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Localization of MDMA-induced brain activity in healthy volunteers using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).  


3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') is a psychostimulant drug producing heightened mood and facilitated social communication. In animal studies, MDMA effects are primarily mediated by serotonin (5-HT), but also by dopamine (DA) and possibly noradrenaline (NA). In humans, however, the neurochemical and neurophysiological basis of acute MDMA effects remains unknown. The distribution of active neuronal populations after administration of a single dose of MDMA (1.7 mg/kg) or placebo was studied in 16 healthy, MDMA-naïve volunteers. Thirty-one-channel scalp EEGs during resting with open and closed eyes was analyzed in the different EEG frequency bands. Scalp maps of power showed significant, global differences between MDMA and placebo in both eye conditions and all frequency bands. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to compute 3D, functional images of electric neuronal activity from the scalp EEG data. MDMA produced a widespread decrease of slow and medium frequency activity and an increase of fast frequency activity in the anterior temporal and posterior orbital cortex, concomitant with a marked enhancement of mood, emotional arousal and increased extraversion. This activation of frontotemporal areas indicates that the observed enhancement of mood and possibly the increased extroversion rely on modulation of limbic orbitofrontal and anterotemporal structures known to be involved in emotional processes. Comparison of the MDMA-specific EEG pattern with that of various 5-HT, DA, and NA agonists indicates that serotonin, noradrenaline, and, to a lesser degree, dopamine, contribute to the effects of MDMA on EEG, and possibly also on mood and behavior. PMID:11559960

Frei, E; Gamma, A; Pascual-Marqui, R; Lehmann, D; Hell, D; Vollenweider, F X



Global field power and low resolution electromagnetic tomography solutions in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain electrophysiological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were investigated by global field power (GFP) and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). GFP measures the energy of the brain electric field. LORETA computes for the smoothest of all possible source configurations throughout the brain volume by minimizing the total source strengths. The study population included a total of 29 AD patients and 15

Masafumi Yoshimura; Hailing Zhang; Toshiaki Isotani; Chiharu Tamagaki; Tsunetaka Yoshida; Masao Sugiyama; Tatsuya Sugimoto; Takami Yagyu; Masahiro Nagata; Toshihiko Kinoshita



IRAS Low Resolution Spectra of Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical/near-infrared studies of asteroids are based on reflected sunlight and surface albedo variations create broad spectral features, suggestive of families of materials. There is a significant literature on these features, but there is very little work in the thermal infrared that directly probes the materials emitting on the surfaces of asteroids. We have searched for and extracted 534 thermal spectra of 245 asteroids from the original Dutch (Groningen) archive of spectra observed by the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). We find that, in general, the observed shapes of the spectral continua are inconsistent with that predicted by the standard thermal model used by IRAS. Thermal models such as proposed by Harris (1998) and Harris et al.(1998) for the near-earth asteroids with the "beaming parameter" in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 best represent the observed spectral shapes. This implies that the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS, Tedesco, 1992) and the Supplementary IMPS (SIMPS, Tedesco, et al., 2002) derived asteroid diameters are systematically underestimated, and the albedos are overestimated. We have tentatively identified several spectral features that appear to be diagnostic of at least families of materials. The variation of spectral features with taxonomic class hints that thermal infrared spectra can be a valuable tool for taxonomic classification of asteroids.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.



Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)



The hemispheres of the brain and the learning of standard and non?standard analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students of mathematics in the first term studied calculus in two parallel courses. One course was in the standard approach, while the other was based on the non?standard (Robinson) approach. The students participated in tests of the brain's hemispheres. The scores of both mathematical courses and the results of the hemispheric tests were correlated. The results show that the standard

Uri Fidelman



THz Low Resolution Spectroscopy for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The THz spectral regime provides a wide range of spectral lines that are invaluable probes of star formation and AGN activity in galaxies both in the local Universe and at the earliest times. We review the utility of these lines, give examples of the science they deliver, and detail the properties of successful low resolution direct detection spectrometers for work in the THz regime. We finish with a discussion of the exciting new science we expect with the next direct detection generation spectrometers on new facilities such as SOFIA, CCAT, SPICA, and ALMA.

Stacey, Gordon J.



Low-resolution structure of Drosophila translin.  


Crystals of native Drosophila melanogaster translin diffracted to 7 Å resolution. Reductive methylation of the protein improved crystal quality. The native and methylated proteins showed similar profiles in size-exclusion chromatography analyses but the methylated protein displayed reduced DNA-binding activity. Crystals of the methylated protein diffracted to 4.2 Å resolution at BM14 of the ESRF synchrotron. Crystals with 49% solvent content belonged to monoclinic space group P21 with eight protomers in the asymmetric unit. Only 2% of low-resolution structures with similar low percentage solvent content were found in the PDB. The crystal structure, solved by molecular replacement method, refined to R work (R free) of 0.24 (0.29) with excellent stereochemistry. The crystal structure clearly shows that drosophila protein exists as an octamer, and not as a decamer as expected from gel-filtration elution profiles. The similar octameric quaternary fold in translin orthologs and in translin-TRAX complexes suggests an up-down dimer as the basic structural subunit of translin-like proteins. The drosophila oligomer displays asymmetric assembly and increased radius of gyration that accounts for the observed differences between the elution profiles of human and drosophila proteins on gel-filtration columns. This study demonstrates clearly that low-resolution X-ray structure can be useful in understanding complex biological oligomers. PMID:23650579

Kumar, Vinay; Gupta, Gagan D



Low-resolution structure of Drosophila translin  

PubMed Central

Crystals of native Drosophila melanogaster translin diffracted to 7 Å resolution. Reductive methylation of the protein improved crystal quality. The native and methylated proteins showed similar profiles in size-exclusion chromatography analyses but the methylated protein displayed reduced DNA-binding activity. Crystals of the methylated protein diffracted to 4.2 Å resolution at BM14 of the ESRF synchrotron. Crystals with 49% solvent content belonged to monoclinic space group P21 with eight protomers in the asymmetric unit. Only 2% of low-resolution structures with similar low percentage solvent content were found in the PDB. The crystal structure, solved by molecular replacement method, refined to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.24 (0.29) with excellent stereochemistry. The crystal structure clearly shows that drosophila protein exists as an octamer, and not as a decamer as expected from gel-filtration elution profiles. The similar octameric quaternary fold in translin orthologs and in translin–TRAX complexes suggests an up-down dimer as the basic structural subunit of translin-like proteins. The drosophila oligomer displays asymmetric assembly and increased radius of gyration that accounts for the observed differences between the elution profiles of human and drosophila proteins on gel-filtration columns. This study demonstrates clearly that low-resolution X-ray structure can be useful in understanding complex biological oligomers. PMID:23650579

Kumar, Vinay; Gupta, Gagan D.



Estimating Velocity Fields on a Freeway from Low Resolution Video  

E-print Network

Estimating Velocity Fields on a Freeway from Low Resolution Video Young Cho Abstract-- We present an algorithm to estimate velocity fields from low resolution video recordings images, it is directly applicable to a compressed format digital video stream, such as mpeg, from

Rice, John


Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography  

PubMed Central

Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7?Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed. PMID:25195739

Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.



Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases.  


Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID:25309417

Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A; Boline, Jyl



Cyberinfrastructure for the digital brain: spatial standards for integrating rodent brain atlases  

PubMed Central

Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project. PMID:25309417

Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A.; Boline, Jyl



Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.



Diffraction theory of optimized low-resolution Fresnel encoded lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model describing the behavior of low-resolution Fresnel encoded lenses (LRFEL's) encoded in any low-resolution device (e.g., a spatial light modulator) has recently been developed. From this model, an LRFEL with a short focal length was optimized by our imposing the maximum intensity of light onto the optical axis. With this model, analytical expressions for the light-amplitude distribution, the diffraction efficiency, and the frequency response of the optimized LRFEL's are derived.

Carcolé, E.; Juvells, I.; Moneo, J. R. De F.; Campos, J.



IRAS catalogues and atlases - Atlas of low-resolution spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present plots of all 5425 spectra in the IRAS catalogue of low-resolution spectra. The LRS catalogue contains the average spectra of most IRAS point sources with 12 mum flux densities above 10 Jy. More than 95 percent of the LRS sources are stars, most of them with circumstellar envelopes.

F. M. Olnon; E. Raimond; G. Neugebauer; R. J. van Duinen; H. J. Habing; H. H. Aumann; D. A. Beintema; N. Boggess; J. Borgman; P. E. Clegg; F. C. Gillett; M. G. Hauser; J. R. Houck; R. E. Jennings; T. de Jong; F. J. Low; P. L. Marsden; S. R. Pottasch; B. T. Soifer; R. G. Walker; J. P. Emerson; M. Rowan-Robinson; P. R. Wesselius; B. Baud; C. A. Beichman; T. N. Gautier; S. Harris; G. K. Miley; E. Young



Human mobility monitoring in very low resolution visual sensor network.  


This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels). The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics. PMID:25375754

Bo, Nyan Bo; Deboeverie, Francis; Eldib, Mohamed; Guan, Junzhi; Xie, Xingzhe; Niño, Jorge; Van Haerenborgh, Dirk; Slembrouck, Maarten; Van de Velde, Samuel; Steendam, Heidi; Veelaert, Peter; Kleihorst, Richard; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried



Super-resolution enhancement technique for low resolution video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super-resolution enhancement is the technique of increasing spatial resolution of an image from the image itself or from several noisy images of the same scene but with additional information such as motion. This paper presents a kernel regression approach to reconstruct a high resolution image from several low resolution video frames. In many applications including cell phone and webcam the

Mohammad Moinul Islam; Vijayan K. Asari; Mohammed Nazrul Islam; Mohammad Karim



Very low resolution disperser of CHEOPS NIR integral field spectrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) of CHEOPS, the 2nd generation VLT instrument for planet finding, will attain a very low resolution (R=15) in order to search for cold (and warm) planets in stellar neighbourhood. This will allow to exploit wide band integral field spectroscopy to perform differential photometry. The complete description of CHEOPS IFS is given as a separate contribution

Riccardo U. Claudi; Silvio Buson; Silvano Desidera; Massimo Turatto; Raffaele Gratton; Jacopo Antichi



Estimating Velocity Fields on a Freeway from Low Resolution Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm to estimate velocity fields from low resolution video recordings. The algorithm does not attempt to identify and track individual vehicles, nor does it attempt to estimate derivatives of the field of pixel intensities. Rather, we compress a frame by obtaining an intensity profile in each lane along the direction of traffic flow. The speed estimate is

Young Cho; John Rice


Low resolution mapping of Comet Halley in the near infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present low resolution maps, of a four by one half arcminute region, of comet Halley, in photometric bands J and K, and central scan in the H band, taken with the 1.5 m Sanchez-Magro Infrared Flux Collector of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, situated in its Observatorio del Teide. They obtain central and integral magnitudes and colours and discuss its variation with distance from the nucleus.

Lazaro, C.; Garzon, F.; Jesuarevalo, M.



Low-Resolution Face Recognition via Coupled Locality Preserving Mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical face recognition systems are sometimes confronted with low-resolution face images. Traditional two-step methods solve this problem through employing super-resolution (SR). However, these methods usually have limited performance because the target of SR is not absolutely consistent with that of face recognition. Moreover, time-consuming sophisticated SR algorithms are not suitable for real-time applications. To avoid these limitations, we propose a

Bo Li; Hong Chang; Shiguang Shan; Xilin Chen



The BrainMap strategy for standardization, sharing, and meta-analysis of neuroimaging data  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroimaging researchers have developed rigorous community data and metadata standards that encourage meta-analysis as a method for establishing robust and meaningful convergence of knowledge of human brain structure and function. Capitalizing on these standards, the BrainMap project offers databases, software applications, and other associated tools for supporting and promoting quantitative coordinate-based meta-analysis of the structural and functional neuroimaging literature. Findings In this report, we describe recent technical updates to the project and provide an educational description for performing meta-analyses in the BrainMap environment. Conclusions The BrainMap project will continue to evolve in response to the meta-analytic needs of biomedical researchers in the structural and functional neuroimaging communities. Future work on the BrainMap project regarding software and hardware advances are also discussed. PMID:21906305



Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements  

SciTech Connect

Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gunnink, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G. [Ulba Metallurgical Facility, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)



Detecting aircraft with a low-resolution infrared sensor.  


Existing computer simulations of aircraft infrared signature (IRS) do not account for dispersion induced by uncertainty on input data, such as aircraft aspect angles and meteorological conditions. As a result, they are of little use to estimate the detection performance of IR optronic systems; in this case, the scenario encompasses a lot of possible situations that must be indeed addressed, but cannot be singly simulated. In this paper, we focus on low-resolution infrared sensors and we propose a methodological approach for predicting simulated IRS dispersion of poorly known aircraft and performing aircraft detection on the resulting set of low-resolution infrared images. It is based on a sensitivity analysis, which identifies inputs that have negligible influence on the computed IRS and can be set at a constant value, on a quasi-Monte Carlo survey of the code output dispersion, and on a new detection test taking advantage of level sets estimation. This method is illustrated in a typical scenario, i.e., a daylight air-to-ground full-frontal attack by a generic combat aircraft flying at low altitude, over a database of 90,000 simulated aircraft images. Assuming a white noise or a fractional Brownian background model, detection performances are very promising. PMID:22588114

Jakubowicz, Jérémie; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Maire, Florian; Moulines, Eric



Low-Resolution Raman-Spectroscopy Combustion Thermometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of optical thermometry, now undergoing development, involves low-resolution measurement of the spectrum of spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) from N2 and O2 molecules. The method is especially suitable for measuring temperatures in high pressure combustion environments that contain N2, O2, or N2/O2 mixtures (including air). Methods based on SRS (in which scattered light is shifted in wavelength by amounts that depend on vibrational and rotational energy levels of laser-illuminated molecules) have been popular means of probing flames because they are almost the only methods that provide spatially and temporally resolved concentrations and temperatures of multiple molecular species in turbulent combustion. The present SRS-based method differs from prior SRS-based methods that have various drawbacks, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article. Two main differences between this and prior SRS-based methods are that it involves analysis in the frequency (equivalently, wavelength) domain, in contradistinction to analysis in the intensity domain in prior methods; and it involves low-resolution measurement of what amounts to predominantly the rotational Raman spectra of N2 and O2, in contradistinction to higher-resolution measurement of the vibrational Raman spectrum of N2 only in prior methods.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun



Automated lung segmentation of low resolution CT scans of rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual modality micro-CT and SPECT imaging can play an important role in preclinical studies designed to investigate mechanisms, progression, and therapies for acute lung injury in rats. SPECT imaging involves examining the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals within the lung, with the hypothesis that uptake is sensitive to the health or disease status of the lung tissue. Methods of quantifying lung uptake and comparison of right and left lung uptake generally begin with identifying and segmenting the lung region within the 3D reconstructed SPECT volume. However, identification of the lung boundaries and the fissure between the left and right lung is not always possible from the SPECT images directly since the radiopharmaceutical may be taken up by other surrounding tissues. Thus, our SPECT protocol begins with a fast CT scan, the lung boundaries are identified from the CT volume, and the CT region is coregistered with the SPECT volume to obtain the SPECT lung region. Segmenting rat lungs within the CT volume is particularly challenging due to the relatively low resolution of the images and the rat's unique anatomy. Thus, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm for low resolution micro-CT scans that utilizes depth maps to detect fissures on the surface of the lung volume. The fissure's surface location is in turn used to interpolate the fissure throughout the lung volume. Results indicate that the segmentation method results in left and right lung regions consistent with rat lung anatomy.

Rizzo, Benjamin M.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.



Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System. Phase II; 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and NOAA. As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. GSFC has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). Its main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a PC as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Duran, Steve; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)



Is there texture information in standard brain MRI?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a texture feature extraction method for MRI utilizing the recently developed multiwavelet theory. Texture based features are used in Eigenimage Filtering to enhance analysis results of tumor patient MRI studies. The steps of the proposed method are as follows: (1) Each original image is convolved with a Gaussian filter. This step suppresses the image noise. (2) Each of the resulting images is convolved with eight multiwavelet coefficient matrices. (3) The output of each filter is stored in a separate image (feature plane). This step generates features (images) in which texture information is enhanced. (4) Local energy of each feature is calculated by squaring the feature values. This step converts variance disparities into mean value differences and transforms large values of local pass- band energy into large image gray levels. (5) Eigenimage filter is applied to different sets of MRI images and the results are compared. First, it is applied to the conventional MRI images (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density weighted). Then, it is applied to the set consisting of these images and the texture feature images generated in the previous step for them. Finally, it is applied to four original images (three conventional and a non-conventional). (6) The eigenimages obtained in the previous step are compared. This step illustrates presence and significance of the texture information present in MRI and role of the proposed method in extracting these features. Applications of the proposed method to MRI studies of brain tumor patients illustrate that the method successfully extracts texture features which are useful in tumor segmentation and characterization.

Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Nezafat, Reza; Windham, Joe P.



Anatomic standardization: Linear scaling and nonlinear warping of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

An automated method was proposed for anatomic standardization of PET scans in three dimensions, which enabled objective intersubject and cross-group comparisons of functional brain images. The method involved linear scaling to correct for individual brain size and nonlinear warping to minimize regional anatomic variations among subjects. In the linear-scaling step, the anteroposterior length and width of the brain were measured on the PET images, and the brain height was estimated by a contour-matching procedure using the midsagittal plane. In the nonlinear warping step, individual gray matter locations were matched with those of a standard brain by maximizing correlation coefficients of regional profile curves determined between predefined stretching centers (predominantly in white matter) and the gray matter landmarks. The accuracy of the brain height estimation was compared with skull x-ray estimations, showing comparable accuracy and better reproducibility. Linear-scaling and nonlinear warping methods were validated using ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose and ({sup 15}O)water images. Regional anatomic variability on the glucose images was reduced markedly. The statistical significance of activation foci in paired water images was improved in both vibratory and visual activation paradigms. A group versus group comparison following the proposed anatomic standardization revealed highly significant glucose metabolic alterations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared with those of a normal control group. These results suggested that the method is well suited to both research and clinical settings and can facilitate pixel-by-pixel comparisons of PET images. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others




E-print Network

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBABILISTIC MAPS OF THE OCCIPITAL SULCI OF THE HUMAN BRAIN IN STANDARDIZED University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 Abstract--Developments in functional neuroimaging in nor mag- netic resonance images to investigate the morphological variation of the human occipital sulci

Iaria, Giuseppe



SciTech Connect

Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others



A grid-enabled web service for low-resolution crystal structure refinement  

PubMed Central

Deformable elastic network (DEN) restraints have proved to be a powerful tool for refining structures from low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data sets. Unfortunately, optimal refinement using DEN restraints requires extensive calculations and is often hindered by a lack of access to sufficient computational resources. The DEN web service presented here intends to provide structural biologists with access to resources for running computationally intensive DEN refinements in parallel on the Open Science Grid, the US cyberinfrastructure. Access to the grid is provided through a simple and intuitive web interface integrated into the SBGrid Science Portal. Using this portal, refinements combined with full parameter optimization that would take many thousands of hours on standard computational resources can now be completed in several hours. An example of the successful application of DEN restraints to the human Notch1 transcriptional complex using the grid resource, and summaries of all submitted refinements, are presented as justification. PMID:22349228

O'Donovan, Daniel J.; Stokes-Rees, Ian; Nam, Yunsun; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Schroder, Gunnar F.; Brunger, Axel T.; Sliz, Piotr



Investigating short wavelength correlated errors on low resolution mode altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although conventional radar altimetry products (Jason1, Jason2, LRM CRYOSAT2, etc) have a spatial resolution as high as 300 m, the observation of ocean scales smaller than 100 km is limited by the existence of a "spectral hump", i.e. a geographically coherent error. In the frame of the future altimetry missions (SAR for Cryosat -2 and Sentinel-3 missions and interferometry for the SWOT mission) it becomes crucial to investigate again and to better understand the signals obtained at small scales by conventional altimeter missions. Through an analysis of simulations, we show that heterogeneous backscattering scenes can result in the corruption of the altimeter waveforms and retracked parameters. The retrackers used in current ground processors cannot well fit the Brown model during backscattering events because this model has been designed for a homogeneous scene. The error is also propagated along-track because of the size and shape of the low resolution mode (LRM) disc-shaped footprint. The hump phenomenon is shown to be almost ubiquitous in the ocean, yet more intense at low latitudes and in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, where backscattering events are more frequent. Its overall signature could be a Gaussian-like random signal smooth for wavelengths smaller than 15 km, i.e. white noise on 1 Hz products. The analysis of current data from 5 altimetry missions highlights the influence of the instrument design and altitude, and the influence of the retracker used. The spectral hump is a systematic response to random events and it is possible to mitigate it with new processing. Simulations and geographically limited datasets from the synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) of Cryosat-2 show that the thin stripe-shaped synthetic footprint of SARM might be less sensitive to the artifact.

Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Dibarboure, Gérald; Labroue, Sylvie; Lasne, Yannick; Boy, François; Picot, Nicolas



Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun



How Low Can You Go? The Effect of Low Resolutions on Shot Types in Mobile TV  

E-print Network

How Low Can You Go? The Effect of Low Resolutions on Shot Types in Mobile TV Hendrik Knoche, John reports a study on how shot types used in regular broadcast television are affected when shown on mobile of mobile TV which is often viewed on small screens with low resolution has made TV content producers think

Sasse, Angela


Successful Treatment of Early Detected Trilateral Retinoblastoma Using Standard Infant Brain Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Trilateral retinoblastoma is characterized by the presence of retinoblastoma with an intracranial tumor. The incidence is low and prognosis poor. Due to the paucity of information regarding successful treatment, we report the case of a 6 month old female referred for leukocoria and found to have an associated suprasellar tumor and pineal enhancement. The patient, treated with standard infant brain tumor therapy, remains alive without signs of active disease 35 months after diagnosis; no surgery or irradiation was used. Early diagnosis of trilateral retinoblastoma may facilitate the use of less intensive therapeutic approaches and result in excellent outcomes in these patients. PMID:20658634

Wright, Karen D.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Patay, Zoltan; Gajjar, Amar; Wilson, Matthew W.; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos



Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping Using Standard CPMG Sequence In A Clinical Scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

Hnilicová, P.; Bittšanský, M.; Dobrota, D.




EPA Science Inventory

The report gives guidelines for interpreting the low resolution mass spectra (LRMS) of complex chemical mixtures, within the context of the EPA Level 1 Environmental Assessment Program. It discusses the principles underlying direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex mixtures,...


HeadLock : wide-range head pose estimation for low resolution video  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on data mining technologies to extract head pose information from low resolution video recordings. Head pose, as an approximation of gaze direction, is a key indicator of human behavior and interaction. ...

DeCamp, Philip (Philip James)



Automated measurement of redshifts from mid-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining accurate redshifts from mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution (R ˜ 100) spectroscopy is challenging because the wavelength resolution is too low to detect narrow lines in most cases. Yet, the number of degrees of freedom and diversity of spectral features are too high for regular spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting techniques to be convenient. Here we present a new SED-fitting-based routine for redshift determination that is optimized for MIR low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small-scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called maximum combined pseudo-likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML approach, the MCPL approach searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a 'pseudo-likelihood' (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of the MCPL approach are demonstrated by comparing its redshift estimates to those of the regular ML approach and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra from extragalactic sources at 0 < z < 3.7. The MCPL approach achieves a redshift accuracy ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 for 78 per cent of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68 per cent for the ML approach. The rate of outliers [?(z)/(1 + z) > 0.02] is 14 per cent for the MCPL approach and 22 per cent for the ML approach. ?2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalized combined PL (?) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depend strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by active galactic nucleus continua. Nevertheless, for a given ? the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent of their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a ? > 0.15 threshold retains 79 per cent of the sources with ?(z)/(1 + z) < 0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8 per cent.

Hernán Caballero, Antonio



xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures  

PubMed Central

X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7?Å resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electro­physiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP. PMID:25195748

McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus



Automatic hand-over animation for free-hand motions from low resolution input  

E-print Network

Automatic hand-over animation for free-hand motions from low resolution input Chris Kang1 , Nkenge of California, Davis Abstract. Hand-over animation is the process by which hand animation is added to existing quality free-hand mo- tion based on the capture of a specific, select small number of markers. Starting

Zordan, Victor



EPA Science Inventory

MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in a low resolution mass spectrum, has been found to be linearly correlated with the true molecular weights of 400 randomly selected spectra, yielding a family of parallel lines. imple exert system using MAXMASS h...



EPA Science Inventory

An empirical rule-based pattern recognition/expert system for classifying, estimating molecular weights and identifying low resolution mass spectra of toxic and other organic compounds has been developed and evaluated. he system was designed to accommodate low concentration spect...


Q-Dock: Low-resolution flexible ligand docking with pocket-specific threading restraints  

PubMed Central

The rapidly growing number of theoretically predicted protein structures requires robust methods that can utilize low-quality receptor structures as targets for ligand docking. Typically, docking accuracy falls off dramatically when apo or modeled receptors are used in docking experiments. Low-resolution ligand docking techniques have been developed to deal with structural inaccuracies in predicted receptor models. In this spirit, we describe the development and optimization of a knowledge-based potential implemented in Q-Dock, a low-resolution flexible ligand docking approach. Self-docking experiments using crystal structures reveals satisfactory accuracy, comparable with all-atom docking. All-atom models reconstructed from Q-Dock’s low-resolution models can be further refined by even a simple all-atom energy minimization. In decoy-docking against distorted receptor models with a root-mean-square deviation, RMSD, from native of ~3 Å, Q-Dock recovers on average 15–20% more specific contacts and 25–35% more binding residues than all-atom methods. To further improve docking accuracy against low-quality protein models, we propose a pocket-specific protein-ligand interaction potential derived from weakly homologous threading holo-templates. The success rate of Q-Dock employing a pocket-specific potential is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported for the Dolores method, another low-resolution docking approach. PMID:18293308

Brylinski, Michal; Skolnick, Jeffrey



Low-Resolution Reconstruction of a Synthetic DNA Holliday Junction Marcelo Nollmann,*y  

E-print Network

stable when within topologically constrained circular DNA. Cloned or synthe- sized short DNA segmentsLow-Resolution Reconstruction of a Synthetic DNA Holliday Junction Marcelo No¨llmann,*y W. Marshall of a Holliday (or four-way) DNA junction by using small- angle x-ray scattering, sedimentation velocity

Nollmann, Marcelo


Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.



Estimating Velocity Fields on a Freeway From Low-Resolution Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, We present an algorithm to estimate velocity fields from low resolution video recordings. The algorithm does not attempt to identify and track individual vehicles, nor does it attempt to estimate derivatives of the field of pixel intensities. Rather, we compress a frame by obtaining an intensity profile in each lane along the direction of traffic flow. The speed estimate

Young Cho; John Rice



Bounds for molecular weights of organic compounds from low resolution mass spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple empirical rules for determining the upper and lower limits to the molecular weight of organic compounds from low resolution mass spectra have been established and evaluated. The rules are based on the average of two easily determined spectral features, Maxmass and Himax1. The lower limit is this average less 5 Da and the upper limit is the average plus

Donald R. Scott



High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations  

E-print Network

High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

Melvin, Stephen


Integration of the antennal lobe glomeruli and three projection neurons in the standard brain atlas of the moth heliothis virescens.  


Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases (SBAs) are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, SBAs of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes (ALs) of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens SBA exclusively included the glomerular layer of the AL. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female SBA with a new model of the AL glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens AL model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the AL atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male AL was necessary. This required a new male AL atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three AL projection neurons of different preparations, the new SBA with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum. PMID:20179785

Løfaldli, Bjarte Bye; Kvello, Pål; Mustaparta, Hanna



Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain\\/Tissue\\/Bio) banking: what is still missing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional\\u000a concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain\\/Tissue\\/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each\\u000a of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and\\u000a the legal regulations and

Rivka Ravid



Open-path atmospheric monitoring with a low-resolution FTIR spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of measuring open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectra at low resolution are discussed both from a theoretical and experimental viewpoint. In general, the optimum combination of selectivity and sensitivity is found when the resolution is approximately equal to the average full-width at half height (FWHH) of the analytical bands. The FWHH of many bands in the vapor-phase spectra of molecules of medium size, such as chlorinated organic solvents, is approximately 20 cmMIN1, so that a resolution of 16 cmMIN1 is often found to yield the most accurate analytical results. The low baseline noise level found when spectra are measured at low resolution can allow room temperature deuterated triglycine sulfate pyroelectric bolometers to be used instead of liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride photodetectors for OP/FT-IR measurements.

Griffiths, Peter R.; Richardson, Robert L.; Qin, Deru; Zhu, Changjiang



Facial identification in very low-resolution images simulating prosthetic vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.

Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.



Fast and precise iris localization for low-resolution facial images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast and precise iris localization is a vital technique for face recognition, eye tracking, and gaze estimation. Low-resolution images bring about great difficulties for locating the iris precisely by traditional methods. In this paper, a fast and robust method to precisely detect the position and contour of the irises in low-resolution facial images is presented. A three-step coarse-to-fine strategy is employed. First, a gradient integral projection function is proposed to roughly detect the eye region, and the vertical integral projection function is adopted to select several possible vertical boundaries of the irises. Second, we have proposed a novel rectangular integro-variance operator to precisely locate both of the irises. Finally, the localization results are verified by two simple heuristic rules. A novel and more rigorous criterion is also proposed to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Comparison experiments on images from the FERET and the Extended YaleB databases demonstrate that our method is more robust than traditional methods to scale variation, illumination changes, part occlusion, and limited changes of head poses in low-resolution facial images.

Meng, Chun-Ning; Zhang, Tai-Ning; Zhang, Pin; Chang, Sheng-Jiang



Peptide charge state determination of tandem mass spectra from low-resolution collision induced dissociation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Charge states of tandem mass spectra from low-resolution collision induced dissociation can not be determined by mass spectrometry. As a result, such spectra with multiple charges are usually searched multiple times by assuming each possible charge state. Not only does this strategy increase the overall database search time, but also yields more false positives. Hence, it is advantageous to determine charge states of such spectra before database search. Results We propose a new approach capable of determining the charge states of low-resolution tandem mass spectra. Four novel and discriminant features are introduced to describe tandem mass spectra and used in Gaussian mixture model to distinguish doubly and triply charged peptides. By testing on three independent datasets with known validity, the results have shown that this method can assign charge states to low-resolution tandem mass spectra more accurately than existing methods. Conclusions The proposed method can be used to improve the speed and reliability of peptide identification. PMID:22166140



The Role of Standardized and Study-specific Human Brain Diffusion Tensor Templates in Inter-subject Spatial Normalization  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of standardized and study-specific human brain diffusion tensor templates on the accuracy of spatial normalization, without ignoring the important roles of data quality and registration algorithm effectiveness. Materials and Methods Two groups of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets, with and without visible artifacts, were normalized to two standardized diffusion tensor templates (IIT2, ICBM81) as well as study-specific templates, using three registration approaches. The accuracy of inter-subject spatial normalization was compared across templates, using the most effective registration technique for each template and group of data. Results It was demonstrated that, for DTI data with visible artifacts, the study-specific template resulted in significantly higher spatial normalization accuracy than standardized templates. However, for data without visible artifacts, the study-specific template and the standardized template of higher quality (IIT2) resulted in similar normalization accuracy. Conclusion For DTI data with visible artifacts, a carefully constructed study-specific template may achieve higher normalization accuracy than that of standardized templates. However, as DTI data quality improves, a high-quality standardized template may be more advantageous than a study-specific template, since in addition to high normalization accuracy, it provides a standard reference across studies, as well as automated localization/segmentation when accompanied by anatomical labels. PMID:23034880

Zhang, Shengwei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos



Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats  

PubMed Central

Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Beatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent



Compound classification by computer treatment of low resolution mass spectra - Application to geochemical and environmental problems.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a development of computer analysis of low-resolution chromatographic-mass spectrometric data, which provides a preliminary classification of an unknown spectrum as a listing of candidate classes of compounds. This procedure, referred to as COMSOC (Classification of Mass Spectra on Computers), operates by converting an incoming unknown mass spectrum into a simplified key word which is then compared with each of the key words held in its reference file. The advantages of COMSOC in characterizing complex mixtures are emphasized.

Smith, D. H.; Eglinton, G.



Conceptual design of a low resolution spectrograph for the Astronomical Observatory of Córdoba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a conceptual design for a low resolution optical spectrograph for the Astronomical Observatory of Cordoba 1.54m telescope. The simple instrument is required to cover a broad wavelength range (4000A

Nagasawa, D. Q.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Mondrik, N.



TGS[underscore]FIT: Image reconstruction software for quantitative, low-resolution tomographic assays  

SciTech Connect

We developed the computer program TGS[underscore]FIT to aid in researching the tomographic gamma scanner method of nondestructive assay. This software, written in C-programming, language, implements a full Beer's Law attenuation correction in reconstructing low-resolution emission tomograms. The attenuation coefficients for the corrections are obtained by reconstructing a transmission tomogram of the same resolution. The command-driven interface, combined with (crude) simulation capabilities and command file control, allows design studies to be performed in a semi-automated manner.

Estep, R J



Experimental investigations of trimer ion contributions in the low resolution mass spectrometry of hydrogen isotope mixtures.  


This paper reports on some preliminary experimental results of a work in progress regarding a problem involving the quantitative analysis of hydrogen isotopes by mass spectrometry of low resolution: the triatomic (trimer) ions interferences with the isotopic hydrogen species having the same mass/charge. These results indicate that, in complex mixtures of hydrogen isotopes, trimer ions are strongly affected by the presence of other species, and a new approach that takes into account the destruction mechanism of trimer ions is necessary for a proper determination of their contributions. PMID:23149602

Bidica, Nicolae



Autonomous Motion Segmentation of Multiple Objects in Low Resolution Video Using Variational Level Sets  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research that was done during a ten week internship in the Sapphire research group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the Summer of 2003. The goal of the study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of isolating (segmenting) moving objects in low resolution video sequences. This capability is currently being developed by the Sapphire research group as the first stage in a longer term video data mining project. This report gives a chronological account of what ideas were tried in developing the algorithm and what was learned from each attempt. The final version of the algorithm, which is described in detail, gives good results and is fast.

