These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Investigating phobic specificity with standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).  

PubMed

The current study investigated differential sources of late event-related potentials (ERPs) in two subtypes of specific phobia using sLORETA (standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography). In two experiments, 14 spider-phobic patients (and controls), and 14 dentophobic patients (and controls) were confronted with disorder-relevant and affectively neutral pictures while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Mean ERP amplitudes were extracted in the time windows of 300-450ms (P300) and 450-800ms (late positive potential, LPP). Analyses revealed that both spider phobics and dental phobics showed enhanced current density in parietal regions (i.e., cuneus, precuneus) for the P300 time frame when exposed to disorder-specific contents. This result can be interpreted to reflect automatic attention allocation. Spider phobics additionally displayed greater current density in the insula and the anterior/posterior cingulate cortex in the LPP time window relative to controls. Most likely, the phylogentically based spider phobia is characterized by a deeper and more prolonged attention engagement than dental phobia. Our findings are in good accordance with existing brain imaging studies and underline that source localization is a useful alternative for identifying relevant cortical regions in subtypes of specific phobia. PMID:22906777

Scharmüller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schäfer, Axel; Schienle, Anne

2012-10-01

2

Three-Dimensional Electroencephalographic Changes on Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) During the Sleep Onset Period.  

PubMed

Electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns during sleep are markedly different from those measured during the waking state, but the process of falling asleep is not fully understood in terms of biochemical and neurophysiological aspects. We sought to investigate EEG changes that occur during the transitional period from wakefulness to sleep in a 3-dimensional manner to gain a better understanding of the physiological meaning of sleep for the brain. We examined EEG 3-dimensionally using LORETA (low-resolution electromagnetic tomography), to localize the brain region associated with changes that occur during the sleep onset period (SOP). Thirty-channel EEG was recorded in 61 healthy subjects. EEG power spectra and intracortical standardized LORETA were compared between 4 types of 30-second states, including the wakeful stage, transition stage, early sleep stage 1, and late sleep stage 1. Sleep onset began with increased delta and theta power and decreased alpha-1 power in the occipital lobe, and increased theta power in the parietal lobe. Thereafter, global reductions of alpha-1 and alpha-2 powers and greater increases of theta power in the occipito-parietal lobe occurred. As sleep became deeper in sleep stage 1, beta-2 and beta-3, powers decreased mainly in the frontal lobe and some regions of the parieto-temporo-limbic area. These findings suggest that sleep onset includes at least 3 steps in a sequential manner, which include an increase in theta waves in the posterior region of the brain, a global decrease in alpha waves, and a decrease in beta waves in the fronto-central area. PMID:25150221

Park, Doo-Heum; Ha, Jee Hyun; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yu, Jaehak; Shin, Chul-Jin

2014-08-21

3

Effects of the South American Psychoactive Beverage Ayahuasca on Regional Brain Electrical Activity in Humans: A Functional Neuroimaging Study Using Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting ?-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT2A agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which

Jordi Riba; Peter Anderer; Francesc Jané; Bernd Saletu; Manel J. Barbanoj

2004-01-01

4

IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

2002-01-01

5

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

6

Maintaining standardization: an update of the HUPO Brain Proteome Project.  

PubMed

The Human Proteome Organisation was launched in February 2001 as a result of the need of an international proteomic forum to improve the understanding of human diseases. The initiative dealing with the brain is the Human Proteome Organisation Brain Proteome Project chaired in Germany and Korea. In order to estimate the existing approaches in brain proteomics, as well as to establish a standardized data reprocessing pipeline, pilot studies were initiated including both mouse and human samples. Data had to be submitted to a Data Collection Center for central re-processing and are now publicly accessible at the PRIDE database serving as reference data for future analysis. It became clear that heterogeneity, for example, different analysis strategies and data formats, are a real challenge when comparing results and when working in a consortium. Therefore, standardization, the organisation of data management and the synergistic effects of a consortium of collaborators are of outstanding importance to any big proteome analysis. The following manuscript will highlight these activities and aims of the Human Proteome Organisation Brain Proteome Project, summarizing its historical timeline and its two pilot studies. PMID:18466049

Hamacher, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Eisenacher, Martin; Hardt, Tanja; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

2008-04-01

7

Image enhancement for low resolution display panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a real time automatic image correction technique operating under real-time constraints (25ms) to address red dot artifacts in low resolution display panels. The algorithm is designed as a two stage process, starting with the identification of pixels which could cause such artifacts followed by a color correction scheme to compensate for any perceived visual errors. Artifact inducing pixels are identified by thresholding the vector color gradient of the image. The color levels of the adjacent subpixels around the artifacts are estimated based on partitive spatial color mixing. Red dot artifacts occur as singlet, couplets or triplets and consequently three different correction schemes are explored. The algorithm also ensures that artifacts occurring at junctions, corners and cross sections are corrected without affecting the underlying shape or contextual sharpness. The performance of our algorithm was benchmarked using a series of 30 corrected and uncorrected images by human observers. This algorithm is designed as a general purpose color correction technique for display panels with an offset in their subpixel patterns and can be easily implemented as an isolated real time post processing technique for the output display buffer without any higher order processing or image content information. All the above mentioned benefits are realized through software and don't require any upgrade or replacement of existing hardware.

Kothari, Rakshit S.; Saber, Eli; Nelson, Marvin; Stauffer, Michael; Bohan, Dave

2015-01-01

8

Improved low-resolution crystallographic refinement with Phenix and Rosetta  

PubMed Central

Refinement of macromolecular structures against low-resolution crystallographic data is limited by the ability of current methods to converge on a structure with realistic geometry. We developed a low-resolution crystallographic refinement method that combines the Rosetta sampling methodology and energy function with reciprocal-space X-ray refinement in Phenix. On a set of difficult low-resolution cases, the method yielded improved model geometry and lower free R factors than alternate refinement methods. PMID:24076763

DiMaio, Frank; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Adams, Paul D; Baker, David

2014-01-01

9

Local frequency descriptor for low-resolution face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face recognition from low-resolution images is a common yet challenging case in real applications. Since the high-frequency information is lost in low-resolution images, it is necessary to explore robust information in the low frequency domain. In this paper, we propose an effective local frequency descriptor (LFD) for low resolution face recognition, by building upon the ideas behind local phase quantization

Zhen Lei; Timo Ahonen; Matti Pietikäinen; Stan Z. Li

2011-01-01

10

Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography  

PubMed Central

Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7?Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed. PMID:25195739

Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

2014-01-01

11

Atlas-based segmentation for globus pallidus internus targeting on low-resolution MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report a method to automatically segment the internal part of globus pallidus (GPi) on the pre-operative low-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Herein we used an ultra-high resolution human brain dataset as electronic atlas of reference on which we segmented the GPi. First, we registered the ultra-high resolution dataset on the

Maria I. Iacono; Nikos Makris; Luca Mainardi; John Gale; Andre van der Kouwe; Azma Mareyam; Jonathan R. Polimeni; Lawrence L. Wald; Bruce Fischl; Emad N. Eskandar; Giorgio Bonmassar

2011-01-01

12

Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases.  

PubMed

Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID:25309417

Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A; Boline, Jyl

2014-01-01

13

Effective Feature Extraction for Character Recognition from Low Resolution Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When character recognition is made from low-resolution characters of motion image, it is the general idea to restructure high-resolution image first by using sequence of the low-resolution images and then extract features from the constructed high-resolution image. In this paper, we propose a new method in which the direct extraction of features from the low-resolution images is made first, and then reconstructing high accuracy feature from sequence of the feature. We show the advantage of our proposed method over ordinary method on theoretical and recognition experiment.

Ohta, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

14

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, VOL. 12, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2004 387 Low-Resolution Electromagnetic  

E-print Network

to shape their brain electrical activity in a desired direction. The technique is known as EEG biofeedback), electroen- cephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, electromagnetic tomography, inverse solution, low) biofeedback (neurofeedback) and low-resolution elec- tromagnetic tomography (LORETA). The aim is to enhance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Improving standards in brain-behavior correlation analyses  

PubMed Central

Associations between two variables, for instance between brain and behavioral measurements, are often studied using correlations, and in particular Pearson correlation. However, Pearson correlation is not robust: outliers can introduce false correlations or mask existing ones. These problems are exacerbated in brain imaging by a widespread lack of control for multiple comparisons, and several issues with data interpretations. We illustrate these important problems associated with brain-behavior correlations, drawing examples from published articles. We make several propositions to alleviate these problems. PMID:22563313

Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Pernet, Cyril R.

2012-01-01

16

Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

Bo Bo, Nyan; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

2014-01-01

17

Correcting second-order contamination in low-resolution spectra  

E-print Network

An empirical method for correcting low-resolution astronomical spectra for second-order contamination is presented. The method was developed for correcting spectra obtained with grism #4 of the ALFOSC spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope and the performance is demonstrated on spectra of two nearby bright Type Ia supernovae.

V. Stanishev

2007-05-23

18

Human mobility monitoring in very low resolution visual sensor network.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

Bo, Nyan Bo; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

2014-01-01

19

Incorporating Human Body Mass in Standards of Helmet Impact Protection against Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

Impact induced traumatic brain injury (ITBI) describes brain injury from head impact not necessarily accompanied by skull fracture. For sufficiently abrupt head impact decelerations, ITBI results from brain tissue stress incurred as the brain crashes into the inside of the skull wall, displacing the surrounding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Proper helmet cushioning can damp the impact force and reduce ITBI. But force is mass times acceleration and commonly used helmet blunt impact standards are based only on acceleration thresholds. Here I show how this implies that present standards overestimate the minimum acceleration onset for ITBI by implicitly assuming that the brain is mechanically decoupled from the body. I quantify how an arbitrary orientation of the body with respect to impact direction increases the effective mass that should be used in calculating the required damping force and injury threshold accelerations. I suggest a practical method to incorporate the body mass and impact angle into ITBI helme...

Blackman, Eric G

2009-01-01

20

The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed. PMID:21906305

2011-01-01

21

New low-resolution spectrometer spectra for IRAS sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-resolution spectra of 486 IRAS point sources with F sub nu(12 microns) in the range 20-40 Jy are presented. This is part of an effort to extract and classify spectra that were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra and represents an extension of the earlier work by Volk and Cohen which covers sources with F sub nu(12 microns) greater than 40 Jy. The spectra have been examined by eye and classified into nine groups based on the spectral morphology. This new classification scheme is compared with the mechanical classification of the Atlas, and the differences are noted. Oxygen-rich stars of the asymptotic giant branch make up 33 percent of the sample. Solid state features dominate the spectra of most sources. It is found that the nature of the sources as implied by the present spectral classification is consistent with the classifications based on broad-band colors of the sources.

Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Stencel, R. E.; Brugel, E.

1991-01-01

22

New low-resolution spectrometer spectra for IRAS sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-resolution spectra of 486 IRAS point sources with Fnu(12 microns) in the range 20-40 Jy are presented. This is part of an effort to extract and classify spectra that were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra and represents an extension of the earlier work by Volk and Cohen which covers sources with Fnu(12 microns) greater than 40 Jy. The spectra have been examined by eye and classified into nine groups based on the spectral morphology. This new classification scheme is compared with the mechanical classification of the Atlas, and the differences are noted. Oxygen-rich stars of the asymptotic giant branch make up 33 percent of the sample. Solid state features dominate the spectra of most sources. It is found that the nature of the sources as implied by the present spectral classification is consistent with the classifications based on broad-band colors of the sources.

Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Stencel, R. E.; Brugel, E.

1991-12-01

23

Spectral unmixing for tracking human motion in low resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how colour/hue information can be used to track people in image sequences received from very low resolution sensors. The main colour spaces such as Normalised RGB, HSV, CIE L*a*b*and YCbCr have different advantages and disadvantages when applied to tracking in very low resolution imagery, where the objects of interest may be sub-pixel in size. Tests have been carried out to find out the best colour space or combination of colour spaces. Spectral unmixing algorithms, commonly used in remote sensing and multi-spectral image processing, were used to assist object tracking algorithms by decomposing pixel colour information into fractional contributions from backgrounds and skin.

Govinda, V.; Ralph, J. F.; Spencer, J. W.; Goulermas, J. Y.

2007-07-01

24

The IRAS low-resolution spectra of planetary nebulae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the low-resolution spectra of 170 planetary nebulae observed by IRAS, most of which were not included in the Atlas of Low-Resolution Spectra. These have been classified into eight groups based upon the spectral morphology, with emphasis on the dust continuum rather than the spectral lines. The Low-Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) spectra are nearly evenly divided between spectra which show only a dust continuum with no lines, and spectra where there are strong lines with a dust continuum appearing longwards of about 15 microns. A study has been made of the strength of the 11.3-micron PAH emission feature as a function of the nebular C/O ratio, combining ground-based and LRS data. The C/O ratio for IC 2621 is derived from IUE spectra and used in this study. The 11.3-micron feature is present with essentially constant strength in all nebulae with C/O above about 1. Only marginal evidence exists for its presence below C/O about 1 and then at a level about 5 times lower than in carbon-rich nebulae.

Volk, Kevin; Cohen, Martin

1990-01-01

25

Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town…

White, David J.; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B.

2012-01-01

26

Parametric brain MR atlases: standardization for imaging informatics.  

PubMed

This paper is focused on the development of normal MR brain atlases of intrinsic MR parameters. These parameters permit quantitative comparisons across imaging studies (as opposed to raw image intensity values) and are important markers of neurological diseases. The development includes fast sequences to generate three parameters (T1: spin-lattice relaxation, T2: spin-spin relaxation, and Diffusion Tensor) covering the whole brain with isotropic and high-resolution images. The analysis of raw data to generate the parametric images is followed by registration algorithms to bring the image studies acquired on normal subjects aligned to a common frame of reference. The registration method includes both linear and non-linear algorithms. Two atlas schemes are discussed: an average atlas and a probabilistic atlas. Initial results on sequence development and registration are presented. The atlases are envisaged as an integral part of an imaging informatics infrastructure that enables image analysis across imaging studies to perform automated image data mining. PMID:15361040

Sinha, Usha; Ardekani, Siamak

2004-01-01

27

Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements  

SciTech Connect

Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gunnink, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G. [Ulba Metallurgical Facility, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

1998-12-01

28

Detecting aircraft with a low-resolution infrared sensor.  

PubMed

Existing computer simulations of aircraft infrared signature (IRS) do not account for dispersion induced by uncertainty on input data, such as aircraft aspect angles and meteorological conditions. As a result, they are of little use to estimate the detection performance of IR optronic systems; in this case, the scenario encompasses a lot of possible situations that must be indeed addressed, but cannot be singly simulated. In this paper, we focus on low-resolution infrared sensors and we propose a methodological approach for predicting simulated IRS dispersion of poorly known aircraft and performing aircraft detection on the resulting set of low-resolution infrared images. It is based on a sensitivity analysis, which identifies inputs that have negligible influence on the computed IRS and can be set at a constant value, on a quasi-Monte Carlo survey of the code output dispersion, and on a new detection test taking advantage of level sets estimation. This method is illustrated in a typical scenario, i.e., a daylight air-to-ground full-frontal attack by a generic combat aircraft flying at low altitude, over a database of 90,000 simulated aircraft images. Assuming a white noise or a fractional Brownian background model, detection performances are very promising. PMID:22588114

Jakubowicz, Jérémie; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Maire, Florian; Moulines, Eric

2012-06-01

29

Automated lung segmentation of low resolution CT scans of rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual modality micro-CT and SPECT imaging can play an important role in preclinical studies designed to investigate mechanisms, progression, and therapies for acute lung injury in rats. SPECT imaging involves examining the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals within the lung, with the hypothesis that uptake is sensitive to the health or disease status of the lung tissue. Methods of quantifying lung uptake and comparison of right and left lung uptake generally begin with identifying and segmenting the lung region within the 3D reconstructed SPECT volume. However, identification of the lung boundaries and the fissure between the left and right lung is not always possible from the SPECT images directly since the radiopharmaceutical may be taken up by other surrounding tissues. Thus, our SPECT protocol begins with a fast CT scan, the lung boundaries are identified from the CT volume, and the CT region is coregistered with the SPECT volume to obtain the SPECT lung region. Segmenting rat lungs within the CT volume is particularly challenging due to the relatively low resolution of the images and the rat's unique anatomy. Thus, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm for low resolution micro-CT scans that utilizes depth maps to detect fissures on the surface of the lung volume. The fissure's surface location is in turn used to interpolate the fissure throughout the lung volume. Results indicate that the segmentation method results in left and right lung regions consistent with rat lung anatomy.

Rizzo, Benjamin M.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

2014-03-01

30

Low-Resolution Raman-Spectroscopy Combustion Thermometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of optical thermometry, now undergoing development, involves low-resolution measurement of the spectrum of spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) from N2 and O2 molecules. The method is especially suitable for measuring temperatures in high pressure combustion environments that contain N2, O2, or N2/O2 mixtures (including air). Methods based on SRS (in which scattered light is shifted in wavelength by amounts that depend on vibrational and rotational energy levels of laser-illuminated molecules) have been popular means of probing flames because they are almost the only methods that provide spatially and temporally resolved concentrations and temperatures of multiple molecular species in turbulent combustion. The present SRS-based method differs from prior SRS-based methods that have various drawbacks, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article. Two main differences between this and prior SRS-based methods are that it involves analysis in the frequency (equivalently, wavelength) domain, in contradistinction to analysis in the intensity domain in prior methods; and it involves low-resolution measurement of what amounts to predominantly the rotational Raman spectra of N2 and O2, in contradistinction to higher-resolution measurement of the vibrational Raman spectrum of N2 only in prior methods.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

2008-01-01

31

Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured on the PET images, and the brain height was estimated by a contour-matching procedure using the midsagittal plane. In the nonlinear warping step, individual gray matter locations were matched with those of a standard brain by maximizing correlation coefficients of regional profile curves determined between predefined stretching centers (predominantly in white matter) and the gray matter landmarks. The accuracy of the brain height estimation was compared with skull x-ray estimations, showing comparable accuracy and better reproducibility. Linear-scaling and nonlinear warping methods were validated using ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose and ({sup 15}O)water images. Regional anatomic variability on the glucose images was reduced markedly. The statistical significance of activation foci in paired water images was improved in both vibratory and visual activation paradigms. A group versus group comparison following the proposed anatomic standardization revealed highly significant glucose metabolic alterations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared with those of a normal control group. These results suggested that the method is well suited to both research and clinical settings and can facilitate pixel-by-pixel comparisons of PET images. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

32

Low-resolution refinement tools in REFMAC5  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of low-resolution macromolecular crystal structure analysis are considered: (i) the use of reference structures and structural units for provision of structural prior information and (ii) map sharpening in the presence of noise and the effects of Fourier series termination. The generation of interatomic distance restraints by ProSMART and their subsequent application in REFMAC5 is described. It is shown that the use of such external structural information can enhance the reliability of derived atomic models and stabilize refinement. The problem of map sharpening is considered as an inverse deblurring problem and is solved using Tikhonov regularizers. It is demonstrated that this type of map sharpening can automatically produce a map with more structural features whilst maintaining connectivity. Tests show that both of these directions are promising, although more work needs to be performed in order to further exploit structural information and to address the problem of reliable electron-density calculation. PMID:22505260

Nicholls, Robert A.; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N.

2012-01-01

33

Digital tomosynthesis aided by low-resolution exact computed tomography.  

PubMed

Tomosynthesis reconstructs 3-dimensional images of an object from a significantly fewer number of projections as compared with that required by computed tomography (CT). A major problem with tomosynthesis is image artifacts associated with the data incompleteness. In this article, we propose a hybrid tomosynthesis approach to achieve higher image quality as compared with competing methods. In this approach, a low-resolution CT scan is followed by a high-resolution tomosynthesis scan. Then, both scans are combined to reconstruct images. To evaluate the image quality of the proposed method, we design a new breast phantom for numerical simulation and physical experiments. The results show that images obtained by our approach are clearly better than those obtained without such a CT scan. PMID:18043366

Zeng, Kai; Yu, Hengyong; Zhao, Shiying; Fajardo, Laurie Lee; Ruth, Christopher; Jing, Zhenxue; Wang, Ge

2007-01-01

34

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System. Phase II; 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and NOAA. As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. GSFC has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). Its main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a PC as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Duran, Steve; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

35

A human post-mortem brain model for the standardization of multi-centre MRI studies.  

PubMed

Multi-centre MRI studies of the brain are essential for enrolling large and diverse patient cohorts, as required for the investigation of heterogeneous neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, the multi-site comparison of standard MRI data sets that are weighted with respect to tissue parameters such as the relaxation times (T1, T2) and proton density (PD) may be problematic, as signal intensities and image contrasts depend on site-specific details such as the sequences used, imaging parameters, and sensitivity profiles of the radiofrequency (RF) coils. Water or gel phantoms are frequently used for long-term and/or inter-site quality assessment. However, these phantoms hardly mimic the structure, shape, size or tissue distribution of the human brain. The goals of this study were: (1) to validate the long-term stability of a human post-mortem brain phantom, performing quantitative mapping of T1, T2, and PD, and the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) over a period of 18months; (2) to acquire and analyse data for this phantom and the brain of a healthy control (HC) in a multi-centre study for MRI protocol standardization in four centres, while conducting a voxel-wise as well as whole brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) tissue volume comparison. MTR, T2, and the quotient of PD in WM and GM were stable in the post-mortem brain with no significant changes. T1 was found to decrease from 267/236ms (GM/WM) to 234/216ms between 5 and 17weeks post embedment, stabilizing during an 18-month period following the first scan at about 215/190ms. The volumetric measures, based on T1-weighted MP-RAGE images obtained at all participating centres, revealed inter- and intra-centre variations in the evaluated GM and WM volumes that displayed similar trends in both the post-mortem brain as well as the HC. At a confidence level of 95%, brain regions such as the brainstem, deep GM structures as well as boundaries between GM and WM tissues were found to be less reproducible than other brain regions in all participating centres. The results demonstrate that a post-mortem brain phantom may be used as a reliable tool for multi-centre MR studies. PMID:25595502

Droby, Amgad; Lukas, Carsten; Schänzer, Anne; Spiwoks-Becker, Isabella; Giorgio, Antonio; Gold, Ralf; De Stefano, Nicola; Kugel, Harald; Deppe, Michael; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G; Acker, Till; Zipp, Frauke; Deichmann, Ralf

2015-04-15

36

Cartography of asteroids and comet nuclei from low resolution data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution images of non-spherical objects, such as Viking images of Phobos and the anticipated Galileo images of Gaspra, lend themselves to conventional planetary cartographic procedures: control network analysis, stereophotogrammetry, image mosaicking in 2D or 3D, and airbrush mapping. There remains the problem of a suitable map projection for bodies which are extremely elongated or irregular in shape. Many bodies will soon be seen at lower resolution (5-30 pixels across the disk) in images from speckle interferometry, the Hubble Space Telescope, ground-based radar, distinct spacecraft encounters, and closer images degraded by smear. Different data with similar effective resolutions are available from stellar occultations, radar or lightcurve convex hulls, lightcurve modeling of albedo variations, and cometary jet modeling. With such low resolution, conventional methods of shape determination will be less useful or will fail altogether, leaving limb and terminator topography as the principal sources of topographic information. A method for shape determination based on limb and terminator topography was developed. It has been applied to the nucleus of Comet Halley and the jovian satellite Amalthea. The Amalthea results are described to give an example of the cartographic possibilities and problems of anticipated data sets.

Stooke, Philip J.

1992-01-01

37

THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE LOW RESOLUTION SPECTROMETER  

SciTech Connect

Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I., E-mail: tsumura@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

2013-08-15

38

Alteration of Cortical Functional Connectivity as a Result of Traumatic Brain Injury Revealed by Graph Theory, ICA, and sLORETA Analyses of EEG Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to examine the cortical functional connectivity using multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. First we utilized independent component analysis (ICA) to transform multichannel EEG recordings into independent processes and then applied source reconstruction algorithm [i.e., standardize low resolution brain electromagnetic (sLORETA)] to identify the cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Second, we performed a graph

C. Cao; S. Slobounov

2010-01-01

39

Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) neuroimaging analysis techniques based on voxel-wise statistics, such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional MRI, are widely applied to cognitive brain research in both human subjects and in non-human primates. Recent developments in imaging have enabled the evaluation of smaller animal models with sufficient spatial resolution. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate species, has been widely used in neuroscience research, to which voxel-wise statistics could be extended with a species-specific brain template. Here, we report, for the first time, a tissue-segmented, population-averaged standard template of the common marmoset brain. This template was created by using anatomical T(1)-weighted images from 22 adult marmosets with a high-resolution isotropic voxel size of (0.2 mm)(3) at 7-Tesla and DARTEL algorithm in SPM8. Whole brain templates are available at International Neuroinformatics Japan Node website, http://brainatlas.brain.riken.jp/marmoset/. PMID:21044887

Hikishima, K; Quallo, M M; Komaki, Y; Yamada, M; Kawai, K; Momoshima, S; Okano, H J; Sasaki, E; Tamaoki, N; Lemon, R N; Iriki, A; Okano, H

2011-02-14

40

Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

41

Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

2004-04-01

42

Investigating short wavelength correlated errors on low resolution mode altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although conventional radar altimetry products (Jason1, Jason2, LRM CRYOSAT2, etc) have a spatial resolution as high as 300 m, the observation of ocean scales smaller than 100 km is limited by the existence of a "spectral hump", i.e. a geographically coherent error. In the frame of the future altimetry missions (SAR for Cryosat -2 and Sentinel-3 missions and interferometry for the SWOT mission) it becomes crucial to investigate again and to better understand the signals obtained at small scales by conventional altimeter missions. Through an analysis of simulations, we show that heterogeneous backscattering scenes can result in the corruption of the altimeter waveforms and retracked parameters. The retrackers used in current ground processors cannot well fit the Brown model during backscattering events because this model has been designed for a homogeneous scene. The error is also propagated along-track because of the size and shape of the low resolution mode (LRM) disc-shaped footprint. The hump phenomenon is shown to be almost ubiquitous in the ocean, yet more intense at low latitudes and in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, where backscattering events are more frequent. Its overall signature could be a Gaussian-like random signal smooth for wavelengths smaller than 15 km, i.e. white noise on 1 Hz products. The analysis of current data from 5 altimetry missions highlights the influence of the instrument design and altitude, and the influence of the retracker used. The spectral hump is a systematic response to random events and it is possible to mitigate it with new processing. Simulations and geographically limited datasets from the synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) of Cryosat-2 show that the thin stripe-shaped synthetic footprint of SARM might be less sensitive to the artifact.

Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Dibarboure, Gérald; Labroue, Sylvie; Lasne, Yannick; Boy, François; Picot, Nicolas

2013-04-01

43

3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity  

PubMed Central

The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity. PMID:20339482

Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

2009-01-01

44

Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards  

PubMed Central

Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. Methods Rs-fMRI scans from 59 high functioning males with ASD and 59 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were used to build a series of machine learning classifiers. Classification features were obtained using 3 sets of brain regions. Another set of classifiers was built from participants' scores on behavioral metrics. An additional age and IQ-matched cohort of 178 individuals (89 ASD; 89 TD) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access dataset (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/abide/) were included for replication. Results High classification accuracy was achieved through several rs-fMRI methods (peak accuracy 76.67%). However, classification via behavioral measures consistently surpassed rs-fMRI classifiers (peak accuracy 95.19%). The class probability estimates, P(ASD|fMRI data), from brain-based classifiers significantly correlated with scores on a measure of social functioning, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), as did the most informative features from 2 of the 3 sets of brain-based features. The most informative connections predominantly originated from regions strongly associated with social functioning. Conclusions While individuals can be classified as having ASD with statistically significant accuracy from their rs-fMRI scans alone, this method falls short of biomarker standards. Classification methods provided further evidence that ASD functional connectivity is characterized by dysfunction of large-scale functional networks, particularly those involved in social information processing. PMID:25685703

Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Martin, Alex

2014-01-01

45

Calibration and standardization of microwave ovens for fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue.  

PubMed

Rapid and reproducible fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue for light and electron microscopy studies can be done in a microwave oven. In this review we report a standardized nomenclature for diverse fixation techniques that use microwave heating: (1) microwave stabilization, (2) fast and ultrafast primary microwave-chemical fixation, (3) microwave irradiation followed by chemical fixation, (4) primary chemical fixation followed by microwave irradiation, and (5) microwave fixation used in various combinations with freeze fixation. All of these methods are well suited to fix brain tissue for light microscopy. Fast primary microwave-chemical fixation is best for immunoelectron microscopy studies. We also review how the physical characteristics of the microwave frequency and the dimensions of microwave oven cavities can compromise microwave fixation results. A microwave oven can be calibrated for fixation when the following parameters are standardized: irradiation time; water load volume, initial temperature, and placement within the oven; fixative composition, volume, and initial temperature; and specimen container shape and placement within the oven. Using two recently developed calibration tools, the neon bulb array and the agar-saline-Giemsa tissue phantom, we report a simple calibration protocol that identifies regions within a microwave oven for uniform microwave fixation. PMID:9654457

Login, G R; Leonard, J B; Dvorak, A M

1998-06-01

46

Recognition of a low-resolution document consisting of Korean and English characters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an efficient algorithm that recognized handwritten Korean and English characters in a low-resolution document. for a user-friendly input systems for low-resolution documents consisting of two different sets of characters obtained by a facsimile or scanner, we propose a document-recognition algorithm utilizing several effective features (partial projection, the number of cross points, and distance features) and the membership function of the fuzzy set theory. Via computer simulation with several test documents, we show the effectiveness of the proposed recognition algorithm for both printed and handwritten and Korean and English characters in a low-resolution document.

