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1

The adaptive pattern of the auditory N1 peak revealed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography  

PubMed Central

The N1 peak in the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) decreases in amplitude following stimulus repetition, displaying an adaptive pattern. The present study explored the functional neural substrates that may underlie the N1 adaptive pattern using standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). Fourteen young normal hearing (NH) listeners participated in the study. Tone bursts (80 dB SPL) were binaurally presented via insert earphones in trains of ten; the inter-stimulus interval was 0.7 s and the inter-train interval was 15 s. Current source density analysis was performed for the N1 evoked by the 1st, 2nd and 10th stimuli (S1, S2 and S10) at three different timeframes that corresponded to the latency ranges of the N1 waveform subcomponents (70–100, 100–130 and 130–160 ms). The data showed that S1 activated broad regions in different cortical lobes and the activation was much smaller for S2 and S10. Response differences in the LAEP waveform and sLORETA were observed between S1 and S2, but not between the S2 and S10. The sLORETA comparison map between S1 and S2 response showed the activation was located in the parietal lobe for the 70–100 ms timeframe, the frontal and limbic lobes for the 100–130 ms timeframe, and the frontal lobe for the 130–160 ms timeframe. These sLORETA comparison results suggest a parieto-frontal network that might help to sensitize the brain to novel stimuli by filtering out repetitive and irrelevant stimuli. This study demonstrates that sLORETA may be useful for identifying generators of scalp-recorded event related potentials and for examining the physiological features of these generators. This technique could be especially useful for cortical source localization in individuals who cannot be examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging or magnetoencephalography (e.g., cochlear implant users).

Zhang, Fawen; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Benson, Chelsea; Smith, Mathew; Eliassen, James; Fu, Qian-Jie

2011-01-01

2

Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography in a realistic geometry head model: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of importance to localize neural sources from scalp recorded EEG. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) has received considerable attention for localizing brain electrical sources. However, most such efforts have used spherical head models in representing the head volume conductor. Investigation of the performance of LORETA in a realistic geometry head model, as compared with the spherical model, will provide useful information guiding interpretation of data obtained by using the spherical head model. The performance of LORETA was evaluated by means of computer simulations. The boundary element method was used to solve the forward problem. A three-shell realistic geometry (RG) head model was constructed from MRI scans of a human subject. Dipole source configurations of a single dipole located at different regions of the brain with varying depth were used to assess the performance of LORETA in different regions of the brain. A three-sphere head model was also used to approximate the RG head model, and similar simulations performed, and results compared with the RG-LORETA with reference to the locations of the simulated sources. Multi-source localizations were discussed and examples given in the RG head model. Localization errors employing the spherical LORETA, with reference to the source locations within the realistic geometry head, were about 20-30 mm, for four brain regions evaluated: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions. Localization errors employing the RG head model were about 10 mm over the same four brain regions. The present simulation results suggest that the use of the RG head model reduces the localization error of LORETA, and that the RG head model based LORETA is desirable if high localization accuracy is needed.

Ding, Lei; Lai, Yuan; He, Bin

2005-01-01

3

Brain Computer Interface: The Use of Low Resolution Surface Laplacian and Linear Classifiers for the Recognition of Imagined Hand Movements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EEG-based Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) require on-line detection of mental states from spontaneous or surface Laplacian transformed EEG signals. However, accurate SL estimates require the use of many EEG electrodes, when local estimation methods are u...

F. Cincotti L. Bianchi J. del Rio Millan J. Mourinyo S. Salinari

2001-01-01

4

Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography.  

PubMed

Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT(2A) agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which parallel the time course of subjective effects. In the present study, the spatial distribution of ayahuasca-induced changes in brain electrical activity was investigated by means of low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 18 volunteers after the administration of a dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca containing 0.85 mg DMT/kg body weight and placebo. The intracerebral power density distribution was computed with LORETA from spectrally analyzed data, and subjective effects were measured by means of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS). Statistically significant differences compared to placebo were observed for LORETA power 60 and 90 min after dosing, together with increases in all six scales of the HRS. Ayahuasca decreased power density in the alpha-2, delta, theta and beta-1 frequency bands. Power decreases in the delta, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands were found predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, whereas theta power was reduced in the temporomedial cortex and in frontomedial regions. The present results suggest the involvement of unimodal and heteromodal association cortex and limbic structures in the psychological effects elicited by ayahuasca. PMID:15179026

Riba, Jordi; Anderer, Peter; Jané, Francesc; Saletu, Bernd; Barbanoj, Manel J

2004-01-01

5

Electrical sources of P300 event-related brain potentials revealed by low resolution electromagnetic tomography. 2. Effects of nootropic therapy in age-associated memory impairment.  

PubMed

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effects of Actovegin on frontal and parietal electrical P300 sources revealed by low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) were studied in age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) patients. Actovegin is a protein-free metabolically active hemoderivative improving oxygen and glucose utilization. Each patient had, in randomized order, a treatment of 2 weeks with 250 ml 20% Actovegin and 250 ml placebo daily. Auditory ERPs were recorded before and 5 h after drug administration on day 1 (acute effect) and on day 15 (subacute and superimposed effect). Compared to age- and sex-matched normal controls, AAMI patients showed a trend towards P300 latency prolongation and a significantly reduced P300 global field power (GFP). Maximal LORETA source strength did not differ from controls. After Actovegin parietal P300 scalp amplitudes increased, while frontal and temporal amplitudes decreased as compared to placebo. This increase in hilliness, measured by the GFP, was significant. Moreover, the parietal P300 source strength increased after acute, subacute and superimposed infusion of Actovegin as compared to placebo. This may reflect improved availability of cognitive processing resources in the parietal cortex, an area that on the one hand plays an important role in fundamental aspects of attention and on the other hand has been found to be functionally impaired in dementia. PMID:9438269

Anderer, P; Saletu, B; Semlitsch, H V; Pascual-Marqui, R D

1998-01-01

6

Effects of the South American Psychoactive Beverage Ayahuasca on Regional Brain Electrical Activity in Humans: A Functional Neuroimaging Study Using Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines monoamine oxidase-inhibiting ?-carboline alkaloids with N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic agent showing 5-HT2A agonist activity. In a clinical research setting, ayahuasca has demonstrated a combined stimulatory and psychedelic effect profile, as measured by subjective effect self-assessment instruments and dose-dependent changes in spontaneous brain electrical activity, which

Jordi Riba; Peter Anderer; Francesc Jané; Bernd Saletu; Manel J. Barbanoj

2004-01-01

7

Low Resolution Fiber Optical Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and constructed a fiber optical coupler for an existing low resolution (120 Angstroms\\/mm) Cassegrain spectrograph. The coupler contains a beveled plug which acts as the decker of a conventional spectrograph. The fiber, which projects through the plug, acts as the slit. The coupler also contains guiding and reference source optics. The coupler and spectrograph will be used

Angela C. Chapman; Harold L. Nations

1994-01-01

8

Intensity Standardization Simplifies Brain MR Image Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Typically, brain MR images present significant intensity variation across patients and scanners. Consequently, training a classifier on a set of images and using it subsequently for brain segmentation may yield poor results. Adaptive iterative methods usually need to be employed to account for the variations of the particular scan. These methods are complicated, difficult to implement and often involve significant computational costs. In this paper, a simple, non-iterative method is proposed for brain MR image segmentation. Two preprocessing techniques, namely intensity inhomogeneity correction, and more importantly MR image intensity standardization, used prior to segmentation, play a vital role in making the MR image intensities have a tissue-specific numeric meaning, which leads us to a very simple brain tissue segmentation strategy. Vectorial scale-based fuzzy connectedness and certain morphological operations are utilized first to generate the brain intracranial mask. The fuzzy membership value of each voxel within the intracranial mask for each brain tissue is then estimated. Finally, a maximum likelihood criterion with spatial constraints taken into account is utilized in classifying all voxels in the intracranial mask into different brain tissue groups. A set of inhomogeneity corrected and intensity standardized images is utilized as a training data set. We introduce two methods to estimate fuzzy membership values. In the first method, called SMG (for simple membership based on a gaussian model), the fuzzy membership value is estimated by fitting a multivariate Gaussian model to the intensity distribution of each brain tissue whose mean intensity vector and covariance matrix are estimated and fixed from the training data sets. The second method, called SMH (for simple membership based on a histogram), estimates fuzzy membership value directly via the intensity distribution of each brain tissue obtained from the training data sets. We present several studies to evaluate the performance of these two methods based on 10 clinical MR images of normal subjects and 10 clinical MR images of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. A quantitative comparison indicates that both methods have overall better accuracy than the k-nearest neighbors (kNN) method, and have much better efficiency than the Finite Mixture (FM) model based Expectation-Maximization (EM) method. Accuracy is similar for our methods and EM method for the normal subject data sets, but much better for our methods for the patient data sets.

Zhuge, Ying; Udupa, Jayaram K.

2009-01-01

9

Intensity Standardization Simplifies Brain MR Image Segmentation.  

PubMed

Typically, brain MR images present significant intensity variation across patients and scanners. Consequently, training a classifier on a set of images and using it subsequently for brain segmentation may yield poor results. Adaptive iterative methods usually need to be employed to account for the variations of the particular scan. These methods are complicated, difficult to implement and often involve significant computational costs. In this paper, a simple, non-iterative method is proposed for brain MR image segmentation. Two preprocessing techniques, namely intensity inhomogeneity correction, and more importantly MR image intensity standardization, used prior to segmentation, play a vital role in making the MR image intensities have a tissue-specific numeric meaning, which leads us to a very simple brain tissue segmentation strategy.Vectorial scale-based fuzzy connectedness and certain morphological operations are utilized first to generate the brain intracranial mask. The fuzzy membership value of each voxel within the intracranial mask for each brain tissue is then estimated. Finally, a maximum likelihood criterion with spatial constraints taken into account is utilized in classifying all voxels in the intracranial mask into different brain tissue groups. A set of inhomogeneity corrected and intensity standardized images is utilized as a training data set. We introduce two methods to estimate fuzzy membership values. In the first method, called SMG (for simple membership based on a gaussian model), the fuzzy membership value is estimated by fitting a multivariate Gaussian model to the intensity distribution of each brain tissue whose mean intensity vector and covariance matrix are estimated and fixed from the training data sets. The second method, called SMH (for simple membership based on a histogram), estimates fuzzy membership value directly via the intensity distribution of each brain tissue obtained from the training data sets. We present several studies to evaluate the performance of these two methods based on 10 clinical MR images of normal subjects and 10 clinical MR images of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. A quantitative comparison indicates that both methods have overall better accuracy than the k-nearest neighbors (kNN) method, and have much better efficiency than the Finite Mixture (FM) model based Expectation-Maximization (EM) method. Accuracy is similar for our methods and EM method for the normal subject data sets, but much better for our methods for the patient data sets. PMID:20161360

Zhuge, Ying; Udupa, Jayaram K

2009-10-01

10

Low-resolution gait recognition.  

PubMed

Unlike other biometric authentication methods, gait recognition is noninvasive and effective from a distance. However, the performance of gait recognition will suffer in the low-resolution (LR) case. Furthermore, when gait sequences are projected onto a nonoptimal low-dimensional subspace to reduce the data complexity, the performance of gait recognition will also decline. To deal with these two issues, we propose a new algorithm called superresolution with manifold sampling and backprojection (SRMS), which learns the high-resolution (HR) counterparts of LR test images from a collection of HR/LR training gait image patch pairs. Then, we incorporate SRMS into a new algorithm called multilinear tensor-based learning without tuning parameters (MTP) for LR gait recognition. Our contributions include the following: 1) With manifold sampling, the redundancy of gait image patches is remarkably decreased; thus, the superresolution procedure is more efficient and reasonable. 2) Backprojection guarantees that the learned HR gait images and the corresponding LR gait images can be more consistent. 3) The optimal subspace dimension for dimension reduction is automatically determined without introducing extra parameters. 4) Theoretical analysis of the algorithm shows that MTP converges. Experiments on the USF human gait database and the CASIA gait database show the increased efficiency of the proposed algorithm, compared with previous algorithms. PMID:20199936

Zhang, Junping; Pu, Jian; Chen, Changyou; Fleischer, Rudolf

2010-08-01

11

Standardizing Data Collection in Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Collaboration among investigators, centers, countries, and disciplines is essential to advancing the care for traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is thus important that we “speak the same language.” Great variability, however, exists in data collection and coding of variables in TBI studies, confounding comparisons between and analysis across different studies. Randomized controlled trials can never address the many uncertainties concerning treatment approaches in TBI. Pooling data from different clinical studies and high-quality observational studies combined with comparative effectiveness research may provide excellent alternatives in a cost-efficient way. Standardization of data collection and coding is essential to this end. Common data elements (CDEs) are presented for demographics and clinical variables applicable across the broad spectrum of TBI. Most recommendations represent a consensus derived from clinical practice. Some recommendations concern novel approaches, for example assessment of the intensity of therapy in severely injured patients. Up to three levels of detail for coding data elements were developed: basic, intermediate, and advanced, with the greatest level of detail attained in the advanced version. More detailed codings can be collapsed into the basic version. Templates were produced to summarize coding formats, explanation of choices, and recommendations for procedures. Endorsement of the recommendations has been obtained from many authoritative organizations. The development of CDEs for TBI should be viewed as a continuing process; as more experience is gained, refinement and amendments will be required. This proposed process of standardization will facilitate comparative effectiveness research and encourage high-quality meta-analysis of individual patient data.

Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L.; Menon, David; Adelson, P. David; Balkin, Tom; Bullock, Ross; Engel, Doortje C.; Gordon, Wayne; Langlois-Orman, Jean; Lew, Henry L.; Robertson, Claudia; Temkin, Nancy; Valadka, Alex; Verfaellie, Mieke; Wainwright, Mark; Wright, David W.; Schwab, Karen

2011-01-01

12

Standardizing Data Collection in Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collaboration among investigators, centers, countries and disciplines is essential to advancing the care for traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is then important that we 'speak the same language'. Great variability, however exists in data collection and cod...

A. I. Maas C. L. Harrison-Felix D. Menon P. D. Adelson T. Balkin

2010-01-01

13

IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

2002-04-01

14

IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

2002-01-01

15

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

16

Robust Character Recognition in Low-Resolution Images and Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Although OCR techniques work very reliably for high-resolution documents, the recognition of superimposed text in low-resolution images or videos with a complex background,is still a challenge. Three major parts characterize our system for recognition of su- perimposed text in images and videos: localization of text regions, segmentation (binarization) of characters, and recognition. We use standard approaches to locate text

Stephan Kopf; Thomas Haenselmann; Wolfgang Effelsberg

17

Detecting low-resolution faces in video  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for the detection of faces (via skin regions) in images where faces may be low-resolution and no assumptions are made about fine facial features being visible. This type of data is challenging because changes in appearance of skin regions occur due to changes in both lighting and resolution. We present a non-parametric classification scheme based

Neil Robertson; Nils Janssen

2009-01-01

18

THz Low Resolution Spectroscopy for Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Invited Paper) Abstract—The THz spectral regime provides a wide range of spectral lines that are invaluable probes of star formation and AGN activity in galaxies both in the local Universe and at the earliest times. We review the utility of these lines, give examples of the science they deliver, and detail the properties of successful low resolution direct detection spectrometers

Gordon J. Stacey

2011-01-01

19

The Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) for the Cassegrain focus of the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea is described. It has an imaging mode so it can also be used for taking direct images. The field of view in both spectrographic and imaging modes is 6 by 7.8 arcmin. It can be used with both conventional slits and custom-punched

J. B. Oke; J. G. Cohen; M. Carr; J. Cromer; A. Dingizian; F. H. Harris; S. Labrecque; R. Lucinio; W. Schaal; H. Epps; J. Miller

1995-01-01

20

Low-resolution spectrograph for LAMOST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAMOST is a special Schmidt telescope of 4 meters aperture. It will be located in Xinglong station at Beijing Astronomical Observatory, China. The start of science operation is expected in 2004. There are 4000 optical fibers on the telescope focal surface that will feed 16 low resolution spectrographs (LRS) and one or more medium resolution spectrograph and one high resolution spectrograph. Here we present a description of the LRS specification and its optical design. LRS is a multi object fiber spectrograph that is optimized for galaxy red shift surveys. The output bema with f-ratio of 4 from fiber are collimated by a spherical mirror and then are split to red and blue band by a dichroic filter. We use reflective grating as dispersion elements. Spectra are focused onto 2048 by 2048 CCD using fast Schmidt camera with f-ratio of 1. Spectral coverage per exposure is from 370nm to 900nm. The beam size is 200mm resulting resolution 1000 with 3.3 arcsecond fiber slit. The slit with 130mm length picks up 250 fibers, so we need 16 low-resolution spectrograph to observe spectra of 4000 celestial objects in single exposure.

Zhu, Yongtian; Xu, Wenli

2000-08-01

21

Low-resolution structure of Drosophila translin.  

PubMed

Crystals of native Drosophila melanogaster translin diffracted to 7 Å resolution. Reductive methylation of the protein improved crystal quality. The native and methylated proteins showed similar profiles in size-exclusion chromatography analyses but the methylated protein displayed reduced DNA-binding activity. Crystals of the methylated protein diffracted to 4.2 Å resolution at BM14 of the ESRF synchrotron. Crystals with 49% solvent content belonged to monoclinic space group P21 with eight protomers in the asymmetric unit. Only 2% of low-resolution structures with similar low percentage solvent content were found in the PDB. The crystal structure, solved by molecular replacement method, refined to R work (R free) of 0.24 (0.29) with excellent stereochemistry. The crystal structure clearly shows that drosophila protein exists as an octamer, and not as a decamer as expected from gel-filtration elution profiles. The similar octameric quaternary fold in translin orthologs and in translin-TRAX complexes suggests an up-down dimer as the basic structural subunit of translin-like proteins. The drosophila oligomer displays asymmetric assembly and increased radius of gyration that accounts for the observed differences between the elution profiles of human and drosophila proteins on gel-filtration columns. This study demonstrates clearly that low-resolution X-ray structure can be useful in understanding complex biological oligomers. PMID:23650579

Kumar, Vinay; Gupta, Gagan D

2012-01-01

22

Low-resolution structure of Drosophila translin  

PubMed Central

Crystals of native Drosophila melanogaster translin diffracted to 7 Å resolution. Reductive methylation of the protein improved crystal quality. The native and methylated proteins showed similar profiles in size-exclusion chromatography analyses but the methylated protein displayed reduced DNA-binding activity. Crystals of the methylated protein diffracted to 4.2 Å resolution at BM14 of the ESRF synchrotron. Crystals with 49% solvent content belonged to monoclinic space group P21 with eight protomers in the asymmetric unit. Only 2% of low-resolution structures with similar low percentage solvent content were found in the PDB. The crystal structure, solved by molecular replacement method, refined to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.24 (0.29) with excellent stereochemistry. The crystal structure clearly shows that drosophila protein exists as an octamer, and not as a decamer as expected from gel-filtration elution profiles. The similar octameric quaternary fold in translin orthologs and in translin–TRAX complexes suggests an up-down dimer as the basic structural subunit of translin-like proteins. The drosophila oligomer displays asymmetric assembly and increased radius of gyration that accounts for the observed differences between the elution profiles of human and drosophila proteins on gel-filtration columns. This study demonstrates clearly that low-resolution X-ray structure can be useful in understanding complex biological oligomers.

Kumar, Vinay; Gupta, Gagan D.

2012-01-01

23

Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through continuous feedback of the electroencephalogram (EEG) humans can learn how to shape their brain electrical activity in a desired direction. The technique is known as EEG biofeedback, or neurofeedback, and has been used since the late 1960s in research and clinical applications. A major limitation of neurofeedback relates to the limited information provided by a single or small number

Marco Congedo; Joel F. Lubar; David Joffe

2004-01-01

24

Improved low-resolution crystallographic refinement with Phenix and Rosetta.  

PubMed

Refinement of macromolecular structures against low-resolution crystallographic data is limited by the ability of current methods to converge on a structure with realistic geometry. We developed a low-resolution crystallographic refinement method that combines the Rosetta sampling methodology and energy function with reciprocal-space X-ray refinement in Phenix. On a set of difficult low-resolution cases, the method yielded improved model geometry and lower free R factors than alternate refinement methods. PMID:24076763

DiMaio, Frank; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Adams, Paul D; Baker, David

2013-11-01

25

Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

2007-03-01

26

Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured

Satoshi Minoshima; Robert A. Koeppe; Kirk A. Frey

1994-01-01

27

Improving standards in brain-behavior correlation analyses  

PubMed Central

Associations between two variables, for instance between brain and behavioral measurements, are often studied using correlations, and in particular Pearson correlation. However, Pearson correlation is not robust: outliers can introduce false correlations or mask existing ones. These problems are exacerbated in brain imaging by a widespread lack of control for multiple comparisons, and several issues with data interpretations. We illustrate these important problems associated with brain-behavior correlations, drawing examples from published articles. We make several propositions to alleviate these problems.

Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Pernet, Cyril R.

2012-01-01

28

Directional motion history templates for low resolution motion recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human motion recognition in low-resolution video is very difficult task because due to low-resolution we miss much significant motion information. In this paper, we demonstrated appearance-based directional motion history image (DMHI) method to recognize various levels of video resolutions. The DMHI technique can overcome the self-occlusion problem that arises from motion overwriting. We found that it can significantly solve motion

M. A. R. Ahad; T. Ogata; J. K. Tan; H. S. Kim; S. Ishikawa

2008-01-01

29

Digital Tomosynthesis Aided by Low-Resolution Exact Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomosynthesis reconstructs 3-dimensional images of an object from a significantly fewer number of projections as compared with that required by computed tomography (CT). A major problem with tomosynthesis is image artifacts associated with the data incompleteness. In this article, we propose a hybrid tomosynthesis approach to achieve higher image quality as compared with competing methods. In this approach, a low-resolution

Kai Zeng; Hengyong Yu; Shiying Zhao; Laurie Lee Fajardo; Christopher Ruth; Zhenxue Jing; Ge Wang

2007-01-01

30

Low Resolution Single Neural Network Based Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper deals with the implementation of face recognition using neural network (recognition classifier) on low- resolution images. The proposed system contains two parts, preprocessing and face classification. The preprocessing part converts original images into blurry image using average filter and equalizes the histogram of those image (lighting normalization). The bi-cubic interpolation function is applied onto equalized image to

Jahan Zeb; Muhammad Younus Javed; Usman Qayyum

2007-01-01

31

Estimating Velocity Fields on a Freeway from Low Resolution Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm to estimate velocity fields from low resolution video recordings. The algorithm does not attempt to identify and track individual vehicles, nor does it attempt to estimate derivatives of the field of pixel intensities. Rather, we compress a frame by obtaining an intensity profile in each lane along the direction of traffic flow. The speed estimate is

Young Cho; John Rice

32

Enhancement of the low resolution image quality using randomly sampled data for multi-slice MR imaging  

PubMed Central

Low resolution images are often acquired in in vivo MR applications involving in large field-of-view (FOV) and high speed imaging, such as, whole-body MRI screening and functional MRI applications. In this work, we investigate a multi-slice imaging strategy for acquiring low resolution images by using compressed sensing (CS) MRI to enhance the image quality without increasing the acquisition time. In this strategy, low resolution images of all the slices are acquired using multiple-slice imaging sequence. In addition, extra randomly sampled data in one center slice are acquired by using the CS strategy. These additional randomly sampled data are multiplied by the weighting functions generated from low resolution full k-space images of the two slices, and then interpolated into the k-space of other slices. In vivo MR images of human brain were employed to investigate the feasibility and the performance of the proposed method. Quantitative comparison between the conventional low resolution images and those from the proposed method was also performed to demonstrate the advantage of the method.

Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying

2014-01-01

33

Quantitative Stellar Classification with Low-Resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-resolution spectroscopy (R ~ 1000) is used to efficiently characterize faint stars suspected to host planets. Stellar parameters, i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity can be assessed from these spectra by methods of quantitative classification. For this purpose, more than 130 template stars have been observed with the faint object spectrograph at the Tautenburg 2m telescope, Germany. A large number of lines are measured and the dependence of line depths on stellar parameters is studied.

Eiff, Matthias Ammler-von; Sebastian, Daniel; Guenther, Eike W.

2014-04-01

34

An Analysis of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System Low Resolution Flight Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the quality of thermodynamic and wind data measured by or derived from the Low Resolution Flight Element (LRFE) of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS). The AMPS LRFE replaced the Meteorological Sounding System (MSS), which was used to provide vertical profiles of thermodynamic and low-resolution wind data in support of spacecraft launch operations at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Air temperature, relative humidity, and height, which are directly measured by the LRFE, are used to derive air pressure and density. Test flights were conducted where an LRFE sonde and an MSS sonde were attached to the same balloon and the two profiles were compared. MSS data was used as the standard reference data. The objective of the thermodynamic testing was to determine a) if the LRFE met Space Shuttle Program (SSP) accuracy requirements outlined in the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Program Requirements Document (PRD) and/or, b) if the LRFE met or exceeded MSS data quality. AMPS uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine wind speed and direction. In order to provide a basis for comparison, either an AMPS High Resolution Flight Element (HRFE) or a radar tracked Jimsphere was released simultaneously with each AMPS LRFE at CCAFS. The goal of these tests was to determine if the LRFE wind data met the requirement for low-resolution wind data defined in the Shuttle PRD. Based on the available data, the LRFE is shown to produce more consistent thermodynamic measurements than the MSS. The LRFE is also shown to meet the Shuttle PRD requirements for low resolution wind data.

Leahy, Frank B.; Overbey, B. Glenn

2003-01-01

35

Low-Resolution Radial-Velocity Monitoring of Pulsating sdBs in the Kepler Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from an ongoing spectroscopic campaign to uncover the binary status of the 18 known pulsating subdwarf B stars and the one pulsating BHB star observed with the Kepler spacecraft. During the 2010-2012 observing seasons, we have used the KP4m Mayall, NOT, and WHT telescopes to obtain low-resolution (R˜2000-2500) Balmer-line spectroscopy of our sample stars. We applied a standard cross-correlation technique to derive radial velocities, and find clear evidence for binarity in several of the pulsators, some of which were not previously known to be binaries.

Telting, J.; Östensen, R.; Reed, M.; Kiæerad, F.; Farris, L.; Baran, A.; Oreiro, R.; O'Toole, S.

2014-04-01

36

Low resolution infrared building thermography in a subtropical environment  

SciTech Connect

A hand held, low resolution, infrared imaging system was used to evaluate the effects of solar gain on a typical, air conditioned, office building. Areas that were addressed focused on the impact of the sun and the early morning temperature changes in the eastern section of a building. Isolating pockets of moisture in a concrete block wall and the probable cause were determined during this survey. Evaluating wet insulation in a built-up roof are described. The implementation of this technology with respect to roof maintenance is discussed.

Duffy, P.K.

1980-01-01

37

Low resolution ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of symbiotic stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra combined with optical spectrophotometry provide absolute flux distributions for seven symbiotic variables from 1200 to 6450 A. For five stars (EG And, BF Cyg, CI Cyg, AG Peg, and Z And) the data are representative of the quiescent/out-of-eclipse energy distributions; for CH Cyg and AX Per, the observations were obtained following their atest outburst in 1977 and 1978, respectively. The de-reddened distributions reveal a remarkable diversity of both line spectra and continua. While the optical and near infrared regions lambda = 5500 A) are well represented by single component stellar models, multicomponent flux distributions are required to reproduce the ultraviolet continua.

Slovak, M. H.

1982-01-01

38

Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured on the PET images, and the brain height was estimated by a contour-matching procedure using the midsagittal plane. In the nonlinear warping step, individual gray matter locations were matched with those of a standard brain by maximizing correlation coefficients of regional profile curves determined between predefined stretching centers (predominantly in white matter) and the gray matter landmarks. The accuracy of the brain height estimation was compared with skull x-ray estimations, showing comparable accuracy and better reproducibility. Linear-scaling and nonlinear warping methods were validated using ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose and ({sup 15}O)water images. Regional anatomic variability on the glucose images was reduced markedly. The statistical significance of activation foci in paired water images was improved in both vibratory and visual activation paradigms. A group versus group comparison following the proposed anatomic standardization revealed highly significant glucose metabolic alterations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared with those of a normal control group. These results suggested that the method is well suited to both research and clinical settings and can facilitate pixel-by-pixel comparisons of PET images. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

39

10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain Research, Learning Styles, and Standards Define Teaching Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 10 practices that are essential to making education meaningful and rich for all students, examining brain research and how it can be applied to the classroom. It incorporates information about learning styles and standards into a classroom instructional model for teachers. The 11 chapters are as follows: (1) "Creating an…

Tileston, Donna Walker

40

Automated lung segmentation of low resolution CT scans of rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual modality micro-CT and SPECT imaging can play an important role in preclinical studies designed to investigate mechanisms, progression, and therapies for acute lung injury in rats. SPECT imaging involves examining the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals within the lung, with the hypothesis that uptake is sensitive to the health or disease status of the lung tissue. Methods of quantifying lung uptake and comparison of right and left lung uptake generally begin with identifying and segmenting the lung region within the 3D reconstructed SPECT volume. However, identification of the lung boundaries and the fissure between the left and right lung is not always possible from the SPECT images directly since the radiopharmaceutical may be taken up by other surrounding tissues. Thus, our SPECT protocol begins with a fast CT scan, the lung boundaries are identified from the CT volume, and the CT region is coregistered with the SPECT volume to obtain the SPECT lung region. Segmenting rat lungs within the CT volume is particularly challenging due to the relatively low resolution of the images and the rat's unique anatomy. Thus, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm for low resolution micro-CT scans that utilizes depth maps to detect fissures on the surface of the lung volume. The fissure's surface location is in turn used to interpolate the fissure throughout the lung volume. Results indicate that the segmentation method results in left and right lung regions consistent with rat lung anatomy.

Rizzo, Benjamin M.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

2014-03-01

41

Characterizing Extra-Solar Planets with Low Resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the next few years, several high contrast imaging instruments equipped with integral field spectrographs will allow the direct spectral characterization of a variety of companions, from low-mass stars to Jupiter-mass extra-solar planets, at Solar System-like separations (4-40 AU). The spectra obtained by these instruments will be low resolution (R 30-60), making detailed thermo-chemical analysis difficult. Therefore, we have developed a technique that quantitatively compares observed low-resolution spectra with a set of synthetic spectra in order to obtain physical parameters, such as temperature and surface gravity, quickly and robustly. The technique requires no assumptions about age, mass, radius or metallicity of the companion or the primary. We describe this technique and demonstrate its effectiveness with simulated and observed spectra from Project 1640, the high contrast imager and integral field spectrograph on Palomar. The technique can also be used to optimize observing efficiency by determining the ideal wavelength range (for multi-filter instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager) and signal to noise ratio for a desired precision and accuracy of inferred parameters. The current analysis uses the PHOENIX models as a basis for comparison, but the technique can be applied to any set of models and even used to quantify the differences between models created by different groups. This tool provides a necessary, fast, and comprehensive method of characterizing faint companions of stars, whether they be stellar, sub-stellar or planetary in nature.

