Sample records for standardized low-resolution brain

  1. Functional imaging with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA): a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto D. Pascual-marqui; Michaela Esslen; Kieko Kochi; Dietrich Lehmann

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews several recent publications that have successfully used the functional brain imaging method known as LORETA. Emphasis is placed on the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical basis of the method, on the localization properties of the method, and on the validation of the method in real experimental human data. Papers that criticize LORETA are briefly discussed. LORETA publications in the

  2. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  3. IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.

    2002-01-01

    Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

  4. Localization Using Low-Resolution Optical Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammara Massey; Rahul Kapur; Foad Dabiri; Linh Nam Vu; Majid Sarrafzadeh

    2007-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, the data collected from numerous low end sensors can be equivalent or superior to a few high fidelity sensors. In this paper, we evaluate the validity of this concept with low-resolution optical sensors. We implemented passive localization using visual object identification techniques on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) sensor platform. The complexity, memory utilization, and

  5. THz Low Resolution Spectroscopy for Astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon J. Stacey

    2011-01-01

    (Invited Paper) Abstract—The THz spectral regime provides a wide range of spectral lines that are invaluable probes of star formation and AGN activity in galaxies both in the local Universe and at the earliest times. We review the utility of these lines, give examples of the science they deliver, and detail the properties of successful low resolution direct detection spectrometers

  6. Multidimensional Scaling for Matching Low-resolution Face Images

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    1 Multidimensional Scaling for Matching Low-resolution Face Images Soma Biswas, Member, IEEE, Kevin performance degrades considerably when the input images are of low resolution as is often the case for images for matching low resolution probe images with higher resolution gallery images, which are often available

  7. Residual noise covariance for Planck low-resolution data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keskitalo; M. A. J. Ashdown; P. Cabella; T. Kisner; T. Poutanen; R. Stompor; J. G. Bartlett; J. Borrill; C. Cantalupo; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Troia; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; K. M. Górski; A. Gruppuso; E. Hivon; A. Jaffe; E. Keihänen; H. Kurki-Suonio; C. R. Lawrence; P. Natoli; F. Paci; G. Polenta; G. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We develop and validate tools for estimating residual noise covariance in Planck frequency maps, we also quantify signal error effects and compare different techniques to produce low-resolution maps. Methods: We derived analytical estimates of covariance of the residual noise contained in low-resolution maps produced using a number of mapmaking approaches. We tested these analytical predictions using both Monte Carlo

  8. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases.

    PubMed

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A; Boline, Jyl

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID:25309417

  9. Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A.; Boline, Jyl

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID:25309417

  10. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-01-01

    Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7?Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed. PMID:25195739

  11. Framework for reliable, real-time facial expression recognition for low resolution images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Framework for reliable, real-time facial expression recognition for low resolution images Rizwan, UMR5516, 42000 Saint-Etienne, France Abstract Automatic recognition of facial expressions on low resolution images. Keywords: Facial expression recognition, Low Resolution Images, Local Binary

  12. The Locust Standard Brain: A 3D Standard of the Central Complex as a Platform for Neural Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    el Jundi, Basil; Heinze, Stanley; Lenschow, Constanze; Kurylas, Angela; Rohlfing, Torsten; Homberg, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008) have generated a three-dimensional (3D) standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA) procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a) and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant fan-shaped (GFS) neuron, were reconstructed 3D from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body. PMID:20161763

  13. Residual noise covariance for Planck low-resolution data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keskitalo; M. A. J. Ashdown; P. Cabella; T. Kisner; T. Poutanen; R. Stompor; J. G. Bartlett; J. Borrill; C. Cantalupo; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Troia; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; K. M. Gorski; A. Gruppuso; E. Hivon; A. Jaffe; E. Keihanen; H. Kurki-Suonio; C. R. Lawrence; P. Natoli; F. Paci; G. Polenta; G. Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Develop and validate tools to estimate residual noise covariance in\\u000aPlanck frequency maps. Quantify signal error effects and compare different\\u000atechniques to produce low-resolution maps.\\u000a Methods: We derive analytical estimates of covariance of the residual noise\\u000acontained in low-resolution maps produced using a number of map-making\\u000aapproaches. We test these analytical predictions using Monte Carlo simulations\\u000aand their impact

  14. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon Cheol Chung; Do Young Choi; Gye Rae Tack; Jin Hun Sohn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise

  15. Track Initialization in Low Frame Rate and Low Resolution Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naresh P. Cuntoor; Arslan Basharat; A. G. Amitha Perera; Anthony Hoogs

    2010-01-01

    The problem of object detection and tracking has received relatively less attention in low frame rate and low resolution videos. Here we focus on motion segmentation in videos where objects appear small (less than 30-pixel tall people) and have low frame rate (less than 5 Hz). We study challenging cases where some of the, otherwise successful, approaches may break down.

  16. Correcting second-order contamination in low-resolution spectra

    E-print Network

    V. Stanishev

    2007-05-23

    An empirical method for correcting low-resolution astronomical spectra for second-order contamination is presented. The method was developed for correcting spectra obtained with grism #4 of the ALFOSC spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope and the performance is demonstrated on spectra of two nearby bright Type Ia supernovae.

  17. Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Bo Bo, Nyan; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

  18. The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed. PMID:21906305

  19. Residual noise covariance for Planck low-resolution data analysis

    E-print Network

    Keskitalo, R; Cabella, P; Kisner, T; Poutanen, T; Stompor, R; Bartlett, J G; Borrill, J; Cantalupo, C; De Gasperis, G; De Rosa, A; de Troia, G; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hivon, E; Jaffe, A; Keihanen, E; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lawrence, C R; Natoli, P; Paci, F; Polenta, G; Rocha, G

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Develop and validate tools to estimate residual noise covariance in Planck frequency maps. Quantify signal error effects and compare different techniques to produce low-resolution maps. Methods: We derive analytical estimates of covariance of the residual noise contained in low-resolution maps produced using a number of map-making approaches. We test these analytical predictions using Monte Carlo simulations and their impact on angular power spectrum estimation. We use simulations to quantify the level of signal errors incurred in different resolution downgrading schemes considered in this work. Results: We find an excellent agreement between the optimal residual noise covariance matrices and Monte Carlo noise maps. For destriping map-makers, the extent of agreement is dictated by the knee frequency of the correlated noise component and the chosen baseline offset length. The significance of signal striping is shown to be insignificant when properly dealt with. In map resolution downgrading, we find that...

  20. Ship target recognition using low resolution radar and neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Inggs; A. D. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    The classification of ship targets using low resolution down-range radar profiles together with preprocessing and neural networks is investigated. An implementation of the Fourier-modified discrete Mellin transform is used as a means for extracting features which are insensitive to the aspect angle of the radar. Kohonen's self-organizing map with learning vector quantization (LVQ) is used for the classification of these

  1. Standardized atlas of the brain of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela E. Kurylas; Torsten Rohlfing; Sabine Krofczik; Arnim Jenett; Uwe Homberg

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the connectivity of neuronal networks, their constituent neurons should ideally be studied in a common\\u000a framework. Since morphological data from physiologically characterized and stained neurons usually arise from different individual\\u000a brains, this can only be performed in a virtual standardized brain that compensates for interindividual variability. The desert\\u000a locust, Schistocerca gregaria, is an insect species used

  2. Residual noise covariance for Planck low-resolution data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskitalo, R.; Ashdown, M. A. J.; Cabella, P.; Kisner, T.; Poutanen, T.; Stompor, R.; Bartlett, J. G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Troia, G.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Hivon, E.; Jaffe, A.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Natoli, P.; Paci, F.; Polenta, G.; Rocha, G.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We develop and validate tools for estimating residual noise covariance in Planck frequency maps, we also quantify signal error effects and compare different techniques to produce low-resolution maps. Methods: We derived analytical estimates of covariance of the residual noise contained in low-resolution maps produced using a number of mapmaking approaches. We tested these analytical predictions using both Monte Carlo simulations and by applying them to angular power spectrum estimation. We used simulations to quantify the level of signal errors incurred in the different resolution downgrading schemes considered in this work. Results: We find excellent agreement between the optimal residual noise covariance matrices and Monte Carlo noise maps. For destriping mapmakers, the extent of agreement is dictated by the knee frequency of the correlated noise component and the chosen baseline offset length. Signal striping is shown to be insignificant when properly dealt with. In map resolution downgrading, we find that a carefully selected window function is required to reduce aliasing to the subpercent level at multipoles, ? > 2Nside, where Nside is the HEALPix resolution parameter. We show that, for a polarization measurement, reliable characterization of the residual noise is required to draw reliable constraints on large-scale anisotropy. Conclusions: Methods presented and tested in this paper allow for production of low-resolution maps with both controlled sky signal error level and a reliable estimate of covariance of the residual noise. We have also presented a method for smoothing the residual noise covariance matrices to describe the noise correlations in smoothed, bandwidth-limited maps.

  3. Zebrafish brain mapping-standardized spaces, length scales, and the power of N and n.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Hendry, Aenea C; Lowe, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Mapping anatomical and functional parameters of the zebrafish brain is moving apace. Research communities undertaking such studies are becoming ever larger and more diverse. The unique features, tools, and technologies associated with zebrafish are propelling them as the 21st century model organism for brain mapping. Uniquely positioned as a vertebrate model system, the zebrafish enables imaging of anatomy and function at different length scales from intraneuronal compartments to sparsely distributed whole brain patterns. With a variety of diverse and established statistical modeling and analytic methods available from the wider brain mapping communities, the richness of zebrafish neuroimaging data is being realized. The statistical power of population observations (N) within and across many samples (n) projected onto a standardized space will provide vast databases for data-driven biological approaches. This article reviews key brain mapping initiatives at different levels of scale that highlight the potential of zebrafish brain mapping. By way of introduction to the next wave of brain mappers, an accessible introduction to the key concepts and caveats associated with neuroimaging are outlined and discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 557-568, 2015. PMID:25418847

  4. Calibration and Standardization of Microwave Ovens for Fixation of Brain and Peripheral Nerve Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan B. Leonard; Ann M. Dvorak

    1998-01-01

    Rapid and reproducible fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue for light and electron microscopy studies can be done in a microwave oven. In this review we report a standardized nomenclature for diverse fixation techniques that use microwave heating: (1) microwave stabilization, (2) fast and ultrafast primary microwave–chemical fixation, (3) microwave irradiation followed by chemical fixation, (4) primary chemical fixation

  5. Detecting aircraft with a low-resolution infrared sensor.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz, Jérémie; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Maire, Florian; Moulines, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Existing computer simulations of aircraft infrared signature (IRS) do not account for dispersion induced by uncertainty on input data, such as aircraft aspect angles and meteorological conditions. As a result, they are of little use to estimate the detection performance of IR optronic systems; in this case, the scenario encompasses a lot of possible situations that must be indeed addressed, but cannot be singly simulated. In this paper, we focus on low-resolution infrared sensors and we propose a methodological approach for predicting simulated IRS dispersion of poorly known aircraft and performing aircraft detection on the resulting set of low-resolution infrared images. It is based on a sensitivity analysis, which identifies inputs that have negligible influence on the computed IRS and can be set at a constant value, on a quasi-Monte Carlo survey of the code output dispersion, and on a new detection test taking advantage of level sets estimation. This method is illustrated in a typical scenario, i.e., a daylight air-to-ground full-frontal attack by a generic combat aircraft flying at low altitude, over a database of 90,000 simulated aircraft images. Assuming a white noise or a fractional Brownian background model, detection performances are very promising. PMID:22588114

  6. Automated lung segmentation of low resolution CT scans of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Benjamin M.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

    2014-03-01

    Dual modality micro-CT and SPECT imaging can play an important role in preclinical studies designed to investigate mechanisms, progression, and therapies for acute lung injury in rats. SPECT imaging involves examining the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals within the lung, with the hypothesis that uptake is sensitive to the health or disease status of the lung tissue. Methods of quantifying lung uptake and comparison of right and left lung uptake generally begin with identifying and segmenting the lung region within the 3D reconstructed SPECT volume. However, identification of the lung boundaries and the fissure between the left and right lung is not always possible from the SPECT images directly since the radiopharmaceutical may be taken up by other surrounding tissues. Thus, our SPECT protocol begins with a fast CT scan, the lung boundaries are identified from the CT volume, and the CT region is coregistered with the SPECT volume to obtain the SPECT lung region. Segmenting rat lungs within the CT volume is particularly challenging due to the relatively low resolution of the images and the rat's unique anatomy. Thus, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm for low resolution micro-CT scans that utilizes depth maps to detect fissures on the surface of the lung volume. The fissure's surface location is in turn used to interpolate the fissure throughout the lung volume. Results indicate that the segmentation method results in left and right lung regions consistent with rat lung anatomy.

  7. Low-Resolution Raman-Spectroscopy Combustion Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2008-01-01

    A method of optical thermometry, now undergoing development, involves low-resolution measurement of the spectrum of spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) from N2 and O2 molecules. The method is especially suitable for measuring temperatures in high pressure combustion environments that contain N2, O2, or N2/O2 mixtures (including air). Methods based on SRS (in which scattered light is shifted in wavelength by amounts that depend on vibrational and rotational energy levels of laser-illuminated molecules) have been popular means of probing flames because they are almost the only methods that provide spatially and temporally resolved concentrations and temperatures of multiple molecular species in turbulent combustion. The present SRS-based method differs from prior SRS-based methods that have various drawbacks, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article. Two main differences between this and prior SRS-based methods are that it involves analysis in the frequency (equivalently, wavelength) domain, in contradistinction to analysis in the intensity domain in prior methods; and it involves low-resolution measurement of what amounts to predominantly the rotational Raman spectra of N2 and O2, in contradistinction to higher-resolution measurement of the vibrational Raman spectrum of N2 only in prior methods.

  8. Face Detection in Low-resolution Color Images Jun Zheng, Geovany A. Ramirez, and Olac Fuentes,

    E-print Network

    Fuentes, Olac

    Face Detection in Low-resolution Color Images Jun Zheng, Geovany A. Ramirez, and Olac Fuentes@miners.utep.edu,garamirez@miners.utep.edu, ofuentes@utep.edu, No Institute Given Abstract. In low-resolution images, people at large distance appear pixels. Face detection in low-resolution images has not been explicitly studied. In this work, we studied

  9. Do brain tissue transplants alter personal identity? Inadequacies of some "standard" arguments.

    PubMed Central

    Northoff, G

    1996-01-01

    Currently, brain tissue transplantations are being developed as a clinical-therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. From an ethical point of view, distinguishing between the preservation and an alteration of personal identity seems to be central to determining the scope for further application of brain tissue transplantation therapy. The purpose of this article is to review "standard" arguments which are used on the one hand by proponents to prove preservation of personal identity and by opponents on the other hand to prove that brain tissue transplantation results in an altered personal identity. Proponents and opponents are shown to use the same arguments, albeit with different presuppositions. These presuppositions concern the meaning of the term "identity", either numerical or qualitative, the definition of brain identity, either structurally or functionally, and the relationship between mental states, psychological functions and neurophysiological properties as criteria for personal identity. Furthermore the respective neurophysiological, clinical and philosophical evidence for the different presuppositions are discussed. It is concluded that evaluation of personal identity in brain tissue transplantation should not only rely on the "standard" arguments but, additionally, neurophysiological, clinical and philosophical implications should be discussed. PMID:8798941

  10. Super-resolution biomolecular crystallography with low-resolution data.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T

    2010-04-22

    X-ray diffraction plays a pivotal role in the understanding of biological systems by revealing atomic structures of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes, with much recent interest in very large assemblies like the ribosome. As crystals of such large assemblies often diffract weakly (resolution worse than 4 A), we need methods that work at such low resolution. In macromolecular assemblies, some of the components may be known at high resolution, whereas others are unknown: current refinement methods fail as they require a high-resolution starting structure for the entire complex. Determining the structure of such complexes, which are often of key biological importance, should be possible in principle as the number of independent diffraction intensities at a resolution better than 5 A generally exceeds the number of degrees of freedom. Here we introduce a method that adds specific information from known homologous structures but allows global and local deformations of these homology models. Our approach uses the observation that local protein structure tends to be conserved as sequence and function evolve. Cross-validation with R(free) (the free R-factor) determines the optimum deformation and influence of the homology model. For test cases at 3.5-5 A resolution with known structures at high resolution, our method gives significant improvements over conventional refinement in the model as monitored by coordinate accuracy, the definition of secondary structure and the quality of electron density maps. For re-refinements of a representative set of 19 low-resolution crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank, we find similar improvements. Thus, a structure derived from low-resolution diffraction data can have quality similar to a high-resolution structure. Our method is applicable to the study of weakly diffracting crystals using X-ray micro-diffraction as well as data from new X-ray light sources. Use of homology information is not restricted to X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy: as optical imaging advances to subnanometre resolution, it can use similar tools. PMID:20376006

  11. Low-resolution refinement tools in REFMAC5

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Long, Fei; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2012-01-01

    Two aspects of low-resolution macromolecular crystal structure analysis are considered: (i) the use of reference structures and structural units for provision of structural prior information and (ii) map sharpening in the presence of noise and the effects of Fourier series termination. The generation of interatomic distance restraints by ProSMART and their subsequent application in REFMAC5 is described. It is shown that the use of such external structural information can enhance the reliability of derived atomic models and stabilize refinement. The problem of map sharpening is considered as an inverse deblurring problem and is solved using Tikhonov regularizers. It is demonstrated that this type of map sharpening can automatically produce a map with more structural features whilst maintaining connectivity. Tests show that both of these directions are promising, although more work needs to be performed in order to further exploit structural information and to address the problem of reliable electron-density calculation. PMID:22505260

  12. CARMENES science preparation: low--resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Córtes-Contreras, M.; Morales, J. C.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.

    2015-05-01

    CARMENES is the new optical/near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto observatory. The identification of the most promising targets for exoplanet hunting is a crucial first step to ensure an efficient use of the CARMENES guaranteed time. To achieve this, we obtained low-resolution (R ˜ 1500) spectra of 752 M (and late K) dwarfs, mostly fainter than J = 9 mag, using the CAFOS spectrograph of the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto observatory. We derived spectral types with 0.5 subtypes accuracy combining the spectral indices technique and the best-fit & ?^2 matches. We also studied metallicity and surface gravity through spectral indices, and activity from the pseudo-equivalent width of the H? line. We identified high-activity, low-metallicity and low-gravity stars, which should be discarded for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  13. Low resolution conductivity estimation to improve source localization

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    reconstruct two reference sources and a reference skull:brain conductivity ratio even in the presence or cognitive data. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Conductivity estimation; Skull potentials (e.g., SEP, AEP) studies. 2. Methods We created a four compartment (skin, skull, CSF, brain

  14. Transcranial sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma in movement disorders: quality standards, diagnostic applications and novel technologies.

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Školoudík, D

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma is being increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in movement disorders. Compared to other neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, TCS can be performed today with portable machines and has the advantages of noninvasiveness and high resistance to movement artifacts. In distinct brain disorders TCS detects abnormalities that cannot be visualized or can only be visualized with significant effort with other imaging methods. In the field of movement disorders, TCS has been established mainly as a tool for the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The postoperative position control of deep brain stimulation electrodes, especially in the subthalamic nucleus, can reliably and safely be performed with TCS.? The present update review summarizes the current methodological standards and defines quality criteria of adequate TCS imaging and assessment of diagnostically relevant deep brain structures such as substantia nigra, brainstem raphe, basal ganglia and ventricles. Finally, an overview is given on recent technological advances including TCS-MRI fusion imaging and upcoming technologies of digitized image analysis aiming at a more investigator-independent assessment of deep brain structures on TCS. PMID:24764215

  15. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

  16. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE LOW RESOLUTION SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I., E-mail: tsumura@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

  17. 3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity. PMID:20339482

  18. High Resolution Images from a Sequence of Low Resolution and Compressed

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    1 High Resolution Images from a Sequence of Low Resolution and Compressed Observations: A Review C images from a set of low resolution observations. These observations are acquired by either multiple, 18071 Granada, Spain. #12;2 I. Introduction Super-resolution is the task of estimating high resolution

  19. BAYESIAN SUPER-RESOLUTION OF TEXT IMAGE SEQUENCES FROM LOW RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS.

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    BAYESIAN SUPER-RESOLUTION OF TEXT IMAGE SEQUENCES FROM LOW RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS. Francisco J a posteriori estimate of the high resolution image and the estimation of the parameters involved in the model of available low resolution images on the final estimate. 1. INTRODUCTION High resolution images can, in some

  20. RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF VIDEO SEQUENCES WITH ADAPTIVELY WEIGHTED LOW-RESOLUTION IMAGES AND SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF

    E-print Network

    Kondis, Lisimachos Paul

    RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF VIDEO SEQUENCES WITH ADAPTIVELY WEIGHTED LOW-RESOLUTION IMAGES Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 ABSTRACT In many imaging systems, the resolution enhancement is to estimate a high-resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution images while also

  1. Pedestrian detection in low resolution videos can be challenging. In outdoor surveillance scenarios, the size of

    E-print Network

    Hoff, William A.

    Abstract Pedestrian detection in low resolution videos can be challenging. In outdoor surveillance to detect moving pedestrians in low resolution videos taken by stationary outdoor surveillance cameras. We in performance over single-frame detection. 1. Introduction Pedestrian detection in images or video

  2. The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

  3. Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards

    PubMed Central

    Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Martin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. Methods Rs-fMRI scans from 59 high functioning males with ASD and 59 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were used to build a series of machine learning classifiers. Classification features were obtained using 3 sets of brain regions. Another set of classifiers was built from participants' scores on behavioral metrics. An additional age and IQ-matched cohort of 178 individuals (89 ASD; 89 TD) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access dataset (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/abide/) were included for replication. Results High classification accuracy was achieved through several rs-fMRI methods (peak accuracy 76.67%). However, classification via behavioral measures consistently surpassed rs-fMRI classifiers (peak accuracy 95.19%). The class probability estimates, P(ASD|fMRI data), from brain-based classifiers significantly correlated with scores on a measure of social functioning, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), as did the most informative features from 2 of the 3 sets of brain-based features. The most informative connections predominantly originated from regions strongly associated with social functioning. Conclusions While individuals can be classified as having ASD with statistically significant accuracy from their rs-fMRI scans alone, this method falls short of biomarker standards. Classification methods provided further evidence that ASD functional connectivity is characterized by dysfunction of large-scale functional networks, particularly those involved in social information processing. PMID:25685703

  4. Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping Using Standard CPMG Sequence In A Clinical Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnilicová, P.; Bittšanský, M.; Dobrota, D.

    2014-04-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

  5. Calibration and standardization of microwave ovens for fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Leonard, J B; Dvorak, A M

    1998-06-01

    Rapid and reproducible fixation of brain and peripheral nerve tissue for light and electron microscopy studies can be done in a microwave oven. In this review we report a standardized nomenclature for diverse fixation techniques that use microwave heating: (1) microwave stabilization, (2) fast and ultrafast primary microwave-chemical fixation, (3) microwave irradiation followed by chemical fixation, (4) primary chemical fixation followed by microwave irradiation, and (5) microwave fixation used in various combinations with freeze fixation. All of these methods are well suited to fix brain tissue for light microscopy. Fast primary microwave-chemical fixation is best for immunoelectron microscopy studies. We also review how the physical characteristics of the microwave frequency and the dimensions of microwave oven cavities can compromise microwave fixation results. A microwave oven can be calibrated for fixation when the following parameters are standardized: irradiation time; water load volume, initial temperature, and placement within the oven; fixative composition, volume, and initial temperature; and specimen container shape and placement within the oven. Using two recently developed calibration tools, the neon bulb array and the agar-saline-Giemsa tissue phantom, we report a simple calibration protocol that identifies regions within a microwave oven for uniform microwave fixation. PMID:9654457

  6. Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. White; Marco Congedo; Joseph Ciorciari; Richard B. Silberstein

    2012-01-01

    Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two

  7. Brain Oscillatory Activity during Spatial Navigation: Theta and Gamma Activity Link Medial Temporal and Parietal Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. White; Marco Congedo; Joseph Ciorciari; Richard B. Silberstein

    Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two

  8. Improved EEG source analysis using low resolution conductivity estimation in a four-compartment finite element head model

    PubMed Central

    Lew, S.; Wolters, C. H.; Anwander, A.; Makeig, S.; MacLeod, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bioelectric source analysis in the human brain from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals is sensitive to geometry and conductivity properties of the different head tissues. We propose a low resolution conductivity estimation (LRCE) method using simulated annealing optimization on high resolution finite element models that individually optimizes a realistically-shaped four-layer volume conductor with regard to the brain and skull compartment conductivities. As input data, the method needs T1- and PD-weighted magnetic resonance images for an improved modeling of the skull and the cerebrospinal fluid compartment and evoked potential data with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our simulation studies showed that for EEG data with realistic SNR, the LRCE method was able to simultaneously reconstruct both the brain and the skull conductivity together with the underlying dipole source and provided an improved source analysis result. We have also demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the new method to simultaneously estimate brain and skull conductivity and a somatosensory source from measured tactile somatosensory evoked potentials of a human subject. Our results show the viability of an approach that computes its own conductivity values and thus reduces the dependence on assigning values from the literature and likely produces a more robust estimate of current sources. Using the LRCE method, the individually optimized four-compartment volume conductor model can in a second step be used for the analysis of clinical or cognitive data acquired from the same subject. PMID:19117275

  9. INTERPRETATION OF LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA FOR LEVEL 1 ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives guidelines for interpreting the low resolution mass spectra (LRMS) of complex chemical mixtures, within the context of the EPA Level 1 Environmental Assessment Program. It discusses the principles underlying direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex mixtures,...

  10. HeadLock : wide-range head pose estimation for low resolution video

    E-print Network

    DeCamp, Philip (Philip James)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on data mining technologies to extract head pose information from low resolution video recordings. Head pose, as an approximation of gaze direction, is a key indicator of human behavior and interaction. ...

  11. A FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC LOW-RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE INTERPRETATION BASED ON SPECTRAL, CONTEXTUAL

    E-print Network

    . Although such packages offer digital image processing and pattern recognition tools, they lackA FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC LOW-RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE INTERPRETATION BASED ON SPECTRAL, Agriculture, Automation, Knowledge base, Fuzzy Logic, Multitemporal ABSTRACT: This work proposes a framework

  12. Knowledge-based real-space explorations for low-resolution structure determination.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Nicholas; Doré, Andrew S; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; de Bakker, Paul I W; Depristo, Mark A; Blundell, Tom L

    2006-08-01

    The accurate and effective interpretation of low-resolution data in X-ray crystallography is becoming increasingly important as structural initiatives turn toward large multiprotein complexes. Substantial challenges remain due to the poor information content and ambiguity in the interpretation of electron density maps at low resolution. Here, we describe a semiautomated procedure that employs a restraint-based conformational search algorithm, RAPPER, to produce a starting model for the structure determination of ligase interacting factor 1 in complex with a fragment of DNA ligase IV at low resolution. The combined use of experimental data and a priori knowledge of protein structure enabled us not only to generate an all-atom model but also to reaffirm the inferred sequence registry. This approach provides a means to extract quickly from experimental data useful information that would otherwise be discarded and to take into account the uncertainty in the interpretation--an overriding issue for low-resolution data. PMID:16905105

  13. CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS

    E-print Network

    Alonso-Floriano, F J; Caballero, J A; Montes, D; Klutsch, A; Mundt, R; Cortes-Contreras, M; Ribas, I; Reiners, A; Amado, P J; Quirrenbach, A; Jeffers, S V

    2015-01-01

    Context. CARMENES is a stabilised, high-resolution, double-channel spectrograph at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It is optimally designed for radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs with potentially habitable Earth-mass planets. Aims. We prepare a list of the brightest, single M dwarfs in each spectral subtype observable from the northern hemisphere, from which we will select the best planet-hunting targets for CARMENES. Methods. In this first paper on the preparation of our input catalogue, we compiled a large amount of public data and collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy with CAFOS at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for 753 stars. We derived accurate spectral types using a dense grid of standard stars, a double least-squares minimisation technique, and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. Additionally, we quantified surface gravity, metallicity, and chromospheric activity for all the stars in our sample. Results. We calculated spectral types for all 753 stars, of which 305 are new ...

  14. Automated measurement of redshifts from mid-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán Caballero, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Obtaining accurate redshifts from mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution (R ˜ 100) spectroscopy is challenging because the wavelength resolution is too low to detect narrow lines in most cases. Yet, the number of degrees of freedom and diversity of spectral features are too high for regular spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting techniques to be convenient. Here we present a new SED-fitting-based routine for redshift determination that is optimized for MIR low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small-scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called maximum combined pseudo-likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML approach, the MCPL approach searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a 'pseudo-likelihood' (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of the MCPL approach are demonstrated by comparing its redshift estimates to those of the regular ML approach and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra from extragalactic sources at 0 < z < 3.7. The MCPL approach achieves a redshift accuracy ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 for 78 per cent of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68 per cent for the ML approach. The rate of outliers [?(z)/(1 + z) > 0.02] is 14 per cent for the MCPL approach and 22 per cent for the ML approach. ?2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalized combined PL (?) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depend strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by active galactic nucleus continua. Nevertheless, for a given ? the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent of their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a ? > 0.15 threshold retains 79 per cent of the sources with ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8 per cent.

  15. CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Morales, J. C.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes, D.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Jeffers, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    Context. CARMENES is a stabilised, high-resolution, double-channel spectrograph at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It is optimally designed for radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs with potentially habitable Earth-mass planets. Aims: We prepare a list of the brightest, single M dwarfs in each spectral subtype observable from the northern hemisphere, from which we will select the best planet-hunting targets for CARMENES. Methods: In this first paper on the preparation of our input catalogue, we compiled a large amount of public data and collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy with CAFOS at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for 753 stars. We derived accurate spectral types using a dense grid of standard stars, a double least-squares minimisation technique, and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. Additionally, we quantified surface gravity, metallicity, and chromospheric activity for all the stars in our sample. Results: We calculated spectral types for all 753 stars, of which 305 are new and 448 are revised. We measured pseudo-equivalent widths of H? for all the stars in our sample, concluded that chromospheric activity does not affect spectral typing from our indices, and tabulated 49 stars that had been reported to be young stars in open clusters, moving groups, and stellar associations. Of the 753 stars, two are new subdwarf candidates, three are T Tauri stars, 25 are giants, 44 are K dwarfs, and 679 are M dwarfs. Many of the 261 investigated dwarfs in the range M4.0-8.0 V are among the brightest stars known in their spectral subtype. Conclusions: This collection of low-resolution spectroscopic data serves as a candidate target list for the CARMENES survey and can be highly valuable for other radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs and for studies of cool dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Full Tables A.1, A.2, and A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A128

  16. The brain and somatic integration: insights into the standard biological rationale for equating "brain death" with death.