Ham, Young K.; Doh, Sang Y.; Chung, Hong Kyu; Kim, Woo-Sung; Park, Rae-Hong

1995-04-01

47

Low-Resolution Spectroscopy of Primitive Asteroids: Progress Report for SARA/VSU Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress on a low-resolution survey of primitive C-class asteroids continues using new equipment (and its associated problems) to understand aqueous alteration in the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Leake, M. A.; Nogues, J. P.; Gaines, J. K.; Looper, J. K.; Freitas, K. A.

2001-01-01

48

HeadLock : wide-range head pose estimation for low resolution video  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on data mining technologies to extract head pose information from low resolution video recordings. Head pose, as an approximation of gaze direction, is a key indicator of human behavior and interaction. ...

DeCamp, Philip (Philip James)

2008-01-01

49

INTERPRETATION OF LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA FOR LEVEL 1 ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives guidelines for interpreting the low resolution mass spectra (LRMS) of complex chemical mixtures, within the context of the EPA Level 1 Environmental Assessment Program. It discusses the principles underlying direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex mixtures,...

50

CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS  

E-print Network

Context. CARMENES is a stabilised, high-resolution, double-channel spectrograph at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It is optimally designed for radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs with potentially habitable Earth-mass planets. Aims. We prepare a list of the brightest, single M dwarfs in each spectral subtype observable from the northern hemisphere, from which we will select the best planet-hunting targets for CARMENES. Methods. In this first paper on the preparation of our input catalogue, we compiled a large amount of public data and collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy with CAFOS at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for 753 stars. We derived accurate spectral types using a dense grid of standard stars, a double least-squares minimisation technique, and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. Additionally, we quantified surface gravity, metallicity, and chromospheric activity for all the stars in our sample. Results. We calculated spectral types for all 753 stars, of which 305 are new ...

Alonso-Floriano, F J; Caballero, J A; Montes, D; Klutsch, A; Mundt, R; Cortes-Contreras, M; Ribas, I; Reiners, A; Amado, P J; Quirrenbach, A; Jeffers, S V

2015-01-01

51

Automated measurement of redshifts from mid-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining accurate redshifts from mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution (R ˜ 100) spectroscopy is challenging because the wavelength resolution is too low to detect narrow lines in most cases. Yet, the number of degrees of freedom and diversity of spectral features are too high for regular spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting techniques to be convenient. Here we present a new SED-fitting-based routine for redshift determination that is optimized for MIR low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small-scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called maximum combined pseudo-likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML approach, the MCPL approach searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a 'pseudo-likelihood' (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of the MCPL approach are demonstrated by comparing its redshift estimates to those of the regular ML approach and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra from extragalactic sources at 0 < z < 3.7. The MCPL approach achieves a redshift accuracy ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 for 78 per cent of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68 per cent for the ML approach. The rate of outliers [?(z)/(1 + z) > 0.02] is 14 per cent for the MCPL approach and 22 per cent for the ML approach. ?2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalized combined PL (?) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depend strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by active galactic nucleus continua. Nevertheless, for a given ? the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent of their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a ? > 0.15 threshold retains 79 per cent of the sources with ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8 per cent.

Hernán Caballero, Antonio

2012-11-01

52

xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures  

PubMed Central

X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7?Å resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electro­physiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP. PMID:25195748

McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus

2014-01-01

53

Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS): The FEPS Spitzer/IRS Low Resolution Spectral Atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the low-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectral atlas of solar-type stars from our FEPS legacy science program. We very briefly discuss the observations, the data reduction and the data products. We also present a preliminary analysis of several spectra in the atlas.

Hines, D. C.; Bouwman, J.; Carpenter, J. M.; Kim, J. S.; Meyer, M. R.; Pascucci, I.; Watson, D. M.; Morris, P. W.

2006-12-01

54

Top-down mass spectrometry on low-resolution instruments: Characterization of phosphopantetheinylated carrier  

E-print Network

by mass spec- trometry, but demands instruments capable of both high sensitivity and high accuracy. Indeed by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.10.104 Keywords: Mass spectrometry; Linear ion trap; Tandem mass specTop-down mass spectrometry on low-resolution instruments: Characterization

Nizet, Victor

55

Low-Resolution Reconstruction of a Synthetic DNA Holliday Junction Marcelo Nollmann,*y  

E-print Network

Low-Resolution Reconstruction of a Synthetic DNA Holliday Junction Marcelo No¨llmann,*y W. Marshall of a Holliday (or four-way) DNA junction by using small- angle x-ray scattering, sedimentation velocity), and secondly, by ab initio reconstruction methods. The models found by both methods agree with experimentally

Nollmann, Marcelo

56

Low-resolution Raman spectroscopy: instrumentation and applications in chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that low-resolution Raman spectroscopy (LRRS) satisfies the need for a highly useful, low-cost spectroscopic approach to both qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic systems. Until now, the disadvantage of using Raman spectroscopy has been the cost of the instrumentation. It is shown that when the application does not require high spectral resolution for analysis, LRRS can be

R. H. Clarke; S. Londhe; W. R. Premasiri; M. E. Womble

1999-01-01

57

Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.

1973-01-01

58

DETERMINING RNA THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES USING LOW-RESOLUTION DATA  

PubMed Central

Knowing the 3-D structure of an RNA is fundamental to understand its biological function. Nowadays X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are systematically applied to newly discovered RNAs. However, the application of these high-resolution techniques is not always possible, and thus scientists must turn to lower resolution alternatives. Here, we introduce a pipeline to systematically generate atomic resolution 3-D structures that are consistent with low-resolution data sets. We compare and evaluate the discriminative power of a number of low-resolution experimental techniques to reproduce the structure of the Escherichia coli tRNAVAL and P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron. We test single and combinations of the most accessible low-resolution techniques, i.e. hydroxyl radical footprinting (OH), methidiumpropyl-EDTA (MPE), multiplexed hydroxyl radical cleavage (MOHCA), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We show that OH-derived constraints are accurate to discriminate structures at the atomic level, whereas EDTA-based constraints apply to global shape determination. We provide a guide for choosing which experimental techniques or combination of thereof is best in which context. The pipeline represents an important step towards high-throughput low-resolution RNA structure determination. PMID:22387042

Parisien, Marc; Major, François

2012-01-01

59

PATTERN RECOGNITION/EXPERT SYSTEM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA  

EPA Science Inventory

An empirical rule-based pattern recognition/expert system for classifying, estimating molecular weights and identifying low resolution mass spectra of toxic and other organic compounds has been developed and evaluated. he system was designed to accommodate low concentration spect...

60

High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations  

E-print Network

High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

Melvin, Stephen

61

TOWARDS ROBUST 3D FACE RECOGNITION FROM NOISY RANGE IMAGES WITH LOW RESOLUTION  

E-print Network

TOWARDS ROBUST 3D FACE RECOGNITION FROM NOISY RANGE IMAGES WITH LOW RESOLUTION O. EBERS, T. EBERS. Among these meth- ods, face recognition has a number of advantages such as being non face recognition system are its low data cap- ture duration and its low cost. However, the recent

Nabben, Reinhard

62

EXPERT SYSTEM FOR ESTIMATING MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA  

EPA Science Inventory

MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in a low resolution mass spectrum, has been found to be linearly correlated with the true molecular weights of 400 randomly selected spectra, yielding a family of parallel lines. imple exert system using MAXMASS h...

63

Integration of the Antennal Lobe Glomeruli and Three Projection Neurons in the Standard Brain Atlas of the Moth Heliothis Virescens  

PubMed Central

Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases (SBAs) are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, SBAs of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes (ALs) of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens SBA exclusively included the glomerular layer of the AL. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female SBA with a new model of the AL glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens AL model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the AL atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male AL was necessary. This required a new male AL atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three AL projection neurons of different preparations, the new SBA with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum. PMID:20179785

Løfaldli, Bjarte Bye; Kvello, Pål; Mustaparta, Hanna

2010-01-01

64

Determination of cyanide in waste water by low-resolution surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on sol-gel substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of low-resolution surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for cyanide as a potentially highly useful, cost-effective approach to detection and analysis for monitoring water contamination. We present high-sensitivity, low-resolution measurements of cyanide in water using a solid-state gold sol-gel substrate. These data suggest a sensitivity limit for low-resolution SERS detection of cyanide in water in the region

W. R. Premasiri; R. H. Clarke; S. Londhe; M. E. Womble

2001-01-01

65

Multi-region labeling and segmentation using a graph topology prior and atlas information in brain images.  

PubMed

Medical image segmentation and anatomical structure labeling according to the types of the tissues are important for accurate diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for multi-region labeling and segmentation, which is based on a topological graph prior and the topological information of an atlas, using a modified multi-level set energy minimization method in brain images. We consider a topological graph prior and atlas information to evolve the contour based on a topological relationship presented via a graph relation. This novel method is capable of segmenting adjacent objects with very close gray level in low resolution brain image that would be difficult to segment correctly using standard methods. The topological information of an atlas are transformed to the topological graph of a low resolution (noisy) brain image to obtain region labeling. We explain our algorithm and show the topological graph prior and label transformation techniques to explain how it gives precise multi-region segmentation and labeling. The proposed algorithm is capable of segmenting and labeling different regions in noisy or low resolution MRI brain images of different modalities. We compare our approaches with other state-of-the-art approaches for multi-region labeling and segmentation. PMID:24998760

Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood Salman; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

2014-12-01

66

EEG based brain source localization comparison of sLORETA and eLORETA.  

PubMed

Human brain generates electromagnetic signals during certain activation inside the brain. The localization of the active sources which are responsible for such activation is termed as brain source localization. This process of source estimation with the help of EEG which is also known as EEG inverse problem is helpful to understand physiological, pathological, mental, functional abnormalities and cognitive behaviour of the brain. This understanding leads for the specification for diagnoses of various brain disorders such as epilepsy and tumour. Different approaches are devised to exactly localize the active sources with minimum localization error, less complexity and more validation which include minimum norm, low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), standardized LORETA, exact LORETA, Multiple Signal classifier, focal under determined system solution etc. This paper discusses and compares the ability of localizing the sources for two low resolution methods i.e., sLORETA and eLORETA respectively. The ERP data with visual stimulus is used for comparison at four different time instants for both methods (sLORETA and eLORETA) and then corresponding activation in terms of scalp map, slice view and cortex map is discussed. PMID:25359588

Jatoi, Munsif Ali; Kamel, Nidal; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Faye, Ibrahima

2014-12-01

67

Low-resolution optical spectra of ultracool dwarfs with OSIRIS/GTC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of low-resolution optical spectroscopy with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and Low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) for a sample of ultracool dwarfs. For a subsample of seven objects, based on 2 Micron Sky Survey (2MASS) NIR photometric colours, a `photometric' spectral type is determined and compared to the results of the optical spectroscopy. For the stars, showing H? line in emission, equivalent widths were measured, and the ratio of H? to bolometric luminosity were calculated. We find that two dwarfs show the presence of magnetic activity over long periods, LP 326-21 - quasi-constant-like, and 2MASS J17071830+6439331 - variable.

Metodieva, Y.; Antonova, A.; Golev, V.; Dimitrov, D.; García-Álvarez, D.; Doyle, J. G.

2015-02-01

68

The Role of Standardized and Study-specific Human Brain Diffusion Tensor Templates in Inter-subject Spatial Normalization  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of standardized and study-specific human brain diffusion tensor templates on the accuracy of spatial normalization, without ignoring the important roles of data quality and registration algorithm effectiveness. Materials and Methods Two groups of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets, with and without visible artifacts, were normalized to two standardized diffusion tensor templates (IIT2, ICBM81) as well as study-specific templates, using three registration approaches. The accuracy of inter-subject spatial normalization was compared across templates, using the most effective registration technique for each template and group of data. Results It was demonstrated that, for DTI data with visible artifacts, the study-specific template resulted in significantly higher spatial normalization accuracy than standardized templates. However, for data without visible artifacts, the study-specific template and the standardized template of higher quality (IIT2) resulted in similar normalization accuracy. Conclusion For DTI data with visible artifacts, a carefully constructed study-specific template may achieve higher normalization accuracy than that of standardized templates. However, as DTI data quality improves, a high-quality standardized template may be more advantageous than a study-specific template, since in addition to high normalization accuracy, it provides a standard reference across studies, as well as automated localization/segmentation when accompanied by anatomical labels. PMID:23034880

Zhang, Shengwei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

69

How low can you go? The effect of low resolutions on shot types in mobile TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of mobile TV which is often viewed on small screens with low resolution has made TV content producers think about\\u000a refraining from using shots that depict subjects from a great distance. Shot types where the object of interest fills the\\u000a screen are deemed to be more appropriate for mobile devices. This paper reports a study on how shot

Hendrik Knoche; John D. Mccarthy; Martina Angela Sasse

2008-01-01

70

Multi-frequency backscatter variations for classification of mine-like targets from low-resolution sonar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to classify bottom targets as mine like using low-resolution sonar data. The sonar is mounted on an autonomous, unmanned seafloor crawler, which operates in the littoral regions. Due to the sonar's relatively large beamwidths and proximity to the seafloor, low-resolution imagery is produced in which objects possess Little discernable shape and no acoustic shadow

J. R. Stack; G. Dobeck; C. Bernstein

2005-01-01

71

Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats  

PubMed Central

Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent

2013-01-01

72

Facial identification in very low-resolution images simulating prosthetic vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.

Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.

2012-08-01

73

De Novo Correction of Mass Measurement Error in Low Resolution Tandem MS Spectra for Shotgun Proteomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an algorithm designed for the calibration of low resolution peptide mass spectra. Our algorithm is implemented in a program called FineTune, which corrects systematic mass measurement error in 1 min, with no input required besides the mass spectra themselves. The mass measurement accuracy for a set of spectra collected on an LTQ-Velos improved 20-fold from -0.1776 ± 0.0010 m/z to 0.0078 ± 0.0006 m/z after calibration (avg ± 95 % confidence interval). The precision in mass measurement was improved due to the correction of non-linear variation in mass measurement accuracy across the m/z range.

Egertson, Jarrett D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Bereman, Michael S.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Merrihew, Gennifer E.; MacCoss, Michael J.

2012-12-01

74

Compound classification by computer treatment of low resolution mass spectra - Application to geochemical and environmental problems.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a development of computer analysis of low-resolution chromatographic-mass spectrometric data, which provides a preliminary classification of an unknown spectrum as a listing of candidate classes of compounds. This procedure, referred to as COMSOC (Classification of Mass Spectra on Computers), operates by converting an incoming unknown mass spectrum into a simplified key word which is then compared with each of the key words held in its reference file. The advantages of COMSOC in characterizing complex mixtures are emphasized.

Smith, D. H.; Eglinton, G.

1972-01-01

75

On the categorization of uranium materials using low resolution gamma ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

In order to characterize uranium materials during e.g. nuclear safeguards inspections and in initial stages of nuclear forensic investigations, hand-held low resolution gamma ray detection instruments with automatic uranium categorization capabilities may be used. In this paper, simulated response curves for a number of matrices applied on NaI(Tl) scintillation detector spectra show that the result of the categorization is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the uranium material. Recommendations on how to minimize the possibility of misclassification are discussed. PMID:23208231

Vesterlund, A; Ulvsand, T; Lidström, K; Skarnemark, G; Ekberg, C; Ramebäck, H

2013-02-01

76

Autonomous Motion Segmentation of Multiple Objects in Low Resolution Video Using Variational Level Sets  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research that was done during a ten week internship in the Sapphire research group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the Summer of 2003. The goal of the study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of isolating (segmenting) moving objects in low resolution video sequences. This capability is currently being developed by the Sapphire research group as the first stage in a longer term video data mining project. This report gives a chronological account of what ideas were tried in developing the algorithm and what was learned from each attempt. The final version of the algorithm, which is described in detail, gives good results and is fast.

Moelich, M

2003-11-18

77

Radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain using a standard linear accelerator: rationale and technique.  

PubMed

We have recently initiated a program for irradiating small, unresectable arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) in the brain. The treatments are delivered using a modified and carefully calibrated 6 MV linac. We are using high, single doses (15 to 25 Gy) with a goal of sclerosing the vessels and preventing hemorrhages. This technique, radiosurgery, is somewhat controversial in the radiotherapy community. Since the treatment is given in a single sitting, rather than in the more conventional pattern of multiple small daily fractions, there is some concern about late radiation damage to the normal brain tissue. However an extensive review of the literature leads us to the conclusion that if a technique is used that keeps the volume irradiated to high dose small, radiosurgery is a safe and efficacious treatment for small (less than 2.5 cm) AVM's. To decrease the risk of necrosis of normal brain tissue, it is important to confine the high dose region as tightly as possible to the target volume. Precise target localization and patient immobilization is achieved using a stereotactic head frame which is used during angiography, CT scanning, and during the radiation treatment. This minimizes the margin of safety that must be added to the target volume for errors in localization and set-up. The treatment is delivered using multiple noncoplanar arcs, with small, sharp edged X ray beams, and with the center of the AVM at isocenter. This produces a rapid dropoff of dose beyond the target volume. Early results in our first few patients are encouraging. PMID:3042719

Saunders, W M; Winston, K R; Siddon, R L; Svensson, G H; Kijewski, P K; Rice, R K; Hansen, J L; Barth, N H

1988-08-01

78

Stages of Adult Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... no standard staging system for adult brain and spinal cord tumors. The extent or spread of cancer is ... is no standard staging system for brain and spinal cord tumors . Brain tumors that begin in the brain ...

79

Low resolution structure determination shows procollagen C-proteinase enhancer to be an elongated multidomain glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer (PCPE) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that can stimulate the action of tolloid metalloproteinases, such as bone morphogenetic protein-1, on a procollagen substrate, by up to 20-fold. The PCPE molecule consists of two CUB domains followed by a C-terminal NTR (netrin-like) domain. In order to obtain structural insights into the function of PCPE, the recombinant protein was characterized by a range of biophysical techniques, including analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy, and small angle x-ray scattering. All three approaches showed PCPE to be a rod-like molecule, with a length of approximately 150 A. Homology modeling of both CUB domains and the NTR domain was consistent with the low-resolution structure of PCPE deduced from the small angle x-ray scattering data. Comparison with the low-resolution structure of the procollagen C-terminal region supports a recently proposed model (Ricard-Blum, S., Bernocco, S., Font, B., Moali, C., Eichenberger, D., Farjanel, J., Burchardt, E. R., van der Rest, M., Kessler, E., and Hulmes, D. J. S. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33864-33869) for the mechanism of action of PCPE. PMID:12486138

Bernocco, Simonetta; Steiglitz, Barry M; Svergun, Dmitri I; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Ruggiero, Florence; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Ebel, Christine; Geourjon, Christophe; Deleage, Gilbert; Font, Bernard; Eichenberger, Denise; Greenspan, Daniel S; Hulmes, David J S

2003-02-28

80

FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.  

PubMed

Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

2008-01-01

81

Development and use of a kinetic FDG-PET dataset simulated from the MNI standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulated data is an important tool for evaluation of reconstruction and image processing algorithms in the frequent absence of ground truth, in-vivo data from living subjects. This is especially true in the case of dynamic PET studies, in which counting statistics of the volume can vary widely over the time-course of the acquisition. Realistic simulated data-sets which model anatomy and physiology, and make explicit the spatial and temporal image acquisition characteristics, facilitate experimentation with a wide range of the conditions anticipated in practice, and which can severely challenge algorithm performance and reliability. As a first example, we have developed a realistic dynamic FDG-PET data-set using the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulation code and the MNI digital brain phantom. The phantom is a three-dimensional data-set that defines the spatial distribution of different tissues. Time activity curves were calculated using an impulse response function specified by generally accepted rate constants, convolved with an input function obtained by blood sampling, and assigned to grey and white matter tissue regions. We created a dynamic PET study using PET-SORTEO configured to simulate an ECAT Exact HR+. The resulting sinograms were reconstructed with all corrections, using variations of FBP and OSEM. Having constructed the dynamic PET data-sets, we used them to evaluate the performance of intensity-based registration as part of a tool for quantifying hyper/hypo perfusion with particular application to analysis of brain dementia scans, and a study of the stability of kinetic parameter estimation.

Schottlander, David; Guimond, Alexandre; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Brady, Michael; Declerck, Jérôme; Collins, Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Reilhac, Anthonin

2006-03-01

82

[The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].  

PubMed

The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

2014-02-01

83

New Spectra of Carbon Stars from the IRAS Low-Resolution Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) spectra of 152 IRAS CCGCS1 sources with 12-?m fluxes of between 5 and 10 Jy are presented. This is part of an effort to extract spectra from the LRS `raw data base' to search for more carbon stars with silicate emission features. The new spectra have been examined by eye and divided into six groups based on the classification scheme of Volk & Cohen. Four new carbon stars with silicate emission features (00519+5817, 19451+2856, 19583-0730 and 20092+3557) are found. The LRS spectra of three other carbon stars (08035-3837, 09083-5158 and 13182-6510) probably also contain silicate emission features.

Chan, S. J.

1994-05-01

84

Hybrid-resolution spectral video system using low-resolution spectral sensor.  

PubMed

This paper presents a prototype of a spectral video system based on hybrid resolution spectral imaging. The system consists of a commercial three-channel color camera and a low-resolution spectral sensor which captures a 68-pixel spectral image by a single snap-shot. By combining the measurement data from both devices, the system produces high-resolution spectral image data frame by frame. The accuracy of the spectral data measured by the system is evaluated at some selected regions in the image. As a result, it is confirmed that spectra can be measured with less or around 10% of normalized root mean squared error. In addition, the capture of spectral videos in 3 frame-per-second and the real-time color reproduction in the same frame rate from the spectral video are demonstrated. PMID:25321241

Murakami, Yuri; Nakazaki, Keiichiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

2014-08-25

85

Urine analysis in diluted situation using low-resolution Raman spectroscope.  

PubMed

We could get valuable information about various diseases by analyzing urine of patients. For the diabetics, it has been very important to know the glucose concentration in their urine. Until now, there have been many methods to estimate the concentration but they were invasive and annoyed patients. The Low-Resolution Raman Spectroscopy (LRRS) could be an alternative method to be non-invasive and unconscious for patients who want to check the amount of their urine components. LRRS is not expensive and smaller than laboratory Raman spectroscope. And we want to attach it to the common toilet bowl. For the reason, we got the spectrum of diluted urine and predicted the glucose concentration. In addition, we tried to find very small amount of glucose. LRRS was adequate for measuring Raman signal of diluted urine and could find very small amount of glucose. This system will realize the observation of one's health condition every day without awareness. PMID:17282614

Soo Park, Cheol; Min Choi, Jong; Suk Park, Kwang

2005-01-01

86

A model-based approach for detection of objects in low resolution passive millimeter wave images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model-based vision system to assist the pilots in landing maneuvers under restricted visibility conditions is described. The system was designed to analyze image sequences obtained from a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) imaging system mounted on the aircraft to delineate runways/taxiways, buildings, and other objects on or near runways. PMMW sensors have good response in a foggy atmosphere, but their spatial resolution is very low. However, additional data such as airport model and approximate position and orientation of aircraft are available. These data are exploited to guide our model-based system to locate objects in the low resolution image and generate warning signals to alert the pilots. Also analytical expressions were derived from the accuracy of the camera position estimate obtained by detecting the position of known objects in the image.

Kasturi, Rangachar; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva

1993-01-01

87

Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes  

SciTech Connect

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

Rabaza, O., E-mail: ovidio@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)] [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain) [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Department of Systems and Automatic Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Zeman, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic) [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Sabau-Graziati, L. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)] [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)

2013-11-15

88

Low-resolution spectroscopy of the chromospherically active stars 61 Cyg AB with small telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out high-speed low-resolution spectroscopy of two stars, 61 Cyg A and B with small telescopes. They are known as chromospherically active stars of the K5V (A) and K7V (B) spectral types. These two stars are supposed to have high-powered chromospheres. Spectroscopic monitoring of both stars showed variations of intensity in the Balmer lines and the Mg b triplets at time intervals ranging from seconds to several minutes. From the spectrum data one can find that relative variations in the H_{?}, H_{?} lines and the Mg b triplets are about 1% and the relative power of chromospheric activity about 2\\cdot 10^{-4}.

Pokhvala, S. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Shavlovskij, V. I.

2014-12-01

89

Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

Rabaza, O.; Jelinek, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Zeman, J.; Hudec, R.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J.

2013-11-01

90

Low-resolution spectroscopy and spectral energy distributions of selected sources towards sigma Orionis  

E-print Network

Aims: We investigated in detail nine sources in the direction of the young sigma Orionis cluster, which is considered a unique site for studying stellar and substellar formation. The nine sources were selected because of some peculiar properties, such as extremely red infrared colours or too strong Halpha emission for their blue optical colours. Methods: We took high-quality, low-resolution spectroscopy (R ~ 500) of the nine targets with ALFOSC at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We also re-analyzed [24]-band photometry from MIPS/Spitzer and compiled the best photometry available at the ViJHKs passbands and the four IRAC/Spitzer channels for constructing accurate spectral energy distributions covering from 0.55 to 24 mum. Results: The nine targets were classified into: one Herbig Ae/Be star with a scatterer edge-on disc, two G-type stars, one X-ray flaring, early-M, young star with chromospheric Halpha emission, one very low-mass, accreting, young spectroscopic binary, two young objects at the brown dwarf boundary with the characteristics of classical T Tauri stars, and two emission-line galaxies, one undergoing star formation, and another one whose spectral energy distribution is dominated by an active galactic nucleus. Besides, we discover three infrared sources associated to overdensities in a cold cloud in the cluster centre. Conclusions: Low-resolution spectroscopy and spectral energy distributions are a vital tool for measuring the physical properties and the evolution of young stars and candidates in the sigma Orionis cluster.

J. A. Caballero; L. Valdivielso; E. L. Martin; D. Montes; S. Pascual; P. G. Perez-Gonzalez

2008-09-05

91

Low resolution 1H NMR assignment of proton populations in pound cake and its polymeric ingredients.  

PubMed

Based on a model system approach, five different proton populations were distinguished in pound cake crumb using one dimensional low resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy. In free induction decay (FID) measurements, proton populations were assigned to (i) non-exchanging CH protons of crystalline starch, proteins and crystalline fat and (ii) non-exchanging CH protons of amorphous starch and gluten, which are in little contact with water. In Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) measurements, three proton populations were distinguished. The CPMG population with the lowest mobility and the FID population with the highest mobility represent the same proton population. The two CPMG proton populations with the highest mobility were assigned to exchanging protons (i.e., protons of water, starch, gluten, egg proteins and sugar) and protons of lipids (i.e., protons of egg yolk lipids and amorphous lipid fraction of margarine) respectively. Based on their spin-lattice relaxation times (T1), two dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy further resolved the two proton populations with the highest mobility into three and two proton populations, respectively. PMID:23561087

Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Waterschoot, J; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Hills, B; Delcour, J A

2013-08-15

92

Laplace Inversion of Low-Resolution NMR Relaxometry Data Using Sparse Representation Methods  

PubMed Central

Low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (LR-NMR) relaxometry is a powerful tool that can be harnessed for characterizing constituents in complex materials. Conversion of the relaxation signal into a continuous distribution of relaxation components is an ill-posed inverse Laplace transform problem. The most common numerical method implemented today for dealing with this kind of problem is based on L2-norm regularization. However, sparse representation methods via L1 regularization and convex optimization are a relatively new approach for effective analysis and processing of digital images and signals. In this article, a numerical optimization method for analyzing LR-NMR data by including non-negativity constraints and L1 regularization and by applying a convex optimization solver PDCO, a primal-dual interior method for convex objectives, that allows general linear constraints to be treated as linear operators is presented. The integrated approach includes validation of analyses by simulations, testing repeatability of experiments, and validation of the model and its statistical assumptions. The proposed method provides better resolved and more accurate solutions when compared with those suggested by existing tools. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 42A: 72–88, 2013. PMID:23847452

Berman, Paula; Levi, Ofer; Parmet, Yisrael; Saunders, Michael; Wiesman, Zeev

2013-01-01

93

A Low-Resolution Spectroscopic Exploration of Puzzling OGLE Variable Stars  

E-print Network

We present the results of a spectroscopic follow-up of various puzzling variable objects detected in the OGLE-III Galactic disk and bulge fields. The sample includes mainly short-period multi-mode pulsating stars that could not have been unambiguously classified as either delta Sct or beta Cep type stars based on photometric data only, also stars with irregular fluctuations mimicking cataclysmic variables and stars with dusty shells, and periodic variables displaying brightenings in their light curves that last for more than half of the period. The obtained low-resolution spectra show that all observed short-period pulsators are of delta Sct type, the stars with irregular fluctuations are young stellar objects, and the objects with regular brightenings are A type stars or very likely Ap stars with strong magnetic field responsible for the presence of bright caps around magnetic poles on their surface. We also took spectra of objects designated OGLE-GD-DSCT-0058 and OGLE-GD-CEP-0013. An estimated effective tem...

Pietrukowicz, P; Angeloni, R; di Mille, F; Soszynski, I; Udalski, A; Germana, C

2015-01-01

94

Topographic Phase Recovery from Stacked ERS Interferometry and a Low-Resolution Digital Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell arid Price [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and a seismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

95

Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream: Identifying Stream Members from Low-Resolution Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream which have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest S/N spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 +/- 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator, and our kinematic signature peaks at Vgsr = 82.1 +/- 1.4 km/s. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line-of-sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicates an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 +/- 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members (0.56 dex) suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSp...

Casey, Andrew R; Keller, Stefan C; Maunder, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

96

Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream: Identifying Stream Members from Low-resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s-1. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, ?([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

2013-02-01

97

NEWLY IDENTIFIED CARBON STARS FROM SOURCES WITH UNUSUAL IRAS LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

The 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature in either emission or absorption in the infrared is an important indicator for identification of carbon stars. Sources whose infrared spectra are sorted in Group U of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) low-resolution spectrum (LRS) are good samples for finding objects with the 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature. Therefore, we have carefully checked all spectra in Group U of the LRS. We have found 13 new objects, which probably have SiC emission, sometimes with unusually broad features, that are presumed to be carbon-rich objects. In addition, their evolutionary types are also estimated from IRAS and Two Micron All Sky Survey two-color diagrams. Besides finding 13 new carbon-rich objects, another important result in this paper is that four sources are estimated as new extreme carbon stars (ECSs) and five previously known carbon stars sorted in the Group U of the IRAS LRS are also estimated as ECSs.

Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: chenps@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, CAS, Kunming 650011 (China)

2012-07-15

98

Standardizing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

99

Evaluation of a LC-MS method for everolimus preclinical determination in brain by using [(13)C2D4]RAD001 internal standard.  

PubMed

Isotopic internal standards are increasingly frequent in LC-MS analysis to control biological matrix effects in the quantitation of immunosuppressant drugs, such as everolimus (RAD001). Here we present the evaluation of a LC-MS method, exploiting [(13)C2D4]RAD001 as internal standard, for preclinical determination of RAD001 in mice brain tissue. Samples were purified by solid phase extraction. Brain and blood were collected from vehicle-treated and RAD001-treated mice. The QTOF MS detector was set to select RAD001 ammonium adducts (m/z 975.6152) and [(13)C2D4]RAD001 (m/z 981.6481). Two different UHPLC columns were preliminarily tested. The method showed linear behavior between 4 and 100ng/mL (r(2)=0.99943) and linearity was preserved in the presence of blood (r(2)=0.99107) and brain (r(2)=0.99098) matrix components. Intra-day and inter-day precision (3-19%) and accuracy (82-109%) were comparable between standards and spiked blood and brain samples. As resulting from recovery comparison (82-98%), [(13)C2D4]RAD001 compensated ion suppression phenomena maintaining method performance over a wide range of consecutive analytical runs. The comparison with a HPLC-UV method showed reliability of the method with good correlation between blood (r(2)=0.94319) and brain (r(2)=0.97773) samples and acceptable biases (<15%). This validation suggests that the investigated method could be useful for the preclinical monitoring of RAD001 brain therapeutic concentrations in animal models. PMID:25682337

Giovagnoli, Stefano; Cassano, Tommaso; Pace, Lorenzo; Magini, Alessandro; Polchi, Alice; Tancini, Brunella; Perluigi, Marzia; De Marco, Federico; Emiliani, Carla; Dolcetta, Diego

2015-03-15

100

Manju Hemakumara, Jetse Kalma, Jeffrey Walker, and Garry Willgoose (2004), Downscaling of low resolution passive microwave soil moisture  

E-print Network

-surface soil moisture data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth observing system (AMSR-E attributes. Second, the paper reports on downscaling of the low resolution AMSR-E near-surface soil moisture of the Advanced Mi- crowave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth observing systems (AMSR-E) soil moisture product

Walker, Jeff

101

3D Skeletal reconstruction from low-resolution multi-view images Mayank Rana Graham Taylor Ian Spiro  

E-print Network

3D Skeletal reconstruction from low-resolution multi-view images Mayank Rana Graham Taylor Ian {mayank,graham,ian,chris}@movement.nyu.edu Abstract This paper demonstrates how 3D skeletal reconstruction high-resolution multi-camera inputs such as systems that use 12 cameras in uncluttered green screen

Bregler, Christoph

102

A comparison study of tropical Pacific ocean state estimation: Low-resolution assimilation vs. high-resolution simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison study is performed to contrast the improvements in the tropical Pacific oceanic state of a low-resolution model respectively via data assimilation and by an increase in horizontal resolution. A low resolution model (LR) (1°lat by 2°lon) and a high-resolution model (HR) (0.5°lat by 0.5°lon) are employed for the comparison. The authors perform 20-yr numerical experiments and analyze the annual mean fields of temperature and salinity. The results indicate that the low-resolution model with data assimilation behaves better than the high-resolution model in the estimation of ocean large-scale features. From 1990 to 2000, the average of HR’s RMSE (root-mean-square error) relative to independent Tropical Atmosphere Ocean project (TAO) mooring data at randomly selected points is 0.97°C compared to a RMSE of 0.56°C for LR with temperature assimilation. Moreover, the LR with data assimilation is more frugal in computation. Although there is room to improve the high-resolution model, the low-resolution model with data assimilation may be an advisable choice in achieving a more realistic large-scale state of the ocean at the limited level of information provided by the current observational system.

Fu, Weiwei; Zhu, Jiang; Zhou, Guangqing; Wang, Huijun

2005-03-01

103

Low-Resolution Modeling of Dense Drainage Networks in Confining Layers.  

PubMed

Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction in numerical groundwater flow models is generally simulated using a Cauchy boundary condition, which relates the flow between the surface water and the groundwater to the product of the head difference between the node and the surface water level, and a coefficient, often referred to as the "conductance." Previous studies have shown that in models with a low grid resolution, the resistance to GW-SW interaction below the surface water bed should often be accounted for in the parameterization of the conductance, in addition to the resistance across the surface water bed. Three conductance expressions that take this resistance into account were investigated: two that were presented by Mehl and Hill (2010) and the one that was presented by De Lange (1999). Their accuracy in low-resolution models regarding salt and water fluxes to a dense drainage network in a confined aquifer system was determined. For a wide range of hydrogeological conditions, the influence of (1) variable groundwater density; (2) vertical grid discretization; and (3) simulation of both ditches and tile drains in a single model cell was investigated. The results indicate that the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) should be used in similar hydrogeological conditions as considered in this paper, as it is better taking into account the resistance to flow below the surface water bed. For the cases that were considered, the influence of variable groundwater density and vertical grid discretization on the accuracy of the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) is small. PMID:25250661

Pauw, P S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Leijnse, A; Delsman, J R; De Louw, P G B; De Lange, W J; Oude Essink, G H P

2014-09-23

104

A scalable hierarchical approach for leveraging low resolution imagery for image classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current extent of publicly available space-based imagery and data products is unprecedented. Data from research missions and operational environmental programs provide a wealth of information to global users, and in many cases, the data are accessible in near real-time. The availability of such data provides a unique opportunity to investigate how information can be cascaded through multiple spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal scales. A hierarchical image classification approach is developed using multispectral data sources to rapidly produce large area landuse identification and change detection products. The approach derives training pixels from a coarser resolution classification product to autonomously develop a classification map at improved resolution. The methodology also accommodates parallel processing to facilitate analysis of large amounts of data. Previous work successfully demonstrated this approach using a global MODIS 500 m landuse product to construct a 30 m Landsat-based classification map. This effort extends the previous approach to high resolution U.S. commercial satellite imagery. An initial validation study is performed to document the performance of the algorithm and identify limitations in the process. Results indicate this approach is scalable and has broad applications to target and anomaly detection applications. In addition, discussion is focused on how information is preserved throughout the processing chain, as well as situations where the data integrity could break down. This work is part of a larger effort to deduce practical, innovative, and alternative ways to leverage and exploit the extensive low-resolution global data archives to address relevant civil, environmental, and defense objectives.

Padula, Francis; Gross, Harry; Munechika, Curt; Pogorzala, David

2011-06-01

105

LRS2: the new facility low resolution integral field spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second generation Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2) is a new facility instrument for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Based on the design of the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), which is the new flagship instrument for carrying out the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), LRS2 provides integral field spectroscopy for a seeing-limited field of 12" x 6". For LRS2, the replicable design of VIRUS has been leveraged to gain broad wavelength coverage from 370 nm to 1.0 ?m, spread between two fiber-fed dual- channel spectrographs, each of which can operate as an independent instrument. The blue spectrograph, LRS2-B, covers 370 ? (nm) <= 470 and 460 <= ? (nm) <= 700 at fixed resolving powers of R = ?/?? ? 1900 and 1100, respectively, while the red spectrograph, LRS2-R, covers 650 <= ? (nm) <= 842 and 818 <= ? (nm) <= 1050 with both of its channels having R ? 1800. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the instrument's design in which we focus on the departures from the basic VIRUS framework. The primary modifications include the fore-optics that are used to feed the fiber integral field units at unity fill-factor, the cameras' correcting optics and detectors, and the volume phase holographic grisms. We also present a model of the instrument's sensitivity and a description of specific science cases that have driven the design of LRS2, including systematically studying the spatially resolved properties of extended Ly? blobs at 2 < z < 3. LRS2 will provide a powerful spectroscopic follow-up platform for large surveys such as HETDEX.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-07-01

106

Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two bodies in the Solar System exhibit high-temperature active volcanism: Earth and Io. While there are important differences in the eruptions on Earth and Io, in low-spatial-resolution data (corresponding to the bulk of available and foreseeable data of Io), similar styles of effusive and explosive volcanism yield similar thermal flux densities. For example, a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Io looks very similar to a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Earth. If, from observed thermal emission as a function of wavelength and change in thermal emission with time, the eruption style of an ionian volcano can be constrained, estimates of volumetric fluxes can be made and compared with terrestrial volcanoes using techniques derived for analysing terrestrial remotely-sensed data. In this way we find that ionian volcanoes fundamentally differ from their terrestrial counterparts only in areal extent, with Io volcanoes covering larger areas, with higher volumetric flux. Io outbursts eruptions have enormous implied volumetric fluxes, and may scale with terrestrial flood basalt eruptions. Even with the low-spatial resolution data available it is possible to sometimes constrain and classify eruption style both on Io and Earth from the integrated thermal emission spectrum. Plotting 2 and 5 m fluxes reveals the evolution of individual eruptions of different styles, as well as the relative intensity of eruptions, allowing comparison to be made from individual eruptions on both planets. Analyses like this can be used for interpretation of low-resolution data until the next mission to the jovian system. For a number of Io volcanoes (including Pele, Prometheus, Amirani, Zamama, Culann, Tohil and Tvashtar) we do have high/moderate resolution imagery to aid determination of eruption mode from analyses based only on low spatial-resolution data.

Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

2005-01-01

107

Automated longitudinal registration of high resolution structural MRI brain sub-volumes in non-human primates  

E-print Network

Automated longitudinal registration of high resolution structural MRI brain sub-volumes in non-human and functional changes in longitudinal studies of brain plasticity. Current MRI methods permit collection of brain images across multiple scales, ranging from whole brain at relatively low resolution ( 1mm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Investigation of MIPSGAL 24 ?m Compact Bubbles: Low-resolution Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 ?m Galactic plane survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid-infrared (IR). The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low-excitation spectra, and their 24 ?m emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high-excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 ?m, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 ?m, and [Ne III] 15.5 ?m), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50% to almost 100% of the 24 ?m emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high-excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae (PNs) with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., Wolf-Rayet [WR] and novae) at their centers. The central stars of the four dust-rich MBs are all massive star candidates. Dust temperatures range from 40 to 100 K in the outer shells. We constrain the extinction along the lines of sight from the IRS spectra. We then derive distance, dust masses, and dust production rate estimates for these objects. These estimates are all consistent with the nature of the central stars. We summarize the identifications of MBs made to date and discuss the correlation between their mid-IR morphologies and natures. Candidate Be/B[e]/luminous blue variable and WR stars are mainly "rings" with mid-IR central sources, whereas PNs are mostly "disks" without mid-IR central sources. Therefore we expect that most of the 300 remaining unidentified MBs will be classified as PNs.

Nowak, M.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Billot, N.; Carey, S. J.; Paladini, R.; Van Dyk, S. D.

2014-12-01

109

On the utility of low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800 A Mg II lines as a stellar chromosphere indicator  

SciTech Connect

Low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800-A Mg II h and k lines is shown to provide a useful means for documenting chromospheric activity among relatively young dwarf stars. An index I(Mg II) has been defined which measures the integrated flux in the region 2784-2814 A relative to the flux interpolated from nearby comparison regions. Values of this index have been derived from low resolution IUE spectra for a sample of field dwarfs for which Ca II H and K line indices have been published as part of the Mount Wilson HK program. The large range in chromospheric activity among field dwarfs that is exhibited by the Mount Wilson Ca II S index is found to also be reflected by the lower resolution I(Mg II) index. Using an age calibration of Ca II emission line strengths derived by Barry, it is found that the value of I(Mg II) can be used to distinguish between dwarfs younger and older than 3 Gyr. The low resolution nature of the I(Mg II) index means that it holds potential for use as an age diagnostic for stellar population studies. Among dwarfs of age greater than 3 Gyr there is some evidence that this Mg II index is affected by line blanketing. 27 refs.

Smith, G.H.; Burstein, D.; Fanelli, M.N.; O'Connell, R.W.; Wu, C.C. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA) Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA) Computer Sciences Corp., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1991-02-01

110

MCM'10: An Experiment for satellite Multispectral Crop Monitoring. From high to low resolution observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a changing climate context, it becomes increasingly important to accurately estimate the physical processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in order to predict climate changes and its impact on ecosystems. Increase of human pressure and changes in land use management contribute to alter water and energy budgets and carbon sequestration in the soils. Therefore, it is essential 1) to work towards a better understanding of the different processes governing water, carbon and energy exchanges between the continental biosphere in anthropised areas and the atmosphere, 2) to monitor land use, vegetation (crop) dynamics, soil and crop management. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the MCM'10 (Multispectral Crop Monitoring) experiment which has been conducted in 2010 (from February to November) by the CESBIO laboratory, in France. This experiment is based on the use of multispectral satellite acquisitions (radar, thermal and optical) and the associated ground measurements performed over about 400 agricultural fields located in the south west of France (43°29'36''N, 1°14'14''E). Optical data are acquired by FORMOSAT-2 and SPOT4-5 satellites. Radar data are provided by SAR sensors onboard TERRASAR-X (X-band), RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band). Thermal data come from the LANDSAT-TM 5 and 7 sensors. Low resolution data have been also collected to further study upscaling and downscaling approaches over a strongly heterogeneous landscape. Analyses of satellite data are performed by comparing them with ground data collected from local to regional scale. At the local scale, 37 fields are systematically monitored for each satellite overpass. Three of them are equipped with meteorological stations (radiations, water and carbon fluxes sensors…). Measures are performed over different soil types (clay, silt, gravels…) and for the main crops encountered in France and Europe (wheat, corn, sunflower, soybean, sorghum…). Soil conditions monitoring consists in measuring the soil surface moisture (SSM) and the soil surface roughness by using respectively a mobile theta probe sensor and a 2m profilometer. For each field, once a week, a mean of 30 SSM values are acquired and 4 roughness profiles are performed (for which correlation length, type of the autocorrelation function and rms height are estimated). For each crops, measurements consist in collecting wet and dry biomass, total water content and its vertical distribution. All these data are collected all along the growing period until harvest. At regional scale, 350 fields are monitored to identify crop species, soil management, soil tillage orientation, crops residues… providing a wide dataset of contrasted surface states. Spatio-temporal behaviours of the backscattering coefficient acquired at different frequency are analysed for different soil and vegetation conditions. First results show that multifrequency radar signal provides a wide range of applications for surface monitoring (see Fieuzal et al., 2012 submitted in this conference). An overview of future applications is given in this presentation in the framework of the following satellite missions: Sentinel and Radarsat-2 constellations, TerraSAR-L… Authors would like to thank especially Space Agencies for their support and confidence they have in this project (ESA, CSA, DLR, JAXA and CNES)

Baup, F.; Fieuzal, R.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Dejoux, J. F.; le Dantec, V.; Mordelet, P.; Claverie, M.; Demarez, V.; Hagolle, O.; Lopes, A.; Keravec, P.; Ceschia, E.; Mialon, A.; Kidd, R.

2012-04-01

111

Quantitative MALDI-MS(n) analysis of cocaine in the autopsied brain of a human cocaine user employing a wide isolation window and internal standards.  

PubMed

Detection of drugs in tissue typically requires extensive sample preparation in which the tissue is first homogenized, followed by drug extraction, before the extracts are finally analyzed by LC/MS. Directly analyzing drugs in intact tissue would eliminate any complications introduced by sample pretreatment. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS(n)) method as been developed for the quantification of cocaine present in postmortem brain tissue of a chronic human cocaine user. It is shown that tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2) and MS(3) increase selectivity, which is critical for differentiating analyte ions from background ions such as matrix clusters and endogenous compounds found in brain tissue. It is also shown that the use of internal standards corrects for signal variability during quantitative MALDI, which can be caused by inhomogeneous crystal formation, inconsistent sample preparation, and laser shot-to-shot variability. The MALDI-MS(n) method developed allows for a single MS(3) experiment that uses a wide isolation window to isolate both analyte and internal standard target ions. This method is shown to provide improved precision [approximately 10-20 times reduction in percent relative standard deviation (%RSD)] for quantitative analysis compared to using two alternating MS(3) experiments that separately isolate the target analyte and internal standard ions. PMID:20097576

Reich, Richard F; Cudzilo, Kasia; Levisky, Joseph A; Yost, Richard A

2010-04-01

112

Cerebral Blood Flow Estimation Using Classification Techniques On A Sequence Of Low Resolution Tomographic Evolutive Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the performance of the instrumental variable method (IVM) in calculating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPELT), and inert diffusible tracer such as 133Xe, we use Learning Algorithms for Multivariate Data Analysis (LAMDA) to classify the voxels of the images of local concentrations in the brain. The LAMDA method correctly distinguished between extra and intra-cerebral voxels. However the topography of the intra-cerebral classes did not match the Regions Of Interest (ROI) defined on an anatomical basis. Provided that all the intra-cerebral classes contaminated by bone and air passage artefact were rejected, the results given by the NM are in good agreement with those derived by the bolus distribution principle. We thus conclude that LAMDA methods can improve the reliability of images of CBF estimates.

Chan, Marie; Aguilar-Martin, Joseph; Boulanouar, Kader; Celsis, Pierre; Marc-Vergnes, Jean P.

1989-05-01

113

Ohio State study shows immunogene therapy combined with standard treatment is safe for patients with brain tumors:  

Cancer.gov

A clinical trial has shown that a form of gene therapy is safe for treating a deadly form of brain cancer, even when combined with radiation therapy. The phase 1b trial was conducted at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James) and at Methodist at Hospital in Houston, TX.

114

SAXS-WAXS studies of the low-resolution structure in solution of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and conformation of molecule of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus in solution (at pH 6 and 7.6; with and without the substrate) has been studied by small- and wide-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS-WAXS). On the basis of the SAXS-WAXS data, the low-resolution structure in solution has been reconstructed using ab inito methods. A comparison of the models of glucose isomerase shows only small differences between the model in solution and the crystal structure.

Kozak, Maciej; Taube, Micha?

2009-10-01

115

SAXS-WAXS studies of the low-resolution structure in solution of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and conformation of molecule of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus in solution (at pH 6 and 7.6; with and without the substrate) has been studied by small- and wide-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS-WAXS). On the basis of the SAXS-WAXS data, the low-resolution structure in solution has been reconstructed using ab inito methods. A comparison of the models of glucose isomerase shows only small differences between the model in solution and the crystal structure.

Kozak, Maciej; Taube, Micha?

116

Analysis of human blood serum and human brain samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applying Compton peak standardization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of using the Compton peak as internal standard in total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) determination is established for trace element determination of Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Pt in human serum and of Cu and Zn in homogenized brain samples. A new method of spectrometer sensitivity calibration using spiked matrices with known amounts of trace elements is tested against established methods of matrix matching as well as internal element addition. The analytical results with the proposed procedure are compared to a certified international standard and to values with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) obtaining analytical results of comparable accuracy and precision. The method is adequate for routine clinical analysis as it has the advantages of requiring very small amounts of material and simple preparations, which avoids the chemical digestion stage.

Marcó, L. M.; Greaves, E. D.; Alvarado, J.

1999-10-01

117

Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscoy  

SciTech Connect

In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants``, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 0.1 mrem per year to the maximally exposed individual are considered ``major`` and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method; and 15 were assessed. The most significant,result from this study was the redesignation. of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being ``minor``, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

Barnett, J.M.

1994-07-01

118

Flexible Multi-scale Fitting of Atomic Structures into Low-resolution Electron Density Maps with Elastic Network Normal Mode Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is presented for the quantitative flexible docking of high-resolution structure into low-resolution maps of macromolecular complexes from electron microscopy. This method uses a linear combination of low-frequency normal modes from elastic network description of the molecular framework in an iterative manner to deform the structure optimally to conform to the low-resolution electron density map. The methodology utilizes

Florence Tama; Osamu Miyashita; Charles L. Brooks III

2004-01-01

119

The coelacanth rostral organ is a unique low-resolution electro-detector that facilitates the feeding strike  

PubMed Central

The cartilaginous and non-neopterygian bony fishes have an electric sense typically comprised of hundreds or thousands of sensory canals distributed in broad clusters over the head. This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey. The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function. To address this, we employed magnetic resonance imaging methods to map electrosensory canal morphology in the extant coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, and a simple dipole ‘rabbit ears' antennae model with toroidal gain function to approximate their directional sensitivity. This identified a unique focal region of electrosensitivity directly in front of the mouth, and is the first evidence of a low-resolution electro-detector that solely facilitates prey ingestion. PMID:25758410

Berquist, Rachel M.; Galinsky, Vitaly L.; Kajiura, Stephen M.; Frank, Lawrence R.

2015-01-01

120

Spectral irradiance calibration in the infrared. II - Alpha Tau and the recalibration of the IRAS low resolution spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general process for creating complete, continuous, and absolutely calibrated 1-35 micron stellar spectra is described. The method is demonstrated by constructing an absolutely calibrated 1-35 micron spectrum of Alpha Tau and the method is independently validated using new observations. The absolute calibration of the IRAS low resolution spectrometer (LRS) data base is investigated by comparing the observed spectrum of Alpha Tau with that assumed in the original LRS calibration scheme. An analysis of asteroidal LRS spectra results in an independent assessment of the calibration problems with the LRS and provides a natural complement to the effort based on Alpha Tau. A direct comparison of LRS stellar spectra with independently calibrated long-wavelength airborne and ground-based spectra is made.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Witteborn, Fred C.

1992-01-01

121

The coelacanth rostral organ is a unique low-resolution electro-detector that facilitates the feeding strike.  

PubMed

The cartilaginous and non-neopterygian bony fishes have an electric sense typically comprised of hundreds or thousands of sensory canals distributed in broad clusters over the head. This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey. The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function. To address this, we employed magnetic resonance imaging methods to map electrosensory canal morphology in the extant coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, and a simple dipole 'rabbit ears' antennae model with toroidal gain function to approximate their directional sensitivity. This identified a unique focal region of electrosensitivity directly in front of the mouth, and is the first evidence of a low-resolution electro-detector that solely facilitates prey ingestion. PMID:25758410

Berquist, Rachel M; Galinsky, Vitaly L; Kajiura, Stephen M; Frank, Lawrence R

2015-01-01

122

Improving identification accuracy on low resolution and poor quality iris images using an artificial neural network-based matching metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iris is currently believed to be one of the most accurate biometrics for human identification. The majority of fielded iris identification systems use fractional Hamming distance to compare a new feature template to a stored database. Fractional Hamming distance is extremely fast, but mathematically weights all regions of the iris equally. Research has shown that different regions of the iris contain varying levels of discriminatory information when using circular boundary assumptions. This research evaluates four statistical metrics for accuracy improvements on low resolution and poor quality images. Each metric statistically weights iris regions in an attempt to use the iris information in a more intelligent manner. A similarity metric extracted from the output stage of an artificial neural network demonstrated the most promise. Experiments were performed using occluded, subsampled, and motion blurred images from the CASIA, University of Bath, and ICE 2005 databases. The neural network-based metric improved accuracy at nearly every operating point.

Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

2011-01-01

123

Retrieval of distributed irrigation scenarios with a SVAT model (ICARE) based on high and low resolution thermic data (ASTER, MODIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current context of climatic change, and with the evolution of anthropogenic behaviors, the optimization of water use in irrigated agriculture, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions, has become a main issue in the management of water resources. Based on a mechanistic understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere, Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models (SVAT) simulate water and energy budgets at the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. Remote sensing data, especially land surface temperature, gives us distributed information about the water status of the surface. By assimilating this data at high and low resolution into SVAT models, we should be able to estimate with a good accuracy water use scenarios on cultivated zones. In this context, the MISTIGRI mission is developed in order to obtain high resolution thermal data (<100m) with high repetitiveness (daily revisit). In this study, we use a distributed version of the ICARE model (100m resolution), forced with climatic and surface (vegetation and soil water content) data acquired from January to June 2008 on a 4x4km cultivated zone of the Yaqui Valley (Sonora, Mexico). The model has been evaluated at six locations were flux and soil water content measurements were available. The first step of the study is to evaluate the suitability of land surface temperature data in the retrieval of an irrigation scenario, based on synthetic data. The surface temperature outputs of 70 credible scenarios are compared to the original one and eliminated on the basis of a temperature error criterion. Given the good results shown by ICARE in the estimation of the energy fluxes (RMSE < 100 W/m2 for turbulent fluxes) and the soil water content, the results of this study are expected to be quite good. The next step is to use real remote sensing land surface temperature data to do the same open-loop study. The outputs of the 70 credible scenarios are now compared to high (ASTER) and low (MODIS) resolution thermal data. The low revisit rate of high resolution sensors (7 ASTER images in 5 months) and the loss of information due to low resolution of MODIS data are expected to significantly lower the accuracy of the results. Further studies with data assimilation techniques (Particle filtering) are planned in order to improve the retrieval process. Previous studies showed that surface energy balance models like SEBS (Su, 2002) and S-SEBI (Roerink, 2000), used with ASTER surface temperature images, provided a good estimation of the vegetation stress factor. Thus, assimilating other indexes, containing more information on the water status of the surface will be another way to improve our estimations.

Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Rivalland, V.; Garatuza Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Chehbouni, G.

2012-04-01

124

Low-resolution Spectroscopy for the Globular Clusters with Signs of Supernova Enrichment: M22, NGC 1851 and NGC 288  

E-print Network

There is increasing evidence for the presence of multiple red giant branches (RGBs) in the color-magnitude diagrams of massive globular clusters (GCs). In order to investigate the origin of this split on the RGB, we have performed new narrow-band Ca photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288. We find significant differences (more than 4 sigma) in calcium abundance from the spectroscopic HK' index for M22 and NGC 1851. We also find more than 8 sigma differences in CN band strength between the Ca-strong and Ca-weak subpopulations for these GCs. For NGC 288, however, a large difference is detected only in the CN strength. The calcium abundances of RGB stars in this GC are identical to within the errors. This is consistent with the conclusion from our new Ca photometry, where the RGB splits are confirmed in M22 and NGC 1851, but not in NGC 288. We also find interesting differences in CN-CH correlations among these GCs. While CN and CH are anti-correlated in NGC 288, they show positi...

Lim, Dongwook; Lee, Young-Wook; Roh, Dong-Goo; Sohn, Young-Jong; Chun, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Woo; Johnson, Christian I

2014-01-01

125

Low-resolution Spectroscopy for the Globular Clusters with Signs of Supernova Enrichment: M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence for the presence of multiple red giant branches (RGBs) in the color-magnitude diagrams of massive globular clusters (GCs). In order to investigate the origin of this split on the RGB, we have performed new narrow-band Ca photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288. We find significant differences (more than 4?) in calcium abundance from the spectroscopic HK' index for M22 and NGC 1851. We also find more than 8? differences in CN-band strength between the Ca-strong and Ca-weak subpopulations for these GCs. For NGC 288, however, a large difference is detected only in the CN strength. The calcium abundances of RGB stars in this GC are identical to within the errors. This is consistent with the conclusion from our new Ca photometry where the RGB splits are confirmed in M22 and NGC 1851, but not in NGC 288. We also find interesting differences in the CN-CH correlations among these GCs. While CN and CH are anti-correlated in NGC 288, they show a positive correlation in M22. NGC 1851, however, shows no difference in CH between the two groups of stars with different CN strengths. We suggest that all of these systematic differences would be best explained by how strongly Type II supernovae enrichment has contributed to the chemical evolution of these GCs.

Lim, Dongwook; Han, Sang-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Roh, Dong-Goo; Sohn, Young-Jong; Chun, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Woo; Johnson, Christian I.

2015-01-01

126

The Low Resolution Structure of ApoA1 in Spherical High Density Lipoprotein Revealed by Small Angle Neutron Scattering*  

PubMed Central

Spherical high density lipoprotein (sHDL), a key player in reverse cholesterol transport and the most abundant form of HDL, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Small angle neutron scattering with contrast variation was used to determine the solution structure of protein and lipid components of reconstituted sHDL. Apolipoprotein A1, the major protein of sHDL, forms a hollow structure that cradles a central compact lipid core. Three apoA1 chains are arranged within the low resolution structure of the protein component as one of three possible global architectures: (i) a helical dimer with a hairpin (HdHp), (ii) three hairpins (3Hp), or (iii) an integrated trimer (iT) in which the three apoA1 monomers mutually associate over a portion of the sHDL surface. Cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses help to discriminate among the three molecular models and are most consistent with the HdHp overall architecture of apoA1 within sHDL. PMID:21292766

Wu, Zhiping; Gogonea, Valentin; Lee, Xavier; May, Roland P.; Pipich, Vitaliy; Wagner, Matthew A.; Undurti, Arundhati; Tallant, Thomas C.; Baleanu-Gogonea, Camelia; Charlton, Francesca; Ioffe, Alexander; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hazen, Stanley L.