Moelich, M



Aggregation and self-assembly of hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei: low-resolution structural models.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobins are secreted fungal proteins, which have diverse roles in fungal growth and development. They lower the surface tension of water, work as adhesive agents and coatings, and function through self-assembly. One of the characteristic properties of hydrophobins is their tendency to form fibrillar or rod-like aggregates at interfaces. Their structure is still poorly known. In a step to elucidate the structure/function relation of hydrophobin self-assembly, we present the low-resolution structure of self-assembled fibrils of the class II hydrophobin HFBII from Trichoderma reesei based on small and wide-angle x-ray scattering. We first studied the solution state (10 mg/mL) of both HFBI and HFBII and showed that they formed assemblages in aqueous solution, which have a radius of gyration of ~24 A and maximum dimension of ~65 A, corresponding to the size of a tetramer. This result was supported by size-exclusion chromatography. Undried samples of HFBII fibrils had a monoclinic crystalline structure, which changed to hexagonal when the material was dried. A low-resolution structure for the HFBII fibrils is suggested. There are data in the literature based on staining properties suggesting that hydrophobins of class I form assemblies with an amyloid structure. Comparison of the HFBII data (x-ray results, staining with thioflavin T) to published data showed that the HFBII assemblages are not amyloid. PMID:12324441

Torkkeli, Mika; Serimaa, Ritva; Ikkala, Olli; Linder, Markus



Model-building strategies for low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data  

PubMed Central

The interpretation of low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data proves to be challenging even for the most experienced crystallographer. Ambiguity in the electron-density map makes main-chain tracing and side-chain assignment difficult. However, the number of structures solved at resolutions poorer than 3.5?Å is growing rapidly and the structures are often of high biological interest and importance. Here, the challenges faced in electron-density interpretation, the strategies that have been employed to overcome them and developments to automate the process are reviewed. The methods employed in model generation from electron microscopy, which share many of the same challenges in providing high-confidence models of macromolecular structures and assemblies, are also considered. PMID:19171966

Karmali, Anjum M.; Blundell, Tom L.; Furnham, Nicholas



Low Resolution Mapping of Comet p/ Halley in the Near Infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present low resolution maps, of a 4' × 0'.5 region, of comet Halley, in photometric bands J and K, a central scan in the H band and JHKL photometry taken with the 1.5 m Sanchez-Magro Telescope of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. We obtain central and integrated magnitudes and colours and discuss its variation with distance from the nucleus. The black-body colour temperature of the grains is found to be ˜ 545 K, significantly greater than the black-body equilibrium temperature (228 K). The profile of the scans seem to follow an r-2 density law in the dust distribution, although the central core has a much steeper density law.

Lazaro, C.; Garzon, F.; Arevalo, M. J.



Single-Shot Rotational Raman Thermometry for Turbulent Flames Using a Low-Resolution Bandwidth Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative optical thermometry technique that utilizes the low-resolution (order 10(exp 1)/cm) pure-rotational spontaneous Raman scattering of air is developed to aid single-shot multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion studies. Temperature measurements are realized by correlating the measured envelope bandwidth of the pure-rotational manifold of the N2/O2 spectrum with a theoretical prediction of a species-weighted bandwidth. By coupling this thermometry technique with conventional vibrational Raman scattering for species determination, we demonstrate quantitative spatially resolved, single-shot measurements of the temperature and fuel/oxidizer concentrations in a high-pressure turbulent Cf4-air flame. Our technique provides not only an effective means of validating other temperature measurement methods, but also serves as a secondary thermometry technique in cases where the anti-Stokes vibrational N2 Raman signals are too low for a conventional vibrational temperature analysis.

Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet



Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes  

SciTech Connect

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

Rabaza, O., E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Jelinek, M.; Cunniffe, R.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)] [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain) [Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Department of Systems and Automatic Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Zeman, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic) [Astronomical Institute of the Academic of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Sabau-Graziati, L. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)] [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Carretera de Ajalvir, 28850 Madrid (Spain)



Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes.  


The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown. PMID:24289416

Rabaza, O; Jelinek, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cunniffe, R; Zeman, J; Hudec, R; Sabau-Graziati, L; Ruedas-Sánchez, J



Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COmpact LOw REsolution Spectrograph (COLORES) is a compact and lightweight (13 kg) f/8 imaging spectrograph designed for robotic telescopes, now installed and operating on the TELMA, a rapid-slewing 60 cm telescope of the BOOTES-2 observatory in Málaga (Spain). COLORES is a multi-mode instrument that enables the observer to seamlessly switch between low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging modes during an observation. In this paper, we describe the instrument and its development, from the initial scientific requirements through the optical design process to final configuration with theoretical performance calculations. The mechanical and electronic design is described, methods of calibration are discussed and early laboratory and scientific results are shown.

Rabaza, O.; Jelinek, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Zeman, J.; Hudec, R.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Ruedas-Sánchez, J.



Improved protein surface comparison and application to low-resolution protein structure data  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advancements of experimental techniques for determining protein tertiary structures raise significant challenges for protein bioinformatics. With the number of known structures of unknown function expanding at a rapid pace, an urgent task is to provide reliable clues to their biological function on a large scale. Conventional approaches for structure comparison are not suitable for a real-time database search due to their slow speed. Moreover, a new challenge has arisen from recent techniques such as electron microscopy (EM), which provide low-resolution structure data. Previously, we have introduced a method for protein surface shape representation using the 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZDs). The 3DZD enables fast structure database searches, taking advantage of its rotation invariance and compact representation. The search results of protein surface represented with the 3DZD has showngood agreement with the existing structure classifications, but some discrepancies were also observed. Results The three new surface representations of backbone atoms, originally devised all-atom-surface representation, and the combination of all-atom surface with the backbone representation are examined. All representations are encoded with the 3DZD. Also, we have investigated the applicability of the 3DZD for searching protein EM density maps of varying resolutions. The surface representations are evaluated on structure retrieval using two existing classifications, SCOP and the CE-based classification. Conclusions Overall, the 3DZDs representing backbone atoms show better retrieval performance than the original all-atom surface representation. The performance further improved when the two representations are combined. Moreover, we observed that the 3DZD is also powerful in comparing low-resolution structures obtained by electron microscopy. PMID:21172052



An unsupervised classification method for inferring original case locations from low-resolution disease maps  

PubMed Central

Background Widespread availability of geographic information systems software has facilitated the use of disease mapping in academia, government and private sector. Maps that display the address of affected patients are often exchanged in public forums, and published in peer-reviewed journal articles. As previously reported, a search of figure legends in five major medical journals found 19 articles from 1994–2004 that identify over 19,000 patient addresses. In this report, a method is presented to evaluate whether patient privacy is being breached in the publication of low-resolution disease maps. Results To demonstrate the effect, a hypothetical low-resolution map of geocoded patient addresses was created and the accuracy with which patient addresses can be resolved is described. Through georeferencing and unsupervised classification of the original image, the method precisely re-identified 26% (144/550) of the patient addresses from a presentation quality map and 79% (432/550) from a publication quality map. For the presentation quality map, 99.8% of the addresses were within 70 meters (approximately one city block length) of the predicted patient location, 51.6% of addresses were identified within five buildings, 70.7% within ten buildings and 93% within twenty buildings. For the publication quality map, all addresses were within 14 meters and 11 buildings of the predicted patient location. Conclusion This study demonstrates that lowering the resolution of a map displaying geocoded patient addresses does not sufficiently protect patient addresses from re-identification. Guidelines to protect patient privacy, including those of medical journals, should reflect policies that ensure privacy protection when spatial data are displayed or published. PMID:17156451

Brownstein, John S; Cassa, Christopher A; Kohane, Isaac S; Mandl, Kenneth D




E-print Network

, develop software to implement them, test such techniques against the state of the art. #12;. ......... IETF standard protocols Collaborators / Customers Standards Groups: MPEG, SMPTE NIST Collaborators: ATP Other Collaborators: Academic


Automated alignment of MRI brain scan by anatomic landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to automate acquisition of MR brain scans to allow consistent alignment of diagnostic images for patient follow-up, and to depict standardized anatomy for all patients. The algorithm takes as input a low-resolution acquisition that depicts the patient position within the scanner. The mid-sagittal plane dividing the brain hemispheres is automatically detected, as are bony landmarks at the front and back of the skull. The orientation and position of a subsequent diagnostic, high resolution scan is then aligned based on these landmarks. The method was tested on 91 data sets, and was completely successful in 93.4% of cases, performed acceptably in 4.4% of cases, and failed for 1.1%. We conclude that the method is suitable for clinical use and should prove valuable for improving consistency of acquisitions.

Zhang, Li; Xu, Qing; Chen, Chong; Novak, Carol L.



Standardizing the intrinsic brain: Towards robust measurement of inter-individual variation in 1000 functional connectomes  

PubMed Central

As researchers increase their efforts to characterize variations in the functional connectome across studies and individuals, concerns about the many sources of nuisance variation present and their impact on resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures continue to grow. Although substantial within-site variation can exist, efforts to aggregate data across multiple sites such as the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (FCP) and International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI) datasets amplify these concerns. The present work draws upon standardization approaches commonly used in the microarray gene expression literature, and to a lesser extent recent imaging studies, and compares them with respect to their impact on relationships between common R-fMRI measures and nuisance variables (e.g., imaging site, motion), as well as phenotypic variables of interest (age, sex). Standardization approaches differed with regard to whether they were applied post-hoc vs. during pre-processing, and at the individual vs. group level; additionally they varied in whether they addressed additive effects vs. additive + multiplicative effects, and were parametric vs. non-parametric. While all standardization approaches were effective at reducing undesirable relationships with nuisance variables, post-hoc approaches were generally more effective than global signal regression (GSR). Across approaches, correction for additive effects (global mean) appeared to be more important than for multiplicative effects (global SD) for all R-fMRI measures, with the exception of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Group-level post-hoc standardizations for mean-centering and variance-standardization were found to be advantageous in their ability to avoid the introduction of artifactual relationships with standardization parameters; though results between individual and group-level post-hoc approaches were highly similar overall. While post-hoc standardization procedures drastically increased test–retest (TRT) reliability for ALFF, modest reductions were observed for other measures after post-hoc standardizations—a phenomena likely attributable to the separation of voxel-wise from global differences among subjects (global mean and SD demonstrated moderate TRT reliability for these measures). Finally, the present work calls into question previous observations of increased anatomical specificity for GSR over mean centering, and draws attention to the near equivalence of global and gray matter signal regression. PMID:23631983

Yan, Chao-Gan; Craddock, R. Cameron; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Milham, Michael P.



A brain-computer interface as input channel for a standard assistive technology software.  


Recently brain-computer interface (BCI) control was integrated into the commercial assistive technology product QualiWORLD (QualiLife Inc., Paradiso-Lugano, CH). Usability of the first prototype was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (information transfer rate and subjective workload/NASA Task Load Index) and user satisfaction (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology, QUEST 2.0) by four end-users with severe disabilities. Three assistive technology experts evaluated the device from a third person perspective. The results revealed high performance levels in communication and internet tasks. Users and assistive technology experts were quite satisfied with the device. However, none could imagine using the device in daily life without improvements. Main obstacles were the EEG-cap and low speed. PMID:22208121

Zickler, Claudia; Riccio, Angela; Leotta, Francesco; Hillian-Tress, Sandra; Halder, Sebastian; Holz, Elisa; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Desideri, Lorenzo; Mattia, Donatella; Kübler, Andrea



Development and use of a kinetic FDG-PET dataset simulated from the MNI standard brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulated data is an important tool for evaluation of reconstruction and image processing algorithms in the frequent absence of ground truth, in-vivo data from living subjects. This is especially true in the case of dynamic PET studies, in which counting statistics of the volume can vary widely over the time-course of the acquisition. Realistic simulated data-sets which model anatomy and physiology, and make explicit the spatial and temporal image acquisition characteristics, facilitate experimentation with a wide range of the conditions anticipated in practice, and which can severely challenge algorithm performance and reliability. As a first example, we have developed a realistic dynamic FDG-PET data-set using the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulation code and the MNI digital brain phantom. The phantom is a three-dimensional data-set that defines the spatial distribution of different tissues. Time activity curves were calculated using an impulse response function specified by generally accepted rate constants, convolved with an input function obtained by blood sampling, and assigned to grey and white matter tissue regions. We created a dynamic PET study using PET-SORTEO configured to simulate an ECAT Exact HR+. The resulting sinograms were reconstructed with all corrections, using variations of FBP and OSEM. Having constructed the dynamic PET data-sets, we used them to evaluate the performance of intensity-based registration as part of a tool for quantifying hyper/hypo perfusion with particular application to analysis of brain dementia scans, and a study of the stability of kinetic parameter estimation.

Schottlander, David; Guimond, Alexandre; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Brady, Michael; Declerck, Jérôme; Collins, Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Reilhac, Anthonin



Concordance of clinician judgment of mild traumatic brain injury history with a diagnostic standard.  


The concordance of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinician judgment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history with American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM)-based criteria was examined for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Veterans. In order to understand inconsistencies in agreement, we also examined the associations between evaluation outcomes and conceptually relevant patient characteristics, deployment-related events, current self-reported health symptoms, and suspected psychiatric conditions. The Veteran sample comprised 14,026 OIF/OEF VA patients with deployment-related mTBI history (n = 9,858) or no history of mTBI (n = 4,168) as defined by ACRM-based criteria. In the majority of cases (76.0%), clinician judgment was in agreement with the ACRM-based criteria. The most common inconsistency was between clinician judgment (no) and ACRM-based criteria (yes) for 21.3% of the patients. Injury etiology, current self-reported health symptoms, and suspected psychiatric conditions were additional factors associated with clinician diagnosis and ACRM-based criteria disagreement. Adherence to established diagnostic guidelines is essential for accurate determination of mTBI history and for understanding the extent to which mTBI symptoms resolve or persist over time in OIF/OEF Veterans. PMID:25019660

Pogoda, Terri K; Iverson, Katherine M; Meterko, Mark; Baker, Errol; Hendricks, Ann M; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Krengel, Maxine; Charns, Martin P; Amara, Jomana; Kimerling, Rachel; Lew, Henry L




SciTech Connect

The 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature in either emission or absorption in the infrared is an important indicator for identification of carbon stars. Sources whose infrared spectra are sorted in Group U of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) low-resolution spectrum (LRS) are good samples for finding objects with the 11.2 {mu}m SiC feature. Therefore, we have carefully checked all spectra in Group U of the LRS. We have found 13 new objects, which probably have SiC emission, sometimes with unusually broad features, that are presumed to be carbon-rich objects. In addition, their evolutionary types are also estimated from IRAS and Two Micron All Sky Survey two-color diagrams. Besides finding 13 new carbon-rich objects, another important result in this paper is that four sources are estimated as new extreme carbon stars (ECSs) and five previously known carbon stars sorted in the Group U of the IRAS LRS are also estimated as ECSs.

Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, CAS, Kunming 650011 (China)



Phanerozoic paleoclimate simulations: A comparison of the parametric climate model and the low resolution climate model  

SciTech Connect

Computer models are increasingly being used to simulate past climatic conditions. All of these climatic models require, as a necessary boundary condition, a paleogeography that describes the latitudinal configuration of the continents and the distribution of mountains, land, and shallow seas for the time interval being modeled. Slight differences in paleogeography, especially the placement and height of mountains, will give significantly different results. Consequently, when comparing the results of different climate modeling programs it is often difficult to determine whether the differences are model dependent, or whether they are due to different paleogeographies. In this poster session, the authors compare 10 paleoclimatic simulations produced using the Parametric Climate Model (PCM, Scotese and Ross) with results from the Low Resolution Climate Model (LRM, Otto-Bleisner). Both models use the same paleogeographies (PALEOMAP Project), so any disparities in the results can be attributed to different modeling algorithms. The LRM is similar to the Community Climate Model and takes into account the dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of the atmosphere and oceans. The PCM, in contrast, uses parameterized values of temperature and pressure to estimate past climatic conditions. Both simulations illustrate the distribution of high and low pressure cells, prevailing wind directions, relative wetness/dryness, zones of coastal upwelling, and the pole to equator temperature gradient.

Ross, M.I. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology); Scotese, C.R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. (Univ. Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. Geology)



Spitzer/infrared spectrograph investigation of MIPSGAL 24 {\\mu}m compact bubbles : Low resolution observations  

E-print Network

We present Spitzer/IRS low resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 {\\mu}m Galactic Plane Survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories, and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid- IR. The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low excitation spectra, and their 24 {\\mu}m emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 {\\mu}m, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 {\\mu}m, [Ne III] 15.5 {\\mu}m), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50 to almost 100% of the 24 {\\mu}m emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., [WR], novae) at their centers. ...

Nowak, M; Noriega-Crespo, A; Billot, N; Carey, S J; Paladini, R; Van Dyk, S D



Measuring gravitational lens time delays using low-resolution radio monitoring observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obtaining lensing time-delay measurements requires long-term monitoring campaigns with a high enough resolution (<1 arcsec) to separate the multiple images. In the radio, a limited number of high-resolution interferometer arrays make these observations difficult to schedule. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for measuring gravitational time delays which relies on monitoring the total flux density with low-resolution but high-sensitivity radio telescopes to follow the variation of the brighter image. This is then used to trigger high-resolution observations in optimal numbers which then reveal the variation in the fainter image. We present simulations to assess the efficiency of this method together with a pilot project observing radio lens systems with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to trigger Very Large Array observations. This new method is promising for measuring time delays because it uses relatively small amounts of time on high-resolution telescopes. This will be important because instruments that have high sensitivity but limited resolution, together with an optimum usage of follow-up high-resolution observations from appropriate radio telescopes may in the future be useful for gravitational lensing time-delay measurements by means of this new method.

Gürkan, G.; Jackson, N.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Berciano Alba, A.



Auto-adjusted 3-D optic disk viewing from low-resolution stereo fundus image.  


Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the optic nerve head (optic disk) is very useful for clinical applications. It allows clinicians to measure the disk parameters more accurately and thus make the pathological diagnosis and progression monitoring easier. This paper describes an automatic, precise, 3-D optic nerve head reconstruction method from a pair of stereo images for which efficient steps including sparse-image registration and dense-depth recovery are used. A combination of two registration methods is used to detect the sub-pixel correspondences. The proposed method takes advantages of both the correlation methods which is robust to noise and the feature-based method on its accuracy. The searching range in image registration is auto-adjusted based on the previous iteration result. Only sparse matched points are computed to speed up the processing and the sub-pixel matching is used to overcome the problem of low resolution in the image. This is followed by the piecewise cubic interpolation to obtain the dense disparities and depths. Multiple windowing is applied here by first using the large window to obtain basic disparities followed by the small window and previous basic disparities to measure details. The result is then smoothed and displayed as the final 3-D shape. PMID:16023095

Xu, Juan; Chutatape, Opas




SciTech Connect

We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 {+-} 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V {sub GSR} = 82.1 {+-} 1.4 km s{sup -1}. The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.63 {+-} 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, {sigma}([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth, E-mail: [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)



Mediterranean region cyclone climatology and low resolution GCM capabilities in its reproduction (directly and using statistical downscaling technique)  

SciTech Connect

The present study is aimed at the investigation of the low resolution GCM of the Hydrometcentre of Russia capability to describe the climatological properties of Mediterranean cyclones. For this, we calculate certain cyclone statistics (at 500mb and surface) by empirical data and from numerical experiments (several decades both), and perform comparative analysis of climatology means and variability.

Rubinatein, K. [Hydrometcenre of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bardin, M. [Institute for Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)



A comparison study of tropical Pacific ocean state estimation: Low-resolution assimilation vs. high-resolution simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison study is performed to contrast the improvements in the tropical Pacific oceanic state of a low-resolution model respectively via data assimilation and by an increase in horizontal resolution. A low resolution model (LR) (1°lat by 2°lon) and a high-resolution model (HR) (0.5°lat by 0.5°lon) are employed for the comparison. The authors perform 20-yr numerical experiments and analyze the annual mean fields of temperature and salinity. The results indicate that the low-resolution model with data assimilation behaves better than the high-resolution model in the estimation of ocean large-scale features. From 1990 to 2000, the average of HR’s RMSE (root-mean-square error) relative to independent Tropical Atmosphere Ocean project (TAO) mooring data at randomly selected points is 0.97°C compared to a RMSE of 0.56°C for LR with temperature assimilation. Moreover, the LR with data assimilation is more frugal in computation. Although there is room to improve the high-resolution model, the low-resolution model with data assimilation may be an advisable choice in achieving a more realistic large-scale state of the ocean at the limited level of information provided by the current observational system.

Fu, Weiwei; Zhu, Jiang; Zhou, Guangqing; Wang, Huijun



Copyright @ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Digital Tomosynthesis Aided by Low-Resolution Exact  

E-print Network

. Digital Tomosynthesis Aided by Low-Resolution Exact Computed Tomography Kai Zeng, MS, Hengyong Yu, PhD Abstract: Tomosynthesis reconstructs 3-dimensional images of an object from a significantly fewer number of projections as compared with that required by computed tomography (CT). A major problem with tomosynthesis

Virginia Tech


How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) impurity emissions from tokamaks (10 {Angstrom}{lt}{lambda}{lt}304 {Angstrom}) have been extensively studied with high-resolution grazing incidence spectrographs, and atomic physics models predicting spectral line brightnesses have been benchmarked against these experimental data. This, together with the ability to perform large amounts of accurate atomic physics computations, enables the relaxation on the requirement for high resolution spectra. The multilayer mirror (MLM) is a low resolving power ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{lt}100) XUV dispersive/reflective optical element that obeys the Bragg law of reflection. MLM based monitors are compact, high-photon-throughput diagnostics capable of extracting XUV emissions of impurities from the harsh environment of large fusion reactor-type devices. We will show how atomic physics modeling can be used to extract the XUV spectral line brightnesses measured with low-resolution, high-photon-throughput, MLM-based devices. The Plasma Spectroscopy Group at The Johns Hopkins University has investigated the application of MLM based diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas: MLM based monitors have been constructed for and extensively used on DIII{endash}D, Alcator C-Mod, TEXT, Phaedrus-T, and CDX-U to study the impurity behavior of elements ranging from He to Mo. Experiments were also performed in which MLMs were irradiated to a fast neutron fluence of 1.1{times}10{sup 19} ncm{sup {minus}2} at 270{endash}300{degree}C, and the preliminary results indicate that MLMs would be a good first wall reflector for fusion plasmas. Future applications of MLM based devices to study divertor coolants (Ne, Ar, and Kr emissions) and {open_quotes}killer pellet{close_quotes} (W emissions) experiments will also be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Regan, S.P.; Fournier, K.B.; May, M.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H.W. [The Plasma Spectroscopy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [The Plasma Spectroscopy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)



LRS2: the new facility low resolution integral field spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second generation Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2) is a new facility instrument for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Based on the design of the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), which is the new flagship instrument for carrying out the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), LRS2 provides integral field spectroscopy for a seeing-limited field of 12" x 6". For LRS2, the replicable design of VIRUS has been leveraged to gain broad wavelength coverage from 370 nm to 1.0 ?m, spread between two fiber-fed dual- channel spectrographs, each of which can operate as an independent instrument. The blue spectrograph, LRS2-B, covers 370 ? (nm) <= 470 and 460 <= ? (nm) <= 700 at fixed resolving powers of R = ?/?? ? 1900 and 1100, respectively, while the red spectrograph, LRS2-R, covers 650 <= ? (nm) <= 842 and 818 <= ? (nm) <= 1050 with both of its channels having R ? 1800. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the instrument's design in which we focus on the departures from the basic VIRUS framework. The primary modifications include the fore-optics that are used to feed the fiber integral field units at unity fill-factor, the cameras' correcting optics and detectors, and the volume phase holographic grisms. We also present a model of the instrument's sensitivity and a description of specific science cases that have driven the design of LRS2, including systematically studying the spatially resolved properties of extended Ly? blobs at 2 < z < 3. LRS2 will provide a powerful spectroscopic follow-up platform for large surveys such as HETDEX.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.



Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two bodies in the Solar System exhibit high-temperature active volcanism: Earth and Io. While there are important differences in the eruptions on Earth and Io, in low-spatial-resolution data (corresponding to the bulk of available and foreseeable data of Io), similar styles of effusive and explosive volcanism yield similar thermal flux densities. For example, a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Io looks very similar to a square metre of an active pahoehoe flow on Earth. If, from observed thermal emission as a function of wavelength and change in thermal emission with time, the eruption style of an ionian volcano can be constrained, estimates of volumetric fluxes can be made and compared with terrestrial volcanoes using techniques derived for analysing terrestrial remotely-sensed data. In this way we find that ionian volcanoes fundamentally differ from their terrestrial counterparts only in areal extent, with Io volcanoes covering larger areas, with higher volumetric flux. Io outbursts eruptions have enormous implied volumetric fluxes, and may scale with terrestrial flood basalt eruptions. Even with the low-spatial resolution data available it is possible to sometimes constrain and classify eruption style both on Io and Earth from the integrated thermal emission spectrum. Plotting 2 and 5 m fluxes reveals the evolution of individual eruptions of different styles, as well as the relative intensity of eruptions, allowing comparison to be made from individual eruptions on both planets. Analyses like this can be used for interpretation of low-resolution data until the next mission to the jovian system. For a number of Io volcanoes (including Pele, Prometheus, Amirani, Zamama, Culann, Tohil and Tvashtar) we do have high/moderate resolution imagery to aid determination of eruption mode from analyses based only on low spatial-resolution data.

Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.



Validation of In Vivo MRI Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Measurements by Comparison with Gold Standard Histology  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To validate the blood-brain barrier permeability measurements extracted from perfusion-weighted MRI through a relatively simple and frequently applied model, the Patlak model, by comparison with gold standard histology in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Methods Eleven spontaneously hypertensive rats and eleven Wistar rats with unilateral, 2h filament occlusion of the right MCA underwent imaging during occlusion, at 4h and 24h post reperfusion. BBB permeability was imaged by gradient echo imaging after the first pass of the contrast agent bolus and quantified by a Patlak analysis. BBB permeability was shown on histology by the extravasation of Evans blue on fluorescence microscopy sections matching location and orientation of MR images. Cresyl-violet staining was used to detect and characterize hemorrhage. Landmark-based elastic image registration allowed a region-by-region comparison of permeability imaging at 24 hours with Evans blue extravasation and hemorrhage as detected on histological slides obtained immediately after the 24-hour image set. Results Permeability values in the non-ischemic tissue (marginal mean±SE: 0.15±0.019ml/min·100ml) were significantly lower compared to all permeability values in regions of Evans blue extravasation or hemorrhage. Permeability values in regions of weak Evans blue extravasation (0.23±0.016ml/min·100ml) were significantly lower compared to permeability values of in regions of strong Evans blue extravasation (0.29±0.020ml/min·100ml) and macroscopic hemorrhage (0.35±0.049ml/min·100ml). Permeability values in regions of microscopic hemorrhage (0.26±0.024ml/min·100ml) only differed significantly from values in regions of non-ischemic tissue (0.15±0.019 ml/min·100ml). Conclusion Areas of increased permeability measured in-vivo by imaging coincide with BBB disruption and hemorrhage observed on gold standard histology. PMID:21636816

Hoffmann, Angelika; Bredno, Jorg; Wendland, Michael F.; Derugin, Nikita; Hom, Jason; Schuster, Tibor; Su, Hua; Ohara, Peter T.; Young, William L.; Wintermark, Max



Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) can be estimated using Energy Balance models and remotely sensed data. In particular, satellite images acquired in visible, near and thermal infrared parts of the spectrum have been used with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to estimate actual evapotranspiration. This algorithm is solving the Energy Balance Equation using data from a meteorological station present in the vicinity, and assumes the meteorological conditions homogeneous over the study area. Most often, data from a representative weather station are used. This assumption may lead to substantial errors in areas with high spatial variability in weather parameters. In this paper, the ITA-MyWater algorithms (Integrated Thermodynamic Algorithms for MyWater project), an adaptation of SEBAL was merged together with spatially distributed meteorological data to increase the accuracy of ETa estimations at regional scale using MODIS satellite images. The major changes introduced to migrate from point to raster are that (i) air temperature and relative humidity maps are used for the estimation of the Energy Balance terms, including instantaneous net radiation and soil heat flux and (ii) the variability of wind speed is taken into account to generate maps of the aerodynamic resistance, sensible heat flux and difference between soil and air temperature at the boundary conditions (at dry and wet pixels). The approach was applied in the river basin of Tamega in Portugal, where actual evapotranspiration was estimated for several MODIS 8-day periods from spring to winter of the same year. The raster meteorological maps were produced by the MM5 weather forecast model. Daily reference evapotranspiration was calculated with MOHID LAND model. Using a temporal integration technique and the daily reference evapotranspiration maps, the cumulative evapotranspiration over the MODIS 8-day period was estimated and compared to the global evapotranspiration MODIS product (MOD16A2). A correlation analysis was performed at the common spatial resolution of 1km using selected homogeneous pixels (from the land cover point of view). A statistically significant correlation factor of 0.6 was found, and the RMSE was 0.92 mm/day. Using raster meteorological data the ITA-MyWater algorithms were able to catch the variability of weather patterns over the river basin and thus improved the spatial distribution of evapotranpiration estimations at low resolution. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio



High-resolution time course of hemispheric dominance revealed by low-resolution electromagnetic tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a lexical decision task in response to linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli, to assess the detailed time course of language processing in general, and hemispheric dominance in particular.Methods: Young adults (n=17) were presented with pairs of auditory stimuli consisting of words, pseudowords and words played backwards in a lexical decision task. ERPs

Alon Sinai; Hillel Pratt



On the nature of G25. 5 + 0. 2 - The IRAS low-resolution spectrum of IRAS 18344 - 0632  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IRAS low-resolution spectrum of IRAS 81344 - 0632, which may be associated with the proposed (Cowan et al., 1989) very young supernova remnant G25.5 + 0.2, is presented. This spectrum shows a red continuum, and the 12.8-micron Ne II forbidden line, and is similar to the spectra of known compact H II regions and planetary nebulae. This, together with

D. A. Green



On the utility of low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800 A Mg II lines as a stellar chromosphere indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low resolution IUE spectroscopy of the 2800-A Mg II h and k lines is shown to provide a useful means for documenting chromospheric activity among relatively young dwarf stars. An index I(Mg II) has been defined which measures the integrated flux in the region 2784-2814 A relative to the flux interpolated from nearby comparison regions. Values of this index have been derived from low resolution IUE spectra for a sample of field dwarfs for which Ca II H and K line indices have been published as part of the Mount Wilson HK program. The large range in chromospheric activity among field dwarfs that is exhibited by the Mount Wilson Ca II S index is found to also be reflected by the lower resolution I(Mg II) index. Using an age calibration of Ca II emission line strengths derived by Barry, it is found that the value of I(Mg II) can be used to distinguish between dwarfs younger and older than 3 Gyr. The low resolution nature of the I(Mg II) index means that it holds potential for use as an age diagnostic for stellar population studies. Among dwarfs of age greater than 3 Gyr there is some evidence that this Mg II index is affected by line blanketing.

Smith, Graeme H.; Burstein, David; Fanelli, Michael N.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Wu, C.-C.



MCM'10: An Experiment for satellite Multispectral Crop Monitoring. From high to low resolution observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a changing climate context, it becomes increasingly important to accurately estimate the physical processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in order to predict climate changes and its impact on ecosystems. Increase of human pressure and changes in land use management contribute to alter water and energy budgets and carbon sequestration in the soils. Therefore, it is essential 1) to work towards a better understanding of the different processes governing water, carbon and energy exchanges between the continental biosphere in anthropised areas and the atmosphere, 2) to monitor land use, vegetation (crop) dynamics, soil and crop management. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the MCM'10 (Multispectral Crop Monitoring) experiment which has been conducted in 2010 (from February to November) by the CESBIO laboratory, in France. This experiment is based on the use of multispectral satellite acquisitions (radar, thermal and optical) and the associated ground measurements performed over about 400 agricultural fields located in the south west of France (43°29'36''N, 1°14'14''E). Optical data are acquired by FORMOSAT-2 and SPOT4-5 satellites. Radar data are provided by SAR sensors onboard TERRASAR-X (X-band), RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band). Thermal data come from the LANDSAT-TM 5 and 7 sensors. Low resolution data have been also collected to further study upscaling and downscaling approaches over a strongly heterogeneous landscape. Analyses of satellite data are performed by comparing them with ground data collected from local to regional scale. At the local scale, 37 fields are systematically monitored for each satellite overpass. Three of them are equipped with meteorological stations (radiations, water and carbon fluxes sensors…). Measures are performed over different soil types (clay, silt, gravels…) and for the main crops encountered in France and Europe (wheat, corn, sunflower, soybean, sorghum…). Soil conditions monitoring consists in measuring the soil surface moisture (SSM) and the soil surface roughness by using respectively a mobile theta probe sensor and a 2m profilometer. For each field, once a week, a mean of 30 SSM values are acquired and 4 roughness profiles are performed (for which correlation length, type of the autocorrelation function and rms height are estimated). For each crops, measurements consist in collecting wet and dry biomass, total water content and its vertical distribution. All these data are collected all along the growing period until harvest. At regional scale, 350 fields are monitored to identify crop species, soil management, soil tillage orientation, crops residues… providing a wide dataset of contrasted surface states. Spatio-temporal behaviours of the backscattering coefficient acquired at different frequency are analysed for different soil and vegetation conditions. First results show that multifrequency radar signal provides a wide range of applications for surface monitoring (see Fieuzal et al., 2012 submitted in this conference). An overview of future applications is given in this presentation in the framework of the following satellite missions: Sentinel and Radarsat-2 constellations, TerraSAR-L… Authors would like to thank especially Space Agencies for their support and confidence they have in this project (ESA, CSA, DLR, JAXA and CNES)

Baup, F.; Fieuzal, R.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Dejoux, J. F.; le Dantec, V.; Mordelet, P.; Claverie, M.; Demarez, V.; Hagolle, O.; Lopes, A.; Keravec, P.; Ceschia, E.; Mialon, A.; Kidd, R.