    PubMed

    Shewmon, A D

    2001-10-01

    The mainstream rationale for equating "brain death" (BD) with death is that the brain confers integrative unity upon the body, transforming it from a mere collection of organs and tissues to an "organism as a whole." In support of this conclusion, the impressive list of the brain's myriad integrative functions is often cited. Upon closer examination, and after operational definition of terms, however, one discovers that most integrative functions of the brain are actually not somatically integrating, and, conversely, most integrative functions of the body are not brain-mediated. With respect to organism-level vitality, the brain's role is more modulatory than constitutive, enhancing the quality and survival potential of a presupposedly living organism. Integrative unity of a complex organism is an inherently nonlocalizable, holistic feature involving the mutual interaction among all the parts, not a top-down coordination imposed by one part upon a passive multiplicity of other parts. Loss of somatic integrative unity is not a physiologically tenable rationale for equating BD with death of the organism as a whole. PMID:11588655

  17. xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures

    SciTech Connect

    McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li, Qufei [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Perozo, Eduardo [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schulten, Klaus, E-mail: kschulte@ks.uiuc.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A new real-space refinement method for low-resolution X-ray crystallography is presented. The method is based on the molecular dynamics flexible fitting protocol targeted at addressing large-scale deformations of the search model to achieve refinement with minimal manual intervention. An explanation of the method is provided, augmented by results from the refinement of both synthetic and experimental low-resolution data, including an independent electrophysiological verification of the xMDFF-refined crystal structure of a voltage-sensor protein. X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7 Å resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electrophysiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP.

  18. xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures

    PubMed Central

    McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7?Å resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electro­physiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP. PMID:25195748

  19. MEASURING ORGANIC MOLECULAR EMISSION IN DISKS WITH LOW-RESOLUTION SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, Johanna K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85716 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henning, Thomas, E-mail: jteske@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: najita@noao.edu, E-mail: carr@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: pascucci@stsci.edu, E-mail: apai@stsci.edu, E-mail: henning@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-06-10

    We explore the extent to which Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra taken at low spectral resolution can be used in quantitative studies of organic molecular emission from disks surrounding low-mass young stars. We use Spitzer IRS spectra taken in both the high- and low-resolution modules for the same sources to investigate whether it is possible to define line indices that can measure trends in the strength of the molecular features in low-resolution data. We find that trends in the HCN emission strength seen in the high-resolution data can be recovered in low-resolution data. In examining the factors that influence the HCN emission strength, we find that the low-resolution HCN flux is modestly correlated with stellar accretion rate and X-ray luminosity. Correlations of this kind are perhaps expected based on recent observational and theoretical studies of inner disk atmospheres. Our results demonstrate the potential of using the large number of low-resolution disk spectra that reside in the Spitzer archive to study the factors that influence the strength of molecular emission from disks. Such studies would complement results for the much smaller number of circumstellar disks that have been observed at high resolution with IRS.

  20. Integration of the antennal lobe glomeruli and three projection neurons in the standard brain atlas of the moth heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Løfaldli, Bjarte Bye; Kvello, Pål; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases (SBAs) are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, SBAs of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes (ALs) of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens SBA exclusively included the glomerular layer of the AL. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female SBA with a new model of the AL glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens AL model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the AL atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male AL was necessary. This required a new male AL atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three AL projection neurons of different preparations, the new SBA with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum. PMID:20179785

  1. Restoration of low resolution car plate images using PCA based image super-resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Yang; Guang-da Su; Jiansheng Chen; Yiu-sang Moon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a car plate image restoration system is presented, in which the PCA (Principle Component Analysis) based super-resolution method is applied to restore very low resolution car plate images (height <; 10 pixels) from mainland China and Hong Kong. Several algorithms are proposed to improve the robustness and performance of this system. The core part of this system

  2. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-print Network

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  3. AC brushless drive with low resolution Hall-effect sensors for an axial flux PM machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Giulii Capponi; G. De Donato; L. Del Ferraro; O. Honorati; M. C. Harke; R. D. Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    An AC brushless drive in which Hall effect sensors are used as rotor position sensors is presented in this paper. Three different methods to obtain high resolution position information from the low resolution sensors are described and compared through simulation and some preliminary experimental testing. The proposed control algorithm's most innovative feature is it's adaptability to the whole speed range,

  4. Comparison of Hadamard imaging and compressed sensing for low resolution hyperspectral imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Streeter; G. R. Burling-Claridge; M. J. Cree; R. Kunnemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Image multiplexing is the technique of using combination patterns to measure multiple pixels with one sensor. Hyperspectral imaging is acquiring images with full spectra at each pixel. Using a single point spectrometer and light modulation we perform multiplexed hyperspectral imaging. We compare two forms of multiplexing, namely Hadamard imaging and compressed sensing, at low resolution. We show that Hadamard imaging

  5. Modeling Shape and Topology of Low-Resolution Density Maps of Biological Macromolecules

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Amarnath

    Modeling Shape and Topology of Low-Resolution Density Maps of Biological Macromolecules Pedro A. De framework. We make use of a new vector quantization algorithm to select the points within the macromolecule and topology of the macromolecule (as opposite to a spatially unrelated bunch of voxels) is easily obtained

  6. Restoring Low Resolution Structure of Biological Macromolecules from Solution Scattering Using Simulated Annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. Svergun

    1999-01-01

    A method is proposed to restore ab initio low resolution shape and internal structure of chaotically oriented particles (e.g., biological macromolecules in solution) from isotropic scattering. A multiphase model of a particle built from densely packed dummy atoms is characterized by a configuration vector assigning the atom to a specific phase or to the solvent. Simulated annealing is employed to

  7. Bayesian Image Estimation from an Incomplete Set of Blurred, Undersampled Low Resolution

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    Bayesian Image Estimation from an Incomplete Set of Blurred, Undersampled Low Resolution Images- resolution image from an incomplete set of undersampled, blurred and noisy images shifted with subpixel of the high resolution image and the estimation of the parameters involved in the model. We also examine

  8. Recognition of facial images with low resolution using a hopfield memory model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Dai; Yasuaki Nakano

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new method to recognize facial images with low resolution by utilizing the Hopfield model is presented.In this method, a Hopfield memory model for the facial images is organized and the optimal procedure of the unlearning is determined. Based on the composed Hopfield memory model, the relation between the reliability of the recalls and the number of

  9. Low Resolution Visible Reflectance Spectrum for NEA (357439) 2004 BL86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo

    2015-07-01

    Low resolution spectroscopic observations of the near- Earth asteroid (357439) 2004 BL86 were acquired during the flyby of 2015 January 26. The spectrum analysis shows that its taxonomic class is very close to that of 4 Vesta in the visible wavelength.

  10. High resolution image formation from low resolution frames using Delaunay triangulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surapong Lertrattanapanich; Nirmal K. Bose

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm based on spatial tessellation and approximation of each triangle patch in the Delaunay (1934) triangulation (with smoothness constraints) by a bivariate polynomial is advanced to construct a high resolution (HR) high quality image from a set of low resolution (LR) frames. The high resolution algorithm is accompanied by a site-insertion algorithm for update of the initial HR image

  11. Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.

  12. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Fares, Raafat P; Belmeguenai, Amor; Sanchez, Pascal E; Kouchi, Hayet Y; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

  13. Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

  14. Multi-frequency backscatter variations for classification of mine-like targets from low-resolution sonar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Stack; G. Dobeck; C. Bernstein

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to classify bottom targets as mine like using low-resolution sonar data. The sonar is mounted on an autonomous, unmanned seafloor crawler, which operates in the littoral regions. Due to the sonar's relatively large beamwidths and proximity to the seafloor, low-resolution imagery is produced in which objects possess Little discernable shape and no acoustic shadow

  15. How low can you go? The effect of low resolutions on shot types in mobile TV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Knoche; John D. Mccarthy; Martina Angela Sasse

    2008-01-01

    The advent of mobile TV which is often viewed on small screens with low resolution has made TV content producers think about\\u000a refraining from using shots that depict subjects from a great distance. Shot types where the object of interest fills the\\u000a screen are deemed to be more appropriate for mobile devices. This paper reports a study on how shot

  16. A low resolution pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance study of epoxy resin during cure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Dare; D. L. Chadwick

    1996-01-01

    Low resolution pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, using a commercially available bench-top instrument (Bruker PC120), has been used to study the cure of an epoxy resin system (epichlorohydrin-bisphenol A resin and hardener containing a primary diamine and an amido-polyamine). Free induction decay experiments have been successfully used to observe the change from viscous liquid to crosslinked solid as the resin cured.

  17. TGS[underscore]FIT: Image reconstruction software for quantitative, low-resolution tomographic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R J

    1993-01-01

    We developed the computer program TGS[underscore]FIT to aid in researching the tomographic gamma scanner method of nondestructive assay. This software, written in C-programming, language, implements a full Beer's Law attenuation correction in reconstructing low-resolution emission tomograms. The attenuation coefficients for the corrections are obtained by reconstructing a transmission tomogram of the same resolution. The command-driven interface, combined with (crude) simulation capabilities and command file control, allows design studies to be performed in a semi-automated manner.

  18. Experimental investigations of trimer ion contributions in the low resolution mass spectrometry of hydrogen isotope mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bidica, Nicolae

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on some preliminary experimental results of a work in progress regarding a problem involving the quantitative analysis of hydrogen isotopes by mass spectrometry of low resolution: the triatomic (trimer) ions interferences with the isotopic hydrogen species having the same mass/charge. These results indicate that, in complex mixtures of hydrogen isotopes, trimer ions are strongly affected by the presence of other species, and a new approach that takes into account the destruction mechanism of trimer ions is necessary for a proper determination of their contributions. PMID:23149602

  19. Restoring low resolution structure of biological macromolecules from solution scattering using simulated annealing.

    PubMed Central

    Svergun, D I

    1999-01-01

    A method is proposed to restore ab initio low resolution shape and internal structure of chaotically oriented particles (e.g., biological macromolecules in solution) from isotropic scattering. A multiphase model of a particle built from densely packed dummy atoms is characterized by a configuration vector assigning the atom to a specific phase or to the solvent. Simulated annealing is employed to find a configuration that fits the data while minimizing the interfacial area. Application of the method is illustrated by the restoration of a ribosome-like model structure and more realistically by the determination of the shape of several proteins from experimental x-ray scattering data. PMID:10354416

  20. A concept to standardize raw biosignal transmission for brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Breitwieser, Christian; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2011-01-01

    With this concept we introduced the attempt of a standardized interface called TiA to transmit raw biosignals. TiA is able to deal with multirate and block-oriented data transmission. Data is distinguished by different signal types (e.g., EEG, EOG, NIRS, …), whereby those signals can be acquired at the same time from different acquisition devices. TiA is built as a client-server model. Multiple clients can connect to one server. Information is exchanged via a control- and a separated data connection. Control commands and meta information are transmitted over the control connection. Raw biosignal data is delivered using the data connection in a unidirectional way. For this purpose a standardized handshaking protocol and raw data packet have been developed. Thus, an abstraction layer between hardware devices and data processing was evolved facilitating standardization. PMID:22255797

  1. High-performance current-sensorless drive for PMSM and SynRM with only low-resolution position sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeo Morimoto; Masayuki Sanada; Yoji Takeda

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes the current-sensorless drive system with only low-resolution position sensor in order to simplify the synchronous motor drive system. The high-performance current vector control can be achieved in the proposed drive system, where the current sensors are eliminated but the simulated currents based on motor model are used for current control. The low-resolution position sensor, which has a

  2. Using low resolution position sensors in bumpless position\\/speed estimation methods for low cost PMSM drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunbae Kim; Sungmo Yi; Namsu Kim; R. D. Lorenz

    2005-01-01

    A bumpless position\\/speed estimation method which uses only a low-resolution position sensor is presented for low cost permanent magnet machine (PMSM) drives. By integrating methods, i.e. using a speed reference for zero speed startup, a low resolution Hall sensor for low speed acceleration, and back-EMF for high speed operation, the rotor position can be estimated and controlled over the entire

  3. Color image enhancement of low-resolution images captured in extreme lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Evan; Asari, Vijayan K.; Arigela, Saibabu

    2014-05-01

    Security and surveillance videos, due to usage in open environments, are likely subjected to low resolution, underexposed, and overexposed conditions that reduce the amount of useful details available in the collected images. We propose an approach to improve the image quality of low resolution images captured in extreme lighting conditions to obtain useful details for various security applications. This technique is composed of a combination of a nonlinear intensity enhancement process and a single image super resolution process that will provide higher resolution and better visibility. The nonlinear intensity enhancement process consists of dynamic range compression, contrast enhancement, and color restoration processes. The dynamic range compression is performed by a locally tuned inverse sine nonlinear function to provide various nonlinear curves based on neighborhood information. A contrast enhancement technique is used to obtain sufficient contrast and a nonlinear color restoration process is used to restore color from the enhanced intensity image. The single image super resolution process is performed in the phase space, and consists of defining neighborhood characteristics of each pixel to estimate the interpolated pixels in the high resolution image. The combination of these approaches shows promising experimental results that indicate an improvement in visibility and an increase in usable details. In addition, the process is demonstrated to improve tracking applications. A quantitative evaluation is performed to show an increase in image features from Harris corner detection and improved statistics of visual representation. A quantitative evaluation is also performed on Kalman tracking results.

  4. [The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2014-02-01

    The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

  5. Quality enhancement of low-resolution image by using natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgazyev, E.; Yeniaras, E.; Uyanik, I.; Unan, M.; Leiss, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to estimate a super-resolution image from a given low-resolution image, by adding high-frequency information that is extracted from natural high-resolution images in the training dataset. The selection of the high-frequency information from the training dataset is accomplished in two steps: a nearest-neighbor search algorithm is used to select the closest images from the training dataset, which can be implemented in the GPU, and a sparse-representation algorithm is used to estimate a weight parameter to combine the high-frequency information of selected images. This simple but very powerful super-resolution algorithm can produce state-of-the-art results. Qualitatively and quantitatively, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing common practices.

  6. Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabaza, O., E-mail: ovidio@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)] [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain) [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Department of Systems and Automatic Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Zeman, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic) [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Sabau-Graziati, L. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)] [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

  7. Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaza, O.; Jelinek, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Zeman, J.; Hudec, R.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J.

    2013-11-01

    The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

  8. Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Rabaza, O; Jelinek, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cunniffe, R; Zeman, J; Hudec, R; Sabau-Graziati, L; Ruedas-Sánchez, J

    2013-11-01

    The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown. PMID:24289416

  9. Single-shot rotational Raman thermometry for turbulent flames using a low-resolution bandwidth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2008-01-01

    An alternative optical thermometry technique that utilizes the low-resolution (order 101 cm-1) pure-rotational spontaneous Raman scattering of air is developed to aid single-shot multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion studies. Temperature measurements are realized by correlating the measured envelope bandwidth of the pure-rotational manifold of the N2/O2 spectrum with a theoretical prediction of a species-weighted bandwidth. By coupling this thermometry technique with conventional vibrational Raman scattering for species determination, we demonstrate quantitative spatially resolved, single-shot measurements of the temperature and fuel/oxidizer concentrations in a high-pressure turbulent CH4-air flame. Our technique provides not only an effective means of validating other temperature measurement methods, but also serves as a secondary thermometry technique in cases where the anti-Stokes vibrational N2 Raman signals are too low for a conventional vibrational temperature analysis.

  10. Improved EEG Source Analysis Using Low-Resolution Conductivity Estimation in a

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    -layer vol- ume conductor with regard to the brain and skull compartment conductivities. As input data, the method needs T1- and PD-weighted magnetic resonance images for an improved modeling of the skull reconstruct both the brain and the skull conductivity together with the underly- ing dipole source

  11. Standardizing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

  12. Ab initio low-resolution phasing in crystallography of macromolecules by maximization of likelihood.

    PubMed

    Petrova, T E; Lunin, V Y; Podjarny, A D

    2000-10-01

    Statistical likelihood criteria were tested to select the true (or closest to true) structure-factor phases from an ensemble of phase sets. To define the criterion value for a given trial phase set, the trial 'molecular region' is defined as a region consisting of the points with the highest values in the Fourier synthesis calculated with the observed magnitudes and the trial set of phases. The structure studied is considered as composed of atoms randomly placed inside the trial molecular region. The figure of merit is defined as the likelihood corresponding to this hypothesis, i.e. the probability that the structure-factor magnitudes calculated (from the positions of atoms randomly placed into the trial region) are equal to the observed magnitudes. The concept of generalized likelihood is introduced to make the calculations more straightforward. The tests performed for known structures with the use of experimentally observed magnitudes show that in general it is impossible to unambiguously determine the best phases among a 'population' of trial phase sets. Nevertheless, the random generation of a great number of phase sets and the selection of phase sets with high likelihood values give a collection of variants with a higher concentration of 'good' phase sets than those found in the original population. Averaging the selected phase sets gives a starting solution of the low-resolution phase problem. PMID:10998620

  13. Low resolution scanning electron microscopy of cerebellar neurons and neuroglial cells of the granular layer.

    PubMed

    Castejón, O J

    1984-01-01

    Teleost fishes, Arius Spixii and Salmo trout and adult Swiss albino mice have been processed with the freeze-fracture technique for SEM to explore the inner cytoplasmic and nuclear surface details of neurons and neuroglial cells. The specimens were fixed by vascular perfusion with Karnovsky fixative and 2-3 mm thick cerebellar slices were subsequently fixed by immersion in the same fixative. They were postfixed in osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, frozen in Freon 22, cooled by liquid nitrogen and fractured. After thawing in ethanol, they were critically point dried, coated with gold-palladium and viewed by SEM. The surface features of perikaryon were examined at low resolution and magnifications. The image of endoplasmic reticulum, GERL complex and chromatin were described in fractured cerebellar neurons (granule and Golgi cells). The fractured protoplasmic astrocytes displayed a characteristic glass surface appearance of cytoplasmic body and processes, which facilitated their recognition at the neuropile and perivascular region. The oligodendrocytes appeared as fusiform cells depicting a thin rim of perinuclear cytoplasm. The surface view of endoplasmic reticulum was well studied at the nuclear poles. Fine cytoplasmic beaded canaliculi appeared connecting the outer surface of nuclear envelope with the plasma membrane inner surface. The nucleus exhibited well developed peripheral heterochromatin masses forming anastomotic bands separated by vacuolar spaces. The SEM nerve and neuroglial cell fractographs were compared with similar images obtained by conventional transmission electron microscopy and freeze etching technique. PMID:6505621

  14. NEWLY IDENTIFIED CARBON STARS FROM SOURCES WITH UNUSUAL IRAS LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: chenps@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, CAS, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature in either emission or absorption in the infrared is an important indicator for identification of carbon stars. Sources whose infrared spectra are sorted in Group U of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) low-resolution spectrum (LRS) are good samples for finding objects with the 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature. Therefore, we have carefully checked all spectra in Group U of the LRS. We have found 13 new objects, which probably have SiC emission, sometimes with unusually broad features, that are presumed to be carbon-rich objects. In addition, their evolutionary types are also estimated from IRAS and Two Micron All Sky Survey two-color diagrams. Besides finding 13 new carbon-rich objects, another important result in this paper is that four sources are estimated as new extreme carbon stars (ECSs) and five previously known carbon stars sorted in the Group U of the IRAS LRS are also estimated as ECSs.

  15. Laplace Inversion of Low-Resolution NMR Relaxometry Data Using Sparse Representation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Paula; Levi, Ofer; Parmet, Yisrael; Saunders, Michael; Wiesman, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (LR-NMR) relaxometry is a powerful tool that can be harnessed for characterizing constituents in complex materials. Conversion of the relaxation signal into a continuous distribution of relaxation components is an ill-posed inverse Laplace transform problem. The most common numerical method implemented today for dealing with this kind of problem is based on L2-norm regularization. However, sparse representation methods via L1 regularization and convex optimization are a relatively new approach for effective analysis and processing of digital images and signals. In this article, a numerical optimization method for analyzing LR-NMR data by including non-negativity constraints and L1 regularization and by applying a convex optimization solver PDCO, a primal-dual interior method for convex objectives, that allows general linear constraints to be treated as linear operators is presented. The integrated approach includes validation of analyses by simulations, testing repeatability of experiments, and validation of the model and its statistical assumptions. The proposed method provides better resolved and more accurate solutions when compared with those suggested by existing tools. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 42A: 72–88, 2013. PMID:23847452

  16. REM Optical Slitless Spectrograph (ROSS): an instrument for prompt low resolution spectroscopy of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Eliana Palazzi; Elena Pian

    2001-09-07

    Since the discovery of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), attempts have been made to detect correlated optical transient emission from these objects. In January 1999, the ROTSE I robotic telescope detected a bright optical flash simultaneous with a GRB, thanks to the prompt dissemination to the ground of the high energy event coordinates. To date, that single observation remains unique as no other prompt flashes have been seen for other bursts observed with comparably short response times. This suggests that in general GRB prompt optical emission may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event. To exploit the better angular localization accuracy of the flying (HETE-2) or soon to fly (INTEGRAL, AGILE, SWIFT, GLAST) missions for high energy astrophysics, a new generation of robotic telescopes is being developed. These will have response times as short as a few seconds and will be sensitive to signals as faint as m_v ~ 20, thus increasing the chance of detecting even weak prompt emission. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and local medium composition of GRBs. In this paper we describe one of the new instruments, ROSS, to be mounted on the robotic facility REM, designed to perform low resolution spectroscopy on the prompt optical flares associated with GRBs.

  17. Topographic Phase Recovery from Stacked ERS Interferometry and a Low-Resolution Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell arid Price [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and a seismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

  18. HUNTING THE PARENT OF THE ORPHAN STREAM: IDENTIFYING STREAM MEMBERS FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth, E-mail: acasey@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-10

    We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 {+-} 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V {sub GSR} = 82.1 {+-} 1.4 km s{sup -1}. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 {+-} 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, {sigma}([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  19. Low-resolution characterization of the 3D structure of the Euglena gracilis photoreceptor

    SciTech Connect

    Barsanti, Laura [Istituto di Biofisica, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Coltelli, Primo [Istituto Scienza Tecnologia Informazione, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria [Istituto di Biofisica, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Vesentini, Nicoletta [Istituto Fisiologia Clinica, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gualtieri, Paolo [Istituto di Biofisica, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.gualtieri@pi.ibf.cnr.it

    2008-10-24

    This paper deals with the first characterization of the structure of the photoreceptive organelle of the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta). This organelle has a three-dimensional organization consisting of up to 50 closely stacked membrane lamellae. Ionically induced unstacking of the photoreceptor lamellae revealed ordered arrays well suited to structural analysis by electron microscopy and image analysis, which ultimately yielded a low-resolution picture of the structure. Each lamella is formed by the photoreceptive membrane protein of the cell assembled within the membrane layer in a hexagonal lattice. The first order diffraction spots in the calculated Fourier transform reveals the presence of 6-fold symmetrized topography (better resolution about 90 A). The 2D and 3D structural data are very similar with those recently published on proteorodopsin, a membrane protein used by marine bacterio-plankton as light-driven proton pump. In our opinion these similarity indicate that a photoreceptive protein belonging to the same superfamily of proteorodopsin could form the Euglena photoreceptor.

  20. A distributed automatic target recognition system using multiple low resolution sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system which uses swarming techniques to perform high accuracy Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a distributed manner. The proposed system can co-operatively share the information from low-resolution images of different looks and use this information to perform high accuracy ATR. An advanced, multiple-agent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems-based approach is proposed which integrates the processing capabilities, combines detection reporting with live video exchange, and swarm behavior modalities that dramatically surpass individual sensor system performance levels. We employ real-time block-based motion analysis and compensation scheme for efficient estimation and correction of camera jitter, global motion of the camera/scene and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Our optimized Partition Weighted Sum (PWS) approach requires only bitshifts and additions, yet achieves a stunning 16X pixel resolution enhancement, which is moreover parallizable. We develop advanced, adaptive particle-filtering based algorithms to robustly track multiple mobile targets by adaptively changing the appearance model of the selected targets. The collaborative ATR system utilizes the homographies between the sensors induced by the ground plane to overlap the local observation with the received images from other UAVs. The motion of the UAVs distorts estimated homography frame to frame. A robust dynamic homography estimation algorithm is proposed to address this, by using the homography decomposition and the ground plane surface estimation.

  1. Low resolution optical remote sensing applied to the monitoring of seasonal glacier mass balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe; Berthier, Etienne; Swinnen, Else

    2015-04-01

    Mass balance is a key variable to describe the state of health of glaciers, their contribution to sea level rise and, in a few dry regions, their role in water resource. We explore here a new method to retrieve seasonal glacier mass balances from low resolution optical remote sensing. We derive winter and summer snow maps for each year during 1998-2014, using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) computed from visible and SWIR channels available with SPOT/VEGETATION. The NDSI dynamic is directly linked to the area percentage of snow in the VGT kilometric pixel. The combination of 15 years of 10-daily NDSI maps with the SRTM DEM allows us to calculate the altitude of the transition between bare soil and snow. Then, we compare the interannual dynamic of this altitude with in situ measurements of mass balance available for 60 alpine glaciers (Huss et al., 2010; Zemp et al., 2009, 2013) and find promising relationships for winter mass balance. We also explore the possibility of a real-time monitoring of winter mass balance for a selection of alpine glaciers. Finally, we discuss the robustness and genericity of these relationships for their future application in regions where in situ glaciers mass balances are scarce or not available.

  2. Performance comparison between high and low resolution spectrophotometers used in a white light surface plasmon resonance sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyle S. Johnston; Karl S. Booksh; Timothy M. Chinowsky; Sinclair S. Yee

    1999-01-01

    To verify the conclusions of earlier research, the response of a planar substrate white light surface plasmon resonance sensor was simultaneously measured with high resolution (1024 channel) and low resolution (16 channel) spectrophotometers. The sensor’s response to a series of sucrose solutions was calibrated using data from both systems. Multivariate analyses based on principle component regression and locally weighted parametric

  3. Manju Hemakumara, Jetse Kalma, Jeffrey Walker, and Garry Willgoose (2004), Downscaling of low resolution passive microwave soil moisture

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    attributes. Second, the paper reports on downscaling of the low resolution AMSR-E near-surface soil moisture resolution passive microwave soil moisture observations, in Proceedings of the 2nd international CAHMDA soil moisture observations Manju Hemakumara1, Jetse Kalma1, Jeffrey Walker2, and Garry Willgoose3 1

  4. RESEARCH PAPER: Automated estimation of stellar fundamental parameters from low resolution spectra: the PLS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Nan; Luo, A.-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2009-06-01

    PLS (Partial Least Squares regression) is introduced into an automatic estimation of fundamental stellar spectral parameters. It extracts the most correlative spectral component to the parameters (Teff, log g and [Fe/H]), and sets up a linear regression function from spectra to the corresponding parameters. Considering the properties of stellar spectra and the PLS algorithm, we present a piecewise PLS regression method for estimation of stellar parameters, which is composed of one PLS model for Teff, and seven PLS models for log g and [Fe/H] estimation. Its performance is investigated by large experiments on flux calibrated spectra and continuum normalized spectra at different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and resolutions. The results show that the piecewise PLS method is robust for spectra at the medium resolution of 0.23 nm. For low resolution 0.5 nm and 1 nm spectra, it achieves competitive results at higher SNR. Experiments using ELODIE spectra of 0.23 nm resolution illustrate that our piecewise PLS models trained with MILES spectra are efficient for O ~ G stars: for flux calibrated spectra, the systematic offsets are 3.8%, 0.14 dex, and -0.09 dex for Teff, log g and [Fe/H], with error scatters of 5.2%, 0.44 dex and 0.38 dex, respectively; for continuum normalized spectra, the systematic offsets are 3.8%, 0.12dex, and -0.13dex for Teff, log g and [Fe/H], with error scatters of 5.2%, 0.49 dex and 0.41 dex, respectively. The PLS method is rapid, easy to use and does not rely as strongly on the tightness of a parameter grid of templates to reach high precision as Artificial Neural Networks or minimum distance methods do.

  5. SdB stars: low-resolution survey has far-reaching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, E.; Green, E. M.; For, B.; Bonga, K.

    2004-05-01

    Preliminary results from a low resolution (8Å), high S/N ( ˜100) spectroscopic survey of subdwarf B (sdB) stars brighter than V ˜ 14 show potential contributions of sdB stars to aspects of both binary mass transfer and astroseismology. About 400 known or suspected sdB stars were selected from the Palomar-Green catalog (1986), Wesemael et al. (1992), and the electronic version of the revised "Kilkenny" catalog of hot subdwarfs (Wade et al., in preparation), among others. The primary goal of this survey is to distinguish a large sample of true Extended Horizontal Branch (EHB) stars. Photometric and low S/N spectroscopic samples such as these often include subdwarf O stars (possible post-asymptotic giant branch stars), blue horizontal branch stars, main sequence B and A stars, low metallicity F stars, white dwarfs and others, in addition to sdB stars on the EHB. Our sdB spectra, which cover all the Balmer lines from H? to the Balmer jump, will eventually be fit to atmospheric models to derive effective temperatures and gravities. They will be used to select follow-up targets for studies of mass transfer/common envelope binaries, and irregular multimode pulsators, common among EHB stars. If large enough samples are selected these binary mass transfer and astroseismology topics become extremely important. However, our high S/N spectra by themselves are sufficient to distinguish sdB stars from most other contaminants, except for cases of composite spectra. For an additional classification criterion, we have cross-correlated our sample with the 2MASS catalog. Following Stark & Wade (2003), we reaffirm the value of combining V + JHK colors for detection of binaries with low-mass main sequence companions.

  6. HETDEX: Developing the HET's Second Generation Low Resolution Spectrograph for Probing Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, G. J.; Lee, H.; Tuttle, S. E.; Vattiat, B. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Adams, J. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    HETDEX will map the power spectrum of 0.8 million blindly discovered Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAE) using a revolutionary new array of massively replicated fiber-fed spectrographs dubbed the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). In the era of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade and VIRUS, the current Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) must be replaced with a fiber instrument. We discuss the development of the second generation LRS (LRS2), which is a multi-channel instrument based on the VIRUS design. In its current design phase, it is fed by a 287 fiber microlens coupled integral field unit that covers 7” x 12” with 0.62” resolution. The instrument covers 3720 Å to 4700 Å at R ? 1900 and 4600 Å to 7000 Å at R ?1200. With the purpose of making the instrument ideal for follow-up observations of LAE in the HETDEX survey, we discuss the science drivers for selecting the instrument's spectral resolution. We test the utility of the instrument and pilot a future study with LRS2 by presenting R ? 2000 spectra taken with the VIRUS prototype spectrograph (VIRUS-P) in a high-resolution mode at the McDonald Observatory Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope. These LAE were originally discovered in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and their Lyman-alpha line profiles are constrained by near-infrared observations of rest-frame optical emission lines that set the systemic redshift of the galaxies. We discuss the velocity offsets of the Lyman-alpha line from the systemic line center and compare the line profiles to theoretical predictions and to similar observations for Lyman-break galaxies. Our observations provide an example of how LRS2 can be used to probe Lyman-alpha emission in 2 < z < 3 star forming galaxies.