Rice, Emily L.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Zimmerman, N.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Hinkley, S.

2012-01-01

42

Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town…

White, David J.; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B.

2012-01-01

43

Low-resolution refinement tools in REFMAC5  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of low-resolution macromolecular crystal structure analysis are considered: (i) the use of reference structures and structural units for provision of structural prior information and (ii) map sharpening in the presence of noise and the effects of Fourier series termination. The generation of interatomic distance restraints by ProSMART and their subsequent application in REFMAC5 is described. It is shown that the use of such external structural information can enhance the reliability of derived atomic models and stabilize refinement. The problem of map sharpening is considered as an inverse deblurring problem and is solved using Tikhonov regularizers. It is demonstrated that this type of map sharpening can automatically produce a map with more structural features whilst maintaining connectivity. Tests show that both of these directions are promising, although more work needs to be performed in order to further exploit structural information and to address the problem of reliable electron-density calculation.

Nicholls, Robert A.; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N.

2012-01-01

44

Estimation of low-resolution visible spectra from RGB imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While able to measure the red, green, and blue channels, color imagers are not true spectral imagers capable of spectral measurements. In this paper we present a processing technique for estimating low resolution visible spectra from (RGB) imagery components. Such a methodology will find application in separating reflectivity components from source illumination as performed in Retinex or Linear Models. Numerical processing is discussed and formulated within non-regulated iterative restoration methodology. Numerical stability and convergence are considered relative to speed and accuracy as well as calibration data effects on overall results. Implementation is demonstrated together with several suggestions for real time processing. Imager calibration methodology is presented together with several results. Limitations of the method are discussed as well as directions for further investigations.

Schau, H. C.

2009-05-01

45

Hundreds of brain maps in one atlas: registering coordinate-independent primate neuro-anatomical data to a standard brain.  

PubMed

Non-invasive measuring methods such as EEG/MEG, fMRI and DTI are increasingly utilised to extract quantitative information on functional and anatomical connectivity in the human brain. These methods typically register their data in Euclidean space, so that one can refer to a particular activity pattern by specifying its spatial coordinates. Since each of these methods has limited resolution in either the time or spatial domain, incorporating additional data, such as those obtained from invasive animal studies, would be highly beneficial to link structure and function. Here we describe an approach to spatially register all cortical brain regions from the macaque structural connectivity database CoCoMac, which contains the combined tracing study results from 459 publications (http://cocomac.g-node.org). Brain regions from 9 different brain maps were directly mapped to a standard macaque cortex using the tool Caret (Van Essen and Dierker, 2007). The remaining regions in the CoCoMac database were semantically linked to these 9 maps using previously developed algebraic and machine-learning techniques (Bezgin et al., 2008; Stephan et al., 2000). We analysed neural connectivity using several graph-theoretical measures to capture global properties of the derived network, and found that Markov Centrality provides the most direct link between structure and function. With this registration approach, users can query the CoCoMac database by specifying spatial coordinates. Availability of deformation tools and homology evidence then allow one to directly attribute detailed anatomical animal data to human experimental results. PMID:22521477

Bezgin, Gleb; Vakorin, Vasily A; van Opstal, A John; McIntosh, Anthony R; Bakker, Rembrandt

2012-08-01

46

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System. Phase II; 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and NOAA. As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. GSFC has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). Its main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a PC as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Duran, Steve; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

47

Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

2004-04-01

48

Coupled kernel embedding for low resolution face image recognition.  

PubMed

Practical video scene and face recognition systems are sometimes confronted with low-resolution (LR) images. The faces may be very small even if the video is clear, thus it is difficult to directly measure the similarity between the faces and the high-resolution (HR) training samples. Traditional super-resolution (SR) methods based face recognition usually have limited performance because the target of SR may not be consistent with that of classification, and time-consuming SR algorithms are not suitable for real-time applications. In this paper, a new feature extraction method called Coupled Kernel Embedding (CKE) is proposed for LR face recognition without any SR preprocessing. In this method, the final kernel matrix is constructed by concatenating two individual kernel matrices in the diagonal direction, and the (semi-)positively definite properties are preserved for optimization. CKE addresses the problem of comparing multi-modal data that are difficult for conventional methods in practice due to the lack of an efficient similarity measure. Particularly, different kernel types (e.g., linear, Gaussian, polynomial) can be integrated into an uniformed optimization objective, which cannot be achieved by simple linear methods. CKE solves this problem by minimizing the dissimilarities captured by their kernel Gram matrices in the low- and high-resolution spaces. In the implementation, the nonlinear objective function is minimized by a generalized eigenvalue decomposition. Experiments on benchmark and real databases show that our CKE method indeed improves the recognition performance. PMID:22481822

Ren, Chuan-Xian; Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

2012-08-01

49

Cartography of asteroids and comet nuclei from low resolution data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution images of non-spherical objects, such as Viking images of Phobos and the anticipated Galileo images of Gaspra, lend themselves to conventional planetary cartographic procedures: control network analysis, stereophotogrammetry, image mosaicking in 2D or 3D, and airbrush mapping. There remains the problem of a suitable map projection for bodies which are extremely elongated or irregular in shape. Many bodies will soon be seen at lower resolution (5-30 pixels across the disk) in images from speckle interferometry, the Hubble Space Telescope, ground-based radar, distinct spacecraft encounters, and closer images degraded by smear. Different data with similar effective resolutions are available from stellar occultations, radar or lightcurve convex hulls, lightcurve modeling of albedo variations, and cometary jet modeling. With such low resolution, conventional methods of shape determination will be less useful or will fail altogether, leaving limb and terminator topography as the principal sources of topographic information. A method for shape determination based on limb and terminator topography was developed. It has been applied to the nucleus of Comet Halley and the jovian satellite Amalthea. The Amalthea results are described to give an example of the cartographic possibilities and problems of anticipated data sets.

Stooke, Philip J.

1992-01-01

50

A grid-enabled web service for low-resolution crystal structure refinement  

PubMed Central

Deformable elastic network (DEN) restraints have proved to be a powerful tool for refining structures from low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data sets. Unfortunately, optimal refinement using DEN restraints requires extensive calculations and is often hindered by a lack of access to sufficient computational resources. The DEN web service presented here intends to provide structural biologists with access to resources for running computationally intensive DEN refinements in parallel on the Open Science Grid, the US cyberinfrastructure. Access to the grid is provided through a simple and intuitive web interface integrated into the SBGrid Science Portal. Using this portal, refinements combined with full parameter optimization that would take many thousands of hours on standard computational resources can now be completed in several hours. An example of the successful application of DEN restraints to the human Notch1 transcriptional complex using the grid resource, and summaries of all submitted refinements, are presented as justification.

O'Donovan, Daniel J.; Stokes-Rees, Ian; Nam, Yunsun; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Schroder, Gunnar F.; Brunger, Axel T.; Sliz, Piotr

2012-01-01

51

CARMENES at PPVI. Low-Resolution Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs with CAFOS at Calar Alto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conduct long observational campaigns with CAFOS at the 2.2. m Calar Alto telescope to obtain low-resolution (R~1500) spectra of poorly-known M dwarfs and candidates that are bright enough to be considered as potential CARMENES targets. We perform a spectral-type classification of the targets by comparing their acquired spectra with those of spectral-type standard stars observed during the same observing runs, and using spectral indices well calibrated for M dwarfs, such as TiO-n, CaH-n, VO-n and PC-n. We also measure chromospheric activity indicators. Up to now, over 400 M dwarfs have been observed and analysed, many of which had not been spectroscopically investigated yet.

Mundt, R.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.

2013-07-01

52

Investigating short wavelength correlated errors on low resolution mode altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although conventional radar altimetry products (Jason1, Jason2, LRM CRYOSAT2, etc) have a spatial resolution as high as 300 m, the observation of ocean scales smaller than 100 km is limited by the existence of a "spectral hump", i.e. a geographically coherent error. In the frame of the future altimetry missions (SAR for Cryosat -2 and Sentinel-3 missions and interferometry for the SWOT mission) it becomes crucial to investigate again and to better understand the signals obtained at small scales by conventional altimeter missions. Through an analysis of simulations, we show that heterogeneous backscattering scenes can result in the corruption of the altimeter waveforms and retracked parameters. The retrackers used in current ground processors cannot well fit the Brown model during backscattering events because this model has been designed for a homogeneous scene. The error is also propagated along-track because of the size and shape of the low resolution mode (LRM) disc-shaped footprint. The hump phenomenon is shown to be almost ubiquitous in the ocean, yet more intense at low latitudes and in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, where backscattering events are more frequent. Its overall signature could be a Gaussian-like random signal smooth for wavelengths smaller than 15 km, i.e. white noise on 1 Hz products. The analysis of current data from 5 altimetry missions highlights the influence of the instrument design and altitude, and the influence of the retracker used. The spectral hump is a systematic response to random events and it is possible to mitigate it with new processing. Simulations and geographically limited datasets from the synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) of Cryosat-2 show that the thin stripe-shaped synthetic footprint of SARM might be less sensitive to the artifact.

Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Dibarboure, Gérald; Labroue, Sylvie; Lasne, Yannick; Boy, François; Picot, Nicolas

2013-04-01

53

3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity  

PubMed Central

The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

2009-01-01

54

The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

2013-12-01

55

Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping Using Standard CPMG Sequence In A Clinical Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

Hnilicová, P.; Bittšanský, M.; Dobrota, D.

2014-04-01

56

CARMENES. IV. Preliminary low-resolution spectroscopic characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our project consists in the characterisation of M dwarfs to define the input catalogue of CARMENES, a next-generation instrument to be built for the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto. We have used the CAFOS spectrograph at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for observing over 300 stars from our initial sample with a spectral resolution R ˜ 1500. We have performed a spectral-type classification of the targets by comparing their acquired spectra with those of spectral-type standard stars observed during the same observing runs, and using spectral indices well calibrated for M dwarfs, such as TiO5, CaH2 and CaH3. We have also derived chromospheric activity indicators (e.g. H?). Our final goal will be to choose the best candidates to be observed with this future exoplanet hunter and prepare the CARMENCITA (CARMENES Cool star Information and daTa Archive) database.

Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Klutsch, A.; Morales, J. C.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Carmenes Consortium

2013-05-01

57

Quantitative analysis of the detergent-insoluble brain proteome in frontotemporal lobar degeneration using SILAC internal standards  

PubMed Central

Summary A hallmark of neurodegeneration is the aggregation of disease related proteins that are resistant to detergent extraction. In the major pathological subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), modified TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), including phosphorylated, ubiquitinated and proteolytically cleaved forms, is enriched in detergent-insoluble fractions from post-mortem brain tissue. Additional proteins that accumulate in the detergent-insoluble FTLD brain proteome remain largely unknown. In this study, we used proteins from stable isotope-labeled (SILAC) human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) as internal standards for peptide quantitation across control and FTLD insoluble brain proteomes. Proteins were identified and quantified by liquid-chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and twenty-one proteins were determined to be enriched in FTLD using SILAC internal standards. In parallel, label free quantification of only the unlabeled brain derived peptides by spectral counts (SC) and G-test analysis identified additional brain-specific proteins significantly enriched in disease. Several proteins determined to be enriched in FTLD using SILAC internal standards were not considered significant by G-test due to their low total number of SC. However immunoblotting of FTLD and control samples confirmed enrichment of these proteins, highlighting the utility of SILAC internal standard to quantify low abundance proteins in brain. Of these, the RNA binding protein PTB-associated splicing factor (PSF) was further characterized because of structural and functional similarities to TDP-43. Full-length PSF and shorter molecular weight fragments, likely resulting from proteolytic cleavage, were enriched in FTLD cases. Immunohistochemical analysis of PSF revealed predominately nuclear localization in control and FTLD brain tissue and was not associated with phosphorylated pathologic TDP-43 neuronal inclusions. However, in a subset of FTLD cases, PSF was aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes. These data raise the possibility that PSF directed RNA processes in oligodendrocytes are altered in neurodegenerative disease.

Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Gozal, Yair M.; Donovan, Laura E.; Herskowitz, Jeremy H.; Dammer, Eric B.; Xia, Qiangwei; Ku, Li; Chang, Jianjun; Duong, Duc M.; Rees, Howard D.; Cooper, Deborah S.; Glass, Jonathan D.; Gearing, Marla; Tansey, Malu G.; Lah, James J.; Feng, Yue; Levey, Allan I.; Peng, Junmin

2012-01-01

58

The brain and somatic integration: insights into the standard biological rationale for equating "brain death" with death.  

PubMed

The mainstream rationale for equating "brain death" (BD) with death is that the brain confers integrative unity upon the body, transforming it from a mere collection of organs and tissues to an "organism as a whole." In support of this conclusion, the impressive list of the brain's myriad integrative functions is often cited. Upon closer examination, and after operational definition of terms, however, one discovers that most integrative functions of the brain are actually not somatically integrating, and, conversely, most integrative functions of the body are not brain-mediated. With respect to organism-level vitality, the brain's role is more modulatory than constitutive, enhancing the quality and survival potential of a presupposedly living organism. Integrative unity of a complex organism is an inherently nonlocalizable, holistic feature involving the mutual interaction among all the parts, not a top-down coordination imposed by one part upon a passive multiplicity of other parts. Loss of somatic integrative unity is not a physiologically tenable rationale for equating BD with death of the organism as a whole. PMID:11588655

Shewmon, A D

2001-10-01

59

Improved EEG source analysis using low resolution conductivity estimation in a four-compartment finite element head model  

PubMed Central

Bioelectric source analysis in the human brain from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals is sensitive to geometry and conductivity properties of the different head tissues. We propose a low resolution conductivity estimation (LRCE) method using simulated annealing optimization on high resolution finite element models that individually optimizes a realistically-shaped four-layer volume conductor with regard to the brain and skull compartment conductivities. As input data, the method needs T1- and PD-weighted magnetic resonance images for an improved modeling of the skull and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment and evoked potential data with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our simulation studies showed that for EEG data with realistic SNR, the LRCE method was able to simultaneously reconstruct both the brain and the skull conductivity together with the underlying dipole source and provided an improved source analysis result. We have also demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the new method to simultaneously estimate brain and skull conductivity and a somatosensory source from measured tactile somatosensory evoked potentials of a human subject. Our results show the viability of an approach that computes its own conductivity values and thus reduces the dependence on assigning values from the literature and likely produces a more robust estimate of current sources. Using the LRCE method, the individually optimized four-compartment volume conductor model can in a second step be used for the analysis of clinical or cognitive data acquired from the same subject.

Lew, S.; Wolters, C. H.; Anwander, A.; Makeig, S.; MacLeod, R.

2009-01-01

60

Automated measurement of redshifts from mid-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining accurate redshifts from mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution (R ˜ 100) spectroscopy is challenging because the wavelength resolution is too low to detect narrow lines in most cases. Yet, the number of degrees of freedom and diversity of spectral features are too high for regular spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting techniques to be convenient. Here we present a new SED-fitting-based routine for redshift determination that is optimized for MIR low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small-scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called maximum combined pseudo-likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML approach, the MCPL approach searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a 'pseudo-likelihood' (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of the MCPL approach are demonstrated by comparing its redshift estimates to those of the regular ML approach and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra from extragalactic sources at 0 < z < 3.7. The MCPL approach achieves a redshift accuracy ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 for 78 per cent of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68 per cent for the ML approach. The rate of outliers [?(z)/(1 + z) > 0.02] is 14 per cent for the MCPL approach and 22 per cent for the ML approach. ?2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalized combined PL (?) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depend strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by active galactic nucleus continua. Nevertheless, for a given ? the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent of their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a ? > 0.15 threshold retains 79 per cent of the sources with ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8 per cent.

Hernán Caballero, Antonio

2012-11-01

61

[Standardization of regional cerebral count corrected by equilibrium blood count with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT].  

PubMed

To standardize the regional cerebral count with 99mTc-HMPAO, equilibrium blood count of which trapping mechanism is the same as the brain was used in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease. We injected 99mTc-HMPAO 740 MBq in 10-15 sec and got sequential arterial sampling in patients who were undertaken with PET. Four hours later 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT was taken and a venous sampling was drawn for determining the equilibrium blood count. Correlation between the area of arterial time activity curve and equilibrium venous blood count was 0.93. After 44 regions (36 in cortical area, 8 in deep area) with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT were placed, SPECT counts were corrected by standardization of equilibrium venous blood count. The correlation between rCBF determined from C15O2 PET and corrected SPECT counts was 0.80 and 0.67, cortical area and deep area, respectively. We concluded that 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT count can be corrected by equilibrium blood count to standardize the regional cerebral counts. PMID:7967196

Tanaka, R; Hayashida, K; Hirose, Y; Ishida, Y; Miyashita, K; Kaminaga, T; Nishimura, T

1994-09-01

62

A Proposal of New Reference System for the Standard Axial, Sagittal, Coronal Planes of Brain Based on the Serially-Sectioned Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radi- ological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48

Jin Seo Park; Min Suk Chung; Hyo Seok Park; Dong Sun Shin; Dong-Hwan Har; Zang-Hee Cho; Young-Bo Kim; Jae-Yong Han; Je-Geun Chi

2010-01-01

63

Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two

David J. White; Marco Congedo; Joseph Ciorciari; Richard B. Silberstein

2012-01-01

64

Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two

David J. White; Marco Congedo; Joseph Ciorciari; Richard B. Silberstein

65

Implications of Extubation Delay in Brain-Injured Patients Meeting Standard Weaning Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that variation in extubating brain injured pa- tients would affect the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, length of stay, and hospital charges. In a prospective cohort of consecutive, intubated brain-injured patients, we evaluated daily: intubation status, spontaneous ventilatory parameters, gas ex- change, neurologic status, and specific outcomes listed above. Of 136 patients, 99 (73%) were extubated within 48 h

WILLIAM M. COPLIN; DAVID J. PIERSON; KATHY D. COOLEY; DAVID W. NEWELL; GORDON D. RUBENFELD

66

Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain\\/Tissue\\/Bio) banking: what is still missing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional\\u000a concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain\\/Tissue\\/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each\\u000a of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and\\u000a the legal regulations and

Rivka Ravid

2008-01-01

67

Anatomical standardization of small animal brain FDG-PET images using synthetic functional template: experimental comparison with anatomical template.  

PubMed

Anatomical standardization (also called spatial normalization) of positron emission tomography (PET) small animal brain images is required to make statistical comparisons across individuals. Frequently, PET images are co-registered to an individual MR or CT image of the same subject in order to transform the functional images to an anatomical space. In the present work, we evaluate the normalization of synthetic PET (synPET) images to a synthetic PET template. To provide absolute error in terms of pixel misregistration, we created a synthetic PET image from the individual MR image through segmentation of the brain into gray and white matter which produced functional and anatomical images in the same space. When comparing spatial normalization of synPET images to a synPET template with the gold standard (MR images to an MR template), a mean translation error of 0.24mm (±0.20) and a maximal mean rotational error of 0.85° (±0.91) were found. Significant decrease in misregistration error was measured when achieving spatial normalization of functional images to a functional template instead of an anatomical template. This accuracy strengthens the use of standardization methods where individual PET images are registered to a customized PET template in order to statistically assess physiological changes in rat brains. PMID:21550366

Coello, Christopher; Hjornevik, Trine; Courivaud, Frédéric; Willoch, Frode

2011-07-15

68

High resolution infrared image reconstruction using multiple, low resolution, aliased frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staring infrared detectors often produce low resolution images. This problem arises simply because the technology does not exist to produce higher resolution arrays with sufficient spatial sampling intervals. A proven approach to combat this difficulty involves recording multiple frames that have been optically shifted onto a high-resolution grid pattern and then combined together into a single high resolution image. This

E. A. Kaltenbacher; Russell C. Hardie

1996-01-01

69

PATTERN RECOGNITION/EXPERT SYSTEM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA  

EPA Science Inventory

An empirical rule-based pattern recognition/expert system for classifying, estimating molecular weights and identifying low resolution mass spectra of toxic and other organic compounds has been developed and evaluated. he system was designed to accommodate low concentration spect...

70

On the detection of low-resolution skin regions in surveillance images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study into the detection of skin re- gions in images where faces may be low-resolution. We focus on surveillance footage and no assumptions are made about fine facial features being visible. This type of data presents the further challenge of changes in appearance of skin regions due to changes in both lighting and reso- lution. We

Nils Janssen; Neil Robertson

2008-01-01

71

Estimating Velocity Fields on a Freeway From Low-Resolution Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, We present an algorithm to estimate velocity fields from low resolution video recordings. The algorithm does not attempt to identify and track individual vehicles, nor does it attempt to estimate derivatives of the field of pixel intensities. Rather, we compress a frame by obtaining an intensity profile in each lane along the direction of traffic flow. The speed estimate

Young Cho; John Rice

2006-01-01

72

Comparison of Hadamard imaging and compressed sensing for low resolution hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image multiplexing is the technique of using combination patterns to measure multiple pixels with one sensor. Hyperspectral imaging is acquiring images with full spectra at each pixel. Using a single point spectrometer and light modulation we perform multiplexed hyperspectral imaging. We compare two forms of multiplexing, namely Hadamard imaging and compressed sensing, at low resolution. We show that Hadamard imaging

L. Streeter; G. R. Burling-Claridge; M. J. Cree; R. Kunnemeyer

2008-01-01

73

Text region extraction from low resolution natural scene images using texture features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated systems for understanding display boards are finding many applications useful in guiding tourists, assisting visually challenged and also in providing location aware information. Such systems require an automated method to detect and extract text prior to further image analysis. In this paper, a methodology to detect and extract text regions from low resolution natural scene images is presented. The

S. A. Angadi; M. M. Kodabagi

2010-01-01

74

Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

Fares, Raafat P; Belmeguenai, Amor; Sanchez, Pascal E; Kouchi, Hayet Y; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S; Bezin, Laurent

2013-01-01

75

A real aperture radar for low resolution mapping at low costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the results obtained in the course of the trade-off analysis activity of low cost scatterometers based on real aperture measurement. This has been carried out at Alenia Aerospazio-Space Division in the frame of internal research activities and of the European Space Agency (ESA) “Modest Resolution Radar for Radar\\/Radiometer Applications” contract. The idea of low resolution radar

F. Impagnatiello; G. Angino; G. Leggeri

1997-01-01

76

A near-realtime geolocated and radiometric corrected low-resolution ERS-1 SAR image product  

Microsoft Academic Search

An operational algorithm is developed and implemented for geolocation and radiometric correction of the near-realtime low-resolution ERS-1 SAR image product from Tromso Satellite Station (TSS). Latitude and longitude grids and land-contours are mapped into the image. The radiometric correction adjusts the pixel intensity for varying antenna gain across the swath and range spreading loss. The antenna gain is based on

I. Lauknes; H. Johnsen

1993-01-01

77

Speech\\/Non-Speech Detection in Meetings from Automatically Extracted Low Resolution Visual Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of estimating who is speaking from automatically extracted low resolution vi- sual cues from group meetings. Traditionally, the task of speech\\/non-speech detection or speaker diarization tries to find who speaks and when from audio features only. Re- cent work has addressed the problem audio-visually but of- ten with less emphasis on the visual

Anon Anon

78

Adaptive target positioning control for permanent magnet synchronous motors with low-resolution shaft encoders  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a high-performance adjustable-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive, an accurate speed feedback is required. However, in some applications, only low-resolution incremental encoder is used because of the constraint of costs. In this paper, a closed-loop speed observer with inertia estimation is presented to improve the speed estimation accuracy, and a model-reference adaptive controller (MRAC) is designed as the

Kuang-Yao Cheng; Chih-Tsung Yao; Ying-Yu Tzuo

2003-01-01

79

Fast and precise iris localization for low-resolution facial images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast and precise iris localization is a vital technique for face recognition, eye tracking, and gaze estimation. Low-resolution images bring about great difficulties for locating the iris precisely by traditional methods. In this paper, a fast and robust method to precisely detect the position and contour of the irises in low-resolution facial images is presented. A three-step coarse-to-fine strategy is employed. First, a gradient integral projection function is proposed to roughly detect the eye region, and the vertical integral projection function is adopted to select several possible vertical boundaries of the irises. Second, we have proposed a novel rectangular integro-variance operator to precisely locate both of the irises. Finally, the localization results are verified by two simple heuristic rules. A novel and more rigorous criterion is also proposed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Comparison experiments on images from the FERET and the Extended YaleB databases demonstrate that our method is more robust than traditional methods to scale variation, illumination changes, part occlusion, and limited changes of head poses in low-resolution facial images.

Meng, Chun-Ning; Zhang, Tai-Ning; Zhang, Pin; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

2012-07-01

80

Quantitative tandem mass spectrometric imaging of endogenous acetyl-L-carnitine from piglet brain tissue using an internal standard.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) based mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is increasingly being used as an analytical tool to evaluate the molecular makeup of tissue samples. From the direct analysis of a tissue section, the physical integrity of sample is preserved; thus, spatial information of a compound's distribution may be determined. One limitation of the technique, however, has been the inability to determine the absolute concentration from a tissue sample. Here we report the development of a quantitative MSI technique in which the distribution of acetyl-L-carnitine (AC) in a piglet brain sample is quantified with MALDI MSI. An isotopically labeled internal standard was applied uniformly beneath the tissue section, and wide-isolation tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Normalizing the analyte ion signal by the internal standard ion signal resulted in significant improvements in MS images, signal reproducibility, and calibration curve linearity. From the improved MS images, the concentration of AC was determined and plotted producing a concentration-scaled image of the distribution of AC in the piglet brain section. PMID:21942933

Pirman, David A; Yost, Richard A

2011-11-15

81

Comparison of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography Imaging Between Subjects With Mild and Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the regions of the brain associated with recurrent nocturnal chronic hypoxic episodes in patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) and quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). Methods Nocturnal polysomnograph (NPSG) and subsequent morning electroencephalograph (EEG) were measured in 20 subjects with OSAS. Mild (n=10 ages 39.5±12.1 years) and severe (n=10 ages 41.7±13.6 years) right-handed male OSAS subjects were selected by interview and questionnaires including the NPSG, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The LORETA and QEEG were compared between the severe and mild OSAS groups by frequency bands (delta 1-3 Hz, theta 4-7 Hz, alpha 8-12 Hz, beta1 13-18 Hz, beta2 19-21 Hz, beta3 22-30 Hz, and total 1-30 Hz) made by spectral analysis during resting with the eyes closed. Results The LORETA analysis showed decreased alpha activity at the right posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 23) in cases with severe OSAS compared to mild OSAS (p<0.05). For the QEEG, the absolute power of the alpha activity (8-12 Hz) was decreased in P3 (p=0.047), PZ (p=0.039) and O2 (p=0.04) in cases with severe OSAS compared to mild OSAS cases. The LORETA and QEEG analyses had similar results with regard to band, activation and location. Conclusion The decreased activity of the alpha frequency in the right posterior cingulate gyrus, in patients with severe OSAS compared to those with mild OSAS, suggests that chronic repeated short-term hypoxia during sleep, in OSAS, could provoke cortical brain dysfunction associated with cognitive dysfunction such as memory and attention.

Lee, Hyun-Kwon; Shin, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Seok-Chan

2008-01-01

82

Standardizing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

2009-02-04

83

Optical photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy of the SN 2014J  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained low-resolution spectroscopic data and broadband (g,r,i,z) photometric images at the 4.2m-WHT equipped with the instrument ACAM at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) on approximately January 28.13 UT. A preliminary analysis of these spectra show the strong Si II (6355A) line moving at ~12600 km/s, and CII (6580A) and SII (5468A) at ~13700km/s and 12150 km/s, respectively.

Hernandez, Jonay I. Gonzalez; Genova-Santos, Ricardo; Rubi~no-Martin, Jose Alberto; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

2014-02-01

84

TGS[underscore]FIT: Image reconstruction software for quantitative, low-resolution tomographic assays  

SciTech Connect

We developed the computer program TGS[underscore]FIT to aid in researching the tomographic gamma scanner method of nondestructive assay. This software, written in C-programming, language, implements a full Beer's Law attenuation correction in reconstructing low-resolution emission tomograms. The attenuation coefficients for the corrections are obtained by reconstructing a transmission tomogram of the same resolution. The command-driven interface, combined with (crude) simulation capabilities and command file control, allows design studies to be performed in a semi-automated manner.

Estep, R.J.

1993-01-01

85

Low-Resolution Spectroscopy and uvby-? Photometry of Selected Stars in Haffner 18  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present MK spectral types of a sample of selected (bright) stars associated with the galactic cluster Haffner 18 in Puppis. They were obtained from low-resolution (? / ? ? = 1720) spectra by H ? slit spectroscopy. Some of the selected stars were also observed photoelectrically in the uvby- ? system. Our spectroscopic data show that over 1/4 of the estimated 50 star members of the cluster are O and early B stars. We give MK spectral types and discuss the individual stars observed. Finally, based on these spectroscopic results, on our photometry, and on published data we briefly reinspect the physical parameters of the cluster.

Moreno-Corral, M. A.; Chavarría-K, C.; de Lara, E.

2005-04-01

86

Experimental investigations of trimer ion contributions in the low resolution mass spectrometry of hydrogen isotope mixtures.  

PubMed

This paper reports on some preliminary experimental results of a work in progress regarding a problem involving the quantitative analysis of hydrogen isotopes by mass spectrometry of low resolution: the triatomic (trimer) ions interferences with the isotopic hydrogen species having the same mass/charge. These results indicate that, in complex mixtures of hydrogen isotopes, trimer ions are strongly affected by the presence of other species, and a new approach that takes into account the destruction mechanism of trimer ions is necessary for a proper determination of their contributions. PMID:23149602

Bidica, Nicolae

2012-01-01

87

Fast fitting to low resolution density maps: elucidating large-scale motions of the ribosome  

PubMed Central

Determining the conformational rearrangements of large macromolecules is challenging experimentally and computationally. Case in point is the ribosome; it has been observed by high-resolution crystallography in several states, but many others are known only from low-resolution methods including cryo-electron microscopy. Combining these data into dynamical trajectories that may aid understanding of its largest-scale conformational changes has so far remained out of reach of computational methods. Most existing methods either model all atoms explicitly, resulting in often prohibitive cost, or use approximations that lose interesting structural and dynamical detail. In this work, I introduce Internal Coordinate Flexible Fitting, which uses full atomic forces and flexibility in limited regions of a model, capturing extensive conformational rearrangements at low cost. I use it to turn multiple low-resolution density maps, crystallographic structures and biochemical information into unified all-atoms trajectories of ribosomal translocation. Internal Coordinate Flexible Fitting is three orders of magnitude faster than the most comparable existing method.