Wnt Activation of Immortalized Brain Endothelial Cells as a Tool for Generating a Standardized Model of the Blood Brain Barrier In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Reproducing the characteristics and the functional responses of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro represents an important task for the research community, and would be a critical biotechnological breakthrough. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries provide strong demand for inexpensive and easy-to-handle in vitro BBB models to screen novel drug candidates. Recently, it was shown that canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for the induction of the BBB properties in the neonatal brain microvasculature in vivo. In the present study, following on from earlier observations, we have developed a novel model of the BBB in vitro that may be suitable for large scale screening assays. This model is based on immortalized endothelial cell lines derived from murine and human brain, with no need for co-culture with astrocytes. To maintain the BBB endothelial cell properties, the cell lines are cultured in the presence of Wnt3a or drugs that stabilize ?-catenin, or they are infected with a transcriptionally active form of ?-catenin. Upon these treatments, the cell lines maintain expression of BBB-specific markers, which results in elevated transendothelial electrical resistance and reduced cell permeability. Importantly, these properties are retained for several passages in culture, and they can be reproduced and maintained in different laboratories over time. We conclude that the brain-derived endothelial cell lines that we have investigated gain their specialized characteristics upon activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. This model may be thus suitable to test the BBB permeability to chemicals or large molecular weight proteins, transmigration of inflammatory cells, treatments with cytokines, and genetic manipulation. PMID:23940549

Paolinelli, Roberta; Artus, Cedric; Czupalla, Cathrin J.; Rudini, Noemi; Maddaluno, Luigi; Papa, Eleanna; Engelhardt, Britta; Couraud, Pierre Olivier; Liebner, Stefan; Dejana, Elisabetta



Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscoy  

SciTech Connect

In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants``, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 0.1 mrem per year to the maximally exposed individual are considered ``major`` and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method; and 15 were assessed. The most significant,result from this study was the redesignation. of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being ``minor``, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

Barnett, J.M.



Improving identification accuracy on low resolution and poor quality iris images using an artificial neural network-based matching metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The iris is currently believed to be one of the most accurate biometrics for human identification. The majority of fielded iris identification systems use fractional Hamming distance to compare a new feature template to a stored database. Fractional Hamming distance is extremely fast, but mathematically weights all regions of the iris equally. Research has shown that different regions of the iris contain varying levels of discriminatory information when using circular boundary assumptions. This research evaluates four statistical metrics for accuracy improvements on low resolution and poor quality images. Each metric statistically weights iris regions in an attempt to use the iris information in a more intelligent manner. A similarity metric extracted from the output stage of an artificial neural network demonstrated the most promise. Experiments were performed using occluded, subsampled, and motion blurred images from the CASIA, University of Bath, and ICE 2005 databases. The neural network-based metric improved accuracy at nearly every operating point.

Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.



Using enhanced sampling and structural restraints to refine atomic structures into low-resolution electron microscopy maps.  


For a variety of problems in structural biology, low-resolution maps generated by electron microscopy imaging are often interpreted with the help of various flexible-fitting computational algorithms. In this work, we systematically analyze the quality of final models of various proteins obtained via molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) by varying the map-resolution, strength of structural restraints, and the steering forces. We find that MDFF can be extended to understand conformational changes in lower-resolution maps if larger structural restraints and lower steering forces are used to prevent overfitting. We further show that the capabilities of MDFF can be extended by combining it with an enhanced conformational sampling method, temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD). Specifically, either TAMD can be used to generate better starting configurations for MDFF fitting or TAMD-assisted MDFF (TAMDFF) can be performed to accelerate conformational search in atomistic simulations. PMID:22958641

Vashisth, Harish; Skiniotis, Georgios; Brooks, Charles L



Spectral irradiance calibration in the infrared. II - Alpha Tau and the recalibration of the IRAS low resolution spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general process for creating complete, continuous, and absolutely calibrated 1-35 micron stellar spectra is described. The method is demonstrated by constructing an absolutely calibrated 1-35 micron spectrum of Alpha Tau and the method is independently validated using new observations. The absolute calibration of the IRAS low resolution spectrometer (LRS) data base is investigated by comparing the observed spectrum of Alpha Tau with that assumed in the original LRS calibration scheme. An analysis of asteroidal LRS spectra results in an independent assessment of the calibration problems with the LRS and provides a natural complement to the effort based on Alpha Tau. A direct comparison of LRS stellar spectra with independently calibrated long-wavelength airborne and ground-based spectra is made.

Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Witteborn, Fred C.



Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.  


In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, ?CaMKII, p-?CaMKII, and PSD-95. PMID:22715050

Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel



Design of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) from standard components running in real-time under Windows.  


An EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct connection between the human brain and the computer. Such a communication system is needed by patients with severe motor impairments (e.g. late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) and has to operate in real-time. This paper describes the selection of the appropriate components to construct such a BCI and focuses also on the selection of a suitable programming language and operating system. The multichannel system runs under Windows 95, equipped with a real-time Kernel expansion to obtain reasonable real-time operations on a standard PC. Matlab controls the data acquisition and the presentation of the experimental paradigm, while Simulink is used to calculate the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm that describes the current state of the EEG in real-time. First results of the new low-cost BCI show that the accuracy of differentiating imagination of left and right hand movement is around 95%. PMID:10194880

Guger, C; Schlögl, A; Walterspacher, D; Pfurtscheller, G



Leading Edge `Fore Brain  

E-print Network

. (2010) follow the latter approach and identify a brain region of the seg- mented worm Platynereis patterns from multiple worms onto a standard brain template. This allows the simultaneous mappingLeading Edge Previews `Fore Brain: A Hint of the Ancestral Cortex Lora B. Sweeney1,2,3 and Liqun

Luo, Liqun


An empirical criterion to classify T Tauri stars and substellar analogs using low-resolution optical spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We have compiled and studied photometric and spectroscopic data published in the literature of several star forming regions and young open clusters (Orion, Taurus, IC348, Sco-Cen Complex, Chamaeleon I, TW Hya association, sigma Orionis cluster, IC2391, alpha Per cluster and the Pleiades). Our goal was to seek the definition of a simple empirical criterion to classify stars or brown dwarfs which are accreting matter from a disk on the sole basis of low-resolution optical spectroscopic data. We show that using Halpha equivalent widths and spectral types we can statistically classify very young stars and brown dwarfs as classical T Tauri stars and substellar analogs. As a boundary between accreting and non accreting objects, we use the saturation limit of chromospheric activity at Log L(Halpha)/L(bol)=-3.3 (determined in the open clusters). We discuss the uncertainties in the classification scheme due to the occurrence of flares. We have used this spectroscopic empirical criterion to classify objects found in the literature, and we compute the fraction of accreting objects in several star forming regions. The fraction of accreting objects appears to decrease from about 50% to about 5% from 1 Myr to 10 Myr for both stars and brown dwarfs.

David Barrado y Navascues; Eduardo L. Martin



A method of discriminating transuranic radionuclides from radon progeny using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy and curve-fitting techniques.  


²²²Rn (radon) and ²²?Rn (thoron) progeny are known to interfere with determining the presence of long-lived transuranic radionuclides, such as plutonium and americium, and require from several hours up to several days for conclusive results. Methods are proposed that should expedite the analysis of air samples for determining the amount of transuranic radionuclides present using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy systems available from typical alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) with multi-channel analyzer (MCA) capabilities. An alpha spectra simulation program was developed in Microsoft Excel visual basic that employed the use of Monte Carlo numerical methods and serial-decay differential equations that resembled actual spectra. Transuranic radionuclides were able to be quantified with statistical certainty by applying peak fitting equations using the method of least squares. Initial favorable results were achieved when samples containing radon progeny were decayed 15 to 30 min, and samples containing both radon and thoron progeny were decayed at least 60 min. The effort indicates that timely decisions can be made when determining transuranic activity using available alpha CAMs with alpha spectroscopy capabilities for counting retrospective air samples if accompanied by analyses that consider the characteristics of serial decay. PMID:22470000

Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard



54 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 Timing with Dirty Templates for Low-Resolution Digital UWB Receivers  

E-print Network

operational even when the ADC resolution is very low. Index Terms-- Analog-digital conversion, multipath]. In this paper, we investigate TDT algorithms for digital UWB receivers with low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Different from the original TDT in [7] for analog UWB receivers, our digital TDT

Yang, Liuqing


Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan



Low-Resolution Spectral Templates for Active Galactic Nuclei and Galaxies from 0.03 to 30 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a set of low-resolution empirical spectral energy distribution (SED) templates for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 ?m to 30 ?m based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Boötes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14,448 galaxies in the redshift range 0 <~ z <~ 1 and 5347 likely AGNs in the range 0 <~ z <~ 5.58. The galaxy templates correspond to the SED templates presented in 2008 by Assef et al. extended into the UV and mid-IR by the addition of FUV and NUV GALEX and MIPS 24 ?m data for the field. We use our templates to determine photometric redshifts for galaxies and AGNs. While they are relatively accurate for galaxies (? z /(1 + z) = 0.04, with 5% outlier rejection), their accuracies for AGNs are a strong function of the luminosity ratio between the AGN and galaxy components. Somewhat surprisingly, the relative luminosities of the AGN and its host are well determined even when the photometric redshift is significantly in error. We also use our templates to study the mid-IR AGN selection criteria developed by Stern et al. in 2005 and Lacy et al. in 2004. We find that the Stern et al. criterion suffers from significant incompleteness when there is a strong host galaxy component and at z ~= 4.5, when the broad H? emission line is redshifted into the [3.6] band, but that it is little contaminated by low- and intermediate-redshift galaxies. The Lacy et al. criterion is not affected by incompleteness at z ~= 4.5 and is somewhat less affected by strong galaxy host components, but is heavily contaminated by low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, we use our templates to predict the color-color distribution of sources in the upcoming Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission and define a color criterion to select AGNs analogous to those developed for IRAC photometry. We estimate that in between 640,000 and 1,700,000 AGNs will be identified by these criteria, but without additional information, WISE-selected quasars will have serious completeness problems for z >~ 3.4.

Assef, R. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brodwin, M.; Cool, R.; Forman, W.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hickox, R. C.; Jones, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Moustakas, J.; Murray, S. S.; Stern, D.



Discrepancies between standardized measures of cognitive level and Halstead-Reitan impairment indices as inferences of brain damage following head injuries.  


z scores for measures of intelligence, memory, educational achievement, and neuropsychological impairment were obtained for 193 patients who had sustained impacts of mechanical energy to their skulls. Two sets of normative data, adjusted for age and sex and not adjusted for these variables, were employed to compute indices of neurocognitive proficiency (the inverse of impairment). 80% or 76 of the 96 patients whose Halstead-Reitan Indices were greater than 0.4 displayed scores for neurocognitive proficiency that were two or more standard deviations below the averages of their scores for intelligence, memory, and educational achievement. None of the patents whose Impairment Indices were 0.4 or less displayed this discrepancy. There were no statistically significant differences between these two groups of patients with respect to the presence of unconsciousness following the injury or the duration of posttraumatic memory disruptions. The results indicate that quantitative scores for neuropsychological impairments are still the most accurate criteria to discern brain dysfunction within the mild to moderate range. PMID:10597599

Persinger, M A



The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. V. Estimation of Alpha-element Abundance Ratios from Low-resolution SDSS\\/SEGUE Stellar Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for the determination of [alpha\\/Fe] ratios from low-resolution (R = 2000) SDSS\\/SEGUE stellar spectra. By means of a star-by-star comparison with degraded spectra from the ELODIE spectral library and with a set of moderately high-resolution (R = 15, 000) and medium-resolution (R = 6000) spectra of SDSS\\/SEGUE stars, we demonstrate that we are able to measure

Young Sun Lee; Timothy C. Beers; Carlos Allende Prieto; David K. Lai; Constance M. Rockosi; Heather L. Morrison; Jennifer A. Johnson; Deokkeun An; Thirupathi Sivarani; Brian Yanny



On the nature of G25.5 + 0.2 - The IRAS low-resolution spectrum of IRAS 18344 - 0632  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IRAS low-resolution spectrum of IRAS 81344 - 0632, which may be associated with the proposed (Cowan et al., 1989) very young supernova remnant G25.5 + 0.2, is presented. This spectrum shows a red continuum, and the 12.8-micron Ne II forbidden line, and is similar to the spectra of known compact H II regions and planetary nebulae. This, together with

D. A. Green



Ischemic post-conditioning and vasodilator therapy during standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation to reduce cardiac and brain injury after prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study We investigated the effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) with and without cardioprotective vasodilatory therapy (CVT) at the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on cardio-cerebral function and 48-hour survival. Methods Prospective randomized animal study. Following 15 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, 42 Yorkshire farm pigs weighing an average of 34±2 kg were randomized to receive standard CPR (SCPR, n=12), SCPR+IPC (n=10), SCPR+IPC+CVT (n=10), or SCPR+CVT (n=10). IPC was delivered during the first 3 minutes of CPR with 4 cycles of 20 seconds of chest compressions followed by 20-second pauses. CVT consisted of intravenous sodium nitroprusside (2 mg) and adenosine (24 mg) during the first minute of CPR. Epinephrine was given in all groups per standard protocol. A transthoracic echocardiogram was obtained on all survivors 1 and 4 hours post-ROSC. The brains were extracted after euthanasia at least 24 hours later to assess ischemic injury in 7 regions. Ischemic injury was graded on a 0–4 scale with (0=no injury to 4= >50% neural injury). The sum of the regional scores was reported as cerebral histological score (CHS). 48 hours survival was reported. Results Post-resuscitation left ventricular ejection (LVEF) fraction improved in SCPR+CVT, SCPR+IPC+CVT and SCPR+IPC groups compared to SCPR (59%±9%, 52%±14%, 52%±14% vs. 35%±11%, respectively, p<0.05). Only SCPR+IPC and SCPR+IPC+CVT, but not SCPR+CVT, had lower mean CHS compared to SCPR (5.8±2.6, 2.8±1.8 vs. 10±2.1, respectively, p<0.01). The 48-hour survival among SCPR+IPC, SCPR+CVT, SCPR+IPC+CVT and SCPR was 6/10, 3/10, 5/10 and 1/12, respectively (Cox regression p<0.01). Conclusions IPC and CVT during standard CPR improved post-resuscitation LVEF but only IPC was independently neuroprotective and improved 48-hour survival after 15min of untreated cardiac arrest in pigs. PMID:23376583

Yannopoulos, Demetris; Segal, Nicolas; Matsuura, Timothy; Sarraf, Mohammad; Thorsgard, Marit; Caldwell, Emily; Rees, Jennifer; McKnite, Scott; SantaCruz, Karen; Lurie, Keith G.



Modern wavelength standards in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology the Atomic Spectroscopy Group has characterized several sources of wavelength standards useful for remote sensing applications. At low resolution, mercury pencil-type lamps are convenient for use either in the laboratory or the field. We recommend wavelengths for this lamp with an uncertainty of +\\/- 0.001 angstroms in the region

Joseph Reader; Craig J. Sansonetti



The low-resolution structure of nHDL reconstituted with DMPC with and without cholesterol reveals a mechanism for particle expansion[S  

PubMed Central

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation was used to obtain the low-resolution structure of nascent HDL (nHDL) reconstituted with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in the absence and presence of cholesterol, [apoA1:DMPC (1:80, mol:mol) and apoA1:DMPC:cholesterol (1:86:9, mol:mol:mol)]. The overall shape of both particles is discoidal with the low-resolution structure of apoA1 visualized as an open, contorted, and out of plane conformation with three arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine without cholesterol (nHDLDMPC) and two arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine with cholesterol (nHDLDMPC+Chol). The low-resolution shape of the lipid phase in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol were oblate ellipsoids, and fit well within their respective protein shapes. Modeling studies indicate that apoA1 is folded onto itself in nHDLDMPC, making a large hairpin, which was also confirmed independently by both cross-linking mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry analyses. In nHDLDMPC+Chol, the lipid was expanded and no hairpin was visible. Importantly, despite the overall discoidal shape of the whole particle in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol, an open conformation (i.e., not a closed belt) of apoA1 is observed. Collectively, these data show that full length apoA1 retains an open architecture that is dictated by its lipid cargo. The lipid is likely predominantly organized as a bilayer with a micelle domain between the open apoA1 arms. The apoA1 configuration observed suggests a mechanism for accommodating changing lipid cargo by quantized expansion of hairpin structures. PMID:23349207

Gogonea, Valentin; Gerstenecker, Gary S.; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Topbas, Celalettin; Wagner, Matthew A.; Tallant, Thomas C.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Callow, Philip; Pipich, Vitaliy; Malet, Helene; Schoehn, Guy; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.



Computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra: Program for calculation of molecular isotopic distribution and program for assignment of molecular formulas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two FORTRAN computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra were prepared and tested. One is for the calculation of the molecular isotopic distribution of any species from stored elemental distributions. The program requires only the input of the molecular formula and was designed for compatability with any computer system. The other program is for the determination of all possible combinations of atoms (and radicals) which may form an ion having a particular integer mass. It also uses a simplified input scheme and was designed for compatability with any system.

Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.



Classification and recognition of compounds in low-resolution open-path FT-IR spectrometry by Kohonen self-organizing maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using one- and two-dimensional Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs) to recognize similarities in low-resolution\\u000a vapor-phase infrared spectra without any additional information, i.e., in an unsupervised mode, has been investigated. Full-range\\u000a vapor-phase FT-IR reference spectra were first used to train the networks and the trained networks were then used to classify\\u000a the reference spectra into several groups. The feasibility

Husheng Yang; John D. Jegla; Peter R. Griffiths



On the linearity of the SWP camera of the international ultraviolet explorer /IUE/ - A correction algorithm. [for Short Wavelength Prime low resolution spectral images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is presented for correcting IUE low resolution spectral images obtained with the SWP camera for some of the non-linearity effects reported by Bohlin et al. (1980). The non-linearity problem, which affects SWP images processed at Goddard Space Flight Center in the period May 22, 1978 to July 7, 1979 and at VILSPA in the period June 14, 1978 to August 6, 1979, was essentially due to the use of an Intensity Transfer Function (ITF) that erroneously included a blank image in the 20 percent exposure level. The correction algorithm described here was adopted by the three IUE Agencies in November 1979 as being suitable for most IUE users. It has the advantages to be applicable to any kind of low resolution SWP spectra, to introduce errors which are usually less than the intrinsic photometric errors, and to be of simple application. The results obtained by applying the method to a representative set of spectra of both point and extended sources are reported. In addition, a new evaluation of linearity and reproducibility of the SWP spectral data is provided, based on the improved ITF.

Holm, A.; Schiffer, F. H.; Bohlin, R. C.; Cassatella, A.; Ponz, D. P.



Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.



Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities  

PubMed Central

Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22–45 years in age) performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 s respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and somatosensory association cortex (SAC). ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres. The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and, PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC, and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80%) are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC, and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed. PMID:24151468

Abeln, Vera; Harig, Alexandra; Knicker, Axel; Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan



Low-resolution structure of the soluble domain GPAA1 (yGPAA170–247) of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit GPAA1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) transamidase complex catalyses the attachment of GPI anchors to eukaryotic proteins in the lumen of ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPI transamidase complex consists of the subunits yPIG-K (Gpi8p), yPIG-S (Gpi17p), yPIG-T (Gpi16p), yPIG-U (CDC91/GAB1) and yGPAA1. We present the production of the two recombinant proteins yGPAA170–247 and yGPAA170–339 of the luminal domain of S. cerevisiae GPAA1, covering the amino acids 70–247 and 70–339 respectively. The secondary structural content of the stable and monodisperse yGPAA170–247 has been determined to be 28% ?-helix and 27% ?-sheet. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) data showed that yGPAA170–247 has an Rg (radius of gyration) of 2.72±0.025 nm and Dmax (maximum dimension) of 9.14 nm. These data enabled the determination of the two domain low-resolution solution structure of yGPAA170–247. The large elliptical shape of yGPAA170–247 is connected via a short stalk to the smaller hook-like domain of 0.8 nm in length and 3.5 nm in width. The topological arrangement of yGPAA170–247 will be discussed together with the recently determined low-resolution structures of yPIG-K24–337 and yPIG-S38–467 from S. cerevisiae in the GPI transamidase complex. PMID:23458223

Saw, Wuan Geok; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Gruber, Gerhard



Giant Radio Galaxies as a probe of the cosmological evolution of the IGM, I. Preliminary deep detections and low-resolution spectroscopy with the SALT  

E-print Network

A problem of the cosmological evolution of the IGM is recalled and a necessity to find distant (z>0.5) giant radio galaxies (GRGs) with the lobe energy densities lower than about 10^{-14} J m^{-3} to solve this problem is emphasized. Therefore we undertake a search for such GRGs on the southern sky hemisphere using the SALT. In this paper we present a selected sample of the GRG candidates and the first deep detections of distant host galaxies, as well as the low-resolution spectra of the galaxies identified on the DSS frames. The data collected during the Performance Verification (P-V) phase show that 21 of 35 galaxies with the spectroscopic redshift have the projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc (for H_{0}=71 km\\s\\Mpc). However their redshifts do not exceed the value of 0.4 and the energy density in only two of them is less than 10^{-14} J m^{-3}. A photometric redshift estimate of one of them (J1420-0545) suggests a linear extent larger than 4.8 Mpc, i.e. a larger than that of 3C236, the largest GRG known up to now.

J. Machalski; D. Koziel-Wierzbowska; M. Jamrozy



The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. V. Estimation of Alpha-Element Abundance Ratios From Low-Resolution SDSS/SEGUE Stellar Spectra  

E-print Network

We present a method for the determination of [alpha/Fe] ratios from low-resolution (R = 2000) SDSS/SEGUE stellar spectra. By means of a star-by-star comparison with degraded spectra from the ELODIE spectral library and with a set of moderately high-resolution (R = 15,000) and medium-resolution (R = 6000) spectra of SDSS/SEGUE stars, we demonstrate that we are able to measure [alpha/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra (with S/N > 20/1) to a precision of better than 0.1 dex, for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range Teff = [4500, 7000] K, log g = [1.5, 5.0], and [Fe/H] = [-1.4, +0.3], over the range [alpha/Fe] = [-0.1, +0.6]. For stars with [Fe/H] 25/1). Over the full temperature range considered, the lowest metallicity star for which a confident estimate of [alpha/Fe] can be obtained from our approach is [Fe/H] ~ -2.5; preliminary tests indicate that a metallicity limit as low as [Fe/H] ~ -3.0 may apply to cooler stars. As a further validation of this approach, weighted averages of [alpha/Fe] obtained for SE...

Lee, Young Sun; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Lai, David K; Rockosi, Constance M; Morrison, Heather L; Johnson, Jennifer A; An, Deokkeun; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Yanny, Brian



The SpeX Prism Library: 1000+ low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SpeX Prism Library (SPL) is a uniform compilation of low-resolution (?/?? ? 75-120), near-infrared (0.8--2.5 ?m) spectra spanning a decade of observations with the IRTF SpeX spectrograph. Primarily containing ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs, this spectral library has been used in over 100 publications to date, facilitating a broad range of science on low mass stars, exoplanets, high redshift sources and instrument/survey design. I summarize the contents of the SPL and highlight a few of the key scientific results that have made use of this resource, as well as applications in education, outreach and art. I also outline the future plans of the SPL, which include a reanalysis of early data, better integration and dissemination of source and spectral metadata, conversion to Virtual Observatory formats, development of a Python software package for community analysis, and a design for a node-based visual programming platform that can facilitate citizen science and project-based learning in stellar spectroscopy.

Burgasser, Adam J.


The SpeX Prism Library: 1000+ Low-resolution, Near-infrared Spectra of Ultracool M, L, T and Y Dwarfs  

E-print Network

The SpeX Prism Library (SPL) is a uniform compilation of low-resolution (R ~ 75-120), near-infrared (0.8-2.5 micron) spectra spanning a decade of observations with the IRTF SpeX spectrograph. Primarily containing ultracool M, L, T and Y dwarfs, this spectral library has been used in over 100 publications to date, facilitating a broad range of science on low mass stars, exoplanets, high redshift sources and instrument/survey design. I summarize the contents of the SPL and highlight a few of the key scientific results that have made use of this resource, as well as applications in education, outreach and art. I also outline the future plans of the SPL, which include a reanalysis of early data, better integration and dissemination of source and spectral metadata, conversion to Virtual Observatory formats, development of a Python software package for community analysis, and a design for a node-based visual programming platform that can facilitate citizen science and project-based learning in stellar spectroscopy.

Burgasser, Adam J



HermiteFit: fast-fitting atomic structures into a low-resolution density map using three-dimensional orthogonal Hermite functions.  


HermiteFit, a novel algorithm for fitting a protein structure into a low-resolution electron-density map, is presented. The algorithm accelerates the rotation of the Fourier image of the electron density by using three-dimensional orthogonal Hermite functions. As part of the new method, an algorithm for the rotation of the density in the Hermite basis and an algorithm for the conversion of the expansion coefficients into the Fourier basis are presented. HermiteFit was implemented using the cross-correlation or the Laplacian-filtered cross-correlation as the fitting criterion. It is demonstrated that in the Hermite basis the Laplacian filter has a particularly simple form. To assess the quality of density encoding in the Hermite basis, an analytical way of computing the crystallographic R factor is presented. Finally, the algorithm is validated using two examples and its efficiency is compared with two widely used fitting methods, ADP_EM and colores from the Situs package. HermiteFit will be made available at or upon request from the authors. PMID:25084327

Derevyanko, Georgy; Grudinin, Sergei



Got Standards? "Got Standards?"  

E-print Network

in order to bring harmony to global standards for international trade. Enter ISO 9000. The Basics In order to fully understand the concept of ISO 9000, it is very important to have a good idea of what a standard is for Standards. ISO 9000 standards are sometimes called "generic management system standards." "Generic

Vardeman, Stephen B.


Brain Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which part of your brain controls your ability to swallow? Your instinct to survive? And how do all the brain's parts function cooperatively? Find out with this interactive feature from the NOVA: Coma Web site.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Brain Tumor  


... from Mayo Clinic Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Brain tumor This shows a tumor that likely began ... Make a difference today. Learn more Give now Brain tumor Overview Symptoms & causes Diagnosis and treatment at ...


Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

Farmer, Lesley S. J.



Abstract--In the electroencephalogram (EEG) or magneto-encephalogram (MEG) context, brain source localization  

E-print Network

of the estimated source configuration. This paper develops and tests a new multistage adaptive processing technique], weighted minimum norm (WMN) [10], standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) [11, and also with Mood Disorders Program, St. Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Email: ghasey

Reilly, James P.


Brain Drain or Brain Exchange?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the “brain drain” hypothesis – the idea that New Zealand is losing many of its most talented citizens to other countries. We conclude that we are experiencing more of a brain exchange than a brain drain. There have been net outflows of New Zealand citizens for forty years, and we have been replacing those leaving with non-New

Hayden Glass; Wai Kin Choy



Brain Structure and Brain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has attempted to provide information in brief form regarding the structure of the brain, the types of pathological conditions that involve the brain, some of the conventional neurological diagnostic methods, and illustrations of the importance of intact brain functions for performances in the area of language functions and visuo-spatial…

Reitan, Ralph M.



A Comparison of Electron Density Profiles Derived from the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) Ultraviolet Measurements: Resolution of the 911 Å Conundrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets, at altitude less than 320 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Newer measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show the same behavior. Yet, satellite-based measurements made at altitudes above 800 km showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. So the conundrum is: why do measurements made at lower altitudes (< 350 km) indicate weak or non-existent emission while satellite measurements at higher altitudes (>800 km) show the presence of the emission at the expected level? We present our measurements of the daytime and nighttime electron density derived by analysis of the O I 1356 and O I 911 Å altitude profiles measured by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002. We compare the retrieved electron density profiles inferred from the limb intensities of the ultraviolet emissions to peak heights and peak densities measured during ionosonde overflights. We show that the 911 Å emission is strongly affected by the height of the ionosphere and show that this is consistent with absorption of the 911 Å by atomic oxygen. Model results are presented showing that the RAIDS and sounding rocket measurements can be explained by this absorption.

Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.




SciTech Connect

We present a method for the determination of [{alpha}/Fe] ratios from low-resolution (R = 2000) SDSS/SEGUE stellar spectra. By means of a star-by-star comparison with degraded spectra from the ELODIE spectral library and with a set of moderately high-resolution (R = 15, 000) and medium-resolution (R = 6000) spectra of SDSS/SEGUE stars, we demonstrate that we are able to measure [{alpha}/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra (with S/N>20/1) to a precision of better than 0.1 dex, for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T{sub eff} = [4500, 7000] K, log g = [1.5, 5.0], and [Fe/H] = [-1.4, +0.3], over the range [{alpha}/Fe] = [-0.1, +0.6]. For stars with [Fe/H] <-1.4, our method requires spectra with slightly higher signal-to-noise to achieve this precision (S/N>25/1). Over the full temperature range considered, the lowest metallicity star for which a confident estimate of [{alpha}/Fe] can be obtained from our approach is [Fe/H] {approx}-2.5; preliminary tests indicate that a metallicity limit as low as [Fe/H] {approx}-3.0 may apply to cooler stars. As a further validation of this approach, weighted averages of [{alpha}/Fe] obtained for SEGUE spectra of likely member stars of Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, and M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, and NGC 6791) exhibit good agreement with the values of [{alpha}/Fe] from previous studies. The results of the comparison with NGC 6791 imply that the metallicity range for the method may extend to {approx}+0.5.

Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lai, David K.; Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Morrison, Heather L. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); An, Deokkeun [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd block Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Yanny, Brian, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)



Brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.



Effects of spatial transformation on regional brain volume estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial transformation of MR brain images is a standard tool used in automated anatomical parcellation and other quantitative and qualitative methods to assess brain tissue volume, composition, and distribution. Despite widespread use, the quantitative effects of spatial transformation on regional brain volume estimates have been little studied. We report on the effects of transformation on regional brain volumes of 38

John S. Allen; Joel Bruss; Sonya Mehta; Thomas Grabowski; C. Kice Brown; Hanna Damasio



Brain arteriovenous malformations.  


An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a particular abnormality of blood vessels. Brain AVMs are congenital, but symptoms usually do not appear until the second decade of life - if at all. The most common presenting symptom is a brain hemorrhage, but other possible symptoms include neurological deficits, seizures and headaches. Until recently, the gold standard for diagnosing AVM was conventional angiography. However, computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography are now the first-line diagnostic tools for AVMs. This article reviews the presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for brain AVMs, including embolization, micro-surgery and radiosurgery. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to PMID:21771938

Ferrara, Adi R



NAME Three-Dimensional (3-D) Low-Resolution S-Pol Radar Grids, Version 1 Last Updated 20 April 2007  

E-print Network

BZ. For those data, we only eliminated gates with HV standard-Pol test pulse was removed in an automated matter by eliminating the last several gates where includes three-dimensional grids of standard polarimetric radar fields from the S-Pol radar ­ part

Rutledge, Steven


Brain metastases.  


Brain metastases are the most frequent neurological complication of cancer and the most common brain tumour type. Lung and breast cancers, and melanoma are responsible for up to three-quarters of metastatic brain lesions. Most patients exhibit either headache, seizures, focal deficits, cognitive or gait disorders, which severely impair the quality of life. Brain metastases are best demonstrated by MRI, which is sensitive but non-specific. The main differential diagnosis includes primary tumours, abscesses, vascular and inflammatory lesions. Overall prognosis is poor and depends on age, extent and activity of the systemic disease, number of brain metastases and performance status. In about half of the patients, especially those with widespread and uncontrolled systemic malignancy, death is heavily related to extra-neural lesions, and treatment of cerebral disease doesn't significantly improve survival. In such patients the aim is to improve or stabilize the neurological deficit and maintain quality of life. Corticosteroids and whole-brain radiotherapy usually fulfill this purpose. By contrast, patients with limited number of brain metastases, good performance status and controlled or limited systemic disease, may benefit from aggressive treatment as both quality of life and survival are primarily related to treatment of brain lesions. Several efficacious therapeutic options including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are available for these patients. PMID:24365409

Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Hildebrand, Jerzy



Brain investigation and brain conceptualization  

PubMed Central

Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.


Anatomy of the Brain  


Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Email: Donate Now Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain ...


Brain Cancer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... in the breast will always be called a breast cancer, even if it has spread to another place ... that commonly affect the brain are lung cancers, breast cancers, and skin cancers. This document is for informational ...


Brain Basics  


... bind onto, leading to more normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the ... reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that ...


Brain Basics: Know Your Brain  


... sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads ...


A systematic nomenclature for the insect brain.  


Despite the importance of the insect nervous system for functional and developmental neuroscience, descriptions of insect brains have suffered from a lack of uniform nomenclature. Ambiguous definitions of brain regions and fiber bundles have contributed to the variation of names used to describe the same structure. The lack of clearly determined neuropil boundaries has made it difficult to document precise locations of neuronal projections for connectomics study. To address such issues, a consortium of neurobiologists studying arthropod brains, the Insect Brain Name Working Group, has established the present hierarchical nomenclature system, using the brain of Drosophila melanogaster as the reference framework, while taking the brains of other taxa into careful consideration for maximum consistency and expandability. The following summarizes the consortium's nomenclature system and highlights examples of existing ambiguities and remedies for them. This nomenclature is intended to serve as a standard of reference for the study of the brain of Drosophila and other insects. PMID:24559671

Ito, Kei; Shinomiya, Kazunori; Ito, Masayoshi; Armstrong, J Douglas; Boyan, George; Hartenstein, Volker; Harzsch, Steffen; Heisenberg, Martin; Homberg, Uwe; Jenett, Arnim; Keshishian, Haig; Restifo, Linda L; Rössler, Wolfgang; Simpson, Julie H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Strauss, Roland; Vosshall, Leslie B



Brain-Compatible Assessments. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diane Ronis, a recognized expert in brain-compatible learning and assessment, goes beyond the world of standardized testing to show educators how to build and use targeted assessments based on the latest neuroscientific research. Updated to reflect recent findings about how the brain learns, this book provides readers with revised tools for…

Ronis, Diane L.