  7. Automatic Template-based Brain Extraction in Fetal MR Images Abstract Submission No

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automatic Template-based Brain Extraction in Fetal MR Images Abstract Submission No: 2890 Authors is currently a very powerful imaging technique to study the human fetal brain in-utero. However, 3D MRI-based fetal brain studies remain challenging due to the low resolution of the images and the fetal motion

  8. The scientifically substantiated art of teaching: A study in the development of standards in the new academic field of neuroeducation (mind, brain, and education science)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey Noel

    Concepts from neuroeducation, commonly referred in the popular press as "brain-based learning," have been applied indiscreetly and inconsistently to classroom teaching practices for many years. While standards exist in neurology, psychology and pedagogy, there are no agreed upon standards in their intersection, neuroeducation, and a formal bridge linking the fields is missing. This study used grounded theory development to determine the parameters of the emerging neuroeducational field based on a meta-analysis of the literature over the past 30 years, which included over 2,200 documents. This research results in a new model for neuroeducation. The design of the new model was followed by a Delphi survey of 20 international experts from six different countries that further refined the model contents over several months of reflection. Finally, the revised model was compared to existing information sources, including popular press, peer review journals, academic publications, teacher training textbooks and the Internet, to determine to what extent standards in neuroeducation are met in the current literature. This study determined that standards in the emerging field, now labeled Mind, Brain, and Education: The Science of Teaching and Learning after the Delphi rounds, are the union of standards in the parent fields of neuroscience, psychology, and education. Additionally, the Delphi expert panel agreed upon the goals of the new discipline, its history, the thought leaders, and a model for judging quality information. The study culminated in a new model of the academic discipline of Mind, Brain, and Education science, which explains the tenets, principles and instructional guidelines supported by the meta-analysis of the literature and the Delphi response.

  9. Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) can be estimated using Energy Balance models and remotely sensed data. In particular, satellite images acquired in visible, near and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum have been used with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to estimate actual evapotranspiration. This algorithm is solving the Energy Balance Equation using data from a meteorological station present in the vicinity, and assumes the meteorological conditions homogeneous over the study area. Most often, data from a representative weather station are used. This assumption may lead to substantial errors in areas with high spatial variability in weather parameters. In this paper, the ITA-MyWater algorithms (Integrated Thermodynamic Algorithms for MyWater project), an adaptation of SEBAL was merged together with spatially distributed meteorological data to increase the accuracy of ETa estimations at regional scale using MODIS satellite images. The major changes introduced to migrate from point to raster are that (i) air temperature and relative humidity maps are used for the estimation of the Energy Balance terms, including instantaneous net radiation and soil heat flux and (ii) the variability of wind speed is taken into account to generate maps of the aerodynamic resistance, sensible heat flux and difference between soil and air temperature at the boundary conditions (at dry and wet pixels). The approach was applied in the river basin of Tamega in Portugal, where actual evapotranspiration was estimated for several MODIS 8-day periods from spring to winter of the same year. The raster meteorological maps were produced by the MM5 weather forecast model. Daily reference evapotranspiration was calculated with MOHID LAND model. Using a temporal integration technique and the daily reference evapotranspiration maps, the cumulative evapotranspiration over the MODIS 8-day period was estimated and compared to the global evapotranspiration MODIS product (MOD16A2). A correlation analysis was performed at the common spatial resolution of 1km using selected homogeneous pixels (from the land cover point of view). A statistically significant correlation factor of 0.6 was found, and the RMSE was 0.92 mm/day. Using raster meteorological data the ITA-MyWater algorithms were able to catch the variability of weather patterns over the river basin and thus improved the spatial distribution of evapotranpiration estimations at low resolution. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  10. Novel Speed and Rotor Position Estimation Strategy Using a Dual Observer for Low-Resolution Position Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anno Yoo; Seung-Ki Sul; Dong-Cheol Lee; Cha-Seung Jun

    2009-01-01

    Recently, high-performance AC motor drive technologies, including field-oriented control (FOC), have been widely used in home appliance products such as direct-drive drum washing machines. In low-cost AC machine drive systems, speed or position sensors with high resolution are not available due to high costs. Instead, a low-resolution sensor is installed to calculate the speed and rotor position. In the FOC,

  11. AC brushless drive with low-resolution Hall-effect sensors for surface-mounted PM Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Giulii Capponi; G. De Donato; L. Del Ferraro; O. Honorati; M. C. Harke; R. D. Lorenz

    2006-01-01

    An ac brushless drive in which Hall-effect sensors are used as rotor position sensors is presented in this paper. Three different methods to obtain a high-resolution position estimation from the low-resolution sensors are described and compared through simulation and experimental testing. The proposed control algorithm's most innovative feature is its adaptability to the entire speed range, including startup, when using

  12. Can Stream Rating Curves be Modeled from Large-Scale, Low-Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Nathanson, M.; Lam, N.; Dahlke, H. E.; Rutzinger, M.; Kean, J. W.; Laudon, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the potential of using large-scale, low-resolution airborne laser scanning (ALS) derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution airborne laser scanning data (topographic LiDAR data) as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and curve fitting uncertainties or uncertainty pertaining to vegetation densities. As such, although there still are some scale and technical limitations to consider, it appears theoretically possible to generate rating curves for any point in a river network from airborne laser scanning data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes. This would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow globally by simplifying the effort required.

  13. High-Resolution Iris Image Reconstruction from Low-Resolution Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Barnard; G. Behrmann; J. Chung; J. Gracht; S. Mathews; M. Mirotznik; James Nagy; V. Pauca; R. Plemmons; S. Prasad; T. Torgersen

    ABSTRACT We investigate the use of a novel multi-lens imaging system in the context of biometric identification, and more specifically, for iris recognition. Multi-lenslet cameras oer a number of significant advantages over standard single-lens camera systems, including thin form-factor and wide angle of view. By using appropriate lenslet spacing relative to the detector pixel pitch, the resulting ensemble of images

  14. High-resolution modeling of protein structures based on flexible fitting of low-resolution structural data.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun; Tekpinar, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    To circumvent the difficulty of directly solving high-resolution biomolecular structures, low-resolution structural data from Cryo-electron microscopy (EM) and small angle solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) are increasingly used to explore multiple conformational states of biomolecular assemblies. One promising venue to obtain high-resolution structural models from low-resolution data is via data-constrained flexible fitting. To this end, we have developed a new method based on a coarse-grained C?-only protein representation, and a modified form of the elastic network model (ENM) that allows large-scale conformational changes while maintaining the integrity of local structures including pseudo-bonds and secondary structures. Our method minimizes a pseudo-energy which linearly combines various terms of the modified ENM energy with an EM/SAXS-fitting score and a collision energy that penalizes steric collisions. Unlike some previous flexible fitting efforts using the lowest few normal modes, our method effectively utilizes all normal modes so that both global and local structural changes can be fully modeled with accuracy. This method is also highly efficient in computing time. We have demonstrated our method using adenylate kinase as a test case which undergoes a large open-to-close conformational change. The EM-fitting method is available at a web server (http://enm.lobos.nih.gov), and the SAXS-fitting method is available as a pre-compiled executable upon request. PMID:25443961

  15. Utilization of the coherence function with Welch's method for signal analysis in low resolution laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendon; Kelley, Jude A

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a technique by which a low resolution ( approximately 1 nm) fiberoptic spectrometer may be used to definitively identify elements and molecular fragments in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Commercial laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectrometers have high resolution in the area of spectral interest, and software is used to identify elements via a look-up table containing known spectral lines. When analyzing spectra from a lower resolution fiber-optic spectrometer, software based on look-up tables can produce erroneous results, reporting elements absent from the sample. As a solution to this problem, an analysis using the coherence function in conjunction with Welch's method is used to compare sample spectra with a library of reference spectra, which contain peaks primarily from a single element. The analysis has proved to be adept at identifying specific elemental signatures in multi-component samples. The technique leverages the increased information content of concomitant atomic emission lines, which are easily collected with a low resolution broadband (200-1100 nm) fiber-optic spectrometer. This technique alleviates the need for the user to visually verify the vicinity of individual peaks during testing. While Pearson's method is generally used for this type of analysis, we show that Welch's method has the advantage of being less susceptible to problems caused by continuum background. PMID:20412620

  16. Visual analysis of trash bin processing on garbage trucks in low resolution video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    We present a system for trash can detection and counting from a camera which is mounted on a garbage collection truck. A working prototype has been successfully implemented and tested with several hours of real-world video. The detection pipeline consists of HOG detectors for two trash can sizes, and meanshift tracking and low level image processing for the analysis of the garbage disposal process. Considering the harsh environment and unfavorable imaging conditions, the process works already good enough so that very useful measurements from video data can be extracted. The false positive/false negative rate of the full processing pipeline is about 5-6% at fully automatic operation. Video data of a full day (about 8 hrs) can be processed in about 30 minutes on a standard PC.

  17. A method to characterize structure and symmetry in low-resolution images of colloidal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew J.; Yethiraj, Anand; Beaulieu, L. Y.

    2012-04-01

    A method is presented for characterizing particle centres, particle size and crystal symmetries with sub-pixel resolution from 8-bit digital images of colloidal thin films taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Digital images are converted to xyz data points by converting colour contrast to a numerical intensity. The data are then passed through a modified form of a Savitzky-Golay filter which allows particle centres to be determined. A subsequent routine is presented that, by analysing the weighted standard deviation and average intensity of the pixels along shifting rings, improves the accuracy of the detected particle centres and provides the radius of each particle. Obtaining the particle centres allows the symmetry of each particle (with respect to its neighbours) along with the mean crystal orientation to be obtained, all in one cohesive package. A key advantage of the method presented here is that it is very robust and works with both low- and high-resolution images—enabling, for example, routine quantitative analysis of SEM images. Because of the low level of user input, the method can be used to process a batch of images in order to characterize the evolution of samples.

  18. Low Resolution Solution Structure of HAMLET and the Importance of Its Alpha-Domains in Tumoricidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ho CS, James; Rydstrom, Anna; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes with broad tumoricidal activity. Elucidating the molecular structure and the domains crucial for HAMLET formation is fundamental for understanding its tumoricidal function. Here we present the low-resolution solution structure of the complex of oleic acid bound HAMLET, derived from small angle X-ray scattering data. HAMLET shows a two-domain conformation with a large globular domain and an extended part of about 2.22 nm in length and 1.29 nm width. The structure has been superimposed into the related crystallographic structure of human ?-lactalbumin, revealing that the major part of ?-lactalbumin accommodates well in the shape of HAMLET. However, the C-terminal residues from L105 to L123 of the crystal structure of the human ?-lactalbumin do not fit well into the HAMLET structure, resulting in an extended conformation in HAMLET, proposed to be required to form the tumoricidal active HAMLET complex with oleic acid. Consistent with this low resolution structure, we identified biologically active peptide epitopes in the globular as well as the extended domains of HAMLET. Peptides covering the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of the protein triggered rapid ion fluxes in the presence of sodium oleate and were internalized by tumor cells, causing rapid and sustained changes in cell morphology. The alpha peptide-oleate bound forms also triggered tumor cell death with comparable efficiency as HAMLET. In addition, shorter peptides corresponding to those domains are biologically active. These findings provide novel insights into the structural prerequisites for the dramatic effects of HAMLET on tumor cells. PMID:23300861

  19. LORES: Low resolution shape program for the calculation of small angle scattering profiles for biological macromolecules in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Deyhim, A.; Krueger, S.; Gregurick, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    A program for determining the low resolution shape of biological macromolecules, based on the optimization of a small angle neutron scattering profile to experimental data, is presented. This program, termed LORES, relies on a Monte Carlo optimization procedure and will allow for multiple scattering length densities of complex structures. It is therefore more versatile than utilizing a form factor approach to produce low resolution structural models. LORES is easy to compile and use, and allows for structural modeling of biological samples in real time. To illustrate the effectiveness and versatility of the program, we present four specific biological examples, Apoferritin (shell model), Ribonuclease S (ellipsoidal model), a 10-mer dsDNA (duplex helix) and a construct of a 10-mer DNA/PNA duplex helix (heterogeneous structure). These examples are taken from protein and nucleic acid SANS studies, of both large and small scale structures. We find, in general, that our program will accurately reproduce the geometric shape of a given macromolecule, when compared with the known crystallographic structures. We also present results to illustrate the lower limit of the experimental resolution which the LORES program is capable of modeling. Program summaryTitle of program:LORES Catalogue identifier: ADVC Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer:SGI Origin200, SGI Octane, SGI Linux, Intel Pentium PC Operating systems:UNIX64 6.5 and LINUX 2.4.7 Programming language used:C Memory required to execute with typical data:8 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2270 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:13 302 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MATH library

  20. Retrieval of distributed irrigation scenarios with a SVAT model (ICARE) based on high and low resolution thermic data (ASTER, MODIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Rivalland, V.; Garatuza Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Chehbouni, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the current context of climatic change, and with the evolution of anthropogenic behaviors, the optimization of water use in irrigated agriculture, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions, has become a main issue in the management of water resources. Based on a mechanistic understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere, Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models (SVAT) simulate water and energy budgets at the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. Remote sensing data, especially land surface temperature, gives us distributed information about the water status of the surface. By assimilating this data at high and low resolution into SVAT models, we should be able to estimate with a good accuracy water use scenarios on cultivated zones. In this context, the MISTIGRI mission is developed in order to obtain high resolution thermal data (<100m) with high repetitiveness (daily revisit). In this study, we use a distributed version of the ICARE model (100m resolution), forced with climatic and surface (vegetation and soil water content) data acquired from January to June 2008 on a 4x4km cultivated zone of the Yaqui Valley (Sonora, Mexico). The model has been evaluated at six locations were flux and soil water content measurements were available. The first step of the study is to evaluate the suitability of land surface temperature data in the retrieval of an irrigation scenario, based on synthetic data. The surface temperature outputs of 70 credible scenarios are compared to the original one and eliminated on the basis of a temperature error criterion. Given the good results shown by ICARE in the estimation of the energy fluxes (RMSE < 100 W/m2 for turbulent fluxes) and the soil water content, the results of this study are expected to be quite good. The next step is to use real remote sensing land surface temperature data to do the same open-loop study. The outputs of the 70 credible scenarios are now compared to high (ASTER) and low (MODIS) resolution thermal data. The low revisit rate of high resolution sensors (7 ASTER images in 5 months) and the loss of information due to low resolution of MODIS data are expected to significantly lower the accuracy of the results. Further studies with data assimilation techniques (Particle filtering) are planned in order to improve the retrieval process. Previous studies showed that surface energy balance models like SEBS (Su, 2002) and S-SEBI (Roerink, 2000), used with ASTER surface temperature images, provided a good estimation of the vegetation stress factor. Thus, assimilating other indexes, containing more information on the water status of the surface will be another way to improve our estimations.

  1. A Bayesian fusion model for space-time reconstruction of finely resolved velocities in turbulent flows from low resolution measurements

    E-print Network

    Van Nguyen, Linh; Chainais, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The study of turbulent flows calls for measurements with high resolution both in space and in time. We propose a new approach to reconstruct High-Temporal-High-Spatial resolution velocity fields by combining two sources of information that are well-resolved either in space or in time, the Low-Temporal-High-Spatial (LTHS) and the High-Temporal-Low-Spatial (HTLS) resolution measurements. In the framework of co-conception between sensing and data post-processing, this work extensively investigates a Bayesian reconstruction approach using a simulated database. A Bayesian fusion model is developed to solve the inverse problem of data reconstruction. The model uses a Maximum A Posteriori estimate, which yields the most probable field knowing the measurements. The DNS of a wall-bounded turbulent flow at moderate Reynolds number is used to validate and assess the performances of the present approach. Low resolution measurements are subsampled in time and space from the fully resolved data. Reconstructed velocities ar...

  2. Expression, Purification and Low-Resolution Structure of Human Vitamin C Transporter SVCT1 (SLC23A1)

    PubMed Central

    Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Harder, Daniel; Schneider, Philipp; Ucurum, Zöhre; Hediger, Matthias; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Expression and purification of human membrane proteins for structural studies represent a great challenge. This is because micro- to milligram amounts of pure isolated protein are required. To this aim, we successfully expressed the human vitamin C transporter-1 (hSVCT1; SLC23A1) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and isolated highly pure protein in microgram amounts. Recombinant hSVCT1 was functional when expressed in oocytes and glycosylated. Structural analysis of purified hSVCT1 by transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis unveiled its shape, dimensions and low-resolution structure as well as the existence of a major monomeric and minor dimeric population. Chemical crosslinking of isolated oocyte membranes containing expressed hSVCT1 indicated similar oligomeric states of hSVCT1 in lipid bilayers. This work reports the first purification and structural analysis of a human SVCT protein and opens the way for future functional and structural studies using purified hSVCT1. PMID:24124560

  3. LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS WITH SIGNS OF SUPERNOVA ENRICHMENT: M22, NGC 1851, AND NGC 288

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Dongwook; Han, Sang-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Roh, Dong-Goo [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Young-Jong [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Sang-Hyun [Yonsei University Observatory, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Woo [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Johnson, Christian I., E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of multiple red giant branches (RGBs) in the color-magnitude diagrams of massive globular clusters (GCs). In order to investigate the origin of this split on the RGB, we have performed new narrow-band Ca photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288. We find significant differences (more than 4?) in calcium abundance from the spectroscopic HK' index for M22 and NGC 1851. We also find more than 8? differences in CN-band strength between the Ca-strong and Ca-weak subpopulations for these GCs. For NGC 288, however, a large difference is detected only in the CN strength. The calcium abundances of RGB stars in this GC are identical to within the errors. This is consistent with the conclusion from our new Ca photometry where the RGB splits are confirmed in M22 and NGC 1851, but not in NGC 288. We also find interesting differences in the CN-CH correlations among these GCs. While CN and CH are anti-correlated in NGC 288, they show a positive correlation in M22. NGC 1851, however, shows no difference in CH between the two groups of stars with different CN strengths. We suggest that all of these systematic differences would be best explained by how strongly Type II supernovae enrichment has contributed to the chemical evolution of these GCs.

  4. Low-resolution mass spectrometric relative response factors (RRFs) and relative retention times (RRTs) on two common gas chromatographic stationary phases for 87 polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Kjell; Rappe, Christoffer; Tysklind, Mats

    2004-05-01

    All 87 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analysed using high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-LRMS). The mass spectrometer was operated in two different modes: electron ionisation (EI), and negative ion chemical ionisation (NCI) with methane as a reagent gas. Baseline separation and identification of all PCDF congeners was carried out using one non-polar (DB-5) and one polar (RT-2330) capillary GC column. Relative retention times (RRTs) on both columns, and relative response factors (RRFs) in both EI- and NCI-modes, were calculated for all 87 of the PCDFs. Comparison of the EI-RRFs and NCI-RRFs showed that the mass spectrometric NCI-responses varied to a higher degree than the EI-responses. The level of NCI-response was dependent on the substitution positions of the chlorine atoms on the dibenzofuran molecule skeleton. The ratio between the highest and lowest RRFs was 26 in the NCI-mode, but only 2.3 in the EI-mode. Thus, quantification of tetra- to octa-CDFs in environmental samples using the NCI-mode will result in incorrect estimates of PCDF concentrations unless 13C-labelled internal standards are used for each congener, or RRFs are taken into consideration. In contrast, the quantification of PCDFs in the EI-mode using a single internal 13C-labelled PCDF standard for each PCDF homologue is accurate according to the findings in this investigation. A flue gas sample from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) analysed in the NCI-mode was quantified with and without NCI-RRFs. When using NCI-RRFs the reported concentration of SigmaPCDFs in the flue gas sample increased by 40%. Furthermore, TCDF analysis was compared using two mass spectrometers (a VG 12-250 and a Finnigan 4500) operating in EI-mode. These quadrupole instruments performed equally well, giving similar EI-RRFs for the tested compounds. PMID:15051368

  5. 1682 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 43, NO. 7, JULY 2005 On Merging High-and Low-Resolution DEMs From

    E-print Network

    Segall, Paul

    data in airborne Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) DEMs using a low-resolution Shuttle, they sometimes suffer from artifacts and missing data due to roll of the aircraft, layover, and flight planning missing data so that the interpolated regions have the same spectral content as the valid regions

  6. Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

  7. Low-resolution structures of proteins in solution retrieved from X-ray scattering with a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, P; Morán, F; Díaz, J F; Pantos, E; Andreu, J M

    1998-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray solution scattering (SAXS) is analyzed with a new method to retrieve convergent model structures that fit the scattering profiles. An arbitrary hexagonal packing of several hundred beads containing the problem object is defined. Instead of attempting to compute the Debye formula for all of the possible mass distributions, a genetic algorithm is employed that efficiently searches the configurational space and evolves best-fit bead models. Models from different runs of the algorithm have similar or identical structures. The modeling resolution is increased by reducing the bead radius together with the search space in successive cycles of refinement. The method has been tested with protein SAXS (0.001 < S < 0.06 A(-1)) calculated from x-ray crystal structures, adding noise to the profiles. The models obtained closely approach the volumes and radii of gyration of the known structures, and faithfully reproduce the dimensions and shape of each of them. This includes finding the active site cavity of lysozyme, the bilobed structure of gamma-crystallin, two domains connected by a stalk in betab2-crystallin, and the horseshoe shape of pancreatic ribonuclease inhibitor. The low-resolution solution structure of lysozyme has been directly modeled from its experimental SAXS profile (0.003 < S < 0.03 A(-1)). The model describes lysozyme size and shape to the resolution of the measurement. The method may be applied to other proteins, to the analysis of domain movements, to the comparison of solution and crystal structures, as well as to large macromolecular assemblies. PMID:9635731

  8. Remote sensing of CO2 and CH4 using solar absorption spectrometry with a low resolution spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, C.; Warneke, T.; Jones, N.; Ridder, T.; Messerschmidt, J.; Weinzierl, T.; Geibel, M.; Notholt, J.

    2012-07-01

    Throughout the last few years solar absorption Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) has been further developed to measure the total columns of CO2 and CH4. The observations are performed at high spectral resolution, typically at 0.02 cm-1. The precision currently achieved is generally better than 0.25%. However, these high resolution instruments are quite large and need a dedicated room or container for installation. We performed these observations using a smaller commercial interferometer at its maximum possible resolution of 0.11 cm-1. The measurements have been performed at Bremen and have been compared to observations using our high resolution instrument also situated at the same location. The high resolution instrument has been successfully operated as part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The precision of the low resolution instrument is 0.32% for XCO2 and 0.46% for XCH4. A comparison of the measurements of both instruments yields an average deviation in the retrieved daily means of ≤0.2% for CO2. For CH4 an average bias between the instruments of 0.47% was observed. For test cases, spectra recorded by the high resolution instrument have been truncated to the resolution of 0.11 cm-1. This study gives an offset of 0.03% for CO2 and 0.26% for CH4. These results indicate that for CH4 more than 50% of the difference between the instruments results from the resolution dependent retrieval. We tentatively assign the offset to an incorrect a-priori concentration profile or the effect of interfering gases, which may not be treated correctly.

  9. Remote sensing of CO2 and CH4 using solar absorption spectrometry with a commercial low resolution spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, C.; Warneke, T.; Jones, N.; Ridder, T.; Messerschmidt, J.; Weinzierl, T.; Geibel, M.; Notholt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the last few years solar absorption Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) has been further developed to measure the total columns of CO2 and CH4. The observations are performed at high spectral resolution, typically at 0.02 cm-1. The precision achieved is actually generally better than 0.25%. However, these high resolution instruments are quite large and need a dedicated room or container for installation. We performed these observations using a smaller commercial interferometer at its maximum possible resolution of 0.11 cm-1. The measurements have been performed at Bremen and have been compared to observations using our high resolution instrument also situated at the same location. The high resolution instrument has been successfully operated as part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The precision of the low resolution instrument is 0.32% for XCO2 and 0.46% for XCH4. A comparison of the measurements of both instruments yields an average deviation in the retrieved daily means of ≤0.2% for CO2. For CH4 an average bias between the instruments of 0.46% was observed. For test cases, spectra recorded by the high resolution instrument have been truncated to the resolution of 0.11 cm-1. This study gives an offset of 0.03% for CO2 and 0.26% for CH4. These results indicate that for CH4 more than 50% of the difference between the instruments results from the resolution dependant retrieval. We tentatively assign the offset to an incorrect a-priori concentration profile or the effect of interfering gases, which may not be treated correctly.

  10. A practical guide to robust detection of GABA in human brain by J-difference spectroscopy at 3 T using a standard volume coil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin W. Waddell; Malcolm J. Avison; James M. Joers; John C. Gore

    2007-01-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain and has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In vivo human brain GABA concentrations are near the detection limit for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (?1 mM), and because of overlap with more abundant compounds, spectral editing is generally necessary to detect GABA. In previous reports, GABA spectra edited by J-difference

  11. Hypertonic saline in paediatric traumatic brain injury: a review of nine years' experience with 23.4% hypertonic saline as standard hyperosmolar therapy.

    PubMed

    Piper, B J; Harrigan, P W

    2015-03-01

    We describe the protocolised use of 23.4% hypertonic saline solution (HTS) for intracranial hypertension in the context of traumatic brain injury in the paediatric population. This study represents the largest published data on the use of 23.4% HTS in the paediatric population. In this retrospective cohort, we focus on the efficacy, biochemical and metabolic consequences of 23.4% HTS administration in a Level 1 paediatric trauma centre. Mortality in the first seven days was 6% (2/32) with a mean intensive care unit length-of-stay of ten days (range 2 to 25, standard deviation [SD] 6). All-cause hospital mortality was 6%, with no deaths after the seven-day study period. Mean intracranial pressure (ICP) response to HTS was 10 mmHg (range 1 to 30, SD 8). For biochemistry data, the mean highest daily serum sodium was 148 mmol/l (139 to 161, SD 6), mean highest serum chloride was 115 mmol/l (range 101 to 132, SD 8) with matched mean serum base excess of -1.5 mmol/l (range 2 to -8, SD 3) and mean peak serum creatinine was 73 mmol/l (range 32 to 104, SD 32). Glasgow outcome scores of >3 (independent function) were achieved in 74% of patients. We describe the use of 23.4% HTS, demonstrating it to be a practical and efficacious method of delivering osmoles and may be advantageous in minimising total fluid volume. Thus, the bolus versus infusion debate may best be served via combining both approaches. PMID:25735686

  12. An Improved Rotor Position Estimation With Vector-Tracking Observer in PMSM Drives With Low-Resolution Hall-Effect Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam-Young Kim; Chinchul Choi; Kyeongjin Lee; Wootaik Lee

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved approach for esti- mating high-resolution rotor position in permanent-magnet syn- chronous motor (PMSM) drives with low-resolution Hall-effect sensors. A vector-tracking position observer in conjunction with discrete Hall sensors' output signals has been proposed, which is similar to a phase-locked loop structure. It consists of a position error detector, based on the vector cross product of

  13. Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis and

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography electroencephalographic and cortisol were obtained from healthy and anhedonic groups. Low-resolution electromagnetic found a relationship between current density in beta and gamma bands and steeper cortisol slope

  14. Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

  15. The power of low-resolution spectroscopy: On the spectral classification of planet candidates in the ground-based CoRoT follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Sebastian, D.; Guenther, E. W.; Stecklum, B.; Cabrera, J.

    2015-02-01

    Planetary transits detected by the CoRoT mission can be mimicked by a low-mass star in orbit around a giant star. Spectral classification helps to identify the giant stars and also early-type stars which are often excluded from further follow-up. We study the potential and the limitations of low-resolution spectroscopy to improve the photometric spectral types of CoRoT candidates. In particular, we want to study the influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target spectrum in a quantitative way. We built an own template library and investigate whether a template library from the literature is able to reproduce the classifications. Including previous photometric estimates, we show how the additional spectroscopic information improves the constraints on spectral type. Low-resolution spectroscopy (R? 1000) of 42 CoRoT targets covering a wide range in SNR (1-437) and of 149 templates was obtained in 2012-2013 with the Nasmyth spectrograph at the Tautenburg 2 m telescope. Spectral types have been derived automatically by comparing with the observed template spectra. The classification has been repeated with the external CFLIB library. The spectral class obtained with the external library agrees within a few sub-classes when the target spectrum has a SNR of about 100 at least. While the photometric spectral type can deviate by an entire spectral class, the photometric luminosity classification is as close as a spectroscopic classification with the external library. A low SNR of the target spectrum limits the attainable accuracy of classification more strongly than the use of external templates or photometry. Furthermore we found that low-resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy ensures that good planet candidates are kept that would otherwise be discarded based on photometric spectral type alone.

  16. Computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra: Program for calculation of molecular isotopic distribution and program for assignment of molecular formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Two FORTRAN computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra were prepared and tested. One is for the calculation of the molecular isotopic distribution of any species from stored elemental distributions. The program requires only the input of the molecular formula and was designed for compatability with any computer system. The other program is for the determination of all possible combinations of atoms (and radicals) which may form an ion having a particular integer mass. It also uses a simplified input scheme and was designed for compatability with any system.

  17. Uniformity in brain death criteria.

    PubMed

    Shemie, Sam D; Baker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Despite well-described international variabilities in brain death practices, de facto there already exists a minimum international clinical standard for the diagnosis of brain death. This remains rooted in the Harvard criteria and based on the characteristics of a permanently nonfunctioning brain. Medicine is evolving toward a single unified determination of death based on the cessation of brain function subsequent to catastrophic brain injury or circulatory arrest. Clarity in lexicon could be established, including movement toward functional definitions and away from anatomically based terms such as cardiac and brain death that erroneously imply death of the organ. The cessation of clinical functions of the brain that will not resume is determined by the absence of capacity for consciousness, centrally mediated motor responses, brainstem reflexes, and capacity to breathe. A known proximate cause and the absence of confounding or reversible conditions must be confirmed. Regional medical, legal, cultural, religious, or socioeconomic factors may require testing beyond this minimal clinical standard. PMID:25839725

  18. Brain components

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  19. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain Autopsy The Key to Understanding FTD A brain autopsy is essential to obtain a definitive diagnosis ... sense of closure. People who participate in a brain donation program should receive an autopsy report with ...

  20. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Daniel J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

  1. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays

    PubMed Central

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  2. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  3. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  4. A standardized method for the construction of tracer specific PET and SPECT rat brain templates: validation and implementation of a toolbox.

    PubMed

    Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion), and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70 ± 0.32 mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25), 0.23 ± 0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13), 0.88 ± 0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15), 0.64 ± 0.28 mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19), 0.34 ± 0.15 mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6), and 0.40 ± 0.13 mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15). These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p&0.001). Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p&0.05), and when images and templates had the same size (p ? 0.001). Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p&0.005) and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.). In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer-specific templates allows accurate registration of functional rat brain data, independent of disease specific uptake patterns and with registration error below spatial resolution of the cameras. The templates and the SAMIT package will be freely available for the research community. PMID:25823005

  5. A Standardized Method for the Construction of Tracer Specific PET and SPECT Rat Brain Templates: Validation and Implementation of a Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion), and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70±0.32mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25), 0.23±0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13), 0.88±0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15), 0.64±0.28mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19), 0.34±0.15mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6), and 0.40±0.13mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15). These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p&0.001). Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p&0.05), and when images and templates had the same size (p?0.001). Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p&0.005) and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.). In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer-specific templates allows accurate registration of functional rat brain data, independent of disease specific uptake patterns and with registration error below spatial resolution of the cameras. The templates and the SAMIT package will be freely available for the research community. PMID:25823005

  6. Crystal structure of a novel non-Pfam protein PF2046 solved using low resolution B-factor sharpening and multi-crystal averaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jing; Li, Yang; Shaw, Neil; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Min; Xu, Hao; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Jie (Ankara); (Nankai); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (Georgia)

    2012-11-13

    Sometimes crystals cannot diffract X-rays beyond 3.0 {angstrom} resolution due to the intrinsic flexibility associated with the protein. Low resolution diffraction data not only pose a challenge to structure determination, but also hamper interpretation of mechanistic details. Crystals of a 25.6 kDa non-Pfam, hypothetical protein, PF2046, diffracted X-rays to 3.38 {angstrom} resolution. A combination of Se-Met derived heavy atom positions with multiple cycles of B-factor sharpening, multi-crystal averaging, restrained refinement followed by manual inspection of electron density and model building resulted in a final model with a R value of 23.5 (R{sub free} = 24.7). The asymmetric unit was large and consisted of six molecules arranged as a homodimer of trimers. Analysis of the structure revealed the presence of a RNA binding domain suggesting a role for PF2046 in the processing of nucleic acids.