Flores, Samuel Coulbourn

2014-01-01

88

Calibrating estimates of M and K dwarf metallicities using molecular indices from low resolution spectra.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report progress in the calibration of a method to determine metallicity of cool dwarf stars (M and K) using molecular indices measured with low resolution spectra. We have used equivalent width analysis with high resolution (? / ? ? = 33,000) spectra to calculate Fe and Ti abundances for 40 M and K dwarfs with temperatures between 3120 and 4670 K, and -2.44 < [Fe/H] < +0.30. These calculated values will be used to find how molecular indices, e.g. the TiO5 and CaH2 indices, vary with temperature and metallicity. Low mass dwarfs make up the majority of the Galaxy's baryonic mass, so understanding their compositions is important if we are to understand the chemical composition and history of our Galaxy. Because cool dwarfs are intrinsically faint, the number which appear sufficiently bright for high resolution spectra to be measured is small: a method using low resolution spectra is required if we want to find metallicities for a statistically significant number of M and K dwarfs. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Kennilworth Fund of the New York Community Trust.

Woolf, V. M.; Wallerstein, G.

2004-12-01

89

Cosmological parameters from a re-analysis of the WMAP 7 year low-resolution maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological parameters from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7 year data are re-analysed by substituting a pixel-based likelihood estimator to the one delivered publicly by the WMAP team. Our pixel-based estimator handles exactly intensity and polarization in a joint manner, allowing us to use low-resolution maps and noise covariance matrices in T, Q, U at the same resolution, which in this work is 3.6°. We describe the features and the performances of the code implementing our pixel-based likelihood estimator. We perform a battery of tests on the application of our pixel-based likelihood routine to WMAP publicly available low-resolution foreground-cleaned products, in combination with the WMAP high-? likelihood, reporting the differences on cosmological parameters evaluated by the full WMAP likelihood public package. The differences are not only due to the treatment of polarization, but also to the marginalization over monopole and dipole uncertainties present in the WMAP pixel likelihood code for temperature. The credible central value for the cosmological parameters change below the 1? level with respect to the evaluation by the full WMAP 7 year likelihood code, with the largest difference in a shift to smaller values of the scalar spectral index nS.

Finelli, F.; De Rosa, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Paoletti, D.

2013-06-01

90

Impact of uncertainties in the horizontal density gradient upon low resolution global ocean modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, it is shown (i) that, as a result of the nonlinearity of the seawater equation of state, unresolved scales represent a major source of uncertainties in the computation of the large-scale horizontal density gradient from the large-scale temperature and salinity fields, and (ii) that the effect of these uncertainties can be simulated using random processes to represent unresolved temperature and salinity fluctuations. The results of experiments performed with a low resolution global ocean model show that this parameterization has a considerable effect on the average large-scale circulation of the ocean, especially in the regions of intense mesoscale activity. The large-scale flow is less geostrophic, with more intense associated vertical velocities, and the average geographical position of the main temperature and salinity fronts is more consistent with observations. In particular, the simulations suggest that the stochastic effect of the unresolved temperature and salinity fluctuations on the large-scale density field may be sufficient to explain why the Gulf Stream pathway systematically overshoots in non-stochastic low resolution ocean models.

Brankart, Jean-Michel

2013-06-01

91

Low-resolution vehicle tracking using dense and reduced local gradient features maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel method to quickly detect and track objects of low resolution within an image frame by comparing dense, oriented gradient features at multiple scales within an object chip. The proposed method uses vector correlation between sets of oriented Haar filter responses from within a local window and an object library to create similarity measures, where peaks indicate high object probability. Interest points are chosen based on object shape and size so that each point represents both a distinct spatial location and the shape segment of the object. Each interest point is then independently searched in subsequent frames, where multiple similarity maps are fused to create a single object probability map. This method executes in real time by reducing feature calculations and approximations using box filters and integral images. We achieve invariance to rotation and illumination, because we calculate interest point orientation and normalize the feature vector scale. The method creates a feature set from a small and localized area, allowing for accurate detections in low resolution scenarios. This approach can also be extended to include the detection of partially occluded objects through calculating individual interest point feature vector correlations and clustering points together. We have tested the method on a subset of the Columbus Large Image Format (CLIF) 2007 dataset, which provides various low-pixel-on-object moving and stationary vehicles with varying operating conditions. This method provides accurate results with minimal parameter tuning for robust implementation on aerial, low pixel-on-object data sets for automated classification applications.

Dessauer, Michael P.; Dua, Sumeet

2010-04-01

92

Fast fitting to low resolution density maps: elucidating large-scale motions of the ribosome.  

PubMed

Determining the conformational rearrangements of large macromolecules is challenging experimentally and computationally. Case in point is the ribosome; it has been observed by high-resolution crystallography in several states, but many others are known only from low-resolution methods including cryo-electron microscopy. Combining these data into dynamical trajectories that may aid understanding of its largest-scale conformational changes has so far remained out of reach of computational methods. Most existing methods either model all atoms explicitly, resulting in often prohibitive cost, or use approximations that lose interesting structural and dynamical detail. In this work, I introduce Internal Coordinate Flexible Fitting, which uses full atomic forces and flexibility in limited regions of a model, capturing extensive conformational rearrangements at low cost. I use it to turn multiple low-resolution density maps, crystallographic structures and biochemical information into unified all-atoms trajectories of ribosomal translocation. Internal Coordinate Flexible Fitting is three orders of magnitude faster than the most comparable existing method. PMID:24081579

Flores, Samuel Coulbourn

2014-01-01

93

Low-resolution airplane detection for satellite images using local edge distribution and modulated filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subject to limited resolution for targets in many satellite images, low-resolution airplane detection is still difficult and challenging, which plays an important role in remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a new method to detect lowresolution airplanes in satellite images. First, the image is preprocessed by combing the unsharp contrast enhancement (UCE) filtered image and the original image. Second, the Local Edge Distribution (LED), which is susceptible to objects owning clustered edges, e.g., airplane, is calculated to acquire the target candidate regions while restraining large background area. Then, a multi-scale fused gradient feature image is computed to characterize the shapes of targets instead of the original image to overcome the influence from the self-shadow and different coating colors of airplanes. After that, a designed airplane shape filter with a modulated item is used to detect and locate real targets, in which the modulated item can effectively measure the degree of coincidence between the patch region and the airplane shape. Finally, coordinates of target centers are computed in the filtered image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and robust for detecting low-resolution airplanes in satellite images under various complex backgrounds.

Qi, Shengxiang; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Yadong; Yu, Wei; Yan, Fei; Tian, Jinwen

2013-10-01

94

Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

Gardner, Robin P.; Ai, Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

2011-10-01

95

[The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].  

PubMed

The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

2014-02-01

96

Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes.  

PubMed

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown. PMID:24289416

Rabaza, O; Jelinek, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cunniffe, R; Zeman, J; Hudec, R; Sabau-Graziati, L; Ruedas-Sánchez, J

2013-11-01

97

Vulcan - A low-resolution spectrophotometer for measuring the integrated colors of galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in fiber optics, holographic gratings, and blue CCD sensitivity have been combined to develop a low-resolution spectrophotometer. Combining the principles of aperture photometry and spectroscopy, this device is designed specifically to measure the light from galaxies with low contrast to the sky brightness (i.e., low surface brightness galaxies). The instrument consists of two large apertures (up to several arcmin) with fast-field lens for imaging the entrance pupil onto a fiber-optics cable. The circular configuration for the input end of the fiber cable is modified to a rectangular slit at the output end. The output is then imaged onto a concave holographic grating producing a spectrum from 3200 A to 7600 A with a resolution of 140 A. The main purpose of this instrument is to obtain narrow-band optical colors for low surface brightness galaxies, which can then be applied to the study of stellar populations in these galaxies. 11 refs.

Rakos, K.D.; Weiss, W.W.; Mueller, S.; Pressberger, R.; Wachtler, P. (Wien Universitaet, Vienna (Austria))

1990-06-01

98

The Low Resolution Spectrum of Selected B[e] Stars with Warm Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the low resolution optical spectrum of several B[e] stars collected at the Loiano and Asiago Observatories within the observing campaign for hot star candidates with warm dust envelopes: IRAS 00470+6429, IRAS 01441+6026 (V 832 Cas) IRAS 06071+2925, IRAS 06070--0938 (AS 119), IRAS 07080+0605 (HBHA 717--01), IRAS 03421+2935 (MWC 728), IRAS 06259--1301 (HD 45677), and the suspected B[e] star V439 Cyg. We also observed the IRAS objects (not described here): 17449+2320, 17200-1355, 18316--0028, 19156-0935, 19587-2257, 20017+3227, and 20134+2712.

Polcaro, V. F.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Bernabei, S.; Viotti, R. F.; Rossi, C.; Norci, L.

2006-12-01

99

Adhesion Control in Low-Speed Region with Considering Low-Resolution Pulse Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the proposed adhesion control methods with sensors, the wheel speed is required for the tractive force estimation.However, in the railway field, the pulse generator (PG) used forthe wheel speed measurement is attached on the main motor and with only 60 pulse-per-revolution (ppr).Therefore, when the train is in the low-speed region, the speed value cannot be obtained in each control period.To solve this problem, the adhesion control in low-speed region with considering the low-resolution PG is proposed in this paper.In this control method, a disturbance-instantaneous-speed observer is designedto (1) estimate the instantaneous wheel speed from the motor torque and the corrected tractive torque, (2) correct the estimated tractive torque when the real speed signalis measured from PG.The simulation and experiment verification results of the effectiveness of the proposed adhesion control with the instantaneous wheel speed estimation are reported.

Cao, Meifen; Takeuchi, Keiichi; Furuya, Takemasa; Kawamura, Atsuo

100

Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes  

SciTech Connect

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

Rabaza, O., E-mail: ovidio@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)] [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain) [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Department of Systems and Automatic Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Zeman, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic) [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Sabau-Graziati, L. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)] [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)

2013-11-15

101

A model-based approach for detection of objects in low resolution passive millimeter wave images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model-based vision system to assist the pilots in landing maneuvers under restricted visibility conditions is described. The system was designed to analyze image sequences obtained from a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) imaging system mounted on the aircraft to delineate runways/taxiways, buildings, and other objects on or near runways. PMMW sensors have good response in a foggy atmosphere, but their spatial resolution is very low. However, additional data such as airport model and approximate position and orientation of aircraft are available. These data are exploited to guide our model-based system to locate objects in the low resolution image and generate warning signals to alert the pilots. Also analytical expressions were derived from the accuracy of the camera position estimate obtained by detecting the position of known objects in the image.

Kasturi, Rangachar; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva

1993-01-01

102

Distinguishing fissions of ^239Pu and ^235U with low-resolution detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ^239Pu and ^235U undergo thermal neutron-induced fission, both produce significant numbers of ?-delayed gamma rays with energies in the several MeV range. Experiments using high energy-resolution germanium detectorsootnotetextR. E. Marrs et al., Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A (in press). have shown that it is possible to distinguish the fission of ^239Pu from that of ^235U. Using differences in the temporal behavior and in the shapes of the gamma-ray energy spectra, we show that these two isotopes can also be differentiated using low-resolution plastic or liquid scintillators. It is likely this method could be extended to homeland security applications, such as screening of cargo containers for ^235U and ^239Pu, using a neutron source and such scintillators.

Swanberg, E.; Norman, E. B.; Prussin, S. G.; Shugart, H.; Browne, E.

2008-10-01

103

Improved protein surface comparison and application to low-resolution protein structure data  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advancements of experimental techniques for determining protein tertiary structures raise significant challenges for protein bioinformatics. With the number of known structures of unknown function expanding at a rapid pace, an urgent task is to provide reliable clues to their biological function on a large scale. Conventional approaches for structure comparison are not suitable for a real-time database search due to their slow speed. Moreover, a new challenge has arisen from recent techniques such as electron microscopy (EM), which provide low-resolution structure data. Previously, we have introduced a method for protein surface shape representation using the 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZDs). The 3DZD enables fast structure database searches, taking advantage of its rotation invariance and compact representation. The search results of protein surface represented with the 3DZD has showngood agreement with the existing structure classifications, but some discrepancies were also observed. Results The three new surface representations of backbone atoms, originally devised all-atom-surface representation, and the combination of all-atom surface with the backbone representation are examined. All representations are encoded with the 3DZD. Also, we have investigated the applicability of the 3DZD for searching protein EM density maps of varying resolutions. The surface representations are evaluated on structure retrieval using two existing classifications, SCOP and the CE-based classification. Conclusions Overall, the 3DZDs representing backbone atoms show better retrieval performance than the original all-atom surface representation. The performance further improved when the two representations are combined. Moreover, we observed that the 3DZD is also powerful in comparing low-resolution structures obtained by electron microscopy.

2010-01-01

104

Low-resolution spectroscopy and spectral energy distributions of selected sources towards ? Orionis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We study in detail nine sources in the direction of the young ? Orionis cluster, which is considered to be a unique site for studying stellar and substellar formation. The nine sources were selected because of their peculiar properties, such as extremely-red infrared colours or excessively strong H? emission for their blue optical colours. Methods: We acquired high-quality, low-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 500) of the nine targets with ALFOSC at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We also re-analysed [24]-band photometry from MIPS/Spitzer and compiled the highest quality photometric dataset available at the V i J H Ks passbands and the four IRAC/Spitzer channels, for constructing accurate spectral energy distributions between 0.55 and 24 ?m. Results: The nine targets were classified into: one Herbig Ae/Be star with a scattering edge-on disc; two G-type stars; one X-ray flaring, early-M, young star with chromospheric H? emission; one very low-mass, accreting, young spectroscopic binary; two young objects at the brown-dwarf boundary with the characteristics of classical T Tauri stars; and two emission-line galaxies, one undergoing star formation, and another whose spectral energy distribution is dominated by an active galactic nucleus. We also discovered three infrared sources associated with overdensities in a cold cloud of the cluster centre. Conclusions: Low-resolution spectroscopy and spectral energy distributions are a vital tool for measuring the physical properties and evolution of young stars and candidates in the ? Orionis cluster.

Caballero, J. A.; Valdivielso, L.; Martín, E. L.; Montes, D.; Pascual, S.; Pérez-González, P. G.

2008-11-01

105

Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?  

PubMed

The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research. PMID:18584309

Ravid, Rivka

2008-09-01

106

Near-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy of Pleiades L-type brown dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The fundamental properties of brown dwarfs evolve with age. Models describing the evolution of luminosities and effective temperatures, among other physical parameters, can be empirically constrained using brown dwarfs of various masses in star clusters of well-determined age and metallicity. Aims: We aim to carry out a spectroscopic and photometric characterization of low-mass brown dwarfs in the ~120 Myr old Pleiades open cluster. Methods: We obtained low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of the J = 17.4-18.8 mag candidate L-type brown dwarfs PLIZ 28 and 35, BRB 17, 21, 23, and 29, which are Pleiades members by photometry and proper motion. We also obtained spectra of the well-known J = 15.4-16.1 mag late M-type cluster members PPl 1, Teide 1, and Calar 3. Results: We find that the first six objects have early- to mid-L spectral types and confirm previously reported M-types for the three other objects. The spectra of the L0-type BRB 17 and PLIZ 28 present a triangular H-band continuum shape, indicating that this peculiar spectral feature persists until at least the age of the Pleiades. We add to our sample 36 reported M5-L0-type cluster members and collect their IC- and UKIDSS ZYJHK-band photometry. We confirm a possible interleaving of the Pleiades and field L-type sequences in the JHK absolute magnitude versus spectral type diagrams, and quantify marginally redder Pleiades J-K colours, by 0.11 ± 0.20 mag, possibly related to both reddening and youth. Using field dwarf bolometric correction - and effective temperature - spectral type relations, we obtain the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the Pleiades sample. Theoretical models reproduce the spectral sequence at M5.5-9, but appear to overestimate the luminosity or underestimate the effective temperature at L0-5. Conclusions: We classify six faint Pleiades brown dwarfs as early to mid L-type objects using low-resolution near-infrared spectra. We compare their properties to field dwarfs and theoretical models and estimate their masses to be in the range 0.025-0.035 M?.

Bihain, G.; Rebolo, R.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Caballero, J. A.

2010-09-01

107

Hunting the Parent of the Orphan Stream: Identifying Stream Members from Low-resolution Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s-1. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, ?([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

2013-02-01

108

Measuring gravitational lens time delays using low-resolution radio monitoring observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining lensing time-delay measurements requires long-term monitoring campaigns with a high enough resolution (<1 arcsec) to separate the multiple images. In the radio, a limited number of high-resolution interferometer arrays make these observations difficult to schedule. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for measuring gravitational time delays which relies on monitoring the total flux density with low-resolution but high-sensitivity radio telescopes to follow the variation of the brighter image. This is then used to trigger high-resolution observations in optimal numbers which then reveal the variation in the fainter image. We present simulations to assess the efficiency of this method together with a pilot project observing radio lens systems with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to trigger Very Large Array observations. This new method is promising for measuring time delays because it uses relatively small amounts of time on high-resolution telescopes. This will be important because instruments that have high sensitivity but limited resolution, together with an optimum usage of follow-up high-resolution observations from appropriate radio telescopes may in the future be useful for gravitational lensing time-delay measurements by means of this new method.

Gürkan, G.; Jackson, N.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Berciano Alba, A.

2014-06-01

109

LRS2: a new low-resolution spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the era of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU), the current Low-Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) will be replaced with a more capable red-optimized fiber instrument, called LRS2. This new spectrograph will be based on the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) that was designed to be easily adapted to a wide range of spectral resolutions, and wavelength ranges. The current snapshot of LRS2, fed by a 7x12 sq. arcsec fiber integral-field unit (IFU), covers 350-1100 nm, simultaneously at a fixed resolving power R~1800, with the wavelength range split into two pairs of spectrographs, one for the blue to red wavelength range (350-630 nm) and the other for the red and far-red range (630-1100 nm). These units are designated LRS2-B and LRS2-R, respectively. Only minimal modification from the base VIRUS design in gratings (for both pairs) and in the detector (for the red pair only) is required. In addition to this flexibility, the generic nature and massively replicable characteristic of the instrument can allow us to adapt the instrument to a wide range of not only telescope diameters (1 m ~ 40 m), but also observing modes (single to multiple objects). We discuss the current snapshot of the LRS2 design.

Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, Gary J.; Depoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Vattiat, Brian

2010-07-01

110

Topographic Phase Recovery from Stacked ERS Interferometry and a Low-Resolution Digital Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell arid Price [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and a seismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

111

Low resolution scanning electron microscopy of cerebellar neurons and neuroglial cells of the granular layer.  

PubMed

Teleost fishes, Arius Spixii and Salmo trout and adult Swiss albino mice have been processed with the freeze-fracture technique for SEM to explore the inner cytoplasmic and nuclear surface details of neurons and neuroglial cells. The specimens were fixed by vascular perfusion with Karnovsky fixative and 2-3 mm thick cerebellar slices were subsequently fixed by immersion in the same fixative. They were postfixed in osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, frozen in Freon 22, cooled by liquid nitrogen and fractured. After thawing in ethanol, they were critically point dried, coated with gold-palladium and viewed by SEM. The surface features of perikaryon were examined at low resolution and magnifications. The image of endoplasmic reticulum, GERL complex and chromatin were described in fractured cerebellar neurons (granule and Golgi cells). The fractured protoplasmic astrocytes displayed a characteristic glass surface appearance of cytoplasmic body and processes, which facilitated their recognition at the neuropile and perivascular region. The oligodendrocytes appeared as fusiform cells depicting a thin rim of perinuclear cytoplasm. The surface view of endoplasmic reticulum was well studied at the nuclear poles. Fine cytoplasmic beaded canaliculi appeared connecting the outer surface of nuclear envelope with the plasma membrane inner surface. The nucleus exhibited well developed peripheral heterochromatin masses forming anastomotic bands separated by vacuolar spaces. The SEM nerve and neuroglial cell fractographs were compared with similar images obtained by conventional transmission electron microscopy and freeze etching technique. PMID:6505621

Castejón, O J

1984-01-01

112

A distributed automatic target recognition system using multiple low resolution sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system which uses swarming techniques to perform high accuracy Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a distributed manner. The proposed system can co-operatively share the information from low-resolution images of different looks and use this information to perform high accuracy ATR. An advanced, multiple-agent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems-based approach is proposed which integrates the processing capabilities, combines detection reporting with live video exchange, and swarm behavior modalities that dramatically surpass individual sensor system performance levels. We employ real-time block-based motion analysis and compensation scheme for efficient estimation and correction of camera jitter, global motion of the camera/scene and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Our optimized Partition Weighted Sum (PWS) approach requires only bitshifts and additions, yet achieves a stunning 16X pixel resolution enhancement, which is moreover parallizable. We develop advanced, adaptive particle-filtering based algorithms to robustly track multiple mobile targets by adaptively changing the appearance model of the selected targets. The collaborative ATR system utilizes the homographies between the sensors induced by the ground plane to overlap the local observation with the received images from other UAVs. The motion of the UAVs distorts estimated homography frame to frame. A robust dynamic homography estimation algorithm is proposed to address this, by using the homography decomposition and the ground plane surface estimation.

Yue, Zhanfeng; Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Topiwala, Pankaj

2008-05-01

113

High-resolution land cover classification using low resolution global data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion approach is described that combines texture features from high-resolution panchromatic imagery with land cover statistics derived from co-registered low-resolution global databases to obtain high-resolution land cover maps. The method does not require training data or any human intervention. We use an MxN Gabor filter bank consisting of M=16 oriented bandpass filters (0-180°) at N resolutions (3-24 meters/pixel). The size range of these spatial filters is consistent with the typical scale of manmade objects and patterns of cultural activity in imagery. Clustering reduces the complexity of the data by combining pixels that have similar texture into clusters (regions). Texture classification assigns a vector of class likelihoods to each cluster based on its textural properties. Classification is unsupervised and accomplished using a bank of texture anomaly detectors. Class likelihoods are modulated by land cover statistics derived from lower resolution global data over the scene. Preliminary results from a number of Quickbird scenes show our approach is able to classify general land cover features such as roads, built up area, forests, open areas, and bodies of water over a wide range of scenes.

Carlotto, Mark J.

2013-05-01

114

Hemispherical power asymmetries in the WMAP 7-year low-resolution temperature and polarization maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the hemispherical power asymmetry of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7-year low-resolution temperature and polarization maps. We consider two natural estimators for such an asymmetry and exploit our implementation of an optimal angular power spectrum estimator for all the six cosmic microwave background spectra. By scanning the whole sky through a sample of 24 directions, we search for asymmetries in the power spectra of the two hemispheres, comparing the results with Monte Carlo simulations drawn from the WMAP 7-year best-fitting model. Our analysis extends previous results to the polarization sector. The level of asymmetry on the internal linear combination temperature map is found to be compatible with previous results, whereas no significant asymmetry on the polarized spectra is detected. We show that our results are only weakly affected by the a posteriori choice of the maximum multipole considered for the analysis. We also forecast the capability to detect dipole modulation by our methodology at Planck sensitivity.

Paci, F.; Gruppuso, A.; Finelli, F.; De Rosa, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.

2013-10-01

115

Sub-millimeter fMRI at 1.5 Tesla: correlation of high resolution with low resolution measurements.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the visual cortex with an in-plane resolution of 0.4 x 0.4 mm2 was performed using a simple visual stimulus resulting in clear maps of activation. A collapsing filter was used to compare these high-resolution images with low-resolution images collected during the same session. A good correspondence between the high- and low-resolution functional maps was found with respect to the center of localization of activation. However, only 20% of the size of activated areas in the low-resolution experiment was observed at high resolution, which was partly caused by the difference in signal-to-noise ratio. The high-resolution images produce signal changes much higher than the low-resolution images due to reduced partial volume effects. Additionally, the high-resolution functional maps were compared with detailed anatomical and venous information. The activated areas were predominantly observed at venous vessels within the sulci with a diameter on the order of the pixel size. PMID:10194720

Hoogenraad, F G; Hofman, M B; Pouwels, P J; Reichenbach, J R; Rombouts, S A; Haacke, E M

1999-03-01

116

Low-resolution structure and fluorescence anisotropy analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase eta catalytic domain.  

PubMed

The rat protein tyrosine phosphatase eta, rPTPeta, is a class I "classical" transmembrane RPTP, with an intracellular portion composed of a unique catalytic region. The rPTPeta and the human homolog DEP-1 are downregulated in rat and human neoplastic cells, respectively. However, the malignant phenotype is reverted after exogenous reconstitution of rPTPeta, suggesting that its function restoration could be an important tool for gene therapy of human cancers. Using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and biophysical techniques, we characterized the intracellular catalytic domain of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase eta (rPTPetaCD) in solution. The protein forms dimers in solution as confirmed by SAXS data analysis. The SAXS data also indicated that rPTPetaCD dimers are elongated and have an average radius of gyration of 2.65 nm and a D(max) of 8.5 nm. To further study the rPTPetaCD conformation in solution, we built rPTPetaCD homology models using as scaffolds the crystallographic structures of RPTPalpha-D1 and RPTPmicro-D1 dimers. These models were, then, superimposed onto ab initio low-resolution SAXS structures. The structural comparisons and sequence alignment analysis of the putative dimerization interfaces provide support to the notion that the rPTPetaCD dimer architecture is more closely related to the crystal structure of autoinhibitory RPTPalpha-D1 dimer than to the dimeric arrangement exemplified by RPTPmicro-D1. Finally, the characterization of rPTPetaCD by fluorescence anisotropy measurements demonstrates that the dimer dissociation is concentration dependent with a dissociation constant of 21.6 +/- 2.0 microM. PMID:17400699

Matozo, Huita C; Santos, Maria A M; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Bleicher, Lucas; Lima, Luís Mauricio T R; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Polikarpov, Igor

2007-06-15

117

HETDEX: Developing the HET's Second Generation Low Resolution Spectrograph for Probing Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HETDEX will map the power spectrum of 0.8 million blindly discovered Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAE) using a revolutionary new array of massively replicated fiber-fed spectrographs dubbed the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). In the era of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade and VIRUS, the current Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) must be replaced with a fiber instrument. We discuss the development of the second generation LRS (LRS2), which is a multi-channel instrument based on the VIRUS design. In its current design phase, it is fed by a 287 fiber microlens coupled integral field unit that covers 7” x 12” with 0.62” resolution. The instrument covers 3720 Å to 4700 Å at R ? 1900 and 4600 Å to 7000 Å at R ?1200. With the purpose of making the instrument ideal for follow-up observations of LAE in the HETDEX survey, we discuss the science drivers for selecting the instrument's spectral resolution. We test the utility of the instrument and pilot a future study with LRS2 by presenting R ? 2000 spectra taken with the VIRUS prototype spectrograph (VIRUS-P) in a high-resolution mode at the McDonald Observatory Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope. These LAE were originally discovered in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and their Lyman-alpha line profiles are constrained by near-infrared observations of rest-frame optical emission lines that set the systemic redshift of the galaxies. We discuss the velocity offsets of the Lyman-alpha line from the systemic line center and compare the line profiles to theoretical predictions and to similar observations for Lyman-break galaxies. Our observations provide an example of how LRS2 can be used to probe Lyman-alpha emission in 2 < z < 3 star forming galaxies.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, G. J.; Lee, H.; Tuttle, S. E.; Vattiat, B. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Adams, J. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

118

Low Resolution Spectral Templates For AGNs and Galaxies From 0.03 -- 30 microns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a set of low resolution empirical SED templates for AGNs and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 to 30 microns based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Bootes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14448 galaxies in the redshift range 0<~z<~1 and 5347 likely AGNs in the range 0<~z<~5.58. We use our templates to determine photometric redshifts for galaxies and AGNs. While they are relatively accurate for galaxies, their accuracies for AGNs are a strong function of the luminosity ratio between the AGN and galaxy components. Somewhat surprisingly, the relative luminosities of the AGN and its host are well determined even when the photometric redshift is significantly in error. We also use our templates to study the mid-IR AGN selection criteria developed by Stern et al.(2005) and Lacy et al.(2004). We find that the Stern et al.(2005) criteria suffers from significant incompleteness when there is a strong host galaxy component and at z =~ 4.5, when the broad Halpha emission line is redshifted into the [3.6] band, but that it is little contaminated by low and intermediate redshift galaxies. The Lacy et al.(2004) criterion is not affected by incompleteness at z =~ 4.5 and is somewhat less affected by strong galaxy host components, but is heavily contaminated by low redshift star forming galaxies. Finally, we use our templates to predict the color-color distribution of sources in the upcoming WISE mission and define a color criterion to select AGNs analogous to those developed for IRAC photometry. We estimate that in between 640,000 and 1,700,000 AGNs will be identified by these criteria, but will have serious completeness problems for z >~ 3.4.

Assef, R. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brodwin, M.; Cool, R.; Forman, W.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hickox, R. C.; Jones, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Moustakas, J.; Murray, S. S.; Stern, D.

2010-10-01

119

Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two bodies in the Solar System exhibit high-temperature active volcanism: Earth and Io. While there are important differences in the eruptions on Earth and Io, in low-spatial-resolution data (corresponding to the bulk of available and foreseeable data of Io), similar styles of effusive and explosive volcanism yield similar thermal flux densities. For example, a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Io looks very similar to a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Earth. If, from observed thermal emission as a function of wavelength and change in thermal emission with time, the eruption style of an ionian volcano can be constrained, estimates of volumetric fluxes can be made and compared with terrestrial volcanoes using techniques derived for analysing terrestrial remotely-sensed data. In this way we find that ionian volcanoes fundamentally differ from their terrestrial counterparts only in areal extent, with Io volcanoes covering larger areas, with higher volumetric flux. Io outbursts eruptions have enormous implied volumetric fluxes, and may scale with terrestrial flood basalt eruptions. Even with the low-spatial resolution data available it is possible to sometimes constrain and classify eruption style both on Io and Earth from the integrated thermal emission spectrum. Plotting 2 and 5 m fluxes reveals the evolution of individual eruptions of different styles, as well as the relative intensity of eruptions, allowing comparison to be made from individual eruptions on both planets. Analyses like this can be used for interpretation of low-resolution data until the next mission to the jovian system. For a number of Io volcanoes (including Pele, Prometheus, Amirani, Zamama, Culann, Tohil and Tvashtar) we do have high/moderate resolution imagery to aid determination of eruption mode from analyses based only on low spatial-resolution data.

Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

2005-01-01

120

The scientifically substantiated art of teaching: A study in the development of standards in the new academic field of neuroeducation (mind, brain, and education science)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts from neuroeducation, commonly referred in the popular press as "brain-based learning," have been applied indiscreetly and inconsistently to classroom teaching practices for many years. While standards exist in neurology, psychology and pedagogy, there are no agreed upon standards in their intersection, neuroeducation, and a formal bridge linking the fields is missing. This study used grounded theory development to determine the parameters of the emerging neuroeducational field based on a meta-analysis of the literature over the past 30 years, which included over 2,200 documents. This research results in a new model for neuroeducation. The design of the new model was followed by a Delphi survey of 20 international experts from six different countries that further refined the model contents over several months of reflection. Finally, the revised model was compared to existing information sources, including popular press, peer review journals, academic publications, teacher training textbooks and the Internet, to determine to what extent standards in neuroeducation are met in the current literature. This study determined that standards in the emerging field, now labeled Mind, Brain, and Education: The Science of Teaching and Learning after the Delphi rounds, are the union of standards in the parent fields of neuroscience, psychology, and education. Additionally, the Delphi expert panel agreed upon the goals of the new discipline, its history, the thought leaders, and a model for judging quality information. The study culminated in a new model of the academic discipline of Mind, Brain, and Education science, which explains the tenets, principles and instructional guidelines supported by the meta-analysis of the literature and the Delphi response.

Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey Noel

121

Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) can be estimated using Energy Balance models and remotely sensed data. In particular, satellite images acquired in visible, near and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum have been used with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to estimate actual evapotranspiration. This algorithm is solving the Energy Balance Equation using data from a meteorological station present in the vicinity, and assumes the meteorological conditions homogeneous over the study area. Most often, data from a representative weather station are used. This assumption may lead to substantial errors in areas with high spatial variability in weather parameters. In this paper, the ITA-MyWater algorithms (Integrated Thermodynamic Algorithms for MyWater project), an adaptation of SEBAL was merged together with spatially distributed meteorological data to increase the accuracy of ETa estimations at regional scale using MODIS satellite images. The major changes introduced to migrate from point to raster are that (i) air temperature and relative humidity maps are used for the estimation of the Energy Balance terms, including instantaneous net radiation and soil heat flux and (ii) the variability of wind speed is taken into account to generate maps of the aerodynamic resistance, sensible heat flux and difference between soil and air temperature at the boundary conditions (at dry and wet pixels). The approach was applied in the river basin of Tamega in Portugal, where actual evapotranspiration was estimated for several MODIS 8-day periods from spring to winter of the same year. The raster meteorological maps were produced by the MM5 weather forecast model. Daily reference evapotranspiration was calculated with MOHID LAND model. Using a temporal integration technique and the daily reference evapotranspiration maps, the cumulative evapotranspiration over the MODIS 8-day period was estimated and compared to the global evapotranspiration MODIS product (MOD16A2). A correlation analysis was performed at the common spatial resolution of 1km using selected homogeneous pixels (from the land cover point of view). A statistically significant correlation factor of 0.6 was found, and the RMSE was 0.92 mm/day. Using raster meteorological data the ITA-MyWater algorithms were able to catch the variability of weather patterns over the river basin and thus improved the spatial distribution of evapotranpiration estimations at low resolution. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio

2013-04-01

122

IUE low-resolution observations of the triple system CHCygni: the mass transfer in the symbiotic pair  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyse UV low-resolution spectra of CHCyg taken during the whole period of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) mission. Our analysis of the variation in the UV\\/optical hot star continuum confirmed the basic scenario of sporadic accretion in the symbiotic pair of the triple-star system as being responsible for maintaining its activity. During active phases, the hot continuum

A. Skopal; M. F. Bode; H. M. Lloyd; H. Drechsel

1998-01-01

123

One dimensional cross-range imaging and methods to improve the resolution of low resolution radar targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One dimensional (1D) images can be used to characterize the major features of the target and serve for the purpose of automatic target recognition (ATR). For conventional low resolution radar, 1D range profiles cannot be measured, but 1D cross-range images can be obtained by processing a sequence of radar echoes. There have been few papers in the literature discussing how

Xing Mengdao; Bao Zheng

2000-01-01

124

A Convenient Low-Resolution NMR Method for the Determination of the Molecular Weight of Soybean Oil-Based Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

By studying a series of soybean oil-based polymers, using low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, an easy method to estimate molecular weight (MW) was developed. The relationship between a polymer's MW and the instrument's response can be correlated in a linear relationship. Correlation constants (R2) of 0.988, when data were taken at ?10°C, and 0.999, when the study was done

Kenneth M. Doll

2009-01-01

125

Measurement of carbon monoxide in combustion emissions with a low-pressure sampling system and low-resolution mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method has been developed for the real-time measurement of CO emissions from the combustion of carbonaceous fuels. This method employs a rapid-flow, low-pressure sampling system including a liquid-nitrogen-cooled cryogenic trap and a platinum oxidation catalyst. A low-resolution mass spectrometer is used for detection. At a 30 torr sample stream pressure, COâ, water, and essentially all other combustion products

Larry P. Haack; James W. Butler; Alex D. Colvin

1982-01-01

126

Assessment of super-resolution for face recognition from very-low resolution images in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super-Resolution (SR) involves the registration of multiple images\\/frames and reconstruction of a single higher resolution image. The goal of this research is to use multiple, very-low resolution images, such as those produced from a video sequence in a wireless sensor network system, as input to the super-resolution process in a face recognition system. The algorithm used for face recognition is

James R. Roeder; Sergio D. Cabrera

2009-01-01

127

Use of knowledge-based restraints in phenix.refine to improve macromolecular refinement at low resolution  

PubMed Central

Traditional methods for macromolecular refinement often have limited success at low resolution (3.0–3.5?Å or worse), producing models that score poorly on crystallographic and geometric validation criteria. To improve low-resolution refinement, knowledge from macromolecular chemistry and homology was used to add three new coordinate-restraint functions to the refinement program phenix.refine. Firstly, a ‘reference-model’ method uses an identical or homologous higher resolution model to add restraints on torsion angles to the geometric target function. Secondly, automatic restraints for common secondary-structure elements in proteins and nucleic acids were implemented that can help to preserve the secondary-structure geometry, which is often distorted at low resolution. Lastly, we have implemented Ramachandran-based restraints on the backbone torsion angles. In this method, a ?,? term is added to the geometric target function to minimize a modified Ramachandran landscape that smoothly combines favorable peaks identified from non­redundant high-quality data with unfavorable peaks calculated using a clash-based pseudo-energy function. All three methods show improved MolProbity validation statistics, typically complemented by a lowered R free and a decreased gap between R work and R free.

Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Chen, Vincent B.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Adams, Paul D.

2012-01-01

128

Semi-automated 3D segmentation of major tracts in the rat brain: comparing DTI with standard histological methods.  

PubMed

Researchers working with rodent models of neurological disease often require an accurate map of the anatomical organization of the white matter of the rodent brain. With the increasing popularity of small animal MRI techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), there is considerable interest in rapid segmentation methods of neurological structures for quantitative comparisons. DTI-derived tractography allows simple and rapid segmentation of major white matter tracts, but the anatomic accuracy of these computer-generated fibers is open to question and has not been rigorously evaluated in the rat brain. In this study, we examine the anatomic accuracy of tractography-based segmentation in the adult rat brain. We analysed 12 major white matter pathways using semi-automated tractography-based segmentation alongside manual segmentation of Gallyas silver-stained histology sections. We applied four fiber-tracking algorithms to the DTI data-two integration methods and two deflection methods. In many cases, tractography-based segmentation closely matched histology-based segmentation; however different tractography algorithms produced dramatically different results. Results suggest that certain white matter pathways are more amenable to tractography-based segmentation than others. We believe that these data will help researchers decide whether it is appropriate to use tractography-based segmentation of white matter structures for quantitative DTI-based analysis of neurologic disease models. PMID:23455647

Gyengesi, Erika; Calabrese, Evan; Sherrier, Matthew C; Johnson, G Allan; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

2014-03-01

129

Monitoring environmental change in the Andes based on low resolution time series analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental change is an important issue in the Andes region and it is unknown to what extent the ongoing processes are a consequence of human impact and/or climate change. The objectives of this research are to study vegetation dynamics in the Andes region based on time series analysis of SPOT-Vegetation, NOAA-AVHRR and MODIS derived NDVI at low spatial but high temporal resolution, and to recognize to which extent this variability can be attributed to either climatic variability or human induced impacts through assimilation of satellite derived NDVI and rainfall data. Monthly rainfall estimates were available from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) through MeteoConsult and the Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS (MARS) unit. Deviations from the 'average' situation were calculated for the NDVI time series using the Standardized Difference Vegetation Index (SDVI) and for the precipitation time series using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Correlation analysis between NDVI and SPI is performed in order to identify the temporal scale at which the environment is most sensitive to precipitation anomalies (best lag). Trends in SDVI and SPI are investigated using least square regression, taking into account the accumulated rainfall anomalies over the best lag. Hot spots of human induced environmental change are detected by subtraction of the precipitation induced signal on vegetation dynamics. The model can be used to predict possible effects of climate change in areas most sensible to trends in precipitation.

Tote, C.; Swinnen, E.; Beringhs, K.; Govers, G.

2012-04-01

130

The low-resolution imaging spectrograph red channel CCD upgrade: fully depleted, high-resistivity CCDs for Keck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mosaic of two 2k x 4k fully depleted, high resistivity CCD detectors was installed in the red channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph for the Keck-I Telescope in June, 2009 replacing a monolithic Tektronix/SITe 2k x 2k CCD. These CCDs were fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and packaged and characterized by UCO/Lick Observatory. Major goals of the detector upgrade were increased throughput and reduced interference fringing at wavelengths beyond 800 nm, as well as improvements in the maintainability and serviceability of the instrument. We report on the main features of the design, the results of optimizing detector performance during integration and testing, as well as the throughput, sensitivity and performance of the instrument as characterized during commissioning.

Rockosi, C.; Stover, R.; Kibrick, R.; Lockwood, C.; Peck, M.; Cowley, D.; Bolte, M.; Adkins, S.; Alcott, B.; Allen, S. L.; Brown, B.; Cabak, G.; Deich, W.,; Hilyard, D.,; Kassis, M.,; Lanclos, K.,; Lewis, J.,; Pfister, T.,; Phillips, A.,; Robinson, L.,; Saylor, M.,; Thompson, M.,; Ward, J.,; Wei, M.,; Wright, C.,

2010-07-01

131

Improving identification accuracy on low resolution and poor quality iris images using an artificial neural network-based matching metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iris is currently believed to be one of the most accurate biometrics for human identification. The majority of fielded iris identification systems use fractional Hamming distance to compare a new feature template to a stored database. Fractional Hamming distance is extremely fast, but mathematically weights all regions of the iris equally. Research has shown that different regions of the iris contain varying levels of discriminatory information when using circular boundary assumptions. This research evaluates four statistical metrics for accuracy improvements on low resolution and poor quality images. Each metric statistically weights iris regions in an attempt to use the iris information in a more intelligent manner. A similarity metric extracted from the output stage of an artificial neural network demonstrated the most promise. Experiments were performed using occluded, subsampled, and motion blurred images from the CASIA, University of Bath, and ICE 2005 databases. The neural network-based metric improved accuracy at nearly every operating point.

Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

2011-01-01

132

A model-based approach for detection of objects in low resolution passive-millimeter wave images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a model-based vision system to assist pilots in landing maneuvers under restricted visibility conditions. The system was designed to analyze image sequences obtained from a Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) imaging system mounted on the aircraft to delineate runways/taxiways, buildings, and other objects on or near runways. PMMW sensors have good response in a foggy atmosphere; but, their spatial resolution is very low. However, additional data such as airport model and approximate position and orientation of aircraft are available. We exploit these data to guide our model-based system to locate objects in the low resolution image and generate warning signals to alert the pilots. We also derive analytical expressions for the accuracy of the camera position estimate obtained by detecting the position of known objects in the image.

Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Kasturi, Rangachar; Harris, Randall L., Sr.

1993-01-01

133

LORES: Low resolution shape program for the calculation of small angle scattering profiles for biological macromolecules in solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program for determining the low resolution shape of biological macromolecules, based on the optimization of a small angle neutron scattering profile to experimental data, is presented. This program, termed LORES, relies on a Monte Carlo optimization procedure and will allow for multiple scattering length densities of complex structures. It is therefore more versatile than utilizing a form factor approach to produce low resolution structural models. LORES is easy to compile and use, and allows for structural modeling of biological samples in real time. To illustrate the effectiveness and versatility of the program, we present four specific biological examples, Apoferritin (shell model), Ribonuclease S (ellipsoidal model), a 10-mer dsDNA (duplex helix) and a construct of a 10-mer DNA/PNA duplex helix (heterogeneous structure). These examples are taken from protein and nucleic acid SANS studies, of both large and small scale structures. We find, in general, that our program will accurately reproduce the geometric shape of a given macromolecule, when compared with the known crystallographic structures. We also present results to illustrate the lower limit of the experimental resolution which the LORES program is capable of modeling. Program summaryTitle of program:LORES Catalogue identifier: ADVC Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer:SGI Origin200, SGI Octane, SGI Linux, Intel Pentium PC Operating systems:UNIX64 6.5 and LINUX 2.4.7 Programming language used:C Memory required to execute with typical data:8 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2270 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:13 302 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MATH library

Zhou, J.; Deyhim, A.; Krueger, S.; Gregurick, S. K.

2005-08-01

134

Low Resolution Solution Structure of HAMLET and the Importance of Its Alpha-Domains in Tumoricidal Activity  

PubMed Central

HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes with broad tumoricidal activity. Elucidating the molecular structure and the domains crucial for HAMLET formation is fundamental for understanding its tumoricidal function. Here we present the low-resolution solution structure of the complex of oleic acid bound HAMLET, derived from small angle X-ray scattering data. HAMLET shows a two-domain conformation with a large globular domain and an extended part of about 2.22 nm in length and 1.29 nm width. The structure has been superimposed into the related crystallographic structure of human ?-lactalbumin, revealing that the major part of ?-lactalbumin accommodates well in the shape of HAMLET. However, the C-terminal residues from L105 to L123 of the crystal structure of the human ?-lactalbumin do not fit well into the HAMLET structure, resulting in an extended conformation in HAMLET, proposed to be required to form the tumoricidal active HAMLET complex with oleic acid. Consistent with this low resolution structure, we identified biologically active peptide epitopes in the globular as well as the extended domains of HAMLET. Peptides covering the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of the protein triggered rapid ion fluxes in the presence of sodium oleate and were internalized by tumor cells, causing rapid and sustained changes in cell morphology. The alpha peptide-oleate bound forms also triggered tumor cell death with comparable efficiency as HAMLET. In addition, shorter peptides corresponding to those domains are biologically active. These findings provide novel insights into the structural prerequisites for the dramatic effects of HAMLET on tumor cells.

Ho CS, James; Rydstrom, Anna; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Svanborg, Catharina; Gruber, Gerhard

2012-01-01

135

CT-based quantitative SPECT for the radionuclide 201Tl: experimental validation and a standardized uptake value for brain tumour patients  

PubMed Central

Abstract We have previously reported on a method for reconstructing quantitative data from 99mTc single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images based on corrections derived from X-ray computed tomography, producing accurate results in both experimental and clinical studies. This has been extended for use with the radionuclide 201Tl. Accuracy was evaluated with experimental phantom studies, including corrections for partial volume effects where necessary. The quantitative technique was used to derive standardized uptake values (SUVs) for 201Tl evaluation of brain tumours. A preliminary study was performed on 26 patients using 201Tl SPECT scans to assess residual tumour after surgery and then to monitor response to treatment, with a follow-up time of 18 months. Measures of SUVmax were made following quantitative processing of the data and using a threshold grown volume of interest around the tumour. Phantom studies resulted in the calculation of concentration values consistently within 4% of true values. No continuous relation was found between SUVmax (post-resection) and patient survival. Choosing an SUVmax cut-off of 1.5 demonstrated a difference in survival between the 2 groups of patients after surgery. Patients with an SUVmax <1.5 had a 70% survival rate over the first 10 months, compared with a 47% survival rate for those with SUVmax >1.5. This difference did not achieve significance, most likely due to the small study numbers. By 18 months follow-up this difference had reduced, with corresponding survival rates of 40% and 27%, respectively. Although this study involves only a small cohort, it has succeeded in demonstrating the possibility of an SUV measure for SPECT to help monitor response to treatment of brain tumours and predict survival.

Bailey, Dale; Schembri, Geoff; Baldock, Clive

2012-01-01

136

Low-resolution FTIR continuous monitoring/process control system to minimize HCl emissions in aluminum casting operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Department of Energy funded project, a low resolution Fourier Transform IR Continuous Emissions Monitoring (FTIR CEM) and Process Control system was developed and evaluated for use in minimizing HCl emissions during aluminum casting operations. In the casting process, molten aluminum is treated by fluxing with chlorine to remove alkali and hydrogen impurities. The industry has traditionally used a stoichiometric excess of chlorine to ensure metal quality, with resulting atmospheric emissions of HCl. The FTIR system can potentially be used to reduce emission when employed as a closed-loop process control device to monitor the HCl concentration and thereby reduce chlorine usage while maintaining product quality. In the initial project phase, tests were conducted under varying process conditions at a pilot-scale casting facility. The goals of these test included demonstrating that the FTIR monitor could provide closed-loop control of chlorine use, correlating HCl emission with metal quality, and verifying that the instrumentation could operate under harsh casting facility conditions. The system will subsequently be tested at two aluminum production facilities. This paper summarizes the results from the initial evaluation of the FTIR CEM/Process Control system.

Dunder, Thomas A.

1999-12-01

137

Expression, Purification and Low-Resolution Structure of Human Vitamin C Transporter SVCT1 (SLC23A1)  

PubMed Central

Expression and purification of human membrane proteins for structural studies represent a great challenge. This is because micro- to milligram amounts of pure isolated protein are required. To this aim, we successfully expressed the human vitamin C transporter-1 (hSVCT1; SLC23A1) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and isolated highly pure protein in microgram amounts. Recombinant hSVCT1 was functional when expressed in oocytes and glycosylated. Structural analysis of purified hSVCT1 by transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis unveiled its shape, dimensions and low-resolution structure as well as the existence of a major monomeric and minor dimeric population. Chemical crosslinking of isolated oocyte membranes containing expressed hSVCT1 indicated similar oligomeric states of hSVCT1 in lipid bilayers. This work reports the first purification and structural analysis of a human SVCT protein and opens the way for future functional and structural studies using purified hSVCT1.

Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Harder, Daniel; Schneider, Philipp; Ucurum, Zohre; Hediger, Matthias; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

138

Assessment of super-resolution for face recognition from very-low resolution images in sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-Resolution (SR) involves the registration of multiple images/frames and reconstruction of a single higher resolution image. The goal of this research is to use multiple, very-low resolution images, such as those produced from a video sequence in a wireless sensor network system, as input to the super-resolution process in a face recognition system. The algorithm used for face recognition is the Fisherfaces method with a nearest neighbor classifier used for the recognition decision. Super-resolution consists of two stages, a registration stage and a reconstruction stage. Testing images were segmented using a simple skin color detection approach. After cropping they were combined into groups of four to be used for the super-resolution algorithm using faces from three people. Each group of four images was used as an input to the Keren registration algorithm where the rotational and translation information was saved that was then entered into the robust super-resolution reconstruction algorithm to create a single high quality image, which was processed by the face recognition algorithm. An average of the same groups of four was tested as well as a centroid shifted average. Comparison was based on nearest neighbor classifier and on classification rates. The results were not in favor of the super-resolution method but instead, the centroid shifted average was the best in this study.

Roeder, James R.; Cabrera, Sergio D.

2009-05-01

139

The use of EEG modifications due to motor imagery for brain-computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening of a communication channel between brain and computer [brain-computer interface (BCI)] is possible by using changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra related to the imagination of movements. In this paper, we present results obtained by recording EEG during an upper limb motor imagery task in a total of 18 subjects by using low-resolution surface Laplacian, different linear and

Febo Cincotti; Donatella Mattia; Claudio Babiloni; Filippo Carducci; Serenella Salinari; Luigi Bianchi; Maria Grazia Marciani; Fabio Babiloni

2003-01-01

140

The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the\\u000a standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire\\u000a 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients\\u000a prior to surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The

Jin-xiang Cheng; Bo-lin Liu; Xiang Zhang; Yong-qiang Zhang; Wei Lin; Rui Wang; Yong-qin Zhang; Hong-ying Zhang; Li Xie; Jun-li Huo

2011-01-01

141

Evidence-based guideline update: Determining brain death in adults: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide an update of the 1995 American Academy of Neurology guideline with regard to the following questions: Are there patients who fulfill the clinical criteria of brain death who recover neurologic function? What is an adequate observation period to ensure that cessation of neurologic function is permanent? Are complex motor movements that falsely suggest retained brain function sometimes

Eelco F. M. Wijdicks; Panayiotis N. Varelas; Gary S. Gronseth; David M. Greer

2010-01-01

142

Modern wavelength standards in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology the Atomic Spectroscopy Group has characterized several sources of wavelength standards useful for remote sensing applications. At low resolution, mercury pencil-type lamps are convenient for use either in the laboratory or the field. We recommend wavelengths for this lamp with an uncertainty of +\\/- 0.001 angstroms in the region

Joseph Reader; Craig J. Sansonetti

1999-01-01

143

Low-Resolution Spectral Templates for Active Galactic Nuclei and Galaxies from 0.03 to 30 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a set of low-resolution empirical spectral energy distribution (SED) templates for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 ?m to 30 ?m based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Boötes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14,448 galaxies in the redshift range 0 <~ z <~ 1 and 5347 likely AGNs in the range 0 <~ z <~ 5.58. The galaxy templates correspond to the SED templates presented in 2008 by Assef et al. extended into the UV and mid-IR by the addition of FUV and NUV GALEX and MIPS 24 ?m data for the field. We use our templates to determine photometric redshifts for galaxies and AGNs. While they are relatively accurate for galaxies (? z /(1 + z) = 0.04, with 5% outlier rejection), their accuracies for AGNs are a strong function of the luminosity ratio between the AGN and galaxy components. Somewhat surprisingly, the relative luminosities of the AGN and its host are well determined even when the photometric redshift is significantly in error. We also use our templates to study the mid-IR AGN selection criteria developed by Stern et al. in 2005 and Lacy et al. in 2004. We find that the Stern et al. criterion suffers from significant incompleteness when there is a strong host galaxy component and at z ~= 4.5, when the broad H? emission line is redshifted into the [3.6] band, but that it is little contaminated by low- and intermediate-redshift galaxies. The Lacy et al. criterion is not affected by incompleteness at z ~= 4.5 and is somewhat less affected by strong galaxy host components, but is heavily contaminated by low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, we use our templates to predict the color-color distribution of sources in the upcoming Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission and define a color criterion to select AGNs analogous to those developed for IRAC photometry. We estimate that in between 640,000 and 1,700,000 AGNs will be identified by these criteria, but without additional information, WISE-selected quasars will have serious completeness problems for z >~ 3.4.

Assef, R. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brodwin, M.; Cool, R.; Forman, W.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hickox, R. C.; Jones, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Moustakas, J.; Murray, S. S.; Stern, D.

2010-04-01

144

The measurement of the intrinsic impurities of molybdenum and carbon in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma using low resolution spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic impurity content of molybdenum and carbon was measured in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak using low resolution, multilayer mirror (MLM) spectroscopy ( Delta lambda ~1-10 AA). Molybdenum was the dominant high-Z impurity and originated from the molybdenum armour tiles covering all of the plasma facing surfaces (including the inner column, the poloidal divertor plates and the ion cyclotron resonant

M. J. May; M. Finkenthal; S. P. Regan; H. W. Moos; J. L. Terry; J. A. Goetz; M. A. Graf; J. E. Rice; E. S. Marmar; K. B. Fournier; W. H. Goldstein

1997-01-01

145

Displaying a high-resolution digital hologram on a low-resolution spatial light modulator with the same resolution obtained from the hologram.  

PubMed

In this paper, a fast method for displaying a digital, real and off-axis Fresnel hologram on a lower resolution device is reported. Preserving the original resolution of the hologram upon display is one of the important attributes of the proposed method. Our method can be divided into 3 stages. First, a digital hologram representing a given three dimensional (3D) object is down-sampled based on a fix, jitter down-sampling lattice. Second, the down-sampled hologram is interpolated, through pixel duplication, into a low resolution hologram that can be displayed with a low-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM). Third, the SLM is overlaid with a grating which is generated based on the same jitter down-sampling lattice that samples the hologram. The integration of the grating and the low-resolution hologram results in, to a good approximation, the resolution of the original hologram. As such, our proposed method enables digital holograms to be displayed with lower resolution SLMs, paving the way for the development of low-cost holographic video display. PMID:23938631

Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, C

2013-07-29

146

Automated brain tumor segmentation using spatial accuracy-weighted hidden Markov Random Field.  

PubMed

A variety of algorithms have been proposed for brain tumor segmentation from multi-channel sequences, however, most of them require isotropic or pseudo-isotropic resolution of the MR images. Although co-registration and interpolation of low-resolution sequences, such as T2-weighted images, onto the space of the high-resolution image, such as T1-weighted image, can be performed prior to the segmentation, the results are usually limited by partial volume effects due to interpolation of low-resolution images. To improve the quality of tumor segmentation in clinical applications where low-resolution sequences are commonly used together with high-resolution images, we propose the algorithm based on Spatial accuracy-weighted Hidden Markov random field and Expectation maximization (SHE) approach for both automated tumor and enhanced-tumor segmentation. SHE incorporates the spatial interpolation accuracy of low-resolution images into the optimization procedure of the Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) to segment tumor using multi-channel MR images with different resolutions, e.g., high-resolution T1-weighted and low-resolution T2-weighted images. In experiments, we evaluated this algorithm using a set of simulated multi-channel brain MR images with known ground-truth tissue segmentation and also applied it to a dataset of MR images obtained during clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy. The results show that more accurate tumor segmentation results can be obtained by comparing with conventional multi-channel segmentation algorithms. PMID:19446435

Nie, Jingxin; Xue, Zhong; Liu, Tianming; Young, Geoffrey S; Setayesh, Kian; Guo, Lei; Wong, Stephen T C

2009-09-01

147

Automated Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Spatial Accuracy-Weighted Hidden Markov Random Field  

PubMed Central

A variety of algorithms have been proposed for brain tumor segmentation from multi-channel sequences, however, most of them require isotropic or pseudo-isotropic resolution of the MR images. Although co-registration and interpolation of low-resolution sequences, such as T2-weighted images, onto the space of the high-resolution image, such as T1-weighted image, can be performed prior to the segmentation, the results are usually limited by partial volume effects due to interpolation of low resolution images. To improve the quality of tumor segmentation in clinical applications where low-resolution sequences are commonly used together with high-resolution images, we propose the algorithm based on Spatial accuracy-weighted Hidden Markov random field and Expectation maximization (SHE) approach for both automated tumor and enhanced-tumor segmentation. SHE incorporates the spatial interpolation accuracy of low-resolution images into the optimization procedure of the Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) to segment tumor using multi-channel MR images with different resolutions, e.g., high-resolution T1-weighted and low-resolution T2-weighted images. In experiments, we evaluated this algorithm using a set of simulated multi-channel brain MR images with known ground-truth tissue segmentation and also applied it to a dataset of MR images obtained during clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy. The results show that more accurate tumor segmentation results can be obtained by comparing with conventional multi-channel segmentation algorithms.

Nie, Jingxin; Xue, Zhong; Liu, Tianming; Young, Geoffrey; Setayesh, Kian; Guo, Lei; Wong, Stephen TC

2009-01-01

148

Brain herniation  

MedlinePLUS

... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

149

Whither brain death?  

PubMed

The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human death but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain death are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain death is equivalent to human death. Brain death remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public. PMID:25046285

Bernat, James L

2014-08-01

150

Plasma and brain levels of terpene trilactones in rats after an oral single dose of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761®.  

PubMed

Several studies indicate that the terpene trilactones (TTL) of EGb 761® are responsible for most of its pharmacological action in the brain . Therefore, we investigated the ability of the TTL to cross the blood brain barrier in rats after a single oral administration (600 mg/kg) of EGb 761® and compared it with the plasma levels. In addition, we checked the pharmacokinetic characteristics of an application of EGb 761® against a similar amount of pure substances. For this purpose, we developed a sensitive HPLC-(APCI)-MS method for the determination of the Ginkgo biloba TTL (ginkgolide A [GA], B [GB], C [GC] and bilobalide [Bb]) in plasma as well as in brain tissue. The following animal study shows that the oral application of 600 mg/kg EGb 761® results in significant GA, GB, and Bb concentrations in plasma as well as in the CNS of the rodents, while the GC concentration was below the detection limit of the analytical method in both matrices. GA, GB, and Bb brain concentrations showed a rapid increase up to 55 ng/g, 40 ng/g, and 98 ng/g with no difference of the characteristic after extract or pure substance application. Regarding the plasma levels, significant higher C(max) and AUC values were detected after application of the extract EGb 761®. These results allow for the first time a discussion of pharmacological effects with the knowledge of the pharmacokinetic behavior of the TTL in target tissues. PMID:20814851

Ude, Christian; Paulke, Alexander; Nöldner, Michael; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Wurglics, Mario

2011-02-01

151

The low-resolution structure of nHDL reconstituted with DMPC with and without cholesterol reveals a mechanism for particle expansion[S  

PubMed Central

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation was used to obtain the low-resolution structure of nascent HDL (nHDL) reconstituted with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in the absence and presence of cholesterol, [apoA1:DMPC (1:80, mol:mol) and apoA1:DMPC:cholesterol (1:86:9, mol:mol:mol)]. The overall shape of both particles is discoidal with the low-resolution structure of apoA1 visualized as an open, contorted, and out of plane conformation with three arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine without cholesterol (nHDLDMPC) and two arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine with cholesterol (nHDLDMPC+Chol). The low-resolution shape of the lipid phase in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol were oblate ellipsoids, and fit well within their respective protein shapes. Modeling studies indicate that apoA1 is folded onto itself in nHDLDMPC, making a large hairpin, which was also confirmed independently by both cross-linking mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry analyses. In nHDLDMPC+Chol, the lipid was expanded and no hairpin was visible. Importantly, despite the overall discoidal shape of the whole particle in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol, an open conformation (i.e., not a closed belt) of apoA1 is observed. Collectively, these data show that full length apoA1 retains an open architecture that is dictated by its lipid cargo. The lipid is likely predominantly organized as a bilayer with a micelle domain between the open apoA1 arms. The apoA1 configuration observed suggests a mechanism for accommodating changing lipid cargo by quantized expansion of hairpin structures.