Cola Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over fifty years, Coke and Pepsi have spent billions trying to out-market each other. But a new brain study suggests that one brand has much deeper effects. This Science Update explores the affect advertising poses on the consumer's choice.

Science Update;



The Marine Mammal Brain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. In this unique standards-based activity, students compare the brains and behaviors of dolphins, sea lions, and manatees in a game-like format.

Jr., Archibald J.; Johnson, John I.; Morris, Lee G.; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.



PCDD, PCDF, AND DL-PCB analysis in food: performance evaluation of the high-resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry technique using consensus-based samples.  


Due to safety concerns regarding dietary exposure to POPs, regulatory bodies are issuing detailed guidelines for testing for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) ('dioxins') and dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs in foods of animal origin. Determination of the aforesaid chemicals at regulatory levels requires highly selective and sensitive testing techniques. The new generation of low-resolution mass spectrometers (triple quadrupoles) allows very low levels of quantification to be reached (in the order of tens of femtograms), thus suggesting a potential for their application in food and feed analysis. The performance of the low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LRMS/MS) approach with triple quadrupoles was assessed on a qualified set of food samples from proficiency tests (PTs) and defense analysis. Accuracy was tested comparing the results with data from high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and with consensus values from PTs. The cumulative TEQ results were characterized by deviations not exceeding 15% of PCDD?+?PCDF, DL-PCB, and PCDD?+?PCDF?+?DL-PCB (TEQ(TOT)) reference consensus values (sample TEQ(TOT) range, 2.29-25.1 pgWHO-TEQ(97)/g fat). Congener analytical variabilities did not influence significantly the WHO-TEQ(97) outcome of the corresponding sample. This preliminary performance evaluation highlights the potential of LRMS/MS as a routine technique for quantitative analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs in food. PMID:22223308

Ingelido, Anna Maria; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abballe, Annalisa; di Domenico, Alessandro; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena



8.SP Animal Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Is there an association between the weight of an animalâs body and the weight of the animalâs brain? 1. Make a scatterplot using the following data. Bo...


neuroscience / brain & mind neuroscience / brain & mind  

E-print Network

neuroscience / brain & mind #12;neuroscience / brain & mind Investment Construction of new Centre for Brain & Mind $3.6million External funding for researchers $60million Provincial investment in a 3T and one of three 7T MRI in the world $12million #12;neuroscience / brain & mind Recruitment and Building

Denham, Graham


Brain drain or brain gain: A revisit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature has turned to the brain gain effect, instead of the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. This paper, however, suggests brain drain remains a likely outcome. Suppose that foreign language skill affects an individual productivity when working abroad. A brain drain may occur when the (exogenously or endogenously determined) probability of immigration is

Donald Lien; Yan Wang



Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A brain tumor, or neoplasm, is a growth of abnormal cells inside the skull cavity. Most tumors of the Central Nervous System (>90%) originate from glial\\u000a cells (e.g., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells), and only rarely develop from neurons (1%) (Davis\\u000a LE, King MK, Schultz JL, Fundamentals of neurologic disease, Demos Medical Publishing, New York, 2005; Kaye AH, Essential

Kyle E. Ferguson; Grant L. Iverson; Mike R. Schoenberg


Evaluation of Brain Atrophy Estimation Algorithms using Simulated Ground-Truth Data  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Brain Atrophy Estimation Algorithms using Simulated Ground-Truth Data S. Sharma of analysis tools have been developed for the estimation of brain at- rophy using MRI. Since brain atrophy gold standards, we first propose an approach for the realistic simulation of brain tissue loss

Boyer, Edmond


Brain Cake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Cake is a web site that reaches girls from around the globe who are interested in changing the world with math and science! This site is a resource - a resource for yourself, your daughter, a student in your classroom, or someone you mentor. The Girls, Math & Science Partnership is exactly that - an innovative, compelling, high-quality resource for education, information, research and advocacy on gender equality in the sciences.The site also includes: games and experiments, careers, biographies, homework help, and links to other related sites.



Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the specific contributions of nuclear medicine techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET), for diagnosis and management of brain tumors. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET has particular strengths in predicting prognosis and differentiating cerebral lymphoma from nonmalignant lesions. Amino acid tracers including 11C-methionine, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine, and 18F-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine provide high sensitivity, which is most useful for detecting recurrent or residual gliomas, including most low-grade gliomas. They also play an increasing role for planning and monitoring of therapy. 18F-fluorothymidine can only be used in tumors with absent or broken blood–brain barrier and has potential for tumor grading and monitoring of therapy. Ligands for somatostatin receptors are of particular interest in pituitary adenomas and meningiomas. Tracers to image neovascularization, hypoxia, and phospholipid synthesis are under investigation for potential clinical use. All methods provide the maximum of information when used with image registration and fusion display with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Integration of PET and magnetic resonance imaging with stereotactic neuronavigation systems allows the targeting of stereotactic biopsies to obtain a more accurate histologic diagnosis and better planning of conformal and stereotactic radiotherapy. PMID:23026359

Herholz, Karl; Langen, Karl-Josef; Schiepers, Christiaan; Mountz, James M.



Singing the Brain Electric  

E-print Network

Singing the Brain Electric Brain pacemakers, scientists have found, can treat depression by correcting neural circuitry gone haywire. This thesis examines how such technology - a technique known as deep-brain stimulation, ...

Chua, Grace (Grace W. J.)



Brain tumor (image)  


Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...


Metastatic brain tumor  


Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. It will eventually spread to other areas of the body. Prognosis depends on the type of tumor and ...


American Brain Tumor Association  


... Target This New Genetic Test May Change How Brain Cancer is Treated Finding Keys to Drug Therapy Resistance in Glioblastoma NICO BrainPath Medical Device for Safely Accessing the Brain Wins Indiana Innovation Award Read More ABTA News ...


Brain tumor - primary - adults  


... adults; Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... play a role: Radiation therapy used to treat brain cancers increases the risk of brain tumors up to ...


North Dakota Dance Content Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dance should be seen as an authentic avenue for allowing students to learn kinesthetically by using movement that is essential to brain development. Ideally students would be exposed to dance forms and patterns in other art forms like music and drama as well as units within physical education classes. These North Dakota standards may be taught…

Anderson, Sue; Farrell, Renee; Robbins, Susan; Simonson, Paula; Stanley, Melissa


Evaluation of zebrafish brain development using optical coherence tomography.  


The zebrafish is a well-established model system used to study and understand various human biological processes. The present study used OCT to investigate growth of the adult zebrafish brain. Twenty zebrafish were studied, using their standard lengths as indicators of their age. Zebrafish brain aging was evaluated by analyzing signal attenuation rates and texture features in regions of interest (ROIs). Optical scattering originates from light interaction with biological structures. During development, the zebrafish brain gains cells. Signal attenuation rate, therefore, increases with increasing zebrafish brain age. This study's analyses of texture features could not identify aging in zebrafish brain. These results, therefore, indicated that the OCT signal attenuation rate can indicate zebrafish brain aging, and its analysis provides a more effective means of observing zebrafish brain aging than texture features analysis. Using OCT system could further increase the technique's potential for recognition and monitoring of zebrafish brain development. PMID:22961725

Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Cheng



Whole brain radiotherapy: Consequences for personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Several studies focusing on brain irradiation are in progress. Reflecting updates of relevant outcomes in palliative treatment of patients suffering from brain metastases, the primary objective of these studies is the evaluation of neurocognitive function and quality of life. Improvements of technology in radiation oncology allows us to spare the hippocampal region while appropriately irradiating other parts of brain tissue. Irradiation of the hippocampus region is likely to lead to manifestations of adverse events with a subsequent impact on patient's quality of life, which is in fact an improper approach in palliative medicine. Ongoing studies evaluate results of hippocampus avoiding radiotherapy compared to standard whole brain radiotherapy. Incorporation of neurocognitive function assessment may result in the confirmation of superiority of sparing the region of hippocampus and thus change current style of providing brain irradiation. PMID:24416544

Kazda, Tomas; Pospisil, Petr; Dolezelova, Hana; Jancalek, Radim; Slampa, Pavel



Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data  

SciTech Connect

Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL



Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia



Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

Rambaut, Andrew


Brain Tumor Symptoms  


... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the President & CEO Our ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...


Epidemiology of brain tumors.  


After lagging behind other brain tumor disciplines in the 1980s, the epidemiology of brain tumors is now making progress on several fronts. The Central Brain Tumor Registry in the USA has made a complete description of primary brain tumors available to researchers. International data suggest that environmental components in the etiology of brain tumors are likely to be widely dispersed by geography and demographic subgroups. There are few proven causes of brain tumors: high-dose ionizing radiation, inherited genetic syndromes and AIDs-related brain lymphomas. Promising avenues of research include the role of immune function, genetic components in families, metabolic and DNA-repair pathways and neurocarcinogen exposures. PMID:18076316

Davis, Faith S



Brain SPECT quantitation in clinical diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Methods to quantitate SPECT data for clinical diagnosis should be chosen so that they take advantage of the lessons learned from PET data. This is particularly important because current SPECT high-resolution brain imaging systems now produce images that are similar in resolution to those generated by the last generation PET equipment (9 mm FWHM). These high-resolution SPECT systems make quantitation of SPECT more problematic than earlier. Methodology validated on low-resolution SPECT systems may no longer be valid for data obtained with the newer SPECT systems. For example, in patients with dementia, the ratio of parietal to cerebellar activity often was studied. However, with new instruments, the cerebellum appears very different: discrete regions are more apparent. The large cerebellar regions usually used with older instrumentation are of an inappropriate size for the new equipment. The normal range for any method of quantitation determined using older equipment probably changes for data obtained with new equipment. It is not surprising that Kim et al. in their simulations demonstrated that because of the finite resolution of imaging systems, the ability to measure pure function is limited, with {open_quotes}anatomy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}function{close_quotes} coupled in a {open_quotes}complex nonlinear way{close_quotes}. 11 refs.

Hellman, R.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States)



Low Resolution Structural Models of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Domain of Upstream Stimulatory Factor 1 and Its Complexes with DNA from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Data  

PubMed Central

The upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (b/HLH/Z) transcription factor family, recognizing the CACGTG DNA motive as a dimer and playing an important role in the regulation of transcription in a variety of cellular and viral promoters. In this study we investigate the USF1 b/HLH/Z domain and its complexes with DNA by small angle x-ray scattering. We present low resolution structural models of monomeric b/HLH/Z USF1 in the absence of DNA and USF1 dimeric (b/HLH/Z)2-DNA and tetrameric (b/HLH/Z)4-DNA2 complexes. The data reveal a concentration-dependent USF1 dimer (b/HLH/Z)2-DNA-tetramer (b/HLH/Z)4-DNA2 equilibrium. The ability of b/HLH/Z USF1 to form a tetrameric assembly on two distant DNA binding sites as a consequence of increased protein concentration suggest a USF1 concentration-dependant mechanism of transcription activation involving DNA loop formation. PMID:17827227

Lamber, Ekaterina P.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Svergun, Dmitri I.



Low resolution structural models of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper domain of upstream stimulatory factor 1 and its complexes with DNA from small angle X-ray scattering data.  


The upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (b/HLH/Z) transcription factor family, recognizing the CACGTG DNA motive as a dimer and playing an important role in the regulation of transcription in a variety of cellular and viral promoters. In this study we investigate the USF1 b/HLH/Z domain and its complexes with DNA by small angle x-ray scattering. We present low resolution structural models of monomeric b/HLH/Z USF1 in the absence of DNA and USF1 dimeric (b/HLH/Z)(2)-DNA and tetrameric (b/HLH/Z)(4)-DNA(2) complexes. The data reveal a concentration-dependent USF1 dimer (b/HLH/Z)(2)-DNA-tetramer (b/HLH/Z)(4)-DNA(2) equilibrium. The ability of b/HLH/Z USF1 to form a tetrameric assembly on two distant DNA binding sites as a consequence of increased protein concentration suggest a USF1 concentration-dependant mechanism of transcription activation involving DNA loop formation. PMID:17827227

Lamber, Ekaterina P; Wilmanns, Matthias; Svergun, Dmitri I



Screening strategy for the rapid detection of in vitro generated glutathione conjugates using high-performance liquid chromatography and low-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with LightSight software for data processing.  


The knowledge of drug metabolism in the early phases of the drug discovery process is vital for minimising compound failure at later stages. As chemically reactive metabolites may cause adverse drug reactions, it is generally accepted that avoiding formation of reactive metabolites increases the chances of success of a molecule. In order to generate this important information, a screening strategy for the rapid detection of in vitro generated reactive metabolites trapped by glutathione has been developed. The bioassay incorporated the use of native glutathione and its close analogue the glutathione ethyl ester. The generic conditions for detecting glutathione conjugates that undergo constant neutral loss of 129 Da were optimised using a glutathione-based test mix of four compounds. The final liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry constant neutral loss method used low-resolution settings and a scanning window of 200 amu. Data mining was rapidly and efficiently performed using LightSight software. Unambiguous identification of the glutathione conjugates was significantly facilitated by the analytical characteristics of the conjugate pairs formed with glutathione and glutathione ethyl ester, i.e. by chromatographic retention time and mass differences. The reliability and robustness of the screening strategy was tested using a number of compounds known to form reactive metabolites. Overall, the developed screening strategy provided comprehensive and reliable identification of glutathione conjugates and is well suited for rapid routine detection of trapped reactive metabolites. This new approach allowed the identification of a previously unreported diclofenac glutathione conjugate. PMID:19844970

Ramírez-Molina, César; Burton, Lucy



Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review  

PubMed Central

A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime



Brain computer interfaces, a review.  


A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or 'locked in' by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime



Whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost for brain metastases in patients with malignant melanoma-a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with malignant melanoma may develop brain metastases during the course of the disease, requiring radiotherapeutic treatment. In patients with 1–3 brain metastases, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option besides surgery. For patients with 4 or more brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment. In certain patients with brain metastases, radiation treatment using whole brain helical Tomotherapy with integrated boost and hippocampal-sparing may improve prognosis of these patients. Methods/Design The present prospective, randomized two-armed trial aims to exploratory investigate the treatment response to conventional whole brain radiotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions versus whole brain helical Tomotherapy applying 30 Gy in 10 fractions with an integrated boost of 50 Gy to the brain metastases as well as hippocampal-sparing in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. The main inclusion criteria include magnetic resonance imaging confirmed brain metastases from a histopathologically confirmed malignant melanoma in patients with a minimum age of 18 years. The main exclusion criteria include a previous radiotherapy of the brain and not having recovered from acute high-grade toxicities of prior therapies. The primary endpoint is treatment-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints include imaging response, local and loco-regional progression-free survival, overall survival and quality of life. Trial registration Trial ID: DRKS00005127 PMID:24112545



BrainDump #1 The Need for Best Practices  

E-print Network

BrainDump #1 The Need for Best Practices in Creating Digital Library Objects DRAFT -- 3 IN CREATING THESE STANDARDS? ...................4 THE DIGITAL LIBRARY SERVICE MODEL............................................................................................5 A MODEL FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY OBJECTS

California at Berkeley, University of


Extending the viability of acute brain slices.  


The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W



Understanding brain networks and brain organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal “true” subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different “slices” of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

Pessoa, Luiz



A brain gain with a brain drain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home

Oded Stark; Christian Helmenstein; Alexia Prskawetz



International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain  

E-print Network

EA 4272 International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework, Brain Drain and Brain Gain: A Conceptual Framework by Bernard Franck* and Robert F. Owen** July 2009 for examining the interrelation between brain drain, brain gain and the location of human capital formation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Bilirubin and Brain Toxicity.  

E-print Network

??Despite improvements in detection and treatment of neonatal jaundice, there has been an apparent resurgence of bilirubin-induced brain damage. Unresolved issues concerning bilirubin-induced brain damage… (more)

Hankø, Erik



Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  


... Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Contact Us mild Traumatic Brain Injury Click Here to Start VIDEO STORIES What ... Families & Friendships Spirituality Anger Work Adjustment mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sleep Featured Sites Defense Centers of Excellence ...


Brain Mechanisms of Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the mechanisms of the human brain which bring about body movements. Included is a discussion of the way in which the brain and spinal cord issue commands and receive signals. (Author/SA)

Evarts, Edward V.



Mechanisms of brain ventricle development  

E-print Network

The brain ventricles are a conserved system of fluid-filled cavities within the brain that form during the earliest stages of brain development. Abnormal brain ventricle development has been correlated with neurodevelopmental ...

Lowery, Laura Anne



Towards an artificial brain.  


Three components of a brain model operating on neuromolecular computing principles are described. The first component comprises neurons whose input-output behavior is controlled by significant internal dynamics. Models of discrete enzymatic neurons, reaction-diffusion neurons operating on the basis of the cyclic nucleotide cascade, and neurons controlled by cytoskeletal dynamics are described. The second component of the model is an evolutionary learning algorithm which is used to mold the behavior of enzyme-driven neurons or small networks of these neurons for specific function, usually pattern recognition or target seeking tasks. The evolutionary learning algorithm may be interpreted either as representing the mechanism of variation and natural selection acting on a phylogenetic time scale, or as a conceivable ontogenetic adaptation mechanism. The third component of the model is a memory manipulation scheme, called the reference neuron scheme. In principle it is capable of orchestrating a repertoire of enzyme-driven neurons for coherent function. The existing implementations, however, utilize simple neurons without internal dynamics. Spatial navigation and simple game playing (using tic-tac-toe) provide the task environments that have been used to study the properties of the reference neuron model. A memory-based evolutionary learning algorithm has been developed that can assign credit to the individual neurons in a network. It has been run on standard benchmark tasks, and appears to be quite effective both for conventional neural nets and for networks of discrete enzymatic neurons. The models have the character of artificial worlds in that they map the hierarchy of processes in the brain (at the molecular, neuronal, and network levels), provide a task environment, and use this relatively self-contained setup to develop and evaluate learning and adaptation algorithms. PMID:2627565

Conrad, M; Kampfner, R R; Kirby, K G; Rizki, E N; Schleis, G; Smalz, R; Trenary, R



Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.  


Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal. PMID:24465175

Corballis, Michael C



EOS standards  

SciTech Connect

An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Standards Organizations

Health Level Screen (HL7)Founded in 1987, Health Level Seven, Inc., is a not-for-profit, ANSI-accredited, standards developing organization that provides standards for the exchange, management, and integration of data that supports clinical patient care and the management, delivery, and evaluation of healthcare services. Its 2,200 members represent over 500 corporations, including 90 percent of the largest information systems vendors serving healthcare.


Teaching Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Standards vision guides the discussion in this chapter on science teaching standards for the postsecondary level. The discussion centers on the importance of goal setting, designing experiences to meet students' needs, assessment, and collegiality. There is a strong recommendation that students be given opportunities to engage in meaningful scientific inquiry--to ask scientific questions, design experiments to collect evidence, and make critical interpretations of observations. This free selection includes an Introduction and Table of Contents.



(Terminology standardization)  

SciTech Connect

Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

Strehlow, R.A.



Experience and Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENOUGH, WILLIAM T.; BLACK, JAMES E.; and WALLACE, GHRISTOPHER S. Experience and Brain Development. GHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1987, 58, 539-559. This article considers how experience can influence the developing and mature brain and proposes a new categorization scheme based upon the type of information stored and the brain mechanisms that appear to be involved in storing it. In this scheme, experience-expectant

William T. Greenough; James E. Black; Christopher S. Wallace



Human Functional Brain Imaging  

E-print Network

Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

Rambaut, Andrew


Our Amazing Brains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins a regular series on how brain research can help us understand young people and ourselves as well. The intent is to alert the reader to important information from recent research on the brain. This initial installment explores the concept of the triune brain, a term coined by neuroscientist Paul MacLean. This refers to three…

Bath, Howard



Brain Migration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

Vinokur, Annie



Brain Research and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on brain activity has many implications for educators. The triune brain concept and the left and right hemisphere concepts are among the many complex theories evolving from experimentation and observation. The triune brain concept suggests that the human forebrain has expanded while retaining three structurally unique formations…

Claycomb, Mary


Arts with the Brain in Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To push for higher standards of learning, many policymakers are eliminating arts programs. This book presents the definitive case, based on what is known about the brain and learning, for making the arts a core part of the basic curriculum and thoughtfully integrating them into every subject. Separate chapters address musical, visual, and…

Jensen, Eric


Low Cost Brain Computer Interface First Results  

E-print Network

safety issues as well as prototyping and testing costs/time. These concerns make the task:// Abstract Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI) has been previously demonstrated to restore patient communication. The required medical safety standards, subsequent cost of equipment and its application/training times are all

Miranda, Eduardo Reck


Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology  

E-print Network

Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology Peter of the brain in MR and CT clearly con- veying the whole surface topology. For the comparison of the provided with direct volume rendering. Considering brain information exclusively, and ensuring a standardized

Blanz, Volker


A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans  

E-print Network

A System Architecture for Sharing De-Identified, Research-Ready Brain Scans and Health Information Department of Radiology Abstract. Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover

Chervenak, Ann


Brain Computer Music Interfacing Demo Interdisciplinary Centre for Computer Music Research (ICCMR)  

E-print Network

standard musical devices. The entertainment industry may also benefit from this technology (e.g., gamesBrain Computer Music Interfacing Demo Interdisciplinary Centre for Computer Music Research (ICCMR: Development of Brain-Computer Music Interfacing (BCMI) technology to connect the brain directly with musical

Miranda, Eduardo Reck


Interactive, GPU-Based Level Sets for 3D Brain Tumor  

E-print Network

Interactive, GPU-Based Level Sets for 3D Brain Tumor Segmentation Aaron Lefohn Joshua Cates Ross and quantitative results from a study of brain tumor segmentation. #12;1 Introduction This paper describes a new and the associated gold standard for a specific problem: brain tumor segmentation [1, 2]. This paper make

Utah, University of


Confirming the brain death diagnosis using brain CT angiography: experience in Tokat State Hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: Fourteen brain death cases diagnosed in Mart 2012-May 2013 period in Tokat State Hospital were studied retrospectively. CT angiography experience about those cases was shared, and use of CT angiography in confirmation of brain death was discussed. Material and Methods: All 14 cases were patients on mechanical ventilator, who did not respond to medical and surgical treatments at intensive care unit and were diagnosed clinically with brain death. All of these patients had CT angiography as a confirmatory test using a 4-slice CT scanner in Radiology department in Tokat State Hospital. Findings: Six of the patients were female and eight were male. All of them were referred from intensive care unit and had clinical brain death diagnosis before CT angiography. In the evaluation of CTA, four-point scoring involving opacification loss in both ICVs and cortical segments of MCA was used. CTA examinations confirmed brain death diagnoses in all patients who had clinical brain death diagnoses, and no confliction between CTA findings and clinical diagnoses was observed. Conclusion: Demonstrating the lack of cerebral circulation is a necessity for confirmation of brain death diagnosis. While conventional angiography remains the standard method, CTA emerged as an alternative method. In parallel to increase in prevalence of organ implants, CTA, a fast and efficient method, has been increasingly used in confirmation of brain death diagnoses. PMID:25126174

Karakus, Kayhan; Demirci, Seden; Cengiz, Aysun Yakut; Atalar, Mehmet Haydar



Tau Beta Pi: Brain Ticklers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tau Beta Pi is a national honor society for engineering students, and its quarterly Brain Ticklers online feature is a true challenge aimed at motivated individuals. In each issue, five standard questions and two bonus questions are given, which are intended to exercise peoples' problem solving skills. The problems are generally straightforward and easy to understand, but they can be extremely perplexing to solve. People who attempt the problems are encouraged to submit their answers for possible recognition in the following issue. Answers to the previous issue's problems are included when new issues are published.


Intra-operative probe for brain cancer: feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims a new medical probe for surgeons devoted to brain cancers, in particular glioblastoma multiforme. Within the last years, our group has started the development of a new intra-operative beta imaging probe. More recently, we took an alternative approach for the same application: a fluorescence probe. In both cases the purpose is to differentiate normal from tumor brain tissue. In a first step, we developed set-ups capable to measure autofluorescence. They are based on a dedicated epi-fluorescence design and on specific fiber optic probes. Relative signal amplitude, spectral shape and fluorescence lifetime measurements are foreseen to distinguish normal and cancer tissue by analyzing fluorophores like NADH, lipopigments and porphyrines. The autofluorescence spectra are recorded in the 460-640 nm range with a low resolution spectrometer. For lifetime measurements a fast detector (APD) is used together with a TCSPC-carte. Intrinsic wavelength- and time-resolutions are a few nm and 200 ps, respectively. Different samples have been analyzed to validate our new detection system and to allow a first configuration of our medical fluorescence probe. First results from the tissue measurements are shown.

Vu Thi, M. H.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M. A.; Lefebvre, F.; Menard, L.; Pitre, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.



Safety and efficacy of analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil versus standard hypnotic-based regimens in intensive care unit patients with brain injuries: a randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN50308308  

PubMed Central

Introduction This randomised, open-label, observational, multicentre, parallel group study assessed the safety and efficacy of analgesia-based sedation using remifentanil in the neuro-intensive care unit. Methods Patients aged 18–80 years admitted to the intensive care unit within the previous 24 hours, with acute brain injury or after neurosurgery, intubated, expected to require mechanical ventilation for 1–5 days and requiring daily downward titration of sedation for assessment of neurological function were studied. Patients received one of two treatment regimens. Regimen one consisted of analgesia-based sedation, in which remifentanil (initial rate 9 ?g kg-1 h-1) was titrated before the addition of a hypnotic agent (propofol [0.5 mg kg-1 h-1] during days 1–3, midazolam [0.03 mg kg-1 h-1] during days 4 and 5) (n = 84). Regimen two consisted of hypnotic-based sedation: hypnotic agent (propofol days 1–3; midazolam days 4 and 5) and fentanyl (n = 37) or morphine (n = 40) according to routine clinical practice. For each regimen, agents were titrated to achieve optimal sedation (Sedation–Agitation Scale score 1–3) and analgesia (Pain Intensity score 1–2). Results Overall, between-patient variability around the time of neurological assessment was statistically significantly smaller when using remifentanil (remifentanil 0.44 versus fentanyl 0.86 [P = 0.024] versus morphine 0.98 [P = 0.006]. Overall, mean neurological assessment times were significantly shorter when using remifentanil (remifentanil 0.41 hour versus fentanyl 0.71 hour [P = 0.001] versus morphine 0.82 hour [P < 0.001]). Patients receiving the remifentanil-based regimen were extubated significantly faster than those treated with morphine (1.0 hour versus 1.93 hour, P = 0.001) but there was no difference between remifentanil and fentanyl. Remifentanil was effective, well tolerated and provided comparable haemodynamic stability to that of the hypnotic-based regimen. Over three times as many users rated analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil as very good or excellent in facilitating assessment of neurological function compared with the hypnotic-based regimen. Conclusions Analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil permitted significantly faster and more predictable awakening for neurological assessment. Analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil was very effective, well tolerated and had a similar adverse event and haemodynamic profile to those of hypnotic-based regimens when used in critically ill neuro-intensive care unit patients for up to 5 days. PMID:15312228

Karabinis, Andreas; Mandragos, Kostas; Stergiopoulos, Spiros; Komnos, Apostolos; Soukup, Jens; Speelberg, Ben; Kirkham, Andrew JT



Vision and Brain Vision and Brain  

E-print Network

cost. The brain is a flawed detective with a loaded die for a compass, working on lousy pay with fuzzy the evidence of its own eyes, ruthlessly casting aside red herrings and fallguys one by one, by one, until

Stone, J. V.


Standard Deviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, by journalist Robert Niles, defines and explains standard deviation and the normal distribution. Graphs and a clear list of terms you need to know are given, and links to more of Niles' sites can be found by visitors on the right side of the screen.

Niles, Robert



A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.  


Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M; Mortrud, Marty T; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Phillips, John W; Hohmann, John G; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Zeng, Hongkui



Biological implications of whole-brain radiotherapy versus stereotactic radiosurgery of multiple brain metastases.  


Object The efficacy and safety of treatment with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (> 10) are topics of ongoing debate. This study presents detailed dosimetric and biological information to investigate the possible clinical outcomes of these 2 modalities. Methods Five patients with multiple brain metastases (n = 11-23) underwent SRS. Whole-brain radiotherapy plans were retrospectively designed with the same MR image set and the same structure set for each patient, using the standard opposing lateral beams and fractionation (3 Gy × 10). Physical radiation doses and biologically effective doses (BEDs) in WBRT and SRS were calculated for each lesion target and for the normal brain tissues for comparison of the 2 modalities in the context of clinical efficacy and published toxicities. Results The BEDs targeted to the tumor were higher in SRS than in WBRT by factors ranging from 2.4- to 3.0- fold for the mean dose and from 3.2- to 5.3-fold for the maximum dose. In the 5 patients, mean BEDs in SRS (calculated as percentages of BEDs in WBRT) were 1.3%-34.3% for normal brain tissue, 0.7%-31.6% for the brainstem, 0.5%-5.7% for the chiasm, 0.2%-5.7% for optic nerves, and 0.6%-18.1% for the hippocampus. Conclusions The dose-volume metrics presented in this study were essential to understanding the safety and efficacy of WBRT and SRS for multiple brain metastases. Whole-brain radiotherapy results in a higher incidence of radiation-related toxicities than SRS. Even in patients with > 10 brain metastases, the normal CNS tissues receive significantly lower doses in SRS. The mean normal brain dose in SRS correlated with the total volume of the lesions rather than with the number of lesions treated. PMID:25434938

Xue, Jinyu; Kubicek, Gregory J; Grimm, Jimm; LaCouture, Tamara; Chen, Yan; Goldman, H Warren; Yorke, Ellen



Data-Brain Modeling Based on Brain Informatics Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study on data-brain construction based on brain informatics (BI) methodology. The data-brain is a conceptual brain data model, which represents functional relationships among multiple human brain data sources, with respect to all major aspects and capabilities of human information processing system for systematic investigation and understanding of human intelligence. On one hand, developing such a

Jianhui Chen; Ning Zhong



The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION  

E-print Network

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

Barrett, Lisa Feldman


NEUROBIOLOGY: Brain, Heal Thyself  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The brain cannot repair itself after injury. Or so goes the dogma. In his Perspective, Lowenstein outlines recent results that indicate that quiescent progenitor cells and the growth factors to bring them to maturity are actually present, sequestered and silent, in the adult brain. Injury may partially trigger their activation. The current research challenge is how to persuade them to fully repair injured brain tissue.

Daniel H. Lowenstein (University of California, San Francisco;Department of Neurology and the Epilepsy Research Laboratory); Jack M. Parent (University of California, San Francisco;Department of Neurology and the Epilepsy Research Laboratory)



Nonmalignant pediatric brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in the pediatric population. Each year in the United States, approximately\\u000a 1500 to 2000 children are affected by one of these tumors. About 50% of pediatric brain tumors are malignant. Nonmalignant\\u000a pediatric brain tumors comprise an eclectic group of pathologic entities that have fascinating clinical features. Many of\\u000a these tumors demonstrate a

Mahmoud Rashidi; Victor Reis DaSilva; Alireza Minagar; James T. Rutka



Management of Brain Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  As systemic cancer therapies have improved, the natural history and importance of treating brain metastases continues to evolve.\\u000a Historically, most patients with brain metastases have been managed with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with surgical\\u000a resection or radiosurgery added for patients with single or few metastases. Because the potential late toxicity of WBRT is\\u000a increasingly recognized when systemic tumor

John G. Stewart; Stephen M. Sawrie; Asim Bag; Xiaosi Han; John B. Fiveash



Brain Organization and Psychodynamics  

PubMed Central

Any attempt to link brain neural activity and psychodynamic concepts requires a tremendous conceptual leap. Such a leap may be facilitated if a common language between brain and mind can be devised. System theory proposes formulations that may aid in reconceptualizing psychodynamic descriptions in terms of neural organizations in the brain. Once adopted, these formulations can help to generate testable predictions about brain–psychodynamic relations and thus significantly affect the future of psychotherapy. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:24–39) PMID:9888105

Peled, Avi; Geva, Amir B.



The packet switching brain.  


The computer metaphor has served brain science well as a tool for comprehending neural systems. Nevertheless, we propose here that this metaphor be replaced or supplemented by a new metaphor, the "Internet metaphor," to reflect dramatic new network theoretic understandings of brain structure and function. We offer a "weak" form and a "strong" form of this metaphor: The former suggests that structures and processes unique to Internet-like architectures (e.g., domains and protocols) can profitably guide our thinking about brains, whereas the latter suggests that one particular feature of the Internet-packet switching-may be instantiated in the structure of certain brain networks, particularly mammalian neocortex. PMID:20350173

Graham, Daniel; Rockmore, Daniel



Gliadel for brain metastasis  

PubMed Central

With therapies for systemic malignancy improving, life expectancy for cancer patients is becoming increasingly dependent on control of brain metastatic disease. Despite improvements in surgical and radiotherapy modalities for control of brain metastasis, the prognosis for patients with brain metastases is poor. The development of controlled release polymers has lead to novel new therapies for malignant brain tumors consisting of direct surgical delivery of chemotherapy agents to the tumor bed and sustained chemotherapy release over a prolonged period of time. Although there is a large body of literature in support of BCNU polymer wafer for primary brain malignancy and experimental brain metastases, clinical studies evaluating the BCNU polymer wafer for brain metastatic disease are relatively sparse. In this review, we discuss the role of the BCNU polymer wafer for brain metastasis focusing specifically on rationale for use of locally delivered sustained release polymers, history of the BCNU polymer wafer, and emerging studies examining the role of the BCNU polymer wafer for metastatic brain tumors. PMID:23717799

Abel, Taylor J.; Ryken, Timothy; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Gabikian, Patrik



Neuromodulation of Brain States  

PubMed Central

Switches between different behavioral states of the animal are associated with prominent changes in global brain activity, between sleep and wakefulness or from inattentive to vigilant states. What mechanisms control brain states, and what are the functions of the different states? Here we summarize current understanding of the key neural circuits involved in regulating brain states, with a particular emphasis on the subcortical neuromodulatory systems. At the functional level, arousal and attention can greatly enhance sensory processing, whereas sleep and quiet wakefulness may facilitate learning and memory. Several new techniques developed over the past decade promise great advances in our understanding of the neural control and function of different brain states. PMID:23040816

Lee, Seung-Hee; Dan, Yang



Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of this population are available; however, the data highlight significant deficiencies with few treatment standards or guidelines. Considering the limited availability of resources, it is necessary to define realistic goals. Attention should be given to injury prevention, developing standardized pediatric admission

Brian T. Jankowitz; P. David Adelson



Quantitative EEG and neurofeedback in children and adolescents: anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, comorbid addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and brain injury.  