  7. Practice parameter: Anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Glantz; B. F. Cole; P. A. Forsyth; L. D. Recht; P. Y. Wen; M. C. Chamberlain; S. A. Grossman; J. G. Cairncross

    Overview. The Quality Standards Subcommittee seeks to develop scientifically sound, clinically relevant practice parameters for the practice of neurology. Practice parameters are strategies for patient management that assist physicians in clinical decision making. A practice parameter is one or more specific recommendations based on analysis of evidence on a specific clinical problem. These might include diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, or procedure

  8. Brain Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

  9. Brain Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brains parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

  10. Brain Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  11. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  12. Developing a stereotypical Drosophila brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hao-Chiang; Wu, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Guan-Yu; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Brain research requires a standardized brain atlas to describe both the variance and invariance in brain anatomy and neuron connectivity. In this study, we propose a system to construct a standardized 3D Drosophila brain atlas by integrating labeled images from different preparations. The 3D fly brain atlas consists of standardized anatomical global and local reference models, e.g., the inner and external brain surfaces and the mushroom body. The averaged global and local reference models are generated by the model averaging procedure, and then the standard Drosophila brain atlas can be compiled by transferring the averaged neuropil models into the averaged brain surface models. The main contribution and novelty of our study is to determine the average 3D brain shape based on the isosurface suggested by the zero-crossings of a 3D accumulative signed distance map. Consequently, in contrast with previous approaches that also aim to construct a stereotypical brain model based on the probability map and a user-specified probability threshold, our method is more robust and thus capable to yield more objective and accurate results. Moreover, the obtained 3D average shape is useful for defining brain coordinate systems and will be able to provide boundary conditions for volume registration methods in the future. This method is distinguishable from those focusing on 2D + Z image volumes because its pipeline is designed to process 3D mesh surface models of Drosophila brains. PMID:24960421

  13. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  14. Brain death and the courts.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Christopher M; Schipper, Agnes M; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2011-03-01

    Brain death determinations have been challenged in courts, but no systematic study has been published in the medical literature. Court cases on brain death determination could provide some insights for the clinical practice of physicians. We reviewed legal cases between 1980 and 2010 involving neurologic criteria for death since adoption of the Uniform Determination of Death Act. Court rulings on brain death determination are uncommon, but 2 major themes emerged: consequences of documentation of the time of brain death and family-physician discord on withdrawal of intensive care support. All court rulings upheld the medical practice of death determination using neurologic criteria according to state law, irrespective of other elements of the rulings. Nothing in the court cases suggests a need to alter the current medical standard of brain death determination. Jurisprudence to date emphasizes that the timing and accurate diagnosis of brain death has important weight in the resolution of conflict between practitioners, hospitals, and family members. PMID:21357836

  15. Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT

    E-print Network

    J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy

    2007-10-24

    A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

  16. RUSSIA Hopes pinned on elite tech campus to fight brain

    E-print Network

    Deisseroth, Karl

    may not be far off: the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), one of three government to parse the human brain gets under way. The BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative standards to guide the BRAIN project.Thereisalreadyonemajormechanism for ethical oversight in US research

  17. Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-78 (2011) 644 Current laser scanning systems in sawmills collect low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) profiles of logs.

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    Sciences Laboratory in Princeton, WV, constructed a 3D laser log scanner using off-the-shelf industrial laser scanning systems in sawmills collect low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) profiles of logs. The scanner collects a high-resolution 3D dot cloud map of exterior log surfaces. Each log scan is composed

  18. Brain Week!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

    2005-05-01

    This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  19. Brain tissue oxygen tension monitoring in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury Part 1: Relationship with outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Figaji; Eugene Zwane; Crispin Thompson; A. Graham Fieggen; Andrew C. Argent; Peter D. Le Roux; Jonathan C. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management are the current standards to guide care of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, brain hypoxia and secondary brain injury can occur despite optimal ICP and CPP. In this study, we used brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) monitoring to examine the association between multiple patient factors, including PbtO2, and

  20. Brain tissue oxygen tension monitoring in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Figaji; Eugene Zwane; Crispin Thompson; A. Graham Fieggen; Andrew C. Argent; Peter D. Le Roux; Jonathan C. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management are the current standards to guide\\u000a care of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, brain hypoxia and secondary brain injury can occur despite optimal ICP\\u000a and CPP. In this study, we used brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) monitoring to examine the association between multiple patient factors, including PbtO2, and outcome

  1. Standardization versus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Examines differences between old state-designed norm-referenced tests and new tests aligned with the curriculum. Concludes that new state tests are very similar to old ones. Discusses impact of new high-stakes standardized tests on students and teachers. Argues the new wave of standardized testing is not the answer to improving student…

  2. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  3. SPITZER/IRS 5-35 {mu}m LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE 12 {mu}m SEYFERT SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yanling [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Huang Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spinoglio, Luigi; Tommasin, Silvia [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: yanling@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: vassilis@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: jhuang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: luigi.spinoglio@ifsi-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: Silvia.Tommasin@ifsi-roma.inaf.it

    2009-08-10

    We present low-resolution 5.5-35 {mu}m spectra for 103 galaxies from the 12 {mu}m Seyfert sample, a complete unbiased 12 {mu}m flux limited sample of local Seyfert galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board Spitzer Space Telescope. For 70 of the sources observed in the IRS mapping mode, uniformly extracted nuclear spectra are presented for the first time. We performed an analysis of the continuum emission, the strength of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and astronomical silicate features of the sources. We find that on average, the 15-30 {mu}m slope of the continuum is ({alpha}{sub 15-30}) = -0.85 {+-} 0.61 for Seyfert 1s and -1.53 {+-} 0.84 for Seyfert 2s, and there is substantial scatter in each type. Moreover, nearly 32% of the Seyfert 1s, and 9% of the Seyfert 2s, display a peak in the mid-infrared spectrum at 20 {mu}m, which is attributed to an additional hot dust component. The PAH equivalent width decreases with increasing dust temperature, as indicated by the global infrared color of the host galaxies. However, no statistical difference in PAH equivalent width is detected between the two Seyfert types, 1 and 2, of the same bolometric luminosity. The silicate features at 9.7 and 18 {mu}m in Seyfert 1 galaxies are rather weak, while Seyfert 2s are more likely to display strong silicate absorption. Those Seyfert 2s with the highest silicate absorption also have high infrared luminosity and high absorption (hydrogen column density N{sub H} > 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) as measured from the X-rays. Finally, we propose a new method to estimate the active galactic nucleus contribution to the integrated 12 {mu}m galaxy emission, by subtracting the 'star formation component in the Seyfert galaxies, making use of the tight correlation between PAH 11.2 {mu}m luminosity and 12 {mu}m luminosity for star-forming galaxies.

  4. Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

  5. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Jennett, B

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation frequently saves lives that are threatened by temporary respiratory failure; but when breathing stops due to irreversible brain damage ventilation only prolongs the process of dying, as organs serially cease to function. The possibility of extending from a few minutes to many days the interval between final failure of the brain and ultimate cardiac asystole emphasises that death is not an event, but a process. PMID:7056934

  6. &"&+'1"2+'3* '%,!)&+)56*

    E-print Network

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    . 16(3). Hämäläinen M, Ilmoniemi RJ, 1994. Interpreting magnetic fields of the brain: Minimum norm estimation. Neuroimage 42(3). Pascual-Marqui RD, 2002. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic

  7. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  8. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  9. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  10. Brain Tumor Dictionary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  11. Brain Tumor Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  12. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  13. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  14. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Statistics SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Close Finish Home > About Us > News > Brain Tumor Statistics Listen Brain Tumors do not discriminate. Primary brain ...

  15. Dolphin Brains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (; )

    2002-03-11

    Dolphins and other marine mammals have pretty big brains compared to the size of their bodies. That's one indication of high intelligence, and anyone who has seen them perform at an aquarium or zoo can attest to that fact. Science reporter Bob Hirshon introduces us to one scientist who's trying to find out how dolphins got so brainy.

  16. Cola Brains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-11-15

    For over fifty years, Coke and Pepsi have spent billions trying to out-market each other. But a new brain study suggests that one brand has much deeper effects. This Science Update explores the affect advertising poses on the consumer's choice.

  17. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  18. Brand Standards Brand StandardsBrand Standards

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    Brand Standards 6.6.11 #12;Brand StandardsBrand Standards VISUAL IDENTITY AND BRANDING INITIATIVE for developing logos that use the graphic along with appropriate names and other wording. Consistency anniversary, in 2012, of the naming of the University of Maryland and the building of Davidge Hall

  19. neuroscience / brain & mind neuroscience / brain & mind

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    neuroscience / brain & mind #12;neuroscience / brain & mind Investment Construction of new Centre for Brain & Mind $3.6million External funding for researchers $60million Provincial investment in a 3T and one of three 7T MRI in the world $12million #12;neuroscience / brain & mind Recruitment and Building

  20. Predicting intrinsic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-11-15

    Multivariate supervised learning methods exhibit a remarkable ability to decode externally driven sensory, behavioral, and cognitive states from functional neuroimaging data. Although they are typically applied to task-based analyses, supervised learning methods are equally applicable to intrinsic effective and functional connectivity analyses. The obtained models of connectivity incorporate the multivariate interactions between all brain regions simultaneously, which will result in a more accurate representation of the connectome than the ones available with standard bivariate methods. Additionally the models can be applied to decode or predict the time series of intrinsic brain activity of a region from an independent dataset. The obtained prediction accuracy provides a measure of the integration between a brain region and other regions in its network, as well as a method for evaluating acquisition and preprocessing pipelines for resting state fMRI data. This article describes a method for learning multivariate models of connectivity. The method is applied in the non-parametric prediction accuracy, influence, and reproducibility-resampling (NPAIRS) framework, to study the regional variation of prediction accuracy and reproducibility (Strother et al., 2002). The resulting spatial distribution of these metrics is consistent with the functional hierarchy proposed by Mesulam (1998). Additionally we illustrate the utility of the multivariate regression connectivity modeling method for optimizing experimental parameters and assessing the quality of functional neuroimaging data. PMID:23707580

  1. Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

  2. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  3. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  4. Brain Shape Homologous Modeling Using Sulcal-Distribution Index in MR Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosuke Yamaguchi; Syoji Kobashi; Ikuko Mohri; Seturo Imawaki; Masako Taniike; Yutaka Hata

    2009-01-01

    The brain shape is deformed regionally by kinds of cerebral diseases and the degree of progress. Therefore quantitative evaluation of the deformation using MR images is effective for diagnosis of cerebral diseases. To evaluate the cerebral deformation, almost conventional methods are based on normalization of the brain shape which deforms the evaluating brain into the standardized brain. Because the normalization

  5. PCDD, PCDF, AND DL-PCB analysis in food: performance evaluation of the high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry technique using consensus-based samples.

    PubMed

    Ingelido, Anna Maria; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abballe, Annalisa; di Domenico, Alessandro; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2012-02-15

    Due to safety concerns regarding dietary exposure to POPs, regulatory bodies are issuing detailed guidelines for testing for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) ('dioxins') and dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs in foods of animal origin. Determination of the aforesaid chemicals at regulatory levels requires highly selective and sensitive testing techniques. The new generation of low-resolution mass spectrometers (triple quadrupoles) allows very low levels of quantification to be reached (in the order of tens of femtograms), thus suggesting a potential for their application in food and feed analysis. The performance of the low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LRMS/MS) approach with triple quadrupoles was assessed on a qualified set of food samples from proficiency tests (PTs) and defense analysis. Accuracy was tested comparing the results with data from high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and with consensus values from PTs. The cumulative TEQ results were characterized by deviations not exceeding 15% of PCDD?+?PCDF, DL-PCB, and PCDD?+?PCDF?+?DL-PCB (TEQ(TOT)) reference consensus values (sample TEQ(TOT) range, 2.29-25.1 pgWHO-TEQ(97)/g fat). Congener analytical variabilities did not influence significantly the WHO-TEQ(97) outcome of the corresponding sample. This preliminary performance evaluation highlights the potential of LRMS/MS as a routine technique for quantitative analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs in food. PMID:22223308

  6. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National Science Education…

  7. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  8. Unruptured Brain Aneurysms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  9. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Studies are underway to determine its antidepressant effects. Deep brain stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed as a ... Seminowicz D, Hamani C, Schwalb JM, Kennedy SH. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron . 2005 ...

  10. BrainWork

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Room Publications & Multimedia Brain in the News Briefing Papers Primers Cerebrum Multimedia Dana Alliance Newsletters Print Publications ... Archive Press Room Press Releases Fact Sheet Briefing Papers Primers Brain Expert Directory Publications & Multimedia Brain in ...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anand Veeravagu More Videos New Initiative to Map Human Brain Physicians at Wiesbaden Army Health Clinic are using vision therapy to treat traumatic brain injury Traumatic Brain Injury Pentagon Roundtable Blogs DARPA's Memory Restoration Program

  12. Singing the Brain Electric

    E-print Network

    Chua, Grace (Grace W. J.)

    2008-01-01

    Singing the Brain Electric Brain pacemakers, scientists have found, can treat depression by correcting neural circuitry gone haywire. This thesis examines how such technology - a technique known as deep-brain stimulation, ...

  13. The Brain's Inner Workings

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    The Brain's Inner Workings A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS From the National Institute of Mental Health #12 ............................................................................ 2 The Brain's Inner Workings Video Part I: Structure and Function........................... 3 .......................................................................................13 Activity: Use Your Brain

  14. The Global Brain is Neither Global nor a Brain

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Luis

    The Global Brain is Neither Global nor a Brain Adaptive Webs for Heterarchies Luis Mateus Rocha-organism or a global brain? The Global Brain Is Neither Global nor a Brain #12;!Disembodied Brain Disembodied brains do not exist, not even in networks. Brains have evolved via natural selection in an embodied

  15. Brain Slice Chamber System

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    Brain Slice Chamber System User's Manual BSC-BU Brain Slice Chamber System Base Unit MA1 65-0073 BSC-ZT Brain Slice Chamber System Zbicz Top MA1 65-0074 BSC-HT Brain Slice Chamber System Haas Top MA1 65-0075 BSC-PC Brain Slice Chamber System Prechamber MA1 65-0076 BSC-BUW Brain Slice Chamber Base

  16. Undertanding Brain Aneurysm Videos

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    BAF Publications Webinars Videos Articles Web Resources Books Publications on BAF Funded Research Projects Glossary GTranslate Educational Resources : Video Brain Aneurysm Symptoms - Early Detection of Brain Aneurysms ...

  17. Analysis of time-series of total and plant water stress levels using a dual-source energy balance model over agricultural crops and medium to low resolution thermal infra red remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulet, Gilles; Mougenot, Bernard; Bahir, Malik; Fanise, Pascal; Saadi, Sameh; Simonneaux, Vincent; Chebbi, Wafa; Kassouk, Zeineb; Oualid, Toufik; Olioso, Albert; Lagouarde, Jean-Pierre; Le Dantec, Valérie; Rivalland, Vincent; Zribi, Mehrez; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2015-04-01

    Detecting, monitoring and mapping plant water stress with remote sensing data is a crucial component of modern agricultural water management, especially in areas with scarce water resources such as the south and the eastern parts of the Mediterranean region. Developing efficient operational methods dedicated to those three actions is thus necessary to design observing systems for areas with a mixture of irrigated, rainfed and deficit irrigation agriculture. Those systems can assist managers in tasks such as early warning of drought, real time irrigated area mapping etc. A way to quantify plant and total water stress levels is to exploit the available surface temperature data from remote sensing as a signature of the surface energy balance, including the latent heat flux. Remotely sensed energy balance models enable to estimate evapotranspiration and the water status of continental surfaces. Two-source models, such as TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) allow deriving a rough estimate of the water stress of the vegetation instead of that of a soil-vegetation composite. For the latter, a realistic underlying assumption enables to invert two unknowns (evaporation and transpiration) from a single piece of information. This assumption states that, in most cases, vegetation is unstressed, and that if vegetation is stressed, evaporation is negligible. In the latter case, if vegetation stress is not properly accounted for, the resulting evaporation will decrease to unrealistic levels (negative fluxes) in order to maintain the same total surface temperature. Actual and potential transpiration rates are combined to derive an index of plant water stress applicable to low resolution data. Here, we evaluate time series of plant water stress indices in the Kairouan area in Central Tunisia in the last few years by comparing them with 1- maps of the irrigation sectors as well as rainfall data and 2- turbulent heat flux measurements obtained at low resolution (scintillometer, eddy-covariance over homogeneous areas) and 3- outputs of a distributed hydrological model (SAMIR).

  18. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain. PMID:22178817

  19. Safety and efficacy of analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil versus standard hypnotic-based regimens in intensive care unit patients with brain injuries: a randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN50308308

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Karabinis; Kostas Mandragos; Spiros Stergiopoulos; Apostolos Komnos; Jens Soukup; Ben Speelberg; Andrew JT Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    Introduction  This randomised, open-label, observational, multicentre, parallel group study assessed the safety and efficacy of analgesia-based\\u000a sedation using remifentanil in the neuro-intensive care unit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients aged 18–80 years admitted to the intensive care unit within the previous 24 hours, with acute brain injury or after\\u000a neurosurgery, intubated, expected to require mechanical ventilation for 1–5 days and requiring daily downward titration of

  20. Seeing with the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Bach-y-rita; Mitchell E. Tyler; Kurt A. Kaczmarek

    2003-01-01

    We see with the brain, not the eyes (Bach-y-Rita, 1972); images that pass through our pupils go no further than the retina. From there image information travels to the rest of the brain by means of coded pulse trains, and the brain, being highly plastic, can learn to interpret them in visual terms. Perceptual levels of the brain interpret the

  1. INTRODUCTION Hominid Brain

    E-print Network

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    CHAPTERS INTRODUCTION Hominid Brain Evolution P Thomas Schoenemann U nderstanding brain evolution and subtleties ofthe adaptations stud- ied, parts of the brain, connectivity between regions, neurotransmitter. The time-course may hold clues about tl1e functional significance of brain evolution, depending

  2. The Brain's Inner Workings

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    The Brain's Inner Workings From the National Institute of Mental Health A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS #12;2 The Brain's Inner Workings: A Guide for Teachers NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH #12;The Brain's Inner.......................................................................... 6 The Brain's Inner Workings Video Part I: Structure and Function............................ 7

  3. Resonance of human brain under head acceleration.

    PubMed

    Laksari, Kaveh; Wu, Lyndia C; Kurt, Mehmet; Kuo, Calvin; Camarillo, David C

    2015-07-01

    Although safety standards have reduced fatal head trauma due to single severe head impacts, mild trauma from repeated head exposures may carry risks of long-term chronic changes in the brain's function and structure. To study the physical sensitivities of the brain to mild head impacts, we developed the first dynamic model of the skull-brain based on in vivo MRI data. We showed that the motion of the brain can be described by a rigid-body with constrained kinematics. We further demonstrated that skull-brain dynamics can be approximated by an under-damped system with a low-frequency resonance at around 15 Hz. Furthermore, from our previous field measurements, we found that head motions in a variety of activities, including contact sports, show a primary frequency of less than 20 Hz. This implies that typical head exposures may drive the brain dangerously close to its mechanical resonance and lead to amplified brain-skull relative motions. Our results suggest a possible cause for mild brain trauma, which could occur due to repetitive low-acceleration head oscillations in a variety of recreational and occupational activities. PMID:26063824

  4. Brain Sonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Tomà; Claudio Granata

    \\u000a The current standard technique for performing neurosonography is through an anterior fontanelle approach with both coronal\\u000a and sagittal scans. The anterior fontanelle approach provides the most readily accessible view and reveals the best anatomic\\u000a detail because of the relative large size and acoustic window of the anterior fontanelle. Actually, the exclusive use of transfontanellar\\u000a scanning can cause some limitations, which

  5. Sheep Brain Dissection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )

    2004-04-30

    A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

  6. # ###### SQL # ``standard'' ###### ### ######### ###### #########.

    E-print Network

    Pitoura, Evaggelia

    ' & $ % # ###### SQL # ``standard'' ###### ### ######### ###### #########. ###### Sequel #### IBM ## ##### ### System R, #### SQL (Stuctured Query Language) SQL--89, SQL--92 H SQL #### ####### #######: ffl ############# (authentication) ffl ########### ffl ###### ########## ###### ####### 1 #12; ' & $ % # ###### SQL 1. ###### #### 2

  7. Brain areas and time course of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Esslen, M; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Hell, D; Kochi, K; Lehmann, D

    2004-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify brain regions involved in emotional processing as well as to follow the time sequence of these processes in the millisecond-range resolution using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Different emotional (happy, sad, angry, fearful, and disgust) and neutral faces were presented to 17 healthy, right-handed volunteers on a computer screen while 25-channel EEG data were recorded. Subjects were instructed to generate the same emotion as shown in the presented faces. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were computed for each emotion and neutral condition, and analyzed as sequences of potential distribution maps. Paired topographic analysis of variance tests of the ERP maps identified time segments of significant differences between responses to emotional and neutral faces. For these significant segments, statistical analyses of functional LORETA images were performed to identify active brain regions for the different emotions. Significant differences occurred in different time segments within the first 500 ms after stimulus onset. Each emotional condition showed specific activation patterns in different brain regions, changing over time. In the majority of significant time segments, activation was highest in the right frontal areas. Strongest activation was found in the happy, sad, and disgust conditions in extended fronto-temporal areas. Happy, sad, and disgust conditions also produced earlier and more widely distributed differences than anger and fear. Our findings are in good agreement with other brain-imaging studies (PET/fMRI). But unlike other imaging techniques, LORETA allows to follow the time sequence in the millisecond-range resolution. PMID:15050547

  8. Neuromonitoring in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Feyen, B F E; Sener, S; Jorens, P G; Menovsky, T; Maas, A I R

    2012-08-01

    Current approaches to monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) include a wide array of modalities, providing insight into pressure parameters, oxygenation, perfusion, electrophysiology and metabolism of the brain. The intent of "multimodality monitoring" is to obtain a better understanding of what is going on within the brain of an individual patient in order to target treatment more appropriately. In this review we highlight the current status of neuromonitoring for TBI with a specific focus on how advanced analysis and integration of these parameters may be used to implement more personalized treatment approaches. In particular, combining information from different parameters and performing dynamic testing offers the potential to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms active in the brain of a particular patient. Rather than persisting in a standardized "one size fits all" approach to therapy or continuing down the separate tracts of goal directed therapy, we suggest to think more in terms of "individualized therapeutic strategies" more focused on the specific requirements of each patient. Given the considerable data overload in multimodality monitoring and the complexity in interpretation of signals from multiple sources, specific attention needs to be directed to data processing and user-friendly displays. Intense collaboration and interaction between clinicians, basic researchers, IT-experts, nurses and industry will be required to further advance the fields towards more personalized approaches. PMID:22643541

  9. Aphasia Owing to Subcortical Brain Infarcts in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Gout; Nathalie Seibel; Constance Rouvière; Béatrice Husson; Brigitte Hermans; Nicole Laporte; Hazim Kadhim; Cécile Grandin; Pierre Landrieu; Guillaume Sébire

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further define the clinical features of subcortical aphasia in children with deep brain infarcts and to define the sequelae associated with childhood strokes. We retrospectively studied nine children with left subcortical brain infarcts who presented with acquired language disorder and underwent language investigations based on standardized tests. Stroke in these patients involved the

  10. Computation and brain processes, with special reference to neuroendocrine systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Toni; Giulia Spaletta; Claudia Della Casa; Simone Ravera; Giorgio Sandri

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The com- putational basis of a standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested

  11. Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: Assessment with Dynamic MR Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Griffiths; Nigel Hoggard; Daniel J. Warren; Iain D. Wilkinson; Bob Anderson; Charles A. Romanowski

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional catheter angiography (CCA) is the current reference standard for the diagnosis, assessment, and management of pial brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The purpose of this study was to develop an MR angiographic tech- nique that produces dynamic images comparable to those provided by CCA and to apply the technique to the investigation of pial brain AVMs. METHODS:

  12. A multimodal brain-based feedback and communication system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thilo Hinterberger; Nicola Neumann; Mirko Pham; Andrea Kübler; Anke Grether; Nadine Hofmayer; Barbara Wilhelm; Herta Flor; Niels Birbaumer

    2004-01-01

    The Thought Translation Device (TTD) is a brain-computer interface based on the self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) and enables completely paralyzed patients to communicate using their brain potentials. Here, an extended version of the TTD is presented that has an auditory and a combined visual and auditory feedback modality added to the standard visual feedback. This feature is necessary

  13. Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data

    SciTech Connect

    Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

  14. Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia

    2001-01-01

    e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

  15. 3, 12931348, 2006 The low-resolution

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    System Model CCSM2.0.1 is revisited and adjusted by deepening the Greenland-Scotland ridge, changing oceanic mixing parameters, and applying a regional freshwater flux adjustment at high northern latitudes of the adjusted model which is brought into climatic equilibrium by applying a deep-ocean acceleration technique

  16. Laplace Inversion of Low-Resolution NMR

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    in industrial quality control for the deter- mination of solid-to-liquid and oil-to-water ratios in materials of digital images and signals. In this article, a numerical optimization method for analyzing LR- NMR data as diverse as oil-bearing rock, food emul- sions, and plant seeds (1). It offers great potential

  17. Edge selection preserving the topological features of brain network

    E-print Network

    Chung, Moo K.

    Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 38, pp. 241­252. Lee, H., (2011), 'Computing the shape of brain network images using Korean standard templates and structural and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps', Korean

  18. BrainDump #1 The Need for Best Practices

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    BrainDump #1 The Need for Best Practices in Creating Digital Library Objects DRAFT -- 3 IN CREATING THESE STANDARDS? ...................4 THE DIGITAL LIBRARY SERVICE MODEL............................................................................................5 A MODEL FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY OBJECTS

  19. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  20. Extending the viability of acute brain slices

    PubMed Central

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P.; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6–12?hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36?hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  1. Graphics standardization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. W. ten Hagen

    1982-01-01

    The big challenge for a graphics standardization project is to realise a truly device independent graphics package which nevertheless allows for unrestricted use of facilities offered by a particular device. In 1980, it was reported at a SIGGRAPH session that the Graphics Working Group of ISO (ISO\\/TC97\\/SC5\\/WG2) had decided to define a 2D core-like standard based on the DIN GKS

  2. Teaching Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The Standards vision guides the discussion in this chapter on science teaching standards for the postsecondary level. The discussion centers on the importance of goal setting, designing experiences to meet students' needs, assessment, and collegiality. There is a strong recommendation that students be given opportunities to engage in meaningful scientific inquiry--to ask scientific questions, design experiments to collect evidence, and make critical interpretations of observations. This free selection includes an Introduction and Table of Contents.

  3. Standards Organizations

    Cancer.gov

    Health Level Screen (HL7)Founded in 1987, Health Level Seven, Inc., is a not-for-profit, ANSI-accredited, standards developing organization that provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that supports clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services. Its 2,200 members represent over 500 corporations, including 90 percent of the largest information systems vendors serving healthcare.

  4. (Terminology standardization)

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  5. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  6. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  7. Neuroscience, lie-detection, and the law: contrary to the prevailing view, the suitability of brain-based lie-detection for courtroom or forensic use should be determined according to legal and not scientific standards.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Frederick

    2010-03-01

    The possibility of using neuroimaging to detect deception in legal settings has generated widespread resistance. Many neuroscientists insist the research is flawed science, containing weaknesses of reliability (the degree of accuracy), external validity (do laboratory results predict real-world outcomes), and construct validity (do studies test what they purport to test). These flaws are real, but although using neural lie-detection in non-experimental legal settings is premature, the critics are mistaken in believing that scientific standards should determine when these methods are ready for legal use. Law's goals differ from science's, and the legal suitability of neural lie-detection depends on legal standards and not those determining what good science is. PMID:20060772

  8. National Brain Tumor Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read More June 19, 2015 Rep. Langevin to brain tumor advocates: Keep Fighting BOSTON, MA – Members of ... thanks to y Read More June 17, 2015 Brain Tumor News From the 2015 American Society for ...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...

  10. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... funder of childhood brain tumor research in the world We fund innovative research to improve treatments and ... support programs Your donations help us make the world a brighter place for children with brain tumors. ...

  11. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents Introduction What is a Stroke? What ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  12. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal “true” subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different “slices” of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  13. Vision and Brain Vision and Brain

    E-print Network

    Stone, J. V.

    (1564­1642), The Assayer #12;#12;Contents Preface ix The Party Trick xiii 1 Vision: An Overview 1 2 Eyes press. I believe the brain is such an object. --David Hubel, Eye, Brain, and Vision (1988) Philosophy the evidence of its own eyes, ruthlessly casting aside red herrings and fallguys one by one, by one, until

  14. Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

  15. Squints and diplopia seen after brain damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Fowler; D. T. Wade; A. J. Richardson; J. F. Stein

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of squint after brain damage. We performed an observational study on 239 consecutive patients admitted to a specialist neurological rehabilitation unit: 129 with stroke, 84 with head injury and 26 with other conditions. Standard orthoptic measures, including visual acuity, cover test, eye movement recording and tests of binocular function were

  16. Gene expression in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Zomzely-Neurath, C.; Walker, W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Peptide Hormone Gene Expression in the Brain; Molecular Biology of the Mammalian Brain; Expression of Microtubule Proteins in Brain; and The Molecular Genetic Analysis of sn-Gylycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Development in Mouse Cerebellum.

  17. Mapping brain asymmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Thompson; Arthur W. Toga

    2003-01-01

    Brain asymmetry has been observed in animals and humans in terms of structure, function and behaviour. This lateralization is thought to reflect evolutionary, hereditary, developmental, experiential and pathological factors. Here, we review the diverse literature describing brain asymmetries, focusing primarily on anatomical differences between the hemispheres and the methods that have been used to detect them. Brain-mapping approaches, in particular,

  18. Brain and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, Antonio R., Damasio, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advances made in understanding the brain structures responsible for language. Presents findings made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomographic (PET) scans to study brain activity. These findings map the structures in the brain that manipulate concepts and those that turn concepts into words. (MCO)

  19. Brain Circuits for Consciousness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart J. Dimond

    1976-01-01

    The question is explored of the location of consciousness in the human brain. The author's own studies of defects of consciousness as the result of the splitting of the corpus callosum are described and disorders of consciousness associated with damage to other specific areas of the brain are reviewed. A circuit spanning the brain is described which stretches from the

  20. Addiction and the Brain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Eve

    2008-03-12

    Learn about the structure of the human brain and how it is affected by drugs of abuse. Use the resources below to 1) List at least 10 structures in the brain, and explain their function. Be sure to include the reward pathway. 2) Make your own sketch of the brain and show the location of the 10 structures above. ...

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fracture of the skull or bleeding, bruising or blood clots in the brain. Treatment How is a traumatic brain injury treated? ... there is a skull fracture, if there are blood clots that need to be removed from the brain or if there is too much pressure inside ...

