1179, LSS 1222, LSS 1256, LSS 1276, LSS 1341, LSS 1394, LSS 2241, LSS 2429, LSS 4560, LSE 3, LSE 16, LSE 42, and LSE 67 to be new hot post-AGB candidates. Further studies of these candidates are needed.

Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Drilling, John S.; Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Takeda, Yoichi

2012-06-01

150

Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscoy  

SciTech Connect

In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants``, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 0.1 mrem per year to the maximally exposed individual are considered ``major`` and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method; and 15 were assessed. The most significant,result from this study was the redesignation. of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being ``minor``, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

Barnett, J.M.

1994-07-01

151

Effect of initiation-inhibition and handedness on the patterns of the P50 event-related potential component: a low resolution electromagnetic tomography study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research recognizes the association between handedness, linguistic processes and cerebral networks subserving executive functioning, but the nature of this association remains unclear. Since the P50 event related potential (ERP) is considered to reflect thalamocortical processes in association with working memory (WM) operation the present study focuses on P50 patterns elicited during the performance of a linguistic related executive functioning test in right- and left-handers. Methods In 64 young adults with a high educational level (33 left-handed) the P50 event-related potential was recorded while performing the initiation and inhibition condition of a modified version of the Hayling Sentence Completion test adjusted to induce WM. The manual preference of the participants was evaluated with the use of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Results P50 showed greater amplitudes in left- than in right-handers, mainly in frontal leads, in the initiation condition. Reduced amplitudes in inhibition compared to initiation condition were observed in left-handers. Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) analysis showed lower frontal lobe activation in the inhibition than in the initiation condition in both right- and left-handers. Also, LORETA yielded that right-handers exhibited greater activation in the inhibition condition than left-handers. Additionally, LORETA showed assymetrical hemispheric activation patterns in right-handers, in contrast to symmetrical patterns observed in left-handers. Higher P50 amplitudes were recorded in right-hemisphere of right-handers in the initiation condition. Conclusion Brain activation, especially the one closely related to thalamocortical function, elicited during WM operation involving initiation and inhibition processes appears to be related to handedness.

2009-01-01

152

2004 June Bootids: video images and low-resolution spectra of 7P/Pons-Winnecke debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A predicted encounter with the 1819, 1825, 1830, and 1836 dust ejecta of comet 7P/Pons-Winnecke on 2004 June 23 was observed from California using a low-resolution slit-less spectrograph. Six slow June Bootids of magnitude +0.4 to +2.3 were recorded in the 17 x 13 degree field of view between 07h30m and 12h00m UT, with a noticeable lack of fainter meteors. In addition, two spectra were obtained from meteors just outside the field of view that show strong sodium emission and a weak magnesium line, on top of a faint continuum that lacks air plasma emissions. This report issued shortly after the observations presents preliminary results.

Jenniskens, P.

2004-08-01

153

Limitations of low resolution mass spectrometry in the electron capture negative ionization mode for the analysis of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins.  

PubMed

The analysis of complex mixtures of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) with short (SCCPs, C(10)-C(13)) and medium (MCCPs, C(14)-C(17)) chain lengths can be disturbed by mass overlap, if low resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS) in the electron capture negative ionization mode is employed. This is caused by CP congeners with the same nominal mass, but with five carbon atoms more and two chlorine atoms less; for example C(11)H(17)(37)Cl(35)Cl(6) ( m/ z 395.9) and C(16)H(29)(35)Cl(5) ( m/ z 396.1). This can lead to an overestimation of congener group quantity and/or of total CP concentration. The magnitude of this interference was studied by evaluating the change after mixing a SCCP standard and a MCCP standard 1+1 (S+MCCP mixture) and comparing it to the single standards. A quantification of the less abundant C(16) and C(17) congeners present in the MCCP standard was not possible due to interference from the major C(11) and C(12) congeners in the SCCPs. Also, signals for SCCPs (C(10)-C(12)) with nine and ten chlorine atoms were mimicked by MCCPs (C(15)-C(17)) with seven and eight chlorine atoms (for instance C(10)H(12)Cl(10) by C(15)H(24)Cl(8)). A similar observation was made for signals from C(15)-C(17) CPs with four and five chlorine atoms resulting from SCCPs (C(10)-C(12)) with six and seven chlorine atoms (such as C(15)H(28)Cl(4) by C(10)H(16)Cl(6)) in the S+MCCP mixture. It could be shown that the quantification of the most abundant congeners (C(11)-C(14)) is not affected by any interference. The determination of C(10) and C(15) congeners is partly disturbed, but this can be detected by investigating isotope ratios, retention time ranges and the shapes of the CP signals. Also, lower chlorinated compounds forming [M+Cl](-) as the most abundant ion instead of [M-Cl](-) are especially sensitive to systematic errors caused by superposition of ions of different composition and the same nominal mass. PMID:14997265

Reth, Margot; Oehme, Michael

2004-03-03

154

Effect of a psychoneurotherapy on brain electromagnetic tomography in individuals with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Recent advances in power spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) signals and brain-computer interface (BCI) technology may significantly contribute to the development of psychoneurotherapies. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of a psychoneurotherapy on brain source generators of abnormal EEG activity in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Thirty participants with unipolar MDD were recruited in the community. The proposed psychoneurotherapy was developed based on the relationship between the localization of abnormal EEG activity and depressive symptomatology. Brain electromagnetic abnormalities in MDD were identified with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) and a normative EEG database. Localization of brain changes after treatment was assessed through the standardized version of LORETA (sLORETA). Before treatment, excessive high-beta (18-30 Hz) activity was noted in several brain regions located in the fronto-temporal regions. After treatment, only participants who successfully normalized EEG activity in cortico-limbic/paralimbic regions could be considered in clinical remission. In these regions, significant correlations were found between the percentage of change of depressive symptoms and the percentage of reduction in high-beta activity. These results suggest that the normalization of high-beta activity in cortico-limbic/paralimbic regions can be associated with a significant reduction of depressive symptoms. PMID:19914046

Paquette, Vincent; Beauregard, Mario; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic

2009-11-13

155

Low-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis at its Early Stage of the 2011 Outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our observational results of the recurrent nova T Pyx at its early stage of the 2011 outburst, using a low-resolution spectrograph (R ? 400) attached to a 28 cm telescope. The total number of nights of our observation was 11, among which 9 nights were during the pre-maximum stage. As a result, we obtained a detailed evolutional feature of this recurrent nova on the way to its maximum light. At first, on the earliest three nights (25-21 days before maximum), broad and prominent emission lines, such as Balmer series, He I, He II, N II, N III, and O I together with the P Cyg profile, are seen on the spectra. The blueshifted absorption minima of H? yields a maximum expansion velocity of approximately 2200 km s-1, and the velocity gradually decreases. Then, helium and nitrogen lines are weakened day by day. After that (18 days before maximum light), Fe II (multiplets) lines emerge on the spectra. These lines are then strengthened day by day, and the P Cyg profiles also become more prominent. Accordingly, the expansion velocities turn to gradual increase. In addition, during the pre-maximum stage, the nova spectral type of T Pyx is thought to evolve from the He/N type to the Fe II one.

Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Tanabe, Kenji

2012-12-01

156

Low-resolution FTIR continuous monitoring/process control system to minimize HCl emissions in aluminum casting operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Department of Energy funded project, a low resolution Fourier Transform IR Continuous Emissions Monitoring (FTIR CEM) and Process Control system was developed and evaluated for use in minimizing HCl emissions during aluminum casting operations. In the casting process, molten aluminum is treated by fluxing with chlorine to remove alkali and hydrogen impurities. The industry has traditionally used a stoichiometric excess of chlorine to ensure metal quality, with resulting atmospheric emissions of HCl. The FTIR system can potentially be used to reduce emission when employed as a closed-loop process control device to monitor the HCl concentration and thereby reduce chlorine usage while maintaining product quality. In the initial project phase, tests were conducted under varying process conditions at a pilot-scale casting facility. The goals of these test included demonstrating that the FTIR monitor could provide closed-loop control of chlorine use, correlating HCl emission with metal quality, and verifying that the instrumentation could operate under harsh casting facility conditions. The system will subsequently be tested at two aluminum production facilities. This paper summarizes the results from the initial evaluation of the FTIR CEM/Process Control system.

Dunder, Thomas A.

1999-12-01

157

A method of discriminating transuranic radionuclides from radon progeny using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy and curve-fitting techniques.  

PubMed

²²²Rn (radon) and ²²?Rn (thoron) progeny are known to interfere with determining the presence of long-lived transuranic radionuclides, such as plutonium and americium, and require from several hours up to several days for conclusive results. Methods are proposed that should expedite the analysis of air samples for determining the amount of transuranic radionuclides present using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy systems available from typical alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) with multi-channel analyzer (MCA) capabilities. An alpha spectra simulation program was developed in Microsoft Excel visual basic that employed the use of Monte Carlo numerical methods and serial-decay differential equations that resembled actual spectra. Transuranic radionuclides were able to be quantified with statistical certainty by applying peak fitting equations using the method of least squares. Initial favorable results were achieved when samples containing radon progeny were decayed 15 to 30 min, and samples containing both radon and thoron progeny were decayed at least 60 min. The effort indicates that timely decisions can be made when determining transuranic activity using available alpha CAMs with alpha spectroscopy capabilities for counting retrospective air samples if accompanied by analyses that consider the characteristics of serial decay. PMID:22470000

Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

2012-05-01

158

Expression, Purification and Low-Resolution Structure of Human Vitamin C Transporter SVCT1 (SLC23A1).  

PubMed

Expression and purification of human membrane proteins for structural studies represent a great challenge. This is because micro- to milligram amounts of pure isolated protein are required. To this aim, we successfully expressed the human vitamin C transporter-1 (hSVCT1; SLC23A1) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and isolated highly pure protein in microgram amounts. Recombinant hSVCT1 was functional when expressed in oocytes and glycosylated. Structural analysis of purified hSVCT1 by transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis unveiled its shape, dimensions and low-resolution structure as well as the existence of a major monomeric and minor dimeric population. Chemical crosslinking of isolated oocyte membranes containing expressed hSVCT1 indicated similar oligomeric states of hSVCT1 in lipid bilayers. This work reports the first purification and structural analysis of a human SVCT protein and opens the way for future functional and structural studies using purified hSVCT1. PMID:24124560

Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Harder, Daniel; Schneider, Philipp; Ucurum, Zöhre; Hediger, Matthias; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

2013-10-04

159

Expression, Purification and Low-Resolution Structure of Human Vitamin C Transporter SVCT1 (SLC23A1)  

PubMed Central

Expression and purification of human membrane proteins for structural studies represent a great challenge. This is because micro- to milligram amounts of pure isolated protein are required. To this aim, we successfully expressed the human vitamin C transporter-1 (hSVCT1; SLC23A1) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and isolated highly pure protein in microgram amounts. Recombinant hSVCT1 was functional when expressed in oocytes and glycosylated. Structural analysis of purified hSVCT1 by transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis unveiled its shape, dimensions and low-resolution structure as well as the existence of a major monomeric and minor dimeric population. Chemical crosslinking of isolated oocyte membranes containing expressed hSVCT1 indicated similar oligomeric states of hSVCT1 in lipid bilayers. This work reports the first purification and structural analysis of a human SVCT protein and opens the way for future functional and structural studies using purified hSVCT1.

Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Harder, Daniel; Schneider, Philipp; Ucurum, Zohre; Hediger, Matthias; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

160

Limitations of low resolution mass spectrometry in the electron capture negative ionization mode for the analysis of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of complex mixtures of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) with short (SCCPs, C 10–C 13) and medium (MCCPs, C 14–C 17) chain lengths can be disturbed by mass overlap, if low resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS) in the electron capture negative ionization mode is employed. This is caused by CP congeners with the same nominal mass, but with five carbon atoms

Margot Reth; Michael Oehme

2004-01-01

161

Simulation of ENSO-like phenomena with a low-resolution coupled GCM of the global ocean and atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A 140-year simulation of the ocean-atmosphere climate system has been performed by the GFDL Climate Dynamics Project using a low-resolution coupled general circulation model (GCM). The model was subjected to annually averaged insolation throughout the integration. This coupled system exhibits well-defined fluctuations in the tropical Pacific, with a preferred time scale of 3-4 years. The characteristics of these recurrent anomalies were examined by applying an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis to selected model variables. These results indicate that the simulated oscillations are accompanied by coherent changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. The spatial patterns associated with the leading EEOF mode indicate that SST anomalies make their first appearance off the Peru-Ecuador coast and then migrate steadily westward, with an average transit time of 12-15 months. The arrival and eventual decay of SST fluctuations in the western Pacific is typically followed by the initiation of anomalies of the opposite polarity along the American coasts. The space-time evolution of various meteorological and oceanographic signals exhibits well-defined phase relationships with the SST perturbations. Some aspects of the model behavior during these warm and cold episodes are reminiscent of observed phenomena associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Analysis of the climatological heat budget for the top ocean layer indicates a near balance between horizontal and vertical temperature advection by the time-mean flow, vertical diffusion, and heat input from the overlying atmosphere. The principal mechanisms associated with the simulated ENSO-like cycles were then studied by examining the local heat budget for the SST perturbations. The relative importance of various linear advective processes in the heat budget exhibits a notable dependence on geographical location and on the specific phase of the ENSO-like cycle.

Lau, Ngarcheung; Philander, S.G.H.; Nath, M.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

1992-04-01

162

Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, ?CaMKII, p-?CaMKII, and PSD-95. PMID:22715050

Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2012-06-20

163

Structural characterization and low-resolution model of BJ-48, a thrombin-like enzyme from Bothrops jararacussu venom.  

PubMed

Thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs) are important components of snake venoms due to their involvement in coagulopathies occurring on envenoming. Structural characterization of this group of serine proteases is of utmost importance for better understanding their unique properties. However, the high carbohydrate content of some members of this group prevents successful crystallization for structural determination. Circumventing this difficulty, the structure of BJ-48, a highly glycosylated TLE from Bothrops jararacussu venom, was studied in solution. At pH 8.0, where the enzyme displays maximum activity, BJ-48 has a radius of gyration (Rg) of 37 A and a maximum dimension (D(max)) of 130 A as measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and a Stokes radius (SR) of 50 A according to dynamic light scattering (DLS) data. At the naturally more acidic pH (6.0) of the B. jararacussu venom BJ-48 behaves as a more compact particle as evidenced by SAXS (R(g)=27.9 A and D(max)=82 A) and DLS (SR=30 A) data. In addition, Kratky plot analysis indicates a rigid shape at pH 8.0 and a flexible shape at pH 6.0. On the other hand, the center of mass of intrinsic fluorescence was not changed while varying pH, possibly indicating the absence of fluorescent amino acids in the regions affected by pH variation. Circular dichroism experiments carried out with BJ-48 indicate a substantially random coiled secondary structure that is not affected by pH. Low-resolution model of BJ-48 presented a prolate elongated shape at pH 8.0 and a U-shape at 6.0. BJ-48 tertiary structure at pH 6.0 was maintained on heating up to 52 degrees C and was completely lost at 75 degrees C. The possible existence of two pH-induced folding states for BJ-48 and its importance for the biological role and stability of this enzyme was discussed. PMID:18069115

Guedes, Herbert L M; Silva, Floriano P; Netto, Carlos Correa; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Alexandre, Giani; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Torriani, Iris; De Simone, Salvatore Giovanni

2007-11-17

164

Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Possible Role in Posttraumatic Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Recent animal experiments indicate a critical role for opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). This study aimed to investigate the frequency, extent, and functional correlates of BBB disruption in epileptic patients following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-seven TBI patients were included in this study, 19 of whom suffered from PTE. All underwent electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and brain magnetic resonance imaging (bMRI). bMRIs were evaluated for BBB disruption using novel quantitative techniques. Cortical dysfunction was localized using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). TBI patients displayed significant EEG slowing compared to controls with no significant differences between PTE and nonepileptic patients. BBB disruption was found in 82.4% of PTE compared to 25% of non-epileptic patients (P = .001) and could be observed even years following the trauma. The volume of cerebral cortex with BBB disruption was significantly larger in PTE patients (P = .001). Slow wave EEG activity was localized to the same region of BBB disruption in 70% of patients and correlated to the volume of BBB disrupted cortex. We finally present a patient suffering from early cortical dysfunction and BBB breakdown with a gradual and parallel resolution of both pathologies. Our findings demonstrate that BBB pathology is frequently found following mild TBI. Lasting BBB breakdown is found with increased frequency and extent in PTE patients. Based on recent animal studies and the colocalization found between the region of disrupted BBB and abnormal EEG activity, we suggest a role for a vascular lesion in the pathogenesis of PTE.