2011-01-01

127

CT-based quantitative SPECT for the radionuclide 201Tl: experimental validation and a standardized uptake value for brain tumour patients  

PubMed Central

Abstract We have previously reported on a method for reconstructing quantitative data from 99mTc single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images based on corrections derived from X-ray computed tomography, producing accurate results in both experimental and clinical studies. This has been extended for use with the radionuclide 201Tl. Accuracy was evaluated with experimental phantom studies, including corrections for partial volume effects where necessary. The quantitative technique was used to derive standardized uptake values (SUVs) for 201Tl evaluation of brain tumours. A preliminary study was performed on 26 patients using 201Tl SPECT scans to assess residual tumour after surgery and then to monitor response to treatment, with a follow-up time of 18 months. Measures of SUVmax were made following quantitative processing of the data and using a threshold grown volume of interest around the tumour. Phantom studies resulted in the calculation of concentration values consistently within 4% of true values. No continuous relation was found between SUVmax (post-resection) and patient survival. Choosing an SUVmax cut-off of 1.5 demonstrated a difference in survival between the 2 groups of patients after surgery. Patients with an SUVmax <1.5 had a 70% survival rate over the first 10 months, compared with a 47% survival rate for those with SUVmax >1.5. This difference did not achieve significance, most likely due to the small study numbers. By 18 months follow-up this difference had reduced, with corresponding survival rates of 40% and 27%, respectively. Although this study involves only a small cohort, it has succeeded in demonstrating the possibility of an SUV measure for SPECT to help monitor response to treatment of brain tumours and predict survival. PMID:22375306

Bailey, Dale; Schembri, Geoff; Baldock, Clive

2012-01-01

128

1682 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 43, NO. 7, JULY 2005 On Merging High-and Low-Resolution DEMs From  

E-print Network

data in airborne Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) DEMs using a low-resolution Shuttle-validation methods to obtain the optimal weighting for the PE filter and SRTM DEM constraints. Index Terms--Interpolation, digital elevation model (DEM), Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR), Shuttle Radar Topography

Segall, Paul

129

Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

2013-01-01

130

Stellar parameters from very low resolution spectra and medium band filters: Teff, logg and [M/H] using neural networks  

E-print Network

Large scale, deep survey missions such as GAIA will collect enormous amounts of data on a significant fraction of the stellar content of our Galaxy. These missions will require a careful optimisation of their observational systems in order to maximise their scientific return, and will require reliable and automated techniques for parametrizing the very large number of stars detected. To address these two problems, I investigate the precision to which the three principal stellar parameters (Teff, logg, [M/H]) can be determined as a function of spectral resolution and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, using a large grid of synthetic spectra. The parametrization technique is a neural network, which is shown to provide an accurate three-dimensional physical parametrization of stellar spectra across a wide range of parameters. It is found that even at low resolution (50-100 AA FWHM) and SNR (5-10 per resolution element), Teff and \\met can be determined to 1% and 0.2 dex respectively across a large range of temperatures (4000-30000 K) and metallicities (-3.0 to +1.0 dex), and that logg is measurable to +/- 0.2 dex for stars earlier than solar. The accuracy of the results is probably limited by the finite parameter sampling of the data grid. The ability of medium band filter systems (with 10-15 filters) for determining stellar parameters is also investigated. Although easier to implement in a unpointed survey, it is found that they are only competitive at higher SNRs (> 50).

Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones

2000-03-14

131

Effects of caffeine and maltodextrin mouth rinsing on P300, brain imaging, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Caffeine (CAF) and maltodextrin (MALT) mouth rinses (MR) improve exercise performance. The current experiment aims to determine the effect of CAF and MALT MR on cognitive performance and brain activity. Ten healthy male subjects (age 27 ± 3 yr) completed three experimental trials. Each trial included four Stroop tasks: two familiarization tasks, and one task before and one task after an MR period. The reaction time (in milliseconds) and accuracy (percent) of simple, congruent, and incongruent stimuli were assessed. Electroencephalography was applied throughout the experiment to record brain activity. The amplitudes and latencies of the P300 were determined during the Stroop tasks before and after the MR period. Subjects received MR with CAF (0.3 g/25 ml), MALT (1.6 g/25 ml), or placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. During MR, the brain imaging technique standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied. Magnitude-based inferences showed that CAF MR is likely trivial (63.5%) and likely beneficial (36.4%) compared with PLAC MR, and compared with MALT MR likely beneficial to reaction time on incongruent stimuli (61.6%). Additionally, both the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were activated only during CAF MR, potentially explaining the likely beneficial effect on reaction times. MALT MR increased brain activity only within the orbitofrontal cortex. However, this brain activation did not alter the reaction time. Furthermore, no significant differences in the accuracy of stimuli responses were observed between conditions. In conclusion, only CAF MR exerted a likely beneficial effect on reaction time due to the subsequent activation of both the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortexes. PMID:25614603

De Pauw, K; Roelands, B; Knaepen, K; Polfliet, M; Stiens, J; Meeusen, R

2015-03-15

132

Automated Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Spatial Accuracy-Weighted Hidden Markov Random Field  

PubMed Central

A variety of algorithms have been proposed for brain tumor segmentation from multi-channel sequences, however, most of them require isotropic or pseudo-isotropic resolution of the MR images. Although co-registration and interpolation of low-resolution sequences, such as T2-weighted images, onto the space of the high-resolution image, such as T1-weighted image, can be performed prior to the segmentation, the results are usually limited by partial volume effects due to interpolation of low resolution images. To improve the quality of tumor segmentation in clinical applications where low-resolution sequences are commonly used together with high-resolution images, we propose the algorithm based on Spatial accuracy-weighted Hidden Markov random field and Expectation maximization (SHE) approach for both automated tumor and enhanced-tumor segmentation. SHE incorporates the spatial interpolation accuracy of low-resolution images into the optimization procedure of the Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) to segment tumor using multi-channel MR images with different resolutions, e.g., high-resolution T1-weighted and low-resolution T2-weighted images. In experiments, we evaluated this algorithm using a set of simulated multi-channel brain MR images with known ground-truth tissue segmentation and also applied it to a dataset of MR images obtained during clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy. The results show that more accurate tumor segmentation results can be obtained by comparing with conventional multi-channel segmentation algorithms. PMID:19446435

Nie, Jingxin; Xue, Zhong; Liu, Tianming; Young, Geoffrey; Setayesh, Kian; Guo, Lei; Wong, Stephen TC

2009-01-01

133

Applying pattern recognition and high-to-low resolution image matching techniques for automatic rectification of satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major objectives were achieved in this research. A technique for rectifying satellite imagery based on matching small-format aerial images, whose coordinates were achieved through navigation sensors, was introduced. A new technique for matching images with large scale differences was also developed. Small-format digital images were used as a source for ground control points for rectifying satellite imagery. The process involved the determination of the position of the center point of the small-format images using onboard global positioning system (GPS) receiver and aircraft attitude measuring sensors and matching these images with a satellite image. Using this technique, planned flight lines over a satellite scene area provided sufficient control points for rectifying the satellite scene in approximately 5 hours of data acquisition time and 10 hours of processing time. One of the problems in applying such a technique, which has not received sufficient interest in the image matching literature, was the need to match images that are significantly different in resolution. The ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) of the small-format aerial images was approximately 25 centimeters while the satellite image had a GIFOV of five meters. The developed matching technique modified traditional least squares matching by adding filter parameters, used to filter the high-resolution image to match the frequency content of the low-resolution image, as unknowns in the least squares matching technique. The results of both traditional and modified matching techniques were evaluated using 30 control points distributed over the satellite scene. The root mean square errors obtained using the results of the modified matching technique were less than those obtained using traditional matching technique results. This indicated the successful implementation of the new modified matching technique. Less than two pixels root mean square error was achieved in both the x and y directions when object space coordinates of the aerial images center points were derived from the navigation sensors. This accuracy was acceptable considering the accuracy of the navigation sensors. The correlation coefficient resulting from initial correlation matching provided a good measure for predicting the success of the least squares matching process. The satellite image rectification accuracy was tested using different numbers of matched aerial images. Different correlation coefficient thresholds were used to select these images. The results indicated that increasing the number of images led to an increase in the satellite image rectification accuracy. On the other hand, the results showed that adding more images increased the risk of adding images with false matching.

Abd-Elraham, Amr Hosseiny

134

Attachment style dimensions are associated with brain activity in response to gaze interaction.  

PubMed

Aim of the present study was to investigate the time course of brain processes involved in the visual perception of different gaze interactions in woman-child dyads and the association between attachment dimensions and brain activation during the presentation of gaze interactions. The hypothesis was that the woman avoidance will produce a greater activation of primary somatosensory and limbic areas. The attachment styles dimensions avoidant-related will be associated with fronto-limbic brain intensity during the convergence of gaze. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded using a 256-channel HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net in 44 female subjects (age: 24 ± 2 years). Event-related potential (ERP) components and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) were analyzed. Participants were administered the attachment style questionnaire before EEG task. A lower P350 latency was found in the fronto-central montage in response to woman avoidance. sLORETA analysis showed a greater intensity of limbic and primary somatosensory areas in response to woman avoidance compared to the others gaze interactions. In response to convergence gaze, the confidence attachment dimension was negatively correlated with the intensities of the right temporal and limbic areas, and the relationships as secondary attachment dimension were positively correlated with the intensities of the bilateral frontal areas and of the left parietal area. PMID:25568957

Cecchini, Marco; Iannoni, Maria Elena; Pandolfo, Anna Lucia; Aceto, Paola; Lai, Carlo

2015-06-01

135

Use of single-photon emission computed tomography/low-resolution computed tomography fusion imaging in detecting an unusually presenting osteoid osteoma of the lumbar vertebra.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe an unusual presentation of osteoid osteoma of the lumbar vertebra in a woman in her early 30s. Single-photon emission computed tomography/low-resolution computed tomography (SPECT/CT) fusion imaging was used to detect the osteoma, precisely localize the pathology site, and guide surgical excision of the lesion. In recent years, SPECT/CT fusion imaging has helped make interpretations of scintigraphic images significantly more accurate. PMID:19377642

Hephzibah, Julie; Theodore, Bernice; Oommen, Regi; David, Kenny; Moses, Vinu; Shah, Sanjeev; Panicker, Jayalakshmi

2009-03-01

136

The effects of topography on the summer atmospheric energetics of the Northern Hemisphere in a low-resolution global spectral model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the effects of topography on the summer atmospheric energetics of the Northern Hemisphere in a low-resolution\\u000a global spectral model. The numerical mode! is a global, spectral, primitive equation model with five equally spaced sigma\\u000a levels in the vertical and triangular truncation at wavenumber 10 in the horizontal. The model includes comparatively full\\u000a physical processes.\\u000a \\u000a Each

Yunqi Ni; Bette L. Otlo-Bliesner; David D. Houghton

1988-01-01

137

The measurement of the intrinsic impurities of molybdenum and carbon in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma using low resolution spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic impurity content of molybdenum and carbon was measured in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak using low resolution, multilayer mirror (MLM) spectroscopy ( Delta lambda ~1-10 AA). Molybdenum was the dominant high-Z impurity and originated from the molybdenum armour tiles covering all of the plasma facing surfaces (including the inner column, the poloidal divertor plates and the ion cyclotron resonant

M. J. May; M. Finkenthal; S. P. Regan; H. W. Moos; J. L. Terry; J. A. Goetz; M. A. Graf; J. E. Rice; E. S. Marmar; K. B. Fournier; W. H. Goldstein

1997-01-01

138

Brain herniation  

MedlinePLUS

... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

139

Brain mapping after prolonged cycling and during recovery in the heat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged intensive cycling and postexercise recovery in the heat on brain sources of altered brain oscillations. After a max test and familiarization trial, nine trained male subjects (23 ± 3 yr; maximal oxygen uptake = 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed three experimental trials in the heat (30°C; relative humidity 43.7 ± 5.6%). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial, followed by a 30-min simulated time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), or cold water immersion (CWI) was applied for 15 min. Electroencephalography was measured at baseline and during postexercise recovery. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to accurately pinpoint and localize altered electrical neuronal activity. After CWI, PR and AR subjects completed TT2 in 761 ± 42, 791 ± 76, and 794 ± 62 s, respectively. A prolonged intensive cycling performance in the heat decreased ? activity across the whole brain. Postexercise AR and PR elicited no significant electrocortical differences, whereas CWI induced significantly increased ?3 activity in Brodmann areas (BA) 13 (posterior margin of insular cortex) and BA 40 (supramarginal gyrus). Self-paced prolonged exercise in the heat seems to decrease ? activity, hence representing decreased arousal. Postexercise CWI increased ?3 activity at BA 13 and 40, brain areas involved in somatosensory information processing. PMID:23990240

De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Marusic, Uros; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Knaepen, Kristel; Meeusen, Romain

2013-11-01

140

Brain mapping after prolonged cycling and during recovery in the heat  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged intensive cycling and postexercise recovery in the heat on brain sources of altered brain oscillations. After a max test and familiarization trial, nine trained male subjects (23 ± 3 yr; maximal oxygen uptake = 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min?1·kg?1) performed three experimental trials in the heat (30°C; relative humidity 43.7 ± 5.6%). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial, followed by a 30-min simulated time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), or cold water immersion (CWI) was applied for 15 min. Electroencephalography was measured at baseline and during postexercise recovery. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to accurately pinpoint and localize altered electrical neuronal activity. After CWI, PR and AR subjects completed TT2 in 761 ± 42, 791 ± 76, and 794 ± 62 s, respectively. A prolonged intensive cycling performance in the heat decreased ? activity across the whole brain. Postexercise AR and PR elicited no significant electrocortical differences, whereas CWI induced significantly increased ?3 activity in Brodmann areas (BA) 13 (posterior margin of insular cortex) and BA 40 (supramarginal gyrus). Self-paced prolonged exercise in the heat seems to decrease ? activity, hence representing decreased arousal. Postexercise CWI increased ?3 activity at BA 13 and 40, brain areas involved in somatosensory information processing. PMID:23990240

De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Maruši?, Uroš; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Knaepen, Kristel

2013-01-01

141

Brain Basics: Know Your Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... dysfunctional. Image 1 < top > The Architecture of the Brain The brain is like a committee of experts. ... information that can be processed. < top > The Inner Brain Deep within the brain, hidden from view, lie ...

142

The power of low-resolution spectroscopy: On the spectral classification of planet candidates in the ground-based CoRoT follow-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary transits detected by the CoRoT mission can be mimicked by a low-mass star in orbit around a giant star. Spectral classification helps to identify the giant stars and also early-type stars which are often excluded from further follow-up. We study the potential and the limitations of low-resolution spectroscopy to improve the photometric spectral types of CoRoT candidates. In particular, we want to study the influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target spectrum in a quantitative way. We built an own template library and investigate whether a template library from the literature is able to reproduce the classifications. Including previous photometric estimates, we show how the additional spectroscopic information improves the constraints on spectral type. Low-resolution spectroscopy (R? 1000) of 42 CoRoT targets covering a wide range in SNR (1-437) and of 149 templates was obtained in 2012-2013 with the Nasmyth spectrograph at the Tautenburg 2 m telescope. Spectral types have been derived automatically by comparing with the observed template spectra. The classification has been repeated with the external CFLIB library. The spectral class obtained with the external library agrees within a few sub-classes when the target spectrum has a SNR of about 100 at least. While the photometric spectral type can deviate by an entire spectral class, the photometric luminosity classification is as close as a spectroscopic classification with the external library. A low SNR of the target spectrum limits the attainable accuracy of classification more strongly than the use of external templates or photometry. Furthermore we found that low-resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy ensures that good planet candidates are kept that would otherwise be discarded based on photometric spectral type alone.

Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Sebastian, D.; Guenther, E. W.; Stecklum, B.; Cabrera, J.

2015-02-01

143

The low-resolution structure of nHDL reconstituted with DMPC with and without cholesterol reveals a mechanism for particle expansion[S  

PubMed Central

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation was used to obtain the low-resolution structure of nascent HDL (nHDL) reconstituted with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in the absence and presence of cholesterol, [apoA1:DMPC (1:80, mol:mol) and apoA1:DMPC:cholesterol (1:86:9, mol:mol:mol)]. The overall shape of both particles is discoidal with the low-resolution structure of apoA1 visualized as an open, contorted, and out of plane conformation with three arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine without cholesterol (nHDLDMPC) and two arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine with cholesterol (nHDLDMPC+Chol). The low-resolution shape of the lipid phase in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol were oblate ellipsoids, and fit well within their respective protein shapes. Modeling studies indicate that apoA1 is folded onto itself in nHDLDMPC, making a large hairpin, which was also confirmed independently by both cross-linking mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry analyses. In nHDLDMPC+Chol, the lipid was expanded and no hairpin was visible. Importantly, despite the overall discoidal shape of the whole particle in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol, an open conformation (i.e., not a closed belt) of apoA1 is observed. Collectively, these data show that full length apoA1 retains an open architecture that is dictated by its lipid cargo. The lipid is likely predominantly organized as a bilayer with a micelle domain between the open apoA1 arms. The apoA1 configuration observed suggests a mechanism for accommodating changing lipid cargo by quantized expansion of hairpin structures. PMID:23349207

Gogonea, Valentin; Gerstenecker, Gary S.; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Topbas, Celalettin; Wagner, Matthew A.; Tallant, Thomas C.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Callow, Philip; Pipich, Vitaliy; Malet, Hélène; Schoehn, Guy; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2013-01-01

144

Computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra: Program for calculation of molecular isotopic distribution and program for assignment of molecular formulas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two FORTRAN computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra were prepared and tested. One is for the calculation of the molecular isotopic distribution of any species from stored elemental distributions. The program requires only the input of the molecular formula and was designed for compatability with any computer system. The other program is for the determination of all possible combinations of atoms (and radicals) which may form an ion having a particular integer mass. It also uses a simplified input scheme and was designed for compatability with any system.

Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.

1977-01-01

145

Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T—contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Methods Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. Results The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8±45.8 vs. 43.9±25.3 [p=0.010], 128.1±53.7 vs. 75.5±32.4 [p=0.004]) and the full dose (129.2±50.9 vs. 66.6±33.1 [p=0.002], 165.4±54.2 vs. 102.6±45.4 [p=0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p=.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Conclusion Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. PMID:25194707

Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Szomolanyi, P.; Kronnerwetter, C.; Widhalm, G.; Weber, M.; Nemec, S.; Juras, V.; Ladd, M. E.; Prayer, D.; Trattnig, S.

2015-01-01

146

Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

2011-06-01

147

Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g(-1). Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl](-) ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g(-1) to 289.3 ng g(-1). C(10)- and C(11)-PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples. PMID:21889633

Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Qing; Tian, Yuzeng; Qi, Peipei; Yu, Zhengkun

2011-10-10

148

IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA  

SciTech Connect

Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

Getman, Daniel J [ORNL

2008-01-01

149

The power of low-resolution spectroscopy: On the spectral classification of planet candidates in the ground-based CoRoT follow-up  

E-print Network

Planetary transits detected by the CoRoT mission can be mimicked by a low-mass star in orbit around a giant star. Spectral classification helps to identify the giant stars and also early-type stars which are often excluded from further follow-up. We study the potential and the limitations of low-resolution spectroscopy to improve the photometric spectral types of CoRoT candidates. In particular, we want to study the influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target spectrum in a quantitative way. We built an own template library and investigate whether a template library from the literature is able to reproduce the classifications. Including previous photometric estimates, we show how the additional spectroscopic information improves the constraints on spectral type. Low-resolution spectroscopy ($R\\approx$1000) of 42 CoRoT targets covering a wide range in SNR (1-437) and of 149 templates was obtained in 2012-2013 with the Nasmyth spectrograph at the Tautenburg 2m telescope. Spectral types have been d...

Eiff, M Ammler-von; Guenther, E W; Stecklum, B; Cabrera, J

2015-01-01

150

Uniformity in brain death criteria.  

PubMed

Despite well-described international variabilities in brain death practices, de facto there already exists a minimum international clinical standard for the diagnosis of brain death. This remains rooted in the Harvard criteria and based on the characteristics of a permanently nonfunctioning brain. Medicine is evolving toward a single unified determination of death based on the cessation of brain function subsequent to catastrophic brain injury or circulatory arrest. Clarity in lexicon could be established, including movement toward functional definitions and away from anatomically based terms such as cardiac and brain death that erroneously imply death of the organ. The cessation of clinical functions of the brain that will not resume is determined by the absence of capacity for consciousness, centrally mediated motor responses, brainstem reflexes, and capacity to breathe. A known proximate cause and the absence of confounding or reversible conditions must be confirmed. Regional medical, legal, cultural, religious, or socioeconomic factors may require testing beyond this minimal clinical standard. PMID:25839725

Shemie, Sam D; Baker, Andrew

2015-04-01

151

Local drug delivery for treatment of brain tumor associated edema  

E-print Network

Brain tumor associated edema, a common feature of malignant brain neoplasms, is a significant cause of morbidity from brain tumor. Systemic administration of corticosteroids, the standard of care, is highly effective but ...

Ong, Qunya

2014-01-01

152

Brain Autopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Autopsy The Key to Understanding FTD A brain autopsy is essential to obtain a definitive diagnosis ... sense of closure. People who participate in a brain donation program should receive an autopsy report with ...

153

Brain components  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

154

Brain surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

155

Brain Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

156

Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

157

A Standardized Method for the Construction of Tracer Specific PET and SPECT Rat Brain Templates: Validation and Implementation of a Toolbox.  

PubMed

High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion), and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70±0.32mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25), 0.23±0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13), 0.88±0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15), 0.64±0.28mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19), 0.34±0.15mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6), and 0.40±0.13mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15). These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p&0.001). Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p&0.05), and when images and templates had the same size (p?0.001). Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p&0.005) and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.). In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer-specific templates allows accurate registration of functional rat brain data, independent of disease specific uptake patterns and with registration error below spatial resolution of the cameras. The templates and the SAMIT package will be freely available for the research community. PMID:25823005

Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

2015-01-01

158

A Standardized Method for the Construction of Tracer Specific PET and SPECT Rat Brain Templates: Validation and Implementation of a Toolbox  

PubMed Central

High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion), and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70±0.32mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25), 0.23±0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13), 0.88±0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15), 0.64±0.28mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19), 0.34±0.15mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6), and 0.40±0.13mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15). These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p&0.001). Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p&0.05), and when images and templates had the same size (p?0.001). Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p&0.005) and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.). In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer-specific templates allows accurate registration of functional rat brain data, independent of disease specific uptake patterns and with registration error below spatial resolution of the cameras. The templates and the SAMIT package will be freely available for the research community. PMID:25823005

Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

2015-01-01

159

Crystal structure of a novel non-Pfam protein PF2046 solved using low resolution B-factor sharpening and multi-crystal averaging methods  

SciTech Connect

Sometimes crystals cannot diffract X-rays beyond 3.0 {angstrom} resolution due to the intrinsic flexibility associated with the protein. Low resolution diffraction data not only pose a challenge to structure determination, but also hamper interpretation of mechanistic details. Crystals of a 25.6 kDa non-Pfam, hypothetical protein, PF2046, diffracted X-rays to 3.38 {angstrom} resolution. A combination of Se-Met derived heavy atom positions with multiple cycles of B-factor sharpening, multi-crystal averaging, restrained refinement followed by manual inspection of electron density and model building resulted in a final model with a R value of 23.5 (R{sub free} = 24.7). The asymmetric unit was large and consisted of six molecules arranged as a homodimer of trimers. Analysis of the structure revealed the presence of a RNA binding domain suggesting a role for PF2046 in the processing of nucleic acids.

Su, Jing; Li, Yang; Shaw, Neil; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Min; Xu, Hao; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Jie (Ankara); (Nankai); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (Georgia)

2012-11-13

160

Brain Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Explorer is an educational Web site from the Lundbeck Institute that provides a highly visual and informative tour of the brain. Brain Atlas offers a good starting point, with well-designed diagrams of the brain and spinal cord, detailed explanatory information, and a handy pop-up glossary (which contains great graphics of its own). The section titled Neurological Control describes neuron structure and function. Other features include a section on brain disorders and an extensive image gallery. While Brain Explorer offers a thorough look at brain structure and function, it would probably best serve students who are already familiar with the subject but need a comprehensive review.

1969-12-31

161

Brain renin angiotensin in disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) and its role in cardiovascular control and fluid homeostasis was at first controversial.\\u000a This was because a circulating kidney-derived renin angiotensin system was so similar and well established. But, the pursuit\\u000a of brain RAS has proven to be correct. In the course of accepting brain RAS, high standards of proof attracted state of the

M. Ian Phillips; Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira

2008-01-01

162

Got Standards? "Got Standards?"  

E-print Network

increase reliability and quality, not to mention, make life a whole lot easier. Standards now known as ISO 9000 standards were developed by the International Organization for Standardization, which was founded in 1946. The purpose of the organization was to promote the development of international standards

Vardeman, Stephen B.

163

Optimized brain extraction for pathological brains (optiBET).  

PubMed

The study of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data has greatly benefitted from the development of sophisticated and efficient algorithms aimed at automating and optimizing the analysis of brain data. We address, in the context of the segmentation of brain from non-brain tissue (i.e., brain extraction, also known as skull-stripping), the tension between the increased theoretical and clinical interest in patient data, and the difficulty of conventional algorithms to function optimally in the presence of gross brain pathology. Indeed, because of the reliance of many algorithms on priors derived from healthy volunteers, images with gross pathology can severely affect their ability to correctly trace the boundaries between brain and non-brain tissue, potentially biasing subsequent analysis. We describe and make available an optimized brain extraction script for the pathological brain (optiBET) robust to the presence of pathology. Rather than attempting to trace the boundary between tissues, optiBET performs brain extraction by (i) calculating an initial approximate brain extraction; (ii) employing linear and non-linear registration to project the approximate extraction into the MNI template space; (iii) back-projecting a standard brain-only mask from template space to the subject's original space; and (iv) employing the back-projected brain-only mask to mask-out non-brain tissue. The script results in up to 94% improvement of the quality of extractions over those obtained with conventional software across a large set of severely pathological brains. Since optiBET makes use of freely available algorithms included in FSL, it should be readily employable by anyone having access to such tools. PMID:25514672

Lutkenhoff, Evan S; Rosenberg, Matthew; Chiang, Jeffrey; Zhang, Kunyu; Pickard, John D; Owen, Adrian M; Monti, Martin M

2014-01-01

164

Optimized Brain Extraction for Pathological Brains (optiBET)  

PubMed Central

The study of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data has greatly benefitted from the development of sophisticated and efficient algorithms aimed at automating and optimizing the analysis of brain data. We address, in the context of the segmentation of brain from non-brain tissue (i.e., brain extraction, also known as skull-stripping), the tension between the increased theoretical and clinical interest in patient data, and the difficulty of conventional algorithms to function optimally in the presence of gross brain pathology. Indeed, because of the reliance of many algorithms on priors derived from healthy volunteers, images with gross pathology can severely affect their ability to correctly trace the boundaries between brain and non-brain tissue, potentially biasing subsequent analysis. We describe and make available an optimized brain extraction script for the pathological brain (optiBET) robust to the presence of pathology. Rather than attempting to trace the boundary between tissues, optiBET performs brain extraction by (i) calculating an initial approximate brain extraction; (ii) employing linear and non-linear registration to project the approximate extraction into the MNI template space; (iii) back-projecting a standard brain-only mask from template space to the subject’s original space; and (iv) employing the back-projected brain-only mask to mask-out non-brain tissue. The script results in up to 94% improvement of the quality of extractions over those obtained with conventional software across a large set of severely pathological brains. Since optiBET makes use of freely available algorithms included in FSL, it should be readily employable by anyone having access to such tools. PMID:25514672

Lutkenhoff, Evan S.; Rosenberg, Matthew; Chiang, Jeffrey; Zhang, Kunyu; Pickard, John D.; Owen, Adrian M.; Monti, Martin M.

2014-01-01

165

Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brains parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

2007-12-12

166

Brain Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

167

The SpeX Prism Library: 1000+ low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SpeX Prism Library (SPL) is a uniform compilation of low-resolution (?/?? ? 75-120), near-infrared (0.8--2.5 ?m) spectra spanning a decade of observations with the IRTF SpeX spectrograph. Primarily containing ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs, this spectral library has been used in over 100 publications to date, facilitating a broad range of science on low mass stars, exoplanets, high redshift sources and instrument/survey design. I summarize the contents of the SPL and highlight a few of the key scientific results that have made use of this resource, as well as applications in education, outreach and art. I also outline the future plans of the SPL, which include a reanalysis of early data, better integration and dissemination of source and spectral metadata, conversion to Virtual Observatory formats, development of a Python software package for community analysis, and a design for a node-based visual programming platform that can facilitate citizen science and project-based learning in stellar spectroscopy. http://www.browndwarfs.org/spexprism

Burgasser, Adam J.

168

Low-resolution spectroscopy of main sequence stars belonging to 12 Galactic globular clusters. I. CH and CN band strength variations  

E-print Network

Globular clusters show abundance variations for light elements that are not yet well understood. The preferred explanation involves a self-enrichment scenario, with two subsequent generations of stars. Observations of main sequence stars allow us to investigate the signature of this chemically processed material without the complicating effects of internal mixing. Our goal is to investigate the C-N anti-correlation with low-resolution spectroscopy of 20-50 stars fainter than the first dredge-up in seven globular clusters (NGC288, NGC1851, NGC5927, NGC6352, NGC6388, and Pal12) with different properties. We complemented our observations with 47~Tuc archival data, with four additional clusters from the literature (M15, M22, M55, NGC362), and with additional literature data on NGC288. In this first paper, we measured the strength of CN and CH band indices, and we investigated the anti-correlation and bimodality of these indices. We compared r_CN, the ratio of stars belonging to the CN-strong and weak groups, with...