  2. Leading Edge `Fore Brain

    E-print Network

    Luo, Liqun

    Leading Edge Previews `Fore Brain: A Hint of the Ancestral Cortex Lora B. Sweeney1,2,3 and Liqun. (2010) follow the latter approach and identify a brain region of the seg- mented worm Platynereis,'' pallium refers to the outer layer of the brain. The mammalian palium consists of the cerebral cortex

  3. Zebrafish brain ventricle injection.

    PubMed

    Gutzman, Jennifer H; Sive, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    Proper brain ventricle formation during embryonic brain development is required for normal brain function. Brain ventricles are the highly conserved cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. In zebrafish, after neural tube formation, the neuroepithelium undergoes a series of constrictions and folds while it fills with fluid resulting in brain ventricle formation. In order to understand the process of ventricle formation, and the neuroepithelial shape changes that occur at the same time, we needed a way to visualize the ventricle space in comparison to the brain tissue. However, the nature of transparent zebrafish embryos makes it difficult to differentiate the tissue from the ventricle space. Therefore, we developed a brain ventricle injection technique where the ventricle space is filled with a fluorescent dye and imaged by brightfield and fluorescent microscopy. The brightfield and the fluorescent images are then processed and superimposed in Photoshop. This technique allows for visualization of the ventricle space with the fluorescent dye, in comparison to the shape of the neuroepithelium in the brightfield image. Brain ventricle injection in zebrafish can be employed from 18 hours post fertilization through early larval stages. We have used this technique extensively in our studies of brain ventricle formation and morphogenesis as well as in characterizing brain morphogenesis mutants (1-3). PMID:19352312

  4. Telemetry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-05-01

    The Telemetry Group (TG) of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) has prepared this document to foster the compatibility of telemetry transmitting, receiving, and signal processing equipment at all of the Test and Evaluation (T&E) ranges under the cognizance of the RCC. The Range Commanders highly recommend that telemetry equipment operated at the T&E ranges and telemetry equipment used by the range personnel in programs that require test range support, conform to these standards. These standards do not necessarily define the existing capability of any test range, but constitute a guide for the orderly implementation and application of telemetry systems for both the ranges and range users. The scope of capabilities attainable with the utilization of these standards requires a careful consideration of trade-offs. Guidance concerning these trade-offs is provided in the text. These standards provide the necessary criteria on which to base equipment design and modification. The ultimate purpose is to ensure an efficient spectrum and an interference-free operation of the radio link for telemetry systems at the RCC member ranges. etry systems at the RCC member ranges.

  5. An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation and to alleviate motor impairments. In this paper, an adaptive brain-computer interface system intended for application to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device is developed as an experimental test bed for augmenting rehabilitation with a brain-computer interface. The system's performance is improved throughout rehabilitation by passive user feedback and reinforcement learning. By continuously adapting to the user's brain activity, similar adaptive systems could be used to support clinical brain-computer interface neurorehabilitation over multiple days. PMID:25565945

  6. Clinical Brain Death with False Positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scans

    PubMed Central

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Bughio, Sara; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Practice guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology for the determination of brain death in adults define brain death as “the irreversible loss of function of the brain, including the brainstem.” Neurological determination of brain death is primarily based on clinical examination; if clinical criteria are met, a definitive confirmatory test is indicated. The apnea test remains the gold standard for confirmation. In patients with factors that confound the clinical determination or when apnea tests cannot safely be performed, an ancillary test is required to confirm brain death. Confirmatory ancillary tests for brain death include (a) tests of electrical activity (electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials) and (b) radiologic examinations of blood flow (contrast angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and radionuclide methods). Of these, however, radionuclide studies are used most commonly. Here we present data from two patients with a false positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scan (RCPS). PMID:26167307

  7. A single high-resolution HLA mismatch has a similar adverse impact on the outcome of related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a single low-resolution HLA mismatch.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kanda, Junya; Kato, Shunichi; Ikegame, Kazuhiro; Morishima, Satoko; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kubo, Kohmei; Miyamura, Koichi; Tsudo, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Maesako, Yoshitomo; Eto, Tetsuya; Adachi, Souichi; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2015-07-01

    The relative importance of the resolution level of HLA typing has not been fully defined for related donor transplantation. To address this question, we retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a first related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from 2000 to 2011 from an HLA high-resolution matched (MRD, n?=?2,244), high-resolution 1 locus-mismatched (HR-MMRD, n?=?116), or low-resolution 1 locus-mismatched related donor (LR-MMRD, n?=?396) in the graft-versus-host direction at three loci (HLA A, B, and DRB1) using the database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. The median age was 40 years (0-74). The median follow-up duration of surviving patients was 950 days. Although the cumulative incidences of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the HR-MMRD and LR-MMRD groups were significantly higher than those in the MRD group (HR-MMRD 19.8%, LR-MMRD 20.4%, and MRD 9.5%), there was no statistically significant difference between the HR-MMRD and LR-MMRD groups (P?=?0.65). Although both HR-MMRD and LR-MMRD were significantly associated with an increased risk of non-relapse mortality and a worse overall survival, there was no statistically significant difference between the HR-MMRD and LR-MMRD groups. In conclusion, LR-MM and HR-MM have a similar adverse impact on the outcome in related HSCT. Am. J. Hematol. 90:618-623, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25850370

  8. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  9. Biocompatibility of fixation materials in the brain.

    PubMed

    Mofid, M M; Thompson, R C; Pardo, C A; Manson, P N; Vander Kolk, C A

    1997-07-01

    Recent clinical reports documenting passive intracranial translocation of microplates and microscrews have prompted concerns regarding brain biocompatibility and neurotoxicity of fixation hardware used in craniofacial surgery. Although the effects of commercially pure titanium. Vitallium (cobalt-chromium-molybdenum), stainless steel, and various alloys have been well assessed in bone and soft tissues, there are no comprehensive studies of these materials in the brain. To investigate this, the biocompatibility of titanium, vitallium, and 316L stainless steel was evaluated in the rabbit brain and compared with silicone elastomer shunt tubing, a material that is used commonly as a neurosurgical implant material with well-established brain biocompatibility. Forty-eight juvenile New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to one of three groups and underwent placement of either commercially pure titanium microscrews, vitallium microscrews, or 316L monofilament stainless steel wire into the parietal region. Silicone elastomer strips of similar size were implanted in the contralateral hemisphere of each rabbit. Animals were assessed daily for signs of neurotoxicity. Rabbits in each group were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, and 26 weeks following implantation. Brains were sectioned at the implantation site and were examined by means of standard hematoxylin and eosin stains and with immunohistochemical markers sensitive to inflammatory changes in the brain. None of the animals showed any behavioral changes or neurologic deficits suggestive of either systemic or localized toxicity from the implant materials. Silicone clastomer was found to cause the least amount of inflammation relative to other materials tested at all sacrifice points, suggesting that as a standard neurosurgical implant material, it is an appropriate control for studies of brain biocompatibility. At 2 weeks, titanium was found to cause the largest inflammatory response in surrounding brain parenchyma based on analysis of markers for microglial proliferation, gliosis, and leukocyte infiltration. At the 26-week endpoint of our study, the biocompatibility of titanium was nearly equal to the biocompatibility of vitallium based on all studied markers of inflammation. A progressive increase in the inflammatory response surrounding stainless steel implants was noted at 8 and 26 weeks. Relative to all materials studied, at 26 weeks the greatest leukocyte response was found with stainless steel implants. Our results indicate that at the 26-week end-point of our study, titanium and vitallium incited a similar inflammatory response in the rabbit brain that was greater than the response found with silicone elastomer, a standard neurosurgical implant material, but less than that found with stainless steel wire, which is commonly recommended as an alternative fixation material. PMID:9207654

  10. The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

  11. General Information about Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Childhood Ependymoma Treatment Brain Cancer Research Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Key Points Childhood brain stem glioma ...

  12. Stages of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Childhood Ependymoma Treatment Brain Cancer Research Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Key Points Childhood brain stem glioma ...

  13. Brain plasticity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B; Whishaw, I Q

    1998-01-01

    Brain plasticity refers to the brain's ability to change structure and function. Experience is a major stimulant of brain plasticity in animal species as diverse as insects and humans. It is now clear that experience produces multiple, dissociable changes in the brain including increases in dendritic length, increases (or decreases) in spine density, synapse formation, increased glial activity, and altered metabolic activity. These anatomical changes are correlated with behavioral differences between subjects with and without the changes. Experience-dependent changes in neurons are affected by various factors including aging, gonadal hormones, trophic factors, stress, and brain pathology. We discuss the important role that changes in dendritic arborization play in brain plasticity and behavior, and we consider these changes in the context of changing intrinsic circuitry of the cortex in processes such as learning. PMID:9496621

  14. Nonmalignant pediatric brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Rashidi; Victor Reis DaSilva; Alireza Minagar; James T. Rutka

    2003-01-01

    Brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in the pediatric population. Each year in the United States, approximately\\u000a 1500 to 2000 children are affected by one of these tumors. About 50% of pediatric brain tumors are malignant. Nonmalignant\\u000a pediatric brain tumors comprise an eclectic group of pathologic entities that have fascinating clinical features. Many of\\u000a these tumors demonstrate a

  15. NEUROBIOLOGY: Brain, Heal Thyself

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel H. Lowenstein (University of California, San Francisco; Department of Neurology and the Epilepsy Research Laboratory)

    1999-02-19

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The brain cannot repair itself after injury. Or so goes the dogma. In his Perspective, Lowenstein outlines recent results that indicate that quiescent progenitor cells and the growth factors to bring them to maturity are actually present, sequestered and silent, in the adult brain. Injury may partially trigger their activation. The current research challenge is how to persuade them to fully repair injured brain tissue.

  16. The blue brain project.

    PubMed

    Markram, Henry

    2006-02-01

    IBM's Blue Gene supercomputer allows a quantum leap in the level of detail at which the brain can be modelled. I argue that the time is right to begin assimilating the wealth of data that has been accumulated over the past century and start building biologically accurate models of the brain from first principles to aid our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:16429124

  17. SUB-POPULATION BRAIN ATLASES

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1769 Contents 1. Population-Based Brain Imaging 2. Atlases in Brain Mapping. Subpopulation Selection 11. Conclusion 1. Population-Based Brain Imaging Recent developments in brain imagingSUB-POPULATION BRAIN ATLASES Paul Thompson PhD, Michael S. Mega MD PhD, and Arthur W. Toga Ph

  18. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Past, Present and Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian T. Jankowitz; P. David Adelson

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of this population are available; however, the data highlight significant deficiencies with few treatment standards or guidelines. Considering the limited availability of resources, it is necessary to define realistic goals. Attention should be given to injury prevention, developing standardized pediatric admission

  19. Brain Organization and Psychodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Avi; Geva, Amir B.

    1999-01-01

    Any attempt to link brain neural activity and psychodynamic concepts requires a tremendous conceptual leap. Such a leap may be facilitated if a common language between brain and mind can be devised. System theory proposes formulations that may aid in reconceptualizing psychodynamic descriptions in terms of neural organizations in the brain. Once adopted, these formulations can help to generate testable predictions about brain–psychodynamic relations and thus significantly affect the future of psychotherapy. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:24–39) PMID:9888105

  20. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pen-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with headache and extreme hypertension. Computed tomography showed diffuse brain stem hypodensity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse brain stem vasogenic edema. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of hypertensive encephalopathy, which classically occurs at parietooccipital white matter. Because of its atypical location, the diagnosis can be challenging. Moreover, the coexistence of hypertension and brain stem edema could also direct clinicians toward a diagnosis of ischemic infarction, leading to a completely contradictory treatment goal. PMID:25082596

  1. Robustness of the brain parenchymal fraction for measuring brain atrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, M. Stella; Orchard, Jeffery J.; Law, Benjamin; Tory, Melanie K.

    2002-05-01

    Other researchers have proposed that the brain parenchymal fraction (or brain atrophy) may be a good surrogate measure for disease progression in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. This paper considers various factors influencing the measure of the brain parenchymal fraction obtained from dual spin-echo PD and T2-weighted head MRI scans. We investigate the robustness of the brain parenchymal fraction with respect to two factors: brain-mask border placement which determines the brain intra-dural volume, and brain scan incompleteness. We show that an automatic method for brain segmentation produces an atrophy measure which is fairly sensitive to the brain-mask placement. We also show that a robust, reproducible brain atrophy measure can be obtained from incomplete brain scans, using data in a centrally placed subvolume of the brain.

  2. 1michigan state university brand STandardS BRAND STANDARDS

    E-print Network

    within the lines, so to speak. Great brands build strong bonds with their audiences by being consistent1michigan state university brand STandardS BRAND STANDARDS VERSION 4, APRIL 30, 2012 #12;2michigan state university brand STandardS TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 brand baSicS 5 The Michigan STaTe UniverSiTy brand

  3. Head, neck, and brain tumor embolization guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Duffis, E Jesus; Prestigiacomo, Charles Joseph; Abruzzo, Todd; Albuquerque, Felipe; Bulsara, Ketan R; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fraser, Justin F; Hirsch, Joshua A; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Do, Huy M; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Meyers, Philip M; Narayanan, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of vascular tumors of the head, neck, and brain is often complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Peri-operative embolization of vascular tumors may help to reduce intra-operative bleeding and operative times and have thus become an integral part of the management of these tumors. Advances in catheter and non-catheter based techniques in conjunction with the growing field of neurointerventional surgery is likely to expand the number of peri-operative embolizations performed. The goal of this article is to provide consensus reporting standards and guidelines for embolization treatment of vascular head, neck, and brain tumors. Summary This article was produced by a writing group comprised of members of the Society of Neurointerventional Surgery. A computerized literature search using the National Library of Medicine database (Pubmed) was conducted for relevant articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2010. The article summarizes the effectiveness and safety of peri-operative vascular tumor embolization. In addition, this document provides consensus definitions and reporting standards as well as guidelines not intended to represent the standard of care, but rather to provide uniformity in subsequent trials and studies involving embolization of vascular head and neck as well as brain tumors. Conclusions Peri-operative embolization of vascular head, neck, and brain tumors is an effective and safe adjuvant to surgical resection. Major complications reported in the literature are rare when these procedures are performed by operators with appropriate training and knowledge of the relevant vascular and surgical anatomy. These standards may help to standardize reporting and publication in future studies. PMID:22539531

  4. Multimodal, Multidimensional Models of Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D.; Yuan, Heng; Jacobs, Russell E.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Naturally occurring mutants and genetically manipulated strains of mice are widely used to model a variety of human diseases. Atlases are an invaluable aid in understanding the impact of such manipulations by providing a standard for comparison and to facilitate the integration of anatomic, genetic, and physiologic observations from multiple subjects and experiments. We have developed digital atlases of the C57BL/6J mouse brain (adult and neonate) as comprehensive frameworks for storing and accessing the myriad types of information about the mouse brain. Along with raw and annotated images, these contain database management systems and a set of tools for comparing information from different techniques and different animals. Each atlas establishes a canonical representation of the mouse brain and provides the tools for the manipulation and analysis of new data. We describe both these atlases and discuss how they may be put to use in organizing and analyzing data from mouse models of epilepsy. PMID:17767578

  5. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots

    E-print Network

    Pessa, Eliano

    2009-01-01

    The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a qu...

  6. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    McBride, Devin W; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72h after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72h after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study's results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72h post-SBI. PMID:25975171

  7. [Standard rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections. PMID:25156432

  8. Brain networks in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Fornito, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia--a severe psychiatric condition characterized by hallucinations, delusions, loss of initiative and cognitive function--is hypothesized to result from abnormal anatomical neural connectivity and a consequent decoupling of the brain's integrative thought processes. The rise of in vivo neuroimaging techniques has refueled the formulation of dysconnectivity hypotheses, linking schizophrenia to abnormal structural and functional connectivity in the brain at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. Over the past few years, advances in high-field structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have made it increasingly feasible to reconstruct comprehensive maps of the macroscopic neural wiring system of the human brain, know as the connectome. In parallel, advances in network science and graph theory have improved our ability to study the spatial and topological organizational layout of such neural connectivity maps in detail. Combined, the field of neural connectomics has created a novel platform that provides a deeper understanding of the overall organization of brain wiring, its relation to healthy brain function and human cognition, and conversely, how brain disorders such as schizophrenia arise from abnormal brain network wiring and dynamics. In this review we discuss recent findings of connectomic studies in schizophrenia that examine how the disorder relates to disruptions of brain connectivity. PMID:24500505

  9. Electromagnetic brain mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Baillet; J. C. Mosher; R. M. Leahy

    2001-01-01

    There has been tremendous advances in our ability to produce images of human brain function. Applications of functional brain imaging extend from improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cognitive processes to better characterization of pathologies that impair normal function. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) (MEG\\/EEG) localize neural electrical activity using noninvasive measurements of external electromagnetic signals. Among the

  10. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  11. Drugs and the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

  12. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... central line, and may require frequent hospital stays. Chemo is routinely used for brain tumors in kids with positive results. Although chemotherapy ... than radiation therapy. In fact, many children with brain tumors are treated with chemo in order to delay or avoid radiation treatment. ...

  13. Brain Awareness Week

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

    2005-05-01

    Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

  14. How Julie's Brain Learns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    New neuroscientific knowledge is redefining possibilities for K-12 education. There are five critical variables in the brain's learning process: neural history, context, acquisition, elaboration, and encoding. This article tracks one student's unique brain activity throughout her school day to illustrate these variables. (MLH)

  15. Using Your Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Hellen

    2011-01-01

    Many scientists have been fascinated by how the brain works, but much of what is known about the brain has been discovered within the last twenty years. In this article, the author explores how thinking and using one's mind are essential to understanding. She contends that children need to be in control of their learning; the adult's role is to…

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    2000-02-01

    Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

  17. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

  18. Spatiotemporal brain imaging and modeling

    E-print Network

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis integrates hardware development, data analysis, and mathematical modeling to facilitate our understanding of brain cognition. Exploration of these brain mechanisms requires both structural and functional knowledge ...

  19. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  20. Determination of Brain Death

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Lawrence H.

    1984-01-01

    With the careful application of the principles outlined herein, brain death can be determined with certainty. There have been no documented reports of survivors when these guidelines have been followed. The traid of a known mechanism of brain injury, absence of contributing metabolic or toxic central nervous system depression and absence of demonstrable brain function is sufficient to determine brain death clinically and, in most states, legally. The use of apneic oxygenation protects cadaver organs for transplantation during the period needed to prove that a patient cannot breathe. Very little can ameliorate the tragedy of sudden and unexpected fatal cerebral injury. Nonetheless, the concept of brain death is well established, and there is no longer a medical or an ethical reason to prolong unnecessary support of these patients. PMID:6719920

  1. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  2. Reviving brain death: a functionalist view.

    PubMed

    Lipuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2013-10-01

    Recently both whole brain death (WBD) and higher brain death (HBD) have come under attack. These attacks, we argue, are successful, leaving supporters of both views without a firm foundation. This state of affairs has been described as "the death of brain death." Returning to a cardiopulmonary definition presents problems we also find unacceptable. Instead, we attempt to revive brain death by offering a novel and more coherent standard of death based on the permanent cessation of mental processing. This approach works, we claim, by being functionalist instead of being based in biology, consciousness, or personhood. We begin by explaining why an objective biological determination of death fails. We continue by similarly rejecting current arguments offered in support of HBD, which rely on consciousness and/or personhood. In the final section, we explain and defend our functionalist view of death. Our definition centers on mental processing, both conscious and preconscious or unconscious. This view provides the philosophical basis of a functional definition that most accurately reflects the original spirit of brain death when first proposed in the Harvard criteria of 1968. PMID:23784534

  3. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  4. Data Mining Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arati Kadav; Jaya Kawale; Pabitra Mitra

    In this survey paper we have consolidated all the current data mining standards. We have categorized them in to process standards, XML standards, standard APIs, web standards and grid standards and discussed them in considerable detail. We have also designed an application using these standards. We later also analyze the standards their influence on data mining application development and later

  5. Brain 12-HETE formation in different species, brain regions, and in brain microvessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Hambrecht; Sunday A. Adesuyi; Sallie Holt; Earl F. Ellis

    1987-01-01

    We used gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry to measure brain 12-HETE (12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) formation from endogenous arachidonic acid in different species and different brain regions and in isolated brain microvessels. When blood-free brain slices were incubated for 20 minutes we found that the rabbit and cat brain incubates contained little 12-HETE when compared to rat and mouse brain incubates. Further in vitro

  6. The Standard Model Beyond the Standard Model

    E-print Network

    The Standard Model Beyond the Standard Model New physics with top quark Search for Extra, January 13, 2010 Ritesh Singh New physics at LHC #12;The Standard Model Beyond the Standard Model New physics with top quark Search for Extra-dimensions Conclusions 1 The Standard Model Building block

  7. Robotic Multimodality Stereotactic Brain Tissue Identification: Work in Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andrews; R. Mah; A. Galvagni; M. Guerrero; R. Papasin; M. Wallace; J. Winters

    1997-01-01

    Real-time identification of tissue would improve procedures such as stereotactic brain biopsy (SBX), functional and implantation neurosurgery, and brain tumor excision. To standard SBX equipment has been added: (1) computer-controlled stepper motors to drive the biopsy needle\\/probe precisely; (2) multiple microprobes to track tissue density, detect blood vessels and changes in blood flow, and distinguish the various tissues being penetrated;

  8. Biodegradable polymer implants to treat brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Brem; P Gabikian

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a systematic approach for the discovery and evaluation of local treatment strategies for brain tumors using polymers. We demonstrated the feasibility of polymer-mediated drug delivery by using the standard chemotherapeutic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and showed that local treatment of gliomas by this method is effective in animal models of intracranial tumors. This led to clinical trials for

  9. Test-retest reliability of white matter structural brain networks: a multiband diffusion MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tengda; Duan, Fei; Liao, Xuhong; Dai, Zhengjia; Cao, Miao; He, Yong; Shu, Ni

    2015-01-01

    The multiband EPI sequence has been developed for the human connectome project to accelerate MRI data acquisition. However, no study has yet investigated the test-retest (TRT) reliability of the graph metrics of white matter (WM) structural brain networks constructed from this new sequence. Here, we employed a multiband diffusion MRI (dMRI) dataset with repeated scanning sessions and constructed both low- and high-resolution WM networks by volume- and surface-based parcellation methods. The reproducibility of network metrics and its dependence on type of construction procedures was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We observed conserved topological architecture of WM structural networks constructed from the multiband dMRI data as previous findings from conventional dMRI. For the global network properties, the first order metrics were more reliable than second order metrics. Between two parcellation methods, networks with volume-based parcellation showed better reliability than surface-based parcellation, especially for the global metrics. Between different resolutions, the high-resolution network exhibited higher TRT performance than the low-resolution in terms of the global metrics with a large effect size, whereas the low-resolution performs better in terms of local (region and connection) properties with a relatively low effect size. Moreover, we identified that the association and primary cortices showed higher reproducibility than the paralimbic/limbic regions. The important hub regions and rich-club connections are more reliable than the non-hub regions and connections. Finally, we found WM networks from the multiband dMRI showed higher reproducibility compared with those from the conventional dMRI. Together, our results demonstrated the fair to good reliability of the WM structural brain networks from the multiband EPI sequence, suggesting its potential utility for exploring individual differences and for clinical applications. PMID:25741265

  10. Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M.; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2014-05-01

    The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction (‘shaving’) of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [11C]-raclopride and [11C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches.

  11. The Brain, the Broken Brain & the Neural Biology of Language

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    The Brain, the Broken Brain & the Neural Biology of Language Presenter: Steven Small Time & Date.maproom.com )1949 N. Hoyne Café Email list https://cfcpwork.uchicago.edu/mailman/listinfo/cafe #12;The Brain, the Broken Brain & the Neural Biology of Language Presenter: Steven Small Time & Date: 7-9 PM Monday

  12. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  13. Brain Structure and Meditation How Spiritual Practice Shapes the Brain

    E-print Network

    Lazar, Sara

    Brain Structure and Meditation How Spiritual Practice Shapes the Brain Ulrich Ott (1), Britta K of the human brain. This contribution narratively reviews recent morphometric studies that compared experienced in circumscribed brain regions which are involved in interoception and in the regulation of arousal and emotions

  14. Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Working Group

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    1 Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Working Group Location-888-566-6511; Passcode: BRAIN 8:30 AM Introductions and Opening Remarks Cori Bargmann, PhD, and Bill Newsome, PhD Co-chairs, ACD BRAIN Working Group 10:10 AM Break National Institutes of Health Advisory Committee

  15. BRAIN THEORY AND MINIMAL BRAIN DYSFUNCTION * M. S. Gazzaniga

    E-print Network

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    BRAIN THEORY AND MINIMAL BRAIN DYSFUNCTION * M. S. Gazzaniga Department of Graduate Psychology New labeled the diffuse problems of learning disabilities in children as results of minimal brain dysfunction on cerebral functions offered by studying the bisected brain may apply to specific problems seen in some cases

  16. 930 Brain imaging Sex differences in brain structure in auditory

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    930 Brain imaging Sex differences in brain structure in auditory and cingulate regions Caroline C We applied a new method to visualize the three- dimensional profile of sex differences in brain, and to theoretical predictions based on nonlinear scaling of brain morphometry. NeuroReport 20:930­935 c 2009 Wolters

  17. Brain power. The human brain may be the most

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    BigPicture on Brain power. The human brain may be the most complex structure in the universe out on page 3. Now you see it... Optical illusions such as this help us understand how the brain works neuroscientists say that if the brain were simple enough to be understood, we would not be clever enough

  18. Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Working Group

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Working Group Location-888-469-0870; Passcode: BRAIN 8:30 AM Introductions and Opening Remarks Cori Bargmann, PhD, and Bill Newsome, PhD Co-chairs, ACD BRAIN Working Group 10:10 AM Break National Institutes of Health Advisory Committee

  19. Neuroinformatics of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Leonard; Li, Yang; Lau, Chris; Feng, David; Bernard, Amy; Sunkin, Susan M; Zeng, Hongkui; Dang, Chinh; Hawrylycz, Michael; Ng, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a mesoscale whole brain axonal projection atlas of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Anatomical trajectories throughout the brain were mapped into a common 3D space using a standardized platform to generate a comprehensive and quantitative database of inter-areal and cell-type-specific projections. This connectivity atlas has several desirable features, including brain-wide coverage, validated and versatile experimental techniques, a single standardized data format, a quantifiable and integrated neuroinformatics resource, and an open-access public online database (http://connectivity.brain-map.org/). Meaningful informatics data quantification and comparison is key to effective use and interpretation of connectome data. This relies on successful definition of a high fidelity atlas template and framework, mapping precision of raw data sets into the 3D reference framework, accurate signal detection and quantitative connection strength algorithms, and effective presentation in an integrated online application. Here we describe key informatics pipeline steps in the creation of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and include basic application use cases. PMID:25536338

  20. Management of penetrating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

  1. [Soul and brain].

    PubMed

    Lain Entralgo, P

    1993-01-01

    After an overview of Medieval and Modern World thought on the questions of relations between the soul and the brain, the author presents the ideas--mostly representative of the majority of medical thinking--of two medical authors from the end of the XIX and beginning of the XX centuries: Paul Flechsig and Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Both support the idea that research into the brain may prove to be the principal resource for the construction of a scientific theory on the soul. Brain research would therefore result in the rational belief in the inmortality of the soul and the rational knowledge and government of Man's psychic life. PMID:11624951

  2. Psychotherapy and brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Collerton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of consciousness; an emphasis which may usefully complement what can be learnt from more specific methodologies. PMID:24046752

  3. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  4. Human intelligence and brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other. PMID:21319494

  5. Understanding the changing adolescent brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Burnett; Catherine Sebastian

    Summary Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human brain continues to develop throughout the adolescent years. Although there are differences between male and female teenagers in terms of the time course of neural development, similar brain areas undergo significant restructuring in both sexes. Brain regions in which development is particularly protracted include the prefrontal cortex and the temporalparietal

  6. JAMA Patient Page: Brain Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need to be used to declare brain death. BRAIN DEATH AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Some organs (such as the heart) can only ... is not involved until the patient is declared brain dead, and staff involved in organ donation or transplantation do not declare brain death. Downloaded From: http:// ...

  7. Seventh Brain Circle Eilon Vaadia

    E-print Network

    Patterns of the Brain in Action #12;Intermediate Conclusion n We can read the neuronal signals n We canSeventh Brain Circle Eilon Vaadia #12;NEW ERA, NEW AGENDA Exciting Time for BRAIN SCIENCES #12;Will we understand the brain? #12;#12;What is the Source of Our Imagination? The Basic Biophysics

  8. Electrical brain imaging reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of timbre perception in humans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Martin; Baumann, Simon; Jancke, Lutz

    2006-10-01

    Timbre is a major attribute of sound perception and a key feature for the identification of sound quality. Here, we present event-related brain potentials (ERPs) obtained from sixteen healthy individuals while they discriminated complex instrumental tones (piano, trumpet, and violin) or simple sine wave tones that lack the principal features of timbre. Data analysis yielded enhanced N1 and P2 responses to instrumental tones relative to sine wave tones. Furthermore, we applied an electrical brain imaging approach using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to estimate the neural sources of N1/P2 responses. Separate significance tests of instrumental vs. sine wave tones for N1 and P2 revealed distinct regions as principally governing timbre perception. In an initial stage (N1), timbre perception recruits left and right (peri-)auditory fields with an activity maximum over the right posterior Sylvian fissure (SF) and the posterior cingulate (PCC) territory. In the subsequent stage (P2), we uncovered enhanced activity in the vicinity of the entire cingulate gyrus. The involvement of extra-auditory areas in timbre perception may imply the presence of a highly associative processing level which might be generally related to musical sensations and integrates widespread medial areas of the human cortex. In summary, our results demonstrate spatio-temporally distinct stages in timbre perception which not only involve bilateral parts of the peri-auditory cortex but also medially situated regions of the human brain associated with emotional and auditory imagery functions. PMID:16798014

  9. Convergence and divergence across construction methods for human brain white matter networks: An assessment based on individual differences.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Gong, Gaolang

    2015-05-01

    Using diffusion MRI, a number of studies have investigated the properties of whole-brain white matter (WM) networks with differing network construction methods (node/edge definition). However, how the construction methods affect individual differences of WM networks and, particularly, if distinct methods can provide convergent or divergent patterns of individual differences remain largely unknown. Here, we applied 10 frequently used methods to construct whole-brain WM networks in a healthy young adult population (57 subjects), which involves two node definitions (low-resolution and high-resolution) and five edge definitions (binary, FA weighted, fiber-density weighted, length-corrected fiber-density weighted, and connectivity-probability weighted). For these WM networks, individual differences were systematically analyzed in three network aspects: (1) a spatial pattern of WM connections, (2) a spatial pattern of nodal efficiency, and (3) network global and local efficiencies. Intriguingly, we found that some of the network construction methods converged in terms of individual difference patterns, but diverged with other methods. Furthermore, the convergence/divergence between methods differed among network properties that were adopted to assess individual differences. Particularly, high-resolution WM networks with differing edge definitions showed convergent individual differences in the spatial pattern of both WM connections and nodal efficiency. For the network global and local efficiencies, low-resolution and high-resolution WM networks for most edge definitions consistently exhibited a highly convergent pattern in individual differences. Finally, the test-retest analysis revealed a decent temporal reproducibility for the patterns of between-method convergence/divergence. Together, the results of the present study demonstrated a measure-dependent effect of network construction methods on the individual difference of WM network properties. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1995-2013, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641208

  10. More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-02

    Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

  11. Deep brain stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... controlled and the cause is unknown ( essential tremor ) Tourette syndrome (in rare cases) Uncontrolled or slow movement ( ... Vandewalle V, Kuhn J. Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;116:251-258.