Tomkins, Oren; Feintuch, Akiva; Benifla, Moni; Cohen, Avi; Friedman, Alon; Shelef, Ilan

2011-01-01

165

Prefrontal direct current stimulation modulates resting EEG and event-related potentials in healthy subjects: A standardized low resolution tomography (sLORETA) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the anode placed on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been reported to enhance working memory in healthy subjects and to improve mood in major depression. However, its putative antidepressant, cognitive and behavior action is not well understood. Here, we evaluated the distribution of neuronal electrical activity changes after anodal tDCS of

D. Keeser; F. Padberg; E. Reisinger; O. Pogarell; V. Kirsch; U. Palm; S. Karch; H.-J. Möller; M. A. Nitsche; C. Mulert

2011-01-01

166

The use of EEG modifications due to motor imagery for brain-computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening of a communication channel between brain and computer [brain-computer interface (BCI)] is possible by using changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra related to the imagination of movements. In this paper, we present results obtained by recording EEG during an upper limb motor imagery task in a total of 18 subjects by using low-resolution surface Laplacian, different linear and

Febo Cincotti; Donatella Mattia; Claudio Babiloni; Filippo Carducci; Serenella Salinari; Luigi Bianchi; Maria Grazia Marciani; Fabio Babiloni

2003-01-01

167

Comparison of sensitivity between gas chromatography–low-resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry for determining metandienone metabolites in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In doping control laboratories the misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is commonly investigated in urine by gas chromatography–low-resolution mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC–LRMS–SIM). By using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detection sensitivity is improved due to reduction of biological background. In our study HRMS and LRMS methods were compared to each other. Two different sets were measured both with

Juha Kokkonen; Antti Leinonen; Jari Tuominen; Timo Seppälä

1999-01-01

168

Comparative analysis of dioxins and furans by electron impact, high-resolution mass spectrometry and by electron capture, negative ionization, low-resolution mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron impact, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is currently the method of choice for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenso-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/F) because of its ability to detect PCDD\\/F in the presence of interfering compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which cannot be resolved by low resolution methods. The PDCC\\/F analyses may also be performed using electron capture, negative ionization

C. J. Koester; R. L. Harless; R. A. Hites

1990-01-01

169

IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA  

SciTech Connect

Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

Getman, Daniel J [ORNL

2008-01-01

170

Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g(-1). Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl](-) ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g(-1) to 289.3 ng g(-1). C(10)- and C(11)-PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples. PMID:21889633

Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Qing; Tian, Yuzeng; Qi, Peipei; Yu, Zhengkun

2011-08-03

171

Low resolution limits and inaccurate algorithms decrease significantly the value of late loss in current drug-eluting stent trials.  

PubMed

Quantitative coronary and vascular angiography (QCA resp., QVA) remains the current gold standard for evaluation of restenosis. Late loss as one of the most commonly accepted parameters to highlight efficacy of the various devices has shown high correlation to clinical parameters but, surprisingly, has no impact on the evaluation of the remaining amount of restenostic tissue. The current clinical practice leads to unrealistic late loss calculations. Smaller late loss differences are usually not greater than the inherited resolution limits of QCA, which is especially the case in small differences between the various stents in the drug-eluting stent era. Late loss include additional systematic and random errors, due to the fact that measurements were taken at two different time points including the inherited resolution and calibration limits of QCA on two occasions. Due to the limited value of late loss in discriminating the small differences between the one and other DES, late lumen area loss and clearly defined calculation algorithms (e.g., MLD-relocation) should be used in future DES studies also to fulfill the more stringent regulatory requirements. PMID:22489271

Dahm, Johannes B; van Buuren, Frank

2012-03-20

172

The impact of an envelope orography on low-frequency variability and blocking in a low-resolution general circulation model  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity experiments with a perpetual January version of a low-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are conducted to investigate the influence of different, nonzero specifications of orography on low-frequency variability (LFV) and blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. Two 1200-day integrations are compared to examine the impact of an enhanced {open_quotes}envelope{close_quotes} orography. An ensemble of eight independent 90-day realizations is extracted from each simulation. Distributions of ensemble-mean statistics for the two simulations are presented along with estimates of the statistical significance of the differences. The use of an envelope orography leads to significant changes in the distribution of the LFV (periods 10-90 days) over the Northern Hemisphere. When the LFV is partitioned into contributions from intramonthly (10-30-day periods) and intermonthly (30-90-day periods) fluctuations, it is found that the envelope orography significantly alters the distributions of intramonthly scale variability over the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of envelope orography on blocking, as measured by an objective criterion, is then examined. Significant changes in its spatial distribution are found over the North Atlantic but not in the total number of blocking days occurring anywhere within the Atlantic basin. The changes in blocking distribution over the North Atlantic make the model`s climatology more consistent with observations. The GCM results are interpreted in light of results from simple modeling studies. Based on this comparison, it is hypothesized that the changes in LFV and blocking over the North Atlantic are a response to differences in the orographic forcing downstream of the Rocky Mountains. It is concluded that a modest change in the representation of orography can significantly affect local distributions of intramonthly variability and blocking in a low-resolution GCM. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Mullen, S.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1994-12-01

173

Brain activity of regular and dyslexic readers while reading Hebrew as compared to English sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine differences among ‘regular’ and dyslexic adult bilingual readers when processing reading and reading related skills in their first (L1 Hebrew) and second (L2 English) languages. Brain activity during reading Hebrew and English unexpected sentence endings was also studied. Behavioral and electrophysiological measures including event-related potentials (ERP) and low resolution electromagnetic tomography

Zvia Breznitz; Revital Oren; Shelley Shaul

2004-01-01

174

A standardized chinese herbal decoction, kai-xin-san, restores decreased levels of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in the brain of chronic stress-induced depressive rats.  

PubMed

Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

2012-08-29

175

Structural basis of ?-catenin recognition by EspB from enterohaemorrhagic E. coli based on hybrid strategy using low-resolution structural and protein dissection.  

PubMed

Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) induces actin reorganization of host cells by injecting various effectors into host cytosol through type III secretion systems. EspB is the natively partially folded EHEC effector which binds to host ?-catenin to promote the actin bundling. However, its structural basis is poorly understood. Here, we characterize the overall structural properties of EspB based on low-resolution structural data in conjunction with protein dissection strategy. EspB showed a unique thermal response involving cold denaturation in the presence of denaturant according to far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Small angle X-ray scattering revealed the formation of a highly extended structure of EspB comparable to the ideal random coil. Various disorder predictions as well as CD spectra of EspB fragments identified the presence of ?-helical structures around G41 to Q70. The fragment corresponding to this region indicated the thermal response similar to EspB. Moreover, this fragment showed a high affinity to C-terminal vinculin homology domain of ?-catenin. The results clarified the importance of preformed ?-helix of EspB for recognition of ?-catenin. PMID:23967227

Hamaguchi, Mitsuhide; Kamikubo, Hironari; Suzuki, Kayo N; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Itaru; Sakata, Ikuhiro; Kataoka, Mikio; Hamada, Daizo

2013-08-14

176

Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

2011-06-01

177

Immunofluorescent staining of trypsinized formalin-fixed brain smears for rabies antigen: results compared with those obtained by standard methods for 221 suspect animal cases in Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

Formalin-fixed samples from 221 animal brains received for rabies diagnosis in Nigeria were digested in 0.1% trypsin in phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4, and smears stained for rabies antigen by direct immunofluorescence (IF). The results were compared with those obtained using fresh material from the same animals for Negri body staining, mouse inoculation (MI) and occasionally immunofluorescent staining. From 191 specimens examined for Negri bodies and by mouse inoculation 51 and 64 respectively proved positive. The IF smear technique under investigation failed to detect 5 of these but showed up as positive 30 which had been recorded as Negri-negative and 19 that had gone undetected by MI too. In a direct comparison with IF staining of fresh tissue from 23 known rabies positive animals the similar staining of trypsin-digested formalized smears failed to give a positive result in 2 out of 23 cases. Some problems were encountered with smears not sticking to slides. When gelatinized slides were used fluorescence was sometimes poorer. Where transport and refrigeration are difficult and section-cutting equipment is lacking the technique of IF staining of smears prepared from formalized brain tissue after treatment with trypsin can be a useful adjunct to other diagnostic methods. It also makes for safer working where special facilities are absent.

Umoh, J. U.; Ezeokoli, C. D.; Okoh, A. E.

1985-01-01

178

Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities  

PubMed Central

Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22–45 years in age) performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 s respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and somatosensory association cortex (SAC). ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres. The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and, PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC, and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80%) are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC, and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

Abeln, Vera; Harig, Alexandra; Knicker, Axel; Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan

2013-01-01

179

Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities.  

PubMed

Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22-45 years in age) performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 s respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and somatosensory association cortex (SAC). ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres. The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and, PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC, and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80%) are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC, and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed. PMID:24151468

Abeln, Vera; Harig, Alexandra; Knicker, Axel; Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan

2013-10-18

180

Practice parameter: Anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview. The Quality Standards Subcommittee seeks to develop scientifically sound, clinically relevant practice parameters for the practice of neurology. Practice parameters are strategies for patient management that assist physicians in clinical decision making. A practice parameter is one or more specific recommendations based on analysis of evidence on a specific clinical problem. These might include diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, or procedure

M. J. Glantz; B. F. Cole; P. A. Forsyth; L. D. Recht; P. Y. Wen; M. C. Chamberlain; S. A. Grossman; J. G. Cairncross

181

Design and construction progress of LRS2-B: a new low resolution integral-field spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) has ushered in a new era of instrumentation for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Here, we present the design, construction progress, and lab tests completed to date of the blue-optimized second generation Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2-B). LRS2-B is a dual-channel, fiber fed instrument that is based on the design of the Visible Integral Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), which is the new flagship instrument for carrying out the HET Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX). LRS2-B utilizes a microlens-coupled integral field unit (IFU) that covers a 7"x12" area on the sky having unity fill-factor with ~300 spatial elements that subsample the median HET image quality. The fiber feed assembly includes an optimized dichroic beam splitter that allows LRS2-B to simultaneously observe 370

Chonis, Taylor S.; Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2012-09-01

182

David Ferrier: Brain drawings and brain maps.  

PubMed

This chapter has two emphases, one is about the men who influenced the visual representations that David Ferrier (1843-1928) used to illustrate his work on localization of brain functions during the years 1873-1875, namely, Alexander Ecker, John C. Galton, and Ernest Waterlow, and the other is about the nature of medical representations and of Ferrier's illustrations in particular. Medical illustrations are characterized either as pictures, line drawings, or brain maps. Ferrier's illustrations will be shown to be increasingly sophisticated brain maps that contrast with early nineteenth-century standards of medical illustrations, as exemplified by John Bell (1763-1829). PMID:24041278

Lazar, J Wayne

2013-01-01

183

Improved quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopy using a standard 3 inch NaI detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the application of maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) techniques to the deconvolution of low-resolution gamma-ray spectra have demonstrated a substantial improvement in both the energy-resolution and sensitivity achievable with the industry-standard 3\\

L. J. Meng; D. Ramsden

2000-01-01

184

Alteration of Cortical Functional Connectivity as a Result of Traumatic Brain Injury Revealed by Graph Theory, ICA, and sLORETA Analyses of EEG Signals  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a novel approach to examine the cortical functional connectivity using multichannel electroen-cephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. First we utilized independent component analysis (ICA) to transform multichannel EEG recordings into independent processes and then applied source reconstruction algorithm [i.e., standardize low resolution brain electromagnetic (sLORETA)] to identify the cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Second, we performed a graph theory analysis of the bipartite network composite of ROIs and independent processes to assess the connectivity between ROIs. We applied this proposed algorithm and compared the functional connectivity network properties under resting state condition using 29 student-athletes prior to and shortly after sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The major findings of interest are the following. There was 1) alterations in vertex degree at frontal and occipital regions in subjects suffering from MTBI, (p < 0.05); 2) a significant decrease in the long-distance connectivity and significant increase in the short-distance connectivity as a result of MTBI, (p < 0.05); 3) a departure from small-world network configuration in MTBI subjects. These major findings are discussed in relation to current debates regarding the brain functional connectivity within and between local and distal regions both in normal controls in pathological subjects.

Cao, C.; Slobounov, S.

2010-01-01

185

Alteration of cortical functional connectivity as a result of traumatic brain injury revealed by graph theory, ICA, and sLORETA analyses of EEG signals.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel approach to examine the cortical functional connectivity using multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. First we utilized independent component analysis (ICA) to transform multichannel EEG recordings into independent processes and then applied source reconstruction algorithm [i.e., standardize low resolution brain electromagnetic (sLORETA)] to identify the cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Second, we performed a graph theory analysis of the bipartite network composite of ROIs and independent processes to assess the connectivity between ROIs. We applied this proposed algorithm and compared the functional connectivity network properties under resting state condition using 29 student-athletes prior to and shortly after sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). The major findings of interest are the following. There was 1) alterations in vertex degree at frontal and occipital regions in subjects suffering from MTBI, ( p < 0.05); 2) a significant decrease in the long-distance connectivity and significant increase in the short-distance connectivity as a result of MTBI, ( p < 0.05); 3) a departure from small-world network configuration in MTBI subjects. These major findings are discussed in relation to current debates regarding the brain functional connectivity within and between local and distal regions both in normal controls in pathological subjects. PMID:20064767

Cao, C; Slobounov, S

2009-07-17

186

Validity of the CogState brief battery: relationship to standardized tests and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex.  

PubMed

This study examined the validity of the four standard psychological paradigms that have been operationally defined within the CogState brief computerized cognitive assessment battery. Construct validity was determined in a large group of healthy adults. CogState measures of processing speed, attention, working memory, and learning showed strong correlations with conventional neuropsychological measures of these same constructs (r's = .49 to .83). Criterion validity was determined by examining patterns of performance on the CogState tasks in groups of individuals with mild head injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex. Each of these groups was impaired on the CogState performance measures (Cohen's d's = -.60 to -1.80) and the magnitude and nature of this impairment was qualitatively and quantitatively similar in each group. Taken together, the results suggest that the cognitive paradigms operationally defined in the CogState brief battery have acceptable construct and criterion validity in a neuropsychological context. PMID:19395350

Maruff, Paul; Thomas, Elizabeth; Cysique, Lucette; Brew, Bruce; Collie, Alex; Snyder, Peter; Pietrzak, Robert H

2009-03-25

187

Brain Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

188

Management of brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Brain metastases occur in 20–40 % of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time. Lung, breast and skin\\u000a (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15 % of patients the primary site remains unknown.\\u000a After the introduction of MRI, multiple lesions have outnumbered single lesions. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard

Riccardo Soffietti; Roberta Rud?; Roberto Mutani

2002-01-01

189

Brain renin angiotensin in disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) and its role in cardiovascular control and fluid homeostasis was at first controversial.\\u000a This was because a circulating kidney-derived renin angiotensin system was so similar and well established. But, the pursuit\\u000a of brain RAS has proven to be correct. In the course of accepting brain RAS, high standards of proof attracted state of the

M. Ian Phillips; Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira

2008-01-01

190

Update on brain tumor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain tumor imaging has evolved from a strictly morphologybased discipline to one that encompasses function, physiology, and\\u000a anatomy, enabled by advances in imaging and computer technology. This review outlines the current imaging standard for patients\\u000a with brain tumors and summarizes the latest advances in physiology-based imaging methods that complement traditional brain\\u000a tumor imaging protocol. Emphasis is placed on the strengths

Soonmee Cha

2005-01-01

191

Express - Standard. Quality - Standardization - Metrology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The articles contained in this translation cover Russian research on standards and standardization in science and technology. This document was received pursuant to a joint U.S. - USSR program to exchange standards information. The articles deal with indu...

1977-01-01

192

Express - Standard. Quality - Standardization - Metrology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The articles contained in this translation cover Russian research on standards and standardization in science and technology. This document was received pursuant to a joint U.S. - USSR program to exchange standards information. The articles deal with phot...

1977-01-01

193

The role of the eyes in processing an intact face and its scrambled image: a dense array ERP and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test whether the eyes of an intact face produced a specific brain response compared to the mouth, nose, or hair and whether their specificity was also maintained in a scrambled face. Fifteen subjects were asked to focus visual attention on global and single elements in intact faces and in their scrambled image. EEG data were recorded from 256-Hydrocel Geodesic Sensor-Net200. Event-related potentials (ERPs) analyses showed a difference between the intact face and the scrambled face from N170 component until 600 ms on the occipito-temporal montage and at 400-600 ms on the frontal montage. Only the eyes showed a difference between conditions (intact/scrambled face) at 500 ms. The most activated source detected by sLORETA was the right middle temporal gyrus (BA21) for both conditions and for all elements. Left BA21 resulted in significantly more activation in response to eyes in the intact face compared to the eyes in the scrambled face at 500 ms. The left BA21 has a central role in high-level visual processing and in understanding others' intentions. These findings suggest a specificity of the eyes and indicate that the eyes play the social and communicative role of comprehending the nonverbal intentions of others only when inserted in an intact face. PMID:23706064

Cecchini, Marco; Aceto, Paola; Altavilla, Daniela; Palumbo, Letizia; Lai, Carlo

2013-05-24

194

Brain Abscess  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV by not having sex or practicing safe sex. Treatment Treatment of a brain abscess typically requires a two-pronged approach: Treating ... thebrainmatters.org/ 9397, 31073, 31158, brain ... resonance imaging,mri,muscle weakness,nausea,sex

195

Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brains parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

2007-12-12

196

Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

197

Brain Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)|

Albrecht, Karl

2002-01-01

198

Brain Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

199

Brain Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

200

The Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)|

Hubel, David H.