Pancino, E; Zoccali, M; Carrera, R

2010-01-01

169

Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT  

E-print Network

A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

2007-10-24

170

Low-Resolution Structure of the Full-Length Barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 Protein in Solution, Obtained Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering  

PubMed Central

SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an ?-helical TPR domain, a ?-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

Taube, Micha?; Pie?kowska, Joanna R.; Jarmo?owski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

2014-01-01

171

The SpeX Prism Library: 1000+ Low-resolution, Near-infrared Spectra of Ultracool M, L, T and Y Dwarfs  

E-print Network

The SpeX Prism Library (SPL) is a uniform compilation of low-resolution (R ~ 75-120), near-infrared (0.8-2.5 micron) spectra spanning a decade of observations with the IRTF SpeX spectrograph. Primarily containing ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs, this spectral library has been used in over 100 publications to date, facilitating a broad range of science on low mass stars, exoplanets, high redshift sources and instrument/survey design. I summarize the contents of the SPL and highlight a few of the key scientific results that have made use of this resource, as well as applications in education, outreach and art. I also outline the future plans of the SPL, which include a reanalysis of early data, better integration and dissemination of source and spectral metadata, conversion to Virtual Observatory formats, development of a Python software package for community analysis, and a design for a node-based visual programming platform that can facilitate citizen science and project-based learning in stellar spectroscopy.

Burgasser, Adam J

2014-01-01

172

The Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

Hubel, David H.

1979-01-01

173

Brain Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

174

Intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebral perfusion pressure estimation, and ICP/CPP-guided therapy: a standard of care or optional extra after brain injury?  

PubMed

Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) is used to derive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and to guide targeted therapy of acute brain injury (ABI) during neurointensive care. Here we provide a narrative review of the evidence for ICP monitoring, CPP estimation, and ICP/CPP-guided therapy after ABI. Despite its widespread use, there is currently no class I evidence that ICP/CPP-guided therapy for any cerebral pathology improves outcomes; indeed some evidence suggests that it makes no difference, and some that it may worsen outcomes. Similarly, no class I evidence can currently advise the ideal CPP for any form of ABI. 'Optimal' CPP is likely patient-, time-, and pathology-specific. Further, CPP estimation requires correct referencing (at the level of the foramen of Monro as opposed to the level of the heart) for MAP measurement to avoid CPP over-estimation and adverse patient outcomes. Evidence is emerging for the role of other monitors of cerebral well-being that enable the clinician to employ an individualized multimodality monitoring approach in patients with ABI, and these are briefly reviewed. While acknowledging difficulties in conducting robust prospective randomized studies in this area, such high-quality evidence for the utility of ICP/CPP-directed therapy in ABI is urgently required. So, too, is the wider adoption of multimodality neuromonitoring to guide optimal management of ICP and CPP, and a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the different forms of ABI and what exactly the different monitoring tools used actually represent. PMID:24293327

Kirkman, M A; Smith, M

2014-01-01

175

Characteristics of low resolution Q-branch microwave bands: Applications to 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether and 7-methylbicyclo[2.2.1]-hept-2-ene-5-one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rigid rotor analysis of ?b- and ?c-type Q-branch series indicates overlapping low J transitions giving rise to the low resolution microwave bands which follow a half-integer frequency rule. At higher J values certain Q-branch series form bandheads shifted to a lower frequency from the series origin. Under favorable circumstances low resolution bands are expected and the frequency of these bands may be used to estimate the rotational constant parameter (A-C). The microwave spectrum of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether exhibits bands which are assigned to the bandhead phenomenon. This provides a value of (A-C) and in conjunction with previous data yields the three rotational constants A, B, and C uniquely from low resolution data. The results are consistent with the s-cis-planar as well as gauche conformations. Previously reported low resolution bands of 7-methylbicyclo[2.2.1]-hept-2-ene-5-one are interpreted as two half-integer band series arising from low-lying vibrational states with slightly different values of (2A-B-C).

Dennison, F. T.; Gillies, C. W.; Borchert, S. J.

1981-10-01

176

Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-78 (2011) 644 Current laser scanning systems in sawmills collect low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) profiles of logs.  

E-print Network

laser scanning systems in sawmills collect low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) profiles of logs Sciences Laboratory in Princeton, WV, constructed a 3D laser log scanner using off-the-shelf industrial. The scanner collects a high-resolution 3D dot cloud map of exterior log surfaces. Each log scan is composed

2011-01-01

177

Abnormal Error Monitoring in Math-Anxious Individuals: Evidence from Error-Related Brain Potentials  

PubMed Central

This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants’ math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN. PMID:24236212

Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

2013-01-01

178

Brain death: the European perspective.  

PubMed

Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative. PMID:25839722

Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

2015-04-01

179

Design and construction progress of LRS2-B: a new low resolution integral-field spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) has ushered in a new era of instrumentation for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Here, we present the design, construction progress, and lab tests completed to date of the blue-optimized second generation Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2-B). LRS2-B is a dual-channel, fiber fed instrument that is based on the design of the Visible Integral Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), which is the new flagship instrument for carrying out the HET Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX). LRS2-B utilizes a microlens-coupled integral field unit (IFU) that covers a 7"x12" area on the sky having unity fill-factor with ~300 spatial elements that subsample the median HET image quality. The fiber feed assembly includes an optimized dichroic beam splitter that allows LRS2-B to simultaneously observe 370

Chonis, Taylor S.; Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2012-09-01

180

Brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

1991-01-01

181

Brain death.  

PubMed

Current law in the United States authorizes physicians to diagnose brain death by applying generally accepted neurologic criteria for determining loss of function of the entire brain. This article offers a medical-legal perspective on problems that may arise with respect to the determination of brain death. These include the possibility of diagnostic error, conceptual disagreements that may constrain the use of neurologic criteria to diagnose death, and the conflation of brain death and loss of consciousness. This article also addresses legal aspects of the debate over whether to expand the definition of brain death to include permanent unconsciousness. Although existing laws draw a clear distinction between brain death and the persistent vegetative state, many courts have authorized removal of life support from individuals whose unconsciousness is believed to be permanent on proof that removal accords with preferences expressed before sentience was lost. PMID:10196410

Beresford, H R

1999-05-01

182

Brain Week!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

2005-05-01

183

Towards Sea Ice Remote Sensing with Space Detected GPS Signals: Demonstration of Technical Feasibility and Initial Consistency Check Using Low Resolution Sea Ice Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents two space detected Global Positioning System (GPS) signals reflected off sea ice and compares the returned power profiles with independent estimates of ice concentration provided by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and sea ice charts from the National Ice Center (NIC). The results of the analysis show significantly different signals received for each of the GPS reflections captured. The first signal was detected in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska and exhibited very high power returns with minimal spreading in delay and frequency. The second signal was received off the coast of Antarctica and was relatively weaker than the first signal with clearly observable spreading in the time domain. In both cases comparisons with ice concentration estimates from AMSR-E and the National Ice Centers revealed interesting correlations and contradictions. Both signals pass over an area on the surface which according to both AMSR-E and NIC data is covered by high concentration sea ice. However, the Bering Sea signal power returns where much greater than those of the Antarctic signal. This is a clear indication that factors other than ice concentration are determining the overall signal level, for example ice roughness and thickness. Other observations revealed some consistency with respect to the independent measurements sources. The Antarctic GPS data collection occurs over a region of changing sea ice concentration, and the GPS signal level responds at roughly the same point that the AMSR-E data and National Ice Center charts indicate a change in ice concentration. The low resolution of the AMSR-E data prevented (for the moment) a more detailed comparison within the region of changing ice conditions. Nevertheless, this initial demonstration shows the potential as well as the difficulties of this new technique. Additionally, a general method for on-board open-loop signal tracking will be presented. On-board satellite data processing is often limited and tracking a reflected signal using the same techniques as normal navigation signals is problematic. The fading effects due to the diffuse scattering process make non-coherent averaging of the signal necessary and prohibit the use of traditional style tracking loops. However, for signals received on a satellite it is possible to accurately predict the Doppler frequency and GPS code delay of the received signal and open loop track the reflection with a minimum of processing overhead. A predictive tracking scheme combined with a "correlator-net" will be presented that will simplify the tracking of reflected signals using only sampled data.

Gleason, S.

2010-12-01

184

Brain oscillatory activity during spatial navigation: theta and gamma activity link medial temporal and parietal regions.  

PubMed

Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two of these cortical sources were found to exhibit significant spectral power differences during navigation with respect to a resting eyes open condition and were subject to source localization using sLORETA. These two sources were localized as a right parietal component with gamma activation and a right medial-temporal-parietal component with activation in theta and gamma bandwidths. The parietal gamma activity was thought to reflect visuospatial processing associated with the task. The medial-temporal-parietal activity was thought to be more specific to the navigational processing, representing the integration of ego- and allo-centric representations of space required for successful navigation, suggesting theta and gamma oscillations may have a role in integrating information from parietal and medial-temporal regions. Theta activity on this medial-temporal-parietal source was positively correlated with more efficient navigation performance. Results are discussed in light of the depth and proposed closed field structure of the hippocampus and potential implications for scalp EEG data. The findings of the present study suggest that appropriate BSS methods are ideally suited to minimizing the effects of volume conduction in noninvasive recordings, allowing more accurate exploration of deep brain processes. PMID:21812639

White, David J; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B

2012-03-01

185

Brain metastases.  

PubMed

Brain metastases are the most frequent neurological complication of cancer and the most common brain tumour type. Lung and breast cancers, and melanoma are responsible for up to three-quarters of metastatic brain lesions. Most patients exhibit either headache, seizures, focal deficits, cognitive or gait disorders, which severely impair the quality of life. Brain metastases are best demonstrated by MRI, which is sensitive but non-specific. The main differential diagnosis includes primary tumours, abscesses, vascular and inflammatory lesions. Overall prognosis is poor and depends on age, extent and activity of the systemic disease, number of brain metastases and performance status. In about half of the patients, especially those with widespread and uncontrolled systemic malignancy, death is heavily related to extra-neural lesions, and treatment of cerebral disease doesn't significantly improve survival. In such patients the aim is to improve or stabilize the neurological deficit and maintain quality of life. Corticosteroids and whole-brain radiotherapy usually fulfill this purpose. By contrast, patients with limited number of brain metastases, good performance status and controlled or limited systemic disease, may benefit from aggressive treatment as both quality of life and survival are primarily related to treatment of brain lesions. Several efficacious therapeutic options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are available for these patients. PMID:24365409

Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Hildebrand, Jerzy

2014-01-01

186

Imipenem therapy of brain abscesses.  

PubMed

The efficacy of imipenem versus standard chemotherapy (both in addition to neurosurgery) in the treatment of brain abscess was compared in a retrospective study. Cure was obtained in 52 of 60 (86.7%) patients in the standard group, and in 15 of 15 (including 5 patients with multiple brain abscesses) in the imipenem group. Cure without neurosurgery was observed in 2 of 60 (3.3%) and 3 of 15 (20%) of the cases, respectively (p = 0.08). Levels of imipenem in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain pus were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of most of the abscess isolates. Side effects of imipenem were rare and tolerance was excellent. Imipenem monotherapy (3-4 g/day) for five weeks seems a reasonable therapeutic choice for treatment of bacterial brain abscesses. PMID:8894574

Asensi, V; Carton, J A; Maradona, J A; Asensi, J M; Pérez, F; Redondo, P; López, A; Arribas, J M

1996-08-01

187

Brain investigation and brain conceptualization  

PubMed Central

Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

188

Brain Tumor Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the ... Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor Dictionary Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors ...

189

Anatomy of the Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the ... Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor Dictionary Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors ...

190

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage  

MedlinePLUS

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain damage ? What are some signs or symptoms of right hemisphere ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

191

Brain Health  

MedlinePLUS

... These habits, spanning four categories — physical health and exercise, diet and nutrition, cognitive activity, and social engagement — can help keep your body and brain healthy and potentially reduce your risk of cognitive ...

192

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

193

Conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease is predicted by sources and coherence of brain electroencephalography rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Can quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) predict the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD)?Methods. Sixty-nine subjects fulfilling criteria for MCI were enrolled; cortical connectivity (spectral coherence) and (low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) sources of EEG rhythms (?=2–4 Hz; ?=4–8 Hz; ? 1=8–10.5 Hz; ? 2=10.5–13 Hz: ? 1=13–20 Hz; ? 2=20–30 Hz; and ?=30–40) were evaluated at

P. M. Rossini; C. Del Percio; P. Pasqualetti; E. Cassetta; G. Binetti; G. Dal Forno; F. Ferreri; G. Frisoni; P. Chiovenda; C. Miniussi; L. Parisi; M. Tombini; F. Vecchio; C. Babiloni

2006-01-01

194

Brain tumors.  

PubMed

The past 2 decades have witnessed a revolution in the management of childhood brain tumors, with the establishment of multidisciplinary teams and national and international consortiums that led to significant improvements in the outcomes of children with brain tumors. Unprecedented cooperation within the pediatric neuro-oncology community and sophisticated rapidly evolving technology have led to advances that are likely to revolutionize treatment strategies and improve outcomes. PMID:25435118

Chintagumpala, Murali; Gajjar, Amar

2015-02-01

195

Brain imaging and brain function  

SciTech Connect

This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

Sokoloff, L.

1985-01-01

196

Automated Analysis of Fundamental Features of Brain Structures  

PubMed Central

Automated image analysis of the brain should include measures of fundamental structural features such as size and shape. We used principal axes (P-A) measurements to measure overall size and shape of brain structures segmented from MR brain images. The rationale was that quantitative volumetric studies of brain structures would benefit from shape standardization as had been shown for whole brain studies. P-A analysis software was extended to include controls for variability in position and orientation to support individual structure spatial normalization (ISSN). The rationale was that ISSN would provide a bias-free means to remove elementary sources of a structure’s spatial variability in preparation for more detailed analyses. We studied nine brain structures (whole brain, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus) from the 40-brain LPBA40 atlas. This paper provides the first report of anatomical positions and principal axes orientations within a standard reference frame, in addition to “shape/size related” principal axes measures, for the nine brain structures from the LPBA40 atlas. Analysis showed that overall size (mean volume) for internal brain structures was preserved using shape standardization while variance was reduced by more than 50%. Shape standardization provides increased statistical power for between-group volumetric studies of brain structures compared to volumetric studies that control only for whole brain size. To test ISSN’s ability to control for spatial variability of brain structures we evaluated the overlap of 40 regions of interest (ROIs) in a standard reference frame for the nine different brain structures before and after processing. Standardizations of orientation or shape were ineffective when not combined with position standardization. The greatest reduction in spatial variability was seen for combined standardizations of position, orientation and shape. These results show that ISSNs automated processing can be a valuable asset for measuring and controlling variability of fundamental features of brain structures. PMID:21360205

McKay, D. Reese; Cykowski, Matthew D.; Martinez, Michael J.; Tan, Xi; Valaparla, Sunil; Zhang, Yi; Fox, Peter T.

2013-01-01

197

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination\\u000a of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements\\u000a for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of Neurology published evidence-based\\u000a practice parameters for

Katharina M. Busl; David M. Greer

2009-01-01

198

Organic brain syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

199

Brain-Compatible Assessments. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diane Ronis, a recognized expert in brain-compatible learning and assessment, goes beyond the world of standardized testing to show educators how to build and use targeted assessments based on the latest neuroscientific research. Updated to reflect recent findings about how the brain learns, this book provides readers with revised tools for…

Ronis, Diane L.

2007-01-01

200

Citizenship, Passports and the Brain Exchange Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that the traditional permanent bilateral flows of highly skilled immigrants are being replaced by a form of “brain circulation”. This paper offers a brain-exchange model in direct contrast to the standard neoclassical migration model limiting onward flows to disappointed immigrants. In this triangular model, movement occurs between three states: sending, entrepôt and final destination region. Individual agents

Don J. DeVoretz; Kangqing Zhang

2004-01-01

201

Fast robust automated brain extraction.  

PubMed

An automated method for segmenting magnetic resonance head images into brain and non-brain has been developed. It is very robust and accurate and has been tested on thousands of data sets from a wide variety of scanners and taken with a wide variety of MR sequences. The method, Brain Extraction Tool (BET), uses a deformable model that evolves to fit the brain's surface by the application of a set of locally adaptive model forces. The method is very fast and requires no preregistration or other pre-processing before being applied. We describe the new method and give examples of results and the results of extensive quantitative testing against "gold-standard" hand segmentations, and two other popular automated methods. PMID:12391568

Smith, Stephen M

2002-11-01

202

Brain Tumor Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

203

Journey into the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students view and discuss video segments from the PBS program The Human Spark as they learn about the human brain, including information about brain regions, brain activity and technologies used to explore the brain.

Teachers& #39; Domain

2012-10-17

204

Brain tumor - children  

MedlinePLUS

... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

205

Brain and Spinal Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord Tumors Condensed from Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Brain and spinal cord tumors ...

206

Understanding Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

207

Brain and Addiction  

MedlinePLUS

Your Brain Your brain is who you are. It’s what allows you to think, breathe, move, speak, and feel. ... solve problems, and make decisions. How Does Your Brain Communicate? The brain is a complex communications network ...

208

The Marine Mammal Brain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. In this unique standards-based activity, students compare the brains and behaviors of dolphins, sea lions, and manatees in a game-like format.

Archibald J. Fobbs Jr.

2005-07-01

209

Exploring Brain Connectivity with Two-Dimensional Neural Maps  

E-print Network

meaningful and familiar coordinates. DWI enables neural pathways in the in vivo brain to be estimatedExploring Brain Connectivity with Two-Dimensional Neural Maps Radu Jianu, Member, IEEE, C¸ agatay for exploring connectivity in the brain. For this, we create standard streamtube models from diffusion

Pratt, Vaughan

210

Brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain metastases are the most common neurological complcation of systemic cancer, accounting for nearly 170,000 new cases annually in the United States. The incidence appears to be increasing as cancer patients survive longer. Despite recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the optimal management remains unclear. The options include corticosteroids, radiation therapy, surgery, and chemotherapy. This article provides an overview of the

Michael L. Pearl; Fidel A. Valea; Eva Chalas

1997-01-01

211

Cola Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over fifty years, Coke and Pepsi have spent billions trying to out-market each other. But a new brain study suggests that one brand has much deeper effects. This Science Update explores the affect advertising poses on the consumer's choice.

Science Update

2004-11-15

212

Dolphin Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins and other marine mammals have pretty big brains compared to the size of their bodies. That's one indication of high intelligence, and anyone who has seen them perform at an aquarium or zoo can attest to that fact. Science reporter Bob Hirshon introduces us to one scientist who's trying to find out how dolphins got so brainy.

Science Update (; )

2002-03-11

213

8.SP Animal Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Is there an association between the weight of an animal’s body and the weight of the animal’s brain? 1. Make a scatterplot using the following data. Bo...

214

Martian 'Brain'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

2004-01-01

215

Quantitative comparison of four brain extraction algorithms.  

PubMed

In a companion paper (Rehm et al., 2004), we introduced Minneapolis Consensus Strip (McStrip), a hybrid algorithm for brain/non-brain segmentation. In this paper, we compare the performance of McStrip and three brain extraction algorithms (BEAs) in widespread use within the neuroimaging community--Statistical Parametric Mapping v.2 (SPM2), Brain Extraction Tool (BET), and Brain Surface Extractor (BSE)--to the "gold standard" of manually stripped T1-weighted MRI brain volumes. Our comparison was based on quantitative boundary and volume metrics, reproducibility across repeat scans of a single subject, and assessments of performance consistency across datasets acquired on different scanners at different institutions. McStrip, a hybrid method incorporating warping to a template, intensity thresholding, and edge detection, consistently outperformed SPM2, BET, and BSE, all of which rely on a single algorithmic strategy. PMID:15219597

Boesen, Kristi; Rehm, Kelly; Schaper, Kirt; Stoltzner, Sarah; Woods, Roger; Lüders, Eileen; Rottenberg, David

2004-07-01

216

Silicon Brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

217

Brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

Bradshaw, J.R.

1989-01-01

218

Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

219

The Amazing Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discover the different parts of the brain and the tools used to discover the brain. On a piece of paper, sketch a brain that looks similar to this one brain (med) (Image downloaded from: http://www.flickr.com) Label each part of the brain and give a brief description of what each part does. Explore the site below to help you label your brain. Brain Structures and their Functions Make sure to include the cerebrum, cerebellum, limbic system, ...

Mrs. Johnson

2010-08-06

220

Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context. PMID:17330151

Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

2007-01-01

221

Brain Cake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Cake is a web site that reaches girls from around the globe who are interested in changing the world with math and science! This site is a resource - a resource for yourself, your daughter, a student in your classroom, or someone you mentor. The Girls, Math & Science Partnership is exactly that - an innovative, compelling, high-quality resource for education, information, research and advocacy on gender equality in the sciences.The site also includes: games and experiments, careers, biographies, homework help, and links to other related sites.

222

Brain Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains how brain cancer is diagnosed, the different types of tumors, and the available treatment options. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

223

Comparison of two fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences to standard t2-weighted images for brain parenchymal contrast and lesion detection in dogs with inflammatory intracranial disease.  

PubMed

T2-weighted (T2w) sequences are commonly relied upon in magnetic resonance imaging protocols for the detection of brain lesions in dogs. Previously, the effect of fluid suppression via fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) has been compared to T2-weighting with mixed results. Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) has been reported to increase the detection of some CNS lesions in people. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of fat suppression on brain parenchymal contrast resolution and lesion detection in dogs. We compared three sequences: T2w images, STIR, and T2w FLAIR with chemical fat suppression (T2-FLAIR-FS) in dogs with meningoencephalitis. Dogs with meningoencephalitis and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy were retrospectively identified and anonymized. Evaluators recorded the presence or absence of lesions within 12 predetermined brain regions on randomized sequences, viewing and scoring each sequence individually. Additionally, signal-to-noise ratios, contrast-to-noise ratios, and relative contrast (RC) were measured in a reference population. Short tau inversion recovery sequences had the highest RC between gray and white matter. While descriptively more lesions were identified by evaluators on T2-FLAIR-FS images, there was no statistical difference in the relative sensitivity of lesion detection between the sequences. Nor was there a statistical difference in false lesion detection within our reference population. Short tau inversion recovery may be favored for enhanced anatomic contrast depiction in brain imaging. No benefit of the inclusion of a fat-suppressed T2-FLAIR sequence was found. PMID:25395066

Young, Benjamin D; Mankin, Joseph M; Griffin, John F; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fowler, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

2015-03-01

224

Brain-Computer Interfaces  

E-print Network

Kotulak 2004). Such technology is aptly named brain—computerBrain’ in a dish ?ies ?ight stimulator. CNN Technology (technology, the question remains: what are the reper- cussions of the union of the human brain

Aggarwal, Khushbu

2009-01-01

225

Brain Tumor Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council Leadership News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA E-News ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain ...

226

Unruptured Brain Aneurysms  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

227

Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Clipping Occlusion and ...

228

Brain-based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

Weiss, Ruth Palombo

2000-01-01

229

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

230

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric Autologous BMMNC for Severe TBI The purpose of this study ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

231

Metastatic brain tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... when there is a single tumor and the cancer has not spread to other ... Chemotherapy for metastatic brain tumors is usually not as ...

232

Singing the Brain Electric  

E-print Network

Singing the Brain Electric Brain pacemakers, scientists have found, can treat depression by correcting neural circuitry gone haywire. This thesis examines how such technology - a technique known as deep-brain stimulation, ...

Chua, Grace (Grace W. J.)

2008-01-01

233

Nourish Your Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... Nourish Your Brain Nourish Your Brain What is cognitive decline? Cognitive decline is when your brain doesn’t work ... to. For example, a person who is experiencing cognitive decline may have trouble learning, using language or ...

234

Performance Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based systems generally require students to meet the performance level specified in order to proceed or be certified. This issue of the Oregon School Study Council (OSSC) Bulletin surveys the types of standards currently being proposed. After an introductory chapter, chapter 2 describes eight components of standards, illustrated with a…

Conley, David T.

1997-01-01

235

Science Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has created a Web site that offers English translations of the academic standards of Asian countries. This is a good way to compare U.S. science standards to Asian and Asia Pacific countries. Science standards are typically organized into three content areas: Earth and space sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. Standards may also develop desired abilities or performance skill strands such as conceptual understanding, theorizing and analyzing, solving problems, communicating, and using tools, processes and procedures. This site allows for comparison of science standards between Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and the United States.

236

Undertanding Brain Aneurysm Videos  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

BAF Publications Webinars Videos Articles Web Resources Books Publications on BAF Funded Research Projects Glossary GTranslate Educational Resources : Video Brain Aneurysm Symptoms - Early Detection of Brain Aneurysms ...

237

Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.  

PubMed

Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain. PMID:25382446

Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao

2014-01-01

238

IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy.

Cohen, Martin; Volk, Kevin

1989-01-01

239

Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data  

SciTech Connect

Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

2012-08-01

240

Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia

2001-01-01

241

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew

242

Brains on video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six

Daphne Bavelier; C. Shawn Green; Doug Hyun Han; Perry F. Renshaw; Michael M. Merzenich; Douglas A. Gentile

2011-01-01

243

Split My Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Julia Omarzu

2004-10-01

244

Brain SPECT quantitation in clinical diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Methods to quantitate SPECT data for clinical diagnosis should be chosen so that they take advantage of the lessons learned from PET data. This is particularly important because current SPECT high-resolution brain imaging systems now produce images that are similar in resolution to those generated by the last generation PET equipment (9 mm FWHM). These high-resolution SPECT systems make quantitation of SPECT more problematic than earlier. Methodology validated on low-resolution SPECT systems may no longer be valid for data obtained with the newer SPECT systems. For example, in patients with dementia, the ratio of parietal to cerebellar activity often was studied. However, with new instruments, the cerebellum appears very different: discrete regions are more apparent. The large cerebellar regions usually used with older instrumentation are of an inappropriate size for the new equipment. The normal range for any method of quantitation determined using older equipment probably changes for data obtained with new equipment. It is not surprising that Kim et al. in their simulations demonstrated that because of the finite resolution of imaging systems, the ability to measure pure function is limited, with {open_quotes}anatomy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}function{close_quotes} coupled in a {open_quotes}complex nonlinear way{close_quotes}. 11 refs.

Hellman, R.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States)

1991-12-31

245

Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )

2004-04-30

246

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are heterogeneous. This injury falls on a broad spectrum, from very mild neurometabolic\\u000a changes in the brain with rapid recovery to permanent problems due to structural brain damage. It is incorrect to assume that\\u000a MTBIs cannot cause permanent brain damage and it is incorrect to assume that MTBIs typically cause permanent brain damage. This is

Grant L. Iverson; Rael T. Lange

247

Study: Heavy social drinkers show brain WASHINGTON (Reuters) --Heavy social drinkers show the same pattern of brain damage as hospitalized alcoholics --enough to  

E-print Network

-to-day functioning, U.S. researchers said Wednesday. Brain scans show clear damage, and tests of reading, balance brain function. Standard tests of verbal intelligence, processing speed, balance, working memory, executive function, and balance," the researchers wrote. Measures of brain chemicals and structures showed

Grishok, Alla

248

A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

2014-03-01

249

Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review  

PubMed Central

A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

2012-01-01

250

EOS standards  

SciTech Connect

An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-12

251

Networking standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

Davies, Mark

1991-01-01

252

Standards Organizations  

Cancer.gov

Health Level Screen (HL7)Founded in 1987, Health Level Seven, Inc., is a not-for-profit, ANSI-accredited, standards developing organization that provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that supports clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services. Its 2,200 members represent over 500 corporations, including 90 percent of the largest information systems vendors serving healthcare.

253

(Terminology standardization)  

SciTech Connect

Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

Strehlow, R.A.

1990-10-19

254

Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.  

PubMed

Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

Graeber, Manuel B

2008-05-01

255

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: data validation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain injured patients\\u000a towards providing a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health technology. Materials and methods Over a 2 year period, core dataset data (grouped by nine categories) were collected from 200 head-injured patients by local\\u000a nursing staff. Data were uploaded by the

Martin Shaw; Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; YH Yau

256

MD Anderson study shows why some brain cancers resist treatment  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center may have discovered why some brain cancer patients develop resistance to standard treatments including radiation and the chemotherapy agent temozolomide.

257

Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

PubMed Central

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

2014-01-01

258

Understanding brain networks and brain organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal “true” subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different “slices” of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

Pessoa, Luiz

2014-09-01

259

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)  

MedlinePLUS

... For more information about brain injury in the military, visit the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center website . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). How many people have TBI? ...

260

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents Introduction What is a Stroke? What ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

261

Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States are diagnosed with a brain tumor We offer emotional and educational support to ... LEARN MORE Largest non-governmental funder of childhood brain tumor research in the world We fund innovative ...

262

Childhood Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

263

Brain aneurysm repair  

MedlinePLUS

... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened up. A metal clip is placed ...

264

Children's Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded in 1988 by dedicated parents, physicians and friends. Our ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

265

Genetic Brain Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

266

Optogenetic Brain Interfaces  

E-print Network

The brain is a large network of interconnected neurons where each cell functions as a nonlinear processing element. Unraveling the mysteries of information processing in the complex networks of the brain requires versatile ...

Pashaie, Ramin

267

Brain injury - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... one was in the hospital after a serious brain injury. First, doctors and nurses provided treatment to prevent ... and treatment to help them recover from the brain injury. They may have stayed in special units that ...

268

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Inspires Others With Brain-injury Recovery Research Examines Blast Impact on Human Brain DOD Issues Purple Heart ... Helmets Throughout History Brainline Military: Mechanics of a Blast Injury Brainline.org: TBI News Widget Incidence Charts ( ...

269

Brain-Gut Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2012 Refresher Course on Endocrinology discusses brain-gut interactions in diabetes, including a review of basic brain-gut anatomy, the role of gut hormones, and the central regulation of appetite.

Shanthi Srinivasan (Emory University)

2012-04-01

270

Brain-Gut Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recorded presentation from the EB 2012 Refresher Course on Endocrinology discusses brain-gut interactions in diabetes, including a review of basic brain-gut anatomy, the role of gut hormones, and the central regulation of appetite.

Shanthi Srinivasan (Emory University)

2012-04-01

271

Mechanisms of brain ventricle development  

E-print Network

The brain ventricles are a conserved system of fluid-filled cavities within the brain that form during the earliest stages of brain development. Abnormal brain ventricle development has been correlated with neurodevelopmental ...