  12. Brain–kidney crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Encephalopathy and altered higher mental functions are common clinical complications of acute kidney injury. Although sepsis is a major triggering factor, acute kidney injury predisposes to confusion by causing generalised inflammation, leading to increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier, exacerbated by hyperosmolarity and metabolic acidosis due to the retention of products of nitrogen metabolism potentially resulting in increased brain water content. Downregulation of cell membrane transporters predisposes to alterations in neurotransmitter secretion and uptake, coupled with drug accumulation increasing the risk of encephalopathy. On the other hand, acute brain injury can induce a variety of changes in renal function ranging from altered function and electrolyte imbalances to inflammatory changes in brain death kidney donors. PMID:25043644

  13. Brain Malignancies Steering Committee

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Malignancy Steering Committee evaluates and prioritizes concepts for phase 3 and large phase 2 therapeutic clinical trials to be conducted in the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN).

  14. Brain Coral Christmas

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Christmas tree worms have made their home on a brain coral. Tropical corals reefs are complex ecosystems, but are rapidly being lost to bleaching and disease, linked to increasing water temperatures....

  15. Quantum Brain States

    E-print Network

    Richard A Mould

    2003-07-10

    If conscious observers are to be included in the quantum mechanical universe, we need to find the rules that engage observers with quantum mechanical systems. The author has proposed five rules that are discovered by insisting on empirical completeness; that is, by requiring the rules to draw empirical information from Schrodinger's solutions that is more complete than is currently possible with the (Born) probability interpretation. I discard Born's interpretation, introducing probability solely through probability current. These rules tell us something about brains. They require the existence of observer brain states that are neither conscious nor unconscious. I call them 'ready' brain states because they are on stand-by, ready to become conscious the moment they are stochastically chosen. Two of the rules are selection rules involving ready brain states. The place of these rules in a wider theoretical context is discussed. Key Words: boundary conditions, consciousness, decoherence, macroscopic superposition, Penrose, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  16. Mind and Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbach, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of research findings concerning the biological foundations of conscious memory and other attributes of the mind. Includes vignettes and diagrams depicting brain structure and how neurons communicate. (MCO)

  17. The Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Carla J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses neural activity and stimulation crucial in fetal brain development and the formation of the mind. Focuses on activity-dependent remodeling related to development of the visual system and retinal activity. (MCO)

  18. Brain Wake-Ups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.

  19. Iron in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Galazka-Friedman; Andrzej Friedman; Erika R. Bauminger

    2009-01-01

    The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus\\u000a (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied.\\u000a Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and\\u000a GP, but less than half

  20. Iron in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Galazka-Friedman; Andrzej Friedman; Erika R. Bauminger

    The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus\\u000a (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied.\\u000a Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and\\u000a GP, but less than half

  1. The Thermodynamic Brain

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Joseph; Czosnyka, Marek

    2014-12-12

    The Thermodynamic Brain Joseph Donnelly, MBChB1, Marek Czosnyka1,2, PhD; 1. Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 2. Institute of Electronic Systems... ’ in the skull; namely the vascular, parenchymal, and CSF compartments. The question then arises, which component of ICP (there are three: vascular, CSF circulatory and brain-volumetric) does temperature affect? The vascular component is the obvious choice...

  2. Surgery for Brain Metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunit Das; Kenji Muro; Jeffrey J. Raizer

    \\u000a It is estimated that 170,000 new cases of metastatic brain tumor are diagnosed in the United States each year [1]. As our\\u000a population ages and oncologists are better able to achieve control of systemic disease, it is likely that the incidence of\\u000a intracranial metastatatic disease will continue to increase. Brain metastases are thought to account for 20% of all cancer-related

  3. Headaches and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Sarah; Purdy, R Allan

    2014-05-01

    This article overviews headache and brain tumors, particularly from the diagnostic point of view of patients presenting with headache as their major symptom. Common and uncommon brain tumors can produce headache and investigation is warranted if any red flags are present. An overview of particular tumors and their presentations are covered along with some investigative suggestions and pertinent treatment strategies for some patients. PMID:24703537

  4. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for ?-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice. PMID:25384305

  5. Brain Plasticity and Behaviour in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review general principles of brain development, identify basic principles of brain plasticity, and discuss factors that influence brain development and plasticity. Method: A literature review of relevant English-language manuscripts on brain development and plasticity was conducted. Results: Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. Eight basic principles of brain plasticity are identified. Evidence that brain development and function is influenced by different environmental events such as sensory stimuli, psychoactive drugs, gonadal hormones, parental-child relationships, peer relationships, early stress, intestinal flora, and diet. Conclusions: The development of the brain reflects more than the simple unfolding of a genetic blueprint but rather reflects a complex dance of genetic and experiential factors that shape the emerging brain. Understanding the dance provides insight into both normal and abnormal development. PMID:22114608

  6. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  7. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  8. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the field is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treatment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plasticity investigation. PMID:25206874

  9. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Max; Gazmuri, Jose Tomás; Marín, Arnaldo; Regueira, Tomas; Rovegno, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia, recently termed target temperature management (TTM), is the cornerstone of neuroprotective strategy. Dating to the pioneer works of Fay, nearly 75 years of basic and clinical evidence support its therapeutic value. Although hypothermia decreases the metabolic rate to restore the supply and demand of O?, it has other tissue-specific effects, such as decreasing excitotoxicity, limiting inflammation, preventing ATP depletion, reducing free radical production and also intracellular calcium overload to avoid apoptosis. Currently, mild hypothermia (33°C) has become a standard in post-resuscitative care and perinatal asphyxia. However, evidence indicates that hypothermia could be useful in neurologic injuries, such as stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. In this review, we discuss the basic and clinical evidence supporting the use of TTM in critical care for acute brain injury that extends beyond care after cardiac arrest, such as for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. We review the historical perspectives of TTM, provide an overview of the techniques and protocols and the pathophysiologic consequences of hypothermia. In addition, we include our experience of managing patients with acute brain injuries treated using endovascular hypothermia. PMID:26043908

  10. New Antioxidant Drugs for Neonatal Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The brain injury concept covers a lot of heterogeneity in terms of aetiology involving multiple factors, genetic, hemodynamic, metabolic, nutritional, endocrinological, toxic, and infectious mechanisms, acting in antenatal or postnatal period. Increased vulnerability of the immature brain to oxidative stress is documented because of the limited capacity of antioxidant enzymes and the high free radicals (FRs) generation in rapidly growing tissue. FRs impair transmembrane enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase activity resulting in persistent membrane depolarization and excessive release of FR and excitatory aminoacid glutamate. Besides being neurotoxic, glutamate is also toxic to oligodendroglia, via FR effects. Neuronal cells die of oxidative stress. Excess of free iron and deficient iron/binding metabolising capacity are additional features favouring oxidative stress in newborn. Each step in the oxidative injury cascade has become a potential target for neuroprotective intervention. The administration of antioxidants for suspected or proven brain injury is still not accepted for clinical use due to uncertain beneficial effects when treatments are started after resuscitation of an asphyxiated newborn. The challenge for the future is the early identification of high-risk babies to target a safe and not toxic antioxidant therapy in combination with standard therapies to prevent brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. PMID:25685254

  11. MR brain image segmentation using an enhanced fuzzy C-means algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Szilagyi; Z. Benyol; S. M. Szilagyi; H. S. Adam

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for fuzzy segmentation of MR brain images. Starting from the standard FCM and its bias-corrected version BCFCM algorithm, by splitting up the two major steps of the latter, and by introducing a new factor, the amount of required calculations is considerably reduced. The algorithm provides good-quality segmented brain images a very quick way, which

  12. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in the human fetus during labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari Eswaran; James D. Wilson; Curtis L. Lowery; Greg Sharp; Roger M. Hawk; Pam Murphy; Sonia Pennington

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to record, during labor, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials of the fetus from standard fetal scalp electrodes. Study Design: A personal computer–based instrument was developed to record, during labor, brain stem auditory evoked potentials from 10 fetuses ranging in gestational age from 36 to ?40 weeks. Auditory stimulus was provided by clicks

  13. Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

  14. Brain controlled robots

    PubMed Central

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey’s motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis’s lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the “Computational Brain Project.” CB-i’s locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey’s voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot. PMID:19404467

  15. Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data.

    PubMed

    Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2014-05-21

    The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction ('shaving') of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [(11)C]-raclopride and [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches. PMID:24778363

  16. Brains, genes, and primates.

    PubMed

    Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Callaway, Edward M; Caddick, Sarah J; Churchland, Patricia; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A; Miller, Cory T; Mitchell, Jude F; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R; Movshon, J Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Silva, Afonso C; Strick, Peter L; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-05-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators, and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  17. Brain Science Podcast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Campbell, Virginia

    Understanding how the brain works is a fascinating and engaging question, worth ruminating every day, if possible. The Brain Science Podcast does just that. Dr. Ginger Campbell, an experienced emergency room physician, has a long standing interest in mind-body medicine, the brain, and consciousness. As host, she features the latest books about neuroscience along with interviews with scientists from all over the world. Visitors can click on the Latest Show to listen in on her latest conversation or click on Past Episodes to dive on into her past ruminations. Here they can take advantage of conversations discussing the pre-frontal lobes, gut feelings, and neurophilosophy. Additionally, visitors can look over the Free Transcripts area to read through complete transcripts of all the programs on her site. The site is rounded out by a place to leave feedback, an FAQ area, and a link to her RSS feed.

  18. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  19. Motifs in Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Complex brains have evolved a highly efficient network architecture whose structural connectivity is capable of generating a large repertoire of functional states. We detect characteristic network building blocks (structural and functional motifs) in neuroanatomical data sets and identify a small set of structural motifs that occur in significantly increased numbers. Our analysis suggests the hypothesis that brain networks maximize both the number and the diversity of functional motifs, while the repertoire of structural motifs remains small. Using functional motif number as a cost function in an optimization algorithm, we obtain network topologies that resemble real brain networks across a broad spectrum of structural measures, including small-world attributes. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that highly evolved neural architectures are organized to maximize functional repertoires and to support highly efficient integration of information. PMID:15510229

  20. Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at the Department of Physiology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, this site offers images and information from "one of the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains." The site features photos of brains of over 100 different species of mammals, representing 17 mammalian orders. Users can browse the collection by common or scientific name; view serial sections of selected specimens (including human and chimpanzee), some of which are also available as QuickTime movies; read about the importance and history of the collections; and learn about brain evolution (this last section still under construction). Additional resources include a collection of related links and an internal search engine.

  1. Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

  2. Subsequent brain tumors in patients with autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Liu, Xiangdong; Försti, Asta; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported increased risk of brain tumors after allergic conditions, but no systematic analyses of these tumors in patients with autoimmune disease (AId) have been performed. No data are available on survival among patients with AId from brain tumors. We analyzed systematically risks and survival in histological types of brain tumors among patients who received a diagnosis of 33 different AIds. Patients and Methods Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for brain tumors or hazard ratios (HRs) of deaths after brain tumors were calculated up to 2008 in 402 462 patients hospitalized for AId after 1964 and were compared with data on the population not hospitalized for AIds. Results Brain tumors were diagnosed in 880 patients with AId. No increased or decreased risks (SIRs) were noted for glioma, whereas the increased SIRs for meningioma after many AIds were likely to be attributable to surveillance bias. The data on survival showed overall decreases for glioma (HR, 1.15) and meningioma (HR, 1.26). The survival in both was decreased in patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, HRs were increased for glioma after 6 AIds and for meningioma after 7 AIds. Conclusions The present data showed that none of the 33 AIds influenced the risk of glioma. However, many AIds negatively influence survival in glioma and meningioma, probably through added physical burden or therapeutic limitations. Information of an existing AId in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors should help the prognostic assessment and the design of treatment. PMID:23757294

  3. Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain.

    PubMed

    Papp, Eszter A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Calabrese, Evan; Johnson, G Allan; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2014-08-15

    Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39 ?m isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78 ?m isotropic voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain. Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We have applied a spatial reference system based on internal brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard, previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore connected this spatial reference system to the widely used stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using contrast given by the active staining technique applied to the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical location, and planning and guidance of experimental procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and related infrastructures will connect the atlas to interoperable resources and services for multi-level data integration and analysis across reference spaces. PMID:24726336

  4. Brain morphometry changes and depressive symptoms after traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Hudak; Matthew Warner; Carlos Marquez de la Plata; Carol Moore; Caryn Harper; Ramon Diaz-Arrastia

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Recent imaging studies on spontaneous depression have implicated several brain structures; however, few studies have done the same for post-TBI depression. We report on a pilot observational study correlating atrophy of brain regions of interest in subjects after TBI with depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Mathematics Content Standards Benchmarks and Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2008

    2008-01-01

    New Mexico Mathematics Content Standards, Benchmarks, and Performance Standards identify what students should know and be able to do across all grade levels, forming a spiraling framework in the sense that many skills, once introduced, develop over time. While the Performance Standards are set forth at grade-specific levels, they do not exist as…

  7. Standards, Not Standardization: Evoking Quality Student Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant

    1991-01-01

    The only way to improve schools is to ensure that faculties judge local work using authentic standards and measures. Concrete benchmarks are needed that obviate both eccentric teacher grading and simplistic standardized testing. A school has standards when it adopts high, consistent expectations of all learners in all courses. Includes 11…

  8. Prior information for brain parcellation

    E-print Network

    Pohl, Kilian Maria

    2005-01-01

    To better understand brain disease, many neuroscientists study anatomical differences between normal and diseased subjects. Frequently, they analyze medical images to locate brain structures influenced by disease. Many of ...

  9. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  10. Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ritchie

    Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here we demonstrate minimally-invasive and remote neural ...

  11. Brain Characterization Using Normalized Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Warntjes, Jan B. M.; Engström, Maria; Tisell, Anders; Lundberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To present a method for generating reference maps of typical brain characteristics of groups of subjects using a novel combination of rapid quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (qMRI) and brain normalization. The reference maps can be used to detect significant tissue differences in patients, both locally and globally. Materials and Methods A rapid qMRI method was used to obtain the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1), the transverse relaxation rate (R2) and the proton density (PD). These three tissue properties were measured in the brains of 32 healthy subjects and in one patient diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The maps were normalized to a standard brain template using a linear affine registration. The differences of the mean value ofR1, R2 and PD of 31 healthy subjects in comparison to the oldest healthy subject and in comparison to an MS patient were calculated. Larger anatomical structures were characterized using a standard atlas. The vector sum of the normalized differences was used to show significant tissue differences. Results The coefficient of variation of the reference maps was high at the edges of the brain and the ventricles, moderate in the cortical grey matter and low in white matter and the deep grey matter structures. The elderly subject mainly showed significantly lower R1 and R2 and higher PD values along all sulci. The MS patient showed significantly lower R1 and R2 and higher PD values at the edges of the ventricular system as well as throughout the periventricular white matter, at the internal and external capsules and at each of the MS lesions. Conclusion Brain normalization of rapid qMRI is a promising new method to generate reference maps of typical brain characteristics and to automatically detect deviating tissue properties in the brain. PMID:23940653

  12. A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans and Health Information Across Clinical Imaging Centers

    PubMed Central

    Chervenak, Ann L.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Kesselman, Carl; D’Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment. PMID:22941984

  13. Reassessing the relationship between brain size, life history, and metabolism at the marsupial/placental dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Weisbecker, Vera; Goswami, Anjali

    2014-09-01

    A vigorous discussion surrounds the question as to what enables some mammals-including primates and cetaceans-to evolve large brains. We recently published a study suggesting that the radiation of marsupial mammals is highly relevant to this question because of the unique reproductive and metabolic traits within this clade. In particular, we controversially suggested that marsupial brain sizes are not systematically smaller than those of placentals, and that elevated basal metabolic rates (BMR) are not linked to larger marsupial brains. As our dataset was found to contain some erroneous body size data, derived from a published source, we here use an updated and corrected dataset and employ standard as well as phylogenetically corrected analyses to re-assess and elaborate on our original conclusions. Our proposal that marsupials are not systematically smaller-brained than placentals remains supported, particularly when the unusually large-brained placental clade, Primates, is excluded. Use of the new dataset not only confirms that high metabolic rates are not associated with larger brain size in marsupials, but we additionally find some support for a striking negative correlation between BMR and brain size. The best supported correlates of large brain size remain the reproductive traits of weaning age and litter size. These results support our suggestion that mammalian brain sizes (including, by inference, those of monotremes) are predominantly constrained by the ability of females to fuel the growth of their offspring's large brains, rather than by the maintenance requirements of the adult brain. PMID:25186933

  14. Polyamines in brain tumor therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Redgate; S. Boggs; A. Grudziak; M. Deutsch

    1995-01-01

    Summary In the search for ways to augment current brain tumor therapies many have sought to exploit the fact that adult brain tissue is virtually lacking in cell division. This endorses a special appeal to therapeutic approaches which target the dependence on cell division for brain tumor growth. Polyamines play an essential role in the proliferation of mammalian cells and

  15. TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF BRAIN ANATOMY

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    1 TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF BRAIN ANATOMY Arthur W. Toga and Paul M. Thompson Laboratory of Neuro-mail: toga@loni.ucla.edu Words= Pages= Figures= #12;2 TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF BRAIN ANATOMY Arthur W. Toga The brain changes profoundly in structure and function during development, and as a result of diseases

  16. WOMEN: A MORE BALANCED BRAIN?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. MucLeun

    1996-01-01

    In this article I cite more recent neuroanatomical and brain imaging studies that provide further evidence of disparities in structure and function of the brains of men and women. As back- ground for an attempt to explain these differences, I give a brief review of the triune evolution of the mammalian brain leading up to the human cerebrum. It is

  17. Applying Brain Research. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen; Schiller, Pam; Phipps, Pat; O'Donnell, Nina Sazer

    1999-01-01

    Four articles discuss recent findings on early brain development, describe classroom applications for specific findings, and include a brain compatibility evaluation: (1) "Primed for Learning: The Young Child's Mind" (Karen Stephens); (2) "Turning Knowledge into Practice" (Pam Schiller); (3) "Is Your Program Brain Compatible?" (Pat Phipps); and…

  18. The social brain in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah-Jayne Blakemore

    2008-01-01

    The term 'social brain' refers to the network of brain regions that are involved in understanding others. Behaviour that is related to social cognition changes dramatically during human adolescence. This is paralleled by functional changes that occur in the social brain during this time, in particular in the medial prefrontal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus, which show altered activity

  19. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  20. Brain Topography, 2009 Author copy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Brain Topography, 2009 Author copy On the "dependence" of "independent" group EEG sources; an EEG Stendhal, Grenoble Institute of Tecnology, Grenoble, France. b Brain Research Laboratory, New York University Medical School, Department of Psychiatry c Brain Research center Antwerp for Innovative

  1. Brain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain VolumetricBrain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain Volumetric Harmonic Map withHarmonic Map with VariationalVariational MethodsMethods

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Brain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain VolumetricBrain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain of FloridaCISE, University of Florida 3.3. Lab. OfLab. Of NeuroNeuro Imaging and Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine,Imaging and Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, 4.4. Mathematics

  2. Minds, Brains and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that neuroscience can be expected to provide insights of significance for education. Advocates of this view are sometimes committed to "brainism", the view (a) that an individual's mental life is constituted by states, events and processes in her brain, and (b) that psychological attributes may legitimately be ascribed to the…

  3. BrainComputer Interfacing

    E-print Network

    Penny, Will

    . Roberts & William D. Penny Robotics Research Group Department of Engineering Science University of Oxford, UK sjrob@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract We present preliminary results from real­time `brain, severely disabled subjects, then accuracies of order 70%, the requirement for real movements

  4. Rethinking brain food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

  5. Polyaminen and brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. de Vera; L. Camón; E. Martínez

    1997-01-01

    Summary The cerebral ODC\\/polyamine system is disturbed by brain injury. The main modifications are important increases in ODC activity and putrescine concentration, with minor variations in spermidine and spermine concentrations. A great diversity of stimuli such as cerebral ischemia or overstimulation of the central nervous system by chemical or non-chemical agents can induce polyamine disturbances. Both the contribution of polyamines

  6. BrainPOP Educators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BrainPOP

    2012-01-01

    BrainPOP Educators is an online professional community with nearly 150,000 members. Its offerings include free lesson plans, video tutorials, graphic organizers, shared best practices, and professional development and presentation tools to support science, technology and engineering lessons.

  7. [Brain metastases imaging].

    PubMed

    Delmaire, C; Savatovsky, J; Boulanger, T; Dhermain, F; Le Rhun, E; Météllus, P; Gerber, S; Carsin-Nicole, B; Petyt, G

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic management of brain metastases depends upon their diagnosis and characteristics. It is therefore imperative that imaging provides accurate diagnosis, identification, size and localization information of intracranial lesions in patients with presumed cerebral metastatic disease. MRI exhibits superior sensitivity to CT for small lesions identification and to evaluate their precise anatomical location. The CT-scan will be made only in case of MRI's contraindication or if MRI cannot be obtained in an acceptable delay for the management of the patient. In clinical practice, the radiologic metastasis evaluation is based on visual image analyses. Thus, a particular attention is paid to the imaging protocol with the aim to optimize the diagnosis of small lesions and to evaluate their evolution. The MRI protocol must include: 1) non-contrast T1, 2) diffusion, 3) T2* or susceptibility-weighted imaging, 4) dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion, 5) FLAIR with contrast injection, 6) T1 with contrast injection preferentially using the 3D spin echo images. The role of the nuclear medicine imaging is still limited in the diagnosis of brain metastasis. The Tc-sestamibi brain imaging or PET with amino acid tracers can differentiate local brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis but still to be evaluated. PMID:25649387

  8. Brain Chemistry and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaziano, Vincent T.; Gibbons, Judith L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course providing basic background in behavior, pharmacology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, drugs, and specific brain disorders. Provides rationale, goals, and operational details. Discusses a research project as a tool to improve critical evaluation of science reporting and writing skills. (JM)

  9. Music drives brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Music is becoming more and more of an issue in the cognitive neurosciences. A major finding in this research area is that musical practice is associated with structural and functional plasticity of the brain. In this brief review, I will give an overview of the most recent findings of this research area. PMID:20948610

  10. Perinatal Brain Damage Causation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Dammann; Alan Leviton

    2007-01-01

    The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause (causal production vs. facilitation), (2) extrapolating from possibility to fact

  11. Brain Peptides and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Proteins isolated from the brain and used as drugs can improve and apparently even transfer mental states and behavior. Much of the pioneering work and recent research with humans and animals is reviewed and crucial questions that are being posed about the psychologically active peptides are related. (BT)

  12. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  13. Silicon and Software Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, William, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the developments in neural networks technology that promise to make computers a great deal smarter. The brain is described, and its workings are compared to that of a computer. Computer programs that allow the construction of a simulated neural network are discussed and evaluated. (KR)

  14. BrainU

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BrainU is a grant-funded professional development program for science teachers in grades 5-12. Website content includes easy-to-follow instructions for hands-on activities, student and teacher guides, handouts, and educational videos and cartoons.

  15. Coping with brain damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

  16. Ben's Plastic Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares a story of Ben who as a result of his premature birth, suffered a brain hemorrhage resulting in cerebral palsy, which affected his left side (left hemiparesis) and caused learning disabilities. Despite these challenges, he graduated from college and currently works doing information management for a local biotech start-up…

  17. Our Brains Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Technology is an extension of the brain; it is a new way of thinking. It is the solution humans have created to deal with the difficult new context of variability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. Wise integration of evolving and powerful technology demands a rethinking of the curriculum. This article discusses technology as the new way of…

  18. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  19. Neuroimaging predictors of cognitive performance across a standardized neurocognitive battery

    PubMed Central

    Roalf, David R.; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Raquel E.; Bilker, Warren; Gerraty, Raphael; Elliott, Mark A.; Gallagher, R. Sean; Almasy, Laura; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Prasad, Konasale; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables the identification of brain regions recruited for specific behavioral tasks. Most fMRI studies focus on group effects in single tasks, which limits applicability where assessment of individual differences and multiple brain systems is needed. Method We demonstrate the feasibility of concurrently measuring fMRI activation patterns and performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) in 212 healthy individuals at two sites. Cross-validated sparse regression of regional brain amplitude and extent of activation were used to predict concurrent performance on six neurocognitive tasks: abstraction/mental flexibility, attention, emotion processing, and verbal, face and spatial memory. Results Brain activation was task-responsive and domain-specific as reported in previous single-task studies. Prediction of performance was robust for most tasks, particularly for abstraction/mental flexibility and visuo-spatial memory. Conclusions The feasibility of administering a comprehensive neuropsychological battery in the scanner was established, and task-specific brain activation patterns improved prediction beyond demographic information. This benchmark index of performance-associated brain activation can be applied to link brain activation with neurocognitive performance during standardized testing. This first step in standardizing a neurocognitive battery for use in fMRI may enable quantitative assessment of patients with brain disorders across multiple cognitive domains. Such data may facilitate identification of neural dysfunction associated with poor performance, allow for identification of individuals at-risk for brain disorders, and help guide early intervention and rehabilitation of neurocognitive deficits. PMID:24364396

  20. Brain temperature: physiology and pathophysiology after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Vardon, Fanny; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variations in temperature. The prevention of fever has been proposed as a therapeutic tool to limit neuronal injury. However, temperature control after traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or stroke can be challenging. Furthermore, fever may also have beneficial effects, especially in cases involving infections. While therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in animal models, its use is still debated in clinical practice. This paper aims to describe the physiology and pathophysiology of changes in brain temperature after brain injury and to study the effects of controlling brain temperature after such injury. PMID:23326261

  1. Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Vardon, Fanny; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variations in temperature. The prevention of fever has been proposed as a therapeutic tool to limit neuronal injury. However, temperature control after traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or stroke can be challenging. Furthermore, fever may also have beneficial effects, especially in cases involving infections. While therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in animal models, its use is still debated in clinical practice. This paper aims to describe the physiology and pathophysiology of changes in brain temperature after brain injury and to study the effects of controlling brain temperature after such injury. PMID:23326261

  2. Traumatic brain injury imaging research roadmap.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, M; Coombs, L; Druzgal, T J; Field, A S; Filippi, C G; Hicks, R; Horton, R; Lui, Y W; Law, M; Mukherjee, P; Norbash, A; Riedy, G; Sanelli, P C; Stone, J R; Sze, G; Tilkin, M; Whitlow, C T; Wilde, E A; York, G; Provenzale, J M

    2015-03-01

    The past decade has seen impressive advances in the types of neuroimaging information that can be acquired in patients with traumatic brain injury. However, despite this increase in information, understanding of the contribution of this information to prognostic accuracy and treatment pathways for patients is limited. Available techniques often allow us to infer the presence of microscopic changes indicative of alterations in physiology and function in brain tissue. However, because histologic confirmation is typically lacking, conclusions reached by using these techniques remain solely inferential in almost all cases. Hence, a need exists for validation of these techniques by using data from large population samples that are obtained in a uniform manner, analyzed according to well-accepted procedures, and correlated with closely monitored clinical outcomes. At present, many of these approaches remain confined to population-based research rather than diagnosis at an individual level, particularly with regard to traumatic brain injury that is mild or moderate in degree. A need and a priority exist for patient-centered tools that will allow advanced neuroimaging tools to be brought into clinical settings. One barrier to developing these tools is a lack of an age-, sex-, and comorbidities-stratified, sequence-specific, reference imaging data base that could provide a clear understanding of normal variations across populations. Such a data base would provide researchers and clinicians with the information necessary to develop computational tools for the patient-based interpretation of advanced neuroimaging studies in the clinical setting. The recent "Joint ASNR-ACR HII-ASFNR TBI Workshop: Bringing Advanced Neuroimaging for Traumatic Brain Injury into the Clinic" on May 23, 2014, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, brought together neuroradiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neuroimaging scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, industry representatives, and other traumatic brain injury stakeholders to attempt to reach consensus on issues related to and develop consensus recommendations in terms of creating both a well-characterized normative data base of comprehensive imaging and ancillary data to serve as a reference for tools that will allow interpretation of advanced neuroimaging tests at an individual level of a patient with traumatic brain injury. The workshop involved discussions concerning the following: 1) designation of the policies and infrastructure needed for a normative data base, 2) principles for characterizing normal control subjects, and 3) standardizing research neuroimaging protocols for traumatic brain injury. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:25655872

  3. MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION As directed by the Northwest Power Act, the Council has designed model conservation standards to produce all electricity savings that are cost believes the measures used to achieve the model conservation standards should provide reliable savings

  4. Communication Standards and Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Communication Standards and Recommendations Introduction & Purpose 3 Standards & Recommendations Communication 4 Training 10 Evaluation 11 PMO Workgroup Participation 12 Staffing 12 Communications-related Tracking Grantee Portal Standards and Recommendations 13

  5. Developing Educational Standards - Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Hill

    This website features a list of educational standards by state. Although the bulk of the list is state-issued standards, the list also includes standards for education developed by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Geographic Society.

  6. Proposed Josephson voltage standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. C.; Holderman, L. B.; Toots, J.

    1980-01-01

    Relatively-simple microwave integrated circuit comprising two resonators linked by Josephson junction could be set up to generate standard Josephson volt in any industrial laboratory. Standard cells and electronic equipment could be readily compared and calibrated to this standard.

  7. Identification of hematomas in mild traumatic brain injury using an index of quantitative brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Prichep, Leslie S; Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT-) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quantitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI = 85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI = 38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F = 0.044, p = 0.833), or volume of blood measured F = 0.179, p = 0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  8. Shorter-Course Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases in Elderly Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: rades.dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Evers, Jasmin N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lohynska, Radka [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Many patients with brain metastases receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. Using 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy in 2 weeks is the standard regimen in most centers. Regarding the extraordinarily poor survival prognosis of elderly patients with multiple brain metastases, a shorter WBRT regimen would be preferable. This study compared 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy in elderly patients ({>=}65 years). Methods and Materials: Data from 455 elderly patients who received WBRT alone for brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Survival and local (= intracerebral) control of 293 patients receiving 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy were compared with 162 patients receiving 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy. Eight additional potential prognostic factors were investigated including age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), primary tumor, number of brain metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to WBRT, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: The 6-month overall survival rates were 29% after 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy and 21% after 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy (p = 0.020). The 6-month local control rates were 12% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.32). On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), only one to three brain metastases (p = 0.029), no extracerebral metastasis (p = 0.012), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), breast cancer (p = 0.029), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Shorter-course WBRT with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy was not inferior to 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with respect to overall survival or local control in elderly patients. 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy appears preferable for the majority of these patients.

  9. Science Content Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Education Standards

    This website from the National Academy of Sciences presents content standards which outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The introduction sets the framework for the content standards by describing the categories of the content standards with a rationale for each category, the form of the standards, the criteria used to select the standards, and some advice for using the science content standards. Information is included for levels K-12.