This article explores the science surrounding neurofeedback. Both surface neurofeedback (using 2-4 electrodes) and newer interventions, such as real-time z-score neurofeedback (electroencephalogram [EEG] biofeedback) and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography neurofeedback, are reviewed. The limited literature on neurofeedback research in children and adolescents is discussed regarding treatment of anxiety, mood, addiction (with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and traumatic brain injury. Future potential applications, the use of quantitative EEG for determining which patients will be responsive to medications, the role of randomized controlled studies in neurofeedback research, and sensible clinical guidelines are considered. PMID:24975621

Simkin, Deborah R; Thatcher, Robert W; Lubar, Joel



BrainAligner: 3D Registration Atlases of Drosophila Brains  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Drosophila neural expression patterns in thousands of 3D image stacks of individual brains requires registering them into a canonical framework based on a fiducial reference of neuropil morphology. Given a target brain labeled with predefined landmarks, the BrainAligner program automatically finds the corresponding landmarks in a subject brain and maps it to the coordinate system of the target brain via a deformable warp. Using a neuropil marker (the antibody nc82) as a reference of the brain morphology and a target brain that is itself a statistical average of 295 brains, we achieved a registration accuracy of 2µm on average, permitting assessment of stereotypy, potential connectivity, and functional mapping of the adult fruitfly brain. We used BrainAligner to generate an image pattern atlas of 2,954 registered brains containing 470 different expression patterns that cover all the major compartments of the fly brain. PMID:21532582

Peng, Hanchuan; Chung, Phuong; Long, Fuhui; Qu, Lei; Jenett, Arnim; Seeds, Andrew M.; Myers, Eugene W.; Simpson, Julie H.



Multimodal, multidimensional models of mouse brain.  


Naturally occurring mutants and genetically manipulated strains of mice are widely used to model a variety of human diseases. Atlases are an invaluable aid in understanding the impact of such manipulations by providing a standard for comparison and to facilitate the integration of anatomic, genetic, and physiologic observations from multiple subjects and experiments. We have developed digital atlases of the C57BL/6J mouse brain (adult and neonate) as comprehensive frameworks for storing and accessing the myriad types of information about the mouse brain. Along with raw and annotated images, these contain database management systems and a set of tools for comparing information from different techniques and different animals. Each atlas establishes a canonical representation of the mouse brain and provides the tools for the manipulation and analysis of new data. We describe both these atlases and discuss how they may be put to use in organizing and analyzing data from mouse models of epilepsy. PMID:17767578

Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D; Yuan, Heng; Jacobs, Russell E; Toga, Arthur W



Brain Surgery Codes

Brain [and other parts of central nervous system] Meninges C700-C709, Brain C710–C719, Spinal Cord, Cranial Nerves and Other Parts of Central Nervous System C720-C729 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,


Drugs and the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.


Experimental traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex

Christiane Albert-Weissenberger; Anna-Leena Sirén



Cranial Surgery BRAIN TUMORS  

E-print Network

, Spinal Cord Tumors, Sciatica Andrew Wensel, M.D. 585-467-1643 Pierre Girgis, M.D. 585-276-4299 Kevin Walter, M.D. 585-276-3581 Director, Brain and Spinal Tumor Program Acoustic Neuroma G. Edward Vates, MCranial Surgery BRAIN TUMORS Meningioma/General All Neurosurgical Faculty Pediatric Howard

Goldman, Steven A.


Using Your Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many scientists have been fascinated by how the brain works, but much of what is known about the brain has been discovered within the last twenty years. In this article, the author explores how thinking and using one's mind are essential to understanding. She contends that children need to be in control of their learning; the adult's role is to…

Ward, Hellen



Split Brain Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)

Cassel, Russell N.



What a Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines basic concepts about how the brain develops and considers how Head Start teachers and parents can take full advantage of the brain's multisensory learning approach to develop more effective ways to interact with children. Focuses on the critical developmental period for stimulating neurons and developing neural connections. Suggests…

Love, Kim



Traumatic Brain Injury  


... be affected. There may be changes to your personality and you may feel anxious, upset, irritable or depressed. You may have trouble controlling your impulses. In some cases, a severe traumatic brain injury can lead to coma or death. Diagnosis & Tests How is a traumatic brain injury diagnosed? At ...


Small Brains, Bright Minds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect brains are structurally very dif- ferent from mammalian brains, and yet the basic demands of life are quite similar in both groups of animals. What, where, and how should experi- ence be stored for effective use in the future? How should innate information be combined with acquired informa- tion? How do the motivational and evaluating neural systems interact? How

Randolf Menzel; Gérard Leboulle; Dorothea Eisenhardt



Imaging the Working Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very sensitive SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) detectors are used in the technique known as magnetoencephalography to provide dynamic images of the brain. This can help our fundamental understanding of the way the brain works and may be of particular use in treating disorders such as epilepsy. (Author/MKR)

Swithenby, S. J.



Brain networks in schizophrenia.  


Schizophrenia--a severe psychiatric condition characterized by hallucinations, delusions, loss of initiative and cognitive function--is hypothesized to result from abnormal anatomical neural connectivity and a consequent decoupling of the brain's integrative thought processes. The rise of in vivo neuroimaging techniques has refueled the formulation of dysconnectivity hypotheses, linking schizophrenia to abnormal structural and functional connectivity in the brain at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. Over the past few years, advances in high-field structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have made it increasingly feasible to reconstruct comprehensive maps of the macroscopic neural wiring system of the human brain, know as the connectome. In parallel, advances in network science and graph theory have improved our ability to study the spatial and topological organizational layout of such neural connectivity maps in detail. Combined, the field of neural connectomics has created a novel platform that provides a deeper understanding of the overall organization of brain wiring, its relation to healthy brain function and human cognition, and conversely, how brain disorders such as schizophrenia arise from abnormal brain network wiring and dynamics. In this review we discuss recent findings of connectomic studies in schizophrenia that examine how the disorder relates to disruptions of brain connectivity. PMID:24500505

van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Fornito, Alex



Brain is a Computer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the similarities between the human brain and its engineering counterpart, the computer. Since students work with computers routinely, this comparison strengthens their understanding of both how the brain works and how it parallels that of a computer. Students are also introduced to the "stimulus-sensor-coordinator-effector-response" framework for understanding human and robot actions.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,


Brain Research and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information and research findings on right and left brain hemisphere research. The cerebral hemisphere, research on split-brain subjects, research with normal subjects, and sex differences are addressed. Indicates that each hemisphere functions differently (left--verbal and analytical; right--spatial and perceptual) but both…

Gerhard, Muriel M.



emotional brain without sleep  

E-print Network

evidence, reported here, that a lack of sleep inappropriately modulates the human emotional brain responseMagazine R877 The human emotional brain without sleep -- a prefrontal amygdala disconnect Seung-Schik Yoo1, Ninad Gujar2, Peter Hu2, Ferenc A. Jolesz1 and Matthew P. Walker2,* Sleep deprivation is known

Walker, Matthew P.


Baby Brain Map  


... can tailor to the needs of their own child and family. Click here to listen to or download the podcasts. This podcast series is generously funded by MetLife Foundation. Baby Brain Map Home > Behavior & Development > Brain Development Welcome to ...


Brain Pressure Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transducer originally used to measure air pressure in aircraft wind tunnel tests is the basis for a development important in diagnosis and treatment of certain types of brain damage. A totally implantable device, tbe intracranial pressure monitor measures and reports brain pressure by telemetry.



Irreversible human brain.  


The recent developments in thermodynamic analysis of irreversibility for open systems represent an important result useful in the study of brain, both in relation to its neurobiology and to its diseases. In this paper the extrema entropy generation principle is suggested as a new powerful approach to the study of brain. PMID:23186801

Lucia, Umberto



Brain Malignancies Steering Committee

The BMSC functions to harmonize an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process that will identify and promote the "Best Science" in brain cancer clinical research by addressing the design, prioritization and evaluation of phase II, and all phase III clinical trials. The BMSC focus is in both adult and pediatric brain cancers.


Feed Your Brain!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

Failmezger, Tammie L.



Inside the Adolescent Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

Drury, Stacy S.



Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)



Spatiotemporal brain imaging and modeling  

E-print Network

This thesis integrates hardware development, data analysis, and mathematical modeling to facilitate our understanding of brain cognition. Exploration of these brain mechanisms requires both structural and functional knowledge ...

Lin, Fa-Hsuan, 1972-



Intraoperative virtual brain counseling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando



Reviving brain death: a functionalist view.  


Recently both whole brain death (WBD) and higher brain death (HBD) have come under attack. These attacks, we argue, are successful, leaving supporters of both views without a firm foundation. This state of affairs has been described as "the death of brain death." Returning to a cardiopulmonary definition presents problems we also find unacceptable. Instead, we attempt to revive brain death by offering a novel and more coherent standard of death based on the permanent cessation of mental processing. This approach works, we claim, by being functionalist instead of being based in biology, consciousness, or personhood. We begin by explaining why an objective biological determination of death fails. We continue by similarly rejecting current arguments offered in support of HBD, which rely on consciousness and/or personhood. In the final section, we explain and defend our functionalist view of death. Our definition centers on mental processing, both conscious and preconscious or unconscious. This view provides the philosophical basis of a functional definition that most accurately reflects the original spirit of brain death when first proposed in the Harvard criteria of 1968. PMID:23784534

Lipuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P



Multicoil shimming of the mouse brain.  


MR imaging and spectroscopy allow the noninvasive measurement of brain function and physiology, but excellent magnetic field homogeneity is required for meaningful results. The homogenization of the magnetic field distribution in the mouse brain (i.e., shimming) is a difficult task due to complex susceptibility-induced field distortions combined with the small size of the object. To date, the achievement of satisfactory whole brain shimming in the mouse remains a major challenge. The magnetic fields generated by a set of 48 circular coils (diameter 13 mm) that were arranged in a cylinder-shaped pattern of 32 mm diameter and driven with individual dynamic current ranges of ±1 A are shown to be capable of substantially reducing the field distortions encountered in the mouse brain at 9.4 Tesla. Static multicoil shim fields allowed the reduction of the standard deviation of Larmor frequencies by 31% compared to second order spherical harmonics shimming and a 66% narrowing was achieved with the slice-specific application of the multicoil shimming with a dynamic approach. For gradient echo imaging, multicoil shimming minimized shim-related signal voids in the brain periphery and allowed overall signal gains of up to 51% compared to spherical harmonics shimming. PMID:21442653

Juchem, Christoph; Brown, Peter B; Nixon, Terence W; McIntyre, Scott; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A



Deep brain stimulation: indications and evidence.  


Deep brain stimulation is a minimally invasive targeted neurosurgical intervention that enables structures deep in the brain to be stimulated electrically by an implanted pacemaker. It has become the treatment of choice for Parkinson's disease, refractory to, or complicated by, drug therapy. Its efficacy has been demonstrated robustly by randomized, controlled clinical trials, with multiple novel brain targets having been discovered in the last 20 years. Multifarious clinical indications for deep brain stimulation now exist, including dystonia and tremor in movement disorders; depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's syndrome in psychiatry; epilepsy, cluster headache and chronic pain, including pain from stroke, amputation, trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis. Current research argues for novel indications, including hypertension and orthostatic hypotension. The development, principles, indications and effectiveness of the technique are reviewed here. While deep brain stimulation is a standard and widely accepted treatment for Parkinson's disease after 20 years of experience, in chronic pain it remains restricted to a handful of experienced, specialist centers willing to publish outcomes despite its use for over 50 years. Reasons are reviewed and novel approaches to appraising clinical evidence in functional neurosurgery are suggested. PMID:17850194

Pereira, Erlick A C; Green, Alexander L; Nandi, Dipankar; Aziz, Tipu Z



Clarifying the discussion on brain death.  


Definitions of death are based on subjective standards, priorities, and social conventions rather than on objective facts about the state of human physiology. It is the meaning assigned to the facts that determines when someone may be deemed to have died, not the facts themselves. Even though subjective standards for the diagnosis of death show remarkable consistency across communities, they are extrinsic. They are driven, implicitly or explicitly, by ideas about what benefits the community rather than what benefits the individual. The differences that do exist across communities generally reduce to questions about legitimacy and not fact. The questions at the core of the debate about brain death are better framed by asking: "Whom ought we deem to be dead?" rather than: "Who is dead." The rationale for equating brain death with death, therefore, extends well beyond somatic and biological concepts of death. PMID:11588657

Dagi, F T; Kaufman, R



Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction (‘shaving’) of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [11C]-raclopride and [11C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches.

Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M.; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E.



Brain tissue salvage in acute stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombolysis is the only effective medical therapy of ultra-acute (<3 hours) cerebral ischemia, and it is moving from academic\\u000a centers to community-based standard therapy in experienced centers. Despite intensive experimental and clinical research,\\u000a the salvage of brain cells through a host of neuroprotective strategies has not been demonstrated to be efficient. As the\\u000a imaging and other patient selection methods continue

Perttu J. Lindsberg



Insulin and the brain.  


Mainly known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, insulin has also significant impact within the brain, functioning as a key neuromodulator in behavioral, cellular, biochemical and molecular studies. The brain is now regarded as an insulin-sensitive organ with widespread, yet selective, expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala and cerebral cortex. Insulin receptor signaling in the brain is important for neuronal development, glucoregulation, feeding behavior, body weight, and cognitive processes such as with attention, executive functioning, learning and memory. Emerging evidence has demonstrated insulin receptor signaling to be impaired in several neurological disorders. Moreover, insulin receptor signaling is recognized as important for dendritic outgrowth, neuronal survival, circuit development, synaptic plasticity and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor trafficking. We review the multiple roles of insulin in the brain, as well as its endogenous trafficking to the brain or its exogenous intervention. Although insulin can be directly targeted to the brain via intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intraparenchymal delivery, these invasive techniques are with significant risk, necessitating repeated surgical intervention and providing potential for systemic hypoglycemia. Another method, intranasal delivery, is a non-invasive, safe, and alternative approach which rapidly targets delivery of molecules to the brain while minimizing systemic exposure. Over the last decades, the delivery of intranasal insulin in animal models and human patients has evolved and expanded, permitting new hope for associated neurodegenerative and neurovascular disorders. PMID:23231032

Derakhshan, Fatemeh; Toth, Cory



Brain specialization for music.  


Music, like language, is a universal and specific trait to humans. Similarly, music appreciation, like language comprehension, appears to be the product of a dedicated brain organization. Support for the existence of music-specific neural networks is found in various pathological conditions that isolate musical abilities from the rest of the cognitive system. Cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain damage, and congenital brain anomalies can lead to selective disorders of music processing. Conversely, autism and epilepsy can reveal the autonomous functioning and the selectivity, respectively, of the neural networks that subserve music. However, brain specialization for music should not be equated with the presence of a singular "musical center" in the brain. Rather, multiple interconnected neural networks are engaged, of which some may capture the essence of brain specialization for music. The encoding of pitch along musical scales is likely such an essential component. The implications of the existence of such special-purpose cortical processes are that the human brain might be hardwired for music. PMID:12194505

Peretz, Isabelle



The brain in science education: what should everyone learn?  


Dr. Jo Ellen Roseman and Mary Koppal, from the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), discuss how brain science fits into national classroom curricula. While recommendations published by AAAS, the National Research Council, the Society for Neuroscience, and the College Board all include standards relating to the brain, what students actually learn in the classroom varies greatly from state to state. PMID:23447762

Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary



Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.


The Brain Reserve Hypothesis, Brain Atrophy and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Researchers have used the concept of brain reserve to explain the dissociation between pathological brain damage and cognitive and functional performance. A variety of brain reserve hypotheses exist, and different empirical strategies have been employed to investigate these variants. Objective: The study investigates (i) the relationship between measures of brain burden (atrophy, white matter hyperintensities (WMH)) and measures of

Helen Christensen; Kaarin J. Anstey; Ruth A. Parslow; Jerome Maller; Andrew Mackinnon; Perminder Sachdev



The Brain, the Broken Brain & the Neural Biology of Language  

E-print Network

The Brain, the Broken Brain & the Neural Biology of Language Presenter: Steven Small Time & )1949 N. Hoyne Café Email list #12;The Brain, the Broken Brain & the Neural Biology of Language Presenter: Steven Small Time & Date: 7-9 PM Monday

Collar, Juan I.


Advances in neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Improved diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed for our military and veterans, their families, and society at large. Advances in brain imaging offer important biomarkers of structural, functional, and metabolic information concerning the brain. This article reviews the application of various imaging techniques to the clinical problems of TBI and PTSD. For TBI, we focus on findings and advances in neuroimaging that hold promise for better detection, characterization, and monitoring of objective brain changes in symptomatic patients with combat-related, closed-head brain injuries not readily apparent by standard computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. PMID:20104401

Van Boven, Robert W.; Harrington, Greg S.; Hackney, David B.; Ebel, Andreas; Gauger, Grant; Bremner, J. Douglas; D'Esposito, Mark; Detre, John A.; Haacke, E. Mark; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Le Bihan, Denis; Mathis, Chester A.; Mueller, Susanne; Mukherjee, Pratik; Schuff, Norbert; Chen, Anthony; Weiner, Michael W.



Management of penetrating brain injury  

PubMed Central

Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan



Human intelligence and brain networks.  


Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other. PMID:21319494

Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J



Human intelligence and brain networks  

PubMed Central

Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other. PMID:21319494

Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E.; Haier, Richard J.



High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

McWilliam, Erica



Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.



Brain Research: Implications for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to examine the research of split-brain, hemispheric specialization, and brain function, as it pertains to handwriting, brain wave patterns, and lateral differences. Studies are reviewed which point to asymmetric differentiated functions and capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres in split-brain patients and in normal…

Crouch-Shinn, Jenella; Shaughnessy, Michael F.


Brain cancer...231 Chapter 21  

E-print Network

NICR/NCRI Brain cancer...231 Chapter 21: Brain cancer (including central nervous system; C70-C72 incidence rates than expected. o Ireland had some of the highest incidence rates of brain cancer among report 232...Brain cancer 21.1: Incidence During 2000-2004 there were 232 male and 182 females diagnosed

Paxton, Anthony T.


Understanding the changing adolescent brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human brain continues to develop throughout the adolescent years. Although there are differences between male and female teenagers in terms of the time course of neural development, similar brain areas undergo significant restructuring in both sexes. Brain regions in which development is particularly protracted include the prefrontal cortex and the temporalparietal

Stephanie Burnett; Catherine Sebastian


Partial volume correction of brain perfusion estimates using the inherent signal data of time-resolved arterial spin labeling.  


Quantitative perfusion MRI based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) is hampered by partial volume effects (PVEs), arising due to voxel signal cross-contamination between different compartments. To address this issue, several partial volume correction (PVC) methods have been presented. Most previous methods rely on segmentation of a high-resolution T1 -weighted morphological image volume that is coregistered to the low-resolution ASL data, making the result sensitive to errors in the segmentation and coregistration. In this work, we present a methodology for partial volume estimation and correction, using only low-resolution ASL data acquired with the QUASAR sequence. The methodology consists of a T1 -based segmentation method, with no spatial priors, and a modified PVC method based on linear regression. The presented approach thus avoids prior assumptions about the spatial distribution of brain compartments, while also avoiding coregistration between different image volumes. Simulations based on a digital phantom as well as in vivo measurements in 10 volunteers were used to assess the performance of the proposed segmentation approach. The simulation results indicated that QUASAR data can be used for robust partial volume estimation, and this was confirmed by the in vivo experiments. The proposed PVC method yielded probable perfusion maps, comparable to a reference method based on segmentation of a high-resolution morphological scan. Corrected gray matter (GM) perfusion was 47% higher than uncorrected values, suggesting a significant amount of PVEs in the data. Whereas the reference method failed to completely eliminate the dependence of perfusion estimates on the volume fraction, the novel approach produced GM perfusion values independent of GM volume fraction. The intra-subject coefficient of variation of corrected perfusion values was lowest for the proposed PVC method. As shown in this work, low-resolution partial volume estimation in connection with ASL perfusion estimation is feasible, and provides a promising tool for decoupling perfusion and tissue volume. PMID:25066601

Ahlgren, André; Wirestam, Ronnie; Petersen, Esben Thade; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Knutsson, Linda



Neurocysticercosis mimicking brain tumor.  


Neurocysticercosis together with brain tumors is one of the leading causes of seizures in the developing world. In Western Europe NCC is rare and a high degree of physician awareness is necessary for diagnosis. PMID:24059665

Vasiljevi?-Vu?kovi?, V; Miloševi? Medenica, S; Gruji?i?, D



Brain Tumor Risk Factors  


... cells grow, which may eventually lead to the development of a tumor. Brain tumors can also be associated with changes in the chromosomes. Each normal cell in any human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes. The most ...


Brain Wake-Ups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.



The Developing Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses neural activity and stimulation crucial in fetal brain development and the formation of the mind. Focuses on activity-dependent remodeling related to development of the visual system and retinal activity. (MCO)

Schatz, Carla J.



Bathing the brain  

PubMed Central

The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, which provides a mechanically stable environment for these delicate structures against the forces of gravity and sudden acceleration and deceleration. Neurons and glia comprising the parenchyma of the brain are enveloped in their microenvironment by interstitial fluid. Interstitial fluid has long been considered to be unaffected by the production and flow of cerebrospinal fluid outside the brain parenchyma. However, two recent papers by Iliff et al. demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid enters the deep substance of the brain, mixes with the interstitial fluid surrounding neurons and glia, and plays an important role in the exchange and clearance of molecules in the interstitial space of the central nervous system. PMID:23434595

Strittmatter, Warren J.



Traumatic Brain Injury  


... Resources to Promote Psychological Health and Resilience in Military and Civilian Communities." Story National Plan Supports Veterans' ... and traumatic brain injury research efforts at the Military Health System Research Symposium. Story Maryland Nurses Learn ...


Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... service member refers to people serving in the military. This reference summary explains traumatic brain injuries. It ... are a common cause of TBIs in the military during wartime. Many service members have suffered from ...


Brain and Addiction  


... methamphetamine , cause nerve cells to release too much dopamine, which is a natural neurotransmitter, or prevent the normal recycling of dopamine. This leads to exaggerated messages in the brain, ...


Brain tumors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric brain tumors are a challenging group of very divergent diseases. Considerable controversy exists concerning the\\u000a accurate diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Aggressive therapy is often needed to cure aggressive and potentially\\u000a lethal disease, yet late effects, especially injury to the developing brain, remain a profound problem. The discipline of\\u000a pediatric neuro-oncology remains one of the most productive areas

Andrew W. Walter; Joanne M. Hilden



Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ?open? would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders



Electrical brain imaging reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of timbre perception in humans.  


Timbre is a major attribute of sound perception and a key feature for the identification of sound quality. Here, we present event-related brain potentials (ERPs) obtained from sixteen healthy individuals while they discriminated complex instrumental tones (piano, trumpet, and violin) or simple sine wave tones that lack the principal features of timbre. Data analysis yielded enhanced N1 and P2 responses to instrumental tones relative to sine wave tones. Furthermore, we applied an electrical brain imaging approach using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to estimate the neural sources of N1/P2 responses. Separate significance tests of instrumental vs. sine wave tones for N1 and P2 revealed distinct regions as principally governing timbre perception. In an initial stage (N1), timbre perception recruits left and right (peri-)auditory fields with an activity maximum over the right posterior Sylvian fissure (SF) and the posterior cingulate (PCC) territory. In the subsequent stage (P2), we uncovered enhanced activity in the vicinity of the entire cingulate gyrus. The involvement of extra-auditory areas in timbre perception may imply the presence of a highly associative processing level which might be generally related to musical sensations and integrates widespread medial areas of the human cortex. In summary, our results demonstrate spatio-temporally distinct stages in timbre perception which not only involve bilateral parts of the peri-auditory cortex but also medially situated regions of the human brain associated with emotional and auditory imagery functions. PMID:16798014

Meyer, Martin; Baumann, Simon; Jancke, Lutz



Abstract: Brain Drain or Brain Exchange?  

E-print Network

This paper explores the “brain drain ” hypothesis – the idea that New Zealand is losing many of its most talented citizens to other countries. We conclude that we are experiencing more of a brain exchange than a brain drain. There have been net outflows of New Zealand citizens for forty years, and we have been replacing those leaving with non-New Zealand citizens. On the basis of the data available, our immigrants appear to be more skilled than our emigrants (and than our general population). But there may be some cause for concern if immigrants cannot get jobs to make use of their skills. Migration flows to and from Australia are different from those with the rest of the world. New Zealand consistently loses its citizens to Australia, but they are not just the highest skilled. Instead, they are representative of the general population of New Zealand. That is, there is no brain drain to Australia either, but what might be called a “same drain”. This is likely to be a consequence of the common labour market. Policy responses could focus on both outflows and inflows. Limited policy levers exist for attracting and retaining New Zealand citizens within the country, other than making the country a more attractive place to work, and live. The key policy issue for inflows is the improvement of the selection, settlement, and integration of immigrants. The paper ends by calling for a more sophisticated debate on immigration and emigration, and a more accurate conception of what will be an ongoing trend – that is, the increasingly free flow of people (including New Zealanders), around the globe.

Hayden Glass; Wai Kin Choy


Examining the decomposed brain.  


Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for ?-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice. PMID:25384305

MacKenzie, James Mackintosh



Surgery for brain edema.  


Brain edema is a common pathophysiological process seen in many neurosurgical conditions. It can be localized in relation to focal lesions or generalized in diffuse types of brain injury. In addition to local adverse effects occurring at a cellular level, brain edema is associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and both phenomena contribute to poor outcome in patients. One of the goals in treating patients with acute neurosurgical conditions in intensive care is to control brain edema and maintain ICP below target levels. The mainstay of treatment is medical therapy to reduce edema, but in certain patients--for example, those with diffuse severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction--such treatment is not effective. In these patients, opening the skull (decompressive craniectomy) to reduce ICP is a potential option. In this review the authors discuss the role of decompressive craniectomy as a surgical option in patients with brain edema in the context of a variety of pathological entities. They also address the current evidence for the technique (predominantly observational series) and the ongoing randomized studies of decompressive craniectomy in TBI and ischemic stroke. PMID:17613232

Hutchinson, Peter; Timofeev, Ivan; Kirkpatrick, Peter



Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastasis  

PubMed Central

Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a mainstay of treatment in patients with both identifiable brain metastases and prophylaxis for microscopic disease. The use of WBRT has decreased somewhat in recent years due to both advances in radiation technology, allowing for a more localized delivery of radiation, and growing concerns regarding the late toxicity profile associated with WBRT. This has prompted the development of several recent and ongoing prospective studies designed to provide Level I evidence to guide optimal treatment approaches for patients with intracranial metastases. In addition to defining the role of WBRT in patients with brain metastases, identifying methods to improve WBRT is an active area of investigation, and can be classified into two general categories: Those designed to decrease the morbidity of WBRT, primarily by reducing late toxicity, and those designed to improve the efficacy of WBRT. Both of these areas of research show diversity and promise, and it seems feasible that in the near future, the efficacy/toxicity ratio may be improved, allowing for a more diverse clinical application of WBRT. PMID:23717795

McTyre, Emory; Scott, Jacob; Chinnaiyan, Prakash



Effect of Music Therapy on Mood and Social Interaction Among Individuals With Acute Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of music therapy techniques as an aid in improving mood and social interaction after traumatic brain injury or stroke. Design: Eighteen individuals with traumatic brain injury or stroke were assigned either standard rehabilitation alone or standard rehabilitation along with music therapy (3 treatments per week for up to 10 treatments). Measures: Pretreatment and posttreatment

Sangeetha Nayak; Barbara L. Wheeler; Samuel C. Shiflett; Sandra Agostinelli



More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma



Abnormal electroretinogram associated with developmental brain anomalies.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: We have encountered abnormal ERGs associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, macular, optic nerve and chorioretinal colobomata and developmental brain anomalies. Brain anomalies include cortical dysgenesis, lissencephaly, porencephaly, cerebellar and corpus callosum hypoplasia. We describe six exemplar cases. METHODS: Scotopic and photopic ERGs adherent to international standards were performed as well as photopic ERGs to long-duration stimuli. CT or MRI studies were also done. The ERGs were compared to age-matched normal control subjects. RESULTS: ERG changes include reduced amplitude b-waves to blue and red stimuli under scotopic testing conditions. Implicit times were often delayed. The photopic responses also showed reduced amplitude a- and b-waves with implicit time delays. The long-duration photopic ERG done in one case shows attenuation of both ON- and OFF-responses. CONCLUSIONS: Common underlying developmental genetic or environmental unifying casualties are speculated to be at fault in causing these cases of associated retinal and brain abnormalities. No single etiology is expected. Multiple potential causes acting early in embryogenesis effecting neuronal induction, migration and differentiation are theorized. These occur at a time when brain and retinal cells are sufficiently undifferentiated to be similarly effected. We call these cases examples of Brain Retina Neuroembryodysgenesis (BRNED). Homeobox and PAX genes with global neuronal developmental influences are gene candidates to unify the observed disruption of brain and retinal cell development. The ERG can provide a valuable clinical addition in understanding and ultimately classifying these disorders. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8719676

Cibis, G W; Fitzgerald, K M



Modern wavelength standards in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology the Atomic Spectroscopy Group has characterized several sources of wavelength standards useful for remote sensing applications. At low resolution, mercury pencil-type lamps are convenient for use either in the laboratory or the field. We recommend wavelengths for this lamp with an uncertainty of +/- 0.001 angstroms in the region 2535 angstroms to 5790 angstroms. We also provide relative irradiances for the most prominent Hg lines, data that can be used to determine instrumental response. For high- resolution applications, we have measured wavelengths and relative intensities emitted by a commercial Pt/Ne hollow cathode lamp. Wavelengths for 5600 lines from 1130 angstroms to 4330 angstroms, some with uncertainties as small as +/- 0.0004 angstroms, are available in a comprehensive atlas of this lamp. Excellent calibration lines can also be obtained from demountable hollow cathode lamps. We review wavelength standards in Fe I and II, Th I and II, Ar II, and Cu II that can be excited in such lamps. Cu II provides wavelengths with uncertainties of less than +/- 0.0004 angstroms from 670 angstroms through the entire ultraviolet region. For calibrations at shorter wavelengths, we have developed accurate standards that can be excited in a sliding-spark discharge with yttrium electrodes.

Reader, Joseph; Sansonetti, Craig J.



User-Friendly Software for the Analysis of Brain Lesions (ABLe)  

PubMed Central

We previously developed a software package called ABLe (Analysis of Brain Lesions) which characterizes brain lesions in terms of lesion volume and intersection with cytoarchitecture (e.g. Brodmann areas). Since our previous publication, there have been significant improvements to this software package which utilize methods standard to the neuroimaging community. These features include spatial normalization to the MNI template brain (standard of the International Consortium for Brain Mapping), and use of the Volume Occupancy Talairach Labels (VOTL) and Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) atlases for full brain quantification of structures impacted by the lesion. Methods for multi-subject studies including lesion-symptom mapping proposed by Bates et al have been extended in ABLe to produce an exploratory analysis summarizing correlations between subjects with overlapping lesions and behavioral deficit. A subset of data from an ongoing traumatic head injury study correlating deficit with brain anatomy is used to demonstrate the power of this software package. PMID:17408802

Solomon, Jeffrey; Raymont, Vanessa; Braun, Allen; Butman, John A.; Grafman, Jordan



Astroglial growth factors in normal human brain and brain tumors: comparison with embryonic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of 18-day embryonic chicken brains, 15-day embryonic and adult rat brains and human brain tumors, as well as control histologically-normal adult human brain taken from around brain tumors or around arteriovenous malformations each stimulated the growth of cultured chick astrocytes. Eight mitogenic fractions were separated reproducibly by Bio-Gel P-10 molecular seive chromatography. They had apparent molecular weights (M.W.)

Michel P. Rathbone; Galina K. Szlapetis; Rocco de Villiers; Rolando F. Del Maestro; Joseph Gilbert; John Groves; Kelly Erola; Jae-Kyoung Kim



Evaluation of an SSVEP based Brain-Computer Interface on the command and application levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides the possibility to translate brain neural activity patterns into control commands for computers without user's movement. The brain activity is most commonly measured non-invasively via standard electroencephalographic (EEG) electrodes placed on the surface of the scalp. We propose the evaluation of the Bremen-BCI system based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), which was evaluated with

Hubert Cecotti; Ivan Volosyak; A. Graser



Linear normalization of MR brain images in pediatric patients with periventricular leukomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of linear normalization of child brain images with structural abnormalities due to periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) was assessed in terms of success rate and accuracy of the normalization algorithm. Ten T1-weighted brain images from healthy adult subject and 51 from children (4–11 years of age) were linearly transformed to achieve spatial registration with the standard MNI brain template. Twelve of

Bart Machilsen; Emiliano d'Agostino; Frederik Maes; Dirk Vandermeulen; Horst K. Hahn; Lieven Lagae; Peter Stiers



Prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 1p36: a focus on brain abnormalities and a review of the literature.  