1979-01-01

201

Brain abscess.  

PubMed

A brain abscess is defined as a localized collection of pus within the parenchyma of the brain or meninges. Brain abscesses are a complication of ear, sinus, and/or dental infections. Although they may occur in many brain locations, the most common sites are frontal and temporal lobes. Modern neuroimaging and laboratory analysis have led to prompt diagnosis and have decreased the mortality rates from brain abscess. Critical care nurses have a vital role in performing accurate neurologic assessments, timely administration of antibiotics, and management of fever. PMID:23981454

Slazinski, Tess

2013-06-05

202

Science Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has created a Web site that offers English translations of the academic standards of Asian countries. This is a good way to compare U.S. science standards to Asian and Asia Pacific countries. Science standards are typically organized into three content areas: Earth and space sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. Standards may also develop desired abilities or performance skill strands such as conceptual understanding, theorizing and analyzing, solving problems, communicating, and using tools, processes and procedures. This site allows for comparison of science standards between Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and the United States.

2009-08-13

203

The Brains Behind the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student…

D'Arcangelo, Marcia

1998-01-01

204

Diurnal Alterations of Brain Electrical Activity in Healthy Adults: A LORETA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

EEG background activity was investigated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to test the diurnal alterations\\u000a of brain electrical activity in healthy adults. Fourteen right-handed healthy male postgraduate medical students were examined\\u000a four times (8 a.m., 2 p.m., 8 p.m. and next day 2 p.m.). LORETA was computed to localize generators of EEG frequency components.\\u000a Comparing the EEG activity between 2 p.m. and 8 a.m.,

Marton Toth; Attila Kiss; Peter Kosztolanyi; Istvan Kondakor

2007-01-01

205

Effects of spatial transformation on regional brain volume estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial transformation of MR brain images is a standard tool used in automated anatomical parcellation and other quantitative and qualitative methods to assess brain tissue volume, composition, and distribution. Despite widespread use, the quantitative effects of spatial transformation on regional brain volume estimates have been little studied. We report on the effects of transformation on regional brain volumes of 38

John S. Allen; Joel Bruss; Sonya Mehta; Thomas Grabowski; C. Kice Brown; Hanna Damasio

2008-01-01

206

Brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images

Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

1991-01-01

207

Brain Week!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

2005-05-01

208

(Terminology standardization)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods.

Strehlow

1990-01-01

209

Telemetry Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Telemetry Standards have taken on a new look effective with this release. The IRIG-106 is now published in two parts. Part I contains the more familiar information and standards that have been evolved over the years. Part II is a totally new entity. T...

2001-01-01

210

Standard Scores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chapter, the authors will discuss the following types of standard scores: percentile ranks , z-scores , and T-scores . All are based on concepts--such as the mean, the normal distribution, and the standard deviation--already

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

211

Training Standardization  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

Agnihotri, Newal

2003-09-01

212

North Dakota Dance Content Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dance should be seen as an authentic avenue for allowing students to learn kinesthetically by using movement that is essential to brain development. Ideally students would be exposed to dance forms and patterns in other art forms like music and drama as well as units within physical education classes. These North Dakota standards may be taught…

Anderson, Sue; Farrell, Renee; Robbins, Susan; Simonson, Paula; Stanley, Melissa

213

Comparing Brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some animals have larger brains than others, but it is not yet known why. Species differences in life-style, including dietary habits and patterns of development of the young, are associated with variation in brain weight, independently of the effects of body weight and evolutionary history. Taken together with behavioral and neuroanatomical analyses, these studies begin to suggest the evolutionary pressures

Paul H. Harvey; John R. Krebs

1990-01-01

214

[Neuroimaging in brain tumors].  

PubMed

Advances in neuroimaging have modified diagnosis, treatment and clinical management of brain tumors. However, neuropathological study remains necessary in order to get the best clinical management. Surgery and radiotherapy planning are imaging-dependent procedures, and MRI is the standard imaging modality for determining precisely tumor location and its anatomical relationship with surrounding brain structures. In high-grade tumors it has been accepted that tumoral areas with contrast uptake in CT, or T1-weighted MRI contrast enhancement corresponds to solid tumor. However, relationship between MRI and invasive tumor areas remains less defined. Therefore, it is generally accepted that conventional MRI is not sufficient to delineate the real extension of brain tumors. In recent years, PET using 18FDG and amino acid radiotracers ((11)C-Methionine, (18)FDOPA, (18)FET) and SPECT with (201-)Thallium, as well as advanced MRI sequences (Perfusion, Diffusion-weighted, Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography), and functional MRI, have added important complementary information in the characterization, therapy planning and recurrence differential diagnosis of brain tumors. In this continuing education review of neuroimaging in brain tumors, technical aspects and clinical applications of different imaging modalities are approached in a multidisciplinary way. PMID:21211868

Arbizu, J; Domínguez, P D; Diez-Valle, R; Vigil, C; García-Eulate, R; Zubieta, J L; Richter, J A

2011-01-05

215

MATE standardization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

Farmer, R. E.

1982-11-01

216

Telemetry Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Telemetry Group has prepared this document to foster the compatibility of telemetry transmitting, receiving, and signal processing equipment at the member ranges under the cognizance of the RCC. These standards do not necessarily define the existing c...

1999-01-01

217

Standardization Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For several years now, the main civil aircraft manufacturers (Airbus and its partners, Boeing, Fokker, McDonnell Douglas) have been working jointly on the writing of technical recommendations and the drawing up of an international standard. This work conc...

O. Malavallon

1995-01-01

218

EOS standards  

SciTech Connect

An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-12

219

(Terminology standardization)  

SciTech Connect

Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

Strehlow, R.A.

1990-10-19

220

Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data  

SciTech Connect

Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

2012-08-01

221

IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs.

Cohen, M.; Volk, K. (Jamieson Science and Engineering, Inc., Scotts Valley (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field (USA) SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (USA))

1989-11-01

222

Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia

2001-01-01

223

Brain sources of EEG gamma frequency during volitionally meditation-induced, altered states of consciousness, and experience of the self.  

PubMed

Multichannel EEG of an advanced meditator was recorded during four different, repeated meditations. Locations of intracerebral source gravity centers as well as Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) functional images of the EEG 'gamma' (35-44 Hz) frequency band activity differed significantly between meditations. Thus, during volitionally self-initiated, altered states of consciousness that were associated with different subjective meditation states, different brain neuronal populations were active. The brain areas predominantly involved during the self-induced meditation states aiming at visualization (right posterior) and verbalization (left central) agreed with known brain functional neuroanatomy. The brain areas involved in the self-induced, meditational dissolution and reconstitution of the experience of the self (right fronto-temporal) are discussed in the context of neural substrates implicated in normal self-representation and reality testing, as well as in depersonalization disorders and detachment from self after brain lesions. PMID:11738545

Lehmann, D; Faber, P L; Achermann, P; Jeanmonod, D; Gianotti, L R; Pizzagalli, D

2001-11-30

224

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

225

Brain abscess  

MedlinePLUS

... the body during an injury (such as a gun or knife wound) or neurosurgery. In children with ... to diagnose a brain abscess may include: Blood cultures Chest x-ray Complete blood count ( CBC ) Head ...

226

Brain Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In many patients with brain metastases, the primary therapeutic aim is to accomplish symptom palliation and maintenance of\\u000a neurologic function, but in a small selected cohort, long-term survival, and even cure, is possible. Central nervous system\\u000a failures might develop after initial treatment, either locally (regrowth of a previously treated lesion), regionally (elsewhere,\\u000a in the brain parenchyma), or even in the

Carsten Nieder; Anca L. Grosu; Minesh P. Mehta

227

Telemetry standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telemetry Group (TG) of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) has prepared this document to foster the compatibility of telemetry transmitting, receiving, and signal processing equipment at all of the Test and Evaluation (T&E) ranges under the cognizance of the RCC. The Range Commanders highly recommend that telemetry equipment operated at the T&E ranges and telemetry equipment used by the range personnel in programs that require test range support, conform to these standards. These standards do not necessarily define the existing capability of any test range, but constitute a guide for the orderly implementation and application of telemetry systems for both the ranges and range users. The scope of capabilities attainable with the utilization of these standards requires a careful consideration of trade-offs. Guidance concerning these trade-offs is provided in the text. These standards provide the necessary criteria on which to base equipment design and modification. The ultimate purpose is to ensure an efficient spectrum and an interference-free operation of the radio link for telemetry systems at the RCC member ranges. etry systems at the RCC member ranges.

1986-05-01

228

Standardization work  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years now, the main civil aircraft manufacturers (Airbus and its partners, Boeing, Fokker, McDonnell Douglas) have been working jointly on the writing of technical recommendations and the drawing up of an international standard. This work concerns the evaluation of the processes and products used to strip aeronautical paint systems. This procedure was initiated on request from the main

Olivier Malavallon

1995-01-01

229

Brain imaging and brain function  

SciTech Connect

This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

Sokoloff, L.

1985-01-01

230

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination\\u000a of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements\\u000a for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of Neurology published evidence-based\\u000a practice parameters for

Katharina M. Busl; David M. Greer

2009-01-01

231

Creating Virtual Insect Brains with Amira  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining techniques of preparation, histology, confocal microscopy,data visualization and data processing, we have created and recently publisheda Standard Brain model for drosophila and honey bee brains. Thisreport describes the algorithms and implementation of the correspondingsoftware modules. At the same time it serves as a users guide for scientistswho want to reproduce the results for di#erent species or mutants as

MALTE Z; KARLHEINZ REIN; ROBERT BRANDT; DETLEV STALLING; HANS-CHRISTIAN HEGE

232

The Marine Mammal Brain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. In this unique standards-based activity, students compare the brains and behaviors of dolphins, sea lions, and manatees in a game-like format.

Jr., Archibald J.; Johnson, John I.; Morris, Lee G.; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.

2005-07-01

233

Brain Basics  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows that people who have PTSD or ADHD have reduced activity in their PFCs. ... growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there ... research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another ...

234

Cola Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over fifty years, Coke and Pepsi have spent billions trying to out-market each other. But a new brain study suggests that one brand has much deeper effects. This Science Update explores the affect advertising poses on the consumer's choice.

Science Update;

2004-11-15

235

Spinning Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spinning Brains, an article from NASA, explains the Coriolis force and how humans can adapt to it. The article discusses the concept of rotating spaceships and the research being done to determine if humans could function on those ships. Also, the site includes a video demonstrating the Coriolis force with a merry-go-round.

2009-06-23

236

Brain Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program is separated into 6 modules. Module 1-Making Sense of Scientific Inquiry; Module 2-Facts about the Brain; Module 3-Sending and Receiving Messages; Module 4-Medicine and Drugs, What's Helpful-What's Harmful; Module 5-The Science Behind Smoking...

2001-01-01

237

Vision's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)|

Miller, Julie Ann

1978-01-01

238

Standardization work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years now, the main civil aircraft manufacturers (Airbus and its partners, Boeing, Fokker, McDonnell Douglas) have been working jointly on the writing of technical recommendations and the drawing up of an international standard. This work concerns the evaluation of the processes and products used to strip aeronautical paint systems. This procedure was initiated on request from the main airlines. In effect, the airlines are faced with situations in which the financial and operational objectives are becoming increasingly important. The need was felt to rationalize and, if possible, harmonize the criteria and technical requirements of the various civil aircraft manufacturers in order to facilitate in-service maintenance of the fleets of airlines operating Airbus, Boeing, Douglas aircraft, etc.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

239

The Creative Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)|

Herrmann, Ned

1982-01-01

240

The beryllium "double standard" standard.  

PubMed

Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

2003-01-01

241

The Allen Brain Atlas and Beyond: Atlasing Gene Expression in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Allen Brain Atlas is a Web-based, genome-wide digital atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain. This anatomically comprehensive, cellular resolution image database details the expression patterns of 20,000 genes throughout the brain, as revealed by in situ hybridization (ISH). Seamlessly integrated anatomic atlases, collectively the Allen Reference Atlas, provide a standardized anatomic framework for visualization and analysis

Amy Bernard

242

[Unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations].  

PubMed

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) often become symptomatic in young adults with a variety of neurological symptoms such as epileptic seizures, recurrent headaches, progressive neurological deficits or sudden intracranial hemorrhage. However, recent epidemiological data suggest a large number of AVMs are found without signs of hemorrhage and a relatively low rupture risk of less than 1% per year. Continuous technical progress has led to several specific treatment options for brain AVMs including endovascular embolization, microneurosurgery, and stereotactic radiotherapy, either alone or in any combination. Depending on AVM topography and vascular anatomy, interventional treatment strategies have shown successful occlusion rates ranging between 50 and 100% and a relatively low average procedural morbidity of 10% overall. For unruptured brain AVMs, however, the clinical benefit of invasive treatment remains as yet to be determined. To address this issue, A randomized trial of unruptured brain AVMs (ARUBA) is currently underway evaluating long-term outcome of best possible standard interventional therapy as compared to the natural history risk in a prospective multidisciplinary international study (www.arubastudy.org). PMID:18786684

Stapf, C

2008-09-10

243

Predicting intrinsic brain activity.  

PubMed

Multivariate supervised learning methods exhibit a remarkable ability to decode externally driven sensory, behavioral, and cognitive states from functional neuroimaging data. Although they are typically applied to task-based analyses, supervised learning methods are equally applicable to intrinsic effective and functional connectivity analyses. The obtained models of connectivity incorporate the multivariate interactions between all brain regions simultaneously, which will result in a more accurate representation of the connectome than the ones available with standard bivariate methods. Additionally the models can be applied to decode or predict the time series of intrinsic brain activity of a region from an independent dataset. The obtained prediction accuracy provides a measure of the integration between a brain region and other regions in its network, as well as a method for evaluating acquisition and preprocessing pipelines for resting state fMRI data. This article describes a method for learning multivariate models of connectivity. The method is applied in the non-parametric prediction accuracy, influence, and reproducibility-resampling (NPAIRS) framework, to study the regional variation of prediction accuracy and reproducibility (Strother et al., 2002). The resulting spatial distribution of these metrics is consistent with the functional hierarchy proposed by Mesulam (1998). Additionally we illustrate the utility of the multivariate regression connectivity modeling method for optimizing experimental parameters and assessing the quality of functional neuroimaging data. PMID:23707580

Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P; Laconte, Stephen M

2013-05-24

244

Silicon Brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

245

Turning brain drain into brain networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that, given the difficulties of reversing brain drain and of creating brain circulation, small developing countries should instead put efforts into brain networking, which is the systematic development of an ICT-based form of links between scientific diasporas and resident scientists. The study suggests that brain networking is the most realistic institutional platform for tackling developing countries' problems

Ioan M Ciumasu

2010-01-01

246

Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

247

Low resolution structural studies indicate that the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis has an elongated shape which allows its interaction with both N- and M-domains of Hsp90.  

PubMed

The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins' interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

Seraphim, Thiago V; Alves, Marina M; Silva, Indjara M; Gomes, Francisco E R; Silva, Kelly P; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Borges, Júlio C

2013-06-24

248

Quantitation of human brain GABA A receptor ? isoforms by competitive RT–PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a competitive RT–PCR assay, adapted from Lewohl et al. [Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. 1 (1997) 347], for the quantitation of GABAA receptor ? isoforms in human brain using an internal standard that shares high sequence homology to the targets. The internal standard is identical to the ?1 sequence except for a 61 bp deletion and the

S. Tracey Buckley; Peter R. Dodd

2003-01-01

249

Mg Isotopes of USGS Igneous Rock Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium has three stable isotopes, 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg with abundances of 78.99%, 10.00%, and 11.01%, respectively. It is one of the most abundant elements in the crust and mantle. As advancements of analytical techniques using MC-ICP-MS have dramatically advanced our ability to measure isotope ratios of Mg with greater precision, Mg isotopes can now be applied to study a variety of fundamental geological processes, such as continental crust weathering, chemical diffusion, and chondrule formation. Therefore the need for well characterized Mg isotope ratios for geological materials is increasingly important. Routine measurement of readily-available USGS rock standards is a viable way for inter-lab comparison to show the quality of data. However, the Mg isotope data for USGS standards reported in the literature are limited and inconsistent. USGS standards reported by different MC-ICP-MS labs have a range of Mg isotopic data outside of the normal external error of 0.1‰ (2?). Mg isotopes of USGS igneous rock standards (dunite, DTS-1; basalts, BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1; and andesite, AGV-1) were measured by a sample-standard bracketing method using a low resolution MC-ICP- MS (Nu-Plasma HR). The method has a large tolerance of matrix bias with Na/Mg and Al/Mg > 100% only changing the ?26Mg by less than 0.1‰. Dilution effects do not cause significant error (< 0.1‰) until the concentration difference between standard and sample is greater than 25%. The isobaric interference of CN+ on 26Mg was avoided by measuring Mg signal on the low mass shoulder. Only purified samples with excellent yields (>99.5%) and acceptable concentrations of matrix (mainly Na, Al, Ca, and Fe) are included in these results. Duplicate analyses of independently processed standards yielded the following results (?26MgDSM-3 (‰)): BCR-2 (-0.306±0.144, - 0.290±0.116, -0.283±0.048, -0.288±0.057), BCR-1 (-0.399±0.079, -0.346±0.046), AGV-1 (-0.295±0.110, -0.307±0.086, -0.339±0.068), BHVO-1 (-0.308±0.076, - 0.299±0.103), and DTS-1 (-0.299±0.163, -0.368±0.059). ?26MgDSM-3 of measured USGS standards are consistent within error (2?).

Huang, F.; Glessner, J. J.; Lundstrom, C. C.

2008-12-01

250

Fun Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FunBrain.com is provided by the Family Education Network, which is described as the Web's leading source of educational content; resources; and shopping for parents, teachers, and kids. Offering separate areas for kids, teachers, and parents, the Web site provides educational games, quizzes, homework help, and more. Science subjects covered include elements, colors of light, astronomy, chemistry, physics, geology, and more. One example is a game that allows kids to learn about famous and infamous scientists throughout the ages called "Who is That?" The site contains a lot of interesting and fun educational material and online resources, making it well worth visiting. [JAB

251

Brain Cake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Cake is a web site that reaches girls from around the globe who are interested in changing the world with math and science! This site is a resource - a resource for yourself, your daughter, a student in your classroom, or someone you mentor. The Girls, Math & Science Partnership is exactly that - an innovative, compelling, high-quality resource for education, information, research and advocacy on gender equality in the sciences.The site also includes: games and experiments, careers, biographies, homework help, and links to other related sites.

2009-06-26

252

A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases.  

PubMed

The complication of multiple brain metastases in breast cancer patients is a life threatening condition with limited success following standard therapies. The arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway appears to play a role in brain tumor growth as well as inhibition of apoptosis in in-vitro studies. The down regulation of these arachidonate lipoxygenase growth stimulating products therefore appeared to be a worthwhile consideration for testing in brain metastases not responding to standard therapy. Boswellia serrata, a lipoxygenase inhibitor was applied for this inhibition. Multiple brain metastases were successfully reversed using this method in a breast cancer patient who had not shown improvement after standard therapy. The results suggest a potential new area of therapy for breast cancer patients with brain metastases that may be useful as an adjuvant to our standard therapy. PMID:17001517

Flavin, D F

2006-09-26

253

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Drives Brain Injury Science Army Refines Management of Concussion Military Leads in Brain Injury Care Therapist Uses ... Post-traumatic Stress Marines in Afghanistan Test New Concussion Care Department Makes 'Great Strides' in Brain-injury ...

254

Special Report: Brain Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

Krassner, Michael B.

1983-01-01

255

Anatomy of the Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... our environment. The diagrams below show the various parts of the brain from two different angles. Side View of the ... View of the Brain Learning about the various parts of the brain and spine, as well as how they work, ...

256

BrainWork  

MedlinePLUS

... in the News BrainWork »Archives Cerebrum Neuroeducation Neuroethics Free Publications Report on Progress About Dana Press Request Publications Services for Subrights [PDF] Web Resources BrainWeb Brainy Kids Online Brain Resources for ...

257

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head Injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

258

Joint factor and kinetic analysis of dynamic FDOPA PET scans of brain cancer patients.  

PubMed

Kinetic analysis is an essential tool of Positron Emission Tomography image analysis. However it requires a pure tissue time activity curve (TAC) in order to calculate the system parameters. Pure tissue TACs are particularly difficult to obtain in the brain as the low resolution of PET means almost all voxels are a mixture of tissues. Factor analysis explicitly accounts for mixing but is an underdetermined problem that can give arbitrary results. A joint factor and kinetic analysis is proposed whereby factor analysis explicitly accounts for mixing of tissues. Hence, more meaningful parameters are obtained by the kinetic models, which also ensure a less ambiguous solution to the factor analysis. The method was tested using a cylindrical phantom and the 18F-DOPA data of a brain cancer patient. PMID:20879314

Dowson, N; Bourgeat, P; Rose, S; Daglish, M; Smith, J; Fay, M; Coulthard, A; Winter, C; MacFarlane, D; Thomas, P; Crozier, S; Salvado, O

2010-01-01

259

Seeing with the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We see with the brain, not the eyes (Bach-y-Rita, 1972); images that pass through our pupils go no further than the retina. From there image information travels to the rest of the brain by means of coded pulse trains, and the brain, being highly plastic, can learn to interpret them in visual terms. Perceptual levels of the brain interpret the

Paul Bach-y-rita; Mitchell E. Tyler; Kurt A. Kaczmarek

2003-01-01

260

Calcium Compartments in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent progress has been made toward understanding the physiology and pharmacology of specific calcium-related cellular processes of the brain, but few studies have provided an integrated view of brain calcium kinetics. To further the knowledge of the size and binding properties of brain calcium compartments, the authors have conducted a series of experiments in hippocampal brain slices exposed to high

George C. Newman; Frank E. Hospod; Clifford S. Patlak; Sean D. Trowbridge; Richard J. Wilke; Mark Fuhrmann; Keith W. Jones

2002-01-01

261

Creativity and the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Neurocognitive approach to higher cognitive functions that bridges the gap between psychological and neural level of description is introduced. Relevant facts about the brain, working memory and representation of symbols in the brain are summarized. Putative brain processes responsible for problem solving, intuition, skill learning and automatization are described. The role of non-dominant brain hemisphere in solving problems requiring

Wlodzislaw Duch

262

Brain-controlled robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten years have passed since the Japanese ‘Century of the Brain’ was promoted, and its most notable objective, the unique ‘Creating the Brain’ approach, has led us to apply a humanoid robot as a neuroscience tool. Here, we aim to understand the brain to the extent that we can make humanoid robots solve tasks typically solved by the human brain

Mitsuo Kawato

2008-01-01

263

Split My Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Omarzu, Julia

2004-10-01

264

Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

Menard, Scott

2011-01-01

265

Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)

2004-04-30

266

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are heterogeneous. This injury falls on a broad spectrum, from very mild neurometabolic\\u000a changes in the brain with rapid recovery to permanent problems due to structural brain damage. It is incorrect to assume that\\u000a MTBIs cannot cause permanent brain damage and it is incorrect to assume that MTBIs typically cause permanent brain damage. This is

Grant L. Iverson; Rael T. Lange

267

Battlefield brain  

PubMed Central

A 40-year-old male military Veteran* presents to a family physician with chronic symptoms that include recurrent headaches, dizziness, depression, memory problems, difficulty sleeping, and relationship troubles. He has not had a family physician since leaving the military 2 years ago. His Military Occupation Classification had been infantry. He explains that he had been deployed to war zones and that during a firefight several years earlier an enemy weapon exploded nearby, killing a fellow soldier and wounding others. He does not recall being injured, but remembers feeling a thump and that his “computer had to reboot.” This was followed by headaches and a few days of ringing in his ears. He also suffered a concussion during a military hockey game. He was assessed and treated for persistent headaches in the service and recalls that results of a head computed tomography scan were negative. Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) granted him a disability award for posttraumatic headache and provided certain treatment benefits. He took medication for the headaches. Following transition to civilian life he had difficulty holding jobs, but had been reluctant to seek help. He saw stories on television about blast-induced minor traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan, and wonders if he “has MTBI.” Findings from his physical examination, bloodwork, and Mini Mental State Examination are normal, but his Montreal Cognitive Assessment score is 24, suggesting possible cognitive impairment. The physician organizes follow-up appointments and a neurology consultation. After reading about Canada’s military-aware operational stress injury (OSI) clinics in a medical journal, he refers the Veteran to a VAC district office for access to mental health assessment.

Thompson, James M.; Scott, Kenneth C.; Dubinsky, Leslie

2008-01-01

268

Meeting the Standards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how the new British National Special Educational Needs Specialist Standards might be used as an audit tool and the consequences for teachers, line-managers, and training providers. It considers the role of the standards, core standards, extension standards, the standards as an audit tool, accessing resources, and future…

Porter, Jill; Miller, Carol

2000-01-01

269

The Stanley Foundation brain collection and Neuropathology Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stanley Foundation brain collection is an attempt to supplement existing brain collections for the purpose of promoting research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Specimens are collected with the permission of the families in a standardized manner, with half of each specimen being frozen and half fixed in formalin. The Neuropathology Consortium is a subset of 60 specimens from the

E. Fuller Torrey; Maree Webster; Michael Knable; Nancy Johnston; Robert H. Yolken

2000-01-01

270

Neuropsychological Test Performance of Successful Brain Injury Simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provided an examination of the performance characteristics of successful brain injury simulators (SBIS). Coached (n = 56) and uncoached (n = 35) brain injury simulators received instructions to fake cognitive impairment; controls were asked to do their best. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) was administered along with standard neuropsychological measures (e.g., Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). The TOMM identified 80% of uncoached

John W. DenBoer; Stuart Hall

2007-01-01

271

Measurement of Whole-Brain Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain atrophy reflects the net result of irreversible and destruc- tive pathological processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). The gross morphological changes can be accurately quantified using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions and various image analysis tools. The current methods used to assess whole-brain atrophy in patients with MS can be classi- fied into 2 groups based on their reliance

Daniel Pelletier; Kathleen Garrison; Roland Henry

2004-01-01

272

Developing Educational Standards - Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features a list of educational standards by state. Although the bulk of the list is state-issued standards, the list also includes standards for education developed by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Geographic Society.

Hill, Charles; District, Wappingers C.

273

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: data validation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain injured patients\\u000a towards providing a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health technology. Materials and methods Over a 2 year period, core dataset data (grouped by nine categories) were collected from 200 head-injured patients by local\\u000a nursing staff. Data were uploaded by the

Martin Shaw; Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; YH Yau

274

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

275

Nuclear Standards Master Index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standard writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remark column which reflects the current status of the standard (see legend). This January 1984 issue covers July through December 1983. The Nuclear Energy Standards KWIC Index of NE standards, also published by the Nuclear Standards Program Information Center, should be consulted for information on standards when the assigned numbers are not known.

Not Available

1984-01-20

276

Standards 101: The ASA Standards program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is

Paul Schomer

2001-01-01

277

Standards 101; the ASA standards program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12

Paul D. Schomer

2002-01-01

278

Multiscale analysis of brain tumors in CT imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delineation of brain lesion boundaries in computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences is important in many medical research environments and clinical applications. For example, computer-aided neurosurgery requires the extraction of boundaries of lesions in a series of CT or MRI images in order to design the surgical trajectory and complete the surgical planning. Currently, in many clinical applications, the boundaries of lesions are traced manually. Manual methods are not only tedious but also subjective, leading to substantial inter- and intraobserver variability, and confusions between lesions and coexisting normal structures pose serious problems. Automatic detection of lesions is a nontrivial problem. Because of the low resolution, the border regions between lesions and normal tissues are typically of single-pixel width in CT images, and the intensity gradient at the lesion boundary varies considerably. These characteristics of lesions within CT images, in conjunction with the generally low signal-to-noise ratio of CT images, render simple boundary detection techniques inadequate. Recent work in the field of computer vision has shown multiscale analysis of objects in gray scale images to be effective in many applications. This paper describes and illustrates the application of multiscale morphological techniques to the delineation of brain tumors.

Lu, Yi; Harmon, Laurel A.

1993-04-01

279

Intra-operative probe for brain cancer: feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims a new medical probe for surgeons devoted to brain cancers, in particular glioblastoma multiforme. Within the last years, our group has started the development of a new intra-operative beta imaging probe. More recently, we took an alternative approach for the same application: a fluorescence probe. In both cases the purpose is to differentiate normal from tumor brain tissue. In a first step, we developed set-ups capable to measure autofluorescence. They are based on a dedicated epi-fluorescence design and on specific fiber optic probes. Relative signal amplitude, spectral shape and fluorescence lifetime measurements are foreseen to distinguish normal and cancer tissue by analyzing fluorophores like NADH, lipopigments and porphyrines. The autofluorescence spectra are recorded in the 460-640 nm range with a low resolution spectrometer. For lifetime measurements a fast detector (APD) is used together with a TCSPC-carte. Intrinsic wavelength- and time-resolutions are a few nm and 200 ps, respectively. Different samples have been analyzed to validate our new detection system and to allow a first configuration of our medical fluorescence probe. First results from the tissue measurements are shown.

Vu Thi, M. H.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M. A.; Lefebvre, F.; Menard, L.; Pitre, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.

2007-07-01

280

Preventing Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) in the treatment of early seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare the efficacy of TPM to prevent early seizures to the standard of care (pheny...

M. A. Dichter

2008-01-01

281

Arts with the Brain in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To push for higher standards of learning, many policymakers are eliminating arts programs. This book presents the definitive case, based on what is known about the brain and learning, for making the arts a core part of the basic curriculum and thoughtfully integrating them into every subject. Separate chapters address musical, visual, and…

Jensen, Eric

282

Preventing Epilepsy after Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) in the treatment of early seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare the efficacy of TPM to prevent early seizures to the standard of care (pheny...

M. A. Dichter

2007-01-01

283

Arts with the Brain in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To push for higher standards of learning, many policymakers are eliminating arts programs. This book presents the definitive case, based on what is known about the brain and learning, for making the arts a core part of the basic curriculum and thoughtfully integrating them into every subject. Separate chapters address musical, visual, and…

Jensen, Eric

284

[Brain death, bioethics and organ transplantation].  

PubMed

The concept of death has evolved medically, legally and culturally since the introduction of life support technologies in the middle of the 20th century. The traditional cardiopulmonary and the new neurologically based brain death criterions of death are examined. We conclude that brain death, defined as total and irreversible loss of function of the whole brain, fulfills better "the permanent cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole" definition of death. Brain death diagnosis, based on standard neurologic clinical examination performed accurately, is unequivocal. Transplantation medicine, mostly based on organ donation of brain dead people, has become a routine and universally accepted therapeutic intervention nowadays, which benefits many people. Ethics foundations of organ transplantation are reviewed. Even though brain death and organ donation are widely accepted in medical, legal, religious and public opinion today, the whole society and medical community need to be further educated about these matters, so that unavoidable changes of traditional concepts might be better understood. Permanent education should be the best way to dissipate social fears and distrust towards organ donation and brain death. PMID:15379061

Flores, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Manuel; Thambo, Sergio; Valdivieso, Andrés

2004-01-01

285

Standard deviation, standard error. Which 'standard' should we use?  

PubMed

Standard deviation (SD) and standard error (SE) are quietly but extensively used in biomedical publications. These terms and notations are used as descriptive statistics (summarizing numerical data), and they are used as inferential statistics (estimating population parameters from samples). I review the use and misuse of SD and SE in several authoritative medical journals and make suggestions to help clarify the usage and meaning of SD and SE in biomedical reports. PMID:7124681

Brown, G W

1982-10-01

286

Mechanical properties of brain tissue related to oedema development in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We studied the mechanical properties of the brain in anaesthetized rabbits by application of a standard external load to the exposed cerebral surface. The experimental model used allows one to eliminate potential circulatory factors. Brain oedema was produced by repeated episodes of ischaemia secondary to a decrease of the arterial blood pressure to zero. The development of brain oedema

G. Mchedlishvili; M. Itkis; N. Sikharulidze

1989-01-01

287

A brain gain with a brain drain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home

Oded Stark; Christian Helmenstein; Alexia Prskawetz

1997-01-01

288

Fiber to the brain [brain surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a promising new procedure developed by researchers from the New York University Medical Center, the Massachussets Institute of Technology, and the University of Tokyo to perform brain surgery via nanotechnology. The procedure involves attaching electrodes to small clusters of brain cells using the cardiovascular system as the conduit through which wires are threaded. This procedure does not

W. D. Jones

2005-01-01

289

Standards for Meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a long-term and increasing demand upon the American Meteorological Society to provide meteorological standards. The Society recognizes the need but has been unwilling to assume direct responsibility for the production of standards. The American Society for Testing and Materials is providing standards for measurement, but the development of standards for meteorological values, mathematical models, definitions, instrumentation, etc.,

W. E. Hoehne

1978-01-01

290

English Proficiency Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the current PASS (Proficiency-based Admission Standards System) Proficiency Standards in English and answers the question of what students should be able to do upon admission to the Oregon University System. The PASS standards in the paper are aligned with and complement the standards, scoring guides, and test specifications…

Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of the Chancellor.

291

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

292

Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

293

Nuclear standards master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available

1985-07-24

294

Nuclear Standards Master Index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available

1983-01-01

295

Nuclear Standards master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available

1986-07-01

296

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevention & Control : Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic Brain Injury Concussion & Mild TBI Recognition Response Feeling Better Prevention Clinical ... Patient Care Return to Activities Support and Resources Concussion in Sports Recognition Response Prevention Baseline Test Survivor ...

297

Metastatic brain tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... powered x-rays on a small area of the brain. Medications for brain tumor symptoms may include: Antacids or antihistamines to control stress ulcers Anticonvulsants such as phenytoin or levetiracetam to ...

298

Brain-Controlled Prosthetics  

MedlinePLUS

... brain’s “Get moving!” messages directly to either an artificial limb or to a paralyzed limb in which muscles ... be used to simulate the sensation in an artificial limb. And studies involving monkeys have been able to ...

299

Brain injury - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... one was in the hospital after a serious brain injury. First, doctors and nurses provided treatment to prevent ... and treatment to help them recover from the brain injury. They may have stayed in special units that ...

300

Brain-Gut Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2012 Refresher Course on Endocrinology discusses brain-gut interactions in diabetes, including a review of basic brain-gut anatomy, the role of gut hormones, and the central regulation of appetite.

Shanthi Srinivasan (Emory University)

2012-04-01

301

Brain-Gut Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recorded presentation from the EB 2012 Refresher Course on Endocrinology discusses brain-gut interactions in diabetes, including a review of basic brain-gut anatomy, the role of gut hormones, and the central regulation of appetite.

Shanthi Srinivasan (Emory University)

2012-04-01

302

Right Brain Drawing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author describes activities of a weekly enrichment class providing right-brain tasks to gifted elementary students. Activities, which centered on artistic creativity, were taken from "Drawing On the Right Side of the Brain" by B. Edwards. (CL)|

Whalen, Adryce C.

1985-01-01

303

Brain Stem Glioma -- Childhood  

MedlinePLUS

... develops from the middle of the brain The medulla oblongata, which connects to the spinal cord The pons, which is located between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain About brain stem glioma ...

304

Epilepsy and the Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... and the social consequences involved. Epilepsy & the Brain Seizure Mechanisms A seizure is a massive disruption of ... disrupting many of the functions of the brain. Seizure Threshold This concept holds that everyone has a ...

305

Genetic Brain Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

306

Childhood Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

307

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... A blockage of a blood vessel in the brain or neck, called an ischemic stroke, is the most frequent ... a clot within a blood vessel of the brain or neck, called thrombosis; the movement of a clot from ...

308

Nuclear standards: Master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflect the current status of the standard (see legend). The ''Nuclear Energy Standards KWIC Index'' of NE standards, also published by the Performance Assurance Project Office, should be consulted for information on standards when the assigned numbers are not known.

Not Available

1987-01-30

309

NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY  

PubMed Central

Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use.

Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2012-01-01

310

The problematic symmetry between brain birth and brain death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible symmetry between the concepts of brain death and brain birth (life) is explored. Since the symmetry argument has tended to overlook the most appropriate definition of brain death, the fundamental concepts of whole brain death and higher brain death are assessed. In this way, a context is provided for a discussion of brain birth. Different writers have placed

D G Jones

1998-01-01

311

Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Ask the Doctor Brain Aneurysm Causes and ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Ask the Doctor Brain Aneurysm Causes and ...

312

Brain Metallothionein in Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain metallothionein (MT) levels have been measured in the rat brain in basal and stress situations with polyclonal antibodies which do not cross-react significantly with the brain-specific MT isoform growth inhibitory factor (MT-III). Acute immobilization stress increases MT levels in most but not all brain areas. In contrast, chronic immobilization stress has no effect on MT levels. Although glucocorticoids and

Juan Hidalgo; Teresa Gasull; Mercedes Giralt; Antonio Armario

1994-01-01

313

Severe traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The restitution of brain function and successful achievement of good neurological outcome after acute brain injury, including\\u000a severe traumatic brain injury and other encephalopathies, represents the final frontier in critical care medicine. Related\\u000a to the complexity of the brain and the difficulties involved in the bedside assessment and monitoring of cerebral pathophysiology;\\u000a progress in this area has been disappointing, and

Hülya Bayir; Kimberly D. Statler; Margaret A. Satchell; Randall A. Ruppel; Robert S. B. Clark; Patrick M. Kochanek

314

Tau Beta Pi: Brain Ticklers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tau Beta Pi is a national honor society for engineering students, and its quarterly Brain Ticklers online feature is a true challenge aimed at motivated individuals. In each issue, five standard questions and two bonus questions are given, which are intended to exercise peoples' problem solving skills. The problems are generally straightforward and easy to understand, but they can be extremely perplexing to solve. People who attempt the problems are encouraged to submit their answers for possible recognition in the following issue. Answers to the previous issue's problems are included when new issues are published.

315

Mathematical Thinking & the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though our knowledge of brain activity is still rudimentary, it is becoming increasingly clear that our partial understanding of the phenomenon can give significant insight into mental processes; in particular our growing understanding of the brain itself highlights certain aspects of mathematical thinking. In considering the brain we must first decide which level (or levels) of structure we wish to

David Tall

1978-01-01

316

Brain Migration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

Vinokur, Annie

2006-01-01

317

Aligning brains and minds  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Neuron, Haxby and colleagues describe a new method for aligning functional brain activity patterns across participants. Their study demonstrates that objects are similarly represented across different brains, allowing for reliable classification of one person’s brain activity based on another’s.

Tong, Frank

2012-01-01

318

Acquired brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired brain injury in childhood is not uncommon and arises from trauma, metabolic conditions, CNS tumours and infection, toxins or as a result of treatment. Injury to the brain can occur any time from just after conception onwards. Age of injury is a critical variable in determining outcome, as is the mechanism of injury. When the brain is in a

Judith A Middleton

2005-01-01

319

Brain-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) technology is to augment human capabilities by enabling people to interact with a computer through a conscious and spontaneous modulation of their brainwaves after a short training period. Indeed, by analyzing brain electrical activity online, several groups have designed brain-actuated systems that provide alternative channels for communication, entertainment and control. Thus, a person can

José Del R. Millán

2006-01-01

320

To understand brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

``How do we go about understanding brains?'' That was the fundamental question confronting the session, ``To Understand Brains. . . ,'' at the 1968 IEEE International Convention. This report on the views of eight session participants shows a strong consensus on three major points: first, that the popular analogy between brains and computers is ill-taken and perhaps misleading; second, that

Nilo Lindgren

1968-01-01

321

Bioethics & the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectronics and medical imaging are bringing us closer to a world where mind reading is possible and blindness banished - but we may not want to live there. New ways of imaging the human brain and new developments in microelectronics are providing unprecedented capabilities for monitoring the brain in real time and even for controlling brain function. The technologies are

K. R. Foster; P. Root Wolpe; A. L. Caplan

2003-01-01

322

Our Amazing Brains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

Bath, Howard

2005-01-01

323

Mysteries of the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the significant findings that have emerged from research about the human brain regarding the importance of creating a brain-compatible learning environment. Presents eight components of a brain-compatible learning environment: absence of threat, meaningful content, choices, adequate time, enriched environment, collaboration, immediate…

Bimonte, Robert R.

1998-01-01

324

Experience and Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENOUGH, WILLIAM T.; BLACK, JAMES E.; and WALLACE, GHRISTOPHER S. Experience and Brain Development. GHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1987, 58, 539-559. This article considers how experience can influence the developing and mature brain and proposes a new categorization scheme based upon the type of information stored and the brain mechanisms that appear to be involved in storing it. In this scheme, experience-expectant

William T. Greenough; James E. Black; Christopher S. Wallace

1987-01-01

325

Addiction and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the structure of the human brain and how it is affected by drugs of abuse. Use the resources below to 1) List at least 10 structures in the brain, and explain their function. Be sure to include the reward pathway. 2) Make your own sketch of the brain and show the location of the 10 structures above. ...

Eve

2008-03-12

326

Immunopathogenesis of brain abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains and the ubiquitous nature of bacteria, the occurrence of brain abscess is likely to persist. Our laboratory has developed a mouse experimental brain abscess model allowing for the identification of key mediators in the CNS anti-bacterial immune

Tammy Kielian

2004-01-01

327

Brain Research and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

Claycomb, Mary

328

Mapping brain asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain asymmetry has been observed in animals and humans in terms of structure, function and behaviour. This lateralization is thought to reflect evolutionary, hereditary, developmental, experiential and pathological factors. Here, we review the diverse literature describing brain asymmetries, focusing primarily on anatomical differences between the hemispheres and the methods that have been used to detect them. Brain-mapping approaches, in particular,

Paul M. Thompson; Arthur W. Toga

2003-01-01

329

Focal cortical dysfunction and blood-brain barrier disruption in patients with Postconcussion syndrome.  

PubMed

Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) refers to symptoms and signs commonly occurring after mild head injury. The pathogenesis of PCS is unknown. The authors quantitatively analyzed EEG recordings, localized brain sources for abnormal activity, and correlated it with imaging studies. Data from 17 patients with neurologic symptomatology consistent with ICD-10 criteria for PCS was analyzed. Normalized quantitative EEG (QEEG) revealed significantly higher power in the delta band and lower power in the alpha band compared with matched controls. The generators for the abnormal rhythms were focally localized in neocortical regions. Brain computerized tomography and/or MRI did not reveal focal abnormality at the time of diagnosis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer administration showed a focal reduction in perfusion in 85% (n = 11) of the patients, and abnormal blood-brain barrier (BBB) after 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid administration in 73% (n = 8). In 75% of these patients, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography analysis showed that the generators for abnormal rhythms were closely related to the anatomic location of the BBB lesion. These data point to focal cortical dysfunction in conjunction with BBB disruption and hypoperfusion as a possible mechanism of pathogenesis in at least some PCS patients, and offer QEEG and SPECT as important tools in evaluating these patients. PMID:15689708

Korn, Akira; Golan, Haim; Melamed, Israel; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto; Friedman, Alon

330

Hemispherical map for the human brain cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the function of the human brain cortex is a primary goal in human brain mapping. Methods to unfold and flatten the cortical surface for visualization and measurement have been described in previous literature; but comparison across multiple subjects is still difficult because of the lack of a standard mapping technique. We describe a new approach that maps each hemisphere of the cortex to a portion of a sphere in a standard way, making comparison of anatomy and function across different subjects possible. Starting with a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image of the brain, the cortex is segmented and represented as a triangle mesh. Defining a cut around the corpus collosum identifies the left and right hemispheres. Together, the two hemispheres are mapped to the complex plane using a conformal mapping technique. A Mobius transformation, which is conformal, is used to transform the points on the complex plane so that a projective transformation maps each brain hemisphere onto a spherical segment comprising a sphere with a cap removed. We determined the best size of the spherical cap by minimizing the relative area distortion between hemispherical maps and original cortical surfaces. The relative area distortion between the hemispherical maps and the original cortical surfaces for fifteen human brains is analyzed.

Tosun, Duygu; Prince, Jerry L.

2001-07-01

331

Cancers in the first-degree relatives of children with brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database with 2060 childhood brain tumours diagnosed in the period 1958–1996 to analyse the risk of this tumour by parental cancers and in siblings of childhood brain tumour probands. Groups of patients were compared by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for brain tumours in offspring. 1.3% of brain tumour patients had a parent with

K Hemminki; X Li; P Vaittinen; C Dong; K Hemminki

2000-01-01

332

Negative association of neuroticism with brain volume ratio in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Brain volume decreases with normal aging. We sought to determine whether, in addition to age, individual differences in stress reactivity (i.e., neuroticism) would also predict reductions in brain volume.Methods: Brain volume ratios were calculated for a sample of 86 healthy volunteers, based on segmented brain volumes taken from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and corrected for intracranial volume. Standardized self-reported

Brian Knutson; Reza Momenan; Robert R. Rawlings; Grace W. Fong; Daniel Hommer

2001-01-01

333

[Brain temperature during craniotomy in general anesthesia].  

PubMed

Mild hypothermia may occur spontaneously or, because of its putative neuroprotective effect, may be induced purposefully during neurosurgical procedures. Though the brain is the organ targeted for the purpose of neuroprotection, little is known about its temperature during general anaesthesia and craniotomy. The purpose of this study was to define the relations between core, skin and brain temperature during craniotomy and to compare two modes of inducing thermal insulation in patients during operative procedures. To achieve this we recorded core: rectal (Tre), oesophageal (Tes) and tympanic (Try) temperature, brain temperature in the subdural space (Tsd), and skin temperature on the thigh (Tfe), forehead (Tfr) and sternum (Tst) in 15 patients undergoing standard procedure for aneurysm clipping. In 13 patients the core temperature decreased, whereas skin temperature increased, after induction of general anaesthesia with isofluran. Nevertheless the mean body temperature remained unchanged, thus supporting the view that the cause of the resultant core hypothermia was heat redistribution between the thermal core and the periphery. Special thermofoil proved to be only as effective as a plain cotton blanket in preventing further heat loss during the later phases of the operation. Brain temperature was found to be the lowest core temperature throughout the procedure. It differed by as much as 0.1-1.2 degrees C from rectal temperature (mean 0.75 +/- 0.41 degree C) and reached the level of mild hypothermia (below 35 degrees C) even in those patients in whom rectal temperature indicated the state of normothermia. Furthermore tympanic and oesophageal temperature was on average 0.5 degree C higher than brain temperature. In conclusion, temperature measurements obtained in standard sites do not reflect brain temperature reliably during craniotomy and general anaesthesia. This indicates that the direct measurement of intracranial temperature is necessary for correct estimation of brain hypothermia. PMID:10791035

Mariak, Z; Lebkowski, W; Lyso?, T; Lewko, J; Piekarski, P

334

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of this population are available; however, the data highlight significant deficiencies with few treatment standards or guidelines. Considering the limited availability of resources, it is necessary to define realistic goals. Attention should be given to injury prevention, developing standardized pediatric admission

Brian T. Jankowitz; P. David Adelson

2006-01-01

335

Licensing Procedure and Standardization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advantages and disadvantages of standardization and its influence in the licensing are shown. The implementation of the French nuclear programme has been successful because of the many advantages that standardization offers from the point of view of safet...

J. M. Oury

1979-01-01

336

Masonry Program Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains statewide standards for the masonry program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program structure…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

337

Joint Healthcare Manpower Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Standard is to ensure that the peacetime staffing requirements of the Military Health Services System (MHSS) provide quality medical care in a productive environment. The Joint Healthcare Manpower Standards (JHMS) provide the Department...

V. Melidosian

1989-01-01

338

Avionics Standardization Potential Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Avionics Standardization Potential Analysis program is to develop a general methodology for evaluating the benefits accruing from the use of standard equipment across future USAF avionics systems. The methodology has been developed us...

R. K. Gates R. F. Shipp

1978-01-01

339

Automated Determination of Axonal Orientation in the Deep White Matter of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Abstract The wide-spread utilization of diffusion-weighted imaging in the clinical neurosciences to assess white-matter (WM) integrity and architecture calls for robust validation strategies applied to the data that are acquired with noninvasive imaging. However, the pathology and detailed fiber architecture of WM tissue can only be observed postmortem. With these considerations in mind, we designed an automated method for the determination of axonal orientation in high-resolution microscope images. The algorithm was tested on tissue that was stained using a silver impregnation technique that was optimized to resolve axonal fibers against very low levels of background. The orientation of individual nerve fibers was detected using spatial filtering and a template-matching algorithm, and the results are displayed as color-coded overlays. Quantitative models of WM fiber architecture at the microscopic level can lead to improved interpretation of low-resolution neuroimaging data and to more accurate mapping of fiber pathways in the human brain.

Bartsch, Hauke; Maechler, Paul

2012-01-01

340

The Standards Are Coming!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Standards are coming! The Standards are coming! Like Paul Revere riding through every middlesex, village, and farm, this article is written to alert you. The Geography Standards will be published in October 1994. Unlike Paul Revere's, this alarm is not to incite you to bear arms against an approaching enemy. Rather, it is to exhort you to embrace the

Sarah W. Bednarz; Robert S. Bednarz

1994-01-01

341

Quality of semantic standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a quality measurement instrument is needed. 81% of the survey respondents is interested in using such instrument. It

Erwin Johan Albert Folmer

2012-01-01

342

Standards and Certification. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic…

2002

343

Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

2009-01-01

344

Standards for Objective Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

2007-01-01

345

Stereotactic radiosurgery with or without whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: an update.  

PubMed

Brain metastases are unfortunately a common occurrence in patients with cancer. Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is still considered the standard of care in the treatment of brain metastases. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) offers the additional ability to treat tumors with relative sparing of normal brain tissue in a single fraction. While the addition of SRS to WBRT has been shown to improve survival and local tumor control in selected patients, the idea of deferring WBRT in order to avoid its effects on normal tissues and using SRS alone continues to generate significant discussion and interest. Three recent randomized trials from Japan, Europe and the MD Anderson Cancer Center (TX, USA) have attempted to address this issue. In this article, we update a previous review by discussing these trials to compare the outcomes for SRS alone versus SRS plus WBRT for limited metastases. We also discuss recent nonrandomized evidence for the use of SRS alone for oligometastatic disease. PMID:22050022

Park, Henry S; Chiang, Veronica L; Knisely, Jonathan P; Raldow, Ann C; Yu, James B

2011-11-01

346

National Information Standards Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1939, the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) is the premier contact organization responsible for identifying, developing, maintaining, and publishing technical standards "to manage information in our changing and ever-more digital environment". Their standards apply to both traditional and new technologies to the full range of information needs, such as storage, metadata, and preservation, to name but a few. On their site, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, peruse their annual report, and take a look at their various standards, including those that are still being developed. Visitors may also elect to download the current NISO standards if they so desire. The "Standards in Development" section is a nice place to take a look at, as it contains helpful notes and working documents on the development of such standards as technical metadata for digital still images and those for controlled vocabularies and thesauri.

347

National Information Standards Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1939, the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) is the premier contact organization responsible for identifying, developing, maintaining, and publishing technical standards "to manage information in our changing and ever-more digital environment". Their standards apply to both traditional and new technologies to the full range of information needs, such as storage, metadata, and preservation, to name but a few. On their site, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, peruse their annual report, and take a look at their various standards, including those that are still being developed. Visitors may also elect to download the current NISO standards if they so desire. The "Standards in Development" section is a nice place to take a look at, as it contains helpful notes and working documents on the development of such standards as technical metadata for digital still images and those for controlled vocabularies and thesauri.

2005-12-28

348

Seizures, brain damage and brain development.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that hippocampal damage can be both the result of seizure activity and the cause of further chronic epilepsy. A review of current models of status epilepticus-induced brain damage reveals that excitotoxic mechanisms probably mediate the lesions in most brain regions. NMDA receptors appear to play a dominant role, although non-NMDA glutamate receptors are important in several specific neuronal populations. In the immature brain, a number of unique metabolic features determine a different set of vulnerabilities, resulting in a brain which is more resistant than the adult's to certain mechanisms of brain damage, but quite vulnerable to others. The inhibition of growth by severe seizure activity has implications for the developing brain that have not yet been fully explored. The mechanisms by which seizure-induced hippocampal lesions cause chronic epilepsy have been explored in several recent animal models. A rearrangement of hippocampal circuits may result from death of selected populations of inhibitory neurons, or from misdirected regeneration by excitatory neurons. It could lead to chronic epilepsy through loss of normal inhibition, through sprouting of new excitatory connections, through conservation of excitatory connections which in a healthy brain would be pruned during development, or through facilitation of kindling by one of these mechanisms. These recent results are beginning to reconcile the pathology seen in human hippocampi ablated for intractable epilepsy with that observed in experimental animals, and offer the promise of even greater advances in the future. They suggest a mechanism for Gower's dictum that "seizures beget seizures" and highlight the importance of the interneurons of the dentate gyrus in epileptogenesis. PMID:7818023

Wasterlain, C G; Shirasaka, Y

349

Understanding Brain and Consciousness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the dissipative quantum model of brain in the form of an extended abstract of recent works addressing\\u000a to the question of the scientific understanding of brain and consciousness in the frame of quantum field theory. The intrinsic\\u000a dissipative character of the brain dynamics appears to be a possible root of consciousness mechanisms.

G. Vitiello

350

The Brain Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientific Learning Corporation maintains the Brain Connection, a Web site "dedicated to providing accessible, high-quality information about how the brain works and how people learn." This extensive site has descriptions, pictures, animations, puzzles, quizzes and much more on nearly every aspect of the human brain. Everyone from kids to adults will find hours of interesting and fun exploration at this well-constructed Web site.

2008-11-13

351

Right Brain Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to show that instructional methods designed for right-brained students will make a significant difference in the reading achievement scores of the students when compared with the scores of right-brained sixth grade students not receiving these instructional methods.The subjects were sixth grade students who use the right hemisphere of the brain to a greater degree

Velda L Griffin

1985-01-01

352

Neuromodulation of Brain States  

PubMed Central

Switches between different behavioral states of the animal are associated with prominent changes in global brain activity, between sleep and wakefulness or from inattentive to vigilant states. What mechanisms control brain states, and what are the functions of the different states? Here we summarize current understanding of the key neural circuits involved in regulating brain states, with a particular emphasis on the subcortical neuromodulatory systems. At the functional level, arousal and attention can greatly enhance sensory processing, whereas sleep and quiet wakefulness may facilitate learning and memory. Several new techniques developed over the past decade promise great advances in our understanding of the neural control and function of different brain states.

Lee, Seung-Hee; Dan, Yang

2013-01-01

353

[Interaction brain-lungs].  

PubMed

The brain and the lungs interact early and rapidly when hit by a disease process. Often well tolerated by the healthy brain, an impaired respiratory function may deteriorate further a "sick" brain. Hypoxemia is a prognostic factor in the brain-injured patients. At the opposite, an acute brain damage early impacts the lung function. Local brain inflammation spreads rapidly to the lung. It initiates an immunological process weakening the lungs and increasing its susceptibility to infection and mechanical ventilation. Sometimes this process is preceded by a swelling lesion, known as neurogenic pulmonary oedema, resulting from an sympathetic overstimulation which usually follows an intense and brutal surge of intracranial pressure. The management of brain-injured patients has to be directed toward the protection of both the brain and lung. Neuronal preservation is crucial, because of the lack of regenerative potential in the brain, unlike the lung. A compromise must be obtained between the cerebral and pulmonary treatments although they may conflict in some situations. PMID:22694980

Abdennour, L; Zeghal, C; Dème, M; Puybasset, L

2012-06-12

354

Gliadel for brain metastasis  

PubMed Central

With therapies for systemic malignancy improving, life expectancy for cancer patients is becoming increasingly dependent on control of brain metastatic disease. Despite improvements in surgical and radiotherapy modalities for control of brain metastasis, the prognosis for patients with brain metastases is poor. The development of controlled release polymers has lead to novel new therapies for malignant brain tumors consisting of direct surgical delivery of chemotherapy agents to the tumor bed and sustained chemotherapy release over a prolonged period of time. Although there is a large body of literature in support of BCNU polymer wafer for primary brain malignancy and experimental brain metastases, clinical studies evaluating the BCNU polymer wafer for brain metastatic disease are relatively sparse. In this review, we discuss the role of the BCNU polymer wafer for brain metastasis focusing specifically on rationale for use of locally delivered sustained release polymers, history of the BCNU polymer wafer, and emerging studies examining the role of the BCNU polymer wafer for metastatic brain tumors.

Abel, Taylor J.; Ryken, Timothy; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Gabikian, Patrik

2013-01-01

355

Multimodal, Multidimensional Models of Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary Naturally occurring mutants and genetically manipulated strains of mice are widely used to model a variety of human diseases. Atlases are an invaluable aid in understanding the impact of such manipulations by providing a standard for comparison and to facilitate the integration of anatomic, genetic, and physiologic observations from multiple subjects and experiments. We have developed digital atlases of the C57BL/6J mouse brain (adult and neonate) as comprehensive frameworks for storing and accessing the myriad types of information about the mouse brain. Along with raw and annotated images, these contain database management systems and a set of tools for comparing information from different techniques and different animals. Each atlas establishes a canonical representation of the mouse brain and provides the tools for the manipulation and analysis of new data. We describe both these atlases and discuss how they may be put to use in organizing and analyzing data from mouse models of epilepsy.

MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D.; Yuan, Heng; Jacobs, Russell E.; Toga, Arthur W.

2011-01-01

356

Purified Rabies Vaccine (Suckling Rat Brain Origin)  

PubMed Central

A 10% suckling rat brain rabies vaccine free from encephalitogenic activity was prepared and inactivated with 1:8,000 beta-propiolactone (BPL), or ultraviolet light, or a combination of ultraviolet light and BPL, or 1% phenol. Potency was excellent in all samples, with the exception of the phenolized product which was marginal. A purified suckling rat brain (SRB) vaccine prepared by zonal centrifugation and inactivated with 1:8,000 BPL contained about 0.01 the amount of protein nitrogen of the unpurified 10% SRB vaccine. This purified product passed the National Institutes of Health potency test for rabies vaccine after administration of a quantity equivalent to a standard 10% brain suspension.

Lavender, J. F.

1970-01-01

357

Cognitive Models of the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human brain is the most complicated organ in the universe and a new frontier yet to be explored in an interdisciplinary approach. Investigation of the brain is a unique problem that requires recursive mental power to explore the brain using the brain. This paper attempts to develop functional and cognitive models of the brain by using cognitive informatics and

Yingxu Wang; Ying Wang

2002-01-01

358

Robustness of the brain parenchymal fraction for measuring brain atrophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Other researchers have proposed that the brain parenchymal fraction (or brain atrophy) may be a good surrogate measure for disease progression in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. This paper considers various factors influencing the measure of the brain parenchymal fraction obtained from dual spin-echo PD and T2-weighted head MRI scans. We investigate the robustness of the brain parenchymal fraction with respect to two factors: brain-mask border placement which determines the brain intra-dural volume, and brain scan incompleteness. We show that an automatic method for brain segmentation produces an atrophy measure which is fairly sensitive to the brain-mask placement. We also show that a robust, reproducible brain atrophy measure can be obtained from incomplete brain scans, using data in a centrally placed subvolume of the brain.

Atkins, M. Stella; Orchard, Jeffery J.; Law, Benjamin; Tory, Melanie K.

2002-05-01

359

BrainAligner: 3D Registration Atlases of Drosophila Brains  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Drosophila neural expression patterns in thousands of 3D image stacks of individual brains requires registering them into a canonical framework based on a fiducial reference of neuropil morphology. Given a target brain labeled with predefined landmarks, the BrainAligner program automatically finds the corresponding landmarks in a subject brain and maps it to the coordinate system of the target brain via a deformable warp. Using a neuropil marker (the antibody nc82) as a reference of the brain morphology and a target brain that is itself a statistical average of 295 brains, we achieved a registration accuracy of 2µm on average, permitting assessment of stereotypy, potential connectivity, and functional mapping of the adult fruitfly brain. We used BrainAligner to generate an image pattern atlas of 2,954 registered brains containing 470 different expression patterns that cover all the major compartments of the fly brain.

Peng, Hanchuan; Chung, Phuong; Long, Fuhui; Qu, Lei; Jenett, Arnim; Seeds, Andrew M.; Myers, Eugene W.; Simpson, Julie H.

2011-01-01

360

PV standards overview  

SciTech Connect

A brief historical perspective and current status of the on going evolution of photovoltaic standards development and the use of these standards in promulgating accepted practices used in producing, measuring, and deploying Photovoltaic (PV) components and systems in the field. After nearly 20 years of experience in developing and writing domestic and international consensus PV standards the need and importance of standard methods and practices continues, as in the past, to be essential for a maturing PV industry. Part of this maturity has been in establishing and maintaining a common ground through the development of consensus standards and furthering the use of standards for PV commercialization in support of test facility accreditation, product certification, systems deployment, and safety code development to assure PV quality, performance, reliability, and safety. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

DeBlasio, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 (United States)

1997-02-01

361

Approach to standardizing MR image intensity scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the many advantages of MR images, they lack a standard image intensity scale. MR image intensity ranges and the meaning of intensity values vary even for the same protocol (P) and the same body region (D). This causes many difficulties in image display and analysis. We propose a two-step method for standardizing the intensity scale in such a way that for the same P and D, similar intensities will have similar meanings. In the first step, the parameters of the standardizing transformation are 'learned' from an image set. In the second step, for each MR study, these parameters are used to map their histogram into the standardized histogram. The method was tested quantitatively on 90 whole brain FSE T2, PD and T1 studies of MS patients and qualitatively on several other SE PD, T2 and SPGR studies of the grain and foot. Measurements using mean squared difference showed that the standardized image intensities have statistically significantly more consistent range and meaning than the originals. Fixed windows can be established for standardized imags and used for display without the need of per case adjustment. Preliminary results also indicate that the method facilitates improving the degree of automation of image segmentation.

Nyul, Laszlo G.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

1999-05-01

362

Committee develops groundwater standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock develops consensus standards related to exploration for and quantitative availability of groundwater as it occurs in the soil and rock. The 530-member committee has 20 existing ASTM standards and has, at various stages of development, 25 draft standards that are useful for investigations of available supply, potential and existing pollution, artificial recharge, land subsidence, and other problems related to groundwater.

363

Brain tumor epidemiology in Austria and the Austrian Brain Tumor Registry.  

PubMed

Cancer registries provide incidence and mortality data on patients with cancer at the population level. Cancer registration is most often restricted to the group of malignant neoplasms, whereas information on benign and intermediate tumors is generally not available. Brain tumors however differ from other sites by 1) the large spectrum of different tumor types, and 2) the exclusive localization in proximity to eloquent areas with considerable neurological comorbidity and mortality irrespective of their biological behavior. In order to obtain a comprehensive overview of the brain tumor burden, specialized brain tumor registries, which provide information on all brain tumor types, have emerged in several countries. This thesis synopsis summarizes the Austrian experience on the establishment of such a specialized brain tumor registry: the Austrian Brain Tumor Registry (ABTR). The initial steps are reported - from consensus and commitment of the Austrian Society of Neuropathology, formation of an interdisciplinary team of experts, setup of the infrastructure including data confidentiality issues, to the sustained support of the Austrian neurooncology community and major cooperation with the Austrian National Cancer Registry. ABTR differs from other registries by its scientific setting and neuropathological background warranting strong expertise in brain tumor typing and tissue-based research. Thereby, ABTR constitutes also a virtual brain tumor biobank. By having achieved these steps, first investigational results demonstrate that ABTR provides valid and accurate population-based incidence and survival data for individual brain tumor types. The exact incidence of rare tumor entities is estimated, key diagnostic criteria of newly proposed tumor entities are refined, common standards for testing of molecular markers are advocated, and medical progress via real-life outcome analyses is assessed. The diverse scientific contributions highlight the enormous scientific potential of ABTR for continued work. PMID:23611589

Woehrer, Adelheid

364

Data Standards Manual (monographs)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... of Veterans Affairs, Federal Medical Terminologies (FMT), Health Level Seven (HL7), the Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

365

The minicolumn and evolution of the brain.  

PubMed

The minicolumn is generally considered an elementary unit of the neocortex in all mammalian brains. This essential building block has been affected by changes in the circuitry of the cortex during evolution. Researchers believe that enlargement of the cortical surface occurs through the addition of minicolumns rather than of single neurons. Therefore, minicolumns integrate cortical encephalization with organization. Despite these insights, few studies have analyzed the morphometry of the minicolumn to detect subtle but important differences among the brains of diverse mammals. The notion that minicolumns are essentially unchanged across species is challenged by strong evidence to the contrary. Because they are subject to species-specific variation, they can be used as a way to study evolutionary changes. Unfortunately, comparative studies are marred by a lack of standardized techniques, tissue preparation, cortical regions, or anatomical feature studied. However, recent advances in methodology enable standardized, quantified comparisons of minicolumn morphology. PMID:12417819

Buxhoeveden, Daniel P; Casanova, Manuel F

2002-01-01

366

MRI assessment of myelination: an age standardization.  

PubMed

777 cerebral MRI examinations of children aged 3 days to 14 years were staged for myelination to establish an age standardization. Staging was performed using a system proposed in a previous paper, separately ranking 10 different regions of the brain. Interpretation of the results led to the identification of four clinical diagnoses that are frequently associated with delays in myelination: West syndrome, cerebral palsy, developmental retardation, and congenital anomalies. In addition, it was found that assessment of myelination in children with head injuries was not practical as alterations in MRI signal can simulate earlier stages of myelination. Age limits were therefore calculated from the case material after excluding all children with these conditions. When simplifications of the definition of the stages are applied, these age limits for the various stages of myelination of each of the 10 regions of the brain make the staging system applicable for routine assessment of myelination. PMID:8078713

Staudt, M; Schropp, C; Staudt, F; Obletter, N; Bise, K; Breit, A; Weinmann, H M

1994-01-01

367

“CAM-Brain” ATR's artificial brain project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on progress made in the first 3 years of ATR's “CAM-Brain” Project, which aims to use “evolutionary engineering”\\u000a techniques to build\\/grow\\/evolve a RAM-and-cellular-automata based artificial brain consisting of thousands of interconnected\\u000a neural network modules inside special hardware such as MIT's Cellular Automata Machine “CAM-8”, or NTT's Content Addressable\\u000a Memory System “CAM-System”. The states of a billion (later

Hugo de Garis

1996-01-01

368

JAMA Patient Page: Brain Death  

MedlinePLUS

... the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Brain Death A person dies when brain function ceases, the ... techniques that can maintain some bodily functions. Brain death, as understood in US law and medical practice, ...

369

Brain Tumors Facts and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... making them the most common primary brain tumor. Gliomas, a broad term which includes all tumors arising ... all primary brain tumors, and 54% of all gliomas. Astrocytomas represent 7% of all primary brain tumors. ...

370

Standard and Non-Standard Solar Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the physical input and assumptions commonly adopted in modern standard solar models that also produce good agreement with solar oscillation frequencies. We discuss two motivations for considering non-standard models: the solar neutrino problem and surface lithium abundance problem. We begin to explore the potential for mixed core models to solve the neutrino problem, and compare the structure, neutrino flux, and oscillation frequency predictions for several models in which the inner 25% of the radius is homogenized, taking into account the effects of non-local equilibrium abundances of He-3. The results for the neutrino flux and helioseismic predictions are far from satisfactory, but such models have the potential to reduce the predicted Be-7/B-8 neutrino flux ratio, and further studies are warranted. Finally, we discuss how much the neutrino problem can be alleviated in the framework of the standard solar model by using reaction rates, abundances, and neutrino capture cross-sections at the limits of their uncertainties, while still satisfying the constraints of helioseismology.