  10. Biotechnology Skills Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

  11. Creating the Brain and Interacting with the Brain: An Integrated Approach to Understand the Brain

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    brain-like computations [94]. Differ- ent subfields have different emphasis on machine-learning, nonlinear dynamics, neuroscience, cognitive science [62], developmental psychology [5] and so on. But all of them possess some relevance to brain science. Brain machine interface (BMI) is an interface

  12. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  13. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  14. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG Lei; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin

  15. [The current state of the New York Brain Bank and a proposal for the establishment of the brain bank network in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sengoku, Renpei

    2010-10-01

    Brain banks are becoming increasingly important due to a worldwide decline in autopsy rates, and the consequent shortage of tissue for research purposes. The New York Brain Bank (NYBB) at Columbia University is widely praised for its well-organized system of tissue harvesting, indexing, and retrieval. I was fortunate enough to study at this prestigious institution. Constructing similar brain banks in Japan would enable us to (1) pool tissue from multiple centers, (2) standardize results and (3) extract maximum benefits from the limited number of brain specimens. As a prerequisite, the prosector must have excellent knowledge of neuroanatomy and neuropathology. One-half of each brain is dissected in the fresh state, and the cortical samples are recorded using the map of Brodmann area (BA); and all samples are barcode labeled. The quality of the brains is assessed by measuring the tissue pH of and 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA levels in the cerebral cortex (BA37). This report describes the NYBB's management and electronic tissue-tracking system,including the processing of the brains in the fresh state and the storage of standardized frozen samples. I will also disscus the feasibility and potential benefits of setting up similar brain banks in Japan. PMID:20940502

  16. Three-dimensional inversion recovery manganese-enhanced MRI of mouse brain using super-resolution reconstruction to visualize nuclei involved in higher brain function.

    PubMed

    Poole, Dana S; Plenge, Esben; Poot, Dirk H J; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik; van der Weerd, Louise

    2014-07-01

    The visualization of activity in mouse brain using inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides unique contrast, but suffers from poor resolution in the slice-encoding direction. Super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) is a resolution-enhancing post-processing technique in which multiple low-resolution slice stacks are combined into a single volume of high isotropic resolution using computational methods. In this study, we investigated, first, whether SRR can improve the three-dimensional resolution of IR-SE MEMRI in the slice selection direction, whilst maintaining or improving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the two-dimensional slice stacks. Second, the contrast-to-noise ratio of SRR IR-SE MEMRI was compared with a conventional three-dimensional gradient echo (GE) acquisition. Quantitative experiments were performed on a phantom containing compartments of various manganese concentrations. The results showed that, with comparable scan times, the signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional GE acquisition is higher than that of SRR IR-SE MEMRI. However, the contrast-to-noise ratio between different compartments can be superior with SRR IR-SE MEMRI, depending on the chosen inversion time. In vivo experiments were performed in mice receiving manganese using an implanted osmotic pump. The results showed that SRR works well as a resolution-enhancing technique in IR-SE MEMRI experiments. In addition, the SRR image also shows a number of brain structures that are more clearly discernible from the surrounding tissues than in three-dimensional GE acquisition, including a number of nuclei with specific higher brain functions, such as memory, stress, anxiety and reward behavior. PMID:24817644

  17. The endogenous brain.

    PubMed

    Kercel, Stephen W

    2004-03-01

    Synaptic communication, nonsynaptic diffusion neurotransmission and glial activity each update the morphology of the other two. These interactions lead to an endogenous structure of causal entailment. It has internal ambiguities rendering it incomputable. The entailed effects are bizarre. These include abduction of novelty in response to conflicting cues, a resolution of the seeming conflict between freewill and determinism, and anticipatory behavior. Such inherent ambiguity of the causal entailment structure does not preclude the implementation of brain-like activities artificially. Although an algorithm is incapable of neuromimetically reproducing self-referential character of the brain, there is a currently-feasible strategy for wiring a "human in the loop" to use the cognitive powers of anticipation and unconscious integration to provide dramatic improvement in the operation of large engineered systems. PMID:15139079

  18. Brain-computer symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Gerwin

    2008-03-01

    The theoretical groundwork of the 1930s and 1940s and the technical advance of computers in the following decades provided the basis for dramatic increases in human efficiency. While computers continue to evolve, and we can still expect increasing benefits from their use, the interface between humans and computers has begun to present a serious impediment to full realization of the potential payoff. This paper is about the theoretical and practical possibility that direct communication between the brain and the computer can be used to overcome this impediment by improving or augmenting conventional forms of human communication. It is about the opportunity that the limitations of our body's input and output capacities can be overcome using direct interaction with the brain, and it discusses the assumptions, possible limitations and implications of a technology that I anticipate will be a major source of pervasive changes in the coming decades. PMID:18310804

  19. The Brain in Pain

    PubMed Central

    AHMAD, Asma Hayati; ABDUL AZIZ, Che Badariah

    2014-01-01

    Pain, while salient, is highly subjective. A sensation perceived as painful by one person may be perceived as uncomfortable, not painful or even pleasant to others. Within the same person, pain may also be modulated according to its threat value and the context in which it is presented. Imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, have identified a distributed network in the brain, the pain-relevant brain regions, that encode the sensory-discriminative aspect of pain, as well as its cognitive and affective/emotional factors. Current knowledge also implicates the prefrontal cortex as the modulatory area for pain, with its subdivisions forming the cortico-cortical pathway, an alternative pain modulatory pathway distinct from the descending modulatory pathway of pain. These findings from neuroimaging in human subjects have paved the way for the molecular mechanisms of pain modulation to be explored in animal studies. PMID:25941463

  20. The repurposed social brain.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Wheatley, Thalia

    2015-03-01

    Human social intelligence depends on a diverse array of perceptual, cognitive, and motivational capacities. Some of these capacities depend on neural systems that may have evolved through modification of ancestral systems with non-social or more limited social functions (evolutionary repurposing). Social intelligence, in turn, enables new forms of repurposing within the lifetime of an individual (cultural and instrumental repurposing), which entail innovating over and exploiting pre-existing circuitry to meet problems our brains did not evolve to solve. Considering these repurposing processes can provide insight into the computations that brain regions contribute to social information processing, generate testable predictions that usefully constrain social neuroscience theory, and reveal biologically imposed constraints on cultural inventions and our ability to respond beneficially to contemporary challenges. PMID:25732617

  1. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities. PMID:23312631

  2. [Brain tumors in childhood].

    PubMed

    Sinzig, M; Gasser, J; Jauk, B; Hausegger, K A

    2008-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in childhood and the second most common malignancies after leukemia in the pediatric age group. Supratentorial tumors are more common in children younger than 2 years old and in adolescents, whereas in patients between 2 and 12 years of age brain tumors originating in the posterior fossa dominate. This implies a relationship between the type of tumor, its location and the age of the patient, which has to be considered in differential diagnoses. Medulloblastoma represents the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. In the posterior fossa medulloblastomas are approximately as frequent as astrocytomas. Supratentorial astrocytomas are by far the main tumor type. In this report some typical CNS neoplasms in children are discussed and their neuroradiological features are demonstrated. PMID:18493733

  3. The Learning Brain: Neuroscience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The very well-maintained BioEd Online website from the Baylor College of Medicine was recently overhauled and now it's better than ever. This particular resource collection brings together videos, teacher guides, digital slides, video presentations, and related content. The topics covered include brain structure, neurons and the nervous system, human senses and movement, learning and memory, diseases of the nervous system, and the effects of drugs on the brain and body. The entire collection is part of the National Institute of Health's Blueprint for Neuroscience Education program and is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other partners. Visitors should not miss the Individual Lessons area, which has excellent segments on What is a Neuron?, Hormones and Stress, and seven other topics. [KMG

  4. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots

    E-print Network

    Eliano Pessa; Paola zizzi

    2009-09-08

    The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a quantum metalanguage, the operation of an artificial quantum computer.

  5. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  6. Instrumentation Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication provides program standards for diploma and degree instrumentation technology programs. Fifteen categories of standards are presented. Each category is divided into one or more subcategories, and each subcategory has the following components: standard statement, explanatory comment, evaluative criteria, exhibits. Standards in the…

  7. Standards for holdup measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

  8. Technology Standards for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jennifer

    In many states technology standards for students have focused on basic computer skills, but more standards are beginning to focus on identifying technology skills that students need for school and the workplace. In most states in the Southern Region, technology standards for students are based on the National Educational Technology Standards for…

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Morris

    \\u000a Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often referred to as a silent epidemic due to lack of public\\u000a awareness [1]. TBI is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world for individuals under the age of 45\\u000a [2]. In the United States alone, based on population data from 1995 to 2001, 1.4 million

  10. Brain effects of melanocortins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfio Bertolini; Raffaella Tacchi; Anna Valeria Vergoni

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortins (?, ? and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormones: MSHs; adrenocorticotrophic hormone: ACTH), a family of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides having in common the tetrapeptide sequence His-Phe-Arg-Trp, have progressively revealed an incredibly wide range of extra-hormonal effects, so to become one of the most promising source of innovative drugs for many, important and widespread pathological conditions.The discovery of their effects on some brain

  11. Benzodiazepines in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Medina; C. Peña; M. Piva; C. Wolfman; M. L. de Stein; C. Wasowski; C. Da Cunha; I. Izquierdo; A. C. Paladini

    1992-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the last 5 yr in demonstrating the presence of benzodiazepines (BDZs) in mammalian tissues,\\u000a in beginning studies on the origin of these natural compounds, and in elucidating their possible biological roles. Many unanswered\\u000a questions remain regarding the sources and biosynthetic pathways responsible for the presence of BDZs in brain and their different\\u000a physiological and\\/or

  12. Whole brain optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are several imaging techniques offering a complementary approach to visualize intact neural networks on large areas. Each of those offers a different strategy and furnish complementary information on the role of neural components. We will describe different approaches enabling to move from single neuron details to whole brain imaging, connecting short range structural information to long range one. In particular, some examples of correlative microscopies, combining linear and non linear techniques will also be described.

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of angiotensin II receptors in the SHR brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlert, D.R.; Speth, R.C.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1986-11-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate brain angiotensin II is associated with the elevation of blood pressure seen in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). These include an increased pressor response to intracerebroventricularly administered angiotensin II and a reduction of blood pressure in response to centrally administered angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography, we have detected greater angiotensin II receptor binding in a number of discrete brain nuclei of the 6-week-old SHR when compared to age-matched Wistar-Kyoto controls. Tissue sections from various brain regions were labeled with (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II according to a previously described method. Autoradiograms were generated by apposing the labeled tissue sections to LKB Ultrofilm along with brain paste standards which contained known amounts of (/sup 125/I). Quantitation of the binding, utilizing computer-assisted microdensitometry, indicated greater (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding in several brain areas implicated in cardiovascular control including the subfornical organ, nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, locus coeruleus, supraoptic nucleus and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Scatchard analysis of the binding in the nucleus of the solitary tract indicated an increased receptor number (Bmax) was responsible for the change while binding in two forebrain structures, the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus, showed alterations in receptor number and affinity (Kd). Several other brain regions, unrelated to cardiovascular control, exhibited no change in (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding.

  14. Several methods to determine heavy metals in the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrási, Erzsébet; Igaz, Sarolta; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Farkas, Éva; Ajtony, Zsolt

    1999-05-01

    The determination of naturally occurring heavy metals in various parts of the human brain is discussed. The patients had no diseases in their central nervous systems (five individuals, mean age 70 years). Twenty brain parts were selected from both hemispheres. The analysis was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. Accuracy and precision of the applied techniques were tested by using standard reference materials. Two digestion methods were used to dissolve the brain samples for ICP-AES and GF-AAS. One was performed in a Parr-bomb and the second in a microwave oven. The present results show a non-homogeneous distribution of the essential elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in normal human brain. Corresponding regions in both hemispheres showed an almost identical concentration of these elements. In the case of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) an average value in different brain regions can not be established because of the high variability of individual data. This study indicates that beside differences in Pb and Cd intake with foods or cigarette smoke inhalation, the main factors of the high inter-individual variability of these element concentrations in human brain parts may be a marked difference in individual elimination or accumulation capabilities.

  15. Brain sites mediating corticosteroid feedback inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.

    1989-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the brain mediates stress-induced and circadian increases in ACTH secretion and that corticosteroid concentrations which normalize basal plasma ACTH are insufficient to normalize ACTH responses to circadian or stressful stimuli in adrenalectomized rats. To identify brain sites mediating corticosteroid inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion, two approaches were used. The first compared brain ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose uptake in rats with differential ACTH responses to stress. Relative to sham-adrenalectomized (SHAM) rats, adrenalectomized rats replaced with low, constant corticosterone levels via a subcutaneous corticosterone pellet (B-PELLET) exhibited elevated and prolonged ACTH responses to a variety of stimuli. Adrenalectomized rate given a circadian corticosterone rhythm via corticosterone in their drinking water exhibited elevated ACTH levels immediately after stress, but unlike B-PELLET rats, terminated stress induced ACTH secretion normally relative to SHAMS. Therefore, the abnormal ACTH responses to stress in B-PELLET rats were due to the lack of both circadian variations and stress-induced increases in corticosterone. Hypoxia was selected as a standardized stimulus for correlating brain ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose uptake with ACTH secretion. In intact rats, increases in plasma ACTH and decreases in arterial PO{sub 2} correlated with the severity of hypoxia at arterial PCO{sub 2} below 60 mm Hg. Hypoxia PELLET vs. SHAM rats. However, in preliminary experiments, although hypoxia increased brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake in most brain regions, plasma ACTH correlated poorly with 2-deoxyglucose uptake at 12% and 10% O{sub 2}.

  16. Brain MAPS: an automated, accurate and robust brain extraction technique using a template library

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kelvin K.; Barnes, Josephine; Modat, Marc; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Fox, Nick C.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Whole brain extraction is an important pre-processing step in neuro-image analysis. Manual or semi-automated brain delineations are labour-intensive and thus not desirable in large studies, meaning that automated techniques are preferable. The accuracy and robustness of automated methods are crucial because human expertise may be required to correct any sub-optimal results, which can be very time consuming. We compared the accuracy of four automated brain extraction methods: Brain Extraction Tool (BET), Brain Surface Extractor (BSE), Hybrid Watershed Algorithm (HWA) and a Multi-Atlas Propagation and Segmentation (MAPS) technique we have previously developed for hippocampal segmentation. The four methods were applied to extract whole brains from 682 1.5T and 157 3T T1-weighted MR baseline images from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Semi-automated brain segmentations with manual editing and checking were used as the gold-standard to compare with the results. The median Jaccard index of MAPS was higher than HWA, BET and BSE in 1.5T and 3T scans (p < 0.05, all tests), and the 1st-99th centile range of the Jaccard index of MAPS was smaller than HWA, BET and BSE in 1.5T and 3T scans (p < 0.05, all tests). HWA and MAPS were found to be best at including all brain tissues (median false negative rate ? 0.010% for 1.5T scans and ? 0.019% for 3T scans, both methods). The median Jaccard index of MAPS were similar in both 1.5T and 3T scans, whereas those of BET, BSE and HWA were higher in 1.5T scans than 3T scans (p < 0.05, all tests). We found that the diagnostic group had a small effect on the median Jaccard index of all four methods. In conclusion, MAPS had relatively high accuracy and low variability compared to HWA, BET and BSE in MR scans with and without atrophy. PMID:21195780

  17. The cooperative brain.

    PubMed

    Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making. PMID:23300215

  18. Acoustical standards news.

    PubMed

    Blaeser, Susan B; Schomer, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes catalogs of Acoustical Standards, both National and International. To receive copies of the latest Standards catalogs, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National and International Catalogs of Acoustical Standards, and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:25994730

  19. Advances in electromagnetic brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2010-02-01

    Non-invasive and dynamic imaging of brain activity in the sub-millisecond time-scale is enabled by measurements on or near the scalp surface using an array of sensors that measure magnetic fields (magnetoencephalography (MEG)) or electric potentials (electroencephalography (EEG)). Algorithmic reconstruction of brain activity from MEG and EEG data is referred to as electromagnetic brain imaging (EBI). Reconstructing the actual brain response to external events and distinguishing unrelated brain activity has been a challenge for many existing algorithms in this field. Furthermore, even under conditions where there is very little interference, accurately determining the spatial locations and timing of brain sources from MEG and EEG data is challenging problem because it involves solving for unknown brain activity across thousands of voxels from just a few sensors (~300). In recent years, my research group has developed a suite of novel and powerful algorithms for EBI that we have shown to be considerably superior to existing benchmark algorithms. Specifically, these algorithms can solve for many brain sources, including sources located far from the sensors, in the presence of large interference from unrelated brain sources. Our algorithms efficiently model interference contributions to sensors, accurately estimate sparse brain source activity using fast and robust probabilistic inference techniques. Here, we review some of these algorithms and illustrate their performance in simulations and real MEG/EEG data.

  20. Standards for contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borson, Eugene N.

    2004-10-01

    Standards are an important component of national and international trade. We depend upon standards to assure that manufactured parts will work together, wherever they are made, and that we speak the same technical language, no matter what language we speak. Understanding is important in order to know when to take exceptions to or tailor the standard to fit the job. Standards that are used in contamination control have increased in numbers over the years as more industries have had to improve their manufacturing processes to enhance reliability or yields of products. Some older standards have been revised to include new technologies, and many new standards have been developed. Some of the new standards were written for specific industries while others apply to many industries. Many government standards have been replaced with standards from nongovernmental standards organizations. This trend has been encouraged by U.S. law that requires the government to use commercial standards where possible. This paper reviews some of the more important standards for the aerospace industry, such as IEST-STD-CC1246 and ISO 14644-1, that have been published in recent years. Benefits, usage, and problems with some standards will be discussed. Some standards are referenced, and websites of some standards organizations are listed.

  1. Epilepsy and brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Aronica, Eleonora; Mazarati, Andrey; Pittman, Quentin J

    2013-06-01

    During the last decade, experimental research has demonstrated a prominent role of glial cells, activated in brain by various injuries, in the mechanisms of seizure precipitation and recurrence. In particular, alterations in the phenotype and function of activated astrocytes and microglial cells have been described in experimental and human epileptic tissue, including modifications in potassium and water channels, alterations of glutamine/glutamate cycle, changes in glutamate receptor expression and transporters, release of neuromodulatory molecules (e.g. gliotransmitters, neurotrophic factors), and induction of molecules involved in inflammatory processes (e.g. cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, complement factors, cell adhesion molecules) (Seifert et al., 2006; Vezzani et al., 2011; Wetherington et al., 2008). In particular, brain injury or proconvulsant events can activate microglia and astrocytes to release a number of proinflammatory mediators, thus initiating a cascade of inflammatory processes in brain tissue. Proinflammatory molecules can alter neuronal excitability and affect the physiological functions of glia by paracrine or autocrine actions, thus perturbing the glioneuronal communications. In experimental models, these changes contribute to decreasing the threshold to seizures and may compromise neuronal survival (Riazi et al., 2010; Vezzani et al., 2008). In this context, understanding which are the soluble mediators and the molecular mechanisms crucially involved in glio-neuronal interactions is instrumental to shed light on how brain inflammation may contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in epilepsy. This review will report the clinical observations in drug-resistant human epilepsies and the experimental findings in adult and immature rodents linking brain inflammation to the epileptic process in a causal and reciprocal manner. By confronting the clinical evidence with the experimental findings, we will discuss the role of specific soluble inflammatory mediators in the etiopathogenesis of seizures, reporting evidence for both their acute and long term effects on seizure threshold. The possible contribution of these mediators to co-morbidities often described in epilepsy patients will be also discussed. Finally, we will report on the anti-inflammatory treatments with anticonvulsant actions in experimental models highlighting possible therapeutic options for treating drug-resistant seizures and for prevention of epileptogenesis. PMID:21985866

  2. Scaling brain size, keeping timing: evolutionary preservation of brain rhythms.

    PubMed

    Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf

    2013-10-30

    Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025

  3. Brain MRI Tissue Classification Based on Local Markov Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Shattuck, David W.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain is proposed. The method is based on local image models where each models the image content in a subset of the image domain. With this local modeling approach, the assumption that tissue types have the same characteristics over the brain needs not to be evoked. This is important because tissue type characteristics, such as T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density, vary across the individual brain and the proposed method offers improved protection against intensity non-uniformity artifacts that can hamper automatic tissue classification methods in brain MRI. A framework in which local models for tissue intensities and Markov Random Field priors are combined into a global probabilistic image model is introduced. This global model will be an inhomogeneous Markov Random Field and it can be solved by standard algorithms such as iterative conditional modes. The division of the whole image domain into local brain regions possibly having different intensity statistics is realized via sub-volume probabilistic atlases. Finally, the parameters for the local intensity models are obtained without supervision by maximizing the weighted likelihood of a certain finite mixture model. For the maximization task, a novel genetic algorithm almost free of initialization dependency is applied. The algorithm is tested on both simulated and real brain MR images. The experiments confirm that the new method offers a useful improvement of the tissue classification accuracy when the basic tissue characteristics vary across the brain and the noise level of the images is reasonable. The method also offers better protection against intensity non-uniformity artifact than the corresponding method based on a global (whole image) modeling scheme. PMID:20110151

  4. Songbirds and the Revised Avian Brain Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    REINER, ANTON; PERKEL, DAVID J.; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.; JARVIS, ERICH D.

    2008-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the standard nomenclature for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures of the avian brain is based on flawed once-held assumptions of homology to mammalian brain structures, greatly hindering functional comparisons between avian and mammalian brains. This has become especially problematic for those researchers studying the neurobiology of birdsong, the largest single group within the avian neuroscience community. To deal with the many communication problems this has caused among researchers specializing in different vertebrate classes, the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum, held at Duke University from July 18–20, 2002, set out to develop a new terminology for the avian telencephalon and some allied brainstem cell groups. In one major step, the erroneous conception that the avian telencephalon consists mainly of a hypertrophied basal ganglia has been purged from the telencephalic terminology, and the actual parts of the basal ganglia and its brainstem afferent cell groups have been given new names to reflect their now-evident homologies. The telencephalic regions that were incorrectly named to reflect presumed homology to mammalian basal ganglia have been renamed as parts of the pallium. The prefixes used for the new names for the pallial subdivisions have retained most established abbreviations, in an effort to maintain continuity with the pre-existing nomenclature. Here we present a brief synopsis of the inaccuracies in the old nomenclature, a summary of the nomenclature changes, and details of changes for specific songbird vocal and auditory nuclei. We believe this new terminology will promote more accurate understanding of the broader neurobiological implications of song control mechanisms and facilitate the productive exchange of information between researchers studying avian and mammalian systems. PMID:15313771

  5. Brain neurotransmitters in fatigue and overtraining.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Romain; Watson, Philip; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria F

    2007-10-01

    Since the publication of the serotonin hypothesis, numerous theories involving the accumulation or depletion of different substances in the brain have been proposed to explain central fatigue. Although the theoretical rationale for the "serotonin-fatigue hypothesis" is clear, several seemingly well-conducted studies have failed to support a significant role for 5-hydroxytryptamine in the development of fatigue. As brain function appears to be dependent upon the interaction of a number of systems, it is unlikely that a single neurotransmitter system is responsible for central fatigue. Several other mechanisms are involved, with evidence supporting a role for the brain catecholamines. Fatigue is therefore probably an integrated phenomenon, with complex interaction among central and peripheral factors. When prolonged and excessive training happens, concurrent with other stressors and insufficient recovery, performance decrements can result in chronic maladaptations that can lead to the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The mechanism of the OTS could be difficult to examine in detail, perhaps because the stress caused by excessive training load, in combination with other stressors, might trigger different "defence mechanisms" such as the immunological, neuroendocrine, and other physiological systems that all interact and probably therefore cannot be pinpointed as the "sole" cause of the OTS. It might be that, as in other syndromes, the psychoneuroimmunology (study of brain-behavior-immune interrelationships) might shed a light on the possible mechanisms of the OTS, but until there is a definite diagnostic tool, it is of utmost importance to standardize measures that are now thought to provide a good inventory of the training status of the athlete. It is very important to emphasize the need to distinguish the OTS from overreaching and other potential causes of temporary underperformance such as anemia, acute infection, muscle damage, and insufficient carbohydrate intake. PMID:18059610

  6. Aquaporin4 and brain edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marios C. Papadopoulos; Alan S. Verkman

    2007-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water-channel protein expressed strongly in the brain, predominantly in astrocyte foot processes at\\u000a the borders between the brain parenchyma and major fluid compartments, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood. This\\u000a distribution suggests that AQP4 controls water fluxes into and out of the brain parenchyma. Experiments using AQP4-null mice\\u000a provide strong evidence for AQP4 involvement in cerebral

  7. Genetic influences on brain structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyrone D. Cannon; Katherine L. Narr; Theo van Erp; Veli-Pekka Poutanen; Matti Huttunen; Jouko Lönnqvist; Carl-Gustaf Standertskjöld-Nordenstam; Jaakko Kaprio; Mohammad Khaledy; Rajneesh Dail; Chris I. Zoumalan; Arthur W. Toga; Paul M. Thompson

    2001-01-01

    Here we report on detailed three-dimensional maps revealing how brain structure is influenced by individual genetic differences. A genetic continuum was detected in which brain structure was increasingly similar in subjects with increasing genetic affinity. Genetic factors significantly influenced cortical structure in Broca's and Wernicke's language areas, as well as frontal brain regions (r2MZ > 0.8, p < 0.05). Preliminary

  8. Brain development, experience, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Bryan; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Gibb, Robbin

    2014-10-01

    Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. This review examines the literature on how early experiences alter brain development, including environmental events such as sensory stimuli, early stress, psychoactive drugs, parent-child relationships, peer relationships, intestinal flora, diet, and radiation. This sensitivity of the brain to early experiences has important implications for understanding neurodevelopmental disorders as well as the effect of medical interventions in children. PMID:24376085

  9. Hematogenous pasteurella haemolytica brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Darmoul, Mehdi; Nsir, Atef Ben; Kilani, Mohamed; Hattab, Mohamed Nejib

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella infections are common in domestic animals and very rare in human. We report a hematogenously acquired Pasteurella haemolytica brain abscess, mimicking brain tumor on magnetic resonance imaging, in an 18-year-old female patient known with cardiac interventricular communication, without recent history of animal contact. The outcome was good after abscess complete removal and antimicrobials therapy for 6 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of P. haemolytica brain abscess. PMID:25002776

  10. Consciousness and Quantum Brain Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Gordon

    The opposition to quantum brain theory is "deconstructed". The quantum brain theory originated by Umezawa and coworkers is elaborated as a unimode quantum brain dynamics (QBD), a Hermitean dual-mode QBD and a non-Hermitean dual-mode QBD. The non-Hermitean version is applied to mathematics, where the Riemann hypothesis is seen in a fresh way. The philosophical implications of this approach turn out to be "monadological".

  11. Working Memory and the Brain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2012-02-01

    Press release - Scientists have found evidence that visual working memory follows a more general pattern of brain activity than what researchers have shown with initial visual activity, instead activating a more diffuse area in the front of the brain for all categories of visual stimuli. The study is entitled "Mapping Brain Activation and Information During Category-Specific Visual Working Memory." It appears in the Articles in PresS section of the Journal of Neurophysiology, published by the American Physiological Society.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rhesus monkey brain: use for stereotactic neurosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Saunders; T. G. Aigner; J. A. Frank

    1990-01-01

    Standard stereotactic procedures rely upon external cranial landmarks and standardized atlases for localization of subcortical neural regions. Magnetic resonance imaging permits the visualization of the neural structure of the brain in vivo. A stereotactic instrument compatible with a magnetic resonance unit was constructed and together with magnetic resonance imaging a procedure was developed that overcomes the limitations and inaccuracies of

  13. Dose Escalation of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases From Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Heisterkamp, Christine; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bohlen, Guenther; Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Haatanen, Tiina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The majority of patients with brain metastases from melanoma receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, the results are poor. Hypofractionation regimens failed to improve the outcome of these patients. This study investigates a potential benefit from escalation of the WBRT dose beyond the 'standard' regimen 30 Gy in 10 fractions (10x3 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data from 51 melanoma patients receiving WBRT alone were retrospectively analyzed. A dosage of 10x3 Gy (n = 33) was compared with higher doses including 40 Gy/20 fractions (n = 11) and 45 Gy/15 fractions (n = 7) for survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, performance status, number of metastases, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: At 6 months, OS rates were 27% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.009). The OS rates at 12 months were 4% and 20%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.010), fewer than four brain metastases (p = 0.012), no extracerebral metastases (p = 0.006), and RPA class 1 (p = 0.005) were associated with improved OS. The LC rates at 6 months were 23% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.021). The LC rates at 12 months were 0% and 13%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.020) and fewer than brain metastases (p = 0.002) were associated with better LC. Conclusions: Given the limitations of a retrospective study, the findings suggest that patients with brain metastases from melanoma receiving WBRT alone may benefit from dose escalation beyond 10x3 Gy. The hypothesis generated by this study must be confirmed in a randomized trial stratifying for significant prognostic factors.

  14. Biomechanics of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Thibault P; Balakrishnan, Asha; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of porcine brain tissue, obtained from a series of in vitro observations and experiments, is analyzed and described here with the aid of a large strain, nonlinear, viscoelastic constitutive model. Mixed gray and white matter samples excised from the superior cortex were tested in unconfined uniaxial compression within 15h post mortem. The test sequence consisted of three successive load-unload segments at strain rates of 1, 0.1 and 0.01 s?¹, followed by stress relaxation (n=25). The volumetric compliance of the tissue was assessed for a subset of specimens (n=7) using video extensometry techniques. The tissue response exhibited moderate compressibility, substantial nonlinearity, hysteresis, conditioning and rate dependence. A large strain kinematics nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed to account for the essential features of the tissue response over the entire deformation history. The corresponding material parameters were obtained by fitting the model to the measured conditioned response (axial and volumetric) via a numerical optimization scheme. The model successfully captures the observed complexities of the material response in loading, unloading and relaxation over the entire range of strain rates. The accuracy of the model was further verified by comparing model predictions with the tissue response in unconfined compression at higher strain rate (10 s?¹) and with literature data in uniaxial tension. The proposed constitutive framework was also found to be adequate to model the loading response of brain tissue in uniaxial compression over a wider range of strain rates (0.01-3000 s?¹), thereby providing a valuable tool for simulations of dynamic transients (impact, blast/shock wave propagation) leading to traumatic brain injury. PMID:20603231

  15. Sculpting the brain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Neuroculture, conceived as the reciprocal interaction between neuroscience and different areas of human knowledge is influencing our lives under the prism of the latest neuroscientific discoveries. Simultaneously, neuroculture can create new models of thinking that can significantly impact neuroscientists' daily practice. Especially interesting is the interaction that takes place between neuroscience and the arts. This interaction takes place at different, infinite levels and contexts. I contextualize my work inside this neurocultural framework. Through my artwork, I try to give a more natural vision of the human brain, which could help to develop a more humanistic culture. PMID:22363275

  16. Interactive brains, social minds

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

  17. BrainMachine Interface Using Brain Surface Electrodes: Real-

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    surface electrodes for real-time robotic arm control in severely disabled people, such as amyotrophicBrain­Machine Interface Using Brain Surface Electrodes: Real- Time Robotic Control and a Fully, accurate neural decoding, robust robotic control, a wireless and fully implantable device

  18. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  19. Brain Hemisphere Dominance: Building the Whole-Brain Singer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of brain hemisphere dominance serves as the basis for many educational learning theories. The dominant brain hemisphere guides the learning process, but both hemispheres are necessary for true learning to take place. This treatise outlines and analyzes the dominance factor, a learning theory developed by Dr. Carla Hannaford, which…

  20. Organization of brain tissue - Is the brain a noisy processor.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents some thoughts on functional organization in cerebral tissue. 'Spontaneous' wave and unit firing are considered as essential phenomena in the handling of information. Various models are discussed which have been suggested to describe the pseudorandom behavior of brain cells, leading to a view of the brain as an information processor and its role in learning, memory, remembering and forgetting.