Gogonea, Valentin; Gerstenecker, Gary S.; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Topbas, Celalettin; Wagner, Matthew A.; Tallant, Thomas C.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Callow, Philip; Pipich, Vitaliy; Malet, Helene; Schoehn, Guy; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

2013-01-01

152

Brain Health  

MedlinePLUS

... works and how Alzheimer's affects it. Maintain Your Brain ® Make brain-healthy life choices Like other parts ... care and research. Subscribe now Research on protecting brain health and preventing cognitive decline Protecting brain health ...

153

Computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra: Program for calculation of molecular isotopic distribution and program for assignment of molecular formulas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two FORTRAN computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra were prepared and tested. One is for the calculation of the molecular isotopic distribution of any species from stored elemental distributions. The program requires only the input of the molecular formula and was designed for compatability with any computer system. The other program is for the determination of all possible combinations of atoms (and radicals) which may form an ion having a particular integer mass. It also uses a simplified input scheme and was designed for compatability with any system.

Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.

1977-01-01

154

Perspective and agency during video gaming influences spatial presence experience and brain activation patterns  

PubMed Central

Background The experience of spatial presence (SP), i.e., the sense of being present in a virtual environment, emerges if an individual perceives himself as 1) if he were actually located (self-location) and 2) able to act in the virtual environment (possible actions). In this study, two main media factors (perspective and agency) were investigated while participants played a commercially available video game. Methods The differences in SP experience and associated brain activation were compared between the conditions of game play in first person perspective (1PP) and third person perspective (3PP) as well as between agency, i.e., active navigation of the video game character (active), and non-agency, i.e., mere passive observation (passive). SP was assessed using standard questionnaires, and brain activation was measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and sLORETA source localisation (standard low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography). Results Higher SP ratings were obtained in the 1PP compared with the 3PP condition and in the active compared with the passive condition. On a neural level, we observed in the 1PP compared with the 3PP condition significantly less alpha band power in the parietal, the occipital and the limbic cortex. In the active compared with the passive condition, we uncovered significantly more theta band power in frontal brain regions. Conclusion We propose that manipulating the factors perspective and agency influences SP formation by either directly or indirectly modulating the ego-centric visual processing in a fronto-parietal network. The neuroscientific results are discussed in terms of the theoretical concepts of SP.

2012-01-01

155

A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats  

PubMed Central

Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression.

Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

2012-01-01

156

IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA  

SciTech Connect

Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

Getman, Daniel J [ORNL

2008-01-01

157

Observational data analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies with Seyfert spectral types from the 1-Jy sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies with Seyfert spectral types from the 1-Jy sample. Among these sources, nine type 1 Seyfert galaxies and 17 type 2 Seyfert galaxies have Spitzer IRS low-resolution observations. For Seyfert 1 sources, we find that all sources have [Ne V] and/or [S IV] features, indicating an active galactic nucleus (AGN) nature, while many sources show polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, indicative of starburst activity. It is also found that most Seyfert 2 sources have mid-infrared spectra similar to that for Seyfert 1 sources, also indicating an AGN nature, and thus these could be classified as Seyfert 1-like sources. However, only a few sources have a normal Seyfert 2 nature and can be considered to be `pure' Seyfert 2 sources. In addition, it is found that more prominent PAH features are found for Seyfert 2 sources, indicating strong star formation activity.

Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G.

2014-06-01

158

Practice parameter: Anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview. The Quality Standards Subcommittee seeks to develop scientifically sound, clinically relevant practice parameters for the practice of neurology. Practice parameters are strategies for patient management that assist physicians in clinical decision making. A practice parameter is one or more specific recommendations based on analysis of evidence on a specific clinical problem. These might include diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, or procedure

M. J. Glantz; B. F. Cole; P. A. Forsyth; L. D. Recht; P. Y. Wen; M. C. Chamberlain; S. A. Grossman; J. G. Cairncross

159

Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

2011-06-01

160

Crystal structure of a novel non-Pfam protein PF2046 solved using low resolution B-factor sharpening and multi-crystal averaging methods  

SciTech Connect

Sometimes crystals cannot diffract X-rays beyond 3.0 {angstrom} resolution due to the intrinsic flexibility associated with the protein. Low resolution diffraction data not only pose a challenge to structure determination, but also hamper interpretation of mechanistic details. Crystals of a 25.6 kDa non-Pfam, hypothetical protein, PF2046, diffracted X-rays to 3.38 {angstrom} resolution. A combination of Se-Met derived heavy atom positions with multiple cycles of B-factor sharpening, multi-crystal averaging, restrained refinement followed by manual inspection of electron density and model building resulted in a final model with a R value of 23.5 (R{sub free} = 24.7). The asymmetric unit was large and consisted of six molecules arranged as a homodimer of trimers. Analysis of the structure revealed the presence of a RNA binding domain suggesting a role for PF2046 in the processing of nucleic acids.

Su, Jing; Li, Yang; Shaw, Neil; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Min; Xu, Hao; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Jie (Ankara); (Nankai); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (Georgia)

2012-11-13

161

Low-resolution structure of the soluble domain GPAA1 (yGPAA170–247) of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit GPAA1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) transamidase complex catalyses the attachment of GPI anchors to eukaryotic proteins in the lumen of ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPI transamidase complex consists of the subunits yPIG-K (Gpi8p), yPIG-S (Gpi17p), yPIG-T (Gpi16p), yPIG-U (CDC91/GAB1) and yGPAA1. We present the production of the two recombinant proteins yGPAA170–247 and yGPAA170–339 of the luminal domain of S. cerevisiae GPAA1, covering the amino acids 70–247 and 70–339 respectively. The secondary structural content of the stable and monodisperse yGPAA170–247 has been determined to be 28% ?-helix and 27% ?-sheet. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) data showed that yGPAA170–247 has an Rg (radius of gyration) of 2.72±0.025 nm and Dmax (maximum dimension) of 9.14 nm. These data enabled the determination of the two domain low-resolution solution structure of yGPAA170–247. The large elliptical shape of yGPAA170–247 is connected via a short stalk to the smaller hook-like domain of 0.8 nm in length and 3.5 nm in width. The topological arrangement of yGPAA170–247 will be discussed together with the recently determined low-resolution structures of yPIG-K24–337 and yPIG-S38–467 from S. cerevisiae in the GPI transamidase complex.

Saw, Wuan Geok; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Gruber, Gerhard

2013-01-01

162

Brain surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

163

Brain Autopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Autopsy The Key to Understanding FTD A brain autopsy is essential to obtain a definitive diagnosis ... sense of closure. People who participate in a brain donation program should receive an autopsy report with ...

164

Brain components  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

165

Brain Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

166

Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities  

PubMed Central

Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22–45 years in age) performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 s respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and somatosensory association cortex (SAC). ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres. The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and, PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC, and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80%) are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC, and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

Abeln, Vera; Harig, Alexandra; Knicker, Axel; Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan

2013-01-01

167

Alcohol Affects the Brain's Resting-State Network in Social Drinkers  

PubMed Central

Acute alcohol intake is known to enhance inhibition through facilitation of GABAA receptors, which are present in 40% of the synapses all over the brain. Evidence suggests that enhanced GABAergic transmission leads to increased large-scale brain connectivity. Our hypothesis is that acute alcohol intake would increase the functional connectivity of the human brain resting-state network (RSN). To test our hypothesis, electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements were recorded from healthy social drinkers at rest, during eyes-open and eyes-closed sessions, after administering to them an alcoholic beverage or placebo respectively. Salivary alcohol and cortisol served to measure the inebriation and stress levels. By calculating Magnitude Square Coherence (MSC) on standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA) solutions, we formed cortical networks over several frequency bands, which were then analyzed in the context of functional connectivity and graph theory. MSC was increased (p<0.05, corrected with False Discovery Rate, FDR corrected) in alpha, beta (eyes-open) and theta bands (eyes-closed) following acute alcohol intake. Graph parameters were accordingly altered in these bands quantifying the effect of alcohol on the structure of brain networks; global efficiency and density were higher and path length was lower during alcohol (vs. placebo, p<0.05). Salivary alcohol concentration was positively correlated with the density of the network in beta band. The degree of specific nodes was elevated following alcohol (vs. placebo). Our findings support the hypothesis that short-term inebriation considerably increases large-scale connectivity in the RSN. The increased baseline functional connectivity can -at least partially- be attributed to the alcohol-induced disruption of the delicate balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in favor of inhibitory influences. Thus, it is suggested that short-term inebriation is associated, as expected, to increased GABA transmission and functional connectivity, while long-term alcohol consumption may be linked to exactly the opposite effect.

Lithari, Chrysa; Klados, Manousos A.; Pappas, Costas; Albani, Maria; Kapoukranidou, Dorothea; Kovatsi, Leda

2012-01-01

168

Management of brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Brain metastases occur in 20–40 % of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time. Lung, breast and skin\\u000a (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15 % of patients the primary site remains unknown.\\u000a After the introduction of MRI, multiple lesions have outnumbered single lesions. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard

Riccardo Soffietti; Roberta Rud?; Roberto Mutani

2002-01-01

169

Standardization versus Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines differences between old state-designed norm-referenced tests and new tests aligned with the curriculum. Concludes that new state tests are very similar to old ones. Discusses impact of new high-stakes standardized tests on students and teachers. Argues the new wave of standardized testing is not the answer to improving student…

Meier, Deborah

2002-01-01

170

Brain Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Explorer is an educational Web site from the Lundbeck Institute that provides a highly visual and informative tour of the brain. Brain Atlas offers a good starting point, with well-designed diagrams of the brain and spinal cord, detailed explanatory information, and a handy pop-up glossary (which contains great graphics of its own). The section titled Neurological Control describes neuron structure and function. Other features include a section on brain disorders and an extensive image gallery. While Brain Explorer offers a thorough look at brain structure and function, it would probably best serve students who are already familiar with the subject but need a comprehensive review.

1969-12-31

171

Low resolution structure of interleukin-1 beta in solution derived from 1H-15N heteronuclear three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A low resolution solution structure of the cytokine interleukin-1 beta, a 153 residue protein of molecular weight 17,400, has been determined on the basis of 446 nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) derived approximate interproton distance restraints involving solely NH, C alpha H and C beta H protons, supplemented by 90 distance restraints for 45 hydrogen bonds, and 79 phi torsion angle restraints. With the exception of 27 C alpha H-C alpha H NOEs, all the NOEs were assigned from a three-dimensional 1H-1H NOE 15N-1H heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectrum. The torsion angle restraints were obtained from accurate 3JHN alpha coupling constants measured from a HMQC-J spectrum, while the hydrogen bonds were derived from a qualitative analysis of the NOE, coupling constant and amide exchange data. A total of 20 simulated annealing (SA) structures was computed using the hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing method. The solution structure of IL-1 beta comprises 12 beta-strands arranged in three pseudo-symmetrical topological units (each consisting of 5 anti-parallel beta-strands), joined by turns, short loops and long loops. The core of the structure, which is made up of the 12 beta-strands, together with the turns joining strands I and II, strands VIII and IX and strands X and XI, is well determined with a backbone atomic root-mean-square (r.m.s.) distribution about the mean co-ordinate positions of 1.2(+/- 0.1) A. The loop conformations, on the other hand, are poorly determined by the current data. A comparison of the core of the low resolution solution structure of IL-1 beta with that of the X-ray structure indicates that they are similar, with a backbone atomic r.m.s. difference of only 1.5 A between the co-ordinates of the restrained minimized mean of the SA structures and the X-ray structure. PMID:2388269

Clore, G M; Driscoll, P C; Wingfield, P T; Gronenborn, A M

1990-08-20

172

SPITZER INFRARED LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution infrared 5-35 mum spectroscopy of 17 nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z < 0.2, optically classified as non-Seyferts. The presence of optically elusive, but intrinsically luminous, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is investigated, based on the strengths of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and silicate dust absorption features detected in the spectra. The signatures of luminous buried AGNs, whose intrinsic luminosities range up to approx10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, are found in eight sources. We combine these results with those of our previous research to investigate the energy function of buried AGNs in a complete sample of optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs in the local universe at z < 0.3 (85 sources). We confirm a trend that we previously discovered: that buried AGNs are more common in galaxies with higher infrared luminosities. Because optical Seyferts also show a similar trend, we argue more generally that the energetic importance of AGNs is intrinsically higher in more luminous galaxies, suggesting that the AGN-starburst connections are luminosity dependent. This may be related to the stronger AGN feedback scenario in currently more massive galaxy systems, as a possible origin of the galaxy downsizing phenomenon.

Imanishi, Masatoshi [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Maiolino, Roberto [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Nakagawa, Takao, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.j [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

2010-02-01

173

Low-resolution structure of the full-length barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution, obtained using small-angle X-ray scattering.  

PubMed

SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an ?-helical TPR domain, a ?-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

Taube, Micha?; Pie?kowska, Joanna R; Jarmo?owski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

2014-01-01

174

Inclusion of the orientational entropic effect and low-resolution experimental information for protein-protein docking in Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI).  

PubMed

Inclusion of entropy is important and challenging for protein-protein binding prediction. Here, we present a statistical mechanics-based approach to empirically consider the effect of orientational entropy. Specifically, we globally sample the possible binding orientations based on a simple shape-complementarity scoring function using an FFT-type docking method. Then, for each generated orientation, we calculate the probability through the partition function of the ensemble of accessible states, which are assumed to be represented by the set of nearby binding modes. For each mode, the interaction energy is calculated using our ITScorePP scoring function that was developed in our laboratory based on principles of statistical mechanics. Using the above protocol, we present the results of our participation in Rounds 22-27 of the Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI) experiment for 10 targets (T46-T58). Additional experimental information, such as low-resolution small-angle X-ray scattering data, was used when available. In the prediction (or docking) experiments of the 10 target complexes, we achieved correct binding modes for six targets: one with high accuracy (T47), two with medium accuracy (T48 and T57), and three with acceptable accuracy (T49, T50, and T58). In the scoring experiments of seven target complexes, we obtained correct binding modes for six targets: one with high accuracy (T47), two with medium accuracy (T49 and T50), and three with acceptable accuracy (T46, T51, and T53). PMID:24227686

Huang, Sheng-You; Yan, Chengfei; Grinter, Sam Z; Chang, Shan; Jiang, Lin; Zou, Xiaoqin

2013-12-01

175

Structural Basis of ?-Catenin Recognition by EspB from Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli Based on Hybrid Strategy Using Low-Resolution Structural and Protein Dissection  

PubMed Central

Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) induces actin reorganization of host cells by injecting various effectors into host cytosol through type III secretion systems. EspB is the natively partially folded EHEC effector which binds to host ?-catenin to promote the actin bundling. However, its structural basis is poorly understood. Here, we characterize the overall structural properties of EspB based on low-resolution structural data in conjunction with protein dissection strategy. EspB showed a unique thermal response involving cold denaturation in the presence of denaturant according to far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Small angle X-ray scattering revealed the formation of a highly extended structure of EspB comparable to the ideal random coil. Various disorder predictions as well as CD spectra of EspB fragments identified the presence of ?-helical structures around G41 to Q70. The fragment corresponding to this region indicated the thermal response similar to EspB. Moreover, this fragment showed a high affinity to C-terminal vinculin homology domain of ?-catenin. The results clarified the importance of preformed ?-helix of EspB for recognition of ?-catenin.

Hamaguchi, Mitsuhide; Kamikubo, Hironari; Suzuki, Kayo N.; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Itaru; Sakata, Ikuhiro; Kataoka, Mikio; Hamada, Daizo

2013-01-01

176

Brain renin angiotensin in disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) and its role in cardiovascular control and fluid homeostasis was at first controversial.\\u000a This was because a circulating kidney-derived renin angiotensin system was so similar and well established. But, the pursuit\\u000a of brain RAS has proven to be correct. In the course of accepting brain RAS, high standards of proof attracted state of the

M. Ian Phillips; Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira

2008-01-01

177

Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

178

Brain Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

179

Brain Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

Albrecht, Karl

2002-01-01

180

The Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

Hubel, David H.

1979-01-01

181

Brain Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

182

Brain Fog  

MedlinePLUS

... pain. • Exercise regularly. Adequate physical exercise enhances cognition/memory. • Train the Brain! “If you don’t use it, you will ... to visit the “BRAIN SPA” – both will improve brain function. • Recent scientific ... Suggested reading: The Memory Bible , by Gary Small, MD, Director of the ...

183

The Impact of an Envelope Orography on Low-Frequency Variability and Blocking in a Low-Resolution General Circulation Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity experiments with a perpetual January version of a low-revolution general circulation model (GCM) are conducted to investigate the influence of different, nonzero specifications of orography on low-frequency variability (LFV) and blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. Two 1200-day integrations are compared to examine the impact of an enhanced `envelope' orography. An ensemble of eight independent 90-day realizations is extracted from each simulation. Distributions of ensemble-mean statistics for the two simulations are presented, along with estimates of the statistical significance of the differences.The use of an envelope orography leads to significant changes in the distribution of the LFV (periods 10-90 days) over the Northern Hemisphere. When the LFV is partitioned into contributions from intramonthly ( 10-30-day periods) and intermonthly (30-90-day periods) fluctuations, it is found that the envelope orography significantly alters the distributions of intramonthly scale variability over the North Atlantic Ocean.The impact of envelope orography on blocking, as measured by an objective criterion, is then examined. Significant changes in its spatial distribution are found over the North Atlantic but not in the total number of blocking days occurring anywhere within the Atlantic basin. No significant changes are found over the North Pacific. The changes in blocking distribution over the North Atlantic make the model's climatology more consistent with observations.The GCM results are interpreted in light of results from simple modeling studies. Based on this comparison, it is hypothesized that the changes in LFV and blocking over the North Atlantic are a response to differences in the orographic forcing downstream of the Rocky Mountains.It is concluded that a modest change in the representation of orography can significantly affect local distributions of intramonthly variability and blocking in a low-resolution GCM.

Mullen, Steven L.

1994-12-01

184

THE SEGUE STELLAR PARAMETER PIPELINE. V. ESTIMATION OF ALPHA-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE RATIOS FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SDSS/SEGUE STELLAR SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for the determination of [{alpha}/Fe] ratios from low-resolution (R = 2000) SDSS/SEGUE stellar spectra. By means of a star-by-star comparison with degraded spectra from the ELODIE spectral library and with a set of moderately high-resolution (R = 15, 000) and medium-resolution (R = 6000) spectra of SDSS/SEGUE stars, we demonstrate that we are able to measure [{alpha}/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra (with S/N>20/1) to a precision of better than 0.1 dex, for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T{sub eff} = [4500, 7000] K, log g = [1.5, 5.0], and [Fe/H] = [-1.4, +0.3], over the range [{alpha}/Fe] = [-0.1, +0.6]. For stars with [Fe/H] <-1.4, our method requires spectra with slightly higher signal-to-noise to achieve this precision (S/N>25/1). Over the full temperature range considered, the lowest metallicity star for which a confident estimate of [{alpha}/Fe] can be obtained from our approach is [Fe/H] {approx}-2.5; preliminary tests indicate that a metallicity limit as low as [Fe/H] {approx}-3.0 may apply to cooler stars. As a further validation of this approach, weighted averages of [{alpha}/Fe] obtained for SEGUE spectra of likely member stars of Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, and M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, and NGC 6791) exhibit good agreement with the values of [{alpha}/Fe] from previous studies. The results of the comparison with NGC 6791 imply that the metallicity range for the method may extend to {approx}+0.5.

Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lai, David K.; Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Morrison, Heather L. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); An, Deokkeun [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd block Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Yanny, Brian, E-mail: lee@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: cap@mssl.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: david@ucolick.org, E-mail: crockosi@ucolikc.org, E-mail: heather@vegemite.case.edu, E-mail: jaj@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: deokkeun@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: sivarani@iiap.res.in, E-mail: yanny@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2011-03-15

185

Design and construction progress of LRS2-B: a new low resolution integral-field spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) has ushered in a new era of instrumentation for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Here, we present the design, construction progress, and lab tests completed to date of the blue-optimized second generation Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2-B). LRS2-B is a dual-channel, fiber fed instrument that is based on the design of the Visible Integral Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), which is the new flagship instrument for carrying out the HET Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX). LRS2-B utilizes a microlens-coupled integral field unit (IFU) that covers a 7"x12" area on the sky having unity fill-factor with ~300 spatial elements that subsample the median HET image quality. The fiber feed assembly includes an optimized dichroic beam splitter that allows LRS2-B to simultaneously observe 370

Chonis, Taylor S.; Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2012-09-01

186

A Comparison of Electron Density Profiles Derived from the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) Ultraviolet Measurements: Resolution of the 911 Å Conundrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets, at altitude less than 320 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Newer measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show the same behavior. Yet, satellite-based measurements made at altitudes above 800 km showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. So the conundrum is: why do measurements made at lower altitudes (< 350 km) indicate weak or non-existent emission while satellite measurements at higher altitudes (>800 km) show the presence of the emission at the expected level? We present our measurements of the daytime and nighttime electron density derived by analysis of the O I 1356 and O I 911 Å altitude profiles measured by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002. We compare the retrieved electron density profiles inferred from the limb intensities of the ultraviolet emissions to peak heights and peak densities measured during ionosonde overflights. We show that the 911 Å emission is strongly affected by the height of the ionosphere and show that this is consistent with absorption of the 911 Å by atomic oxygen. Model results are presented showing that the RAIDS and sounding rocket measurements can be explained by this absorption.

Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

2010-12-01

187

Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

Farmer, Lesley S. J.

2004-01-01

188

Brain abscess.  

PubMed

A brain abscess is defined as a localized collection of pus within the parenchyma of the brain or meninges. Brain abscesses are a complication of ear, sinus, and/or dental infections. Although they may occur in many brain locations, the most common sites are frontal and temporal lobes. Modern neuroimaging and laboratory analysis have led to prompt diagnosis and have decreased the mortality rates from brain abscess. Critical care nurses have a vital role in performing accurate neurologic assessments, timely administration of antibiotics, and management of fever. PMID:23981454

Slazinski, Tess

2013-09-01

189

Language and the infant brain.  

PubMed

Three logically and empirically independent issues are often conflated in theory and research on brain and language: localization, innateness, and domain specificity. Research on adults and infants with focal brain injury support the following conclusions: (a) linguistic knowledge is not innate, and it is not localized in a clear and compact from in either the infant or adult brain; (b) the infant brain is not, however, a tabala rasa-it is already highly differentiated at birth, and certain regions are biased from the beginning toward modes of information processing that are particularly useful for language, leading (in the absence of local injury) to the standard form of brain organization for language; (c) the processing biases that lead to the "standard brain plan" are innate and localized, in both infants and adults, but they are not specific to language; and (d) the infant brain is highly plastic, permitting alternative "brain plans" for language to emerge if the standard situation does not hold. PMID:10466093

Bates, E

1999-01-01

190

The Brains Behind the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

D'Arcangelo, Marcia

1998-01-01

191

Brain to music to brain!  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been implicitly understood that culture and music as collective products of human brain in turn influence the brain itself. Now, imaging and anatomical data add substance to this notion. The impact of playing piano on the brain of musicians and its possible effects on cultural and neurological evolution are briefly discussed.

S. Ausim Azizi

2009-01-01

192

Abnormal Error Monitoring in Math-Anxious Individuals: Evidence from Error-Related Brain Potentials  

PubMed Central

This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants’ math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

Suarez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Nunez-Pena, Maria Isabel; Colome, Angels

2013-01-01

193

Understanding Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... org > Brain Tumor Information > Understanding Brain Tumors Understanding Brain Tumors While it is normal to feel scared, ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ...

194

Herbal Therapy for Brain Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients with high-grade glioma will be randomly assigned to take an herbal preparation of Boswellia serrata (frankincense) and undergo standard treatment for six months or undergo standard treatment alone for six months. Researchers want to see the addition of herbal therapy can help relieve brain swelling in these patients.

195

Brain Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

My suggestion, and what I am doing next week, is to include a good illustration of the brain to label and color instead of trying to make models from cauliflower. With my 5 sections of freshmen biology students, I would have to get 15-30 heads of cauliflower, as well as using messy paint, and then would not have something the students could really take home to use for studying purposes. A brain picture is linked to the Brain Awareness Week site, http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/baw1.html, which includes a quiz on brain anatomy and function.

2012-03-27

196

Brain Week!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

2005-05-01

197

Standardization Documents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standarization document is a generic term for a document used to standardize an item of supply, process, procedure, method, data, practice, or engineering approach. Standardization documents include Defense Specifications, Standards, and Handbooks; Federa...

J. Weitzner

2011-01-01

198

Brain metastases.  

PubMed

Brain metastases are the most frequent neurological complication of cancer and the most common brain tumour type. Lung and breast cancers, and melanoma are responsible for up to three-quarters of metastatic brain lesions. Most patients exhibit either headache, seizures, focal deficits, cognitive or gait disorders, which severely impair the quality of life. Brain metastases are best demonstrated by MRI, which is sensitive but non-specific. The main differential diagnosis includes primary tumours, abscesses, vascular and inflammatory lesions. Overall prognosis is poor and depends on age, extent and activity of the systemic disease, number of brain metastases and performance status. In about half of the patients, especially those with widespread and uncontrolled systemic malignancy, death is heavily related to extra-neural lesions, and treatment of cerebral disease doesn't significantly improve survival. In such patients the aim is to improve or stabilize the neurological deficit and maintain quality of life. Corticosteroids and whole-brain radiotherapy usually fulfill this purpose. By contrast, patients with limited number of brain metastases, good performance status and controlled or limited systemic disease, may benefit from aggressive treatment as both quality of life and survival are primarily related to treatment of brain lesions. Several efficacious therapeutic options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are available for these patients. PMID:24365409

Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Hildebrand, Jerzy

2014-01-01

199

The Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses basic facts about the brain and new research findings concerning growth and development that may help reconsider how information literacy skills are taught. Explains Kovalik's Integrated Thematic Instruction Model that recommends taking into account brain research and tying into relevant activities for the entire school year. (LRW)

Callison, Daniel

2001-01-01

200

Express - Standard. Quality - Standardization - Metrology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The articles contained in this translation cover Russian research on standards and standardization in science and technology. This document was received pursuant to a joint U.S. - USSR program to exchange standards information. The articles deal with indu...

1977-01-01

201

Brain investigation and brain conceptualization.  

PubMed

The brain of a patient with Alzheimer's disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B

2013-01-01

202

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage  

MedlinePLUS

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain damage ? What are some signs or symptoms of right hemisphere ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage is damage to ...

203

Brain Basics  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... in her life. She began to think of suicide because she felt like things weren't going ... Most Individuals Receive Health Services a Year Before Suicide Death Autistic Brain Patches Develop Before Birth Middle ...

204

Brain Cancer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... com oc110104 Last reviewed: 01/10/2011 3 Primary Brain Tumors There are two main types of ... contains a drug are monitored by the health care team for signs of infection after surgery. Summary ...

205

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

206

Networking Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) a...

M. Davies

1991-01-01

207

Effluent standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting

Geisler

1974-01-01

208

Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Brain Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination\\u000a of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements\\u000a for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of Neurology published evidence-based\\u000a practice parameters for

Katharina M. Busl; David M. Greer

2009-01-01

209

Organic brain syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Disorders associated with OBS include: Brain injury caused by ... the space around the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot ...

210

Brain-Compatible Assessments. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diane Ronis, a recognized expert in brain-compatible learning and assessment, goes beyond the world of standardized testing to show educators how to build and use targeted assessments based on the latest neuroscientific research. Updated to reflect recent findings about how the brain learns, this book provides readers with revised tools for…

Ronis, Diane L.

2007-01-01

211

PCDD, PCDF, AND DL-PCB analysis in food: performance evaluation of the high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry technique using consensus-based samples.  

PubMed

Due to safety concerns regarding dietary exposure to POPs, regulatory bodies are issuing detailed guidelines for testing for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) ('dioxins') and dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs in foods of animal origin. Determination of the aforesaid chemicals at regulatory levels requires highly selective and sensitive testing techniques. The new generation of low-resolution mass spectrometers (triple quadrupoles) allows very low levels of quantification to be reached (in the order of tens of femtograms), thus suggesting a potential for their application in food and feed analysis. The performance of the low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LRMS/MS) approach with triple quadrupoles was assessed on a qualified set of food samples from proficiency tests (PTs) and defense analysis. Accuracy was tested comparing the results with data from high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and with consensus values from PTs. The cumulative TEQ results were characterized by deviations not exceeding 15% of PCDD?+?PCDF, DL-PCB, and PCDD?+?PCDF?+?DL-PCB (TEQ(TOT)) reference consensus values (sample TEQ(TOT) range, 2.29-25.1 pgWHO-TEQ(97)/g fat). Congener analytical variabilities did not influence significantly the WHO-TEQ(97) outcome of the corresponding sample. This preliminary performance evaluation highlights the potential of LRMS/MS as a routine technique for quantitative analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs in food. PMID:22223308

Ingelido, Anna Maria; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abballe, Annalisa; di Domenico, Alessandro; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

2012-02-15

212

The Marine Mammal Brain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. In this unique standards-based activity, students compare the brains and behaviors of dolphins, sea lions, and manatees in a game-like format.

Jr., Archibald J.; Johnson, John I.; Morris, Lee G.; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.

2005-07-01

213

Brain microbleeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain microbleeds are small dot-like lesions appearing as hyposignal on gradient echo T2* MR sequences. They represent microscopic areas of old haemosiderin deposits. They are frequent in the setting of symptomatic cerebrovascular disease and also in older healthy people, suggesting a link with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Their use as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers remains uncertain. More recently, they have been

Charlotte Cordonnier

2010-01-01

214

Vision's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex has been explored by monitoring the responses of individual brain cells to visual stimuli. A combination of anatomical and physiological techniques reveals groups of functionally related cells, juxtaposed and superimposed, in a sometimes complex, but presumably efficient, structure. (BB)

Miller, Julie Ann

1978-01-01

215

Cola Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over fifty years, Coke and Pepsi have spent billions trying to out-market each other. But a new brain study suggests that one brand has much deeper effects. This Science Update explores the affect advertising poses on the consumer's choice.

Science Update;

2004-11-15

216

Undertanding Brain Aneurysm Videos  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Ask ... Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Ask ...

217

Brain and Nervous System  

MedlinePLUS

... and remove waste products. Continue All About the Brain The brain is made up of three main ... Continue Things That Can Go Wrong With the Brain Because the brain controls just about everything, when ...

218

Journey into the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students view and discuss video segments from the PBS program The Human Spark as they learn about the human brain, including information about brain regions, brain activity and technologies used to explore the brain.

Teachers' Domain

2012-10-17

219

Deep brain stimulation  

MedlinePLUS

Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation; Subthalamic deep brain stimulation; Thalamic deep brain stimulation; DBS ... lead, or electrode that is placed into the brain The neurostimulator, similar to a heart pacemaker, which ...

220

Brain and Spinal Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord Tumors Condensed from Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Brain and spinal cord tumors ...

221

Brain and Addiction  

MedlinePLUS

Introducing ... Your Brain! The brain is the command center of your body. It controls just about everything you do, even when ... solve problems, and make decisions. How Does the Brain Communicate? To send a message, a brain cell ...

222

Anatomy of the Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... get email updates Please leave this field empty Anatomy of the Brain SHARE Share on Facebook Preview ... Cancel Close Finish Home > Brain Tumor Information > Brain Anatomy Listen The brain and spinal cord together form ...

223

The Creative Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

Herrmann, Ned

1982-01-01

224

8.SP Animal Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Is there an association between the weight of an animalâs body and the weight of the animalâs brain? 1. Make a scatterplot using the following data. Bo...

225

Standards Organizations  

Cancer.gov

Health Level Screen (HL7)Founded in 1987, Health Level Seven, Inc., is a not-for-profit, ANSI-accredited, standards developing organization that provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that supports clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services. Its 2,200 members represent over 500 corporations, including 90 percent of the largest information systems vendors serving healthcare.

226

Martian 'Brain'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

2004-01-01

227

Silicon Brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

228

Brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

Bradshaw, J.R.

1989-01-01

229

Brain abscess.  

PubMed

Brain abscess is a serious and life-threatening disease among children despite advances in diagnosis and management. Changes in the epidemiology of predisposing conditions for brain abscess are associated with changes in the patient population and causative organisms. Though still a potentially fatal infection, there have been recent improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Although mortality appears to be decreasing, a significant percentage of children continue to have residual neurological deficits, including epilepsy, permanent motor or sensory dysfunction, visual field defects, and personality change. Some children also require placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The most common origin of microbial infection in children remains direct or indirect cranial infection arising from the middle ear, paranasal sinuses, or teeth. No prospective clinical trials have compared the various surgical and medical treatment strategies available to guide the management of cerebral abscesses in children. Most surgical and medical treatment guidelines are based on populations consisting primarily of adult patients. The use of corticosteroids for treatment of brain abscess is controversial. Anticonvulsants are recommended in children who have developed seizures potentially to prevent further episodes. Duration of anticonvulsant therapy should be individualized and guided by electroencephalographic (EEG) study in the follow-up phase of disease. PMID:23622320

Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Nieto-Guevara, Javier

2013-01-01

230

Auditory stimulation brain map.  

PubMed

The topography of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) was studied in 12 neurologically normal, adult, right-handed subjects of either sex. The AEPs were recorded with seventeen active electrodes in response to 500 Hz tone bursts with a level of 75 dB HL presented either to the left or the right ear. AEP brain maps were obtained with the BRAIN ATLAS III system. A region of maximum negativity was obtained corresponding to N1 at vertex and defined as focus of N1 (FN1). The reproducibility within and between sessions of FN1 was studied and found to be good for most of the subjects. The interindividual variability was moderate and the centre of FN1 on the map was localized 7 mm in front of the vertex electrode and 8.4 and 8.0 mm to the contralateral side of the vertex electrode upon stimulation of the left and the right ear, respectively. The approximate position of the skull surface is obtained by multiplication by a factor of 3. It was concluded that a standardized test session including six single maps based on 50 stimuli each gives an average map with identifiable and reproducible focus. The basis seems to be fulfilled to use the brain map in further analysis on clinical material. PMID:2749173

Tonnquist-Uhlén, I; Borg, E; Spens, K E

1989-01-01

231

Mouse brain imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) provides structural and functional information when used in small animal brain imaging. Acoustic distortion caused by bone structures largely limits the deep brain image quality. In our work, we present ex vivo PACT images of freshly excised mouse brain, intending that can serve as a gold standard for future PACT in vivo studies on small animal brain imaging. Our results show that structures such as the striatum, hippocampus, ventricles, and cerebellum can be clearly di erentiated. An artery feature called the Circle of Willis, located at the bottom of the brain, can also be seen. These results indicate that if acoustic distortion can be accurately accounted for, PACT should be able to image the entire mouse brain with rich structural information.

Lou, Yang; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

2014-03-01

232

Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

233

The Amazing Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discover the different parts of the brain and the tools used to discover the brain. On a piece of paper, sketch a brain that looks similar to this one brain (med) (Image downloaded from: http://www.flickr.com) Label each part of the brain and give a brief description of what each part does. Explore the site below to help you label your brain. Brain Structures and their Functions Make sure to include the cerebrum, cerebellum, limbic system, ...

Johnson, Mrs.

2010-08-06

234

Dysautonomia after pediatric brain injury  

PubMed Central

AIM Dysautonomia after brain injury is a diagnosis based on fever, tachypnea, hypertension, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and/or dystonia. It occurs in 8 to 33% of brain-injured adults and is associated with poor outcome. We hypothesized that brain-injured children with dysautonomia have worse outcomes and prolonged rehabilitation, and sought to determine the prevalence of dysautonomia in children and to characterize its clinical features. METHOD We developed a database of children (n=249, 154 males, 95 females; mean (SD) age 11y 10mo [5y 7mo]) with traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, stroke, infection of the central nervous system, or brain neoplasm admitted to The Children’s Institute of Pittsburgh for rehabilitation between 2002 and 2009. Dysautonomia diagnosis, injury type, clinical signs, length of stay, and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) testing were extracted from medical records, and analysed for differences between groups with and without dysautonomia. RESULTS Dysautonomia occurred in 13% of children with brain injury (95% confidence interval 9.3–18.0%), occurring in 10% after traumatic brain injury and 31% after cardiac arrest. The combination of hypertension, diaphoresis, and dystonia best predicted a diagnosis of dysautonomia (area under the curve=0.92). Children with dysautonomia had longer stays, worse WeeFIM scores, and improved less on the score’s motor component (all p?0.001). INTERPRETATION Dysautonomia is common in children with brain injury and is associated with prolonged rehabilitation. Prospective study and standardized diagnostic approaches are needed to maximize outcomes.

KIRK, KATHERINE A; SHOYKHET, MICHAEL; JEONG, JONG H; TYLER-KABARA, ELIZABETH C; HENDERSON, MARYANNE J; BELL, MICHAEL J; FINK, ERICKA L

2012-01-01

235

Brain Cake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Cake is a web site that reaches girls from around the globe who are interested in changing the world with math and science! This site is a resource - a resource for yourself, your daughter, a student in your classroom, or someone you mentor. The Girls, Math & Science Partnership is exactly that - an innovative, compelling, high-quality resource for education, information, research and advocacy on gender equality in the sciences.The site also includes: games and experiments, careers, biographies, homework help, and links to other related sites.

2009-06-26

236

Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Advances in neuroscience are increasingly intersecting with issues of ethical, legal, and social interest. This study is an analysis of press coverage of an advanced technology for brain imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, that has gained significant public visibility over the past ten years. Discussion of issues of scientific validity and interpretation dominated over ethical content in both the popular and specialized press. Coverage of research on higher order cognitive phenomena specifically attributed broad personal and societal meaning to neuroimages. The authors conclude that neuroscience provides an ideal model for exploring science communication and ethics in a multicultural context.

Racine, Eric; Bar-Ilan, Ofek; Illes, Judy

2007-01-01

237

Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert

2008-12-16

238

Standards Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column we will review the status of the project to revise ISO 8423:1991 and the status of development of ISO 10019 on the use of consultants to help develop management systems. We will look at the ISO process for periodic systematic review of standards and look at the status of some of the recent and current reviews in

John West

2008-01-01

239

Establishing Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how standardizing computer system hardware and software throughout the school campus can increase efficiency; reduce costs and acquisition lead time; and make training, technical support, and hardware replacement and repair easier. Questions to ask when choosing among different hardware and software systems are highlighted. (GR)

Day, C. William

2000-01-01

240

The connected brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connected brain Martijn van den Heuvel, 2009 Our brain is a network. It is a network of different brain regions that are all functionally and structurally linked to each other. In the past decades, neuroimaging studies have provided a lot of information about the specific functions of each separate brain region, but how functional communication between brain regions is

M. P. van den Heuvel

2009-01-01

241

Fortress brain.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuronal inclusions, comprised of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD) such lesions are distributed in a hierarchical retrograde transynaptic spatial pattern. This implies a retrograde transynaptic temporal propagation as well. There can be few explanations for this other than infectious agents (prions and viruses). This suggests that AD and LBD (at least) may have infectious origins. Transynaptic infiltration of the CNS along cranial nerve or other major projections, by one or more infectious agents has important implications. The clinical syndrome and natural history of each neurodegenerative disorder will reflect its portal of entry. There may be a different neurodegenerative syndrome for each cranial nerve or other portal of entry, and not all may manifest as "dementia". Each syndrome may be associated with more than one pathological lesion. Each pathology may be associated with several clinical syndromes. Host-parasite interactions are species specific. This may explain the rarity of AD-like pathology in most other older mammals. Over evolutionary timescales, the human brain should be adapted to predation by neurotropic agents. Viewed from this perspective, the prion-like pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of ?-amyloid and other proteins may be adaptive, and anti-microbial. Reductions in synaptic density may slow the progress of invading pathogens, while perineuronal nets and other structures may guard the gates. This suggests a defense in depth of a structure, the brain, that is inherently vulnerable to invasion along its neural networks. PMID:23265350

Royall, Donald R

2013-02-01

242

Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the specific contributions of nuclear medicine techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET), for diagnosis and management of brain tumors. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET has particular strengths in predicting prognosis and differentiating cerebral lymphoma from nonmalignant lesions. Amino acid tracers including 11C-methionine, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine, and 18F-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine provide high sensitivity, which is most useful for detecting recurrent or residual gliomas, including most low-grade gliomas. They also play an increasing role for planning and monitoring of therapy. 18F-fluorothymidine can only be used in tumors with absent or broken blood–brain barrier and has potential for tumor grading and monitoring of therapy. Ligands for somatostatin receptors are of particular interest in pituitary adenomas and meningiomas. Tracers to image neovascularization, hypoxia, and phospholipid synthesis are under investigation for potential clinical use. All methods provide the maximum of information when used with image registration and fusion display with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Integration of PET and magnetic resonance imaging with stereotactic neuronavigation systems allows the targeting of stereotactic biopsies to obtain a more accurate histologic diagnosis and better planning of conformal and stereotactic radiotherapy.

Herholz, Karl; Langen, Karl-Josef; Schiepers, Christiaan; Mountz, James M.

2014-01-01

243

Small Vessel Ischemic Disease of the Brain and Brain Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Brain metastases occur commonly in patients with lung cancer. Small vessel ischemic disease is frequently found when imaging the brain to detect metastases. We aimed to determine if the presence of small vessel ischemic disease (SVID) of the brain is protective against the development of brain metastases in lung cancer patients. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective cohort of 523 patients with biopsy confirmed lung cancer who had received magnetic resonance imaging of the brain as part of their standard initial staging evaluation was reviewed. Information collected included demographics, comorbidities, details of the lung cancer, and the presence of SVID of the brain. A portion of the cohort had the degree of SVID graded. The primary outcome measure was the portion of study subjects with and without SVID of the brain who had evidence of brain metastases at the time of initial staging of their lung cancer.109 patients (20.8%) had evidence of brain metastases at presentation and 345 (66.0%) had evidence of SVID. 13.9% of those with SVID and 34.3% of those without SVID presented with brain metastases (p<0.0001). In a model including age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use, SVID of the brain was found to be the only protective factor against the development of brain metastases, with an OR of 0.31 (0.20, 0.48; p<0.001). The grade of SVID was higher in those without brain metastases. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that vascular changes in the brain are protective against the development of brain metastases in lung cancer patients.

Mazzone, Peter J.; Marchi, Nicola; Fazio, Vince; Taylor, J. Michael; Masaryk, Thomas; Bury, Luke; Mekhail, Tarek; Janigro, Damir

2009-01-01

244

Standards Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column we will cover the Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) for ISO 9001:2008 and the rules for transition of accredited certifications to ISO 9001:2000 to the new edition. We will also review the status of the work of a new ISO\\/TC 69 Subcommittee developing ISO documents to support Six Sigma implementation. Finally we will look at the status

Jack E. West

2008-01-01

245

Standards Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column we announce publication in November 2008 of ISO 9001:2008, the latest edition of the world's most popular standard. We will also discuss the introduction and support packages available from ISO\\/TC 176 for ISO 9001:2008. The forthcoming third edition of ISO\\/TS 16949, the automotive industry sector specific QMS document based on ISO 9001:2008, will be discussed. We will

Jack E. West

2009-01-01

246

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious ... respond, and recover if a TBI occurs. Traumatic Brain Injury Topics Concussion and Mild TBI Severe TBI ...

247

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

248

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ... and youth with disabilities. IDEA’s Definition of “Traumatic Brain Injury” Our nation’s special education law, the Individuals ...

249

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric Autologous BMMNC for Severe TBI The purpose of this study ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

250

National Brain Tumor Society  

MedlinePLUS

... Community June 24, 2014 The (Critical) Case for Pediatric Brain Tumor & Cancer Advocacy National Brain Tumor Society is one of ... grade glioma , NCI , NIH , pediatric , pediatric brain tumor , pediatric cancer , pharmaceutical companies More from the blog Search By ...

251

Hersendoodscriteria (Brain Death Criteria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the death of a human being as being determined by 'brain death', which is understood to mean that the brain, the brain stem and the medulla oblongata have completely and irreversibly ceased to function.

A. J. C. Haex

1983-01-01

252

Brain-based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

Weiss, Ruth Palombo

2000-01-01

253

That's Using Your Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses new adult learning theories, including those of Roger Sperry (left brain/right brain), Paul McLean (triune brain), and Howard Gardner (multiple intelligences). Relates adult learning theory to training. (JOW)

Visser, Dana R.

1996-01-01

254

Brain Tumor Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... the President & CEO Our Financials Scientific Advisory Council Leadership News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA E-News ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain ...

255

Learning to Detect Aircraft at Low Resolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of the Viola and Jones object detector to the problem of aircraft detection is presented. This approach is based on machine learning rather than morphological filtering which was mainly used in previous works. Aircraft detection using computer vision methods is a challenging problem since target aircraft can vary from subpixels to a few pixels in size and the

Stavros Petridis; Christopher Geyer; Sanjiv Singh

2008-01-01

256

Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia

2001-01-01

257

Brain Signals for Brain–Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes brain signals relevant for brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). Section 1 addresses the impetus for BCI\\u000a research, reviews key BCI principles, and outlines a set of brain signals appropriate for BCI use. Section 2 describes specific\\u000a brain signals used in BCIs, their neurophysiological origins, and their current applications. Finally, Sect. 3 discusses issues\\u000a critical for maximizing the effectiveness of

Jonathan R. Wolpaw; Chadwick B. Boulay

258

Thromboplastin standards.  

PubMed

The Prothrombin Time (PT) test is used for monitoring of treatment with Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA). The result of the PT test should be expressed as the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Calculation of INR is based on the availability of International Standards (IS) for thromboplastin and a calibration model. Calibration of a new PT test system is performed with the appropriate IS and fresh plasma samples of healthy (normal) volunteers and patients treated with VKA. The calibration model is based on the assumption of a linear relationship between the log(PT)'s obtained with the new PT system and the reference IS for both normal and patients' samples. Patients' samples for calibration should be selected by rejecting samples beyond the 1.5-4.5 INR range. Outliers should be rejected defined as points with a perpendicular distance greater than three residual standard deviations from the line of relationship. Selection of patients' samples and rejection of outliers result in a reduction of the between-laboratory variation of calibration. In addition to monitoring of VKA, the PT is used for management of patients with chronic liver disease. Likewise, INR(liver) should be based on calibration with an IS using samples from patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:20338779

van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Tripodi, A

2010-07-01

259

Experimental Brain Prosthesis for Stroke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical control of motor behavior by programmed electrical stimulation of the brain has been described. Such programmed brain stimulation is referred to as a 'brain prosthesis,' meaning, in effect, 'artificial brain.' Areas in the brain which related t...

L. R. Pinneo J. N. Kaplan E. A. Elpel P. C. Reynolds J. H. Glick

1972-01-01

260

Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies  

PubMed Central

Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

Corballis, Michael C.

2014-01-01

261

Brain morphology and intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the correlations are modest (? r = 0.35), brain size as determined by magnetic resonance imaging has been positively related to measures of psychometric intelligence. Three studies dealing with brain size?IQ relationships are presented in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI). Study 1 was an examination of whether the brain size?IQ relationship was proportionally maintained in response

Erin D. Bigler

1995-01-01

262

Split My Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Omarzu, Julia

2004-10-01

263

Inhibition and brain work.  

PubMed

The major part of the brain's energy budget ( approximately 60%-80%) is devoted to its communication activities. While inhibition is critical to brain function, relatively little attention has been paid to its metabolic costs. Understanding how inhibitory interneurons contribute to brain energy consumption (brain work) is not only of interest in understanding a fundamental aspect of brain function but also in understanding functional brain imaging techniques which rely on measurements related to blood flow and metabolism. Herein we examine issues relevant to an assessment of the work performed by inhibitory interneurons in the service of brain function. PMID:18054855

Buzsáki, György; Kaila, Kai; Raichle, Marcus

2007-12-01

264

Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)

2004-04-30

265

Edema and brain trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain edema leading to an expansion of brain volume has a crucial impact on morbidity and mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) as it increases intracranial pressure, impairs cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, and contributes to additional ischemic injuries.Classically, two major types of traumatic brain edema exist: “vasogenic” due to blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption resulting in extracellular water accumulation and “cytotoxic\\/cellular”

A. W. Unterberg; J. Stover; B. Kress; K. L. Kiening

2004-01-01

266

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I give a brief description of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the human brain examinations. MRS allows a noninvasive chemical analysis of the brain using a standard high field MR system. Nowadays, the dominant form of MR brain spectroscopy is proton spectroscopy. Two main techniques of MRS, which utilize the chemical shift of metabolites in the external magnetic field, are SVS (single voxel) and CSI (single slice). The major peaks in the spectrum of a normal brain include NAA, Cr, Cho and m-Ins, which are neuronal, energetic, membrane turnover and glial markers, respectively. In disease, two pathological metabolites can be found in the brain spectra: Lac, which is end product of anaerobic glycolysis and Lip, which is a marker of membrane breakdown, occurring in necrosis. The common way to analyze clinical spectra is to determine metabolite ratios, e.g. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA. This analysis permits a safe and noninvasive examination of the brain tissue as each disease state has its own characteristic spectroscopic image. MRS is a valuable diagnostic tool in such clinical applications as detecting brain tumors and differentiating tumors from inflammatory and infectious processes. Proton MRS is also very helpful in diagnostic of ischemic lesions, Alzheimer's disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The MRS brain spectra should always be correlated with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results and alone cannot make neurological diagnosis.

Strózik-Kotlorz, D.

2014-01-01

267

Standard atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.

Gregg, Willis Ray

1923-01-01

268

Electromagnetic brain imaging using BrainStorm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic brain imaging consists of the mapping of neural generators of magnetic fields and electric potentials measured outside the head using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEC), respectively. Here we report on a collaborative project dedicated to the development and distribution of BrainStorm, a software suite for MEG-EEG data modeling and visualization, with integration of MRI information. BrainStorm is developed in

Sylvain Baillet; J. C. Masher; Richard M. Leahy

2004-01-01

269

High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

McWilliam, Erica

2010-01-01

270

Normal Brain Aging and its Risk Factors — Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Database of Healthy Japanese Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected brain MRI of 2,000 healthy Japanese subjects and constructed an MRI database together with their characteristics\\u000a such as age, sex, present and past disease history and cognitive functions. Volumetric analysis of the brain revealed that\\u000a gray matter volume linearly decreased with time, while white matter volume remained relatively unchanged during aging. We\\u000a defined a standard brain for each

H. Fukuda; Y. Taki; K. Sato; S. Kinomura; R. Goteau; R. Kawashima

271

A biometric analysis of brain size in micrencephalics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain weight and head circumference in micrencephalic patients were analysed as a function of age, height and sex in relation to normal human standards. A quantitative definition of micrencephaly is proposed, which is based on these analyses. Evidence is presented, furthermore, that micrencephalics have a significantly lower brain weight in adolescence than in early childhood, and that this cerebral dystrophy

Michel A. Hofman

1984-01-01

272

Tracking brain dynamics via time-dependent network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex network analysis is currently employed in neuroscience research to describe the neuron pathways in the brain with a small number of computable measures that have neurobiological meaning. Connections in biological neural networks might fluctuate over time; therefore, surveillance can provide a more useful picture of brain dynamics than the standard approach that relies on a static graph to represent

Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Nikolaos A. Laskaris; Vasso Tsirka; Michael Vourkas; Sifis Micheloyannis; Spiros Fotopoulos

2010-01-01

273

From connections to function: the mouse brain connectome atlas.  

PubMed

Mapping synaptic connections and projections is crucial for understanding brain dynamics and function. In a recent issue of Nature, Oh et al. present a wiring diagram of the whole mouse brain, where standardized labeling, tracing, and imaging of axonal connections reveal new details in the network organization of neuronal connectivity. PMID:24813604

Sporns, Olaf; Bullmore, Edward T

2014-05-01

274

The Brain Atlas Concordance Problem: Quantitative Comparison of Anatomical Parcellations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative,

Jason W. Bohland; Hemant Bokil; Cara B. Allen; Partha P. Mitra

2009-01-01

275

Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: Assessment with Dynamic MR Digital Subtraction Angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional catheter angiography (CCA) is the current reference standard for the diagnosis, assessment, and management of pial brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The purpose of this study was to develop an MR angiographic tech- nique that produces dynamic images comparable to those provided by CCA and to apply the technique to the investigation of pial brain AVMs. METHODS:

Paul D. Griffiths; Nigel Hoggard; Daniel J. Warren; Iain D. Wilkinson; Bob Anderson; Charles A. Romanowski

276

Research report Timing in the baby brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-month-old infants and adults were tested in an auditory oddball paradigm in which 50-ms tones were separated by 1500 ms (standard interval) and occasionally 500 ms (deviant interval). Both infants and adults showed marked brain responses to the tone that followed a deviant inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the timing-deviance event-related-potential (ERP) difference waves (deviant-ISI ERP minus standard-ISI ERP) yielded a

Elizabeth M. Brannon; Lauren Wolfe Roussel; Warren H. Meck; Marty Woldorff

277

A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

2014-03-01

278

Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.  

PubMed

Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

Graeber, Manuel B

2008-05-01

279

Extending the viability of acute brain slices  

PubMed Central

The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research.

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andre; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

2014-01-01

280

Left Brain Systems and Right Brain Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shortcomings of management information systems in managerial functions are often attributed to differences between "left brain" activities performed by machines and "right brain" activities performed in decision making. It is argued that academic management information systems should incorporate and recognize both kinds of activity. (MSE)

Brown, Jerry W.; Service, Allan L.

1980-01-01

281

Left Brain, Right Brain: Who's on First?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author states that none of the left-brain/right brain "mythology" is supported by the actual research on the differences between the left and right human cerebral hemispheres. In fact, he states, the research literature flatly contradicts most of the mythology. (CT)

Hines, Terence

1985-01-01

282

Traumatic Brain Injury Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Shopping cart Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Main menu Service Members & Veterans Family & Friends ... TBI Basics What is a TBI? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be classified as mild, moderate, severe ...

283

Brain injury - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... one was in the hospital after a serious brain injury. First, doctors and nurses provided treatment to prevent ... and treatment to help them recover from the brain injury. They may have stayed in special units that ...

284

Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation brain trauma therapy (OBTT) is a multicenter, pre-clinical, drug screening and brain injury biomarker development consortium for TBI. OBTT includes investigators at the Safar Center (University of Pittsburgh), the University of Miami, WRAIR, Vir...

P. M. Kochanek

2012-01-01

285

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents Introduction What is a Stroke? What ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

286

Children's Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded in 1988 by dedicated parents, physicians and friends. Our ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

287

Brain aneurysm repair  

MedlinePLUS

... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened up. A metal clip is placed ...

288

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Contact Us mild Traumatic Brain Injury Click Here to Start VIDEO STORIES What ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

289

Genetic Brain Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

290

Childhood Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

291

Preventing Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of topiramate in the treatment of early seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare the efficacy of topiramate to prevent of early seizures to the standard of care (...

M. A. Dichter

2006-01-01

292

Arts with the Brain in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To push for higher standards of learning, many policymakers are eliminating arts programs. This book presents the definitive case, based on what is known about the brain and learning, for making the arts a core part of the basic curriculum and thoughtfully integrating them into every subject. Separate chapters address musical, visual, and…

Jensen, Eric

293

Preventing Epilepsy after Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) in the treatment of early seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare the efficacy of TPM to prevent early seizures to the standard of care (pheny...

M. A. Dichter

2007-01-01

294

Preventing Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) in the treatment of early seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare the efficacy of TPM to prevent early seizures to the standard of care (pheny...

M. A. Dichter

2008-01-01

295

NASA Robot Brain Surgeon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

1997-01-01

296

Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.  

PubMed

The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969

Hines, Terence

2014-07-01

297

Single brain metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The management of single brain metastases has evolved substantially over the last decade. The advent of triple-dose contrast-enhanced\\u000a MRI scans has improved the radiologists’ capacity to resolve small tumors, and, thereby, has resulted in a declining percentage\\u000a of brain metastases classified as single. Only 25% to 30% of brain metastases are single; single brain metastases in the absence\\u000a of

David Schiff

2001-01-01

298

Why brains matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that Deacon's co-evolutionary theory provides a basis for changing how we think about language and brains. Instead of ascribing language to either nature or nurture, it is seen as intrinsic to both: biological principles ensure the brain can only function by attuning to its body's worlds. For humans, this means not only that our brains are biosocial

Stephen J. Cowley

2002-01-01

299

Brain Migration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

Vinokur, Annie

2006-01-01

300

Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... fight one of the deadliest forms of childhood cancer The Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation is on a mission to ... UPDATES 07/03/14 New genes that promote cancer discovered 06/30/14 PBTF awards college scholarships to brain ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC ...

301

Our Amazing Brains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

Bath, Howard

2005-01-01

302

Brain-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) technology is to augment human capabilities by enabling people to interact with a computer through a conscious and spontaneous modulation of their brainwaves after a short training period. Indeed, by analyzing brain electrical activity online, several groups have designed brain-actuated systems that provide alternative channels for communication, entertainment and control. Thus, a person can

José Del R. Millán

2006-01-01

303

Brain Research and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

Claycomb, Mary

304

Mg Isotopes of USGS Igneous Rock Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium has three stable isotopes, 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg with abundances of 78.99%, 10.00%, and 11.01%, respectively. It is one of the most abundant elements in the crust and mantle. As advancements of analytical techniques using MC-ICP-MS have dramatically advanced our ability to measure isotope ratios of Mg with greater precision, Mg isotopes can now be applied to study a variety of fundamental geological processes, such as continental crust weathering, chemical diffusion, and chondrule formation. Therefore the need for well characterized Mg isotope ratios for geological materials is increasingly important. Routine measurement of readily-available USGS rock standards is a viable way for inter-lab comparison to show the quality of data. However, the Mg isotope data for USGS standards reported in the literature are limited and inconsistent. USGS standards reported by different MC-ICP-MS labs have a range of Mg isotopic data outside of the normal external error of 0.1‰ (2?). Mg isotopes of USGS igneous rock standards (dunite, DTS-1; basalts, BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1; and andesite, AGV-1) were measured by a sample-standard bracketing method using a low resolution MC-ICP- MS (Nu-Plasma HR). The method has a large tolerance of matrix bias with Na/Mg and Al/Mg > 100% only changing the ?26Mg by less than 0.1‰. Dilution effects do not cause significant error (< 0.1‰) until the concentration difference between standard and sample is greater than 25%. The isobaric interference of CN+ on 26Mg was avoided by measuring Mg signal on the low mass shoulder. Only purified samples with excellent yields (>99.5%) and acceptable concentrations of matrix (mainly Na, Al, Ca, and Fe) are included in these results. Duplicate analyses of independently processed standards yielded the following results (?26MgDSM-3 (‰)): BCR-2 (-0.306±0.144, - 0.290±0.116, -0.283±0.048, -0.288±0.057), BCR-1 (-0.399±0.079, -0.346±0.046), AGV-1 (-0.295±0.110, -0.307±0.086, -0.339±0.068), BHVO-1 (-0.308±0.076, - 0.299±0.103), and DTS-1 (-0.299±0.163, -0.368±0.059). ?26MgDSM-3 of measured USGS standards are consistent within error (2?).

Huang, F.; Glessner, J. J.; Lundstrom, C. C.