Lowery, Laura Anne

2008-01-01

272

NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY  

PubMed Central

Brain stimulation techniques have evolved in the last few decades with more novel methods capable of painless, noninvasive brain stimulation. While the number of clinical trials employing noninvasive brain stimulation continues to increase in a variety of medication-resistant neurological and psychiatric diseases, studies evaluating their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are largely lacking. This review introduces different techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation, which may find potential use in TBI. We cover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) techniques. We provide a brief overview of studies to date, discuss possible mechanisms of action, and raise a number of considerations when thinking about translating these methods to clinical use. PMID:21691215

Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Tormos, Jose M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2012-01-01

273

Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies  

PubMed Central

Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

Corballis, Michael C.

2014-01-01

274

Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function  

PubMed Central

Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

Thut, Gregor

2014-01-01

275

Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.  

PubMed

The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969

Hines, Terence

2014-07-01

276

NASA Robot Brain Surgeon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

1997-01-01

277

Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology  

E-print Network

Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology Peter of the brain in MR and CT clearly con- veying the whole surface topology. For the comparison of the provided with direct volume rendering. Considering brain information exclusively, and ensuring a standardized

Blanz, Volker

278

A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans  

E-print Network

A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans and Health Information Department of Radiology Abstract. Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover

Chervenak, Ann

279

Interactive, GPU-Based Level Sets for 3D Brain Tumor  

E-print Network

Interactive, GPU-Based Level Sets for 3D Brain Tumor Segmentation Aaron Lefohn Joshua Cates Ross and quantitative results from a study of brain tumor segmentation. #12;1 Introduction This paper describes a new and the associated gold standard for a specific problem: brain tumor segmentation [1, 2]. This paper make

Utah, University of

280

Representing and sharing numeric and symbolic knowledge of brain cortex anatomy using web technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a means to represent and share knowledge of brain cortex anatomy using web technologies and general standards and tools (e.g. XML, VRML, Java). This knowledge encompasses both symbolic features, i.e. descriptions based on language, and numeric features obtained from brain images such as models of the shapes of brain sulci.

Bernard Gibaud; Olivier Dameron; Xavier Morandi

2001-01-01

281

Studying brain function with near-infrared spectroscopy concurrently with electroencephalography  

E-print Network

Studying brain function with near-infrared spectroscopy concurrently with electroencephalography Y an electroencephalography (EEG) standard multi-channel cap, we can perform functional brain mapping of hemodynamic response-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, evoked potentials, brain imaging 1. INTRODUCTION NIRS and EEG are non

Fantini, Sergio

282

Diffusion imaging of whole, post-mortem human brains on a clinical MRI scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion imaging of post mortem brains has great potential both as a reference for brain specimens that undergo sectioning, and as a link between in vivo diffusion studies and “gold standard” histology\\/dissection. While there is a relatively mature literature on post mortem diffusion imaging of animals, human brains have proven more challenging due to their incompatibility with high-performance scanners. This

Karla L. Miller; Charlotte J. Stagg; Gwenaëlle Douaud; Saad Jbabdi; Stephen M. Smith; Timothy E. J. Behrens; Mark Jenkinson; Steven A. Chance; Margaret M. Esiri; Natalie L. Voets; Ned Jenkinson; Tipu Z. Aziz; Martin R. Turner; Heidi Johansen-Berg; Jennifer A. McNab

2011-01-01

283

Addiction and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the structure of the human brain and how it is affected by drugs of abuse. Use the resources below to 1) List at least 10 structures in the brain, and explain their function. Be sure to include the reward pathway. 2) Make your own sketch of the brain and show the location of the 10 structures above. ...

Dr. Eve

2008-03-12

284

Experience and Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENOUGH, WILLIAM T.; BLACK, JAMES E.; and WALLACE, GHRISTOPHER S. Experience and Brain Development. GHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1987, 58, 539-559. This article considers how experience can influence the developing and mature brain and proposes a new categorization scheme based upon the type of information stored and the brain mechanisms that appear to be involved in storing it. In this scheme, experience-expectant

William T. Greenough; James E. Black; Christopher S. Wallace

1987-01-01

285

Our Amazing Brains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

Bath, Howard

2005-01-01

286

Brain and Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advances made in understanding the brain structures responsible for language. Presents findings made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomographic (PET) scans to study brain activity. These findings map the structures in the brain that manipulate concepts and those that turn concepts into words. (MCO)

Damasio, Antonio R., Damasio, Hanna

1992-01-01

287

Pesticide Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

Shea, Kevin P.

1976-01-01

288

Confirming the brain death diagnosis using brain CT angiography: experience in Tokat State Hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: Fourteen brain death cases diagnosed in Mart 2012-May 2013 period in Tokat State Hospital were studied retrospectively. CT angiography experience about those cases was shared, and use of CT angiography in confirmation of brain death was discussed. Material and Methods: All 14 cases were patients on mechanical ventilator, who did not respond to medical and surgical treatments at intensive care unit and were diagnosed clinically with brain death. All of these patients had CT angiography as a confirmatory test using a 4-slice CT scanner in Radiology department in Tokat State Hospital. Findings: Six of the patients were female and eight were male. All of them were referred from intensive care unit and had clinical brain death diagnosis before CT angiography. In the evaluation of CTA, four-point scoring involving opacification loss in both ICVs and cortical segments of MCA was used. CTA examinations confirmed brain death diagnoses in all patients who had clinical brain death diagnoses, and no confliction between CTA findings and clinical diagnoses was observed. Conclusion: Demonstrating the lack of cerebral circulation is a necessity for confirmation of brain death diagnosis. While conventional angiography remains the standard method, CTA emerged as an alternative method. In parallel to increase in prevalence of organ implants, CTA, a fast and efficient method, has been increasingly used in confirmation of brain death diagnoses. PMID:25126174

Karaku?, Kayhan; Demirci, Seden; Cengiz, Aysun Yakut; Atalar, Mehmet Haydar

2014-01-01

289

[Diagnostic of brain death].  

PubMed

Despite of some discussion, there is general acceptance of the brain death criterion. As for Germany, there is a quasi legal regulation (TPG §16): two physicians with a longstanding experience in the management of patients with severe brain lesions are personally responsive for the diagnostic procedure lege artis. No false positive diagnosis has been published, hitherto. Before any organ explantation, diagnosis of brain death is mandatory. Nevertheless, discussions on brain death should not be instrumentalized by circumstances of organ explantation. Brain death should be part of a good educational background, to anticipate reflections free from the emotional binding of an acute incident. PMID:22441689

Moskopp, Dag

2012-03-01

290

Tau Beta Pi: Brain Ticklers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tau Beta Pi is a national honor society for engineering students, and its quarterly Brain Ticklers online feature is a true challenge aimed at motivated individuals. In each issue, five standard questions and two bonus questions are given, which are intended to exercise peoples' problem solving skills. The problems are generally straightforward and easy to understand, but they can be extremely perplexing to solve. People who attempt the problems are encouraged to submit their answers for possible recognition in the following issue. Answers to the previous issue's problems are included when new issues are published.

291

Brain: The Inside Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brain is quite flexible and resilient, and this online exhibit from the American Museum of Natural History explores both of these traits, along with looking at current research into how the brain works. This website offers a nice complement to the in situ exhibit, and visitors can make their way through five sections, including "Your Sensing Brain", "Your Emotional Brain", and "Your 21st Century Brain". Each of these sections includes short answers to crucial questions about the brain's functions and activities, such as "Why do memories exist?" In the "Videos" area, found on the right hand side of any page, visitors can check out six different clips that document the creation of the physical exhibit as well as topics that include "Thinking in Symbols". Finally, the site is rounded out by a section of materials for educators that include lesson plans and bulletins with titles like "Inside the Teenage Brain".

292

Hemispherical map for the human brain cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the function of the human brain cortex is a primary goal in human brain mapping. Methods to unfold and flatten the cortical surface for visualization and measurement have been described in previous literature; but comparison across multiple subjects is still difficult because of the lack of a standard mapping technique. We describe a new approach that maps each hemisphere of the cortex to a portion of a sphere in a standard way, making comparison of anatomy and function across different subjects possible. Starting with a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image of the brain, the cortex is segmented and represented as a triangle mesh. Defining a cut around the corpus collosum identifies the left and right hemispheres. Together, the two hemispheres are mapped to the complex plane using a conformal mapping technique. A Mobius transformation, which is conformal, is used to transform the points on the complex plane so that a projective transformation maps each brain hemisphere onto a spherical segment comprising a sphere with a cap removed. We determined the best size of the spherical cap by minimizing the relative area distortion between hemispherical maps and original cortical surfaces. The relative area distortion between the hemispherical maps and the original cortical surfaces for fifteen human brains is analyzed.

Tosun, Duygu; Prince, Jerry L.

2001-07-01

293

Robotic multimodality stereotactic brain tissue identification: work in progress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real-time identification of tissue would improve procedures such as stereotactic brain biopsy (SBX), functional and implantation neurosurgery, and brain tumor excision. To standard SBX equipment has been added: (1) computer-controlled stepper motors to drive the biopsy needle/probe precisely; (2) multiple microprobes to track tissue density, detect blood vessels and changes in blood flow, and distinguish the various tissues being penetrated; (3) neural net learning programs to allow real-time comparisons of current data with a normative data bank; (4) three-dimensional graphic displays to follow the probe as it traverses brain tissue. The probe can differentiate substances such as pig brain, differing consistencies of the 'brain-like' foodstuff tofu, and gels made to simulate brain, as well as detect blood vessels imbedded in these substances. Multimodality probes should improve the safety, efficacy, and diagnostic accuracy of SBX and other neurosurgical procedures.

Andrews, R.; Mah, R.; Galvagni, A.; Guerrero, M.; Papasin, R.; Wallace, M.; Winters, J.

1997-01-01

294

An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation and to alleviate motor impairments. In this paper, an adaptive brain-computer interface system intended for application to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device is developed as an experimental test bed for augmenting rehabilitation with a brain-computer interface. The system's performance is improved throughout rehabilitation by passive user feedback and reinforcement learning. By continuously adapting to the user's brain activity, similar adaptive systems could be used to support clinical brain-computer interface neurorehabilitation over multiple days. PMID:25565945

Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

2014-01-01

295

[Investigating Quisling's brain].  

PubMed

The trial against Vidkun Quisling (1887-1945) started on 20 August 1945. The question of whether he might suffer from a brain disease came up in court, and on Saturday 25 August he was examined by pneumoencephalography and cerebral angiography on the right side. Nothing pathological was found. Later on it has been claimed that these examinations were "experiments which today would be regarded as life-threatening". This is not correct; they were standard procedures at the time. What is criticizable is that Quisling was brought back to court in a relatively short time after the examinations. This paper gives a brief historic account of the development of the two methods, emphasising the contributions of Norwegian physicians such as Arne Engeset (1906-73) and Leif Emblem (1907-91). It has been claimed that the pneumoencephalography of Quisling has been used as an example of a normal finding from encephalography in the internationally renowned textbook "Clinical examination of the nervous system". PMID:15608778

Skalpe, Ingar O

2004-12-16

296

Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brain Research through Advancing Innovation Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative is part of a new focus aimed at "revolutionizing our understanding of the human brain." The hope is that this ambitious effort will allow researchers to "produce a revolutionary new dynamic picture of the brain.� There are a range of federal partners involved, including the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the US Food and Drug Administration. Visitors can look over some basic FAQ areas, such as Why is this needed? and How will it work? to get started. The site also includes links to advisory group meetings, complete with minutes, and funding opportunities for scholars as well as scientific departments and institutes.

2014-03-11

297

[Radiotherapy of metastatic brain tumors].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the role of radiotherapy cases of brain metastases, we retrospectively have analyzed the results of treatment in 89 patients with brain metastases, who had completed a course radiotherapy at the Jichi Medical School Hospital from August, 1973 to October, 1986. Cases analyzed included 60 patients with lung cancers, 6 with breast cancers, 6 with gastric cancers, 10 with other types, and 7 with unknown primary sites. The over-all median survival time was 4.7 months. Crude survival rates were 38.2% at 6 months, and 11.2% at one year, respectively. Two patients survived more than 3 years. The over-all rate of improvement of neurologic function (NF) were 75.3% of NF III patients, and 58% of NF II patients. There was, however, no significant difference in survival rates between the patients with and without NF improvement. Prognostic factors were investigated by a statistical method of a proportional hazard model. Age, the combined treatment with surgery and irradiation, and the neurologic standard dose (Neuret) were found to be factors which influenced the survival rate with a fair statistical significance. Survival rate increased with a decrease in age, an increase in the thoroughness of the surgical excision, and an increase in the Neuret dose. These data suggest that an aggressive approach to brain metastases in younger patients, so far as clinical judgements permit, may indeed improve survival. PMID:3126330

Nakama, M; Sugawara, T; Touei, H

1988-02-01

298

Book Reviews From Monkey Brain to Human Brain: A Fys-  

E-print Network

Book Reviews From Monkey Brain to Human Brain: A Fys- sen Foundation Symposium. Edited by Stanislas- setts: MIT Press. 2005. $55.00 (cloth). To unravel the complex story of human brain evolution Monkey Brain to Human Brain is that it collects, in one place, detailed discussions of both anatomy

Schoenemann, P. Thomas

299

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION  

E-print Network

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

300

3D brain anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive model of the brain, users can learn about its parts and specific functions. The model consists of side-by-side image and text areas. Users can employ a variety of control options. For example, they can click on a colorized area of the brain to call up information about it and to alter the position of the three-dimensional brain so that it features the selected part. There are also buttons for rotating the brain and for zooming. In addition, users can select from pop-up menus to learn about a specific brain area such as the corpus callosum and brain functions such as speech. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

David Grubin Productions

2001-01-01

301

The restless brain.  

PubMed

The pressing need to better understand human brain organization is appreciated by all who have labored to explain the uniqueness of human behavior in health and disease. Early work on the cytoarchitectonics of the human brain by Brodmann and others accompanied by several centuries of lesion behavior work, although valuable, has left us far short of what we need. Fortunately, modern brain imaging techniques have, over the past 40 years, substantially changed the situation by permitting the safe appraisal of both anatomical and functional relationships within the living human brain. An unexpected feature of this work is the critical importance of ongoing, intrinsic activity, which accounts for the majority of brain's energy consumption and exhibits a surprising level of organization that emerges with dimensions of both space and time. In this essay, some of the unique features of intrinsic activity are reviewed, as it relates to our understanding of brain organization. PMID:22432951

Raichle, Marcus E

2011-01-01

302

Experimental traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

2010-01-01

303

Imaging Brain Electrial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Brain activation is a spatio-temporally-distributed process. While the electroencephalogram (EEG) offers excellent temporal\\u000a resolution to characterize rapidly changing patterns of brain activation, conventional EEG techniques are limited mainly due\\u000a to their inability to provide spatial information regarding brain activity. As a result, invasive mapping procedures have\\u000a been increasingly used [Towle et al, 1995]. It is extremely desirable to image spatially

Bin He; Dezhong Yao; Dongsheng Wu

304

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of this population are available; however, the data highlight significant deficiencies with few treatment standards or guidelines. Considering the limited availability of resources, it is necessary to define realistic goals. Attention should be given to injury prevention, developing standardized pediatric admission

Brian T. Jankowitz; P. David Adelson

2006-01-01

305

Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity  

PubMed Central

Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

2013-01-01

306

Neuromodulation of Brain States  

PubMed Central

Switches between different behavioral states of the animal are associated with prominent changes in global brain activity, between sleep and wakefulness or from inattentive to vigilant states. What mechanisms control brain states, and what are the functions of the different states? Here we summarize current understanding of the key neural circuits involved in regulating brain states, with a particular emphasis on the subcortical neuromodulatory systems. At the functional level, arousal and attention can greatly enhance sensory processing, whereas sleep and quiet wakefulness may facilitate learning and memory. Several new techniques developed over the past decade promise great advances in our understanding of the neural control and function of different brain states. PMID:23040816

Lee, Seung-Hee; Dan, Yang

2013-01-01

307

[Standard rhinoplasty].  

PubMed

Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections. PMID:25156432

Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

2014-12-01

308

BrainAligner: 3D Registration Atlases of Drosophila Brains  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Drosophila neural expression patterns in thousands of 3D image stacks of individual brains requires registering them into a canonical framework based on a fiducial reference of neuropil morphology. Given a target brain labeled with predefined landmarks, the BrainAligner program automatically finds the corresponding landmarks in a subject brain and maps it to the coordinate system of the target brain via a deformable warp. Using a neuropil marker (the antibody nc82) as a reference of the brain morphology and a target brain that is itself a statistical average of 295 brains, we achieved a registration accuracy of 2µm on average, permitting assessment of stereotypy, potential connectivity, and functional mapping of the adult fruitfly brain. We used BrainAligner to generate an image pattern atlas of 2,954 registered brains containing 470 different expression patterns that cover all the major compartments of the fly brain. PMID:21532582

Peng, Hanchuan; Chung, Phuong; Long, Fuhui; Qu, Lei; Jenett, Arnim; Seeds, Andrew M.; Myers, Eugene W.; Simpson, Julie H.

2011-01-01

309

Quantitative EEG and neurofeedback in children and adolescents: anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, comorbid addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and brain injury.  

PubMed

This article explores the science surrounding neurofeedback. Both surface neurofeedback (using 2-4 electrodes) and newer interventions, such as real-time z-score neurofeedback (electroencephalogram [EEG] biofeedback) and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback, are reviewed. The limited literature on neurofeedback research in children and adolescents is discussed regarding treatment of anxiety, mood, addiction (with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and traumatic brain injury. Future potential applications, the use of quantitative EEG for determining which patients will be responsive to medications, the role of randomized controlled studies in neurofeedback research, and sensible clinical guidelines are considered. PMID:24975621

Simkin, Deborah R; Thatcher, Robert W; Lubar, Joel

2014-07-01

310

Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer's disease brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease and can be definitively diagnosed after death through an examination of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in several brain regions. It is to be expected that changes in the concentration and/or localization of low-molecular-weight molecules are linked to the pathological changes that occur in AD, and determining their identity would provide valuable information regarding AD processes. Here, we propose definitive brain metabolic profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The acquired data were subjected to principal components analysis to differentiate the frontal and parietal lobes of the AD/Control groups. Significant differences in the levels of spermine and spermidine were identified using S-plot, mass spectra, databases and standards. Based on the investigation of the polyamine metabolite pathway, these data establish that the downstream metabolites of ornithine are increased, potentially implicating ornithine decarboxylase activity in AD pathology.

Inoue, Koichi; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Toyo'Oka, Toshimasa

2013-08-01

311

Purified Rabies Vaccine (Suckling Rat Brain Origin)  

PubMed Central

A 10% suckling rat brain rabies vaccine free from encephalitogenic activity was prepared and inactivated with 1:8,000 beta-propiolactone (BPL), or ultraviolet light, or a combination of ultraviolet light and BPL, or 1% phenol. Potency was excellent in all samples, with the exception of the phenolized product which was marginal. A purified suckling rat brain (SRB) vaccine prepared by zonal centrifugation and inactivated with 1:8,000 BPL contained about 0.01 the amount of protein nitrogen of the unpurified 10% SRB vaccine. This purified product passed the National Institutes of Health potency test for rabies vaccine after administration of a quantity equivalent to a standard 10% brain suspension. PMID:5456012

Lavender, J. F.

1970-01-01

312

Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

313

Primary lymphoma of the brain  

MedlinePLUS

Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. Patients who have a weakened immune system are at high risk of primary lymphoma of the ...

314

Traumatic Brain Injury and Dystonia  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma damages to the brain. TBI can occur when the head suddenly ... between dystonia and TBI is urgently needed. Traumatic Brain Injury & Dystonia Diagnosis & Treatment • TBI may involve physical, cognitive, ...

315

MRI of the brain (image)  

MedlinePLUS

An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain creates a detailed image of the complex structures in the brain. An MRI can give a three-dimensional depiction of the brain, making location of problems ...

316

Standard atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.

Gregg, Willis Ray

1923-01-01

317

T Dwarfs Model Fits for Spectral Standards at Low Spectral Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present model fits to the T dwarf spectral standards which cover spectral types from T0 to T8. For a complete spectral range analysis, we have included a T9 object which is not considered a spectral standard. We have low-resolution (R~120) SpeX Prism spectra and a variety of higher resolution (R~1,000-25,000) spectra for all nine of these objects. The synthetic spectra are from the BT-SETTL 2013 models. We compare the best fit parameters from low resolution spectra to results from the higher resolution fits of prominent spectral type dependent features, where possible. Using the T dwarf standards to calibrate the effective temperature and gravity parameters for each spectral type, we will expand our analysis to a larger, more varied sample, which includes over one hundred field T dwarfs, for which we have a variety of low, medium, and high resolution spectra from the SpeX Prism Library and the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey. This sample includes a handful of peculiar and red T dwarfs, for which we explore the causes of their non-normalcy.

Giorla, Paige; Rice, Emily L.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Martin, Emily C.; Logsdon, Sarah E.

2015-01-01

318

Brain is a Computer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the similarities between the human brain and its engineering counterpart, the computer. Since students work with computers routinely, this comparison strengthens their understanding of both how the brain works and how it parallels that of a computer. Students are also introduced to the "stimulus-sensor-coordinator-effector-response" framework for understanding human and robot actions.

2014-09-18

319

Brain Malignancies Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The BMSC functions to harmonize an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process that will identify and promote the "Best Science" in brain cancer clinical research by addressing the design, prioritization and evaluation of phase II, and all phase III clinical trials. The BMSC focus is in both adult and pediatric brain cancers.

320

Anoxia Tolerant Brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

While medical science has struggled to find ways to counteract anoxic brain damage with limited success, evolution has repeatedly solved this problem. The best-studied examples of anoxia-tolerant vertebrates are the crucian carp and some North American Freshwater turtles. These can survive anoxia for days to months, depending of temperature. Both animals successfully fight any major fall in brain ATP levels,

Peter L. Lutz; Göran E Nilsson

2004-01-01

321

Electromagnetic brain mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been tremendous advances in our ability to produce images of human brain function. Applications of functional brain imaging extend from improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cognitive processes to better characterization of pathologies that impair normal function. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) (MEG\\/EEG) localize neural electrical activity using noninvasive measurements of external electromagnetic signals. Among the

S. Baillet; J. C. Mosher; R. M. Leahy

2001-01-01

322

Brain Aneurysm Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... National Brain Aneurysm... Read More Introducing our new mobile app for Android or iPhone! January 30, 2014 Read More Prev Next 1 of 1 ©2015 Brain Aneurysm Foundation Footer menu Site Map Disclaimer Contact: office @bafound.org (888) 272-4602 Website Design: Communication via Design, Ltd.

323

Feed Your Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

Failmezger, Tammie L.

2006-01-01

324

The Emerging Scholarly Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

Kurtz, Michael J.

325

Demystifying the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

Steinberg, Laurence

2011-01-01

326

Train Your Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a trick on their own brain to see if the brain can learn to ignore distracting input. Colors and words are used to play the visual trick, known as a Stroop Test. Learners predict and test whether practice makes perfect, or taking a break better improves concentration and performance.

WGBH

2007-01-01

327

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

328

Brain Friendly School Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This title gives concrete practical examples of how to align school library programs and instructional practice with the six key concepts of brain-compatible learning: increasing input to the brain; increasing experiential data; multiple source feedback; reducing threat; involving students in learning decision making; and interdisciplinary unit…

Sykes, Judith Anne

2006-01-01

329

Brain Pressure Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transducer originally used to measure air pressure in aircraft wind tunnel tests is the basis for a development important in diagnosis and treatment of certain types of brain damage. A totally implantable device, tbe intracranial pressure monitor measures and reports brain pressure by telemetry.

1977-01-01

330

Music and brain plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex and widespread activation in many brain areas is seen while performing, listening or mentally imaging music, activity that varies with training, previous exposure, personal preference, emotional involvement and many other factors. Playing a musical instrument demands extensive motor and cognitive abilities, and early musical learning results in plastic reorganization of the developing brain one example being the increased cortical

BARBRO B. JOHANSSON

2006-01-01

331

Brain imaging in psychiatry  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

Morihisa, J.M.

1984-01-01

332

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... related fundraising projects go to the Childhood Brain… Amazon Smile When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to ... Brain Tumor Foundation. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/52-2122976 and support us every ...

333

Traumatic Brain Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2000-02-01

334

Imaging the Working Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

Swithenby, S. J.

1996-01-01

335

Inside the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

Drury, Stacy S.

2009-01-01

336

The Standard Model Beyond the Standard Model  

E-print Network

The Standard Model Beyond the Standard Model New physics with top quark Search for Extra, January 13, 2010 Ritesh Singh New physics at LHC #12;The Standard Model Beyond the Standard Model New physics with top quark Search for Extra-dimensions Conclusions 1 The Standard Model Building block

337

Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain??  

PubMed Central

Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain. PMID:25206703

Demirhan, Osman; Çekin, Necmi; Ta?temir, Deniz; Tunç, Erdal; Güzel, Ali ?rfan; Meral, Demet; Demirbek, Bülent

2013-01-01

338

The Busy Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to understand how the brain receives and sends signals to the body. Until third grade, children view organs of the body as individual parts, e.g. the eyes are for seeing; the stomach digests food. At this level students are ready to start viewing the body as one whole system. One way to ease into this view is to study systems within the body such as the digestive system, circulatory system or the nervous system. This lesson introduces the brain, but not just the brain. It emphasizes how the brain interacts with the rest of the body. Students will learn about this by understanding 'messages' that go from parts of the body to the brain, and vice versa.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

339

High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

McWilliam, Erica

2010-01-01

340

Spatiotemporal brain imaging and modeling  

E-print Network

This thesis integrates hardware development, data analysis, and mathematical modeling to facilitate our understanding of brain cognition. Exploration of these brain mechanisms requires both structural and functional knowledge ...

Lin, Fa-Hsuan, 1972-

2004-01-01

341

ARTIFICIAL SELECTION ON RELATIVE BRAIN SIZE REVEALS A POSITIVE GENETIC CORRELATION BETWEEN BRAIN SIZE AND PROACTIVE PERSONALITY IN THE GUPPY  

PubMed Central

Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a “reactive” personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a “proactive” personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration. PMID:24359469

Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva JP; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas; Morrow, E

2014-01-01

342

Breast cancer brain metastases: new directions in systemic therapy  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer continues to be a major clinical challenge. The standard initial therapeutic approach depends upon the size, location, and number of metastatic lesions and includes consideration of surgical resection, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. As systemic therapies for control of extracranial disease improve, patients are surviving long enough to experience subsequent progression events in the brain. Therefore, there is an increasing need to identify both more effective initial treatments as well as to develop multiple lines of salvage treatments for patients with breast cancer brain metastases. This review summarises the clinical experience to date with respect to cytotoxic and targeted systemic therapies for the treatment of brain metastases, highlights ongoing and planned trials of novel approaches and identifies potential targets for future investigation. PMID:23662165

Lin, Nancy U

2013-01-01

343

Post-stereotactic radiosurgery brain metastases: a review.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SR) is a standard therapy for brain metastases. Radiation necrosis (RN) of the brain is a syndrome of brain coagulative and fibrinoid necrosis and cortical irritation that occurs following radiotherapy. RN following SR peaks in a delayed fashion at 9-12 months postprocedure. Vasogenic cerebral edema secondary to necrosis occurs and can affect surrounding brain function. No definitive non-invasive diagnostic study exists to differentiate post-SR RN from recurrent metastatic tumor. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and perfusion-weighted MR imaging have been used to evaluate RN and are discussed. Treatment options for post-SR brain metastases include observation, corticosteroids, pentoxifylline and vitamin E, bevacizumab, radiotherapy, laser-interstitial thermal therapy, and surgical resection. PMID:25600555

Fabiano, A J; Qiu, J

2015-06-01

344

Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction (‘shaving’) of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [11C]-raclopride and [11C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches.

Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M.; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E.

2014-05-01

345

New treatment modalities for brain tumors in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Despite advancements in standard therapies, intracranial tumors remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in veterinary and human medicine. Several newer approaches are gaining more widespread acceptance or are currently being prepared for translation from experimental to routine therapeutic use. Clinical trials in dogs with spontaneous brain tumors have contributed to the development and human translation of several novel therapeutic brain tumor approaches. PMID:25441624

Rossmeisl, John H

2014-11-01

346

[Surgery of brain metastases].  

PubMed

Surgical excision of brain metastases has been well evaluated in unique metastases. Two randomized phase III trial have shown that combined with adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy, it significantly improves overall survival. However, even in the presence of multiple brain metastases, surgery may be useful. Also, even in lesions amenable to radiosurgery, surgical resection is preferred when tumors displayed cystic or necrotic aspect with important edema or when located in highly eloquent areas or cortico-subcortically. Furthermore, surgery may have a diagnostic role, in the absence of histological documentation of the primary disease, to rule out a differential diagnosis (brain abscess, lymphoma, primary tumor of the central nervous system or radionecrosis). Finally, the biological documentation of brain metastatic disease might be useful in situations where a specific targeted therapy can be proposed. Selection of patients who will really benefit from surgery should take into account three factors, clinical and functional status of the patient, systemic disease status and characteristics of intracranial metastases. Given the improved overall survival of cancer patients partially due to the advent of effective targeted therapies on systemic disease, a renewed interest has been given to the local treatment of brain metastases. Surgical resection currently represents a valuable tool in the armamentarium of brain metastases but has also become a diagnostic and decision tool that can affect therapeutic strategies in these patients. PMID:25640217

Métellus, P; Reyns, N; Voirin, J; Menei, P; Bauchet, L; Faillot, T; Loiseau, H; Pallud, J; Guyotat, J; Mandonnet, E

2015-02-01

347

[Epidemiology of brain metastases].  