  1. Analyzing the Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Demers

    2000-01-01

    Be they from Benchmarks for Science Literacy , the National Science Education Standards , or a state curriculum framework, standards offer educators a common foundation upon which to base curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Implicit i

  2. Clothing Quality Standards 

    E-print Network

    2006-05-01

    Clothing construction is a creative skill with certain standards for appearance and construction. This publication describes the standards that apply to general construction techniques such as preparing the fabric, creating darts and gathers...

  3. Medical Assisting Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the medical assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  4. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  5. The brain as part of an enactive system.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shaun; Hutto, Daniel D; Slaby, Jan; Cole, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    The notion of an enactive system requires thinking about the brain in a way that is different from the standard computational-representational models. In evolutionary terms, the brain does what it does and is the way that it is, across some scale of variations, because it is part of a living body with hands that can reach and grasp in certain limited ways, eyes structured to focus, an autonomic system, an upright posture, etc. coping with specific kinds of environments, and with other people. Changes to any of the bodily, environmental, or intersubjective conditions elicit responses from the system as a whole. On this view, rather than representing or computing information, the brain is better conceived as participating in the action. PMID:23883750

  6. BrainPrint: Identifying Subjects by Their Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Reuter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Introducing BrainPrint, a compact and discriminative representation of anatomical structures in the brain. BrainPrint captures shape information of an ensemble of cortical and subcortical structures by solving the 2D and 3D Laplace-Beltrami operator on triangular (boundary) and tetrahedral (volumetric) meshes. We derive a robust classifier for this representation that identifies the subject in a new scan, based on a database of brain scans. In an example dataset containing over 3000 MRI scans, we show that BrainPrint captures unique information about the subject’s anatomy and permits to correctly classify a scan with an accuracy of over 99.8%. All processing steps for obtaining the compact representation are fully automated making this processing framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. PMID:25320780

  7. Ulinastatin attenuates brain edema after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tao; Zhu, Gangyi

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of injury-related death and disability. Brain edema, one of the most major complications of TBI, contributes to elevated intracranial pressure, and poor prognosis following TBI. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, attenuates brain edema following TBI. Our results showed that treatment with UTI at a dose of 50,000 U/kg attenuated the brain edema, as assayed by water content 24 h after TBI induction. This attenuation was associated with a significant decrease of the expression level of aquaporin-4. In addition, we showed that UTI treatment also markedly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1? and TNF-? as well as activity of NF-?B. Collectively, our findings suggested that UTI may be a promising strategy to treat brain edema following TBI. PMID:25209743

  8. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the ‘understanding the brain by creating the brain’ approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain–machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  9. Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-03-01

    In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the 'understanding the brain by creating the brain' approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain-machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

  10. Functional photoacoustic tomography of animal brains 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xueding

    2005-11-01

    -dimensional tissue structures in intact brains, including lesions and tumors in brain cerebral cortex. Physiological changes and functional activities in brains, including cerebral blood volume and blood oxygenation in addition to anatomical information, were also...

  11. VOLUMETRIC HARMONIC BRAIN MAPPING Yalin Wang1

    E-print Network

    Chan, Tony F.

    . In this paper, we apply these two techniques to brain mapping problem. We use a tetrahedral mesh to represent the brain volume. The experimental results on both synthetic and brain volume data are reported. We sug

  12. BRAIN SURFACE CONFORMAL PARAMETERIZATION Mathematics Department, UCLA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    BRAIN SURFACE CONFORMAL PARAMETERIZATION Yalin Wang Mathematics Department, UCLA email: ylwang scans of the brain, including the cortex, hip- pocampus, and lateral ventricles. We found. KEY WORDS Brain Mapping, Riemann Surface Structure, Conforaml Net, Critical Graph 1 Introduction

  13. Facilities Services Construction Standards

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    in the construction of buildings and outdoor spaces on campus. They also note requirements for project drawings in the Construction Standards will be reviewed by OSU for life cycle cost, environmental impact and future flexibilityFacilities Services Construction Standards June 2012 #12;OSU Construction Standards Introduction

  14. High Standards. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue presents an overview of the standards movement, and examines some difficulties in implementing high standards in an equitable manner for all students. "Faster Than a Plymouth: Reflections on the 'Opportunity To Learn Standards'" (Bradley Scott) discusses the need to create similar experiences and opportunities for academic…

  15. New Coal Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, John

    1979-01-01

    Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

  16. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  17. Standards for contamination control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene N. Borson

    2004-01-01

    Standards are an important component of national and international trade. We depend upon standards to assure that manufactured parts will work together, wherever they are made, and that we speak the same technical language, no matter what language we speak. Understanding is important in order to know when to take exceptions to or tailor the standard to fit the job.

  18. Standards for systems biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Krestyaninova; Ugis Sarkans; Alvis Brazma

    2006-01-01

    High-throughput technologies are generating large amounts of complex data that have to be stored in databases, communicated to various data analysis tools and interpreted by scientists. Data representation and communication standards are needed to implement these steps efficiently. Here we give a classification of various standards related to systems biology and discuss various aspects of standardization in life sciences in

  19. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  20. Facilities Services Construction Standards

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Facilities Services Construction Standards #12;OSU Construction Standards Introduction The Construction Standards support OSU's policies related to the design and maintenance of facilities on campus in the construction of buildings and outdoor spaces on campus. They also note requirements for project drawings

  1. The brain timewise: how timing shapes and supports brain function

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the importance of timing in brain function: how temporal dynamics of the world has left its traces in the brain during evolution and how we can monitor the dynamics of the human brain with non-invasive measurements. Accurate timing is important for the interplay of neurons, neuronal circuitries, brain areas and human individuals. In the human brain, multiple temporal integration windows are hierarchically organized, with temporal scales ranging from microseconds to tens and hundreds of milliseconds for perceptual, motor and cognitive functions, and up to minutes, hours and even months for hormonal and mood changes. Accurate timing is impaired in several brain diseases. From the current repertoire of non-invasive brain imaging methods, only magnetoencephalography (MEG) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) provide millisecond time-resolution; our focus in this paper is on MEG. Since the introduction of high-density whole-scalp MEG/EEG coverage in the 1990s, the instrumentation has not changed drastically; yet, novel data analyses are advancing the field rapidly by shifting the focus from the mere pinpointing of activity hotspots to seeking stimulus- or task-specific information and to characterizing functional networks. During the next decades, we can expect increased spatial resolution and accuracy of the time-resolved brain imaging and better understanding of brain function, especially its temporal constraints, with the development of novel instrumentation and finer-grained, physiologically inspired generative models of local and network activity. Merging both spatial and temporal information with increasing accuracy and carrying out recordings in naturalistic conditions, including social interaction, will bring much new information about human brain function. PMID:25823867

  2. Engineered nanoparticles. How brain friendly is this new guest?

    PubMed

    Cupaioli, Francesca A; Zucca, Fabio A; Boraschi, Diana; Zecca, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, the use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has progressively increased in many industrial and medical applications. In therapy, NPs may allow more effective cellular and subcellular targeting of drugs. In diagnostic applications, quantum dots are exploited for their optical characteristics, while superparamagnetic iron oxides NPs are used in magnetic resonance imaging. NPs are used in semiconductors, packaging, textiles, solar cells, batteries and plastic materials. Despite the great progress in nanotechnologies, comparatively little is known to date on the effects that exposure to NPs may have on the human body, in general and specifically on the brain. NPs can enter the human body through skin, digestive tract, airways and blood and they may cross the blood-brain barrier to reach the central nervous system. In addition to the paucity of studies describing NP effects on brain function, some of them also suffer of insufficient NPs characterization, inadequate standardization of conditions and lack of contaminant evaluation, so that results from different studies can hardly be compared. It has been shown in vitro and in vivo in rodents that NPs can impair dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. Changes of neuronal morphology and neuronal death were reported in mice treated with NPs. NPs can also affect the respiratory chain of mitochondria and Bax protein levels, thereby causing apoptosis. Changes in expression of genes involved in redox pathways in mouse brain regions were described. NPs can induce autophagy, and accumulate in lysosomes impairing their degradation capacity. Cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking may also be affected. NPs treated animals showed neuroinflammation with microglia activation, which could induce neurodegeneration. Considering the available data, it is important to design adequate models and experimental systems to evaluate in a reliable and controlled fashion the effects of NPs on the brain, and generate data representative of effects on the human brain, thereby useful for developing robust and valid nanosafety standards. PMID:24820405

  3. How brains make decisions

    E-print Network

    V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette

    2014-07-22

    This chapter, dedicated to the memory of Mino Freund, summarizes the Quantum Decision Theory (QDT) that we have developed in a series of publications since 2008. We formulate a general mathematical scheme of how decisions are taken, using the point of view of psychological and cognitive sciences, without touching physiological aspects. The basic principles of how intelligence acts are discussed. The human brain processes involved in decisions are argued to be principally different from straightforward computer operations. The difference lies in the conscious-subconscious duality of the decision making process and the role of emotions that compete with utility optimization. The most general approach for characterizing the process of decision making, taking into account the conscious-subconscious duality, uses the framework of functional analysis in Hilbert spaces, similarly to that used in the quantum theory of measurements. This does not imply that the brain is a quantum system, but just allows for the simplest and most general extension of classical decision theory. The resulting theory of quantum decision making, based on the rules of quantum measurements, solves all paradoxes of classical decision making, allowing for quantitative predictions that are in excellent agreement with experiments. Finally, we provide a novel application by comparing the predictions of QDT with experiments on the prisoner dilemma game. The developed theory can serve as a guide for creating artificial intelligence acting by quantum rules.

  4. Brain tumors and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brogna, Christian; Gil Robles, Santiago; Duffau, Hugues

    2008-06-01

    When treating patients harboring a brain tumor, it is mandatory to integrate the dogmas of epilepsy into a neuro-oncological viewpoint. The frequency of seizures differs widely between low- and high-grade tumors because of different mechanisms of epileptogenesis. The modern theories of pathological neural networks, especially in low-grade gliomas, can provide the key for an in-depth understanding of the principles of connectionism that underline both seizures, cognitive impairment and plasticity. It is a consuetude that principles of general management of patients with nontumor-related epilepsy are applied to neuro-oncology. Nevertheless, since tumors are complex evolving lesions requiring a multidisciplinary treatment approach (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy), it is mandatory to have a comprehensive view of the natural history of each lesion when choosing the best antiepileptic drug. More than two thirds of patients with brain tumors and medically intractable epilepsy benefit from (sub)total surgical resection. Therefore, these patients are good surgical candidates both for oncological and epileptological considerations, in order to change the natural history of the lesion and to improve the quality of life at the same time. However, 15% of patients still have intractable medical seizures after surgery. Moreover, the insula may participate more often than usually considered in (intractable) seizures. Therefore, in these patients, invasive EEG recordings and eventually a second epilepsy surgery might be proposed. PMID:18505359

  5. Cancer around the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grisold, Wolfgang; Grisold, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuro-oncologists are familiar with primary brain tumors, intracerebral metastases meningeal carcinomatosis and extracerebral intracranial tumors as meningeoma. For these conditions, and also some other rare tumor entities several treatment options exist. Cancer can also involve structures around the brain as the dura, the base of the skull, the cavities of the skull and tissue around the bony skull, the skin, the tissue of the neck. and either compress, invade or spread in the central or peripheral nervous system. Methods A systematic literature research was conducted determining symptoms and signs, tumor sites of nerve invasion, tumor types, diagnostic techniques, mechanisms of nerve invasion, and important differential diagnosis. Additional cases from own experience were added for illustration. Results The mechanisms of tumor invasion of cranial nerves is heterogenous and not only involves several types of invasion, but also spread along the cranial nerves in antero- and retrograde fashion and even spread into different nerve territories via anastomosis. In addition the concept of angiosomas may have an influence on the spread of metastases. Conclusion In addition to the well described tumor spread in meningeal carcinomatosis and base of the skull metastases, dural spread, lesions of the bony skull, the cavities of the skull and skin of the face and tissue of the neck region need to be considered, and have an impact on therapeutic decisions.

  6. Learned self-regulation of the lesioned brain with epidural electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Gharabaghi, Alireza; Naros, Georgios; Khademi, Fatemeh; Jesser, Jessica; Spüler, Martin; Walter, Armin; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Birbaumer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Different techniques for neurofeedback of voluntary brain activations are currently being explored for clinical application in brain disorders. One of the most frequently used approaches is the self-regulation of oscillatory signals recorded with electroencephalography (EEG). Many patients are, however, unable to achieve sufficient voluntary control of brain activity. This could be due to the specific anatomical and physiological changes of the patient’s brain after the lesion, as well as to methodological issues related to the technique chosen for recording brain signals. Methods: A patient with an extended ischemic lesion of the cortex did not gain volitional control of sensorimotor oscillations when using a standard EEG-based approach. We provided him with neurofeedback of his brain activity from the epidural space by electrocorticography (ECoG). Results: Ipsilesional epidural recordings of field potentials facilitated self-regulation of brain oscillations in an online closed-loop paradigm and allowed reliable neurofeedback training for a period of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Epidural implants may decode and train brain activity even when the cortical physiology is distorted following severe brain injury. Such practice would allow for reinforcement learning of preserved neural networks and may well provide restorative tools for those patients who are severely afflicted. PMID:25538591

  7. Genetics of human brain oscillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz

    2006-01-01

    In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms

  8. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lorger, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

  9. Circulating neprilysin clears brain amyloid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinxing; Studzinski, Christa; Beckett, Tina; Murphy, M Paul; Klein, Ronald L; Hersh, Louis B

    2010-10-01

    The use of the peptidase neprilysin (NEP) as a therapeutic for lowering brain amyloid burden is receiving increasing attention. We have previously demonstrated that peripheral expression of NEP on the surface of hindlimb muscle lowers brain amyloid burden in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In this study we now show that using adeno-associated virus expressing a soluble secreted form of NEP (secNEP-AAV8), NEP secreted into plasma is effective in clearing brain Abeta. Soluble NEP expression in plasma was sustained over the 3-month time period it was measured. Secreted NEP decreased plasma Abeta by 30%, soluble brain Abeta by approximately 28%, insoluble brain Abeta by approximately 55%, and Abeta oligomersby 12%. This secNEP did not change plasma levels of substance P or bradykinin, nor did it alter blood pressure. No NEP was detected in CSF, nor did the AAV virus produce brain expression of NEP. Thus the lowering of brain Abeta was due to plasma NEP which altered blood-brain Abeta transport dynamics. Expressing NEP in plasma provides a convenient way to monitor enzyme activity during the course of its therapeutic testing. PMID:20558294

  10. Circulating Neprilysin Clears Brain Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinxing; Studzinski, Christa; Beckett, Tina; Murphy, M. Paul; Klein, Ronald L.; Hersh, Louis B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of the peptidase neprilysin (NEP) as a therapeutic for lowering brain amyloid burden is receiving increasing attention. We have previously demonstrated that peripheral expression of NEP on the surface of hindlimb muscle lowers brain amyloid burden in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study we now show that using adeno-associated virus expressing a soluble secreted form of NEP (secNEP-AAV8), NEP secreted into plasma is effective in clearing brain A?. Soluble NEP expression in plasma was sustained over the 3-month time period it was measured. Secreted NEP decreased plasma A? by 30%, soluble brain A? by ~28%, insoluble brain A? by ~55%, and A? oligomers by 12%. This secNEP did not change plasma levels of substance P or bradykinin, nor did it alter blood pressure. No NEP was detected in CSF, nor did the AAV virus produce brain expression of NEP. Thus the lowering of brain A? was due to plasma NEP which altered blood-brain A? transport dynamics. Expressing NEP in plasma provides a convenient way to monitor enzyme activity during the course of its therapeutic testing. PMID:20558294

  11. STRUCTURAL MRI AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    for periods of up to ten years. Image processing algorithms were then applied to recover detailed information reveal unsuspected links between development and cognition, and can help discover genetic and maturation. This leads to a human brain with around 100 billion neurons at birth. A newborn child's brain

  12. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  13. CAMPAIGN FOR SALK DYNAMIC BRAIN

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    for Salk will take place a day after the 58th anniversary of Jonas SCAMPAIGN FOR SALK CANCER DYNAMIC BRAIN GENOMIC MEDICINE HEALTHY AGING CAMPAIGN FOR SALK CANCER DYNAMIC BRAIN GENOMIC MEDICINE HEALTHY AGING Where cures begin. Salk Institute 3 |13 #12;March 2013 Inside

  14. Evolution in the Social Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. M. Dunbar; Susanne Shultz

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of unusually large brains in some groups of animals, notably primates, has long been a puzzle. Although early explanations tended to emphasize the brain's role in sensory or technical competence (foraging skills, innovations, and way-finding), the balance of evidence now clearly favors the suggestion that it was the computational demands of living in large, complex societies that selected

  15. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  16. How Minds Work Brains, Ontologies &

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    have control structures, that is, minds #12;Brains, Ontologies & Virtual Machines 11 Mind and Information · Minds are control systems · Control systems must produce, process and use information? (procedural control) #12;Brains, Ontologies & Virtual Machines 12 Minds as Virtual Machines · Not every

  17. Brain aging: The zinc connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Bertoni-Freddari; Patrizia Fattoretti; Tiziana Casoli; Giuseppina Di Stefano; Belinda Giorgetti; Marta Balietti

    2008-01-01

    At variance with other organs, where the functional and structural units are repeated, the brain is a composite assembly of groups of cells with different metabolic features and functional units. Deterioration of brain function occurs when the number of neurons or their connections decrease below a critical reserve level and coping with environmental stimulation is seriously hampered. Physiopathological alterations of

  18. Sonography of the Neonatal Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci B. Fox

    2009-01-01

    Neurosonography is a critical part of the care of the sick newborn. Sonography is superior to other modalities in imaging of the brain because it can be performed at the bedside, is easily reproducible, and does not require ionizing radiation or sedation. This article refreshes the sonographer in the normal anatomy and appearance of the neonatal brain using sonography, as

  19. Maximizing Teaching through Brain Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattridge, Gregory C.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers and parents who read about the brain on the Internet should do so critically to determine fact from opinion. Are the assertions real about certain methods/strategies that claim to be based on brain research? Will they make a difference in their teaching and in achievement levels? Turning theory into fact take time and replication of solid…

  20. Brain Development: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difference between brain development in a child versus learning an adult is a matter of degree: the brain is ... the time their deprivation ends. Similarly, songbirds normally learn their species-typical songs early in life, by listening to adults of the same species. However, when newly hatched ...

  1. Sustainability and International Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reisdorph, David

    This paper describes the need for courses that link standards and sustainability and reviews an Oklahoma State University Environmental Science graduate course in Sustainability and International Standards. The course conveys the importance of voluntary international standards, such as from ASTM International or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to sustainability. The curriculum uses an innovative experiential learning approach whereby students research and develop a standard using the ASTM International process. One driven student joined ASTM International and worked to see her class project catalyze the publication of ASTM E 2348 Guide for Framework for a Consensus-Based Environmental Decision-Making Process.

  2. Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/BrainInjuryInSeniors . Participating Organizations • Administration on Aging • American Occupational Therapy Association • Brain Injury Association of America • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ...

  3. [Cellular metabolism, temperature and brain injury].

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, T; Vigué, B

    2009-04-01

    Brain temperature is strongly linked to brain metabolic rate. In the brain, energy metabolism is mainly oxidative. The oxidative metabolism and heat production are therefore strongly related. In normal conditions, heat production consecutive to brain energy metabolism is counterbalanced by heat loss, by using a complex heat exchange system. After major cerebral injuries as subarachnoid haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury, cerebral temperature can often exceed systemic temperature. Moreover, brain temperature can vary independently to systemic temperature, making difficult the prediction of brain temperature from other central temperatures. Mitochondrial dysfunction is probably the corner stone of these post-injury perturbations of brain temperature. Understanding of this phenomenon remains however not complete. PMID:19303246

  4. National Science Foundation: Brain Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsors a great deal of research on neuroengineering that may affect how we understand conditions such as epilepsy. This website explores some of those innovations and visitors can watch videos and view examples of how different technologies are being used to understand the brain's operations. The site contains five sections, including Exploring the Neuro-realm and Beyond the Brain. Visitors can learn about electronic tattoos that can monitor the brain, heart and muscles, along with remarkable innovations such as artificial retinas and lasers that can manipulate neural signaling. Additionally, the site includes a short video that explores the complexities and promise of brain research through the insights of three engineers. The site is rounded out by a clutch of related websites, including the NSF Understanding the Brain and brainfacts.org.

  5. [Regulation of brain microvessel function].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Yokoo, Hiroki; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Wada, Akihiko

    2002-05-01

    The brain microvessels are formed by a specialized endothelium and regulate the movement of solutes between blood and brain. The endothelial cells are sealed together by tight junctions and play a role as the blood-brain barrier. The brain microvessels express GLUT1 as the major form of glucose transporter, aquaporin-4 as a water channel, and p-glycoprotein as a xenobiotic transporter. Occludin and claudin-5 have been identified as the components of tight junction. Increasing evidence suggests that the activities of the transporters are regulated by adrenergic nerve activity as well as by bioactive peptides such as adrenomedullin. The regulation of the activity as well as expression of these transporters may become a strategy for prophylaxis and treatment of not only cerebral vascular diseases but also neurodegenerative disorders, developmental abnormalities and aging of the brain. PMID:12061139

  6. The Basics of Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the basic stages and mechanisms of mammalian brain development. Studies elucidating the neurobiology of brain development span the levels of neural organization from the macroanatomic, to the cellular, to the molecular. Together this large body of work provides a picture of brain development as the product of a complex series of dynamic and adaptive processes operating within a highly constrained, genetically organized but constantly changing context. The view of brain development that has emerged from the developmental neurobiology literature presents both challenges and opportunities to psychologists seeking to understand the fundamental processes that underlie social and cognitive development, and the neural systems that mediate them. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of some very basic principles of brain development, drawn from contemporary developmental neurobiology, that may be of use to investigators from a wide range of disciplines. PMID:21042938

  7. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. (Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  8. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Chiang; Sandberg, David I.; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Johnson, Mahlon; Oh, Sanghoon; Ragheb, John

    2010-11-01

    The concept of using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to distinguish intraoperatively between pediatric brain tumors and normal brain parenchyma at the edge of resection cavities is evaluated using an in vivo human study. Diffuse reflectance spectra are acquired from normal and tumorous brain areas of 12 pediatric patients during their tumor resection procedures, using a spectroscopic system with a handheld optical probe. A total of 400 spectra are acquired at the rate of 33 Hz from a single investigated site, from which the mean spectrum and the standard deviation are calculated. The mean diffuse reflectance spectra collected are divided into the normal and the tumorous categories in accordance with their corresponding results of histological analysis. Statistical methods are used to identify those spectral features that effectively separated the two tissue categories, and to quantify the spectral variations induced by the motion of the handheld probe during a single spectral acquisition procedure. The results show that diffuse reflectance spectral intensities between 600 and 800 nm are effective in terms of differentiating normal cortex from brain tumors. Furthermore, probe movements induce large variations in spectral intensities (i.e., larger standard deviation) between 400 and 600 nm.

  9. BrainBrowser: distributed, web-based neurological data visualization.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Tarek; Kassis, Nicolas; Rousseau, Marc-Étienne; Adalat, Reza; Evans, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen massive, distributed datasets become the norm in neuroimaging research, and the methodologies used to analyze them have, in response, become more collaborative and exploratory. Tools and infrastructure are continuously being developed and deployed to facilitate research in this context: grid computation platforms to process the data, distributed data stores to house and share them, high-speed networks to move them around and collaborative, often web-based, platforms to provide access to and sometimes manage the entire system. BrainBrowser is a lightweight, high-performance JavaScript visualization library built to provide easy-to-use, powerful, on-demand visualization of remote datasets in this new research environment. BrainBrowser leverages modern web technologies, such as WebGL, HTML5 and Web Workers, to visualize 3D surface and volumetric neuroimaging data in any modern web browser without requiring any browser plugins. It is thus trivial to integrate BrainBrowser into any web-based platform. BrainBrowser is simple enough to produce a basic web-based visualization in a few lines of code, while at the same time being robust enough to create full-featured visualization applications. BrainBrowser can dynamically load the data required for a given visualization, so no network bandwidth needs to be waisted on data that will not be used. BrainBrowser's integration into the standardized web platform also allows users to consider using 3D data visualization in novel ways, such as for data distribution, data sharing and dynamic online publications. BrainBrowser is already being used in two major online platforms, CBRAIN and LORIS, and has been used to make the 1TB MACACC dataset openly accessible. PMID:25628562

  10. BrainBrowser: distributed, web-based neurological data visualization

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Tarek; Kassis, Nicolas; Rousseau, Marc-Étienne; Adalat, Reza; Evans, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen massive, distributed datasets become the norm in neuroimaging research, and the methodologies used to analyze them have, in response, become more collaborative and exploratory. Tools and infrastructure are continuously being developed and deployed to facilitate research in this context: grid computation platforms to process the data, distributed data stores to house and share them, high-speed networks to move them around and collaborative, often web-based, platforms to provide access to and sometimes manage the entire system. BrainBrowser is a lightweight, high-performance JavaScript visualization library built to provide easy-to-use, powerful, on-demand visualization of remote datasets in this new research environment. BrainBrowser leverages modern web technologies, such as WebGL, HTML5 and Web Workers, to visualize 3D surface and volumetric neuroimaging data in any modern web browser without requiring any browser plugins. It is thus trivial to integrate BrainBrowser into any web-based platform. BrainBrowser is simple enough to produce a basic web-based visualization in a few lines of code, while at the same time being robust enough to create full-featured visualization applications. BrainBrowser can dynamically load the data required for a given visualization, so no network bandwidth needs to be waisted on data that will not be used. BrainBrowser's integration into the standardized web platform also allows users to consider using 3D data visualization in novel ways, such as for data distribution, data sharing and dynamic online publications. BrainBrowser is already being used in two major online platforms, CBRAIN and LORIS, and has been used to make the 1TB MACACC dataset openly accessible. PMID:25628562

  11. Multi-Coil Shimming of the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Juchem, Christoph; Brown, Peter B.; Nixon, Terence W.; McIntyre, Scott; Rothman, Douglas L.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    MR imaging and spectroscopy allow the non-invasive measurement of brain function and physiology, but excellent magnetic field homogeneity is required for meaningful results. The homogenization of the magnetic field distribution in the mouse brain (i.e. shimming) is a difficult task due to complex susceptibility-induced field distortions combined with the small size of the object. To date, the achievement of satisfactory whole brain shimming in the mouse remains a major challenge. The magnetic fields generated by a set of 48 circular coils (diameter 13 mm) that were arranged in a cylinder-shaped pattern of 32 mm diameter and driven with individual dynamic current ranges of ±1 A are shown to be capable of substantially reducing the field distortions encountered in the mouse brain at 9.4 Tesla. Static multi-coil shim fields allowed the reduction of the standard deviation of Larmor frequencies by 31% compared to second order spherical harmonics shimming and a 66% narrowing was achieved with the slice-specific application of the multi-coil shimming with a dynamic approach. For gradient echo imaging, multi-coil shimming minimized shim-related signal voids in the brain periphery and allowed overall signal gains of up to 51% compared to spherical harmonics shimming. PMID:21442653

  12. Gene expression profiling of the brain: pondering facts and fiction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Amanda C.; Mirnics, Károly

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade brain transcriptome profiling by DNA microarrays has matured, developed sound experimental design standards, reporting practices, analytical procedures, and data sharing resources. It has become a powerful scientific tool in the exploratory research portfolio. Along this journey by trial and error, we encountered a number of intriguing questions and comments - pondering the value of hypothesis-driven research, appropriate sample size, the importance and interpretation of transcripts changes vis-à-vis protein changes, the role of statistical stringency, false discovery and magnitude of expression change, and many other interesting questions. Our field fully acknowledges and tries to address all of these challenges associated with high-throughput, data-driven transcriptomics. As a research field, we strongly advocate implementing the highest standards of our trade, and we deeply believe that transcriptome profiling studies will continue to be essential for deciphering the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to complex brain disorders. PMID:21689753

  13. Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Minbiao; Orringer, Daniel A.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Liu, Xiaohui; Lau, Darryl; Golby, Alexandra J.; Norton, Isaiah; Hayashi, Marika; Agar, Nathalie Y.R.; Young, Geoffrey S.; Spino, Cathie; Santagata, Sandro; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ligon, Keith L.; Sagher, Oren; Xie, X. Sunney

    2013-01-01

    Surgery is an essential component in the treatment of brain tumors. However, delineating tumor from normal brain remains a major challenge. Here we describe the use of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy for differentiating healthy human and mouse brain tissue from tumor-infiltrated brain based on histoarchitectural and biochemical differences. Unlike traditional histopathology, SRS is a label-free technique that can be rapidly performed in situ. SRS microscopy was able to differentiate tumor from non-neoplastic tissue in an infiltrative human glioblastoma xenograft mouse model based on their different Raman spectra. We further demonstrated a correlation between SRS and H&E microscopy for detection of glioma infiltration (?=0.98). Finally, we applied SRS microscopy in vivo in mice during surgery to reveal tumor margins that were undetectable under standard operative conditions. By providing rapid intraoperative assessment of brain tissue, SRS microscopy may ultimately improve the safety and accuracy of surgeries where tumor boundaries are visually indistinct. PMID:24005159

  14. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  15. NDTA narcotics standard development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

  16. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  17. [Acoustic thermometry of the patient brain with traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Anosov, A A; Balashov, I S; Beliaev, R V; Vilkov, V A; Garskov, R V; Kazanski?, A S; Mansfel'd, A D; Shcherbakov, M I

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive deep brain acoustic thermometry is carried out for two patients at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute. This method is based on the measurements of the own thermal acoustic radiation of the investigated object. These two patients have got the brain injury. Some of their skull bones are absent. Infrared thermometry was also used to measure the surface temperature of the forehead skin. On the basis of the experimental data the temperatures deep within the brain were reconstructed. The values for the two patients are equal to 37.3 0.7 and 37.0 0.3 degrees C. PMID:25715599

  18. CAD Standards Guideline rev July 28, 2011 CAD Standards Guideline

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Stephen José

    CAD Standards Guideline rev July 28, 2011 1 CAD Standards;CAD Standards Guideline rev July 28, 2011 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION (pg.3) CAD Standards Survey/GIS Standards Design Standards 1.0.0 CAD STANDARDS CHECKLIST (pg.4) 2.0.0 CAD

  19. The culture ready brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409

  20. Mind, brain, and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dalton, R; Forman, M A

    1994-01-01

    The question of how the mind and brain are related has interested philosophers and scientists for over 20 centuries. Psychiatry has approached this question indirectly, from the standpoint of trying to correlate mental and physical functioning. Recent neurobiological advances may help to resolve the mind-body dichotomy. In this paper we review one particular neurobiologically based theory, the theory of neuronal group selection as proposed by Gerald Edelman. We describe the applicability of this theory to the clinical issues of attachment, character pathology, and depression to show how biological and psychological hypotheses of behavior can be assimilated into an integrated approach. We also briefly discuss limitations of Edelman's model, as well as alternative concepts in artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and quantum theory. PMID:9384894