2008-12-01

305

An algorithm for generalizing topography to grids while preserving subscale morphologic characteristics—creating a glacier bed DEM for Jakobshavn trough as low-resolution input for dynamic ice-sheet models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm for preserving important subscale morphologic characteristics at grids of lower-resolution, in particular for linear features such as canyons and ridge lines. The development of such an algorithm is necessitated by applications that require reduced spatial resolution, as is common in cartographic generalization, GIS applications, and geophysical modeling. Since any algorithm that results in weighted averages, including optimum interpolation and ordinary kriging, cannot reproduce correct depths, a new algorithm is designed based on principles of mathematical morphology. The algorithm described here is applied to derive a subglacial bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet that includes the trough of Jakobshavn Isbræ as a continuous canyon at correct depth in a low-resolution (5-km) digital elevation model (DEM). Data from recent airborne radar measurements of the elevation of the subglacial bed as part of the CReSIS project are utilized. The morphologic algorithm is designed with geophysical ice-sheet modeling in mind, in the following context. Currently occurring changes in the Earth's climate and the cryosphere cause changes in sea level, and the societal relevance of these natural processes motivates estimation of maximal sea-level rise in the medium-term future. The fast-moving outlet glaciers are more sensitive to climatic change than other parts of the Greenland ice sheet. Jakobshavn Isbrae, the fastest-moving ice stream in Greenland, follows a subglacial geologic trough. Since the existence of the trough causes the acceleration of the slow-moving inland ice in the Jakobshavn region and the formation of the ice stream, correct representation of the trough in a DEM is essential to model changes in the dynamics of the ice sheet and resultant sea-level predictions, even if current ice-sheet models can typically be run only at 5-km resolution. The DEM resultant from this study helps to bridge the conceptual gap between data analysis and geophysical modeling approaches. It is available as SeaRISE Greenland bed data set dev1.2 at http://websrv.cs.umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

Herzfeld, Ute C.; Wallin, Bruce F.; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Plummer, Joel

2011-11-01

306

Information Mining in Brain Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain functional connectivity, effective connectivity, and coordination among brain regions have become the hot problems in the studies of human brain functions and diseases. With more brain data accumulated, researchers in different fields are so eager to understand more profoundly how the brain systems work. For various brain data, scientists of information science have to face two basic problems: how

Yao Li

2005-01-01

307

Tau Beta Pi: Brain Ticklers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tau Beta Pi is a national honor society for engineering students, and its quarterly Brain Ticklers online feature is a true challenge aimed at motivated individuals. In each issue, five standard questions and two bonus questions are given, which are intended to exercise peoples' problem solving skills. The problems are generally straightforward and easy to understand, but they can be extremely perplexing to solve. People who attempt the problems are encouraged to submit their answers for possible recognition in the following issue. Answers to the previous issue's problems are included when new issues are published.

308

Standards for Residential Rehabilitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with HUD's rehabilitation standards which were set up in May 1963 (HUD PG 50) and do not constitute rehabilitation standards per se, but rather a guide for establishing rehabilitation standards. This report examines these standards and st...

M. C. McFarland

1974-01-01

309

Guide to Documentary Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Guide is intended to provide information on the U.S. standards system, entities within that system, and different types of documentary standards. It includes descriptions of performance and design standards; voluntary consensus standards; defense sta...

C. R. DeVaux

2001-01-01

310

Brain: The Inside Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brain is quite flexible and resilient, and this online exhibit from the American Museum of Natural History explores both of these traits, along with looking at current research into how the brain works. This website offers a nice complement to the in situ exhibit, and visitors can make their way through five sections, including "Your Sensing Brain", "Your Emotional Brain", and "Your 21st Century Brain". Each of these sections includes short answers to crucial questions about the brain's functions and activities, such as "Why do memories exist?" In the "Videos" area, found on the right hand side of any page, visitors can check out six different clips that document the creation of the physical exhibit as well as topics that include "Thinking in Symbols". Finally, the site is rounded out by a section of materials for educators that include lesson plans and bulletins with titles like "Inside the Teenage Brain".

311

Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brain Research through Advancing Innovation Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative is part of a new focus aimed at "revolutionizing our understanding of the human brain." The hope is that this ambitious effort will allow researchers to "produce a revolutionary new dynamic picture of the brain.â There are a range of federal partners involved, including the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the US Food and Drug Administration. Visitors can look over some basic FAQ areas, such as Why is this needed? and How will it work? to get started. The site also includes links to advisory group meetings, complete with minutes, and funding opportunities for scholars as well as scientific departments and institutes.

2014-03-11

312

Negative Brain Scintigrams in Brain Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were ...

K. G. Dalke

1978-01-01

313

Negative Brain Scintiscan in Brain Tumours.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and com...

K. G. Dalke

1978-01-01

314

A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.  

PubMed

Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M; Mortrud, Marty T; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Phillips, John W; Hohmann, John G; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Zeng, Hongkui

2014-04-10

315

Mathematics Content Standards Benchmarks and Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Mexico Mathematics Content Standards, Benchmarks, and Performance Standards identify what students should know and be able to do across all grade levels, forming a spiraling framework in the sense that many skills, once introduced, develop over time. While the Performance Standards are set forth at grade-specific levels, they do not exist as…

New Mexico Public Education Department, 2008

2008-01-01

316

Radiosurgery without whole brain radiotherapy in melanoma brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effectiveness of radiosurgery without whole brain radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of melanoma brain metastases, we retrospectively assessed the results in 35 patients: 4 with a solitary brain metastasis, 13 with a single brain metastasis and metastases elsewhere and 18 with multiple brain metastases. The local control rate was 98.2% (55\\/56 metastases) at 3 months. Median survival

J. J. Grob; J. Regis; R. Laurans; M. Delaunay; P. Wolkenstein; K. Paul; P. Souteyrand; M. C. Koeppel; X. Murraciole; J. C. Perragut; J. J. Bonerandi

1998-01-01

317

3D brain anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive model of the brain, users can learn about its parts and specific functions. The model consists of side-by-side image and text areas. Users can employ a variety of control options. For example, they can click on a colorized area of the brain to call up information about it and to alter the position of the three-dimensional brain so that it features the selected part. There are also buttons for rotating the brain and for zooming. In addition, users can select from pop-up menus to learn about a specific brain area such as the corpus callosum and brain functions such as speech. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Productions, David G.; York, Thirteen/wnet N.

2001-01-01

318

One brain, two selves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having a sense of self is an explicit and high-level functional specialization of the human brain. The anatomical localization of self-awareness and the brain mechanisms involved in consciousness were investigated by functional neuroimaging different emotional mental states of core consciousness in patients with Multiple Personality Disorder (i.e., Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)). We demonstrate specific changes in localized brain activity consistent

A. A. T. S. Reinders; E. R. S. Nijenhuis; A. M. J. Paans; J. Korf; A. T. M. Willemsen; J. A. Den Boer

2003-01-01

319

The Brain Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scientific Learning Corporation maintains the Brain Connection, a Web site "dedicated to providing accessible, high-quality information about how the brain works and how people learn." This extensive site has descriptions, pictures, animations, puzzles, quizzes and much more on nearly every aspect of the human brain. Everyone from kids to adults will find hours of interesting and fun exploration at this well-constructed Web site.

1999-01-01

320

Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human brain is soft highly metabolically active tissue, floating in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the rigid cranium.\\u000a This environment acts to isolate the brain from the majority of external mechanical loads experienced by the head during normal\\u000a daily life. The brain does experience a range of mechanical loads directly, as a result of blood and CSF flow, and to

Lynne E. Bilston

321

The blue brain project.  

PubMed

IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

Markram, Henry

2006-02-01

322

NEUROBIOLOGY: Brain, Heal Thyself  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The brain cannot repair itself after injury. Or so goes the dogma. In his Perspective, Lowenstein outlines recent results that indicate that quiescent progenitor cells and the growth factors to bring them to maturity are actually present, sequestered and silent, in the adult brain. Injury may partially trigger their activation. The current research challenge is how to persuade them to fully repair injured brain tissue.

Daniel H. Lowenstein (University of California, San Francisco;Department of Neurology and the Epilepsy Research Laboratory); Jack M. Parent (University of California, San Francisco;Department of Neurology and the Epilepsy Research Laboratory)

1999-02-19

323

Assessing brain stem function.  

PubMed

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring provides objective measures of nervous system function that are of value when operating in proximity to the brain stem. Real-time measurements of function can be correlated to operative manipulations in order to reduce the risk of damage in critically important regions. Techniques for evaluating brain stem function clinically and electrophysiologically are presented along with their applications during surgery of the brain stem. PMID:8353442

Sclabassi, R J; Kalia, K K; Sekhar, L; Jannetta, P J

1993-07-01

324

Antidepressants and brain respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imipramine and clorgyline, at concentrations of 0.002 M, inhibit the respiration of brain tissue by 82 and 71 per cent respectively, while chloropromazine and tranylcypromine, at concentrations of 0.01 M, inhibit it about 25 per cent. Deprenyl and amphetamine at a concentration of 0.002 M inhibit brain tissue respiration by 12 and 18 per cent respectively. Respiration in brain is

Maitreyi Nag; Namita Nandi

1991-01-01

325

Brain metastasis from melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-one patients with brain metastasis from melanoma were identified at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between 1978 and 1980. Of 78 evaluable patients, 51 (65%) had multiple brain metastases. Of 64 patients with non-contrast CT scans, 29% had hemorrhagic metastases. Leptomeningeal metastases were found in 15 patients. Patients were grouped into three categories: Group 1, multiple brain metastases treated with

Thomas N. Byrne; Terrence L. Cascino; Jerome B. Posner

1983-01-01

326

Standards 101: The ASA Standards program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

Schomer, Paul

2001-05-01

327

Standards 101; the ASA standards program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

Schomer, Paul D.

2002-11-01

328

Brain tumor - children  

MedlinePLUS

Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

329

Brain Tumors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Continue Late Effects Late effects are problems that patients can develop after cancer treatments have ended. For survivors of pediatric brain tumors, late effects may include cognitive delay ( ...

330

Gliadel for brain metastasis.  

PubMed

With therapies for systemic malignancy improving, life expectancy for cancer patients is becoming increasingly dependent on control of brain metastatic disease. Despite improvements in surgical and radiotherapy modalities for control of brain metastasis, the prognosis for patients with brain metastases is poor. The development of controlled release polymers has lead to novel new therapies for malignant brain tumors consisting of direct surgical delivery of chemotherapy agents to the tumor bed and sustained chemotherapy release over a prolonged period of time. Although there is a large body of literature in support of BCNU polymer wafer for primary brain malignancy and experimental brain metastases, clinical studies evaluating the BCNU polymer wafer for brain metastatic disease are relatively sparse. In this review, we discuss the role of the BCNU polymer wafer for brain metastasis focusing specifically on rationale for use of locally delivered sustained release polymers, history of the BCNU polymer wafer, and emerging studies examining the role of the BCNU polymer wafer for metastatic brain tumors. PMID:23717799

Abel, Taylor J; Ryken, Timothy; Lesniak, Maciej S; Gabikian, Patrik

2013-01-01

331

Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity.  

PubMed

Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training. PMID:23847580

Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

2013-01-01

332

Left Brain, Right Brain, Super Brain: The Holistic Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent discoveries about the whole brain seem to call for a holistic approach to learning, one in which educators would teach the whole person, including physical and emotional states as well as cognitive abilities. Three holistic techniques are particularly relevant to education: (1) biofeedback; (2) yoga; and (3) the Lozanov method. Biofeedback…

Yellin, David

333

Modern wavelength standards in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology the Atomic Spectroscopy Group has characterized several sources of wavelength standards useful for remote sensing applications. At low resolution, mercury pencil-type lamps are convenient for use either in the laboratory or the field. We recommend wavelengths for this lamp with an uncertainty of +/- 0.001 angstroms in the region 2535 angstroms to 5790 angstroms. We also provide relative irradiances for the most prominent Hg lines, data that can be used to determine instrumental response. For high- resolution applications, we have measured wavelengths and relative intensities emitted by a commercial Pt/Ne hollow cathode lamp. Wavelengths for 5600 lines from 1130 angstroms to 4330 angstroms, some with uncertainties as small as +/- 0.0004 angstroms, are available in a comprehensive atlas of this lamp. Excellent calibration lines can also be obtained from demountable hollow cathode lamps. We review wavelength standards in Fe I and II, Th I and II, Ar II, and Cu II that can be excited in such lamps. Cu II provides wavelengths with uncertainties of less than +/- 0.0004 angstroms from 670 angstroms through the entire ultraviolet region. For calibrations at shorter wavelengths, we have developed accurate standards that can be excited in a sliding-spark discharge with yttrium electrodes.

Reader, Joseph; Sansonetti, Craig J.

1999-09-01

334

Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer's disease brains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease and can be definitively diagnosed after death through an examination of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in several brain regions. It is to be expected that changes in the concentration and/or localization of low-molecular-weight molecules are linked to the pathological changes that occur in AD, and determining their identity would provide valuable information regarding AD processes. Here, we propose definitive brain metabolic profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The acquired data were subjected to principal components analysis to differentiate the frontal and parietal lobes of the AD/Control groups. Significant differences in the levels of spermine and spermidine were identified using S-plot, mass spectra, databases and standards. Based on the investigation of the polyamine metabolite pathway, these data establish that the downstream metabolites of ornithine are increased, potentially implicating ornithine decarboxylase activity in AD pathology.

Inoue, Koichi; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Toyo'Oka, Toshimasa

2013-08-01

335

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

336

Science Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Academy of Sciences presents content standards which outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The introduction sets the framework for the content standards by describing the categories of the content standards with a rationale for each category, the form of the standards, the criteria used to select the standards, and some advice for using the science content standards. Information is included for levels K-12.

Standards, National S.; Press, National A.

337

Analyzing the "Standards".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the role of standards in science curriculum development and professional development. Discusses the difficulty of interpreting standards and describes experiences from a curriculum forum. (YDS)

Demers, Chris

2000-01-01

338

Focal cortical dysfunction and blood-brain barrier disruption in patients with Postconcussion syndrome.  

PubMed

Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) refers to symptoms and signs commonly occurring after mild head injury. The pathogenesis of PCS is unknown. The authors quantitatively analyzed EEG recordings, localized brain sources for abnormal activity, and correlated it with imaging studies. Data from 17 patients with neurologic symptomatology consistent with ICD-10 criteria for PCS was analyzed. Normalized quantitative EEG (QEEG) revealed significantly higher power in the delta band and lower power in the alpha band compared with matched controls. The generators for the abnormal rhythms were focally localized in neocortical regions. Brain computerized tomography and/or MRI did not reveal focal abnormality at the time of diagnosis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer administration showed a focal reduction in perfusion in 85% (n = 11) of the patients, and abnormal blood-brain barrier (BBB) after 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid administration in 73% (n = 8). In 75% of these patients, low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography analysis showed that the generators for abnormal rhythms were closely related to the anatomic location of the BBB lesion. These data point to focal cortical dysfunction in conjunction with BBB disruption and hypoperfusion as a possible mechanism of pathogenesis in at least some PCS patients, and offer QEEG and SPECT as important tools in evaluating these patients. PMID:15689708

Korn, Akira; Golan, Haim; Melamed, Israel; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto; Friedman, Alon

2005-01-01

339

Standards 101: The ASA Standards program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is

Paul Schomer

2001-01-01

340

Standards 101; the ASA standards program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12

Paul D. Schomer

2002-01-01

341

The Emerging Scholarly Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now a commonplace observation that human society is becoming a coherent super-organism, and that the information infrastructure forms its emerging brain. Perhaps, as the underlying technologies are likely to become billions of times more powerful than those we have today, we could say that we are now building the lizard brain for the future organism.

Kurtz, Michael J.

342

Traumatic Brain Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2000-02-01

343

Train Your Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a trick on their own brain to see if the brain can learn to ignore distracting input. Colors and words are used to play the visual trick, known as a Stroop Test. Learners predict and test whether practice makes perfect, or taking a break better improves concentration and performance.

Wgbh

2007-01-01

344

Brain is a Computer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the similarities between the human brain and its engineering counterpart, the computer. Since students work with computers routinely, this comparison strengthens their understanding of both how the brain works and how it parallels that of a computer. Students are also introduced to the "stimulus-sensor-coordinator-effector-response" framework for understanding human and robot actions.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

345

Inside the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

Drury, Stacy S.

2009-01-01

346

Demystifying the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

Steinberg, Laurence

2011-01-01

347

Brain Malignancies Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The BMSC functions to harmonize an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process that will identify and promote the "Best Science" in brain cancer clinical research by addressing the design, prioritization and evaluation of phase II, and all phase III clinical trials. The BMSC focus is in both adult and pediatric brain cancers.

348

Treatment of Brain Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer, found in approximately 20% of patients at autopsy. The diagnosis is usu- ally established by neuroimaging and carries a poor overall prognosis. Supportive therapies, such as corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, and an- ticoagulants, are necessary for most patients to address the common medical complications that often accompany brain metastases. These treatments often ameliorate symptoms

Teri Nguyen; Lisa M. DeAngelis

349

Brain Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Brain [and other parts of central nervous system] Meninges C700-C709, Brain C710–C719, Spinal Cord, Cranial Nerves and Other Parts of Central Nervous System C720-C729 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

350

Brain-Flow Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain-flow writing technique, which might also be called the "fast flow" technique, offers a particularly useful means of helping adults overcome writer's block. It also offers some bonuses in the form of enhanced creativity, improved thought-flow, and much faster writing output. There are six steps to brain-flow writing. In the first, or…

Peterson, Robert J.

351

Electromagnetic brain mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been tremendous advances in our ability to produce images of human brain function. Applications of functional brain imaging extend from improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cognitive processes to better characterization of pathologies that impair normal function. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) (MEG\\/EEG) localize neural electrical activity using noninvasive measurements of external electromagnetic signals. Among the

S. Baillet; J. C. Mosher; R. M. Leahy

2001-01-01

352

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)  

MedlinePLUS

... such as from a car collision or sports accident or in shaken baby syndrome. Intracranial hematoma (pronounced in-truh-KREY-nee-uhl hee-ma-TOH-muh ) occurs when damage to a major blood vessel in the brain or between the brain and the skull causes ...

353

Dyslexia and Brain Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the neurological basis of dyslexia has long been assumed, little direct evidence documents a relation between deviations in brain morphology and behavioral correlates of dyslexia. This article reviews two sources of evidence. Results of CT\\/MRI studies suggest that in the brains of dyslexics there is an increased incidence of symmetry in the region of the planum temporale and parietooccipital

George W. Hynd; Margaret Semrud-Clikeman

1989-01-01

354

Drugs and the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

355

What a Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines basic concepts about how the brain develops and considers how Head Start teachers and parents can take full advantage of the brain's multisensory learning approach to develop more effective ways to interact with children. Focuses on the critical developmental period for stimulating neurons and developing neural connections. Suggests…

Love, Kim

1997-01-01

356

Imaging the Working Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

Swithenby, S. J.

1996-01-01

357

Brain imaging in psychiatry  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

Morihisa, J.M.

1984-01-01

358

The Resilient Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

2005-01-01

359

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

360

Prenatal Human Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isozyme composition were analyzed in 41 unaffected human fetal brains of 18–42 weeks of gestation. Regional differences either in the levels of activity or in the patterns of development were observed. Throughout the 24-week period, the highest LDH activity was found in the spinal cord and the brain stem. Activity rises with

A. Chabás; P. Briones; J. Sabater

1979-01-01

361

Brain metastasis in hypernephroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 926 patients with hypernephroma, 36 (3.9%) had metastasis to the brain. The median age at presentation was 61 years (range, 34 to 82). Nineteen patients had a single lesion metastatic to the brain, and 16 of these lesions were supratentorial. In 28% of the patients, computed tomography showed hyperdense lesions before contrast material was injected. All patients, except 2

Peter C. Gay; William J. Litchyz; Terrence L. Cascino

1987-01-01

362

Traumatic Brain Injury and Dystonia  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma damages to the brain. TBI can occur when the head suddenly ... between dystonia and TBI is urgently needed. Traumatic Brain Injury & Dystonia Diagnosis & Treatment • TBI may involve physical, cognitive, ...

363

Primary lymphoma of the brain  

MedlinePLUS

Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. Patients who have a weakened immune system are at high risk of primary lymphoma of the ...

364

JAMA Patient Page: Brain Death  

MedlinePLUS

... the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Brain Death A person dies when brain function ceases, the ... techniques that can maintain some bodily functions. Brain death, as understood in US law and medical practice, ...

365

The Busy Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to understand how the brain receives and sends signals to the body. Until third grade, children view organs of the body as individual parts, e.g. the eyes are for seeing; the stomach digests food. At this level students are ready to start viewing the body as one whole system. One way to ease into this view is to study systems within the body such as the digestive system, circulatory system or the nervous system. This lesson introduces the brain, but not just the brain. It emphasizes how the brain interacts with the rest of the body. Students will learn about this by understanding 'messages' that go from parts of the body to the brain, and vice versa.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

366

Brain Dynamics Promotes Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical structure in the brain promotes biological function. Natural scientists look for correlations between measured electrical signals and behavior or mental states. Computational scientists have new opportunities to receive ’algorithmic’ inspiration from brain processes and propose computational paradigms. Thus a tradition which dates back to the 1940s with neural nets research is renewed. Real processes in the brain are ’complex’ and withstand trivial descriptions. However, dynamical complexity need not be at odds with a computational description of the phenomena and with the inspiration for algorithms that actually compute something in an engineering sense. We engage this complexity from a computational viewpoint, not excluding dynamical regimes that a number of authors are willing to label as chaos. The key question is: what may we be missing computation-wise if we overlook brain dynamics? At this point in brain research, we are happy if we can at least provide a partial answer.

Lourenço, Carlos

367

Sex Hormones, Brain Development and Brain Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The view that gonadal hormones exert a double action on the central nervous system--inductive during development and excitatory in the adult--allows a direct comparison between the brain and genital tract as target organs for these hormones. In both cases...

G. W. Harris

1964-01-01

368

Reviving brain death: a functionalist view.  

PubMed

Recently both whole brain death (WBD) and higher brain death (HBD) have come under attack. These attacks, we argue, are successful, leaving supporters of both views without a firm foundation. This state of affairs has been described as "the death of brain death." Returning to a cardiopulmonary definition presents problems we also find unacceptable. Instead, we attempt to revive brain death by offering a novel and more coherent standard of death based on the permanent cessation of mental processing. This approach works, we claim, by being functionalist instead of being based in biology, consciousness, or personhood. We begin by explaining why an objective biological determination of death fails. We continue by similarly rejecting current arguments offered in support of HBD, which rely on consciousness and/or personhood. In the final section, we explain and defend our functionalist view of death. Our definition centers on mental processing, both conscious and preconscious or unconscious. This view provides the philosophical basis of a functional definition that most accurately reflects the original spirit of brain death when first proposed in the Harvard criteria of 1968. PMID:23784534

Lipuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P

2013-10-01

369

International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

Cromwell, Ronita L.

2010-01-01

370

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

371

Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

372

Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

373

Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction (‘shaving’) of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [11C]-raclopride and [11C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches.

Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M.; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E.

2014-05-01

374

Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy.  

PubMed

Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a "reactive" personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a "proactive" personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration. PMID:24359469

Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva J P; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas

2014-04-01

375

Acoustical standards news.  

PubMed

American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes catalogs of Acoustical Standards, both National and International. To receive copies of the latest Standards catalogs, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National and International catalogs of Acoustical Standards, and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:24815289

Blaeser, Susan B; Schomer, Paul D

2014-05-01

376

Acoustical standards news.  

PubMed

American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes catalogs of Acoustical Standards, both National and International. To receive copies of the latest Standards catalogs, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National and International Catalogs of Acoustical Standards, and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:24993229

Blaeser, Susan B; Schomer, Paul D

2014-07-01

377

Knowledge-Based Classification of Neuronal Fibers in Entire Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work presents a framework driven by parcellation of brain gray matter in standard normalized space to classify the neuronal\\u000a fibers obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in entire human brain. Classification of fiber bundles into groups is\\u000a an important step for the interpretation of DTI data in terms of functional correlates of white matter structures. Connections\\u000a between anatomically delineated

Yan Xia; U. Turken; Susan L. Whitfield-gabrieli; John D. Gabrieli

2005-01-01

378

Management of penetrating brain injury  

PubMed Central

Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients.

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

2011-01-01

379

The Brain Reserve Hypothesis, Brain Atrophy and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have used the concept of brain reserve to explain the dissociation between pathological brain damage and cognitive and functional performance. A variety of brain reserve hypotheses exist, and different empirical strategies have been employed to investigate these variants. Objective: The study investigates (i) the relationship between measures of brain burden (atrophy, white matter hyperintensities (WMH)) and measures of

Helen Christensen; Kaarin J. Anstey; Ruth A. Parslow; Jerome Maller; Andrew Mackinnon; Perminder Sachdev

2007-01-01

380

Human intelligence and brain networks  

PubMed Central

Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other.

Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.

2010-01-01

381

Advances in neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Improved diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed for our military and veterans, their families, and society at large. Advances in brain imaging offer important biomarkers of structural, functional, and metabolic information concerning the brain. This article reviews the application of various imaging techniques to the clinical problems of TBI and PTSD. For TBI, we focus on findings and advances in neuroimaging that hold promise for better detection, characterization, and monitoring of objective brain changes in symptomatic patients with combat-related, closed-head brain injuries not readily apparent by standard computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

Van Boven, Robert W.; Harrington, Greg S.; Hackney, David B.; Ebel, Andreas; Gauger, Grant; Bremner, J. Douglas; D'Esposito, Mark; Detre, John A.; Haacke, E. Mark; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Le Bihan, Denis; Mathis, Chester A.; Mueller, Susanne; Mukherjee, Pratik; Schuff, Norbert; Chen, Anthony; Weiner, Michael W.

2011-01-01

382

Bayesian decoding of brain images.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a multivariate Bayesian (MVB) scheme to decode or recognise brain states from neuroimages. It resolves the ill-posed many-to-one mapping, from voxel values or data features to a target variable, using a parametric empirical or hierarchical Bayesian model. This model is inverted using standard variational techniques, in this case expectation maximisation, to furnish the model evidence and the conditional density of the model's parameters. This allows one to compare different models or hypotheses about the mapping from functional or structural anatomy to perceptual and behavioural consequences (or their deficits). We frame this approach in terms of decoding measured brain states to predict or classify outcomes using the rhetoric established in pattern classification of neuroimaging data. However, the aim of MVB is not to predict (because the outcomes are known) but to enable inference on different models of structure-function mappings; such as distributed and sparse representations. This allows one to optimise the model itself and produce predictions that outperform standard pattern classification approaches, like support vector machines. Technically, the model inversion and inference uses the same empirical Bayesian procedures developed for ill-posed inverse problems (e.g., source reconstruction in EEG). However, the MVB scheme used here extends this approach to include a greedy search for sparse solutions. It reduces the problem to the same form used in Gaussian process modelling, which affords a generic and efficient scheme for model optimisation and evaluating model evidence. We illustrate MVB using simulated and real data, with a special focus on model comparison; where models can differ in the form of the mapping (i.e., neuronal representation) within one region, or in the (combination of) regions per se. PMID:17919928

Friston, Karl; Chu, Carlton; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Hulme, Oliver; Rees, Geraint; Penny, Will; Ashburner, John

2008-01-01

383

The Criterion-Related Validity of Two Tests Hypothesized to Represent Left Brain and Right Brain Function for a Group of Elementary School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a sample of 89 second, third, and fourth grade pupils without any identifiable learning disabilities, criterion-related validity coefficients of two newly-devised tests hypothesized to be measures of left brain function and right brain function were obtained relative to scores earned on the reading and mathematics portions of a widely used standardized achievement test. The measure intended to portray left

Jule Dombrower; Jane Favero; Margaret King; Edward Dombrower; William B. Michael

1982-01-01

384

Brain and Mind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses consequences on the brain-mind dichotomy of the requirement that both facts and procedures must be repeatable without any restriction on principle or method, in studying human behavior. The most relevant consequences of this requireme...

R. Beltrame

1991-01-01

385

Mind and Brain, Again.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classical mind-brain questions appear deviant through the lens of an analogy comparing mental processes with computational processes. Problems of reducibility and personal consciousness are also considered in the light of this analogy. (Author)

K. M. Colby

1970-01-01

386

International Brain Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The third annual meeting International Brain Mapping & Intra- operative Surgical Planning Society (IBMISPS) was held in Clermont Ferrand, France (Sep 5-8, 2006). The Society is organized for the purpose of encouraging leading basic and clinical scientists...

B. Kateb

2007-01-01

387

Brain Coral Christmas  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Christmas tree worms have made their home on a brain coral. Tropical corals reefs are complex ecosystems, but are rapidly being lost to bleaching and disease, linked to increasing water temperatures....

2010-08-12

388

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... STUDY A new protocol is open at the Pediatric Oncology Branch of the National Cancer Institute for children, ... Read more... Tweet Researchers 16th International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation is proud to ...

389

Brain Wake-Ups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.

1997-01-01

390

Brain PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

... Tell the difference between Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... to: Alzheimer’s disease or dementia Brain tumors Epilepsy Movement disorders (such as Parkinson’s disease )

391

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... nauseous. Other symptoms include ringing in the ears, neck pain, and feeling anxious, upset, irritable, depressed or tired. ... counter pain medicine can help with headaches and neck pain. Treatment for a moderate or severe traumatic brain ...

392

Brain Stimulation Therapies  

MedlinePLUS

... a multisite study from CORE. Archives of General Psychiatry . 2006 Dec;63(12):1337-1344. 2 Fink ... new tool for brain research and therapy. Biological Psychiatry . 2000 Feb 15;47(4):287-295. 6 ...

393

Scanning the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from The Human Spark, host Alan Alda learns how Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines employ powerful magnetic fields to show what parts of the brain are active while doing different tasks.

Wnet

2011-08-08

394

Legionella micdadei Brain Abscess  

PubMed Central

We describe an immunocompromised patient who developed a large frontal brain abscess caused by Legionella micdadei. This is, to our knowledge, a rare case of culture-proven Legionella central nervous system infection.

Johnson, Edward; Macyk-Davey, Andrea; Henry, Monica; Nilsson, Jan-Erik; Miedzinski, Lil

2013-01-01

395

Brain-Controlled Prosthetics  

MedlinePLUS

... other tasks. As we maneuver through our daily environments, our brains are constantly taking what we see, hear, smell, taste, or touch and turning this information into split-second instructions that travel down our spinal cord and ...

396

Brain Aneurysm Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... ruptures. Announcements The Brain Aneurysm Foundation is in Canada! April 29, 2014 If you would like to ... donation, please mail a check to: The BAF-Canada 20 Whitney Avenue... Read More Tell Congress: Put ...