PubMed

The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

2015-02-01

348

International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain  

E-print Network

EA 4272 International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework DocumentdeTravail WorkingPaper hal-00421166,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 International Human Capital Formation for examining the interrelation between brain drain, brain gain and the location of human capital formation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

The Brain Reserve Hypothesis, Brain Atrophy and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have used the concept of brain reserve to explain the dissociation between pathological brain damage and cognitive and functional performance. A variety of brain reserve hypotheses exist, and different empirical strategies have been employed to investigate these variants. Objective: The study investigates (i) the relationship between measures of brain burden (atrophy, white matter hyperintensities (WMH)) and measures of

Helen Christensen; Kaarin J. Anstey; Ruth A. Parslow; Jerome Maller; Andrew Mackinnon; Perminder Sachdev

2007-01-01

350

Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

351

Brain Imaging and Behavioral Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review explores the cellular pathology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to neurobehavioral outcomes, the relationship of brain imaging findings to underlying pathology, brain imaging techniques, various image analysis procedures and how they relate to neuropsychological testing, and the importance of brain imaging…

Bigler, Erin D.

1996-01-01

352

Test-retest reliability of white matter structural brain networks: a multiband diffusion MRI study  

PubMed Central

The multiband EPI sequence has been developed for the human connectome project to accelerate MRI data acquisition. However, no study has yet investigated the test-retest (TRT) reliability of the graph metrics of white matter (WM) structural brain networks constructed from this new sequence. Here, we employed a multiband diffusion MRI (dMRI) dataset with repeated scanning sessions and constructed both low- and high-resolution WM networks by volume- and surface-based parcellation methods. The reproducibility of network metrics and its dependence on type of construction procedures was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We observed conserved topological architecture of WM structural networks constructed from the multiband dMRI data as previous findings from conventional dMRI. For the global network properties, the first order metrics were more reliable than second order metrics. Between two parcellation methods, networks with volume-based parcellation showed better reliability than surface-based parcellation, especially for the global metrics. Between different resolutions, the high-resolution network exhibited higher TRT performance than the low-resolution in terms of the global metrics with a large effect size, whereas the low-resolution performs better in terms of local (region and connection) properties with a relatively low effect size. Moreover, we identified that the association and primary cortices showed higher reproducibility than the paralimbic/limbic regions. The important hub regions and rich-club connections are more reliable than the non-hub regions and connections. Finally, we found WM networks from the multiband dMRI showed higher reproducibility compared with those from the conventional dMRI. Together, our results demonstrated the fair to good reliability of the WM structural brain networks from the multiband EPI sequence, suggesting its potential utility for exploring individual differences and for clinical applications. PMID:25741265

Zhao, Tengda; Duan, Fei; Liao, Xuhong; Dai, Zhengjia; Cao, Miao; He, Yong; Shu, Ni

2015-01-01

353

Test-retest reliability of white matter structural brain networks: a multiband diffusion MRI study.  

PubMed

The multiband EPI sequence has been developed for the human connectome project to accelerate MRI data acquisition. However, no study has yet investigated the test-retest (TRT) reliability of the graph metrics of white matter (WM) structural brain networks constructed from this new sequence. Here, we employed a multiband diffusion MRI (dMRI) dataset with repeated scanning sessions and constructed both low- and high-resolution WM networks by volume- and surface-based parcellation methods. The reproducibility of network metrics and its dependence on type of construction procedures was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We observed conserved topological architecture of WM structural networks constructed from the multiband dMRI data as previous findings from conventional dMRI. For the global network properties, the first order metrics were more reliable than second order metrics. Between two parcellation methods, networks with volume-based parcellation showed better reliability than surface-based parcellation, especially for the global metrics. Between different resolutions, the high-resolution network exhibited higher TRT performance than the low-resolution in terms of the global metrics with a large effect size, whereas the low-resolution performs better in terms of local (region and connection) properties with a relatively low effect size. Moreover, we identified that the association and primary cortices showed higher reproducibility than the paralimbic/limbic regions. The important hub regions and rich-club connections are more reliable than the non-hub regions and connections. Finally, we found WM networks from the multiband dMRI showed higher reproducibility compared with those from the conventional dMRI. Together, our results demonstrated the fair to good reliability of the WM structural brain networks from the multiband EPI sequence, suggesting its potential utility for exploring individual differences and for clinical applications. PMID:25741265

Zhao, Tengda; Duan, Fei; Liao, Xuhong; Dai, Zhengjia; Cao, Miao; He, Yong; Shu, Ni

2015-01-01

354

Management of penetrating brain injury  

PubMed Central

Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

2011-01-01

355

Management of penetrating brain injury.  

PubMed

Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

2011-07-01

356

Neuroinformatics of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas.  

PubMed

The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a mesoscale whole brain axonal projection atlas of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Anatomical trajectories throughout the brain were mapped into a common 3D space using a standardized platform to generate a comprehensive and quantitative database of inter-areal and cell-type-specific projections. This connectivity atlas has several desirable features, including brain-wide coverage, validated and versatile experimental techniques, a single standardized data format, a quantifiable and integrated neuroinformatics resource, and an open-access public online database (http://connectivity.brain-map.org/). Meaningful informatics data quantification and comparison is key to effective use and interpretation of connectome data. This relies on successful definition of a high fidelity atlas template and framework, mapping precision of raw data sets into the 3D reference framework, accurate signal detection and quantitative connection strength algorithms, and effective presentation in an integrated online application. Here we describe key informatics pipeline steps in the creation of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and include basic application use cases. PMID:25536338

Kuan, Leonard; Li, Yang; Lau, Chris; Feng, David; Bernard, Amy; Sunkin, Susan M; Zeng, Hongkui; Dang, Chinh; Hawrylycz, Michael; Ng, Lydia

2015-02-01

357

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: EC feasibility study results and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain-injured patients\\u000a and to facilitate a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health care technology with the primary objective of improving\\u000a patient care. European Community (EC) funding supported meetings over a year to discuss and define a core dataset to be collected\\u000a from patients with

Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; Rob Donald; Richard Sinnott; Anthony Stell

2010-01-01

358

TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF BRAIN ANATOMY  

E-print Network

The brain changes profoundly in structure and function during development, and as a result of diseases these brain changes are of immense value in basic and clinical neuroscience. Algorithms that map brain change these changes. In neuroscience studies, these tools can reveal subtle brain changes in adolescence and old age

Thompson, Paul

359

Understanding the changing adolescent brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human brain continues to develop throughout the adolescent years. Although there are differences between male and female teenagers in terms of the time course of neural development, similar brain areas undergo significant restructuring in both sexes. Brain regions in which development is particularly protracted include the prefrontal cortex and the temporalparietal

Stephanie Burnett; Catherine Sebastian

360

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... skills can include walking, talking and feeding yourself. Physical therapy is made up of stretching, strengthening exercises and ... brain injury and not know it? How can physical and occupational therapy help me? Are there support groups for people ...

361

Brain Stimulation Therapies  

MedlinePLUS

... a multisite study from CORE. Archives of General Psychiatry . 2006 Dec;63(12):1337-1344. 2 Fink ... new tool for brain research and therapy. Biological Psychiatry . 2000 Feb 15;47(4):287-295. 6 ...

362

Brain-Controlled Prosthetics  

MedlinePLUS

... over matter is no longer the stuff of science fiction alone. After years of basic research, neuroscientists have significantly advanced brain-computer interface (BCI) technology to the point where severely ...

363

Brain Coral Christmas  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Christmas tree worms have made their home on a brain coral. Tropical corals reefs are complex ecosystems, but are rapidly being lost to bleaching and disease, linked to increasing water temperatures....

364

Brain Wake-Ups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.

365

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults CDC Pediatric MTBI Workgroup Online Training Press, Social Media, and New Media Guide to Writing about Traumatic Brain Injury in News and Social Media Heads Up to Concussion Injury Center Topics Saving ...

366

Brain Malignancies Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The Brain Malignancy Steering Committee evaluates and prioritizes concepts for phase 3 and large phase 2 therapeutic clinical trials to be conducted in the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN).

367

Brain Tumors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a part of the brainstem called the pons. Optic nerve gliomas form in or around the optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. Most optic nerve gliomas are noncancerous and slow-growing. Continue ...

368

BrainWork  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Dana Alliances Blog News Events & Deadlines Neuroeducation Neuroethics News Archive Press Room Publications & Multimedia Brain in ... Home Dana Alliances Blog News Events & Deadlines Neuroeducation Neuroethics News Archive Press Room Press Releases Fact Sheet ...

369

Legionella micdadei Brain Abscess  

PubMed Central

We describe an immunocompromised patient who developed a large frontal brain abscess caused by Legionella micdadei. This is, to our knowledge, a rare case of culture-proven Legionella central nervous system infection. PMID:23224082

Johnson, Edward; Macyk-Davey, Andrea; Henry, Monica; Nilsson, Jan-Erik; Miedzinski, Lil

2013-01-01

370

Brain Aneurysm: Recovery  

MedlinePLUS

... of the most frequently asked questions by brain aneurysm survivors is “How long until I get better?” ... for patients who receive treatment for an unruptured aneurysm generally require less rehabilitative therapy and recover more ...

371

Scanning the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from The Human Spark, host Alan Alda learns how Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines employ powerful magnetic fields to show what parts of the brain are active while doing different tasks.

2011-08-02

372

Brains on video games.  

PubMed

The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065

Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

2011-12-01

373

Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

forward: speculations on the future of human functional brain imaging 30 4.1 More solution-focused, October 2009 1. The Wellcome Trust has provided substantial funding for neuroscience and mental health

Rambaut, Andrew

374

The BrainTainment Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The BrainTainment Center- home of the World Brain - receives a daily feed of uplinked Brainpower scores from players of THINKfast(tm)- the new brain-game that claims to grow your brain as you play the game. Bell Curves comparing Brainpower by country, domain, sex, age, profession & special interest groups will be posted as the data streams in. This One-stop Neuro-cog shop also features an on-line 5-minute IQ test, left/right brain analysis, random quotes & koans, a very popular Brain Board & a steady feed of brain booster news on new nutriceuticals, smart drugs, books, machines & games for your brain. The BrainTainment Center also offers the very popular THINKfast brain-game free off the site.

375

The Brain Activity Map  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists have made impressive advances in understanding the microscale function of single neurons and the macroscale activity of the human brain. One can probe molecular and biophysical aspects of individual neurons and also view the human brain in action with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). However, the mechanisms of perception, cognition, and action remain mysterious because they emerge from the real-time interactions of large sets of neurons in densely interconnected, widespread neural circuits. PMID:23470729

Alivisatos, A. Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Greenspan, Ralph J.; McEuen, Paul L.; Roukes, Michael L.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Weiss, Paul S.; Yuste, Rafael

2013-01-01

376

Headaches and brain tumors.  

PubMed

This article overviews headache and brain tumors, particularly from the diagnostic point of view of patients presenting with headache as their major symptom. Common and uncommon brain tumors can produce headache and investigation is warranted if any red flags are present. An overview of particular tumors and their presentations are covered along with some investigative suggestions and pertinent treatment strategies for some patients. PMID:24703537

Kirby, Sarah; Purdy, R Allan

2014-05-01

377

Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ?open? would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

2013-12-01

378

The Brain Prize 2011  

PubMed Central

The Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Foundation awarded the inaugural Brain Prize 2011 to Péter Somogyi, Tamás Freund and György Buzsáki ‘for their wide-ranging, technically and conceptually brilliant research on the functional organization of neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex, especially in the hippocampus, a region that is crucial for certain forms of memory’. The present article highlights key findings and major conceptual contributions by these three scientists that were recognized by the award. PMID:21917323

Soltesz, Ivan

2012-01-01

379

Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility  

PubMed Central

Background An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated. Methods Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death. Results As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66–2.37), but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels. Conclusion With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure. PMID:25493437

Collins, James J.; Bender, Thomas John; Bonner, Eileen M.; Bodner, Kenneth M.; Kreft, Alisa M.

2014-01-01

380

FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD  

E-print Network

March 2004 FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 199, STANDARDS FOR SECURITY Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology A new Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), recently approved by the Secretary of Commerce, will help federal agencies

381

Autoradiographic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)  

SciTech Connect

We have localized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the zebra finch brain by using three 125I-labelled ligands: alpha bungarotoxin and two monoclonal antibodies to neuronal nicotinic receptors. Unfixed brains from intact adult male and female zebra finches were prepared for in vitro autoradiography. Low-resolution film autoradiograms and high-resolution emulsion autoradiograms were prepared for each of the three ligands. The major brain structures that bind all three of the ligands are hippocampus; hyperstriatum dorsalis; hyperstriatum ventralis; nucleus lentiformis mesencephali; nucleus pretectalis, some layers of the optic tectum; nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis; pars dorsalis; locus ceruleus; and all cranial motor nuclei except nucleus nervi hypoglossi. The major structures labelled only by (125I)-alpha bungarotoxin binding included hyperstriatum accessorium and the nuclei: preopticus medialis, medialis hypothalami posterioris, semilunaris, olivarius inferior, and the periventricular organ. Of the song control nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior neostriatum; hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis; nucleus intercollicularis; and nucleus hypoglossus were labelled. The binding patterns of the two antibodies were similar to one another but not identical. Both labelled nucleus spiriformis lateralis and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis especially heavily and also labelled the nucleus habenula medialis; nucleus subpretectalis; nucleus isthmi, pars magnocellularis; nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis; nucleus reticularis lateralis; nucleus tractus solitarii; nucleus vestibularis dorsolateralis; nucleus vestibularis lateralis; nucleus descendens nervi trigemini; and the deep cerebellar nuclei.

Watson, J.T.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Whiting, P.; Lindstrom, J.M.; Podleski, T.R.

1988-08-08

382

Brain Structure and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular health problems including diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. These cardiovascular afflictions increase risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but it is unknown whether these factors, specifically obesity and type II diabetes, are associated with specific patterns of brain atrophy. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to examine gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences in 94 elderly subjects who remained cognitively normal for at least 5 years after their scan. Bivariate analyses with corrections for multiple comparisons strongly linked body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels, and Type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) with atrophy in frontal, temporal, and subcortical brain regions. A multiple regression model, also correcting for multiple comparisons, revealed that BMI was still negatively correlated with brain atrophy (FDR < 5%), while DM2 and FPI were no longer associated with any volume differences. In an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) model controlling for age, gender, and race, obese subjects with a high BMI (BMI > 30) showed atrophy in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and thalamus compared to individuals with a normal BMI (18.5–25). Overweight subjects (BMI: 25–30) had atrophy in the basal ganglia and corona radiata of the WM. Overall brain volume did not differ between overweight and obese persons. Higher body mass index was associated with lower brain volumes in overweight and obese elderly subjects. Obesity is therefore associated with detectable brain volume deficits in cognitively normal elderly subjects. PMID:19662657

Raji, Cyrus A.; Ho, April J.; Parikshak, Neelroop; Becker, James T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

2009-01-01

383

Brain Imaging Analysis  

PubMed Central

The increasing availability of brain imaging technologies has led to intense neuroscientific inquiry into the human brain. Studies often investigate brain function related to emotion, cognition, language, memory, and numerous other externally induced stimuli as well as resting-state brain function. Studies also use brain imaging in an attempt to determine the functional or structural basis for psychiatric or neurological disorders and, with respect to brain function, to further examine the responses of these disorders to treatment. Neuroimaging is a highly interdisciplinary field, and statistics plays a critical role in establishing rigorous methods to extract information and to quantify evidence for formal inferences. Neuroimaging data present numerous challenges for statistical analysis, including the vast amounts of data collected from each individual and the complex temporal and spatial dependence present. We briefly provide background on various types of neuroimaging data and analysis objectives that are commonly targeted in the field. We present a survey of existing methods targeting these objectives and identify particular areas offering opportunities for future statistical contribution. PMID:25309940

BOWMAN, F. DUBOIS

2014-01-01

384

Convergence and divergence across construction methods for human brain white matter networks: An assessment based on individual differences.  

PubMed

Using diffusion MRI, a number of studies have investigated the properties of whole-brain white matter (WM) networks with differing network construction methods (node/edge definition). However, how the construction methods affect individual differences of WM networks and, particularly, if distinct methods can provide convergent or divergent patterns of individual differences remain largely unknown. Here, we applied 10 frequently used methods to construct whole-brain WM networks in a healthy young adult population (57 subjects), which involves two node definitions (low-resolution and high-resolution) and five edge definitions (binary, FA weighted, fiber-density weighted, length-corrected fiber-density weighted, and connectivity-probability weighted). For these WM networks, individual differences were systematically analyzed in three network aspects: (1) a spatial pattern of WM connections, (2) a spatial pattern of nodal efficiency, and (3) network global and local efficiencies. Intriguingly, we found that some of the network construction methods converged in terms of individual difference patterns, but diverged with other methods. Furthermore, the convergence/divergence between methods differed among network properties that were adopted to assess individual differences. Particularly, high-resolution WM networks with differing edge definitions showed convergent individual differences in the spatial pattern of both WM connections and nodal efficiency. For the network global and local efficiencies, low-resolution and high-resolution WM networks for most edge definitions consistently exhibited a highly convergent pattern in individual differences. Finally, the test-retest analysis revealed a decent temporal reproducibility for the patterns of between-method convergence/divergence. Together, the results of the present study demonstrated a measure-dependent effect of network construction methods on the individual difference of WM network properties. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1995-2013, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641208

Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Gong, Gaolang

2015-05-01

385

More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

2014-12-23

386

New brain cancer treatment may be more effective, less toxic  

Cancer.gov

A Phase 2 clinical trial testing a new protocol for treating a relatively rare form of brain cancer, primary CNS lymphoma, may change the standard of care for this disease, according to doctors at UC San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, who led the research. Described this week in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the trial involved 44 patients who were given a combination of high-dose chemotherapy with immune therapy, rather than the standard combination of chemotherapy with a technique known as whole-brain radiotherapy.

387

Astroglial growth factors in normal human brain and brain tumors: comparison with embryonic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of 18-day embryonic chicken brains, 15-day embryonic and adult rat brains and human brain tumors, as well as control histologically-normal adult human brain taken from around brain tumors or around arteriovenous malformations each stimulated the growth of cultured chick astrocytes. Eight mitogenic fractions were separated reproducibly by Bio-Gel P-10 molecular seive chromatography. They had apparent molecular weights (M.W.)

Michel P. Rathbone; Galina K. Szlapetis; Rocco de Villiers; Rolando F. Del Maestro; Joseph Gilbert; John Groves; Kelly Erola; Jae-Kyoung Kim

1992-01-01

388

Evidence against leukotrienes as mediators of brain edema.  

PubMed

Leukotrienes are powerful metabolites of arachidonic acid which are known to increase the permeability of peripheral blood vessels. These substances are found in brain tissue in association with cerebral ischemia, and in brain tumors. Therefore, it has been proposed that leukotrienes have a mediator function in brain edema. This hypothesis was subjected to further experimental analysis in this study, in which the authors investigated whether: 1) superfusion of the exposed brain surface with leukotrienes increases the permeability of extraparenchymal blood vessels in vivo; 2) intraparenchymal infusion of leukotrienes induces brain edema; and 3) pharmacological inhibition of leukotriene formation by BW755C, an inhibitor of leukotriene synthesis, reduces formation of brain edema from a standardized traumatic insult. The pial vessels of the parietal cortex of cats were examined by fluorescence microscopy during cerebral superfusion with the leukotrienes C4 (LTC4), D4 (LTD4), or E4 (LTE4) by using an open cranial window preparation. Intravenous Na(+)-fluorescein served as an in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) indicator. Superfusion of the pia with leukotrienes (up to 2 microM) did not open the barrier to fluorescein, but was associated with a significant constriction (up to 25%) of arterial and venous vessels. In experiments with slow infusion of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or LTC4 into the white matter of feline brain, the tissue water content was subsequently determined in serial brain slices using the specific gravity method. Tissue water profiles obtained after a 15-microM infusion of either LTB4 or LTC4 were virtually identical with those of control animals infused with mock cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, neither LTB4 nor LTC4 led to an augmentation of infusion-induced brain edema. In a final series, a cold lesion of the left parietal cortex was induced in rabbits. Twenty-four hours later, swelling of the exposed hemisphere was quantified by gravimetrical comparison of its weight with that of the contralateral nontraumatized hemisphere. Eight animals received BW755C intravenously prior to and after trauma to inhibit formation of leukotrienes. Seven rabbits were infused with an equivalent volume of saline as a control study. The resulting hemispheric swelling was 7.7% +/- 0.6% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) 24 hours later in animals receiving BW755C and 7.8% +/- 1.2% in the control group, indicating that inhibition of leukotrienes was ineffective in preventing formation of vasogenic brain edema. The findings demonstrate that leukotrienes administered to the brain in concentrations occurring under pathological conditions do not open the BBB nor do they induce brain edema.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2013778

Unterberg, A; Schmidt, W; Wahl, M; Ellis, E F; Marmarou, A; Baethmann, A

1991-05-01

389

New Antioxidant Drugs for Neonatal Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

The brain injury concept covers a lot of heterogeneity in terms of aetiology involving multiple factors, genetic, hemodynamic, metabolic, nutritional, endocrinological, toxic, and infectious mechanisms, acting in antenatal or postnatal period. Increased vulnerability of the immature brain to oxidative stress is documented because of the limited capacity of antioxidant enzymes and the high free radicals (FRs) generation in rapidly growing tissue. FRs impair transmembrane enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase activity resulting in persistent membrane depolarization and excessive release of FR and excitatory aminoacid glutamate. Besides being neurotoxic, glutamate is also toxic to oligodendroglia, via FR effects. Neuronal cells die of oxidative stress. Excess of free iron and deficient iron/binding metabolising capacity are additional features favouring oxidative stress in newborn. Each step in the oxidative injury cascade has become a potential target for neuroprotective intervention. The administration of antioxidants for suspected or proven brain injury is still not accepted for clinical use due to uncertain beneficial effects when treatments are started after resuscitation of an asphyxiated newborn. The challenge for the future is the early identification of high-risk babies to target a safe and not toxic antioxidant therapy in combination with standard therapies to prevent brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. PMID:25685254

Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

390

Position of Probe Determines Prognostic Information of Brain Tissue PO2 in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. METHODS A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. RESULTS When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P< .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. CONCLUSION These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome. PMID:22289784

Ponce, Lucido L.; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H.; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S.

2014-01-01

391

Preoperative mucosal tolerance to brain antigens and a neuroprotective immune response following surgical brain injury  

PubMed Central

Object Intracranial surgery causes cortical injury from incisions, hemorrhage, retraction, and electrocautery. The term “surgical brain injury” (SBI) has been developed to categorize this injury inherent to the procedure. Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in SBI. Traditional antiinflammatory therapies are often limited by their immunosuppressive side effects and poor CNS penetration. This study uses mucosal tolerance to develop an immune system that is tolerant to brain myelin basic protein (MBP) so that inflammation can be suppressed in a timely and site-specific manner following surgical disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Methods A standard SBI model using CD57 mice was used. Nasopharyngeal mucosa was exposed to vehicle, ovalbumin, or MBP to develop mucosal tolerance to these antigens. Immunological tolerance to MBP was confirmed in vivo through hypersensitivity testing. Neurological scores, cerebral edema, and interleukin (IL)–1? and transforming growth factor (TGF)–?1 cytokine levels were measured 48 hours postoperatively. Results Hypersensitivity testing confirmed the development of immune tolerance to MBP. Myelin basic protein– tolerant mice demonstrated reduced neurological injury, less cerebral edema, decreased levels of IL-1?, and increased levels of TGF?1 following SBI. Conclusions Developing preoperative immunological tolerance to brain antigens through mucosal tolerance provides neuroprotection, reduces brain edema, and modulates neuroinflammation following SBI. PMID:22017304

Ayer, Robert E.; Jafarian, Nazanin; Chen, Wanqiu; Applegate, Richard L.; Colohan, Austin R. T.; Zhang, John H.

2015-01-01

392

Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

393

Traumatic brain injury in modern war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

2013-05-01

394

Farm Financial Standards.  

PubMed

The Farm Financial Standards were developed by a national effort to encourage standardization. Standardization includes financial statement formats, terminology, and calculations for measuring financial position and format. Comparative analysis and education efforts are enhanced greatly by standardization. The Standardization Performance Analysis (SPA) system was developed on the basis of the performance standards for beef cattle and sheep enterprises. This article summarizes the Farm Financial Standards and illustrates the calculations with a worksheet. PMID:7584815

McGrann, J M

1995-07-01

395

Bacterial Brain Abscess  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in the diagnosis and management of bacterial brain abscess over the past several decades have improved the expected outcome of a disease once regarded as invariably fatal. Despite this, intraparenchymal abscess continues to present a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Brain abscess may result from traumatic brain injury, prior neurosurgical procedure, contiguous spread from a local source, or hematogenous spread of a systemic infection. In a significant proportion of cases, an etiology cannot be identified. Clinical presentation is highly variable and routine laboratory testing lacks sensitivity. As such, a high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary for prompt diagnosis and intervention. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer a timely and sensitive method of assessing for abscess. Appearance of abscess on routine imaging lacks specificity and will not spare biopsy in cases where the clinical context does not unequivocally indicate infectious etiology. Current work with advanced imaging modalities may yield more accurate methods of differentiation of mass lesions in the brain. Management of abscess demands a multimodal approach. Surgical intervention and medical therapy are necessary in most cases. Prognosis of brain abscess has improved significantly in the recent decades although close follow-up is required, given the potential for long-term sequelae and a risk of recurrence. PMID:25360205

Patel, Kevin

2014-01-01

396

Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

2011-01-01

397

Mathematics Content Standards Benchmarks and Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Mexico Mathematics Content Standards, Benchmarks, and Performance Standards identify what students should know and be able to do across all grade levels, forming a spiraling framework in the sense that many skills, once introduced, develop over time. While the Performance Standards are set forth at grade-specific levels, they do not exist as…

New Mexico Public Education Department, 2008

2008-01-01

398

Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

Menard, Scott

2011-01-01

399

Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data.  

PubMed

The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction ('shaving') of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [(11)C]-raclopride and [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches. PMID:24778363

Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E

2014-05-21

400

The Global Brain is Neither Global nor a Brain  

E-print Network

The Global Brain is Neither Global nor a Brain Adaptive Webs for Heterarchies Luis Mateus Rocha and Guiding Principles Heterarchies Control Hierarchies !Engineering of Enabling Technology Adaptive Webs Networks Mediated by Knowledge Networks? Exploring Other Concepts #12;Control Hierarchies Heterarchies

Rocha, Luis

401

Beyond intracranial pressure: optimization of cerebral blood flow, oxygen, and substrate delivery after traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Monitoring and management of intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a standard of care after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the pathophysiology of so-called secondary brain injury, i.e., the cascade of potentially deleterious events that occur in the early phase following initial cerebral insult—after TBI, is complex, involving a subtle interplay between cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen delivery and utilization, and supply of main cerebral energy substrates (glucose) to the injured brain. Regulation of this interplay depends on the type of injury and may vary individually and over time. In this setting, patient management can be a challenging task, where standard ICP/CPP monitoring may become insufficient to prevent secondary brain injury. Growing clinical evidence demonstrates that so-called multimodal brain monitoring, including brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2), cerebral microdialysis and transcranial Doppler among others, might help to optimize CBF and the delivery of oxygen/energy substrate at the bedside, thereby improving the management of secondary brain injury. Looking beyond ICP and CPP, and applying a multimodal therapeutic approach for the optimization of CBF, oxygen delivery, and brain energy supply may eventually improve overall care of patients with head injury. This review summarizes some of the important pathophysiological determinants of secondary cerebral damage after TBI and discusses novel approaches to optimize CBF and provide adequate oxygen and energy supply to the injured brain using multimodal brain monitoring. PMID:23837598

2013-01-01

402

The Geneva brain collection  

PubMed Central

The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

2011-01-01

403

TOR on the Brain  

PubMed Central

Signaling by target of rapamycin (mTOR in mammals) has been shown to modulate lifespan in several model organisms ranging from yeast to mice. In mice, reduced mTOR signaling by chronic rapamycin treatment leads to lifespan extension, raising the possibility that rapamycin and its analogs may benefit the aging brain and serve as effective treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review mTOR signaling and how neurons utilize mTOR to regulate brain function, including regulation of feeding, synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Additionally, we discuss recent findings that evaluate the mechanisms by which reduced mTOR activity might benefit the aging brain in normal and pathological states. We will focus on recent studies investigating mTOR and Alzheimer s disease, Parkinson s disease, and polyglutamine expansion syndromes such as Huntington s disease. PMID:20849946

Garelick, Michael G.; Kennedy, Brian K.

2012-01-01

404

Music and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the relationship between the brain and music? That very question animates the Library of Congress' Music and the Brain series, and their website allows interested parties to listen in on some of the conversations, lectures, and symposia. Noted psychologist Kay Redfield Jamison chairs the initiative, and the programs bring together physicians, theorists, composers, and performers. Visitors can listen to some of these recent conversations via this website, and they can also sign up to receive new podcasts via iTunes. Currently, there are five different podcasts available. They include talks with Dr. Charles J. Limb ("Your Brain on Jazz"), Jessica Krash ("Dangerous Music"), and Dr. Aniruddh D. Patel on "The Music of Language and the Language of Music".

405

Mind, brain and psychotherapy.  