Guzik, J. A.; Nueforge-Verheecke, C.

2000-06-01

371

Using Your Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many scientists have been fascinated by how the brain works, but much of what is known about the brain has been discovered within the last twenty years. In this article, the author explores how thinking and using one's mind are essential to understanding. She contends that children need to be in control of their learning; the adult's role is to…

Ward, Hellen

2011-01-01

372

How Julie's Brain Learns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New neuroscientific knowledge is redefining possibilities for K-12 education. There are five critical variables in the brain's learning process: neural history, context, acquisition, elaboration, and encoding. This article tracks one student's unique brain activity throughout her school day to illustrate these variables. (MLH)|

Jensen, Eric

1998-01-01

373

Using Your Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many scientists have been fascinated by how the brain works, but much of what is known about the brain has been discovered within the last twenty years. In this article, the author explores how thinking and using one's mind are essential to understanding. She contends that children need to be in control of their learning; the adult's role is to…

Ward, Hellen

2011-01-01

374

The Resilient Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

2005-01-01

375

Split Brain Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)|

Cassel, Russell N.

1978-01-01

376

Brain imaging in psychiatry  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

Morihisa, J.M.

1984-01-01

377

Drugs and the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

378

Feed Your Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

Failmezger, Tammie L.

2006-01-01

379

Traumatic Brain Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2000-02-01

380

Inside the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of…

Drury, Stacy S.

2009-01-01

381

Obesity and the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world-wide increase in obesity has markedly stimulated research on the possibility that its cause can be found the brain. However, this research has produced little that can be used to treat obesity. The reason for the limited success of this approach may be that it relies on the hypothesis that the brain controls behavior. We suggest that this hypothesis

P. Södersten; C. Bergh; M. Zandian; I. Ioakimidis

2011-01-01

382

Music and brain plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex and widespread activation in many brain areas is seen while performing, listening or mentally imaging music, activity that varies with training, previous exposure, personal preference, emotional involvement and many other factors. Playing a musical instrument demands extensive motor and cognitive abilities, and early musical learning results in plastic reorganization of the developing brain one example being the increased cortical

BARBRO B. JOHANSSON

2006-01-01

383

Demystifying the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

Steinberg, Laurence

2011-01-01

384

Dyslexia and Brain Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the neurological basis of dyslexia has long been assumed, little direct evidence documents a relation between deviations in brain morphology and behavioral correlates of dyslexia. This article reviews two sources of evidence. Results of CT\\/MRI studies suggest that in the brains of dyslexics there is an increased incidence of symmetry in the region of the planum temporale and parietooccipital

George W. Hynd; Margaret Semrud-Clikeman

1989-01-01

385

Brain and Nervous System  

MedlinePLUS

... light into nerve signals for the brain. The brain then turns the image right-side up and tells us what we are seeing. Hearing. Every sound we hear is the result of sound waves entering our ears and causing our eardrums to ...

386

Train the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain is the organ of the mind. If the mind is in music and music is in the mind, then we are saying that music emanates from the functioning of the brain. Recent inves- tigations by neuroscientists have detailed how the process of psychoacoustics (transforming the physical sound waves into electro-chemical stimuli does result in establishing particular memory systems,

Olin G. Parker

2006-01-01

387

Brain Evolution and Archaeopteryx  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE brain of Archaeopteryx lithographica, the earliest fossil bird, is known from a natural endocranial cast exposed in the famous specimen on display at the British Museum (Natural History). Edinger1 and de Beer2 have agreed that its brain was ``similar in type and structure to that of reptiles and different from that of all other known birds'' (ref. 2, page

Harry J. Jerison

1968-01-01

388

Drugs and the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

389

Brain Friendly School Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This title gives concrete practical examples of how to align school library programs and instructional practice with the six key concepts of brain-compatible learning: increasing input to the brain; increasing experiential data; multiple source feedback; reducing threat; involving students in learning decision making; and interdisciplinary unit…

Sykes, Judith Anne

2006-01-01

390

Brain-Flow Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain-flow writing technique, which might also be called the "fast flow" technique, offers a particularly useful means of helping adults overcome writer's block. It also offers some bonuses in the form of enhanced creativity, improved thought-flow, and much faster writing output. There are six steps to brain-flow writing. In the first, or…

Peterson, Robert J.

391

Brain, Language, and Linguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past quarter of a century, Brain and Language (B & L)has recorded and stimulated research on the biological\\/neurological basis for human language. As noted in the Whitaker editorial in the first issue of the first volume (Whitaker, 1974), although for centuries scholars of different disciplines had been interested in the question of brain function and cogni- tion, specifically

Victoria A. Fromkin

2000-01-01

392

COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

393

Brain Friendly School Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This title gives concrete practical examples of how to align school library programs and instructional practice with the six key concepts of brain-compatible learning: increasing input to the brain; increasing experiential data; multiple source feedback; reducing threat; involving students in learning decision making; and interdisciplinary unit…

Sykes, Judith Anne

2006-01-01

394

What a Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines basic concepts about how the brain develops and considers how Head Start teachers and parents can take full advantage of the brain's multisensory learning approach to develop more effective ways to interact with children. Focuses on the critical developmental period for stimulating neurons and developing neural connections. Suggests…

Love, Kim

1997-01-01

395

Brain-Flow Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The brain-flow writing technique, which might also be called the "fast flow" technique, offers a particularly useful means of helping adults overcome writer's block. It also offers some bonuses in the form of enhanced creativity, improved thought-flow, and much faster writing output. There are six steps to brain-flow writing. In the first, or…

Peterson, Robert J.

396

Brain Tumor Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding and treatment of brain tumors. Donate Now Connect with Us Sign-up ... preview A short URL will be added to the end of your Tweet. Share Cancel Share on LinkedIn Preview your message Share ... Home > Understanding Brain Tumors > Symptoms Listen Unfortunately, it is very common ...

397

Imaging the Working Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)|

Swithenby, S. J.

1996-01-01

398

Postnatal brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain’s fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing

Terry L. Jernigan; William F. C. Baaré; Joan Stiles; Kathrine Skak Madsen

2011-01-01

399

Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)  

SciTech Connect

We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by (125I)-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei.

Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.

1988-08-08

400

Brain tissue salvage in acute stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombolysis is the only effective medical therapy of ultra-acute (<3 hours) cerebral ischemia, and it is moving from academic\\u000a centers to community-based standard therapy in experienced centers. Despite intensive experimental and clinical research,\\u000a the salvage of brain cells through a host of neuroprotective strategies has not been demonstrated to be efficient. As the\\u000a imaging and other patient selection methods continue

Perttu J. Lindsberg

2004-01-01

401

Epidemiology and prognosis of brain metastases  

PubMed Central

A substantial, but uncertain, number of patients with cancer develop brain metastases. Risk of brain metastasis is recognized to vary with type of primary cancer. Within specific types of primary cancer, prognostic factors for development of brain metastases are being recognized. Recent data suggest that molecular biomarkers that relate to cellular function can predict risk of developing brain metastases. Such information could optimize surveillance standards and/or be used to select patients for preventive interventions. Though average survival for patients with brain metastases is typically less than 6 months, it is well-recognized that subgroups of patients have significant probability of longer survival. Multiple prognostic models have been proposed, validated, and compared without clearly demonstrating superiority of one model over another. However, some factors show consistency as predictive variables across models, and performance status is almost universally significant. Application of predictive models to specific treatments has been difficult. Tumor-specific prognostic models are evolving, and combinations of biological and clinical factors may be used to optimize models for particular primary tumor types.

Stelzer, Keith J.

2013-01-01

402

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides information relating to Arizona Academic Standards for Grade 8. The following standards are reviewed: (1) the arts standards; (2) comprehensive health standards; (3) foreign and native language standards; (4) reading standard articulated by grade level 2003; (5) writing standard articulated by grade level 2004; (6)…

Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

403

Brain iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of [125I]transferrin in the brain. Some of the 59Fe was detected in CSF in a fraction less than 30 kDa (III). It was estimated that the iron-binding capacity of transferrin in CSF was exceeded, suggesting that iron is transported into the brain in a quantity that exceeds that of transferrin. Accordingly, it was concluded that the paramount iron transport across the BBB is the result of receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-containing transferrin by capillary endothelial cells, followed by recycling of transferrin to the blood and transport of non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain. It was found that retrograde axonal transport in a cranial motor nerve is age-dependent, varying from almost negligible in the neonatal brain to high in the adult brain. The principle sources of extracellular transferrin in the brain are hepatocytes, oligodendrocytes, and the choroid plexus. As the passage of liver-derived transferrin into the brain is restricted due to the BBB, other candidates for binding iron in the interstitium should be considered. In vitro studies have revealed secretion of transferrin from the choroid plexus and oligodendrocytes. The second part of the thesis encompasses the circulation of iron in the extracellular fluids of the brain, i.e. the brain interstitial fluid and the CSF. As the latter receives drainage from the interstitial fluid, the CSF of the ventricles can be considered a mixture of these fluids, which may allow for analysis of CSF in matters that relate to the brain interstitial fluid. As the choroid plexus is known to synthesize transferrin, a key question is whether transferrin of the CSF might play a role for iron homeostasis by diffusing from the ventricles and subarachnoid space to the brain interstitium. Intracerebroventricular injection of [59Fe125I]transferrin led to a higher accumulation of 59Fe than of [125I]transferrin in the brain. Except for uptake and axonal transport by certain neurons with access to the ventricular CSF, both iron and transferrin were, however, restricted to areas situated in close proximity to the ventric

Moos, Torben

2002-11-01

404

Robotic Multimodality Stereotactic Brain Tissue Identification: Work in Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time identification of tissue would improve procedures such as stereotactic brain biopsy (SBX), functional and implantation neurosurgery, and brain tumor excision. To standard SBX equipment has been added: (1) computer-controlled stepper motors to drive the biopsy needle\\/probe precisely; (2) multiple microprobes to track tissue density, detect blood vessels and changes in blood flow, and distinguish the various tissues being penetrated;

R. Andrews; R. Mah; A. Galvagni; M. Guerrero; R. Papasin; M. Wallace; J. Winters

1997-01-01

405

Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

406

[CAS General Standards 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

2011-01-01

407

Why Standards Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

2012-01-01

408

Primary Standards Laboratory report  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

Not Available

1990-12-01

409

[CAS General Standards 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

2011-01-01

410

Standardizing calibration laboratory practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the calibration lab is becoming more and more important in view of the `global business' environment. Scheduled, regular calibration of test and measuring instruments with measurement traceability to the nationally accepted standards is a prerequisite. Certification to ISO 9000-Quality System Standards becoming a must for exports, the calibration activity being the backbone for quality, calibration laboratory practices

C. Muralikrishna Kumar

1993-01-01

411

Standards Supporters Firing Back  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supporters of the Common Core State Standards are moving to confront increasingly high-profile opposition to the standards at the state and national levels by rallying the private sector and initiating coordinated public relations and advertising campaigns as schools continue implementation. In states such as Michigan and Tennessee, where…

Ujifusa, Andrew

2013-01-01

412

STANDARDS FOR FLAX FIBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, standards for flax fibers do not exist for the most part, with the exception of an ISO (International Organization for Standarization) method for fineness. Marketing of flax fiber is based on subjective methods of evaluation, but there is strong interest in developing objective standards...

413

New Source Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and…

Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

1972-01-01

414

Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

Ahronheim, Judith R.

1998-01-01

415

Standards and Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)|

Gross, S. P.

1978-01-01

416

Law and standards.  

PubMed

A comparison is made between the widely different processes of creating legislation and that of developing standards. Despite their very different origins, in practical terms standards can influence the development of legislation as well as demonstrating compliance with legislative requirements. PMID:11154959

Allaert, F A; Barber, B

2000-11-01

417

Exploring the New Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an exciting time to be in science education. New science standards are being developed by a group of science educators from across the country, working with 26 states in a process managed by Achieve, Inc., a non-profit education reform organization. The development of the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) promises to be the most…

Willard, Ted; Pratt, Harold; Workosky, Cindy

2012-01-01

418

Oregon Social Sciences Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

419

High Standard Alidade  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This alidade consists of straightedges with a rigidly-mounted telescope that can be rotated through the vertical angle ±30. The telescope is set on a high standard or post (4 inches in height) to raise it above the table. The telescope for the high standard is 16 power, inverting type with internal ...

2009-07-22

420

Neutron standard data  

SciTech Connect

The neutron standards are reviewed with emphasis on the evaluation for ENDFB-VI. Also discussed are the neutron spectrum of /sup 252/Cf spontaneous fission, activation cross sections for neutron flux measurement, and standards for neutron energies greater than 20 MeV. Recommendations are made for future work. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Peelle, R.; Conde, H.

1988-01-01

421

Laser frequency standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief review of the present status of the problem of developing optical frequency standards. The basic principles of laser-frequency stabilization based on narrow nonlinear optical resonances are presented. The basic physical factors determining the shape and the shift of narrow resonances are discussed. The design of the modern laser frequency standard, based on the use of

Sergei N Bagaev; V P Chebotaev

1986-01-01

422

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SEPARATE LISTINGS ARE MADE OF AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS (KINGERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE 6) AND IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. STANDARDS FOR EACH PIECE OF EQUIPMENT ARE RECOMMENDED. TO MAKE STANDARDS MORE LOGICAL AND REASONABLE, THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS WERE MADE--THAT EACH SCHOOL HAVE ADEQUATE STORAGE…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

423

Drinking-water standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

Nancy B. Munro; Curtis C. Travis

1986-01-01

424

Standardization in electronic money  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic money services are provided by the combination of Integrated Circuit (IC) cards and terminals. The compatibility of different brands of electronic money can be enabled by firms' joint adoption of standard terminals. In this paper, we analyse the effect of achieving compatibility among different brands of electronic money. We show that, if the unit production cost of a standard

Imho Kang; Jeong-yoo Kim

2005-01-01

425

Oregon Social Sciences Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

426

Are Reading Standards Falling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds that the Reading-for-Meaning Scale (first standardized in 1979) shows no drop in reading standards among 7- to 12-year-olds, but shows a widening performance gap between middle-class and low-income schools. Attributes this gap to segregation of schools based on socioeconomic status. Suggests that primary teachers do as good a job as they…

Hunter-Grundin, Elizabeth

1997-01-01

427

High Standards for Whom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The compelling ideas underlying the standards movement are being distorted by poor implementation and political opportunism. Higher standards will probably not affect the nation's already booming economy or close the white/minority achievement gap. An emerging rebellion, driven by negative testing consequences, is eroding political support.…

Gratz, Donald B.

2000-01-01

428

Common Standards for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

Principal, 2010

2010-01-01

429

Fastbus Standard Routines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines standard routines for software access to a FASTBUS system, a standardized modular high-speed data acquisition and control system defined in ANSI/IEEE Std. 960-1986, published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. I...

1987-01-01

430

Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

Ahronheim, Judith R.

1998-01-01

431

Standards in Science Unveiled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final version of standards aimed at reshaping the focus and delivery of science instruction in U.S. schools was publicly unveiled last week, setting the stage for states--many of which helped craft the standards--to take the next step and consider adopting them as their own. More than three years in the making, the Next Generation Science…

Robelen, Erik W.

2013-01-01

432

Breast cancer brain metastases: new directions in systemic therapy.  

PubMed

The management of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer continues to be a major clinical challenge. The standard initial therapeutic approach depends upon the size, location, and number of metastatic lesions and includes consideration of surgical resection, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. As systemic therapies for control of extracranial disease improve, patients are surviving long enough to experience subsequent progression events in the brain. Therefore, there is an increasing need to identify both more effective initial treatments as well as to develop multiple lines of salvage treatments for patients with breast cancer brain metastases. This review summarises the clinical experience to date with respect to cytotoxic and targeted systemic therapies for the treatment of brain metastases, highlights ongoing and planned trials of novel approaches and identifies potential targets for future investigation. PMID:23662165

Lin, Nancy U

2013-04-18

433

Optical frequency standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of atomic frequency standards since Essen's atomic clock fifty years ago has been considerable both in respect of microwave and optical standards. In particular, the development of trapping and laser cooling techniques for both atoms and ions has played a major role. This paper reviews the status of the development of single cold trapped ion and cold trapped atom optical frequency standards. Recent results show comb measurements of trapped ion optical frequency standards with accuracies close to Cs fountain limited operation. The factors affecting future stability and reproducibility are discussed. The opportunities for future standards capable of approaching reproducibility at the 10-18 level are outlined, together with the likely limitations arising.