397

Computational analysis of brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain injury has been of continuing interest to researchers in impact biomechanics. It is a frequent cause of fatalities and of permanent disability among survivors. However, the etiology of many types of brain injury is still unknown. The current research investigates brain response in terms of stress, stain, stain energy, intracranial pressure, and brain\\/skull relative displacement, using finite element modeling

Aiman Sharef Al-Bsharat

2000-01-01

398

Brain Research: Implications for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to examine the research of split-brain, hemispheric specialization, and brain function, as it pertains to handwriting, brain wave patterns, and lateral differences. Studies are reviewed which point to asymmetric differentiated functions and capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres in split-brain patients and in normal…

Crouch-Shinn, Jenella; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

399

Understanding the changing adolescent brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human brain continues to develop throughout the adolescent years. Although there are differences between male and female teenagers in terms of the time course of neural development, similar brain areas undergo significant restructuring in both sexes. Brain regions in which development is particularly protracted include the prefrontal cortex and the temporalparietal

Stephanie Burnett; Catherine Sebastian

400

The Brain Activity Map  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists have made impressive advances in understanding the microscale function of single neurons and the macroscale activity of the human brain. One can probe molecular and biophysical aspects of individual neurons and also view the human brain in action with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). However, the mechanisms of perception, cognition, and action remain mysterious because they emerge from the real-time interactions of large sets of neurons in densely interconnected, widespread neural circuits.

Alivisatos, A. Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Greenspan, Ralph J.; McEuen, Paul L.; Roukes, Michael L.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Weiss, Paul S.; Yuste, Rafael

2013-01-01

401

Targeting the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery to the brain has remained one of the most vexing problems in translational neuroscience research. This review\\u000a rationalizes the strategies to target drugs to the brain. Factors such as the speed of intervention, the scale of intervention,\\u000a the state of BBB, and the permissible risks, will all be critical in deciding how best to deliver drugs to a

Shailendra Joshi; Eugene Ornstein; Jeffrey N. Bruce

2007-01-01

402

The Brain and Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measure of brain development is proposed which might correlate with intelligence. The neocortex\\/medulla volume is given for many species of primate, and it is found that this measure correlates with a measure of responsiveness to novel objects, and with performance on visual discrimination learning set. It is shown that cranial capacity\\/foramen magnum area is closely related to brain\\/medulla volume,

R. E. Passingham

1975-01-01

403

Deep brain stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) include stimulators, infusion devices, and neuroprostheses. They all belong to functional neurosurgery. Deep brain stimulators (DBS) are widely used for therapy and are in need of innovative evolutions. Robotized exoskeletons require BCIs able to drive up to 26 degrees of freedom (DoF). We report the nanomicrotechnology development of prototypes for new 3D DBS and for motor neuroprostheses.

Alim Louis Benabid; Thomas Costecalde; Napoleon Torres; Cecile Moro; Tetiana Aksenova; Andrey Eliseyev; Guillaume Charvet; Fabien Sauter; David Ratel; Corinne Mestais; Pierre Pollak; Stephan Chabardes

2011-01-01

404

Clostridial brain abscesses.  

PubMed

Ten patients with clostridial abscesses of the brain are presented. Despite the presence of gas within the cerebral hemispheres and Clostridium welchii cultured from the pus obtained, the outcome of all patients managed with burrhole aspiration of the abscess was good. There were no deaths and eight of the ten patients had no residual deficit. Clostridial infections of the brain, unlike those of the soft tissues of the body, have a good outcome with conservative surgery and appropriate antibiotics. PMID:7718165

Domingo, Z

1994-01-01

405

Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ?open? would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

2013-12-01

406

The BrainTainment Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The BrainTainment Center- home of the World Brain - receives a daily feed of uplinked Brainpower scores from players of THINKfast(tm)- the new brain-game that claims to grow your brain as you play the game. Bell Curves comparing Brainpower by country, domain, sex, age, profession & special interest groups will be posted as the data streams in. This One-stop Neuro-cog shop also features an on-line 5-minute IQ test, left/right brain analysis, random quotes & koans, a very popular Brain Board & a steady feed of brain booster news on new nutriceuticals, smart drugs, books, machines & games for your brain. The BrainTainment Center also offers the very popular THINKfast brain-game free off the site.

1997-01-01

407

Brain structure and obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular health problems including diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. These cardiovascular afflictions increase risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but it is unknown whether these factors, specifically obesity and Type II diabetes, are associated with specific patterns of brain atrophy. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to examine gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences in 94 elderly subjects who remained cognitively normal for at least 5 years after their scan. Bivariate analyses with corrections for multiple comparisons strongly linked body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma insulin (FPI) levels, and Type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) with atrophy in frontal, temporal, and subcortical brain regions. A multiple regression model, also correcting for multiple comparisons, revealed that BMI was still negatively correlated with brain atrophy (FDR <5%), while DM2 and FPI were no longer associated with any volume differences. In an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) model controlling for age, gender, and race, obese subjects with a high BMI (BMI > 30) showed atrophy in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and thalamus compared with individuals with a normal BMI (18.5-25). Overweight subjects (BMI: 25-30) had atrophy in the basal ganglia and corona radiata of the WM. Overall brain volume did not differ between overweight and obese persons. Higher BMI was associated with lower brain volumes in overweight and obese elderly subjects. Obesity is therefore associated with detectable brain volume deficits in cognitively normal elderly subjects. PMID:19662657

Raji, Cyrus A; Ho, April J; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

2010-03-01

408

Licensing Procedure and Standardization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advantages and disadvantages of standardization and its influence in the licensing are shown. The implementation of the French nuclear programme has been successful because of the many advantages that standardization offers from the point of view of safet...

J. M. Oury

1979-01-01

409

Electrical Systems Standards Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the background study made on Electrical Systems. Included is a master list of Marine Standards Organizations that were used for this study. Statements in these standards are divided into categories as being testable, visual examinati...

1973-01-01

410

Analyzing the Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Be they from Benchmarks for Science Literacy , the National Science Education Standards , or a state curriculum framework, standards offer educators a common foundation upon which to base curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Implicit i

Demers, Chris

2000-01-01

411

Avionics Standardization Potential Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Avionics Standardization Potential Analysis program is to develop a general methodology for evaluating the benefits accruing from the use of standard equipment across future USAF avionics systems. The methodology has been developed us...

R. K. Gates R. F. Shipp

1978-01-01

412

New brain cancer treatment may be more effective, less toxic  

Cancer.gov

A Phase 2 clinical trial testing a new protocol for treating a relatively rare form of brain cancer, primary CNS lymphoma, may change the standard of care for this disease, according to doctors at UC San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, who led the research. Described this week in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the trial involved 44 patients who were given a combination of high-dose chemotherapy with immune therapy, rather than the standard combination of chemotherapy with a technique known as whole-brain radiotherapy.

413

The brain's supply and demand in obesity  

PubMed Central

During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as “cerebral insulin suppression” (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy—particularly glucose—is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad). Blood samples were continuously taken and subjects rated their vigilance and mood by standard questionnaires. First, we found a low reactive stress system in obesity. While obese subjects showed a marked hormonal response to the psychosocial challenge, the cortisol response to the subsequent meal was absent. Whereas the brains of normal weight subjects demanded for extra energy from the body by using CIS, CIS was not detectable in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that the absence of CIS in obese subjects is due to the absence of their meal-related cortisol peak. Second, normal weight men were high reactive during psychosocial stress in changing their vigilance, thereby increasing their cerebral energy need, whereas obese men were low reactive in this respect. Third, normal weight subjects preferred carbohydrates after stress to supply their brain, while obese men preferred fat and protein instead. We conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner.

Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Zug, Sophia; Wischnath, Hannah; Wilhelm, Ines; Hallschmid, Manfred; Entringer, Sonja; Langemann, Dirk; Peters, Achim

2012-01-01

414

Iranian School Library Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iranian school library standards were adapted from American school library standards and have received Tehran Book Processing Centre executive committee approval. While Iran has several foreign schools, libraries and librarians, there are no Iranian professional school librarians to take an interest in the standards. Furthermore, the present low…

Harvey, John F.

415

New Coal Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

Heritage, John

1979-01-01

416

Refractory Material Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four standards of BeO containing the same impurities in approximately the same concentration ranges as the Brush BBOX Standards have been prepared. The composition of the standards has been verified by spectrographic and, in some instances, by wet chemica...

S. Kallmann F. Collier

1966-01-01

417

Library Technician Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

418

ALA Standards Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This American Library Association (ALA) policy statement and procedure manual is intended for use in the preparation of all standards issued by ALA and its component units to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of ALA standards. A brief discussion of the purpose of standards is offered, followed by definitions of four types of…

American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Standards.

419

Standards and Certification. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic issues…

2002

420

Standards for Objective Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

2007-01-01

421

Setting Strong Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet asserts that if states are to achieve the goal of educating all students to higher levels of learning, they must develop comprehensive and coherent standards-based education systems. The American Federation of Teachers' guidelines are: (1) standards must focus on academics; (2) standards must be grade by grade or clustered for…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

422

Metadata Standards Roundup  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors examine the challenges of creating and deploying multimedia metadata standards. They also review several of the significant standardization efforts to date and look at prospects for integrated use and broader adoption. Possible directions exist for improving the standards efforts to better address the growing problems of managing multimedia data.

John R. Smith; Peter Schirling

2006-01-01

423

International Standards 101  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an introduction to international standards and describes two global organizations, CIGRE and IEC. CIGRE is important to the manufacturers of electrical power equipment and electrical utilities. It often carries out the preliminary work needed for high-voltage international standards prepared by the IEC. IEC prepares standards on all aspects of electrical equipment and electronics.

S. Bjorkman; J. Bjorkman; H. W. Penrose; D. O'Brien; M. Bjorkman; C. Latham

2003-01-01

424

Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

2009-01-01

425

Brain Plasticity and Behaviour in the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review general principles of brain development, identify basic principles of brain plasticity, and discuss factors that influence brain development and plasticity. Method: A literature review of relevant English-language manuscripts on brain development and plasticity was conducted. Results: Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. Eight basic principles of brain plasticity are identified. Evidence that brain development and function is influenced by different environmental events such as sensory stimuli, psychoactive drugs, gonadal hormones, parental-child relationships, peer relationships, early stress, intestinal flora, and diet. Conclusions: The development of the brain reflects more than the simple unfolding of a genetic blueprint but rather reflects a complex dance of genetic and experiential factors that shape the emerging brain. Understanding the dance provides insight into both normal and abnormal development.

Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

2011-01-01

426

Sustainability and International Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the need for courses that link standards and sustainability and reviews an Oklahoma State University Environmental Science graduate course in Sustainability and International Standards. The course conveys the importance of voluntary international standards, such as from ASTM International or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to sustainability. The curriculum uses an innovative experiential learning approach whereby students research and develop a standard using the ASTM International process. One driven student joined ASTM International and worked to see her class project catalyze the publication of ASTM E 2348 Guide for Framework for a Consensus-Based Environmental Decision-Making Process.

Reisdorph, David

2009-08-28

427

[Brain metastasis of breast tumors and blood brain barrier].  

PubMed

Brain metastases are prevalent in solid tumours and lymphomas. They are associated with poor survival. The brain is regarded as a sanctuary site for metastatic tumour cells where they exist partially protected from drugs by the blood brain barrier. Amongst the different molecular sub-types of breast cancer, HER2 positive tumours and triple negative tumours exhibit the highest incidence of brain metastasis. Specific strategies are needed to fight brain metastatic disease. Preclinical models for brain metastasis have been developed, yielding mechanistic molecular knowledge and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21527366

Diéras, Véronique; Pierga, Jean-Yves

2011-04-01

428

National Information Standards Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1939, the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) is the premier contact organization responsible for identifying, developing, maintaining, and publishing technical standards "to manage information in our changing and ever-more digital environment". Their standards apply to both traditional and new technologies to the full range of information needs, such as storage, metadata, and preservation, to name but a few. On their site, visitors can read their monthly newsletter, peruse their annual report, and take a look at their various standards, including those that are still being developed. Visitors may also elect to download the current NISO standards if they so desire. The "Standards in Development" section is a nice place to take a look at, as it contains helpful notes and working documents on the development of such standards as technical metadata for digital still images and those for controlled vocabularies and thesauri.

2005-12-28

429

Therapeutic hypothermia for traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence demonstrates that therapeutic temperature modulation with the use of mild induced hypothermia (MIH, defined as the maintenance of body temperature at 32-35 °C) exerts significant neuroprotection and attenuates secondary cerebral insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In adult TBI patients, MIH has been used during the acute "early" phase as prophylactic neuroprotectant and in the sub-acute "late" phase to control brain edema. When used to control brain edema, MIH is effective in reducing elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), and is a valid therapy of refractory intracranial hypertension in TBI patients. Based on the available evidence, we recommend: applying standardized algorithms for the management of induced cooling; paying attention to limit potential side effects (shivering, infections, electrolyte disorders, arrhythmias, reduced cardiac output); and using controlled, slow (0.1-0.2 °C/h) rewarming, to avoid rebound ICP. The optimal temperature target should be titrated to maintain ICP <20 mmHg and to avoid temperatures <35 °C. The duration of cooling should be individualized until the resolution of brain edema, and may be longer than 48 h. Patients with refractory elevated ICP following focal TBI (e.g. hemorrhagic contusions) may respond better to MIH than those with diffuse injury. Randomized controlled trials are underway to evaluate the impact of MIH on neurological outcome in adult TBI patients with elevated ICP. The use of MIH as prophylactic neuroprotectant in the early phase of adult TBI is not supported by clinical evidence and is not recommended. PMID:22836524

Urbano, L A; Oddo, Mauro

2012-10-01

430

Deformation-Based Morphometry and Its Relation to Conventional Volumetry of Brain Lateral Ventricles in MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation-based morphometry (DBM) is a useful technique to detect morphological differences over the entire brain since it analyses positional differences between every voxel and a standard brain. In this report we compare DBM to semimanual tracing of brain ventricles in a population of 39 patients with schizophrenia. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained and processed with DBM and interactive

Christian Gaser; Igor Nenadic; Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Erin A. Hazlett; Monte S. Buchsbaum

2001-01-01

431

Distribution of brain metastases.  

PubMed

The number and site of brain metastases were identified on the computed tomographic scans of 288 patients. There was one brain metastasis in 49%, two in 21%, three in 13%, four in 6%, and five or more in 11% of scans. In patients with one metastasis, the posterior fossa was involved in 50% of patients when the primary tumor was pelvic (prostate or uterus) or gastrointestinal, but it was involved in only 10% of patients with other primary tumors. Hemispheral metastases preferred the anatomic "watershed areas" (29% of the brain surface contained 37% of the metastases), indicating that tumoral microemboli tend to lodge in the capillaries of the distal parts of the superficial arteries. The charts of 134 patients with brain metastases from a primary tumor originating outside the lung revealed that the incidence of lung and spine metastases was the same, whether the primary tumor was pelvic or gastrointestinal or from another site. These data suggest that the high incidence of subtentorial lesions in patients with pelvic and gastrointestinal primary tumors cannot be explained by arterial embolization alone, and that this peculiar distribution is probably not explained by seeding of the brain through Batson's plexus. PMID:3390029

Delattre, J Y; Krol, G; Thaler, H T; Posner, J B

1988-07-01

432

Traumatic brain injury in modern war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

2013-05-01

433

Therapeutic approaches for HER2-positive brain metastases: circumventing the blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

We aim to summarize data from studies of trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and brain metastasis and to describe novel methods being developed to circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A literature search was conducted to obtain data on the clinical efficacy of trastuzumab and lapatinib in patients with HER2-positive MBC and brain metastasis, as well as the transport of therapeutic molecules across the BBB. Trastuzumab-based therapy is the standard of care for patients with HER2-positive MBC. Post hoc and retrospective analyses show that trastuzumab significantly prolongs overall survival when given after the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis; this is probably attributable to its control of extracranial disease, although trastuzumab may have a direct effect on CNS disease in patients with local or general perturbation of the BBB. In patients without a compromised BBB, trastuzumab is thought to have limited access to the brain, because of its relatively large molecular size. Several approaches are being developed to enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. These include physical or pharmacologic disruption of the BBB, direct intracerebral drug delivery, drug manipulation, and coupling drugs to transport vectors. Available data suggest that trastuzumab extends survival in patients with HER2-positive MBC and brain metastasis. Novel methods for delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain could be used in the future to enhance access to the CNS by trastuzumab, thereby improving its efficacy in this setting. PMID:22727691

Mehta, Ankit I; Brufsky, Adam M; Sampson, John H

2013-05-01

434

Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

435

Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data.  

PubMed

The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction ('shaving') of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [(11)C]-raclopride and [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches. PMID:24778363

Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E

2014-05-21

436

NASA Technical Standards Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

2003-01-01

437

NASA Technical Standards Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

438

NDTA narcotics standard development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

1997-01-01

439

Brain abscess: Current management  

PubMed Central

Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

2013-01-01

440

Music and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the relationship between the brain and music? That very question animates the Library of Congress' Music and the Brain series, and their website allows interested parties to listen in on some of the conversations, lectures, and symposia. Noted psychologist Kay Redfield Jamison chairs the initiative, and the programs bring together physicians, theorists, composers, and performers. Visitors can listen to some of these recent conversations via this website, and they can also sign up to receive new podcasts via iTunes. Currently, there are five different podcasts available. They include talks with Dr. Charles J. Limb ("Your Brain on Jazz"), Jessica Krash ("Dangerous Music"), and Dr. Aniruddh D. Patel on "The Music of Language and the Language of Music".

441

Brain Development in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study.

Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

2012-01-01

442

Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the Department of Physiology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, this site offers images and information from "one of the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains." The site features photos of brains of over 100 different species of mammals, representing 17 mammalian orders. Users can browse the collection by common or scientific name; view serial sections of selected specimens (including human and chimpanzee), some of which are also available as QuickTime movies; read about the importance and history of the collections; and learn about brain evolution (this last section still under construction). Additional resources include a collection of related links and an internal search engine.

443

Brain serotonergic circuitries  

PubMed Central

Brain serotonergic circuitries interact with other neurotransmitter systems on a multitude of different molecular levels. In humans, as in other mammalian species, serotonin (5-HT) plays a modulatory role in almost every physiological function. Furthermore, serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be implicated in several psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. We describe the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of brain serotonergic circuitries. The contribution of emergent in vivo imaging methods to the regional localization of binding site receptors and certain aspects of their functional connectivity in correlation to behavior is also discussed. 5-HT cell bodies, mainly localized in the raphe nuclei, send axons to almost every brain region. It is argued that the specificity of the local chemocommunication between 5-HT and other neuronal elements mainly depends on mechanisms regulating the extracellular concentration of 5-HT, the diversity of high-affinity membrane receptors, and their specific transduction modalities.

Charnay, Yves; Leger, Lucienne

2010-01-01

444

Brain Science Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding how the brain works is a fascinating and engaging question, worth ruminating every day, if possible. The Brain Science Podcast does just that. Dr. Ginger Campbell, an experienced emergency room physician, has a long standing interest in mind-body medicine, the brain, and consciousness. As host, she features the latest books about neuroscience along with interviews with scientists from all over the world. Visitors can click on the Latest Show to listen in on her latest conversation or click on Past Episodes to dive on into her past ruminations. Here they can take advantage of conversations discussing the pre-frontal lobes, gut feelings, and neurophilosophy. Additionally, visitors can look over the Free Transcripts area to read through complete transcripts of all the programs on her site. The site is rounded out by a place to leave feedback, an FAQ area, and a link to her RSS feed.

Campbell, Virginia

445

Regional brain effects of sodium azide treatment on cytochrome oxidase activity: a quantitative histochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine if regional variation in brain cytochrome oxidase activity was observed following systemic administration of sodium azide. An image analysis system calibrated with internal standards of known cytochrome oxidase activity was used to quantify cytochrome oxidase in histochemically stained brain sections. Rats receiving chronic infusion of sodium azide (400 µg\\/hr), which were

Amy ?ada; F. Gonzalez-Lima; Gregory M. Rose; M. Catherine Bennett

1995-01-01

446

Patterns of Dissociation in the Processing of Verb Meanings in Brain-Damaged Subjects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how knowledge associated with verbs can be impaired by brain damage. A standardized battery of tests was administered to a group of brain damaged subjects. The goal was to investigate how patterns of associations and dissociations that emerged across tests could shed light on the functional architecture that underlies the meaning of verbs…

Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel; Barrash, Joseph

2001-01-01

447

Computer-aided relearning activity patterns for people with acquired brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people require is mainly a continuous relearning process, as they must

Francisco Montero; Víctor López-Jaquero; Elena Navarro; Enriqueta Sánchez

2011-01-01

448

Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

2011-01-01

449

? knife radiosurgery of brain metastasis from breast cancer.  

PubMed

The incidence of brain metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer ranges from 14 to 16%.Age, number of metastatic sites, short disease-free survival and molecular subtypes are associated with the occurrence of brain metastasis. Patients classified in the triple-negative group more frequently presented brain metastasis as the first site (26%) than those in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (6%) or luminal (12%) subtypes. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is still the standard treatment for breast cancer patients with brain metastasis. The 1- and 2-year survival rates of patients with brain metastasis were 25 and 10%, respectively, with a median survival of 6 months. In selected patients with single brain metastasis, majority of lung cancer, three randomized controlled trials underlined the significant survival benefit in adding local treatment such as surgery or stereotactic radio surgery to WBRT. Similarly, the upfront stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone did not affect survival rate in three other randomized studies and represents an alternative treatment for patients with stage 1-4. Metastatic breast cancer patients with Karnofsky Performance Scale ?70, single or oligometastatic brain metastases and well-controlled extracranial disease or favorable disease-specific graded prognostic assessment group presented a median overall survival of 16 months. Delaying WBRT could spare patients of neurocognitive toxicity due to full-dose whole brain irradiation. Nevertheless, the real WBRT neurocognitive impact is still unclear. These patients should be followed with serial magnetic resonance image every 3 months and treated with WBRT or additional SRS at recurrence to control brain disease. PMID:22236677

Padovani, Laetitia; Muracciole, Xavier; Régis, Jean

2012-01-01

450

Tuberculosis simulating brain tumour.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to highlight the varied presentation of tuberculosis (TB) simulating a brain tumour. Headache and seizures are becoming frequent presenting complaints without any history of tuberculosis. The study comprises 1200 patients of both sexes with ages ranging from ten to sixty years. CT scan and MRI brain control with and without contrast medium were the investigations performed in these cases. In some patients Electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral angiography (DSA) and spectroscopy were also performed. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was made on the basis of craniotomy, stereotactic and burr hole biopsies with histopathology in most of the cases. Forty per cent of the patients were followed up for eight months. They were put on anti-tuberculosis treatment with symptomatic and anti-epileptic drugs. The incidence was 544 and 757 per 100,000 in Africa and Indo Pakistan respectively. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Tuberculosis, especially with CNS involvement, is not only common in immunosuppressed patients in our setting, but TB has been and remains an important public health problem. TB may involve the CNS either as meningitis or as parenchymal granulomas or abscesses. Patients with brain TB usually present with fever, multiple cranial nerve involvement and occasional behavioural changes. CSF findings remain non specific in most cases. The most common sites are the cerebral hemisphere and basal ganglion in adults and the cerebellum in children. Tuberculosis has unique findings on brain CT and MRI. Cortical and subcortical locations are typical whereas the brain stem is a less common site. Tuberculosis lesions are usually solitary but multiple in 10% to 35% of cases. In spite of all these facts some cases of brain TB still need aggressive neurointervention to reach the final diagnosis of brain TB. Tuberculosis in the CNS may manifest in many different ways. So one should always include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis in the etiology of delayed onset epilepsy and acute on chronic headache. In case of a discrepancy between clinical manifestations and CT/MRI findings, one can always anticipate tuberculous lesion in the brain. PMID:24059657

Chaudhry, U R; Farooq, M; Rauf, F; Bhatti, S K

2011-06-30

451

International Brain Research Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1960, the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) is an international group "dedicated to the promotion of neuroscience and of communication between brain researchers in all countries of the world." The IBRO website contains information about publications, funding options, upcoming events, membership, and more. In addition, the site posts links to pertinent announcements and news items. Notably, the IBRO maintains a useful collection of related links that includes other organizations and societies, neuroscience-related websites, and journals. The website offers a search engine for locating IBRO members as well.

452

Competitiveness and international standardization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two main points to be covered in this paper; one deals with the question of why we should be interested in standardization in the first place. The second point considers why we should be more interested in international standards than domestic standards, assuming we have an interest at all. We argue that we should be interested in standards for optical goods for the same reason we believe in logic and scientific principles -- that no amount of charisma is going to change the fact that 2 plus 2 is 4. Regarding the second point, if one concludes that standards are worthwhile, why settle for half the loaf? We are now in a truly global market, even more so with recent events in Eastern Europe and the USSR, and the only way to take full advantage of that market is through international standards.

Parks, Robert E.

1992-05-01

453

Development of the Brain’s Functional Network Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full understanding of the development of the brain’s functional network architecture requires not only an understanding\\u000a of developmental changes in neural processing in individual brain regions but also an understanding of changes in inter-regional\\u000a interactions. Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is increasingly being used to study functional interactions\\u000a between brain regions in both adults and children. We briefly

Alecia C. Vogel; Jonathan D. Power; Steven E. Petersen; Bradley L. Schlaggar

2010-01-01

454

Traumatic Brain Injury in Sports: A Review  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical diagnosis of neurological dysfunction following head trauma, typically presenting with acute symptoms of some degree of cognitive impairment. There are an estimated 1.7 to 3.8 million TBIs each year in the United States, approximately 10 percent of which are due to sports and recreational activities. Most brain injuries are self-limited with symptom resolution within one week, however, a growing amount of data is now establishing significant sequelae from even minor impacts such as headaches, prolonged cognitive impairments, or even death. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment according to standardized guidelines are crucial when treating athletes who may be subjected to future head trauma, possibly increasing their likelihood of long-term impairments.

Sahler, Christopher S.; Greenwald, Brian D.

2012-01-01

455

Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Feedback control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease has great potential to improve efficacy, reduce side effects, and decrease the cost of treatment. In this, the timing and intensity of stimulation are titrated according to biomarkers that capture current clinical state. Stimulation may be at standard high frequency or intelligently patterned to directly modify specific pathological rhythms. The search for and validation of appropriate feedback signals are therefore crucial. Signals recorded from the DBS electrode currently appear to be the most promising source of feedback. In particular, beta-frequency band oscillations in the local field potential recorded at the stimulation target may capture variation in bradykinesia and rigidity across patients, but this remains to be confirmed within patients. Biomarkers that reliably reflect other impairments, such as tremor, also need to be established. Finally, whether brain signals are causally important needs to be established before stimulation can be specifically patterned rather than delivered at empirically defined high frequency.

Little, Simon; Brown, Peter

2012-01-01

456

Hybrid genetic and variational expectation-maximization algorithm for gaussian-mixture-model-based brain MR image segmentation.  

PubMed

The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been widely applied to the estimation of gaussian mixture model (GMM) in brain MR image segmentation. However, the EM algorithm is deterministic and intrinsically prone to overfitting the training data and being trapped in local optima. In this paper, we propose a hybrid genetic and variational EM (GA-VEM) algorithm for brain MR image segmentation. In this approach, the VEM algorithm is performed to estimate the GMM, and the GA is employed to initialize the hyperparameters of the conjugate prior distributions of GMM parameters involved in the VEM algorithm. Since GA has the potential to achieve global optimization and VEM can steadily avoid overfitting, the hybrid GA-VEM algorithm is capable of overcoming the drawbacks of traditional EM-based methods. We compared our approach to the EM-based, VEM-based, and GA-EM based segmentation algorithms, and the segmentation routines used in the statistical parametric mapping package and FMRIB Software Library in 20 low-resolution and 17 high-resolution brain MR studies. Our results show that the proposed approach can improve substantially the performance of brain MR image segmentation. PMID:21233052

Tian, GuangJian; Xia, Yong; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Dagan

2011-05-01

457

Radiation standards and calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research program encompasses: reviewing calibration standards, regulations, and handbooks; assuring that calibration procedures used are in agreement with technically accepted methods; maintaining basic radioactive sources and instruments that serve as radiological standards; and providing traceability to the National Bureau of Standards where possible. In addition, major efforts are being expended to upgrade the 318 calibration facility. This report focuses on major accomplishments during FY-1981. However, most maintenance and quality assurance efforts involve routine support and only a summary report is provided.

Roberson, P. L.; Yoder, R. C.; Fox, R. A.; Hooker, C. D.; Hogan, R. T.; Holbrook, K. L.; Hadley, R. T.

1982-07-01

458

Building Codes and Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief document from David Cohan includes some information on building codes and standards. The purpose of building codes and standards is defined, and how they relate to energy and sustainability topics is also explored. This document would be useful for instructors looking for some notes on how to incorporate building codes and standards into their class work, or for students looking to learn more about the topic. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cohan, David

2012-01-17

459

State Standards and Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to include creationism. As a result of this influence, are educators teaching creationism even though state standards support the teaching of evolution? To answer this question, the author examined evolution education in Minnesota to determine if teachers emphasize evolution in their biology classes as mandated by Minnesota's state educational standards.

Moore, Randy

2004-07-01

460

Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)

2009-05-21

461

Web Standards Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Led by the World Wide Web Consortium, the Web Standards Project is an effort to make "technologies for creating and interpreting web-based content." These standards allow many types of languages and object models to be compatible on different browsers and platforms. The project's home page has many resources for users to learn about standards and guidelines. Some of the major topics include HTML, XML, Cascading Style Sheets, and accessibility. An informative section on Web browsers compares the standards compliance of eight popular browsers. Special email addresses of some browser manufacturers are also given, so users can report bugs to help improve the quality of the software.

1998-01-01

462

Standard NIM instrumentation system  

SciTech Connect

NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

Not Available

1990-05-01

463

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

464

Standardization: colorfull or dull?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

van Nes, Floris L.

2003-01-01

465

Alternatives to Standardized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for alternatives to standardized testing. The means for alternative methods of evaluation are easily accessible if educational resources are organized for that purpose. (Author/IRT)

Perrone, Vito

1975-01-01

466

Left Brain/Right Brain Learning for Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts and compares the theory and practice of adult education as it relates to the issue of right brain/left brain learning. The author stresses the need for a whole-brain approach to teaching and suggests that adult educators, given their philosophical directions, are the perfect potential users of this integrated system. (Editor/CT)

Garvin, Barbara

1986-01-01

467

Neovasculature and blood-brain barrier in ischemic brain infarct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular events occurring in ischemic brain infarcts of 1 day to 8 weeks duration were investigated. The material consisted of 17 human postmortem brains with anemic infarcts caused by occlusive vascular diseases. Using antiserum against human plasma albumin as a marker for the breakdown of blood-brain barrier and ammoniacal silver nitrate stain to demonstrate the vasculature, the onset and

H. Mei Liu

1988-01-01

468

Could helical tomotherapy do whole brain radiotherapy and radiosurgery?  

PubMed

Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) remains the standard management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases, allowing for symptomatic improvement and good loc