Monosomy 1p36 is an increasingly recognized chromosomal anomaly. We describe two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had brain abnormalities detected on prenatal ultrasound. The first patient was ascertained prenatally with ultrasound abnormalities, including ventriculomegaly, a single umbilical artery, a unilateral club foot, a ventricular septal defect, and intra-uterine growth retardation. Amniocentesis showed a normal karyotype. A postnatal MRI showed moderate to severe non-obstructive hydrocephalus, bilateral colpocephaly, and abnormal myelination of the anterior limb of the internal capsule. A postnatal karyotype demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.3 that was not detected prenatally due to low resolution. Molecular studies by array comparative genome hybridization (CGH) identified a terminal deletion of approximately 10 Mb. Our second patient was a fetus who had brain abnormalities suggestive of holoprosencephaly identified on prenatal ultrasound. Amniocentesis showed 46,XX,der(1)t(1;20)(p36.1;p12.2), that was found to be maternally inherited. Fetal autopsy demonstrated hydrocephalus, focal polymicrogyria, and cerebellar hypoplasia. However, holoprosencephaly was not confirmed. In addition to describing two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had abnormal brain anatomy on prenatal ultrasounds, we review the literature of other prenatally detected patients with monosomy 1p36 and review brain abnormalities seen both prenatally and postnatally. PMID:19006213

Campeau, Philippe M; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Cartier, Lola; Mackay, Katherine L; Shaffer, Lisa G; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Thomas, Mary Ann



Bacterial Brain Abscess  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in the diagnosis and management of bacterial brain abscess over the past several decades have improved the expected outcome of a disease once regarded as invariably fatal. Despite this, intraparenchymal abscess continues to present a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Brain abscess may result from traumatic brain injury, prior neurosurgical procedure, contiguous spread from a local source, or hematogenous spread of a systemic infection. In a significant proportion of cases, an etiology cannot be identified. Clinical presentation is highly variable and routine laboratory testing lacks sensitivity. As such, a high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary for prompt diagnosis and intervention. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer a timely and sensitive method of assessing for abscess. Appearance of abscess on routine imaging lacks specificity and will not spare biopsy in cases where the clinical context does not unequivocally indicate infectious etiology. Current work with advanced imaging modalities may yield more accurate methods of differentiation of mass lesions in the brain. Management of abscess demands a multimodal approach. Surgical intervention and medical therapy are necessary in most cases. Prognosis of brain abscess has improved significantly in the recent decades although close follow-up is required, given the potential for long-term sequelae and a risk of recurrence. PMID:25360205

Patel, Kevin



Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Traumatic brain injury in modern war  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.



Changes of MR and DTI appearance in early human brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding myelination in early brain development is of clinical importance, as many neurological disorders have their origin in early cerebral organization and maturation. The goal of this work is to study a large neonate database acquired with standard MR imagery to illuminate effects of early development in MRI. 90 neonates were selected from a study of healthy brain development. Subjects

Cassian Marc; Clement Vachet; Guido Gerig; Joseph Blocher; John Gilmore; Martin Styner




E-print Network

LESION DETECTION IN NOISY MR BRAIN IMAGES USING CONSTRAINED GMM AND ACTIVE CONTOURS Oren Freifeld lesion boundaries. Experimental results on both standard brain MR simulation data and real data, in common non traumatic neurological disease in young adults. MRI is currently be- ing used for diagnosis

Goldberger, Jacob


Human Brain Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-N-Desmethyl-Loperamide,  

E-print Network

-dLop the concentration of radioactivity in the brain was low (standardized uptake value, ;15%) and stable after absorp- tion from the intestine, increase elimination via the liver and kidneys, and block distribution to protected tissues such as the brain and testes (1). Several radiotracers, usu- ally developed from drugs

Shen, Jun


Risk factors for cognitive decline in children treated for brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effects of central nervous system therapy for children with brain tumors have been the subject of research since the 1970s. Many studies have demonstrated that children treated for brain tumors with surgery and standard radiation therapy have developed intellectual decline which is progressive over at least a decade. Risk factors for this cognitive deterioration have been identified

Patricia K. Duffner



Brain abscess: Current management  

PubMed Central

Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael



The metastable brain.  


Neural ensembles oscillate across a broad range of frequencies and are transiently coupled or "bound" together when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, think, and act. This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, with parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time. But how is it done? The theory of Coordination Dynamics proposes a mechanism called metastability, a subtle blend of integration and segregation. Tendencies for brain regions to express their individual autonomy and specialized functions (segregation, modularity) coexist with tendencies to couple and coordinate globally for multiple functions (integration). Although metastability has garnered increasing attention, it has yet to be demonstrated and treated within a fully spatiotemporal perspective. Here, we illustrate metastability in continuous neural and behavioral recordings, and we discuss theory and experiments at multiple scales, suggesting that metastable dynamics underlie the real-time coordination necessary for the brain's dynamic cognitive, behavioral, and social functions. PMID:24411730

Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott



Music and the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the relationship between the brain and music? That very question animates the Library of Congress' Music and the Brain series, and their website allows interested parties to listen in on some of the conversations, lectures, and symposia. Noted psychologist Kay Redfield Jamison chairs the initiative, and the programs bring together physicians, theorists, composers, and performers. Visitors can listen to some of these recent conversations via this website, and they can also sign up to receive new podcasts via iTunes. Currently, there are five different podcasts available. They include talks with Dr. Charles J. Limb ("Your Brain on Jazz"), Jessica Krash ("Dangerous Music"), and Dr. Aniruddh D. Patel on "The Music of Language and the Language of Music".


TOR on the Brain  

PubMed Central

Signaling by target of rapamycin (mTOR in mammals) has been shown to modulate lifespan in several model organisms ranging from yeast to mice. In mice, reduced mTOR signaling by chronic rapamycin treatment leads to lifespan extension, raising the possibility that rapamycin and its analogs may benefit the aging brain and serve as effective treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review mTOR signaling and how neurons utilize mTOR to regulate brain function, including regulation of feeding, synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Additionally, we discuss recent findings that evaluate the mechanisms by which reduced mTOR activity might benefit the aging brain in normal and pathological states. We will focus on recent studies investigating mTOR and Alzheimer s disease, Parkinson s disease, and polyglutamine expansion syndromes such as Huntington s disease. PMID:20849946

Garelick, Michael G.; Kennedy, Brian K.



Surgery for brain metastases.  


The use of surgery in the treatment of brain metastases is controversial. Patients who present certain clinical characteristics may experience prolonged survival with resection compared with radiation therapy. Thus, for patients with a single metastatic lesion in the setting of well-controlled systemic cancer, surgery is highly indicated. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone can provide a similar survival advantage, but when used as postoperative adjuvant therapy, patients experience extended survival times. Furthermore, surgery remains the only treatment option for patients with life-threatening neurological symptoms, who require immediate tumor debulking. Treatment of brain metastases requires a careful clinical assessment of individual patients, as different prognostic factors may indicate various modes or combinations of therapy. Since surgery is an effective method for achieving tumor management in particular cases, it remains an important consideration in the treatment algorithm for brain metastases. PMID:23717791

Yaeger, Kurt Andrew; Nair, M Nathan



Surgery for brain metastases  

PubMed Central

The use of surgery in the treatment of brain metastases is controversial. Patients who present certain clinical characteristics may experience prolonged survival with resection compared with radiation therapy. Thus, for patients with a single metastatic lesion in the setting of well-controlled systemic cancer, surgery is highly indicated. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone can provide a similar survival advantage, but when used as postoperative adjuvant therapy, patients experience extended survival times. Furthermore, surgery remains the only treatment option for patients with life-threatening neurological symptoms, who require immediate tumor debulking. Treatment of brain metastases requires a careful clinical assessment of individual patients, as different prognostic factors may indicate various modes or combinations of therapy. Since surgery is an effective method for achieving tumor management in particular cases, it remains an important consideration in the treatment algorithm for brain metastases. PMID:23717791

Yaeger, Kurt Andrew; Nair, M. Nathan



Brain monitoring in children.  


Applying scalp sensors in the operating theater, intensive care, or resuscitation scenarios to detect and monitor brain function is achievable, practical, and affordable. The modalities are complex and the output of the monitor needs careful interpretation. The monitor may have technical problems, and a single reading must be considered with caution. These monitors may have a use for monitoring trends in specific situations, but evidence does not support their widespread use. Nevertheless, research should continue to investigate their role. Future techniques and treatments may show that these monitors can monitor brain function and prevent harm. PMID:24491653

Sury, Michael



International Brain Research Organization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1960, the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) is an international group "dedicated to the promotion of neuroscience and of communication between brain researchers in all countries of the world." The IBRO website contains information about publications, funding options, upcoming events, membership, and more. In addition, the site posts links to pertinent announcements and news items. Notably, the IBRO maintains a useful collection of related links that includes other organizations and societies, neuroscience-related websites, and journals. The website offers a search engine for locating IBRO members as well.


Radiosurgery for brain metastases: is whole brain radiotherapy necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Because whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) may cause dementia in long-term survivors, selected patients with brain metastases may benefit from initial treatment with radiosurgery (RS) alone reserving WBRT for salvage as needed. We reviewed results of RS ± WBRT in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis to provide background for a prospective trial.Methods and Materials: Patients with single or multiple

Penny K Sneed; Kathleen R Lamborn; Julie M Forstner; Michael W McDermott; Susan Chang; Elaine Park; Philip H Gutin; Theodore L Phillips; William M Wara; David A Larson



Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Feedback control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease has great potential to improve efficacy, reduce side effects, and decrease the cost of treatment. In this, the timing and intensity of stimulation are titrated according to biomarkers that capture current clinical state. Stimulation may be at standard high frequency or intelligently patterned to directly modify specific pathological rhythms. The search for and validation of appropriate feedback signals are therefore crucial. Signals recorded from the DBS electrode currently appear to be the most promising source of feedback. In particular, beta-frequency band oscillations in the local field potential recorded at the stimulation target may capture variation in bradykinesia and rigidity across patients, but this remains to be confirmed within patients. Biomarkers that reliably reflect other impairments, such as tremor, also need to be established. Finally, whether brain signals are causally important needs to be established before stimulation can be specifically patterned rather than delivered at empirically defined high frequency. PMID:22830645

Little, Simon; Brown, Peter



Traumatic Brain Injury in Sports: A Review  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical diagnosis of neurological dysfunction following head trauma, typically presenting with acute symptoms of some degree of cognitive impairment. There are an estimated 1.7 to 3.8 million TBIs each year in the United States, approximately 10 percent of which are due to sports and recreational activities. Most brain injuries are self-limited with symptom resolution within one week, however, a growing amount of data is now establishing significant sequelae from even minor impacts such as headaches, prolonged cognitive impairments, or even death. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment according to standardized guidelines are crucial when treating athletes who may be subjected to future head trauma, possibly increasing their likelihood of long-term impairments. PMID:22848836

Sahler, Christopher S.; Greenwald, Brian D.



Brain Drain of Doctors; Causes and Consequences in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Abstract—Pakistani doctors (MBBS) are emigrating towards developed countries for professional adjustments. This study aims to highlight causes and consequences of doctors ’ brain drain from Pakistan. Primary data was collected from Mayo Hospital, Lahore by interviewing doctors (n=100) through systematic random sampling technique. It found that various socio-economic and political conditions are working as push and pull factors for brain drain of doctors in Pakistan. Majority of doctors (83%) declared poor remunerations and professional infrastructure of health department as push factor of doctors ’ brain drain. 81 % claimed that continuous instability in political situation and threats of terrorism are responsible for emigration of doctors. 84 % respondents considered fewer opportunities of further studies responsible for their emigration. Brain drain of doctors is affecting health sector’s policies / programs, standard doctor-patient ratios and quality of health services badly.

Muhammad Wajid Tahir; Rubina Kauser; Majid Ali Tahir


Subsequent brain tumors in patients with autoimmune disease  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have reported increased risk of brain tumors after allergic conditions, but no systematic analyses of these tumors in patients with autoimmune disease (AId) have been performed. No data are available on survival among patients with AId from brain tumors. We analyzed systematically risks and survival in histological types of brain tumors among patients who received a diagnosis of 33 different AIds. Patients and Methods Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for brain tumors or hazard ratios (HRs) of deaths after brain tumors were calculated up to 2008 in 402 462 patients hospitalized for AId after 1964 and were compared with data on the population not hospitalized for AIds. Results Brain tumors were diagnosed in 880 patients with AId. No increased or decreased risks (SIRs) were noted for glioma, whereas the increased SIRs for meningioma after many AIds were likely to be attributable to surveillance bias. The data on survival showed overall decreases for glioma (HR, 1.15) and meningioma (HR, 1.26). The survival in both was decreased in patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, HRs were increased for glioma after 6 AIds and for meningioma after 7 AIds. Conclusions The present data showed that none of the 33 AIds influenced the risk of glioma. However, many AIds negatively influence survival in glioma and meningioma, probably through added physical burden or therapeutic limitations. Information of an existing AId in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors should help the prognostic assessment and the design of treatment. PMID:23757294

Hemminki, Kari; Liu, Xiangdong; Forsti, Asta; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina



Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain.  


Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39 ?m isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78 ?m isotropic voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain. Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We have applied a spatial reference system based on internal brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard, previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore connected this spatial reference system to the widely used stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using contrast given by the active staining technique applied to the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical location, and planning and guidance of experimental procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and related infrastructures will connect the atlas to interoperable resources and services for multi-level data integration and analysis across reference spaces. PMID:24726336

Papp, Eszter A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Calabrese, Evan; Johnson, G Allan; Bjaalie, Jan G



Prior information for brain parcellation  

E-print Network

To better understand brain disease, many neuroscientists study anatomical differences between normal and diseased subjects. Frequently, they analyze medical images to locate brain structures influenced by disease. Many of ...

Pohl, Kilian Maria



Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors  


... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors SHARE Share on Facebook Preview ... Preview your message Share Cancel Close Finish Home > Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Listen When a child you ...


Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

Andreasen, Nancy C.



Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Newsletters  


... Fall Tweet Thanks to Our Sponsors The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Together, Reaching For A Cure Links Home ... Policy Disclosures Contact About Copyright © 2012 The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation. All Rights Reserved.



PubMed Central

Brain tumors are often overlooked in differential diagnosis. This omission is attributable largely to the false belief that neoplasms of the brain occur only rarely, to disregard of characteristic diagnostic signs, and to confusion of brain tumor symptomatology with that of other disease processes. The most effective means of insuring early identification of these lesions is to bear the possibility of brain tumor constantly in mind in differential diagnosis. PMID:13160812

Boldrey, Edwin



Stereotactic brain biopsy in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the hope of finding a treatable condition, the need for rapid diagnosis in HIV-seropositive patients with brain lesions is apparent. In order to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic brain biopsy in AIDS patients, we retrospectively studied 25 HIV-infected patients undergoing stereotactic biopsy. Brain lesions were identified with gadolinium-enhanced MRI and\\/or contrastCT. Brain biopsy was performed using the system of

Claus Zimmer; Stefanie Miirzheuser; Stephan Patt; Arndt Rolfs; Joachim Gottschalk; Klaus Weigel; George Gosztonyi



Brain Development and Increasing Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the past, it was essentially impossible to study brain changes in a healthy child because no means existed to examine the\\u000a brain without doing at least some harm to the child. Brain surgery is only done as a last resort, when someone is desperately\\u000a ill, hence, this option was ruled out as a way to understand the developing brain.

R. Grant Steen


Linking brain, mind, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Cortical brain areas and dynamics,evolved,to organize motor,behavior in our three-dimensional environment,also support more,general human,cognitive processes. Yet traditional brain imaging paradigms typically allow and record only minimal participant behavior, then reduce the recorded data to single map,features of averaged responses. To more fully investigate the complex,links between distributed brain dynamics and motivated natural behavior, we propose development of wearable mobile,brain\\/body

Scott Makeig; Klaus Gramann; Tzyy-Ping Jung; Terrence J. Sejnowski; Howard Poizner



The Aging Brain and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Importance ?-Amyloid (A?) deposition and vascular brain injury (VBI) frequently co-occur and are both associated with cognitive decline in aging. Determining whether a direct relationship exists between them has been challenging. We sought to understand VBI’s influence on cognition and clinical impairment, separate from and in conjunction with pathologic changes associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective To examine the relationship between neuroimaging measures of VBI and brain A? deposition and their associations with cognition. Design and Setting A cross-sectional study in a community- and clinic-based sample recruited for elevated vascular disease risk factors. Participants Clinically normal (mean age, 77.1 years [N=30]), cognitively impaired (mean age, 78.0 years [N=24]), and mildly demented (mean age, 79.8 years [N=7]) participants. Interventions Magnetic resonance imaging, A? (Pitts-burgh Compound B–positron emission tomographic [PiB-PET]) imaging, and cognitive testing. Main Outcome Measures Magnetic resonance images were rated for the presence and location of infarct (34 infarct-positive participants, 27 infarct-negative participants) and were used to quantify white matter lesion volume. The PiB-PET uptake ratios were used to create a PiB index by averaging uptake across regions vulnerable to early A? deposition; PiB positivity (29 PiB-positive participants, 32 PiB-negative participants) was determined from a data-derived threshold. Standardized composite cognitive measures included executive function and verbal and nonverbal memory. Results Vascular brain injury and A? were independent in both cognitively normal and impaired participants. Infarction, particularly in cortical and subcortical gray matter, was associated with lower cognitive performance in all domains (P<.05 for all comparisons). Pittsburgh Compound B positivity was neither a significant predictor of cognition nor interacted with VBI. Conclusions and Relevance In this elderly sample with normal cognition to mild dementia, enriched for vascular disease, VBI was more influential than A? in contemporaneous cognitive function and remained predictive after including the possible influence of A?. There was no evidence that VBI increases the likelihood of A? deposition. This finding highlights the importance of VBI in mild cognitive impairment and suggests that the impact of cerebrovascular disease should be considered with respect to defining the etiology of mild cognitive impairment. PMID:23400560

Marchant, Natalie L.; Reed, Bruce R.; Sanossian, Nerses; Madison, Cindee M.; Kriger, Stephen; Dhada, Roxana; Mack, Wendy J.; DeCarli, Charles; Weiner, Michael W.; Mungas, Dan M.; Chui, Helena C.; Jagust, William J.



Farm Financial Standards.  


The Farm Financial Standards were developed by a national effort to encourage standardization. Standardization includes financial statement formats, terminology, and calculations for measuring financial position and format. Comparative analysis and education efforts are enhanced greatly by standardization. The Standardization Performance Analysis (SPA) system was developed on the basis of the performance standards for beef cattle and sheep enterprises. This article summarizes the Farm Financial Standards and illustrates the calculations with a worksheet. PMID:7584815

McGrann, J M



Coping with brain damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

Waring, W.



Imaging of brain metastases  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Imaging is used to detect metastases in patients with known malignancies and new neurological signs or symptoms, as well as to screen for CNS involvement in patients with known cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of brain metastases. In difficult cases, such as newly diagnosed solitary enhancing brain lesions in patients without known malignancy, advanced imaging techniques including proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may aid in arriving at the correct diagnosis. This image-rich review discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with suspected intracranial involvement and malignancy, describes typical imaging findings of parenchymal brain metastasis on CT and MRI, and provides clues to specific histological diagnoses such as the presence of hemorrhage. Additionally, the role of advanced imaging techniques is reviewed, specifically in the context of differentiating metastasis from high-grade glioma and other solitary enhancing brain lesions. Extra-axial CNS involvement by metastases, including pachymeningeal and leptomeningeal metastases is also briefly reviewed. PMID:23717792

Fink, Kathleen R.; Fink, James R.



Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 250 per 100,000 of the population sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually (Cassidy et al., 2004), making it the most commonly occurring neurological condition. Of these 102 per 100,000 are hospitalised (Chesnut, Carney, Maynard, Patterson, Mann, & Helfand, 1998). Because of advances in trauma care these individuals are surviving injuries that would previously have been fatal (Klimczak, Donovick, &

Janet M. Leathem; Muriel Christianson


Brain Inspired Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful application of reinforcement learning algorithms often involves considerable hand-crafting of the necessary non-linear features to reduce the complexity of the value functions and hence to promote convergence of the algorithm. In contrast, the human brain readily and autonomously finds the complex features when provided with sufficient training. Recent work in machine learning and neurophysiology has demonstrated the role of

François Rivest; Yoshua Bengio; John Kalaska



Nourish Your Brain  


... nourish your body and brain Manage your weight. Studies show that obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol all can ... Mediterranean diet may be a good place to start. Eat fruits, veggies and whole ... heart disease, diabetes and cancer. It’s probably no surprise that those ...


Reelin and brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years, the reeler mutant mouse has become an important model for studying normal and abnormal development in the cerebral cortex and other regions of the brain. However, we are only just beginning to understand the actions of reelin — the protein that is affected by the reeler mutation — at the molecular and cellular level. This

Fadel Tissir; André M. Goffinet



Sleep in brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep was no longer considered a homogeneous state of passive rest for the brain. On the contrary, sleep, and especially REM sleep, appeared as an active condition of intense cerebral activity. The fact that we get large amounts of sleep in early life suggested that sleep may play a role in




The Creative Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of a metaphorical whole brain model and its application to Applied Creative Thinking (ACT) Workshops to enhance individuals' capability for full creative functioning. The design of ACT workshops, the learning model used, and workshop components are described. (JDD)

Herrmann, Ned



The Brain Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

Sylwester, Robert




E-print Network

PyBrain is a versatile machine learning library for Python. Its goal is to provide flexible, easyto-use yet still powerful algorithms for machine learning tasks, including a variety of predefined environments and benchmarks to test and compare algorithms. Implemented algorithms include Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), policy gradient methods, (multidimensional) recurrent neural networks and deep belief networks.

Tom Schaul; Justin Bayer; Daan Wierstra; Yi Sun; Martin Felder; Frank Sehnke; Thomas Rückstieß; Jürgen Schmidhuber



Your Brain Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

MacEachren, Zabe



Haemophilus paraphrophilus brain abscess.  


The clinical course of a patient with brain abscess due to Haemophilus paraphrophilus is described. The organism was recovered in pure culture from purulent material collected at surgery. The role of this organism as a human pathogen is reviewed. PMID:3308306

Papasian, C J; Reintjes, S; Rengachary, S S; Neihart, R E; Hodges, G R



Brain tumour stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dogma that the genesis of new cells is a negligible event in the adult mammalian brain has long influenced our perception and understanding of the origin and development of CNS tumours. The discovery that new neurons and glia are produced throughout life from neural stem cells provides new possibilities for the candidate cells of origin of CNS neoplasias. The

Rossella Galli; Brent A. Reynolds; Angelo L. Vescovi



Your Child's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that early childhood experiences with processes as diverse as language, mathematics, emotion, and music determine which neurons grow and remain active in the brain. Early exposure to these processes results in receptive programming. Discusses the implications for schools, teachers, and parents. (MJP)

Begley, Sharon



Acquired Brain Injury Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

Schwartz, Stacey Hunter



PubMed Central

The Human Brain Project consortium continues to struggle with effective sharing of tools. To facilitate reuse of its tools, the Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory (SPNL) has developed BrainImageJ, a new software framework in Java. The framework consists of two components—a set of four programming interfaces and an application front end. The four interfaces define extension pathways for new data models, file loaders and savers, algorithms, and visualization tools. Any Java class that implements one of these interfaces qualifies as a BrainImageJ plug-in—a self-contained tool. After automatically detecting and incorporating new plug-ins, the application front end transparently generates graphical user interfaces that provide access to plug-in functionality. New plug-ins interoperate with existing ones immediately through the front end. BrainImageJ is used at the Stanford Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory to develop image-analysis algorithms and three-dimensional visualization tools. It is the goal of our development group that, once the framework is placed in the public domain, it will serve as an interlaboratory platform for designing, distributing, and using interoperable tools. PMID:11522764

Ng, Yi-Ren; Shiffman, Smadar; Brosnan, Thomas J.; Links, Jonathan M.; Beach, Leu S.; Judge, Nicholas S.; Xu, Yirong; Kelkar, Uma V.; Reiss, Allan L.



Brain Hemispheric Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four articles consider brain hemisphere functioning of gifted students as it relates to gifted programs; alternation of education methodologies; spatial ability as an element of intellectual gifted functioning; and the interaction between hemisphere specialization, imagery, creative imagination, and sex differentiation. (SB)

Roeper Review, 1981



Mapping brain maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human brain maturation is a complex, lifelong process that can now be examined in detail using neuroimaging tech- niques. Ongoing projects scan subjects longitudinally with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling the time-course and anatomical sequence of development to be reconstructed. Here, we review recent progress on imaging studies of development. We focus on cortical and subcortical changes observed in

Arthur W. Toga; Paul M. Thompson; Elizabeth R. Sowell



Brain alcohol dehydrogenase.  


Significant alcohol dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in the soluble fraction of rat brain and is very similar to the liver enzyme in kinetic properties and responses to inhibitors. A cerebral mechanism that oxidizes ethanol may play a significant role in local adjustments during exposure to ethanol and in the pathogenesis of the neural disorders associated with chronic alcohol ingestion or withdrawal. PMID:4300045

Raskin, N H; Sokoloff, L



From Ear to Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

Kimura, Doreen



Perinatal Brain Damage Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause (causal production vs. facilitation), (2) extrapolating from possibility to fact

Olaf Dammann; Alan Leviton



Minds, Brains and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often argued that neuroscience can be expected to provide insights of significance for education. Advocates of this view are sometimes committed to "brainism", the view (a) that an individual's mental life is constituted by states, events and processes in her brain, and (b) that psychological attributes may legitimately be ascribed to the…

Bakhurst, David



BrainPOP Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BrainPOP Educators is an online professional community with nearly 150,000 members. Its offerings include free lesson plans, video tutorials, graphic organizers, shared best practices, and professional development and presentation tools to support science, technology and engineering lessons.




Complex Systems and Brain Sciences  

E-print Network

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Charles E. Schmidt College of Science #12;Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Our Mission The mission of the Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences is to understand the principles and mechanisms underlying complex behavior

Fernandez, Eduardo


Experience and the Developing Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research findings show that experiences alter the anatomical structure of the brain, that the effects of experience on the brain differ at different ages and between males and females, and that brain development is not complete until about age 18. (SV)

Kolb, Bryan



The social brain in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'social brain' refers to the network of brain regions that are involved in understanding others. Behaviour that is related to social cognition changes dramatically during human adolescence. This is paralleled by functional changes that occur in the social brain during this time, in particular in the medial prefrontal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus, which show altered activity

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore



Mastering Our Brain's Electrical Rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les Fehmi, a pioneering researcher and practitioner of neurofeedback, and Jim Robbins, Author of A Symphony in the Brain: The Evolution of the New Brain Wave Biofeedback, argue that voluntary control over the Brain's electrical rhythms enables us to train ourselves to prevent or heal stress-related disorders and attention disorders. In addition, we may find a way to gain some

Jim Robbins


Stem cells and brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most devastating CNS pathologies is brain cancer. The undifferentiated character of brain tumor cells and recent reports of cancer stem cells prompt questions regarding the involvement of normal stem\\/progenitor cells in brain tumor biology, their potential contribution to the tumor itself, and whether they are the cause or the consequence of tumor initiation and progression. The cancer

Elena I. Fomchenko; Eric C. Holland



Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the turn of the century, brain impairment has been linked to the pathogenesis of sexual disorders and aberrations. More recent clinical and experimental evidence using traditional neurodiagnostic techniques has underscored the connection bewteen brain pathology and sexual deviance. However, methods traditionally used to determine brain damage are often not applied in studying sex offenders; some methods fail to detect

Thomas Galski; Kirtley E. Thornton; David Shumsky



Linking brain, mind and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical brain areas and dynamics evolved to organize motor behavior in our three-dimensional environment also support more general human cognitive processes. Yet traditional brain imaging paradigms typically allow and record only minimal participant behavior, then reduce the recorded data to single map features of averaged responses. To more fully investigate the complex links between distributed brain dynamics and motivated natural

Scott Makeig; Klaus Gramann; Tzyy-Ping Jung; Terrence J. Sejnowski; Howard Poizner



Estrogen Actions Throughout the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides affecting the hypothalamus and other brain areas related to reproduction, ovarian steroids have widespread effects throughout the brain, on serotonin pathways, catecholaminergic neurons, and the basal forebrain cholinergic system as well as the hippocampal formation, a brain region involved in spatial and declarative memory. Thus, ovarian steroids have measurable effects on affective state as well as cognition, with implications




Pharmacological treatment of neurobehavioural sequelae of traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Neurobehavioural sequelae of traumatic brain injuries require an appropriate\\/effective pharmacological response in that they represent an important cause of disability. In this field, there is no evidence that reaches the level of a standard: there are guidelines on the use of methylphenidate, donepezil and bromocriptine for the treatment of cognitive disturbances, for the non-use of phenytoin and for the

F. Lombardi; S. Sebastiano



Specific Ways Brain SPECT Imaging Enhances Clinical Psychiatric Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to ascertain in a prospective case series how often brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) neuroimaging adds relevant information for diagnosis and\\/or treatment beyond current standard assessment tools in complex psychiatric cases. Charts of 109 consecutively evaluated outpatients from four psychiatrics clinics that routinely utilize SPECT imaging for complex cases were analyzed in two stages. In

Daniel G. Amen; Diane Highum; Robert Licata; Joseph A. Annibali; Lillian Somner; H. Edmund Pigott; Derek V. Taylor; Manuel Trujillo; Andrew Newberg; Theodore Henderson; Kristen Willeumier



Brain Cancer Mortality among French Farmers: The Vineyard Pesticide Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of vineyard pesticides to brain cancer mortality among agricultural workers. A pesticide exposure index (PEI) in vineyards was calculated for 89 French geographical units (départements). The authors estimated standardized mortality ratios among male farmers and farm laborers aged 35–74 y for the years 1984–1986. Poisson regression models, which were fitted to the

Jean-Francois Viel; Bruno Challier; Alexandre Pitard; Dominique Pobel



Preirradiation chemotherapy for very young children with brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard management of malignant brain tumors includes either surgical resection alone or surgery followed by irradiation. However, neuroaxis irradiation administered to very young children for primary intracranial tumors is often associated with major late side effects. To delay irradiation and evaluate the efficacy of preirradiation chemotherapy, we treated 9 young children (aged less than 3 years), who had newly diagnosed

Mei-Jy Jeng; Te-Kau Chang; Tai-Tong Wong; Yuh-Lin Hsien; Ran-Bin Tang; Betau Hwang



Transcranial Doppler during suspected brain death in children: Potential limitation in patients with cardiac "shunt"  


OBJECTIVES: We report a potential limitation of transcranial Doppler for assessing cerebral circulation during suspected brain death in children. DESIGN: Review of two case series identified during our clinical practice. PATIENTS: Eight children with suspected brain death and seven with intact-brain and cardiovascular anomalies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Brain-death criteria included lack of cerebral-brainstem reactivity, electrocortical silence and absent blood flow by brain scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylenamine oxime). Five intracranial Doppler patterns were found in eight cases of suspected brain death: A) orthograde continuous flow; B) reduced systolic flow velocity with absence of diastolic flow; C) reduced systolic flow velocity with retrograde diastolic flow, sometimes with antegrade late diastolic flow; D) systolic spikes of very low flow velocity; and E) absence of Doppler signals. Only patterns "C," "D," and "E" were associated with the absence of supra- and infratentorial brain perfusion. The most common Doppler alterations in patients with intact-brain and cardiovascular anomalies were the absence of diastolic flow (pattern "B") or the presence of retrograde flow during diastole (pattern "C"). CONCLUSION: Transcranial Doppler monitoring of pediatric patients may have value in identifying patients who have severe cerebral compromise, who may progress to brain death. However, key Doppler alterations, such as absent or retrograde flow during diastole, are not uniquely associated with the diagnosis of brain death, particularly in the setting of congential heart disease. The use of conventional methodology for the diagnosis of brain death in infants and children remains the "gold standard." PMID:12780986

Rodriguez, Rosendo A.; Cornel, Garry; Alghofaili, Fahad; Hutchison, Jamie; Nathan, Howard J.



Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

The regulation of brain temperature is largely dependent on the metabolic activity of brain tissue and remains complex. In intensive care clinical practice, the continuous monitoring of core temperature in patients with brain injury is currently highly recommended. After major brain injury, brain temperature is often higher than and can vary independently of systemic temperature. It has been shown that in cases of brain injury, the brain is extremely sensitive and vulnerable to small variations in temperature. The prevention of fever has been proposed as a therapeutic tool to limit neuronal injury. However, temperature control after traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or stroke can be challenging. Furthermore, fever may also have beneficial effects, especially in cases involving infections. While therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in animal models, its use is still debated in clinical practice. This paper aims to describe the physiology and pathophysiology of changes in brain temperature after brain injury and to study the effects of controlling brain temperature after such injury. PMID:23326261

Mrozek, Segolene; Vardon, Fanny; Geeraerts, Thomas



A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans  

PubMed Central

We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the “sender”) and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the “receiver”). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender’s signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means. PMID:25372285

Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Stocco, Andrea; Bryan, Matthew; Sarma, Devapratim; Youngquist, Tiffany M.; Wu, Joseph; Prat, Chantel S.



Shorter-Course Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases in Elderly Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Many patients with brain metastases receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. Using 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy in 2 weeks is the standard regimen in most centers. Regarding the extraordinarily poor survival prognosis of elderly patients with multiple brain metastases, a shorter WBRT regimen would be preferable. This study compared 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy in elderly patients ({>=}65 years). Methods and Materials: Data from 455 elderly patients who received WBRT alone for brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Survival and local (= intracerebral) control of 293 patients receiving 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy were compared with 162 patients receiving 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy. Eight additional potential prognostic factors were investigated including age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), primary tumor, number of brain metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to WBRT, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: The 6-month overall survival rates were 29% after 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy and 21% after 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy (p = 0.020). The 6-month local control rates were 12% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.32). On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), only one to three brain metastases (p = 0.029), no extracerebral metastasis (p = 0.012), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), breast cancer (p = 0.029), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Shorter-course WBRT with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy was not inferior to 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with respect to overall survival or local control in elderly patients. 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy appears preferable for the majority of these patients.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Evers, Jasmin N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lohynska, Radka [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)



The Blue-Collar Brain  

PubMed Central

Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian



The blue-collar brain.  


Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian



The elephant brain in numbers  

PubMed Central

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfirio, Jairo; Messeder, Debora; Mattos Feijo, Larissa; Maldonado, Jose; Manger, Paul R.



The elephant brain in numbers.  


What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R



Developing Educational Standards - Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features a list of educational standards by state. Although the bulk of the list is state-issued standards, the list also includes standards for education developed by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Geographic Society.

Hill, Charles; District, Wappingers C.


Training brain networks and states.  


Brain training refers to practices that alter the brain in a way that improves cognition, and performance in domains beyond those involved in the training. We argue that brain training includes network training through repetitive practice that exercises specific brain networks and state training, which changes the brain state in a way that influences many networks. This opinion article considers two widely used methods - working memory training (WMT) and meditation training (MT) - to demonstrate the similarities and differences between network and state training. These two forms of training involve different areas of the brain and different forms of generalization. We propose a distinction between network and state training methods to improve understanding of the most effective brain training. PMID:24816329

Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I



Science Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Academy of Sciences presents content standards which outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The introduction sets the framework for the content standards by describing the categories of the content standards with a rationale for each category, the form of the standards, the criteria used to select the standards, and some advice for using the science content standards. Information is included for levels K-12.

Standards, National S.; Press, National A.


Quantification of brain perfusion with tracers retained by the brain  

SciTech Connect

Almost a decade ago, tracers, labelled with {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc, that are retained by the brain, started to be used for studies of regional brain perfusion (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF). To date, these tracers have been used for brain perfusion imaging with SPECT in brain disorders as well as for physiological activation protocols. Only seldom, however, have they been used in protocols that quantitatively measure rCBF. Nevertheless, comparative studies with perfusion reference tracers have repeatedly demonstrated that the brain uptake of these brain-retained tracers is correlated to perfusion, the major determinant of the distribution of these tracers in the brain. The brain kinetics of {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO, which is the tracer most commonly used, was described with a two-compartment tissue model. The theoretical approach, which is, in itself, sufficient for modeling quantitative measurements with {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO, initially suggested the possibility of empirically narrowing the distance between the brain`s regional uptake of the tracer and rCBF with a linearization algorithm which uses the cerebellum as the reference region. The value of this empirical method is hampered by the fact that the cerebellum can be involved in cerebrovascular disease (i.e. cerebellar diaschisis) as well as in several other brain disorders (e.g. anxiety, and dementia of the Alzheimer type). It also was proposed that different reference regions (occipital, whole slice, or whole brain) should be selected in relation to the brain disorder under study. However, this approach does not solve the main problem because it does not equip us with a reliable tool to evaluate rCBF with a high predictive value, and, at the same time, to reduce intersubject variability. The solution would be to measure a quantitative parameter which directly reflects rCBF, such as the unidirectional influx constant of the freely diffusible flow-limited tracers. 45 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Pupi, A.; Bacciottini, L.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Formiconi, A.R.; Castagnoli, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)



Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have identified an association between memory deficits and defects of the integrated neuronal cortical areas known collectively as the default mode network. It is conceivable that the amyloid deposition or other molecular abnormalities seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease may interfere with this network and disrupt neuronal circuits beyond the localized brain areas. Therefore, Alzheimer’s disease may be both a degenerative disease and a broader system-level disorder affecting integrated neuronal pathways involved in memory. In this paper, we describe the rationale and provide some evidence to support the study of deep brain stimulation of the hippocampal fornix as a novel treatment to improve neuronal circuitry within these integrated networks and thereby sustain memory function in early Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23346514

Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Pendergrass, Jo Cara; Lozano, Andres M.



Brain-Computer Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The theoretical groundwork of the 1930’s and 1940’s and the technical advance of computers in the following decades provided the basis for dramatic increases in human efficiency. While computers continue to evolve, and we can still expect increasing benefits from their use, the interface between humans and computers has begun to present a serious impediment to full realization of the potential payoff. This article is about the theoretical and practical possibility that direct communication between the brain and the computer can be used to overcome this impediment by improving or augmenting conventional forms of human communication. It is about the opportunity that the limitations of our body’s input and output capacities can be overcome using direct interaction with the brain, and it discusses the assumptions, possible limitations, and implications of a technology that I anticipate will be a major source of pervasive changes in the coming decades. PMID:18310804

Schalk, Gerwin



Spectromicroscopy of Brain Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray PhotoElectron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM) was originally developed for studying the surface microchemistry of materials science specimens. It has then evolved into a valuable tool to investigate the magnetic properties of materials and the microchemistry of cells and tissues. We used the MEPHISTO X-PEEM instrument, installed at the UW-Synchrotron Radiation Center to detect trace concentrations of non-physiological elements in senile brain tissue specimens. These tissues contain a large number of plaques, in which all the compounds and elements that the brain does not need are disposed and stored. We hypothesized that plaques should contain elements, such as Si, B, and Al which are very abundant on the Earth crust but absent from healthy tissues. We verified this hypothesis with MEPHISTO and found evidence of Si and B, and suspect Al. We also found a higher than normal concentration of Fe.

Frazer, Bradley; Cannara, Rachel; Gilbert, Benjamin; Destasio, Gelsomina; Ogg, Mandy; Gough, Kathy



How brains make decisions  

E-print Network

This chapter, dedicated to the memory of Mino Freund, summarizes the Quantum Decision Theory (QDT) that we have developed in a series of publications since 2008. We formulate a general mathematical scheme of how decisions are taken, using the point of view of psychological and cognitive sciences, without touching physiological aspects. The basic principles of how intelligence acts are discussed. The human brain processes involved in decisions are argued to be principally different from straightforward computer operations. The difference lies in the conscious-subconscious duality of the decision making process and the role of emotions that compete with utility optimization. The most general approach for characterizing the process of decision making, taking into account the conscious-subconscious duality, uses the framework of functional analysis in Hilbert spaces, similarly to that used in the quantum theory of measurements. This does not imply that the brain is a quantum system, but just allows for the simple...

Yukalov, V I



The Learning Brain: Neuroscience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The very well-maintained BioEd Online website from the Baylor College of Medicine was recently overhauled and now it's better than ever. This particular resource collection brings together videos, teacher guides, digital slides, video presentations, and related content. The topics covered include brain structure, neurons and the nervous system, human senses and movement, learning and memory, diseases of the nervous system, and the effects of drugs on the brain and body. The entire collection is part of the National Institute of Health's Blueprint for Neuroscience Education program and is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other partners. Visitors should not miss the Individual Lessons area, which has excellent segments on What is a Neuron?, Hormones and Stress, and seven other topics. [KMG


Circulatory arrest in a brain-dead organ donor: is the use of cardiac compression permissible?  


Care of the brain-dead patient is common in intensive care practice. Aggressive donor management is advocated to increase supply of viable organs. Significant controversy exists over cardiac resuscitation in patients determined dead by cardiac criteria. The issue, till now, has not been addressed in brain dead patients. We discuss a case of cardiac resuscitation of a brain-dead donor to ensure organ donation. This case allows us to examine the use of brain death criteria to declare death, the controversy regarding cardiac resuscitation in organ donor patients, and the standards for use of cardiac resuscitation in the organ donor declared dead by brain death criteria. The consent process for organ donation in brain dead patients should address the possibility of subsequent cardiac arrest. PMID:19850561

Cummings, Brian; Noviski, Natan; Moreland, Michael P; Paris, John J



Probabilistic MRI brain anatomical atlases based on 1,000 Chinese subjects.  


Brain atlases are designed to provide a standard reference coordinate system of the brain for neuroscience research. Existing human brain atlases are widely used to provide anatomical references and information regarding structural characteristics of the brain. The majority of them, however, are derived from one paticipant or small samples of the Western population. This poses a limitation for scientific studies on Eastern subjects. In this study, 10 new Chinese brain atlases for different ages and genders were constructed using MR anatomical images based on HAMMER (Hierarchical Attribute Matching Mechanism for Elastic Registration). A total of 1,000 Chinese volunteers ranging from 18 to 70 years old participated in this study. These population-specific brain atlases represent the basic structural characteristics of the Chinese population. They may be utilized for basic neuroscience studies and clinical diagnosis, including evaluation of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, in Chinese patients and those from other Eastern countries. PMID:23341878

Wang, Xing; Chen, Nan; Zuo, ZhenTao; Xue, Rong; Jing, Luo; Yan, Zhuo; Shen, DingGang; Li, KunCheng



Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning  

SciTech Connect

Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF.

Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.



Increased brain penetration and potency of a therapeutic antibody using a monovalent molecular shuttle.  


Although biotherapeutics have vast potential for treating brain disorders, their use has been limited due to low exposure across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We report that by manipulating the binding mode of an antibody fragment to the transferrin receptor (TfR), we have developed a Brain Shuttle module, which can be engineered into a standard therapeutic antibody for successful BBB transcytosis. Brain Shuttle version of an anti-A? antibody, which uses a monovalent binding mode to the TfR, increases ?-Amyloid target engagement in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by 55-fold compared to the parent antibody. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that the monovalent binding mode facilitates transcellular transport, whereas a bivalent binding mode leads to lysosome sorting. Enhanced target engagement of the Brain Shuttle module translates into a significant improvement in amyloid reduction. These findings have major implications for the development of biologics-based treatment of brain disorders. PMID:24411731

Niewoehner, Jens; Bohrmann, Bernd; Collin, Ludovic; Urich, Eduard; Sade, Hadassah; Maier, Peter; Rueger, Petra; Stracke, Jan Olaf; Lau, Wilma; Tissot, Alain C; Loetscher, Hansruedi; Ghosh, Anirvan; Freskgård, Per-Ola



The cerefy brain atlases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Talairach-Tournoux (TT) atlas is probably the most often used brain atlas. We overview briefly the activities in developments\\u000a of electronic versions of the TT atlas and focus on our more than 10-yr efforts in its continuous enhancement resulting in\\u000a three main versions: TT-1997, TT-2000, and TT-2004. The recent TT-2004 version is substantially improved over the digitized\\u000a print original with

Wieslaw L. Nowinski



Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often referred to as a silent epidemic due to lack of public\\u000a awareness [1]. TBI is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world for individuals under the age of 45\\u000a [2]. In the United States alone, based on population data from 1995 to 2001, 1.4 million

Terri Morris


Brain cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancers comprise heterogeneous cells, ranging from highly proliferative immature precursors to more differentiated cell lineages.\\u000a In the last decade, several groups have demonstrated the existence of cancer stem cells in both nonsolid solid tumors, including\\u000a some of the brain: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma, and ependymoma. These cells, like their normal counterpart\\u000a in homologous tissues, are multipotent, undifferentiated, self-sustaining, yet transformed

Sara G. M. Piccirillo; Elena Binda; Roberta Fiocco; Angelo L. Vescovi; Khalid Shah



Benzodiazepines in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great progress has been made in the last 5 yr in demonstrating the presence of benzodiazepines (BDZs) in mammalian tissues,\\u000a in beginning studies on the origin of these natural compounds, and in elucidating their possible biological roles. Many unanswered\\u000a questions remain regarding the sources and biosynthetic pathways responsible for the presence of BDZs in brain and their different\\u000a physiological and\\/or

J. H. Medina; C. Peña; M. Piva; C. Wolfman; M. L. de Stein; C. Wasowski; C. Da Cunha; I. Izquierdo; A. C. Paladini




Microsoft Academic Search

PyBrain is a versatile machine learning library for Python. Its goal is to provide flexible, easyto-use yet still powerful algorithms for machine learning tasks, including a variety of predefined\\u000d\\u000aenvironments and benchmarks to test and compare algorithms. Implemented algorithms include Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), policy gradient methods, (multidimensional) recurrent neural networks and deep belief networks.

Tom Schaul; Justin Bayer; Daan Wierstra; Yi Sun; Martin Felder; Frank Sehnke; Thomas Rückstieß; Jürgen Schmidhuber



Neurosteroids and brain aging.  


Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia are increasing in numbers as the population worldwide ages. Mid-life psychological stress, psychosocial stress and post-traumatic stress disorder have been shown to cause cognitive dysfunction and lead to increased risk for dementia. The mechanisms behind stress-induced AD or dementia are not known. Solid amyloid plaques in the affected brain tissues characterize AD. However, over the last decade it has been concluded that the level of soluble beta-amyloid proteins (A?) are reliable diagnostic markers as they correlate to cognitive performance while plaques do not. The soluble A? accumulate intracellularly and disturb the synaptic function. In addition, it has been shown that the levels of intracellular A? depend on neuronal activity. Previous studies in animal models have shown that deceased neuronal activity cause increased levels of A? inside neurons and cognitive decline. Allopregnanolone is produced in the brain at stress. It enhances the activity of the GABAergic neurotransmission and affects neuronal activities. In a series of studies using in transgenic Alzheimer's disease model, we have shown that chronically elevated levels of allopregnanolone accelerated AD development. After a period of exposure to chronically elevated levels of allopregnanolone, impaired learning and memory pattern occurred in the AD mice. Accordingly, increased levels of ?-amyloids were also observed in AD mice. We have also demonstrated that high levels of ?-amyloids corresponded to dysfunction among brain synapses. This was seen after a period of chronically elevated levels of allopregnanolone, but not after placebo treatment. This effect of allopregnanolone treatment was identified early in the disease development when AD mice normally have intact memory function. This review covers a wide topic of neurosteroids and brain aging, and provides insight on the mechanisms behind stress-induced AD or dementia. PMID:24346248

Wang, M



Experience with brain abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain abscesses were studied in 47 patients. Thirty-four (72%) of them were between 5-15 years and 9 were infants. Otogenic source (34%) was the commonest predisposing factor, followed by scalp and face infection (21.3%) and congeni- tal cyanotic heart disease (12.8%). Twenty (42%) patients had multiple abscesses. Supratentorial abscesses were commonest (75.9%). Predomi- nant clinical features were fever (87.2%), raised

Michael E. Carey; Shelley N. Chou; Lyle A. French



The cooperative brain.  


Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making. PMID:23300215

Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G



Imaging the Alzheimer Brain  

PubMed Central

This supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease contains more than half of the chapters from The Handbook of Imaging the Alzheimer Brain, which was first presented at the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease in Paris, in July, 2011. While the Handbook contains 27 chapters that are modified articles from 2009, 2010, and 2011 issues of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, this supplement contains the 31 new chapters of that book and an introductory article drawn from the introductions to each section of the book. The Handbook was designed to provide a multilevel overview of the full field of brain imaging related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Handbook, as well as this supplement, contains both reviews of the basic concepts of imaging, the latest developments in imaging, and various discussions and perspectives of the problems of the field and promising directions. The Handbook was designed to be useful for students and clinicians interested in AD as well as scientists studying the brain and pathology related to AD. PMID:21971448

Ashford, J. Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad; Furst, Ansgar; Bayley, Peter; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Sabri, Osama; Adamson, Maheen M.; Coburn, Kerry L.; Olichney, John; Schuff, Norbert; Spielman, Daniel; Edland, Steven D.; Black, Sandra; Rosen, Allyson; Kennedy, David; Weiner, Michael; Perry, George



Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots  

E-print Network

The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a quantum metalanguage, the operation of an artificial quantum computer.

Eliano Pessa; Paola zizzi



Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer's disease brains  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease and can be definitively diagnosed after death through an examination of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in several brain regions. It is to be expected that changes in the concentration and/or localization of low-molecular-weight molecules are linked to the pathological changes that occur in AD, and determining their identity would provide valuable information regarding AD processes. Here, we propose definitive brain metabolic profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The acquired data were subjected to principal components analysis to differentiate the frontal and parietal lobes of the AD/Control groups. Significant differences in the levels of spermine and spermidine were identified using S-plot, mass spectra, databases and standards. Based on the investigation of the polyamine metabolite pathway, these data establish that the downstream metabolites of ornithine are increased, potentially implicating ornithine decarboxylase activity in AD pathology. PMID:23917584

Inoue, Koichi; Tsutsui, Haruhito; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa



Discriminant and factor analysis of the WAIS and the Satz-Mogel Abbreviated WAIS on brain-damaged and psychiatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used a multivariate approach to compare diagnostic classification (brain-damaged vs psychiatric) of the abbreviated and the standard WAIS, using 118 brain-damaged and 55 psychiatric patients. Results show that in terms of hit rates, agreement, and subtest accuracy, there is a fair degree of similarity between the short and standard WAIS.

Frederick L. Coolidge



Gene expression in rat brain.  

PubMed Central

191 randomly selected cDNA clones prepared from rat brain cytoplasmic poly (A)+ RNA were screened by Northern blot hybridization to rat brain, liver and kidney RNA to determine the tissue distribution, abundance and size of the corresponding brain mRNA. 18% hybridized to mRNAs each present equally in the three tissues, 26% to mRNAs differentially expressed in the tissues, and 30% to mRNAs present only in the brain. An additional 26% of the clones failed to detect mRNA in the three tissues at an abundance level of about 0.01%, but did contain rat cDNA as demonstrated by Southern blotting; this class probably represents rare mRNAs expressed in only some brain cells. Therefore, most mRNA expressed in brain is either specific to brain or otherwise displays regulation. Rarer mRNA species tend to be larger than the more abundant species, and tend to be brain specific; the rarest, specific mRNAs average 5000 nucleotides in length. Ten percent of the clones hybridize to multiple mRNAs, some of which are expressed from small multigenic families. From these data we estimate that there are probably at most 30,000 distinct mRNA species expressed in the rat brain, the majority of which are uniquely expressed in the brain. Images PMID:6193485

Milner, R J; Sutcliffe, J G



Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis often is characterized by an acute brain dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is highly complex, resulting from both inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, which may induce significant alterations in vulnerable areas of the brain. Important mechanisms include excessive microglial activation, impaired cerebral perfusion, blood–brain-barrier dysfunction, and altered neurotransmission. Systemic insults, such as prolonged inflammation, severe hypoxemia, and persistent hyperglycemia also may contribute to aggravate sepsis-induced brain dysfunction or injury. The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in sepsis relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as EEG and neuroimaging. A brain MRI should be considered in case of persistent brain dysfunction after control of sepsis and exclusion of major confounding factors. Recent MRI studies suggest that septic shock can be associated with acute cerebrovascular lesions and white matter abnormalities. Currently, the management of brain dysfunction mainly consists of control of sepsis and prevention of all aggravating factors, including metabolic disturbances, drug overdoses, anticholinergic medications, withdrawal syndromes, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Modulation of microglial activation, prevention of blood–brain-barrier alterations, and use of antioxidants represent relevant therapeutic targets that may impact significantly on neurologic outcomes. In the future, investigations in patients with sepsis should be undertaken to reduce the duration of brain dysfunction and to study the impact of this reduction on important health outcomes, including functional and cognitive status in survivors. PMID:23718252



Several methods to determine heavy metals in the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of naturally occurring heavy metals in various parts of the human brain is discussed. The patients had no diseases in their central nervous systems (five individuals, mean age 70 years). Twenty brain parts were selected from both hemispheres. The analysis was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. Accuracy and precision of the applied techniques were tested by using standard reference materials. Two digestion methods were used to dissolve the brain samples for ICP-AES and GF-AAS. One was performed in a Parr-bomb and the second in a microwave oven. The present results show a non-homogeneous distribution of the essential elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in normal human brain. Corresponding regions in both hemispheres showed an almost identical concentration of these elements. In the case of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) an average value in different brain regions can not be established because of the high variability of individual data. This study indicates that beside differences in Pb and Cd intake with foods or cigarette smoke inhalation, the main factors of the high inter-individual variability of these element concentrations in human brain parts may be a marked difference in individual elimination or accumulation capabilities.

Andrási, Erzsébet; Igaz, Sarolta; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Farkas, Éva; Ajtony, Zsolt



Brain sites mediating corticosteroid feedback inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion  

SciTech Connect

There is substantial evidence that the brain mediates stress-induced and circadian increases in ACTH secretion and that corticosteroid concentrations which normalize basal plasma ACTH are insufficient to normalize ACTH responses to circadian or stressful stimuli in adrenalectomized rats. To identify brain sites mediating corticosteroid inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion, two approaches were used. The first compared brain ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose uptake in rats with differential ACTH responses to stress. Relative to sham-adrenalectomized (SHAM) rats, adrenalectomized rats replaced with low, constant corticosterone levels via a subcutaneous corticosterone pellet (B-PELLET) exhibited elevated and prolonged ACTH responses to a variety of stimuli. Adrenalectomized rate given a circadian corticosterone rhythm via corticosterone in their drinking water exhibited elevated ACTH levels immediately after stress, but unlike B-PELLET rats, terminated stress induced ACTH secretion normally relative to SHAMS. Therefore, the abnormal ACTH responses to stress in B-PELLET rats were due to the lack of both circadian variations and stress-induced increases in corticosterone. Hypoxia was selected as a standardized stimulus for correlating brain ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose uptake with ACTH secretion. In intact rats, increases in plasma ACTH and decreases in arterial PO{sub 2} correlated with the severity of hypoxia at arterial PCO{sub 2} below 60 mm Hg. Hypoxia PELLET vs. SHAM rats. However, in preliminary experiments, although hypoxia increased brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake in most brain regions, plasma ACTH correlated poorly with 2-deoxyglucose uptake at 12% and 10% O{sub 2}.

Jacobson, L.



Epilepsy and brain inflammation.  


During the last decade, experimental research has demonstrated a prominent role of glial cells, activated in brain by various injuries, in the mechanisms of seizure precipitation and recurrence. In particular, alterations in the phenotype and function of activated astrocytes and microglial cells have been described in experimental and human epileptic tissue, including modifications in potassium and water channels, alterations of glutamine/glutamate cycle, changes in glutamate receptor expression and transporters, release of neuromodulatory molecules (e.g. gliotransmitters, neurotrophic factors), and induction of molecules involved in inflammatory processes (e.g. cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, complement factors, cell adhesion molecules) (Seifert et al., 2006; Vezzani et al., 2011; Wetherington et al., 2008). In particular, brain injury or proconvulsant events can activate microglia and astrocytes to release a number of proinflammatory mediators, thus initiating a cascade of inflammatory processes in brain tissue. Proinflammatory molecules can alter neuronal excitability and affect the physiological functions of glia by paracrine or autocrine actions, thus perturbing the glioneuronal communications. In experimental models, these changes contribute to decreasing the threshold to seizures and may compromise neuronal survival (Riazi et al., 2010; Vezzani et al., 2008). In this context, understanding which are the soluble mediators and the molecular mechanisms crucially involved in glio-neuronal interactions is instrumental to shed light on how brain inflammation may contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in epilepsy. This review will report the clinical observations in drug-resistant human epilepsies and the experimental findings in adult and immature rodents linking brain inflammation to the epileptic process in a causal and reciprocal manner. By confronting the clinical evidence with the experimental findings, we will discuss the role of specific soluble inflammatory mediators in the etiopathogenesis of seizures, reporting evidence for both their acute and long term effects on seizure threshold. The possible contribution of these mediators to co-morbidities often described in epilepsy patients will be also discussed. Finally, we will report on the anti-inflammatory treatments with anticonvulsant actions in experimental models highlighting possible therapeutic options for treating drug-resistant seizures and for prevention of epileptogenesis. PMID:21985866

Vezzani, Annamaria; Aronica, Eleonora; Mazarati, Andrey; Pittman, Quentin J



The blood-brain barrier: Bottleneck in brain drug development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the brain capillary endothelium and excludes from the brain ?100% of large-molecule\\u000a neurotherapeutics and more than 98% of all small-molecule drugs. Despite the importance of the BBB to the neurotherapeutics\\u000a mission, the BBB receives insufficient attention in either academic neuroscience or industry programs. The combination of\\u000a so little effort in developing solutions to

William M. Pardridge



Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1month, 1year, and 2years,

Yong Fan; Feng Shi; Jeffrey Keith Smith; Weili Lin; John H. Gilmore; Dinggang Shen



[Colorectal carcinoma with hemiparesis due to isolated brain metastases as an initial symptom - a case report].  


We present a rare case of colorectalcarcinoma in which hemiparesis was the initialsymptom. A 75-year-old woman presented with incomplete left-sided hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a 13-mm mass in the right frontal lobe; the mass was resected via craniotomy. Pathological findings, which included the results of immunohistochemical analysis, indicated brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy revealed advanced colon cancer in the ascending colon, and computed tomography(CT)did not revealany extracranialmetastases. Left-sided hemicolectomy was performed. Whole-brain radiotherapy was scheduled, but before initiation of the therapy, metastases were detected in the neck lymph node and right arm skin, and the brain metastases relapsed. The relapsed brain metastatic lesions were resected, and radiotherapy was administered to the whole brain and the severely painful site of skin metastasis. However, the patient died 201 days after presentation. Historically, systemic chemotherapy was considered ineffective for metastatic brain tumor, and the standard treatments for brain metastasis were surgery and radiotherapy. Although recent advances in systemic chemotherapy for colorectal cancer have resulted in improved patient survival, patients with brain metastases from colorectal cancer still have a poor prognosis. Modern chemotherapeutic agents, including molecularly targeted agents such as bevacizumab, should be validated for the management of brain metastases. PMID:25335708

Goto, Akira; Ishimine, Yu; Hirata, Tsubasa; Naito, Takafumi; Yabana, Takashi; Adachi, Takeya; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Kiyoshi



Evaluation of brain tumors using dynamic 11C-methionine-PET.  


The aim of this study is to assess whether dynamic imaging of (11)C-methionine (MET) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) is useful for the differential diagnosis of brain tumor histology. Regional MET uptake in static brain PET scans from three consecutive phases (5-15, 15-25, and 25-35 min) after intravenous injection were measured in 144 patients with brain tumors. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the pituitary gland, confluence, choroid plexus, coronal radiation, brainstem, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, cerebellum, and brain tumors. The standard uptake value (SUV) of the ROIs in the normal brain structures and brain tumors were measured, and the mean MET SUV region/normal frontal lobe cortex uptake ratio (R/N ratio) of the normal brain structures and the maximum MET SUV tumor/normal frontal cortex uptake ratio (T/N ratio) were evaluated semi-quantitatively. There were significant dynamic declines of the mean MET R/N ratio in the normal pituitary gland and confluence; however, there were significant dynamic increases in white matter. Significant dynamic decrease of the maximum MET T/N ratio was seen in meningiomas and oligodendrocytic tumors, whereas significant dynamic increase was seen in glioblastomas and malignant lymphomas. Dynamic changes of MET uptake vary significantly with the normal brain structures and brain tumor histology. These results suggest that MET-PET may be useful in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. PMID:22528799

Aki, Tatsuki; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Yonezawa, Shingo; Takenaka, Syunsuke; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru



Scaling Brain Size, Keeping Timing: Evolutionary Preservation of Brain Rhythms  

PubMed Central

Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025

Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf



The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in brain surgery.  


New functional neuroimaging techniques are changing our understanding of the human brain, and there is now convincing evidence to move away from the classic and clinical static concepts of functional topography. In a modern neurocognitive view, functions are thought to be represented in dynamic large-scale networks. The authors review the current (limited) role of functional MR imaging in brain surgery and the possibilities of new functional MR imaging techniques for research and neurosurgical practice. A critique of current clinical gold standard techniques (electrocortical stimulation and the Wada test) is given. PMID:20121439

Rutten, Geert-Jan; Ramsey, Nick F



Brain metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer.  


Up to 50% of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer will develop brain metastases at some point during their illness. These metastases cause a substantial burden in morbidity and mortality, which has motivated research and technological innovation over the past 2 decades. Surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies have each played a role in management, with the greatest changes associated with the popularization of stereotactic radiosurgery. In this review, the evidence behind each modality used in the management of brain metastases for non-small-cell lung cancer patients is examined, and recommendations regarding the current standards of care and areas of future research focus are provided. PMID:24954227

Dawe, David E; Greenspoon, Jeffrey N; Ellis, Peter M



Acoustical standards news.  


American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes catalogs of Acoustical Standards, both National and International. To receive copies of the latest Standards catalogs, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National and International Catalogs of Acoustical Standards, and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: PMID:25373988

Blaeser, Susan B; Schomer, Paul D



Songbirds and the Revised Avian Brain Nomenclature  

PubMed Central

It has become increasingly clear that the standard nomenclature for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures of the avian brain is based on flawed once-held assumptions of homology to mammalian brain structures, greatly hindering functional comparisons between avian and mammalian brains. This has become especially problematic for those researchers studying the neurobiology of birdsong, the largest single group within the avian neuroscience community. To deal with the many communication problems this has caused among researchers specializing in different vertebrate classes, the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum, held at Duke University from July 18–20, 2002, set out to develop a new terminology for the avian telencephalon and some allied brainstem cell groups. In one major step, the erroneous conception that the avian telencephalon consists mainly of a hypertrophied basal ganglia has been purged from the telencephalic terminology, and the actual parts of the basal ganglia and its brainstem afferent cell groups have been given new names to reflect their now-evident homologies. The telencephalic regions that were incorrectly named to reflect presumed homology to mammalian basal ganglia have been renamed as parts of the pallium. The prefixes used for the new names for the pallial subdivisions have retained most established abbreviations, in an effort to maintain continuity with the pre-existing nomenclature. Here we present a brief synopsis of the inaccuracies in the old nomenclature, a summary of the nomenclature changes, and details of changes for specific songbird vocal and auditory nuclei. We believe this new terminology will promote more accurate understanding of the broader neurobiological implications of song control mechanisms and facilitate the productive exchange of information between researchers studying avian and mammalian systems. PMID:15313771




Ketosis proportionately spares glucose utilization in brain.  


The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, as occurs with fasting, starvation, or chronic feeding of a ketogenic diet. The relationship between changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and degree or duration of ketosis remains uncertain. To investigate if CMRglc decreases with chronic ketosis, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination with positron emission tomography, was applied in anesthetized young adult rats fed 3 weeks of either standard or ketogenic diets. Cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (?mol/min per 100?g) was determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum using Gjedde-Patlak analysis. The average CMRglc significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex (23.0±4.9 versus 32.9±4.7) and cerebellum (29.3±8.6 versus 41.2±6.4) with increased plasma ketone bodies in the ketotic rats compared with standard diet group. The reduction of CMRglc in both brain regions correlates linearly by ?9% for each 1?mmol/L increase of total plasma ketone bodies (0.3 to 6.3?mmol/L). Together with our meta-analysis, these data revealed that the degree and duration of ketosis has a major role in determining the corresponding change in CMRglc with ketosis. PMID:23736643

Zhang, Yifan; Kuang, Youzhi; Xu, Kui; Harris, Donald; Lee, Zhenghong; LaManna, Joseph; Puchowicz, Michelle A



Ketosis proportionately spares glucose utilization in brain  

PubMed Central

The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, as occurs with fasting, starvation, or chronic feeding of a ketogenic diet. The relationship between changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and degree or duration of ketosis remains uncertain. To investigate if CMRglc decreases with chronic ketosis, 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination with positron emission tomography, was applied in anesthetized young adult rats fed 3 weeks of either standard or ketogenic diets. Cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (?mol/min per 100?g) was determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum using Gjedde–Patlak analysis. The average CMRglc significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex (23.0±4.9 versus 32.9±4.7) and cerebellum (29.3±8.6 versus 41.2±6.4) with increased plasma ketone bodies in the ketotic rats compared with standard diet group. The reduction of CMRglc in both brain regions correlates linearly by ?9% for each 1?mmol/L increase of total plasma ketone bodies (0.3 to 6.3?mmol/L). Together with our meta-analysis, these data revealed that the degree and duration of ketosis has a major role in determining the corresponding change in CMRglc with ketosis. PMID:23736643

Zhang, Yifan; Kuang, Youzhi; Xu, Kui; Harris, Donald; Lee, Zhenghong; LaManna, Joseph; Puchowicz, Michelle A



Web Intelligence Meets Brain Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we outline a vision of Web Intelligence (WI) research from the viewpoint of Brain Informatics (BI), a new\\u000a interdisciplinary field that systematically studies the mechanisms of human information processing from both the macro and\\u000a micro viewpoints by combining experimental cognitive neuroscience with advanced information technology. BI studies human brain\\u000a from the viewpoint of informatics (i.e., human brain

Ning Zhong; Jiming Liu; Yiyu Yao; Jing-long Wu; Shengfu Lu; Yulin Qin; Kuncheng Li; Benjamin W. Wah



The Basics of Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the basic stages and mechanisms\\u000a of mammalian brain development. Studies elucidating the neurobiology of brain development span the levels of neural organization\\u000a from the macroanatomic, to the cellular, to the molecular. Together this large body of work provides a picture of brain development\\u000a as the product

Joan Stiles; Terry L. Jernigan



Brain Development and CNS Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the first developmental studies using fMRI there has been an almost logarithmic growth of investigations regarding functional\\u000a brain development. This growing knowledge, in combination with landmark animal studies of developmental neuroplasticity, has\\u000a provided us with significant insight into the nature of brain development and how brain maturation might map onto behavior.\\u000a Throughout this chapter we discuss how a number

Damien A. Fair; Bradley L. Schlaggar


Volumetric Transformation of Brain Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents diffeomorphic transformations of three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical image data of the macaque occipital lobe and whole brain cryosection imagery and of deep brain structures in human brains as imaged via magnetic reso- nance imagery. These transformations are generated in a hierar- chical manner, accommodating both global and local anatomical detail. The initial low-dimensional registration is accomplished by constraining

Gary E. Christensen; Sarang C. Joshi; Michael I. Miller



PET Imaging of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of primary brain tumors is ~ 11:100,000 of the population. In the year 2006, ~ 18,820 new cases of brain and\\u000a other nervous system tumors were diagnosed in the United States [1] and these tumors were the cause of death in ~ 12,820 patients.\\u000a Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis for patients with primary brain tumors

Alan J. Fischman


Microenvironment Determinants of Brain Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related mortality. Brain metastases generally present during the late stages in the\\u000a natural history of cancer progression. Recent advances in cancer treatment and management have resulted in better control\\u000a of systemic disease metastatic to organs other than the brain and improved patient survival. However, patients who experience\\u000a recurrent disease manifest an increasing number of brain

Chenyu Zhang; Dihua Yu



Dose Escalation of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases From Melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The majority of patients with brain metastases from melanoma receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, the results are poor. Hypofractionation regimens failed to improve the outcome of these patients. This study investigates a potential benefit from escalation of the WBRT dose beyond the 'standard' regimen 30 Gy in 10 fractions (10x3 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data from 51 melanoma patients receiving WBRT alone were retrospectively analyzed. A dosage of 10x3 Gy (n = 33) was compared with higher doses including 40 Gy/20 fractions (n = 11) and 45 Gy/15 fractions (n = 7) for survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, performance status, number of metastases, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: At 6 months, OS rates were 27% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.009). The OS rates at 12 months were 4% and 20%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.010), fewer than four brain metastases (p = 0.012), no extracerebral metastases (p = 0.006), and RPA class 1 (p = 0.005) were associated with improved OS. The LC rates at 6 months were 23% after 10x3 Gy and 50% after higher doses (p = 0.021). The LC rates at 12 months were 0% and 13%. On multivariate analysis, higher WBRT doses (p = 0.020) and fewer than brain metastases (p = 0.002) were associated with better LC. Conclusions: Given the limitations of a retrospective study, the findings suggest that patients with brain metastases from melanoma receiving WBRT alone may benefit from dose escalation beyond 10x3 Gy. The hypothesis generated by this study must be confirmed in a randomized trial stratifying for significant prognostic factors.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Heisterkamp, Christine; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bohlen, Guenther; Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Haatanen, Tiina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)



History of the brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive timeline of humankind's knowledge and investigation of the brain. The timeline begins in 4000 BC and ends in 2000 AD. Many of the timeline's paragraph-long entries are complemented by pictures of scientists, scientific illustrations, and photos. Once inside the timeline, users are presented with different navigational tools. A pop-up menu allows users to jump to listed firsts (such as the first human behavior lab), discoveries (including prions), and 'weird stuff' (like phrenology). Alternatively, users can scroll to highlight large periods of time such as the Renaissance and then within that time period select a specific year to examine. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Productions, David G.; York, Thirteen/wnet N.