PubMed

There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be). However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients. PMID:21938085

Sheth, Hitesh C

2009-01-01

406

Brain abscess: Current management  

PubMed Central

Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

2013-01-01

407

The Metastable Brain  

PubMed Central

Neural ensembles oscillate across a broad range of frequencies and are transiently coupled or “bound” together when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, think and act. This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, with parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time. But how is it done? The theory of Coordination Dynamics proposes a mechanism called metastability, a subtle blend of integration and segregation. Tendencies for brain regions to express their individual autonomy and specialized functions (segregation, modularity) coexist with tendencies to couple and coordinate globally for multiple functions (integration). Although metastability has garnered increasing attention, it has yet to be demonstrated and treated within a fully spatiotemporal perspective. Here, we illustrate metastability in continuous neural and behavioral recordings, and we discuss theory and experiments at multiple scales suggesting that metastable dynamics underlie the real-time coordination necessary for the brain's dynamic cognitive, behavioral and social functions. PMID:24411730

Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

2014-01-01

408

Brain serotonergic circuitries  

PubMed Central

Brain serotonergic circuitries interact with other neurotransmitter systems on a multitude of different molecular levels. In humans, as in other mammalian species, serotonin (5-HT) plays a modulatory role in almost every physiological function. Furthermore, serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be implicated in several psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. We describe the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of brain serotonergic circuitries. The contribution of emergent in vivo imaging methods to the regional localization of binding site receptors and certain aspects of their functional connectivity in correlation to behavior is also discussed. 5-HT cell bodies, mainly localized in the raphe nuclei, send axons to almost every brain region. It is argued that the specificity of the local chemocommunication between 5-HT and other neuronal elements mainly depends on mechanisms regulating the extracellular concentration of 5-HT, the diversity of high-affinity membrane receptors, and their specific transduction modalities. PMID:21319493

Charnay, Yves; Leger, Lucienne

2010-01-01

409

Brain redox imaging.  

PubMed

Nitroxyl contrast agents (nitroxyl radicals, also known as nitroxide) are paramagnetic species, which can react with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to lose paramagnetism to be diamagnetic species. The paramagnetic nitroxyl radical forms can be detected by using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), Overhauser MRI (OMRI), or MRI. The time course of in vivo image intensity induced by paramagnetic redox-sensitive contrast agent can give tissue redox information, which is the so-called redox imaging technique. The redox imaging technique employing a blood-brain barrier permeable nitroxyl contrast agent can be applied to analyze the pathophysiological functions in the brain. A brief theory of redox imaging techniques is described, and applications of redox imaging techniques to brain are introduced. PMID:21279614

Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Hyodo, Fuminori; Anzai, Kazunori; Utsumi, Hideo; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

2011-01-01

410

Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the Department of Physiology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, this site offers images and information from "one of the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains." The site features photos of brains of over 100 different species of mammals, representing 17 mammalian orders. Users can browse the collection by common or scientific name; view serial sections of selected specimens (including human and chimpanzee), some of which are also available as QuickTime movies; read about the importance and history of the collections; and learn about brain evolution (this last section still under construction). Additional resources include a collection of related links and an internal search engine.

411

Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)

2009-05-21

412

Meeting the Standards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how the new British National Special Educational Needs Specialist Standards might be used as an audit tool and the consequences for teachers, line-managers, and training providers. It considers the role of the standards, core standards, extension standards, the standards as an audit tool, accessing resources, and future…

Porter, Jill; Miller, Carol

2000-01-01

413

Brain metastases in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Brain metastases are less common than bone or visceral metastases in patients with breast cancer. The overall prognosis of breast cancer patients with brain metastases remains poor, and these metastases are less responsive to systemic therapies. Brain metastasis is associated with a reduced quality of life due to progressive neurologic impairments. Recently, a trend of increased incidence of brain metastases in breast cancer has been noted. Reasons for this increased incidence include the more frequent use of sensitive detection methods such as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and increased awareness of brain metastasis among patients and clinicians. Adjuvant and systemic therapy with drugs that have a low blood-brain barrier penetrance can lead to an increased risk of brain metastases in breast cancer patients. Molecular subtype is a predictive factor for overall survival after developing brain metastases. Patients who do not have a poor prognosis based on previously identified prognostic factors should be treated with radiation therapy to control symptoms. Whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic irradiation and surgery are tools for the local treatment of brain metastases. Novel molecular target therapy, including HER2-targeted therapy, has demonstrated an antitumor effect on brain metastases. In this review, we provide a practical algorithm for the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases. This review provides an overview of the incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, prognostic factors and current and potential future management strategies of breast cancer brain metastases. PMID:25320339

Niikura, Naoki; Saji, Shigehira; Tokuda, Yutaka; Iwata, Hiroji

2014-12-01

414

International Brain Research Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1960, the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) is an international group "dedicated to the promotion of neuroscience and of communication between brain researchers in all countries of the world." The IBRO website contains information about publications, funding options, upcoming events, membership, and more. In addition, the site posts links to pertinent announcements and news items. Notably, the IBRO maintains a useful collection of related links that includes other organizations and societies, neuroscience-related websites, and journals. The website offers a search engine for locating IBRO members as well.

415

Brain monitoring in children.  

PubMed

Applying scalp sensors in the operating theater, intensive care, or resuscitation scenarios to detect and monitor brain function is achievable, practical, and affordable. The modalities are complex and the output of the monitor needs careful interpretation. The monitor may have technical problems, and a single reading must be considered with caution. These monitors may have a use for monitoring trends in specific situations, but evidence does not support their widespread use. Nevertheless, research should continue to investigate their role. Future techniques and treatments may show that these monitors can monitor brain function and prevent harm. PMID:24491653

Sury, Michael

2014-03-01

416

Standards 101: The ASA Standards program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

Schomer, Paul

2001-05-01

417

Standards 101; the ASA standards program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

Schomer, Paul D.

2002-11-01

418

Traumatic Brain Injury in Sports: A Review  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical diagnosis of neurological dysfunction following head trauma, typically presenting with acute symptoms of some degree of cognitive impairment. There are an estimated 1.7 to 3.8 million TBIs each year in the United States, approximately 10 percent of which are due to sports and recreational activities. Most brain injuries are self-limited with symptom resolution within one week, however, a growing amount of data is now establishing significant sequelae from even minor impacts such as headaches, prolonged cognitive impairments, or even death. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment according to standardized guidelines are crucial when treating athletes who may be subjected to future head trauma, possibly increasing their likelihood of long-term impairments. PMID:22848836

Sahler, Christopher S.; Greenwald, Brian D.

2012-01-01

419

Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Feedback control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease has great potential to improve efficacy, reduce side effects, and decrease the cost of treatment. In this, the timing and intensity of stimulation are titrated according to biomarkers that capture current clinical state. Stimulation may be at standard high frequency or intelligently patterned to directly modify specific pathological rhythms. The search for and validation of appropriate feedback signals are therefore crucial. Signals recorded from the DBS electrode currently appear to be the most promising source of feedback. In particular, beta-frequency band oscillations in the local field potential recorded at the stimulation target may capture variation in bradykinesia and rigidity across patients, but this remains to be confirmed within patients. Biomarkers that reliably reflect other impairments, such as tremor, also need to be established. Finally, whether brain signals are causally important needs to be established before stimulation can be specifically patterned rather than delivered at empirically defined high frequency. PMID:22830645

Little, Simon; Brown, Peter

2012-01-01

420

Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images  

E-print Network

Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

2012-01-01

421

Teaching Creativity for Right Brain and Left Brain Thinkers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Right brain and left brain dominant people process information differently and need different techniques to learn how to become more creative. Various exercises can help students take advantage of both sides of their brains. Students must feel comfortable and unthreatened to reach maximal creativity, and a positive personal relationship with…

Geske, Joel

422

[Whole brain radiation therapy for brain metastases: Advantages and controversies].  

PubMed

Whole brain radiation therapy is the angular stone of the brain metastasis radiation therapy. This treatment allows reaching two goals, potentially curative for in place metastasis and prophylactic in the rest of brain tissue. However, these two advantages can be disputed and in light of the same data opposite conclusions could be drawn. PMID:25662599

Noël, G; Tallet, A; Truc, G; Bernier, V; Feuvret, L; Assouline, A; Antoni, D; Verrelle, P; Mazeron, J-J; Mornex, F; Dhermain, F

2015-02-01

423

Prior information for brain parcellation  

E-print Network

To better understand brain disease, many neuroscientists study anatomical differences between normal and diseased subjects. Frequently, they analyze medical images to locate brain structures influenced by disease. Many of ...

Pohl, Kilian Maria

2005-01-01

424

Air Pollution and Your Brain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Your Brain HealthDay April 24, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Brain Diseases Environmental Health Transcript A common type ...

425

Leafy Greens and Your Brain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... corner of the player. Leafy Greens and Your Brain HealthDay March 31, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia ... beta-carotene were most likely helping to preserve brain function. The lead researcher says, “increasing consumption of ...

426

Teen Brain: Still Under Construction  

MedlinePLUS

... the ups and downs of adolescence. The "Visible" Brain A clue to the degree of change taking ... central to physical and emotional health. The Changing Brain and Behavior in Teens One interpretation of all ...

427

Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation  

E-print Network

Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here we demonstrate minimally-invasive and remote neural ...

Chen, Ritchie

428

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...

429

General Information about Adult Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... medulla), and other parts of the brain. The spinal cord connects the brain to nerves in most parts ... touch. There are different types of brain and spinal cord tumors. Brain and spinal cord tumors are named ...

430

Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas  

MedlinePLUS

Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas View larger with caption What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What ... Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? View larger with caption Embolization ...

431

Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Condensed from Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Fact Sheet Table of ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ...

432

MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION As directed by the Northwest Power Act, the Council has designed model conservation standards to produce all electricity savings that are cost believes the measures used to achieve the model conservation standards should provide reliable savings

433

Communication Standards and Recommendations  

E-print Network

Communication Standards and Recommendations Introduction & Purpose 3 Standards & Recommendations Communication 4 Training 10 Evaluation 11 PMO Workgroup Participation 12 Staffing 12 Communications-related Tracking Grantee Portal Standards and Recommendations 13

434

Acoustical standards news.  

PubMed

American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes catalogs of Acoustical Standards, both National and International. To receive copies of the latest Standards catalogs, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National and International Catalogs of Acoustical Standards, and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA Standards home page: http://acousticalsociety.org/standards. PMID:25786973

Blaeser, Susan B; Schomer, Paul D

2015-03-01

435

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

436

Because the human brain does not change, technology must  

Microsoft Academic Search

My message is my title: Because the Human Brain Does Not Change, Technology Must. That is, technology must change, must improve, to accommodate billions more people and to lift the standard of living. Engineers, receiving feedback from the market and regulated wisely in the public interest, do much of the improving. Thus, the chance for improving Earth's environment hinges on

J. H. Ausubel

1999-01-01

437

Brain Wave Biofeedback: Benefits of Integrating Neurofeedback in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with the "2009 Standards" of the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, counselors must understand neurobiological behavior in individuals of all developmental levels. This requires understanding the brain and strategies for applying neurobiological concepts in counseling practice, training, and…

Myers, Jane E.; Young, J. Scott

2012-01-01

438

The Brain Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

Sylwester, Robert

1998-01-01

439

Our Brains Extended  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is an extension of the brain; it is a new way of thinking. It is the solution humans have created to deal with the difficult new context of variability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. Wise integration of evolving and powerful technology demands a rethinking of the curriculum. This article discusses technology as the new way of…

Prensky, Marc

2013-01-01

440

Your Brain Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

MacEachren, Zabe

2012-01-01

441

From Ear to Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

Kimura, Doreen

2011-01-01

442

Brain Hemispheric Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four articles consider brain hemisphere functioning of gifted students as it relates to gifted programs; alternation of education methodologies; spatial ability as an element of intellectual gifted functioning; and the interaction between hemisphere specialization, imagery, creative imagination, and sex differentiation. (SB)

Roeper Review, 1981

1981-01-01

443

HORMONES, BRAIN AND STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress system orchestrates body and brain responses to the environment. This action exerted by the mediators of the stress system has two modes of operation. The immediate response mode driven by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) organises via CRH-1 receptors the behavioural, sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to a stressor. In the other - slower - mode, which facilitates behavioural adaptation,

E. RONALD DE KLOET

2003-01-01

444

Montessori and Brain Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in medicine, education, and related fields continue to make new discoveries about how the brain functions or malfunctions. The implications of studies of how young children learn compare favorably with those of educators such as Maria Montessori, Jerome Bruner, and Jean Piaget. These researchers saw growth and development as a series…

Hranitz, John R.

445

Brain Peptides and Psychopharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proteins isolated from the brain and used as drugs can improve and apparently even transfer mental states and behavior. Much of the pioneering work and recent research with humans and animals is reviewed and crucial questions that are being posed about the psychologically active peptides are related. (BT)

Arehart-Treichel, Joan

1976-01-01

446

To Build a Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of electronic model to simulate electrical patterns resulting from nerve cell interactions in the brain. Resembles nerve cell activity realistically in that the model produces signals above a set threshold, its firing activity varies, a refractory period is required before second firing, and it displays plasticity. (CS)

Miller, Julie Ann

1977-01-01

447

BrainImageJ  

PubMed Central

The Human Brain Project consortium continues to struggle with effective sharing of tools. To facilitate reuse of its tools, the Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory (SPNL) has developed BrainImageJ, a new software framework in Java. The framework consists of two components—a set of four programming interfaces and an application front end. The four interfaces define extension pathways for new data models, file loaders and savers, algorithms, and visualization tools. Any Java class that implements one of these interfaces qualifies as a BrainImageJ plug-in—a self-contained tool. After automatically detecting and incorporating new plug-ins, the application front end transparently generates graphical user interfaces that provide access to plug-in functionality. New plug-ins interoperate with existing ones immediately through the front end. BrainImageJ is used at the Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory to develop image-analysis algorithms and three-dimensional visualization tools. It is the goal of our development group that, once the framework is placed in the public domain, it will serve as an interlaboratory platform for designing, distributing, and using interoperable tools. PMID:11522764

Ng, Yi-Ren; Shiffman, Smadar; Brosnan, Thomas J.; Links, Jonathan M.; Beach, Leu S.; Judge, Nicholas S.; Xu, Yirong; Kelkar, Uma V.; Reiss, Allan L.

2001-01-01

448

Brain tumor - primary - adults  

MedlinePLUS

... in the brain in people with a weakened immune system are sometimes linked to infection by the Epstein-Barr virus. Exposure to radiation at work or to power lines, as well as head injuries, smoking, and hormone therapy have not been proven to ...

449

Ben's Plastic Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares a story of Ben who as a result of his premature birth, suffered a brain hemorrhage resulting in cerebral palsy, which affected his left side (left hemiparesis) and caused learning disabilities. Despite these challenges, he graduated from college and currently works doing information management for a local biotech start-up…

Kaplan, Susan L.

2010-01-01

450

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... cry a lot. They may not have much motivation or much control over their emotions. A child with TBI may not have all of the above difficulties . Brain injuries can range from mild to severe, and so can the changes that result from the injury. This means that it’s hard to predict how an individual ...

451

BrainPOP Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BrainPOP Educators is an online professional community with nearly 150,000 members. Its offerings include free lesson plans, video tutorials, graphic organizers, shared best practices, and professional development and presentation tools to support science, technology and engineering lessons.

BrainPOP

2012-01-01

452

Minds, Brains and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often argued that neuroscience can be expected to provide insights of significance for education. Advocates of this view are sometimes committed to "brainism", the view (a) that an individual's mental life is constituted by states, events and processes in her brain, and (b) that psychological attributes may legitimately be ascribed to the…

Bakhurst, David

2008-01-01

453

Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 250 per 100,000 of the population sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually (Cassidy et al., 2004), making it the most commonly occurring neurological condition. Of these 102 per 100,000 are hospitalised (Chesnut, Carney, Maynard, Patterson, Mann, & Helfand, 1998). Because of advances in trauma care these individuals are surviving injuries that would previously have been fatal (Klimczak, Donovick, &

Janet M. Leathem; Muriel Christianson

454

Diagnosis of brain death  

PubMed Central

Brain death (BD) should be understood as the ultimate clinical expression of a brain catastrophe characterized by a complete and irreversible neurological stoppage, recognized by irreversible coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The most common pattern is manifested by an elevation of intracranial pressure to a point beyond the mean arterial pressure, and hence cerebral perfusion pressure falls and, as a result, no net cerebral blood flow is present, in due course leading to permanent cytotoxic injury of the intracranial neuronal tissue. A second mechanism is an intrinsic injury affecting the nervous tissue at a cellular level which, if extensive and unremitting, can also lead to BD. We review here the methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the signs of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can cause death only when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of such loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed. PMID:21577338

Machado, Calixto

2010-01-01

455

Mapping the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes powerful new devices that "peer" through skull and "see" brain at work allowing neuroscientists to pursue the well springs of thought and emotion in their search for the origins of intelligence and language. Discusses the following scanning technologies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET),…

Begley, Sharon; And Others

1992-01-01

456

BrainU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BrainU is a grant-funded professional development program for science teachers in grades 5-12. Website content includes easy-to-follow instructions for hands-on activities, student and teacher guides, handouts, and educational videos and cartoons.

457

Brain Reward Circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural incentives that shape behavior reach the central circuitry of motivation trans-synaptically, via the five senses, whereas the laboratory rewards of intracranial stimulation or drug injections activate reward circuitry directly, bypassing peripheral sensory pathways. The unsensed incentives of brain stimulation and intracranial drug injections thus give us tools to identify reward circuit elements within the associational portions of the

Roy A. Wise

2002-01-01

458

Acquired Brain Injury Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

459

Rethinking brain food  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

460

MECHANISMS FOR BRAIN SEX DIFFERENTIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinctive sex differences in reproductive behavior and physiology have been attributed not to differences in hormones ~onad secretes in each sex but differences in particuhr brain structures. Interestingly enough. brain sex difference is determined mostly by gonadal hormones during ontogeny independent of genetic sex. In many laboratory mammals. brain sex can be manipulated at a particular stage of omogeny called

Yasuo Sakuma

2007-01-01

461

Quantum Theory and the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human brain operates as a pattern of switching. An abstract definition of a quantum mechanical switch is given that allows for the continual random fluctuations in the warm wet environment of the brain. Among several switch-like entities in the brain, I choose to focus on the sodium channel proteins. After explaining what these are, I analyse the ways in

M. J. Donald

1990-01-01

462

WOMEN: A MORE BALANCED BRAIN?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I cite more recent neuroanatomical and brain imaging studies that provide further evidence of disparities in structure and function of the brains of men and women. As back- ground for an attempt to explain these differences, I give a brief review of the triune evolution of the mammalian brain leading up to the human cerebrum. It is

Paul D. MucLeun

1996-01-01

463

Complex Systems and Brain Sciences  

E-print Network

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Charles E. Schmidt College of Science www.ccs.fau.edu #12;Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Our Mission The mission of the Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences is to understand the principles and mechanisms underlying complex behavior

Fernandez, Eduardo

464

Quantum Mechanics and the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss possible quantum effects in the brain. We start with a historical review of what some prominent physicists have said about it. We then dis- cuss some proposals that quantum superpositions may be used by the brain. Although decoherence effects in the brain are believed to be too strong to allow quan- tum computations, we describe

Patrick Suppes; J. Acacio de Barros

2007-01-01

465

Brain Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain stimulation techniques provide a powerful means to modulate the function of specific neural structures, and show potential for future applications in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recent studies have started to translate to the bedside the body of data gathered over the last few years on mechanisms underlying brain plasticity and stroke recovery. Both noninvasive and invasive brain stimulation

Miguel Alonso-Alonso; Felipe Fregni; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2007-01-01

466

Neuroimaging predictors of cognitive performance across a standardized neurocognitive battery  

PubMed Central

Objective The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables the identification of brain regions recruited for specific behavioral tasks. Most fMRI studies focus on group effects in single tasks, which limits applicability where assessment of individual differences and multiple brain systems is needed. Method We demonstrate the feasibility of concurrently measuring fMRI activation patterns and performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) in 212 healthy individuals at two sites. Cross-validated sparse regression of regional brain amplitude and extent of activation were used to predict concurrent performance on six neurocognitive tasks: abstraction/mental flexibility, attention, emotion processing, and verbal, face and spatial memory. Results Brain activation was task-responsive and domain-specific as reported in previous single-task studies. Prediction of performance was robust for most tasks, particularly for abstraction/mental flexibility and visuo-spatial memory. Conclusions The feasibility of administering a comprehensive neuropsychological battery in the scanner was established, and task-specific brain activation patterns improved prediction beyond demographic information. This benchmark index of performance-associated brain activation can be applied to link brain activation with neurocognitive performance during standardized testing. This first step in standardizing a neurocognitive battery for use in fMRI may enable quantitative assessment of patients with brain disorders across multiple cognitive domains. Such data may facilitate identification of neural dysfunction associated with poor performance, allow for identification of individuals at-risk for brain disorders, and help guide early intervention and rehabilitation of neurocognitive deficits. PMID:24364396

Roalf, David R.; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Raquel E.; Bilker, Warren; Gerraty, Raphael; Elliott, Mark A.; Gallagher, R. Sean; Almasy, Laura; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Prasad, Konasale; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Gur, Ruben C.

2014-01-01

467

Brain neoplasms and coagulation.  

PubMed

Brain vasculature is uniquely programmed to protect central nervous system tissues and respond to their metabolic demands. These functions are subverted during the development of primary and metastatic brain tumors, resulting in vascular perturbations that are thought to contribute to progression and comorbidities of the underlying disease, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. Chronic activation of the coagulation system is particularly obvious in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), where intratumoral vasoocclusive thrombosis may contribute to hypoxia, pseudopalisading necrosis, and angiogenesis. GBM is also associated with spontaneous or iatrogenic bleeding, and the emission of circulating procoagulants implicated in the unusually high risk of peripheral venous thromboembolism. Tissue factor (TF) expression is elevated in several types of brain tumors, including adult and pediatric GBM, as is the production of TF-containing microparticles (TF-MPs). Both TF expression and its vesicular emission are regulated by tumor microenvironment (e.g., hypoxia), in concert with activated oncogenic and growth factor pathways (RAS, EGFR, MET), as well as the loss of tumor suppressor gene activity (PTEN). Discovery of distinct oncogenic networks led to recognition of unique molecular subtypes within brain tumors, of which GBM (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), and medulloblastoma (SHH, WNT, group 3, and group 4) exhibit subtype-specific composition of the tumor coagulome. It remains to be established whether mechanisms of thrombosis and biological effects of coagulation in brain tumors are also subtype specific. In this regard, TF pathway represents a paradigm, and its impact on tumor dormancy, inflammation, angiogenesis, formation of cancer stem cell niches, and dissemination is a subject of considerable interest. However, establishing the extent to which TF and TF-MPs contribute to pathogenesis and thromboembolic disease in the context of primary and secondary brain tumors may require molecular stratification of patient populations. We suggest that a better understanding of these molecular linkages may pave the way to a more effective (targeted) therapy, prophylaxis, adjunctive use of anticoagulants, and other agents able to modulate interactions between brain tumors and the coagulation system. PMID:24108471

Magnus, Nathalie; D'Asti, Esterina; Garnier, Delphine; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

2013-11-01

468

Complement in the Brain  

PubMed Central

The brain is considered to be an immune privileged site, because the blood-brain barrier limits entry of blood borne cells and proteins into the central nervous system (CNS). As a result, the detection and clearance of invading microorganisms and senescent cells as well as surplus neurotransmitters, aged and glycated proteins, in order to maintain a healthy environment for neuronal and glial cells, is largely confined to the innate immune system. In recent years it has become clear that many factors of innate immunity are expressed throughout the brain. Neuronal and glial cells express Toll like receptors as well as complement receptors, and virtually all complement components can be locally produced in the brain, often in response to injury or developmental cues. However, as inflammatory reactions could interfere with proper functioning of the brain, tight and fine tuned regulatory mechanisms are warranted. In age related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), accumulating amyloid proteins elicit complement activation and a local, chronic inflammatory response that leads to attraction and activation of glial cells that, under such activation conditions, can produce neurotoxic substances, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxygen radicals. This process may be exacerbated by a disturbed balance between complement activators and complement regulatory proteins such as occurs in AD, as the local synthesis of these proteins is differentially regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Much knowledge about the role of complement in neurodegenerative diseases has been derived from animal studies with transgenic overexpressing or knockout mice for specific complement factors or receptors. These studies have provided insight into the potential therapeutic use of complement regulators and complement receptor antagonists in chronic neurodegenerative diseases as well as in acute conditions, such as stroke. Interestingly, recent animal studies have also indicated that complement activation products are involved in brain development and synapse formation. Not only are these findings important for the understanding of how brain development and neural network formation is organized, it may also give insights into the role of complement in processes of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in the injured or aged and diseased adult central nervous system, and thus aid in identifying novel and specific targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21546088

Veerhuis, Robert; Nielsen, Henrietta M.; Tenner, Andrea J.

2011-01-01

469

Medical Imaging and the Human Brain: Being Warped is Not Always a Bad Thing  

SciTech Connect

The capacity to look inside the living human brain and image its function has been present since the early 1980s. There are some clinicians who use functional brain imaging for diagnostic or prognostic purposes, but much of the work done still relates to research evaluation of brain function. There is a striking dichotomy in the use of functional brain imaging between these two fields. Clinical evaluation of a brain PET or SPECT scan is subjective; that is, a Nuclear Medicine physician examines the brain image, and states whether the brain image looks normal or abnormal. On the other hand, modern research evaluation of functional brain images is almost always objective. Brain images are processed and analyzed with advanced software tools, and a mathematical result that relates to regional changes in brain activity is provided. The potential for this research methodology to provide a more accurate and reliable answer to clinical questions about brain function and pathology are immense, but there are still obstacles to overcome. Foremost in this regard is the use of a standardized normal control database for comparison of patient scan data. The tools and methods used in objective analysis of functional imaging data, as well as potential clinical applications will be the focus of my presentation.

Patterson, James C. II [Louisiana State University Health Science Center, Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, Louisiana, 71103 (United States); PET Imaging Center, Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, Louisiana, 71103 (United States)

2005-03-31

470

Vascular Genomics of the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microvasculature of the human brain plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system and in the pathogenesis of brain diseases, and is the site of differential gene expression within the brain. However, human brain microvascular-specific genes may not be detected in whole-brain gene microarray because the volume of the brain microvascular endothelium is

Eric V. Shusta; Ruben J. Boado; Gary W. Mathern; William M. Pardridge

2002-01-01

471

Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variations in temperature. The prevention of fever has been proposed as a therapeutic tool to limit neuronal injury. However, temperature control after traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or stroke can be challenging. Furthermore, fever may also have beneficial effects, especially in cases involving infections. While therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in animal models, its use is still debated in clinical practice. This paper aims to describe the physiology and pathophysiology of changes in brain temperature after brain injury and to study the effects of controlling brain temperature after such injury. PMID:23326261

Mrozek, Ségolène; Vardon, Fanny; Geeraerts, Thomas

2012-01-01

472

BrainPrint: A discriminative characterization of brain morphology.  

PubMed

We introduce BrainPrint, a compact and discriminative representation of brain morphology. BrainPrint captures shape information of an ensemble of cortical and subcortical structures by solving the eigenvalue problem of the 2D and 3D Laplace-Beltrami operator on triangular (boundary) and tetrahedral (volumetric) meshes. This discriminative characterization enables new ways to study the similarity between brains; the focus can either be on a specific brain structure of interest or on the overall brain similarity. We highlight four applications for BrainPrint in this article: (i) subject identification, (ii) age and sex prediction, (iii) brain asymmetry analysis, and (iv) potential genetic influences on brain morphology. The properties of BrainPrint require the derivation of new algorithms to account for the heterogeneous mix of brain structures with varying discriminative power. We conduct experiments on three datasets, including over 3000 MRI scans from the ADNI database, 436 MRI scans from the OASIS dataset, and 236 MRI scans from the VETSA twin study. All processing steps for obtaining the compact representation are fully automated, making this processing framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. PMID:25613439

Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Kremen, William; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

2015-04-01

473

A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans  

PubMed Central

We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the “sender”) and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the “receiver”). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender’s signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means. PMID:25372285

Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Stocco, Andrea; Bryan, Matthew; Sarma, Devapratim; Youngquist, Tiffany M.; Wu, Joseph; Prat, Chantel S.

2014-01-01

474

Effects of a carbohydrate supplement upon resting brain activity.  

PubMed

Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate supplement containing glucose and several of its derivatives on resting brain activity in 20 healthy male college students. The supplement provided an insignificant amount of carbohydrate (3.9 g), protein (0.28 g), fat (0 g), and calories (14 kcal). The amount of glucose in the supplement was 0.5 g (1% the amount of glucose used in adult studies of cognitive functioning and memory). We hypothesized that the glyconutrient supplement would enhance brain activity associated with alertness and attention. The study design was double blind, with subjects randomly assigned to one of two orders, either carbohydrate supplement week one followed by placebo a week later, or the opposite. Electrical brain activity was monitored by 15 electrodes positioned at nine standard international 10-20 system locations, including three bilateral pairs at frontal, parietal, and occipital sites. Thirty minutes following ingestion of a placebo or carbohydrate supplement drink, EEG activity was recorded for 10-mins while subjects focused on a stationary visual target. Spectral power of resting brain activity was computed and analyzed contrasting the placebo and supplement groups. Relative to placebo, the carbohydrate supplement significantly enhanced power in three brain wave frequencies (theta, alpha, and beta) that are known to be associated with attention and arousal. Since changes were observed in the supplement but not placebo group, our study suggests that additional sugars in the glyconutritional supplement facilitate enhancement of brain electrical activity. Whether the apparent enhancement of arousal in baseline recordings is associated with improved task performance remains to be determined. PMID:15759600

Wang, Chenghua; Szabo, Joanne S; Dykman, Roscoe A

2004-01-01

475

The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

2012-01-01

476

Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

477

Standards for holdup measurement  

SciTech Connect

Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

Zucker, M.S.

1982-01-01

478

Technology Standards for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many states technology standards for students have focused on basic computer skills, but more standards are beginning to focus on identifying technology skills that students need for school and the workplace. In most states in the Southern Region, technology standards for students are based on the National Educational Technology Standards for…

Burke, Jennifer

479

The elephant brain in numbers  

PubMed Central

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R.

2014-01-01

480

The elephant brain in numbers.  

PubMed

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

2014-01-01