Gill, Patrick

2005-06-01

434

A novel superresolution algorithm based on standard displacements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many imaging systems, the detector array is not sufficiently dense to adequately sample the scene with the desired field of view. In order to enhance the existed image resolution, several approaches to solve this problem have been investigated previously, such as maximum a posteriori probability (MAP), projection onto convex sets(POCS) etc. Those algorithms enhance reconstruct high resolution with reduced aliasing, from a sequence of undersampled frames. But whether POCS, or MAP estimator in space domain, image pixels are rearranged by using lexicographic ordering as a large matrix in procession. These methods have to solve a large ill-condition equation group, which leads to a big burden of computation and storage, complexity of algorithm. So they are rarely used in practical application. In order to solve these problems, a novel reconstruction high resolution(HR) image algorithm based on the standard displacements of low resolution(LR) images is proposed. Moreover, a set of recursive updating algorithm models is presented. The results of simulating experiments show that the resolution, the details as well as the definition of the high resolution image given by using our method are greatly enhanced. At the same time, the running speed of our method is greatly faster than other super-resolution methods.

Wei, Xiangquan; Guo, Maozu; Huang, Jianming; Chen, Feng

2009-10-01

435

Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment  

SciTech Connect

Facilities that process special nuclear material perform periodic inventories. In bulk facilities that process low-enriched uranium, these inventories and their audits are based primarily on weight and enrichment measurements. Enrichment measurements determine the {sup 211}U weight fraction of the uranium compound from the passive gamma-ray emissions of the sample. Both international inspectors and facility operators rely on the capability to make in-field gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment. These users require rapid, portable measurement capability. Some in-field measurements have been biased, forcing the inspectors to resort to high-resolution measurements or mass spectrometry to accomplish their goals.

Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Christiansen, A.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L. [and others

1996-11-01

436

Robust vehicle detection in low-resolution aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a feature-based approach for vehicle detection in aerial imagery with 11.2 cm/pixel resolution. The approach is free of all constraints related to the vehicles appearance. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is used to extract keypoints in the image. The local structure in the neighbouring of the SIFT keypoints is described by 128 gradient orientation based features. A Support Vector Machine is used to create a model which is able to predict if the SIFT keypoints belong to or not to car structures in the image. The collection of SIFT keypoints with car label are clustered in the geometric space into subsets and each subset is associated to one car. This clustering is based on the Affinity Propagation algorithm modified to take into account specific spatial constraint related to geometry of cars at the given resolution.

Sahli, Samir; Ouyang, Yueh; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

2010-04-01

437

Financial Time Series Indexing Based on Low Resolution Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major tasks in time series database application is time series query. Time series data is always exist in large data size and high dimensionality. However, different from traditional data, it is impossible to index the time series in traditional database system. Moreover, time series with different lengths always coexists in the same database. Therefore, development of a

Tak-chung Fu; Fu-lai Chung; Robert Luk; Chak-man Ng

438

Low-resolution structural studies of human Stanniocalcin-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stanniocalcins (STCs) represent small glycoprotein hormones, found in all vertebrates, which have been functionally implicated in Calcium homeostasis. However, recent data from mammalian systems indicated that they may be also involved in embryogenesis, tumorigenesis and in the context of the latter especially in angiogenesis. Human STC1 is a 247 amino acids protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27

Daniel M Trindade; Júlio C Silva; Margareth S Navarro; Iris CL Torriani; Jörg Kobarg

2009-01-01

439

Vibrotactile Letter Reading Using a Low-Resolution Tactor Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrotactile displays have been studied for several decades in the context of sensory substitution. Recently, a number of vibrotactile displays have been developed to extend sensory modalities in virtual reality. Some of these target the whole body as the stimulation region, but existing systems are only designed for discrete stimulation points at specific parts of the body. However, since human

Yasuyuki Yanagida; Mitsuhiro Kakita; Robert W. Lindeman; Yuichiro Kume; Nobuji Tetsutani

2004-01-01

440

Trabecular bone volume fraction mapping by low-resolution MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trabecular bone volume fraction (TBVF) is highly associated with the mechanical competence of trabecular bone. TBVF is ordinarily measured by histomorphometry from bone biopsies or, noninvasively, by means of high-resolution microcomputed tomography and, more recently, by micro-MRI. The latter meth- ods require spatial resolution sufficient to resolve trabeculae, along with segmentation techniques that allow unambiguous assignment of the signal to

H. K. Song; F. W. Wehrli

2001-01-01

441

Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed smaller, lighter hardware (MCA and shielded detectors) that has been successfully transferred to the commercial sector. We have developed software that has received limited testing, the next release should be sufficiently robust for wide release to the general public. We have had initial success with more sophisticated analysis methods. We are pursuing medium-resolution tors and response function

J. K. Sprinkle; A. Christiansen; R. Cole; M. L. Collins; S.-T. Hsue; P. L. Knepper; T. O. McKown; R. Siebelist

1997-01-01

442

SVM PMSM Drives with Low Resolution Hall-Effect Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a back-EMF-based method is used in conjunction with three very low-cost integrated circuits based on the Hall-effect to estimate the rotor position of the direct-drive PMSMs to be used for traction purpose of an electric wheelchair. A speed estimator based on rotor frame machine model (SERF) has been implemented for the PMSM drives, and then the rotor

A. Lidozzi; L. Solero; F. Crescimbini; A. Di Napoli

2005-01-01

443

SVM PMSM Drive With Low Resolution Hall-Effect Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a back-electromotive force-based method is used in conjunction with three very low-cost integrated circuits based on the Hall-effect to estimate the rotor position of the direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) to be used for traction purpose of an electric wheelchair. A speed estimator based on a rotor frame machine model has been implemented for the PMSM drives,

Alessandro Lidozzi; Luca Solero; Fabio Crescimbini; Augusto Di Napoli

2007-01-01

444

Low-resolution structure of vaccinia virus DNA replication machinery.  

PubMed

Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages. PMID:23175373

Sèle, Céleste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P; Iseni, Frédéric; Tarbouriech, Nicolas

2012-11-21

445

Low-Resolution Structure of Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Machinery  

PubMed Central

Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages.

Sele, Celeste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P.

2013-01-01

446

Advances in neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Improved diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed for our military and veterans, their families, and society at large. Advances in brain imaging offer important biomarkers of structural, functional, and metabolic information concerning the brain. This article reviews the application of various imaging techniques to the clinical problems of TBI and PTSD. For TBI, we focus on findings and advances in neuroimaging that hold promise for better detection, characterization, and monitoring of objective brain changes in symptomatic patients with combat-related, closed-head brain injuries not readily apparent by standard computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

Van Boven, Robert W.; Harrington, Greg S.; Hackney, David B.; Ebel, Andreas; Gauger, Grant; Bremner, J. Douglas; D'Esposito, Mark; Detre, John A.; Haacke, E. Mark; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Le Bihan, Denis; Mathis, Chester A.; Mueller, Susanne; Mukherjee, Pratik; Schuff, Norbert; Chen, Anthony; Weiner, Michael W.

2011-01-01

447

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: EC feasibility study results and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain-injured patients\\u000a and to facilitate a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health care technology with the primary objective of improving\\u000a patient care. European Community (EC) funding supported meetings over a year to discuss and define a core dataset to be collected\\u000a from patients with

Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; Rob Donald; Richard Sinnott; Anthony Stell

2010-01-01

448

Management of penetrating brain injury  

PubMed Central

Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients.

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

2011-01-01

449

Human intelligence and brain networks  

PubMed Central

Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other.

Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.

2010-01-01

450

Standardization in optics characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many advanced fields of optical technology, progresses are extremely dependent on reliable characterization procedures employed for quality assessment in volume manufacturing as well as for the optimization of high performance optical components. With the rapid development of laser technology and modern optics, especially optical metrology gained of importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical components. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered nowadays as common quality factors, which are often indicated in optics catalogues and are considered by the customers for the design of optical systems. As a consequence of this trend, standardization of measurement procedures for the characterization of optical components became a crucial point for the optics industry and for critical applications of optical components in laser systems as well as conventional optical devices. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed in the Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) resulting in practical International Standards or Draft Standards for the measurement of optical absorption, scattering, reflectance and laser induced damage thresholds. In this paper, the current state of standardized characterization techniques for optical components is summarized. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO/DIS 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO/DIS 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of recent trends in laser technology and its applications in semiconductor lithography.

Ristau, Detlev

2000-11-01

451

Insulin and the brain.  

PubMed

Mainly known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, insulin has also significant impact within the brain, functioning as a key neuromodulator in behavioral, cellular, biochemical and molecular studies. The brain is now regarded as an insulin-sensitive organ with widespread, yet selective, expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala and cerebral cortex. Insulin receptor signaling in the brain is important for neuronal development, glucoregulation, feeding behavior, body weight, and cognitive processes such as with attention, executive functioning, learning and memory. Emerging evidence has demonstrated insulin receptor signaling to be impaired in several neurological disorders. Moreover, insulin receptor signaling is recognized as important for dendritic outgrowth, neuronal survival, circuit development, synaptic plasticity and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor trafficking. We review the multiple roles of insulin in the brain, as well as its endogenous trafficking to the brain or its exogenous intervention. Although insulin can be directly targeted to the brain via intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intraparenchymal delivery, these invasive techniques are with significant risk, necessitating repeated surgical intervention and providing potential for systemic hypoglycemia. Another method, intranasal delivery, is a non-invasive, safe, and alternative approach which rapidly targets delivery of molecules to the brain while minimizing systemic exposure. Over the last decades, the delivery of intranasal insulin in animal models and human patients has evolved and expanded, permitting new hope for associated neurodegenerative and neurovascular disorders. PMID:23231032

Derakhshan, Fatemeh; Toth, Cory

2013-03-01

452

Localisation Standards and Metadata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a localisation process and focus on localisation standards. Localisation standards provide a common framework for localisers, including authors, translators, engineers, and publishers. Standards with rich semantic metadata generally facilitate, accelerate, and improve the localisation process. We focus particularly on the XML Localisation Interchange File Format (XLIFF), and present our experiment and results. An html file after converted into XLIFF, travels through different commercial localisation tools, and as a result, data as well as metadata are stripped away. Interoperability between file formats and application is a key issue for localisation and thus we stress how this can be achieved.

Anastasiou, Dimitra; Vázquez, Lucia Morado

453

Sonication standard laboratory module  

DOEpatents

A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

Beugelsdijk, Tony (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Tracy H. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence E. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Jeffrey E. (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, Michael Leon (Menan, ID)

1999-01-01

454

Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

455

The Brain Reserve Hypothesis, Brain Atrophy and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have used the concept of brain reserve to explain the dissociation between pathological brain damage and cognitive and functional performance. A variety of brain reserve hypotheses exist, and different empirical strategies have been employed to investigate these variants. Objective: The study investigates (i) the relationship between measures of brain burden (atrophy, white matter hyperintensities (WMH)) and measures of

Helen Christensen; Kaarin J. Anstey; Ruth A. Parslow; Jerome Maller; Andrew Mackinnon; Perminder Sachdev

2007-01-01

456

Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... to be screened, and screening with either brain MRA or brain CTA could readily be performed if ... with brain aneurysms, then aneurysm screening (with brain MRA or brain CTA) is usually recommended for at ...

457

Brain-Actuated Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years evidence has accumulated that shows\\u000a the possibility to analyze human brain activity on-line\\u000a and translate brain states into actions such as selecting\\u000a a letter from a virtual keyboard or moving a robotics\\u000a device. These initial results have been obtained with\\u000a either invasive approaches (requiring surgical\\u000a implantation of electrodes) or synchronous protocols\\u000a (where brain signals are time-locked

José del R. Millán; Frédéric Renkens; J. Mouriño; W. Gerstner

2004-01-01

458

Psychotherapy and brain plasticity  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of consciousness; an emphasis which may usefully complement what can be learnt from more specific methodologies.

Collerton, Daniel

2013-01-01

459

Aldosterone in the brain  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological and physiological phenomena suggest that cells somewhere inside the central nervous system are responsive to aldosterone. Here, we present the fundamental physiological limitations for aldosterone action in the brain, including its limited blood-brain barrier penetration and its substantial competition from glucocorticoids. Recently, a small group of neurons with unusual sensitivity to circulating aldosterone were identified in the nucleus of the solitary tract. We review the discovery and characterization of these neurons, which express the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and consider alternative proposals regarding sites and mechanisms for mineralocorticoid action within the brain.

Geerling, Joel C.; Loewy, Arthur D.

2009-01-01

460

Analysis of Dimensional Metrology Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is an analysis of documentary standards related to dimensional metrology information, with recommendations regarding standards development. The analysis focuses on the degree to which existing standards and standards under development provide a...

J. Evans S. Frechette J. Hurst H. Huang T. Kramer E. Messina

2001-01-01

461

New brain cancer treatment may be more effective, less toxic  

Cancer.gov

A Phase 2 clinical trial testing a new protocol for treating a relatively rare form of brain cancer, primary CNS lymphoma, may change the standard of care for this disease, according to doctors at UC San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, who led the research. Described this week in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the trial involved 44 patients who were given a combination of high-dose chemotherapy with immune therapy, rather than the standard combination of chemotherapy with a technique known as whole-brain radiotherapy.

462

Refractory Material Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxide standards of zirconium, hafnium, titanium, yttrium, niobium, and aluminum containing prescribed impurity elements in three different concentration ranges were prepared and subsequently analyzed by chemical, spectrographic, and in some cases, neutron...

S. Kallmann J. Wieland F. Collier R. Liu H. Oberthin

1965-01-01

463

STELLA Standards Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a provisional framework for the STELLA (Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia), which identifies broad dimensions of teaching together with groupings of related attributes derived from teachers' narratives. (RS)|

English in Australia, 2001

2001-01-01

464

ASTM standards on catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 25 standards relating to the testing and evaluation of catalysts and catalyst reactions, including tests for attrition and abrasion, particle size distribution, crush strength, and vibrated apparent packing density.

Not Available

1988-01-01

465

SULFUR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION STANDARD  

EPA Science Inventory

The document contains information regarding reregistration of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The document includes how to register under a registration standard, regulatory position and rationale, and summaries of data requirements and data gaps. Als...

466

Latex Allergy OSHA Standards  

MedlinePLUS

... due to such exposure. As used in this topic, latex refers to the natural rubber latex manufactured ... States have adopted different standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement policies. General Industry ( ...

467

USAF Standard Software Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work performed to expand the capabilities of the USAF Standard Software Base supporting AN/GYQ-21(V) operations. The report discusses maintenance and improvements made to the baseline system, and the development and implementatio...

G. Kincaid R. Hicks W. Fullerton G. Morgan B. Wolf

1980-01-01

468

Smithsonian Microbeam Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a short history of the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards; their sources, selection, preparation, and analyses. Fifty eight minerals, natural glasses, and synthetic samples have been characterized in the past 25 years. During that time, over 750 requ...

E. Jarosewich

2002-01-01

469

Computed Tomography (CT) Standards  

SciTech Connect

There is currently no standardized method to check the measurement capabilities of computed tomography (CT) systems within industry. The current method to determine the functionality of CT systems is by use of a test phantom to represent the actual part to be tested. A standard method to check the software algorithms when measuring such parameters as density of a material and the size of an object is not readily available. Many different materials are evaluated by CT systems. A set of standards necessitates the inclusion of materials that cover the gambit of materials encountered. The Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) CT standards are designed to accommodate a variety of materials and several different sizes. This provides a method to check the CT system for size measurement capabilities and material density measurement as well as aid in optimizing the geometric parameters of the machine configuration.

Hubert, R.R.; Beach, J.M.

2000-02-02

470

Iranian Special Library Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of these standards are: (1) to suggest the steps necessary for the establishment of special libraries; (2) for those recently established, to suggest the steps necessary to achieve satisfactory performance levels in all areas, and finally, (3...

J. F. Harvey

1973-01-01

471

Therapeutic Area Standards Plan  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... of existing data standards, models, and terminologies ... to collect and model TA-specific ... Require- ments Definition – Business Case Development ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

472

Wirephoto Standards Converter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A standards converter that translates simultaneously between the United States and European wirephoto networks has been developed. Items of noncompatibility include picture duration, lines per minute, lines per inch, and scanning direction. The system ope...

D. E. Troxel W. F. Schreiber C. L. Seitz

1968-01-01

473

Virtual Worlds: Considering Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PURPOSE AND SCOPE: Stimulate high-level discussion on issues in virtual worlds interoperability and standards * Collect feedback for further consideration. CRUX OF THE MATTER: Leveraging lessons learned may encourage evolutionary advancement and increase ...

K. Gamor

2009-01-01

474

FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD  

SciTech Connect

This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

2010-01-13

475

Standard Wiggler Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in Wiggler magnets (a close sequence of transverse fields with alternating polarity) to extend and enhance the spectrum of synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings has increased significantly during the past few years. Standard wigglers,...

H. Winick R. H. Helm

1977-01-01

476

DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

NONE

1995-08-01

477

Health and Safety Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Health and safety standards aim at minimizing risk to people and the environment. Often, though, there is a significant time\\u000a lag between the emergence of any new technology and the generation of sufficient risk information to allow a thorough risk\\u000a assessment and to write a traditional regulatory quantitative risk management standard [1]. In the early twenty-first century,\\u000a this time lag