Interactive brains, social minds  

PubMed Central

To reveal the neural and behavioral dynamics of social interaction, single-person studies are increasingly complemented by research designs that simultaneously assess two or more interacting individuals. In this article, we review studies on neural mechanisms and markers of social interactions that use multi-person functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We propose a terminology for investigating social interaction dynamics, show how forward models of action regulation may serve as a framework for investigating interpersonal action coordination and discuss different methodological approaches to studying functional brain connectivity. PMID:22448303

Lindenberger, Ulman



Mapping brain maturation  

PubMed Central

Human brain maturation is a complex, lifelong process that can now be examined in detail using neuroimaging techniques. Ongoing projects scan subjects longitudinally with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling the time-course and anatomical sequence of development to be reconstructed. Here, we review recent progress on imaging studies of development. We focus on cortical and subcortical changes observed in healthy children, and contrast them with abnormal developmental changes in early-onset schizophrenia, fetal alcohol syndrome, attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Williams syndrome. We relate these structural changes to the cellular processes that underlie them, and to cognitive and behavioral changes occurring throughout childhood and adolescence. PMID:16472876

Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.



Sculpting the brain  

PubMed Central

Neuroculture, conceived as the reciprocal interaction between neuroscience and different areas of human knowledge is influencing our lives under the prism of the latest neuroscientific discoveries. Simultaneously, neuroculture can create new models of thinking that can significantly impact neuroscientists' daily practice. Especially interesting is the interaction that takes place between neuroscience and the arts. This interaction takes place at different, infinite levels and contexts. I contextualize my work inside this neurocultural framework. Through my artwork, I try to give a more natural vision of the human brain, which could help to develop a more humanistic culture. PMID:22363275

Garcia-Lopez, Pablo



: Low-Resolution Refinement for Ligand Comparative Modeling  

E-print Network

obtained for the majority of gene products in a given proteome. Structure-based virtual screening of large docking approaches in ligand docking against a representa- tive set of experimental (both holo and apo applicable to drug dis- covery and design.1­4 The goal of virtual screening techniques is to limit the size

Skolnick, Jeff


Diagnostic quality of low resolution images for tele-woundcare.  


The use of digital wound images would allow remote consultation between patients, physicians, or other caregivers over the Internet. To evaluate the efficacy and validity of digital images for assessment of wounds, we compared the ability and reliability of surgeons to diagnose and make treatment suggestions using either digital or slide images of several types of wounds. Twenty-four wound images on 35-mm slides were selected for use in this study. Each slide image was digitized at 24-bit color with a resolution of 640 pixels horizontal by 425 pixels vertical, and stored as a JPEG file. Six physicians, of varying experience, examined the images, first in digital format and then later in the original slide form. Each observer assessed each wound for condition and possible treatment options by filling out a questionnaire using a series of yes/no questions. For all observers, there was an 87% agreement of answers between digital and slide images (p = 0.004). The agreement between the digital and slide images was also measured for each individual observer using a kappa coefficient. The agreement kappa correlated with the experience of the observer, with the kappa values ranging from greater than 0.8 (almost perfect agreement) for an experienced woundcare professional to just greater than 0.5 (moderate agreement) for a surgical intern. With this study, we have demonstrated the feasibility of distance wound consultation using digital images of a quality consistent with consumer-grade digital photography. PMID:9929352

Roth, A C; Reid, J C; Concannon, M



Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of process holdup  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear facilities worldwide have deposits of nuclear material remaining in processing equipment. Nuclear facilities need portable, automated tools based on gamma-ray spectroscopy to perform plant wide in situ assays of special nuclear materials (SNM) deposited in processing equipment. These tools have requirements to (1) acquire and manage several hundred spectra in an hour; (2) produce prompt and reliable quantitative analyses; (3) be self-powered, easily carried, and operated by one use; (4) accommodate varying degrees of user expertise; (5) correct for the effects of equipment variables; (6) tolerate facility variables such as temperature and equipment accessibility; and (7) accommodate the geometry of each measurement. this paper describes a new system for in-situ measurements consisting of a compact gamma-ray detector, a self-contained portable gamma-ray spectroscopy instrument, and a palm-size programmable control and data storage unit.

Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.; Russo, P.A. [and others



Right Brain Versus Left Brain in Assessing Verbal Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on divergent thinking (mental activity directed to open-end problems for which there is no one correct answer) indicates that the characteristics associated with divergency (fluency of thinking, flexibility of thinking, originality, redefinition, and elaborating) are right brain functions. To assess right brain function and verbal…

Turner, Yvonne L.


Oxidative Stress in Immature Brain after Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

High oxygen demand along with the abundance of readily oxidizable substrates yielding productive oxidative metabolism are required for the normal function of the brain. This necessitates the existence of the complex and multicomponent antioxidant system in the brain for protection against oxidative damage. However, during development, individual components of the antioxidant system are not equally expressed and not always sufficient

Patrick M. Kochanek; Valerian E. Kagan



Genetic links between brain development and brain evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most defining biological attribute of Homo sapiens is its enormous brain size and accompanying cognitive prowess. How this was achieved by means of genetic changes over the course of human evolution has fascinated biologists and the general public alike. Recent studies have shown that genes controlling brain development — notably those implicated in microcephaly (a congenital defect that is

Sandra L. Gilbert; William B. Dobyns; Bruce T. Lahn



Organization of brain tissue - Is the brain a noisy processor.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some thoughts on functional organization in cerebral tissue. 'Spontaneous' wave and unit firing are considered as essential phenomena in the handling of information. Various models are discussed which have been suggested to describe the pseudorandom behavior of brain cells, leading to a view of the brain as an information processor and its role in learning, memory, remembering and forgetting.

Adey, W. R.



Brain Structure and Meditation How Spiritual Practice Shapes the Brain  

E-print Network

Brain Structure and Meditation How Spiritual Practice Shapes the Brain Ulrich Ott (1), Britta K. H Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, U.S.A. Abstract Meditation practices can meditators with matched controls. While meditation types and meas- ures differed between studies, results

Lazar, Sara


Brain Hemisphere Dominance: Building the Whole-Brain Singer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of brain hemisphere dominance serves as the basis for many educational learning theories. The dominant brain hemisphere guides the learning process, but both hemispheres are necessary for true learning to take place. This treatise outlines and analyzes the dominance factor, a learning theory developed by Dr. Carla Hannaford, which…

Boyd, Amanda R.



Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes only a glimpse of what is known about the nervous system, brain disorders, and the exciting avenues of research that promise new therapies for many of the most devastating neurological and psychiatric diseases. The neuron, brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, advances and challenges in…

Carey, Joseph, Ed.


Brain Graphs: Graphical Models of the Human Brain Connectome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain graphs provide a relatively simple and increasingly popular way of modeling the human brain connectome, using graph theory to abstractly define a nervous system as a set of nodes (denoting anatomical regions or recording electrodes) and interconnecting edges (denoting structural or functional connections). Topological and geometrical properties of these graphs can be measured and compared to random graphs and

Edward T. Bullmore; Danielle S. Bassett


Brain Graphs: Graphical Models of the Human Brain Connectome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain graphs provide a relatively simple and increasingly popular way of modeling the human brain connectome, using graph theory to abstractly define a nervous system as a set of nodes (denoting anatomical regions or recording electrodes) and interconnecting edges (denoting structural or functional connections). Topological and geometrical properties of these graphs can be measured and compared to random graphs and

Edward T. Bullmore; Danielle S. Bassett



Assessment of Brain Shift Related to Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery can significantly improve the quality of life for patients suffering from movement disorders, but the success of the procedure depends on the implantation accuracy of the DBS electrode array. Pre-operative surgical planning and navigation are based on the assumption that the brain tissue is rigid between the time of the acquisition of the pre-operative image

Muhammad Faisal Khan; Klaus Mewes; Robert E. Gross; Oskar Škrinjar



Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory Technical Report  

E-print Network

Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory Technical Report Document © by Bruce H. McCormick, 3/18/2002 Page 1 Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Bruce H. McCormick Last Updated: March 18, 2002 #12;Development of the Brain Tissue Scanner Brain Networks Laboratory


Brain activation during cognitive stimulation with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test — a functional MRI study on healthy volunteers and schizophrenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) that frontal brain regions are stimulated during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The WCST is also regarded as one of the standard tests for the assessment of frontal activity in brain imaging studies of schizophrenia. In this study cerebral activation was

Hans-Peter Volz; Christian Gaser; Frank Häger; Reinhardt Rzanny; Hans-Joachim Mentzel; Ilonka Kreitschmann-Andermahr; Werner Alois Kaiser; Heirich Sauer



Mid-sagittal Plane and Mid-sagittal Surface Optimization in Brain MRI Using a Local Symmetry Measure  

E-print Network

And DISability (LADIS) study consisting of three- dimensional magnetic resonance brain data from 62 elderly to its relative alignment with the sagittal plane of the human body. Knowing the exact location standardization of brain images.1­3 Another is to provide means for estimating the departures from bilateral


Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication: Brain Hyperthermia, Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Edema  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally assumed that multiple chemical substances released in the brain following METH-induced metabolic activation (or oxidative stress) are primary factors underlying damage of neural cells, in this work we will present data suggesting a role of brain hyperthermia and associated leakage of the brain-blood barrier (BBB) in acute METH-induced toxicity. First, we show that METH induces a dose-dependent brain and body hyperthermia, which is strongly potentiated by associated physiological activation and in warm environments that prevent proper heat dissipation to the external environment. Second, we demonstrate that acute METH intoxication induces robust, widespread but structure-specific leakage of the BBB, acute glial activation, and increased water content (edema), which are related to drug-induced brain hyperthermia. Third, we document widespread morphological abnormalities of brain cells, including neurons, glia, epithelial and endothelial cells developing rapidly during acute METH intoxication. These structural abnormalities are tightly related to the extent of brain hyperthermia, leakage of the BBB, and brain edema. While it is unclear whether these rapidly developed morphological abnormalities are reversible, this study demonstrates that METH induces multiple functional and structural perturbations in the brain, determining its acute toxicity and possibly contributing to neurotoxicity. PMID:19897075

Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Sharma, Hari S.



Surrogate-assisted analysis of weighted functional brain networks  

E-print Network

Graph-theoretical analyses of complex brain networks is a rapidly evolving field with a strong impact for neuroscientific and related clinical research. Due to a number of confounding variables, however, a reliable and meaningful characterization of particularly functional brain networks is a major challenge. Addressing this problem, we present an analysis approach for weighted networks that makes use of surrogate networks with preserved edge weights or vertex strengths. We first investigate whether characteristics of weighted networks are influenced by trivial properties of the edge weights or vertex strengths (e.g., their standard deviations). If so, these influences are then effectively segregated with an appropriate surrogate normalization of the respective network characteristic. We demonstrate this approach by re-examining, in a time-resolved manner, weighted functional brain networks of epilepsy patients and control subjects derived from simultaneous EEG/MEG recordings during different behavioral state...

Ansmann, Gerrit



Extrahypothalamic brain prolactin: characterization and evidence for independence from pituitary prolactin.  


Prompted by reports of immunohistochemical localization of a prolactin-like immunoreactivity (PLI) within the rat brain, a study was undertaken to define the immunologic and biologic characteristics of this material in extrahypothalamic regions of the rat brain. Ninety-seven percent recovery of rat prolactin standard, added to homogenates of brain parts, insured that neuronal tissue did not interfere with the radioimmunoassay for rat prolactin. PLI was consistently found in the cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem (pons-medulla), hippocampus, cerebral cortex and caudate. Examination of the elution profile of each of the extrahypothalamic brain parts from Sephadex G-75 columns showed that, although a small amount of brain PLI elutes in the vicinity of the anterior pituitary prolactin marker, the bulk of brain-based PLI migrates with the void volume and as late eluting, low molecular weight material. While increasing amounts of brain extracts progressively displaced more 125I-prolactin from antibody binding, the displacement curve was not parallel to that produced by the addition of increasing amounts of anterior pituitary prolactin standards of rat origin. Extracts of various brain parts from hypophysectomized animals, analyzed for biologic activity in the Nb2 lymphoma cell assay, revealed prolactin-like bioactivity, but the bioactivity/immunoreactivity ratio for some of the brain parts was significantly lower than that for pituitary prolactin. Hypophysectomy, which led to the expected fall in serum prolactin to undetectable levels, and restraint stress, which resulted in a statistically significant 4-fold rise in serum prolactin, caused no change in prolactin concentrations in extrahypothalamic brain parts, indicating that brain PLI is regulated independently of pituitary prolactin and of circulating serum prolactin levels. PMID:3690272

Emanuele, N V; Metcalfe, L; Wallock, L; Tentler, J; Hagen, T C; Beer, C T; Martinson, D; Gout, P W; Kirsteins, L; Lawrence, A M



Adaptive neonate brain segmentation.  


Babies born prematurely are at increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recent advances suggest that measurement of brain volumes can help in defining biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome. These techniques rely on an accurate segmentation of the MRI data. However, due to lack of contrast, partial volume (PV) effect, the existence of both hypo- and hyper-intensities and significant natural and pathological anatomical variability, the segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is challenging. We propose a pipeline for image segmentation that uses a novel multi-model Maximum a posteriori Expectation Maximisation (MAP-EM) segmentation algorithm with a prior over both intensities and the tissue proportions, a B0 inhomogeneity correction, and a spatial homogeneity term through the use of a Markov Random Field. This robust and adaptive technique enables the segmentation of images with high anatomical disparity from a normal population. Furthermore, the proposed method implicitly models Partial Volume, mitigating the problem of neonatal white/grey matter intensity inversion. Experiments performed on a clinical cohort show expected statistically significant correlations with gestational age at birth and birthweight. Furthermore, the proposed method obtains statistically significant improvements in Dice scores when compared to the a Maximum Likelihood EM algorithm. PMID:22003722

Cardoso, M Jorge; Melbourne, Andrew; Kendall, Giles S; Modat, Marc; Hagmann, Cornelia F; Robertson, Nicola J; Marlow, Neil; Ourselin, Sebastien



[Dehydroepiandrosterone and brain functioning].  


The adrenal glands synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEAS) more intensively than they do other steroid hormones. Researchers are interested in these hormones for several reasons. Firstly, for some years they have been trying to find the reason for DHEA and DHEAS to be synthesized and present in the organism in such high concentrations. Secondly, their attention have been attracted by age-dependent regression of DHEA, which is strictly determined. Thirdly, despite longstanding efforts of scientists, the physiological role and spectrum of the biological activity of DHEA is still unclear. Evidence of that DHEA and DHEAS can be synthesized in situ in the brain tissue, received in rat experiments, urged researchers to clarify the role of these neurosteroids in the CNS. The presented review covers ways of neurosteroid synthesis, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under the condition of stress. The authors analyze experimental and clinical observations undertaken with a goal to clarify a possible role of DHEA in the manifestation of various brain functions. Special attention is payed to ambiguous results of modern studies, dedicated to replacement therapy of various disorders of CNS functioning (Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-specific memory impairment, sleep disturbance etc.) with DHEAS. PMID:16149434

Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N



How brains make decisions  

E-print Network

This chapter, dedicated to the memory of Mino Freund, summarizes the Quantum Decision Theory (QDT) that we have developed in a series of publications since 2008. We formulate a general mathematical scheme of how decisions are taken, using the point of view of psychological and cognitive sciences, without touching physiological aspects. The basic principles of how intelligence acts are discussed. The human brain processes involved in decisions are argued to be principally different from straightforward computer operations. The difference lies in the conscious-subconscious duality of the decision making process and the role of emotions that compete with utility optimization. The most general approach for characterizing the process of decision making, taking into account the conscious-subconscious duality, uses the framework of functional analysis in Hilbert spaces, similarly to that used in the quantum theory of measurements. This does not imply that the brain is a quantum system, but just allows for the simplest and most general extension of classical decision theory. The resulting theory of quantum decision making, based on the rules of quantum measurements, solves all paradoxes of classical decision making, allowing for quantitative predictions that are in excellent agreement with experiments. Finally, we provide a novel application by comparing the predictions of QDT with experiments on the prisoner dilemma game. The developed theory can serve as a guide for creating artificial intelligence acting by quantum rules.

V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette



Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization  

E-print Network

Brain MRI Classification using the Expectation Maximization made a brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification algorithm that uses a twostage applied to a set of normal brain MR images for further testing. We accomplished a working

Chen, Tsuhan


The Art of Changing the Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The understanding of fundamental neurological processes that enables the brain to analyze good learning produces physical changes in brain. The use of several regions of brain in the learning process and problem solving techniques are discussed.

Zull, James E.



Genomic mosaicism in the human brain  

E-print Network

Brain and Tissue Bank (National Institute of Child Health and Human Developmentand human. Proliferating cerebellar NPCs harbor mitotic abnormalities during brain development,brain development. The DNA donor of a recently sequenced human

Westra, Jurjen Willem



Brain Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain Cancer - Multiple Languages French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Information Translations Return to top Somali (af Soomaali) Brain Scan Sawiridda ... Cáncer de cerebro Return to top Ukrainian (??????????) Brain ...


Surgical Technology Program Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains statewide standards for the surgical technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.


Engineered nanoparticles. How brain friendly is this new guest?  


In the last 30 years, the use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has progressively increased in many industrial and medical applications. In therapy, NPs may allow more effective cellular and subcellular targeting of drugs. In diagnostic applications, quantum dots are exploited for their optical characteristics, while superparamagnetic iron oxides NPs are used in magnetic resonance imaging. NPs are used in semiconductors, packaging, textiles, solar cells, batteries and plastic materials. Despite the great progress in nanotechnologies, comparatively little is known to date on the effects that exposure to NPs may have on the human body, in general and specifically on the brain. NPs can enter the human body through skin, digestive tract, airways and blood and they may cross the blood-brain barrier to reach the central nervous system. In addition to the paucity of studies describing NP effects on brain function, some of them also suffer of insufficient NPs characterization, inadequate standardization of conditions and lack of contaminant evaluation, so that results from different studies can hardly be compared. It has been shown in vitro and in vivo in rodents that NPs can impair dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. Changes of neuronal morphology and neuronal death were reported in mice treated with NPs. NPs can also affect the respiratory chain of mitochondria and Bax protein levels, thereby causing apoptosis. Changes in expression of genes involved in redox pathways in mouse brain regions were described. NPs can induce autophagy, and accumulate in lysosomes impairing their degradation capacity. Cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking may also be affected. NPs treated animals showed neuroinflammation with microglia activation, which could induce neurodegeneration. Considering the available data, it is important to design adequate models and experimental systems to evaluate in a reliable and controlled fashion the effects of NPs on the brain, and generate data representative of effects on the human brain, thereby useful for developing robust and valid nanosafety standards. PMID:24820405

Cupaioli, Francesca A; Zucca, Fabio A; Boraschi, Diana; Zecca, Luigi



Prenatal stress and brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal stress (PS) has been linked to abnormal cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in both animals and humans. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated PS effects on the offspring's brain, however, while it has been speculated that PS most likely affects the brains of exposed human fetuses as well, no study has to date examined this possibility prospectively using an independent

Arnaud Charil; David P. Laplante; Cathy Vaillancourt; Suzanne King



Language and the Developing Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

Eliot, Lise



The stolen brain of Einstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed an autopsy on Einstein after his death in 1955. During the autopsy Harvey removed Einstein's brain, took pictures of it and then cut it into several pieces. A lot of scientific attention has been devoted to Einstein' brain, and it still comes up once in a while. We've all heard something or other about Einstein's

Kavan Modi



Dyslexia, gender, and brain imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future brain imaging studies of dyslexia should have a sufficient number of males andfemales to detect possible gender differences in the neurological underpinning of this disorder.Detailed knowledge about such differences may clarify our understanding of the structural andfunctional impairments which lead to the phonological deficits that characterize dyslexia.Functional brain imaging studies have shown that males and females exhibit differentpatterns of

Evelyn K Lambe



Neuronal replacement in adult brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of spontaneous neuronal replacement in the adult vertebrate brain has changed the way in which we think about the biology of memory. This is because neuronal replacement is likely to have an impact on what a brain remembers and what it learns. Neuronal replacement has also changed the way in which we go about exploring new strategies for

Fernando Nottebohm



Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.



How the Gifted Brain Learns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help teachers turn research on the brain function of intellectually and artistically advanced students into practical classroom activities and strategies. Following an introduction that discuses the myths and realities about giftedness, chapter 1 discusses basic brain structures and their functions. Chapter 2 looks at…

Sousa, David A.


Brain aging: The zinc connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

At variance with other organs, where the functional and structural units are repeated, the brain is a composite assembly of groups of cells with different metabolic features and functional units. Deterioration of brain function occurs when the number of neurons or their connections decrease below a critical reserve level and coping with environmental stimulation is seriously hampered. Physiopathological alterations of

Carlo Bertoni-Freddari; Patrizia Fattoretti; Tiziana Casoli; Giuseppina Di Stefano; Belinda Giorgetti; Marta Balietti



Genetics of human brain oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last three decades, much emphasis has been placed on neural oscillations in vitro, in vivo, as well as in the human brain. These brain oscillations have been studied extensively in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG), as well as in the underlying evoked oscillations that make up the event-related potentials (ERPs). There are several approaches to elucidate the possible mechanisms

Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz



Brain Drain in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original data set on international migration by educational attainment for 1990 and 2000 is used to analyze the determinants of brain drain from developing countries. The analysis starts with a simple decomposition of the brain drain in two multiplicative components, the degree of openness of sending countries (measured by the average emigration rate) and the schooling gap (measured by

Frédéric Docquier; LOHEST Olivier; MARFOUK Abdeslam



Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

Galski, Thomas; And Others



Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen



Neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury.  


In this article, the neuroradiological evaluation of traumatic brain injury is reviewed. Different imaging strategies in the assessment of traumatic brain injury are initially discussed, and this is followed by a review of the imaging characteristics of both primary and secondary brain injuries. Computed tomography remains the modality of choice for the initial assessment of acute head injury because it is fast, widely available, and highly accurate in the detection of skull fractures and acute intracranial hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for patients with acute traumatic brain injury when the neurological findings are unexplained by computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging is also the modality of choice for the evaluation of subacute or chronic traumatic brain injury. Mild traumatic brain injury continues to be difficult to diagnose with current imaging technology. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetization transfer imaging, can improve the identification of traumatic brain injury, especially in the case of mild traumatic brain injury. Further research is needed for other advanced imaging methods such as magnetic source imaging, single photon emission tomography, and positron emission tomography. PMID:19306377

Le, Tuong H; Gean, Alisa D



Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain  

PubMed Central

In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

Lorger, Mihaela



A Child's Brain: Part III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, the last in a series about the human brain, focuses on the skin and its importance for the brain. Physiological functions of the skin, concerning touch and body protection, are explained, as well as its social role in nonverbal communication. Suggestions for student discussions are given. (PP)

Sylwester, Robert



Multimodal Brain-Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical parameter of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is the number of dimensions a user can control independently. One way to increment this number without increasing the mental effort required to operate the system is to stimulate several sensory modalities simultaneously, and to distinguish brain activity patterns when the user focuses attention to different elements of this multisensory input. In this

Alexander Maye; Dan Zhang; Yijun Wang; Shangkai Gao; Andreas K. Engel



Application for the Drosophila ventral nerve cord standard in neuronal circuit reconstruction and in-depth analysis of mutant morphology  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila standard brain has been a useful tool that provides information about position and size of different brain structures within a wild-type brain and allows the comparison of imaging data that were collected from individual preparations. Therefore the standard can be used to reveal and visualize differences of brain regions between wild-type and mutant brains and can provide spatial description of single neurons within the nervous system. Recently the standard brain was complemented by the generation of a ventral nerve cord (VNC) standard. Here the authors have registered the major components of a simple neuronal circuit, the Giant Fiber System (GFS), into this standard. The authors show that they can also virtually reconstruct the well-characterized synaptic contact of the Giant Fiber with its motorneuronal target when they register the individual neurons from different preparations into the VNC standard. In addition to the potential application for the standard thorax in neuronal circuit reconstruction, the authors show that it is a useful tool for in-depth analysis of mutant morphology of single neurons. The authors find quantitative and qualitative differences when they compared the Giant Fibers of two different neuroglian alleles, nrg849 and nrgG00305, using the averaged wild-type GFS in the standard VNC as a reference. PMID:20615087

Boerner, Jana; Godenschwege, Tanja Angela



Surface Water Quality Standards  

E-print Network

of the water quali- ty standards, the overall process is expected to contin- ue into 2009.? For some, Texas? standards for contact recreation are not appropriate for many water bodies on the impaired list. Aaron Wendt, Texas State Soil and Water... of the water quali- ty standards, the overall process is expected to contin- ue into 2009.? For some, Texas? standards for contact recreation are not appropriate for many water bodies on the impaired list. Aaron Wendt, Texas State Soil and Water...

Wythe, Kathy



Josephson voltage standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the present state of modern Josephson voltage standards. The presentation focuses on conventional dc standards based on underdamped superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions and programmable standards based on overdamped superconductor-insulator-normal conductor-insulator-superconductor junctions. The current developments of ac standards on the basis of pulse-driven arrays and single flux quantum-based voltage multipliers are briefly summarized.

Johannes Kohlmann; Ralf Behr; Torsten Funck



Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Brain Structure and Function: Review and Agenda for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been associated with long-term neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits in offspring. Animal models demonstrate alterations in brain structure and function following prenatal nicotine exposure. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between MSDP and brain development in humans. Therefore, the aims of this review are (a) to synthesize findings from the small number of human studies investigating effects of MSDP on offspring brain development and (b) to outline an agenda for future research in this nascent area. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases for human studies of MSDP and offspring brain structure and/or function. Results: Eleven studies meeting our search criteria were identified; 6 studies investigated effects of MSDP on brain structure; 5 examined effects on brain function. Across studies, MSDP was associated with decreased volume/thickness of the cerebellum and corpus callosum, increased auditory brainstem responses, and lack of coordination across brain regions during information and auditory processing. Conclusions: Results from the small number of human studies revealed effects of MSDP on brain structure and function, highlighting potential neural pathways linking MSDP and offspring neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits. Given the limited amount of research in this area, we propose an agenda for future research. Gold standard studies would utilize longitudinal designs, integrated biological and maternal report measures of MSDP, and repeated measures of brain structure/function and neurobehavioral deficits across key developmental periods. PMID:22180574

Bublitz, Margaret H.; Stroud, Laura R.



Optogenetic mapping of brain circuitry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the brain promise to be revolutionized by new experimental strategies that harness the combined power of optical techniques and genetics. We have mapped the circuitry of the mouse brain by using both optogenetic actuators that control neuronal activity and optogenetic sensors that detect neuronal activity. Using the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, to locally photostimulate neurons allows high-speed mapping of local and long-range circuitry. For example, with this approach we have mapped local circuits in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and many other brain regions. Using the fluorescent sensor for chloride ions, Clomeleon, allows imaging of the spatial and temporal dimensions of inhibitory circuits in the brain. This approach allows imaging of both conventional "phasic" synaptic inhibition as well as unconventional "tonic" inhibition. The combined use of light to both control and monitor neural activity creates unprecedented opportunities to explore brain function, screen pharmaceutical agents, and potentially to use light to ameliorate psychiatric and neurological disorders.

Augustine, George J.; Berglund, Ken; Gill, Harin; Hoffmann, Carolin; Katarya, Malvika; Kim, Jinsook; Kudolo, John; Lee, Li M.; Lee, Molly; Lo, Daniel; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Park, Min Yoon; Tan, Gregory; Tang, Yanxia; Teo, Peggy; Tsuda, Sachiko; Wen, Lei; Yoon, Su-In



Chronic acceleration and brain density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests carried out on rabbits show that the effect of chronic acceleration is not uniform among the various tissues studied. Although body mass is reduced by the treatment, as expected, no change is apparent in brain mass or in the density of cerebrospinal fluid. Acceleration-induced changes are encountered in tissue density, the myocardium exhibiting a transient increase followed by an exponential decrease toward a limit and the brain showing an arithmetic increase in density with continued exposure to 2.5 G. The data are seen as suggesting that a specific brain load is not a regulated phenomenon and that no physiological processes occur to attenuate the increased load imposed by the hyperdynamic environment. An equation is derived indicating that the stimulus potential per unit of brain load increases with body size, even though brain density decreases and cerebrospinal fluid density increases.

Hoffman, L. F.; Smith, A. H.



Conceptual learning by miniature brains  

PubMed Central

Concepts act as a cornerstone of human cognition. Humans and non-human primates learn conceptual relationships such as ‘same’, ‘different’, ‘larger than’, ‘better than’, among others. In all cases, the relationships have to be encoded by the brain independently of the physical nature of objects linked by the relation. Consequently, concepts are associated with high levels of cognitive sophistication and are not expected in an insect brain. Yet, various works have shown that the miniature brain of honeybees rapidly learns conceptual relationships involving visual stimuli. Concepts such as ‘same’, ‘different’, ‘above/below of’ or ‘left/right are well mastered by bees. We review here evidence about concept learning in honeybees and discuss both its potential adaptive advantage and its possible neural substrates. The results reviewed here challenge the traditional view attributing supremacy to larger brains when it comes to the elaboration of concepts and have wide implications for understanding how brains can form conceptual relations. PMID:24107530

Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Giurfa, Martin



Standards and Local Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a Council for Basic Education poll of 1,000 voters argue for redefining local control of public education and for raising standards in every part of the country. School boards can ensure easy public access to national standards, demand that local standards be written in plain English, and lobby state officials to clarify statewide…

Cross, Christopher T.



Standards for Objective Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael



Music Standards in Lithuania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the creation of national standards for music education in Lithuania. Provides background information on the role of music in Lithuania. Explains that in 1997 a group of music educators helped develop the standards. Demonstrates that the proposed standards will be easily implemented since they were being practiced in the classroom…

Folstrom, Roger J.



The Dene Standardization Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1986 report by the Canadian Task Force on Aboriginal Languages, which recommended that the writing systems used for the northern Dene languages be standardized within 10 years, resulted in the 1987 Dene Standardization Project. The mandate for the project was to make recommendations on orthography standardization as the first step in the…

Biscaye, Elizabeth; Pepper, Mary


Automotive Technology Skill Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James




E-print Network

NEW! STANDARDIZED TEST TAKING PREPARATION The Human Resources Department is proud to offer standardized test taking prepa- ration for those considering graduate school. The prerequisite class, Test Taking Strategies for Standardized Tests, provides a general overview of test taking skills as well

Cui, Yan


Metadata Standards Roundup  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors examine the challenges of creating and deploying multimedia metadata standards. They also review several of the significant standardization efforts to date and look at prospects for integrated use and broader adoption. Possible directions exist for improving the standards efforts to better address the growing problems of managing multimedia data.

John R. Smith; Peter Schirling



ALA Standards Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This American Library Association (ALA) policy statement and procedure manual is intended for use in the preparation of all standards issued by ALA and its component units to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of ALA standards. A brief discussion of the purpose of standards is offered, followed by definitions of four types of…

American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Standards.


Standards for language encoding  

E-print Network

such "soft" fields as the organisation of business (ISO 9000) big business: companies that check compliance for the humantities: TEI 4. Standards for LRs: ISO 5. Semantic Web: W3C standards #12;I. Introduction What standard bodies: IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission ISO: International organisation

Erjavec, TomaÂ?


Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury—the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies—where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant. Positively, we show that novel machine learning techniques employing high-dimensional inference can nonetheless accurately converge on the true locus. We conclude that current inferences about human brain function and deficits based on lesion mapping must be re-evaluated with methodology that adequately captures the high-dimensional structure of lesion data. PMID:24974384

Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint